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Sample records for absorbable gelatin sponge

  1. Effect of absorbable gelatin sponge in the middle ear: in vitro and in vivo animal model.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Stefania; Chiossone-Kerdel, Juan Armando; Bianco, Andrea S; Ercolino, Jose M; Hernandez-Rojas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    GelitaSpon gelatin sponge (GS) showed faster reabsorption than gelfoam (GF) in vitro, and GS-packed middle ears resulted in a faster hearing recovery and less inflammation than the ears packed with GF soaked in saline. Soaking GF sponges with boric acid (BA) appeared to offset the inflammatory response of saline-soaked GF, making this inflammatory response comparable to that of GS-packed ears. To describe the reabsorption and inflammatory effects of absorbable gelatin sponge in the middle ear. For in vitro evaluation, GF and GS were used as disks immersed in saline solution or 3% BA and placed in gel. Images were captured with a microscope and processed using image processing Toolbox. For in vivo tests, 16 female albino Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: bulla opening; GF + 0.9% saline; GF + BA; and GS + 0.9% saline. An anterior approach to the right bulla was used for surgery. Preoperative and postoperative auditory brainstem response thresholds were measured. In vitro, there was marked degradation of GF by day 14, while GS showed complete degradation by the third day. In vivo, hearing recovery occurred by day 21. GF produced a more severe inflammatory response, which could be reduced by treating the GF with BA.

  2. Prevention of peridural fibrosis using a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) soaked in absorbable gelatin sponge: an experimental comparative animal model.

    PubMed

    Sae-Jung, Surachai; Jirarattanaphochai, Kitti

    2013-07-15

    Experimental study. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of peridural parecoxib-soaked absorbable gelatin sponge, and cellulose membrane on peridural fibrosis prevention in an animal model. Postoperative peridural fibrosis is one of the causes of failed back surgery syndrome. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the inflammatory response, while an absorbable gelatin sponge or cellulose membrane interposes between the dura and the paraspinal muscle to staunch the surgical bleeding. These mechanisms may prevent peridural fibrosis. Forty L5-L6 laminectomized adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups. The high parecoxib group received 6 mg of parecoxib soaked into an absorbable gelatin sponge placed over the dura. The low parecoxib group was given 2 mg of parecoxib soaked into an absorbable gelatin sponge. The dura in the cellulose group was covered with a cellulose membrane, while the control group received normal saline drip before surgical wound closure. All rats were killed at 6 weeks for histopathological assessment. The fibroblast density, inflammatory cell density, fibrous adherence, and adverse events were quantified. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. The respective mean fibroblast density in the high parecoxib, low parecoxib, cellulose, and control groups was 217.77 ± 51.76, 317.51 ± 126.92, 321.80 ± 90.94, and 328.48 ± 73.41 cells/mm², while the respective mean inflammatory cell density was 539.65 ± 236.52, 910.17 ± 242.59, 1011.84 ± 239.30, and 1261.78 ± 319.68 cells/mm². The mean fibroblast and inflammatory cell densities of the high parecoxib group were significantly lower than the control. The high parecoxib group also showed statistically less fibrous adherence than low parecoxib, cellulose, and control groups. The high-dose parecoxib-soaked absorbable gelatin sponge can prevent peridural fibrosis without complications. The low-dose parecoxib and cellulose membrane provided no significant benefit vis

  3. The use of haemostatic gelatin sponges in veterinary surgery.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, T M; Agthe, P; Moores, A; Anderson, D M

    2012-01-01

    To describe the use of absorbable gelatin sponges as haemostatic implants in clinical veterinary surgical cases and to document any related postoperative complications. Practice databases were searched for the product names "Gelfoam" and "Spongostan". Patient records were retrieved and data regarding patient signalment, surgical procedure, National Resource Council (NRC) wound classification, source of haemorrhage, pre- and postoperative body temperature, postoperative complications, time to discharge and details of any postoperative imaging were recorded and reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained by repeat clinical examination or telephone interview with either the owner or referring veterinary surgeon. Cases with incomplete surgical records or those which were not recovered from anaesthesia were excluded from the analysis. Fifty cases (44 dogs and 6 cats) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Satisfactory haemostasis was achieved in 49 cases with one case requiring reoperation during which a second gelatin sponge was used. There were no detected hypersensitivity responses or confirmed postoperative complications relating to the use of gelatin sponges during the follow-up period (median 13 months). This is the first review of the use of gelatin sponges in clinical veterinary surgery and suggests that gelatin sponges are safe to use in cats and dogs. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts on a hemostatic gelatin sponge

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lai, Po-Liang; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Weng, Cheng-Hsi; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen; Chang, Pei-Zen; Chen, Chih-Chen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering provides many advantages for repairing skeletal defects. Although many different kinds of biomaterials have been used for bone tissue engineering, safety issues must be considered when using them in a clinical setting. In this study, we examined the effects of using a common clinical item, a hemostatic gelatin sponge, as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The use of such a clinically acceptable item may hasten the translational lag from laboratory to clinical studies. We performed both degradation and biocompatibility studies on the hemostatic gelatin sponge, and cultured preosteoblasts within the sponge scaffold to demonstrate its osteogenic differentiation potential. In degradation assays, the gelatin sponge demonstrated good stability after being immersed in PBS for 8 weeks (losing only about 10% of its net weight and about 54% decrease of mechanical strength), but pepsin and collagenases readily biodegraded it. The gelatin sponge demonstrated good biocompatibility to preosteoblasts as demonstrated by MTT assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation and the migration of preosteoblasts, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and in vitro mineralization were observed within the scaffold structure. Each of these results indicates that the hemostatic gelatin sponge is a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27616161

  5. [Use of "gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge to prevent dry socket after extracting mandibular impacted teeth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-zhong; Guan, Qun-li; Li, Ya-xin; Guo, Ji-lai; Jiang, Ling; Jia, Mu-yun; Deng, Yue

    2013-02-01

    To study the clinical effect of "gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing dry socket after extracting the mandibular impacted teeth. 1350 teeth extracted from 976 patients who needed to extract the mandibular impacted teeth were divided into group A, group B and group C randomly. "Gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge was implanted into alveolar socket after teeth extraction in group A, with absorbable gelatin sponge was implanted into alveolar socket in group B and nothing was implanted into alveolar socket in group C. The incidence of dry socket was observed, the data was analyzed using SPSS10.0 software package. The incidence of dry socket was 0.44% in group A, 2% in group B and 4.44% in group C. There was significant difference in the incidence of dry socket between group A and group C(P<0.01). There was also significant difference between group B and group C(P<0.05) and between group A and group B(P<0.05). The results demonstrate that "gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge can prevent the occurrence of dry socket after teeth extraction, which is of wide clinical use.

  6. Influence of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of atelocollagen/gelatin sponge biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longqiang; Tanabe, Koji; Miura, Tadashi; Yoshinari, Masao; Takemoto, Shinji; Shintani, Seikou; Kasahara, Masataka

    2017-07-26

    This study aimed to investigate influences of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of ACG sponge. ACG sponges of different freezing temperatures (-30, -80 and -196 o C), freezing times (1, 2 and 24 h), gelatin concentrations (0.6%AC+0.15%G, 0.6%AC+0.6%G and 0.6%AC+2.4%G), and with 500 μM fluvastatin were fabricated. Pore structures including porosity and pore size were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ. The cytotoxic effects of ACG sponges were evaluated in vitro. Freezing temperature did not affect porosity while high freezing temperature (-30 o C) increased pore size. The high gelatin concentration group (0.6%AC+2.4%G) had decreased porosity and pore size. Freezing time and 500 μM fluvastatin did not affect pore structures. The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays revealed that ACG sponges had no cytotoxic effects on human mesenchymal stromal cell growth and proliferation. These results indicate that ACG sponge may be a good biomaterial scaffold for bone regeneration.

  7. The Size of Gelatin Sponge Particles: Differences with Preparation Method

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. To assess whether the size distribution of gelatin sponge particles differed according to the method used to make them and the type of original sheet. Methods. Gelatin sponge particles of approximately 1-1.5 x 1-1.5 x 2 mm were made from either Spongel or Gelfoam sheets by cutting with a scalpel and scissors. Particles were also made of either Spongel or Gelfoam sheets by pumping with two syringes and a three-way stopcock. The size distribution of the particles in saline was compared among the groups. Results. (1) Cutting versus pumping: When Spongel was used, cutting produced lower rates of smallermore » particles {<=}500 {mu}m and larger particles >2000 {mu}m compared with pumping back and forth 30 times (1.1% vs 37.6%, p < 0.0001; 2.2% vs 14.4%, p = 0.008). When Gelfoam was used, cutting produced lower rates of smaller and larger particles compared with pumping (8.5% vs 20.4%, p = 0.1809; 0% vs 48.1%, p < 0.0001). (2) Spongel versus Gelfoam: There was no significant difference in the size distribution of the particles between Spongel and Gelfoam (p = 0.2002) when cutting was used. Conclusion. The size distribution of gelatin sponge particles differed according to the method used to make them. More uniform particle sizes can be achieved by cutting than by pumping.« less

  8. Guidelines on the use of gelatin sponge particles in embolotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Shiro; Yamakado, Koichiro; Anai, Hiroshi; Abo, Daisuke; Minami, Tetsuya; Takaki, Haruyuki; Kodama, Taishi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Morimoto, Kengo; Soyama, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Yu; Nakamura, Koichi; Yamanishi, Tomoaki; Sato, Morio; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2014-04-01

    Gelatin sponge (GS) is one of the most widely used embolic agents in interventional procedures. There are four commercially available GS products in Japan; however, the endovascular use of Gelfoam and Spongel is off-label, and Gelpart can only be used for hepatic artery embolization and Serescue can only be used for hemostasis of arterial bleeding. GS has been used for a variety of clinical indications, mainly tumor embolization and stopping massive arterial bleeding. The optimal size and preparation procedure of GS particles differs slightly for each clinical indication. In addition, there is a risk of ischemic and/or infectious complications associated with GS embolization in various situations. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar with not only the preparation and handling of GS particles, but also the disadvantages and potential risks, in order to perform GS embolization safely and effectively.

  9. A novel strategy for water disinfection with a AgNPs/gelatin sponge filter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Zhao, Xiaole; Li, Chao; Han, Xiaojun

    2018-05-05

    Disinfection of bacteria in water with sustainable and energy-efficient methods is still a great challenge. Herein, a novel gelatin sponge with embedded AgNPs is fabricated via freeze-drying using gelatin as the reducing agent to synthesize AgNPs in situ. UV-vis spectroscopy, HRTEM, XRD, and XPS characterization prove the formation of AgNPs with an average size of 8.55 ± 0.35 nm. TEM and SEM images confirm the even distribution of AgNPs throughout the AgNPs/gelatin sponges. The composite sponge has a low bulk density of 20 ± 3.5 mg/cm 3 and a pore size of 6.2 ± 1.5 μm. The AgNPs/gelatin sponges exhibit excellent antibacterial performance to E. coli in water, probably by destroying their cell membranes. The porous AgNPs/gelatin composite sponges are promising filter materials for water disinfection. The removal rate of AgNPs/gelatin composite sponges on E. coli reached almost 100%. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. Effect of gelatin sponge with colloid silver on bone healing in infected cranial defects.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuliang; Liu, Weiqing; Lei, Yiling; Wu, Tingxi; Zhang, Shiwen; Guo, Yuchen; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Demeng; Yuan, Quan; Wang, Yongyue

    2017-01-01

    Oral infectious diseases may lead to bone loss, which makes it difficult to achieve satisfactory restoration. The rise of multidrug resistant bacteria has put forward severe challenges to the use of antibiotics. Silver (Ag) has long been known as a strong antibacterial agent. In clinic, gelatin sponge with colloid silver is used to reduce tooth extraction complication. To investigate how this material affect infected bone defects, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infected 3-mm-diameter cranial defects were created in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. One week after infection, the defects were debrided of all nonviable tissue and then implanted with gelatin sponge with colloid silver (gelatin/Ag group) or gelatin alone (gelatin group). At 2 and 3days after debridement, significantly lower mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and lower plate colony count value were detected in gelatin/Ag group than control. Micro-CT analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in gelatin/Ag treated defects. The HE stained cranium sections also showed a faster rate of defect closure in gelatin/Ag group than control. These findings demonstrated that gelatin sponge with colloid silver can effectively reduce the infection caused by MRSA in cranial defects and accelerate bone healing process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A New Soluble Gelatin Sponge for Transcatheter Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Takasaka, Isao; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio, E-mail: morisato@mail.wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2010-12-15

    To prepare a soluble gelatin sponge (GS) and to explore the GS particles (GSPs) that inhibit development of collateral pathways when transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization is performed. The approval of the Institutional Committee on Research Animal Care of our institution was obtained. By means of 50 and 100 kDa of regenerative medicine-gelatin (RM-G), RM-G sponges were prepared by freeze-drying and heating to temperatures of 110-150{sup o}C for cross-linkage. The soluble times of RM-GSPs were measured in vitro. Eight swine for transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization were assigned into two groups: six received 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSPs, and 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, with solublemore » time of 48 h or more in vitro; two swine received Gelpart GSPs (G-GSPs) with insoluble time of 14 days as a control. Transarterial chemoembolization was performed on two branches of the hepatic artery per swine. RM-GSPs heated at temperatures of 110-138{sup o}C were soluble. Mean soluble times of the RM-GSPs increased with higher temperature. Hepatic branches embolized with G-GSP remained occluded after 6 days, and development of collateral pathways was observed after 3 days. Hepatic branches embolized with 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSP and 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSP remained occluded for 4 h, and recanalization was observed after 1 day. Hepatic branches embolized with 138{sup o}C/50RM-GS remained occluded for 1 day, and recanalization was observed after 2 days with no development of collateral pathways. In RM-GSs with various soluble times that were prepared by modulating the heating temperature, 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSP was the soluble GSP with the longest occlusion time without inducing development of collateral pathways.« less

  12. Assessment of the characteristics and biocompatibility of gelatin sponge scaffolds prepared by various crosslinking methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Xiao, Zhenghua; Long, Haiyan; Ma, Kunlong; Zhang, Junpeng; Ren, Xiaomei; Zhang, Jiang

    2018-01-25

    This comparative study aims to identify a biocompatible and effective crosslinker for preparing gelatin sponges. Glutaraldehyde (GTA), genipin (GP), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), and microbial transglutaminase (mTG) were used as crosslinking agents. The physical properties of the prepared samples were characterized, and material degradation was studied in vitro with various proteases and in vivo through subcutaneous implantation of the sponges in rats. Adipose-derived stromal stem cells (ADSCs) were cultured and inoculated onto the scaffolds to compare the cellular biocompatibility of the sponges. Cellular seeding efficiency and digestion time of the sponges were also evaluated. Cellular viability and proliferation in scaffolds were analyzed by fluorescence staining and MTT assay. All the samples exhibited high porosity, good swelling ratio, and hydrolysis properties; however, material strength, hydrolysis, and enzymolytic properties varied among the samples. GTA-sponge and GP-sponge possessed high compressive moduli, and EDC-sponge exhibited fast degradation performance. GTA and GP sponge implants exerted strong in vivo rejections, and the former showed poor cell growth. mTG-sponge exhibited the optimal comprehensive performance, with good porosity, compressive modulus, anti-degradation ability, and good biocompatibility. Hence, mTG-sponge can be used as a scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.

  13. Highly efficient removal of lead and cadmium during wastewater irrigation using a polyethylenimine-grafted gelatin sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater irrigation is a very important resource for heavy metal pollution in soil and then accumulation in vegetable crops. In this study, a polyethylenimine (PEI)-grafted gelatin sponge was prepared to effectively adsorb heavy metals during wastewater irrigation. Based on the strong water adsorption ability, wastewater remained in the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge for a sufficient time for the heavy metals to interact with the sorbents. The binding capacities of Pb(II) ions and Cd(II) ions on the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge were 66 mg g-1 and 65 mg g-1, which were much more than those on the gelatin sponge (9.75 mg g-1 and 9.35 mg g-1). Subsequently, the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge was spread on the surface of soil planted with garlic and then sprayed with synthetic wastewater. The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the garlic leaves were 1.59 mg kg-1 and 5.69 mg kg-1, respectively, which were much lower than those (15.78 mg kg-1 and 27.98 mg kg-1) without the gelatin sponge, and the removal efficiencies were 89.9% and 79.7%. The PEI-grafting gelatin sponge could effectively remove heavy metals during wastewater irrigation, which improved the soil environment and reduced human exposure to heavy metals.

  14. Repair of orbital floor fractures with absorbable gelatin film.

    PubMed

    Mermer, R W; Orban, R E

    1995-01-01

    Many materials have been utilized for the repair of orbital floor fractures. Absorbable gelatin film is a bioabsorbable sheeting material that is manufactured from denatured collagen. This material is appropriate for the repair of smaller orbital floor defects (5 mm or less) and trapdoor-type fractures; it is used with larger defects as an interpositional graft material between the periorbital tissues and as an orbital floor reconstruction plate or mesh. Sixteen cases consisting of both types of defects were retrospectively examined clinically and radiographically. Satisfactory results were obtained in all of these cases, including no adverse ocular signs or implant rejection, good facial form, good function, and acceptable postoperative radiography results.

  15. [A clinical study of gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing the complication of teeth extraction].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong-hai; Lu, Chang-shou

    2008-10-01

    To study the clinical effect of Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing the complication of teeth extraction. 672 teeth were divided into experimental group and control group semi-randomly. All teeth were extracted after local anesthesia and sockets were cleaned. Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge was implanted into socket in experimental group and nothing was implanted into alveolar socket in control group. The complication of teeth extraction was observed on 0.5 h, 2 d and 7 d after extraction. The incidence rate of complication was calculated. The incidence rate of complication of teeth extraction in experimental group was 7.72%, which was lower than that of control group (24.43%). There was significant difference in the incidence rates of complication between experimental group and control group (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of bleeding, infection, pain, swelling and dry socket after teeth extraction in experimental group was lower than those of control group, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge can prevent the occurrence of complication of teeth extraction, this can be used in clinic.

  16. Use of Gelatin Sponge Affects Postoperative Morbidity In Cesarean Section Patients.

    PubMed

    Özer, Alev; Köstü, Bülent

    2017-03-04

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the effects of use of a local hemostatic gelatin sponge (GS) on postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing cesarean section (CS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The records of 318 patients who underwent CS surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 consisted of 59 patients with gelatin sponge (GS) applied, and Group 2 consisted of 259 patients with no GS applied. The groups were compared for time to the first flatus, nausea and vomiting, requirement for anti-emetic drugs, development of postoperative ileus, and the length of hospitalization. RESULTS The patients in Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically similar in mean age, gravida, parity, and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.352, p=0.275, p=0.458, and p=0.814, respectively). No significant difference was determined in the number of patients with nausea, vomiting, anti-emetic drug use, febrile morbidity, and postoperative ileus (p=0.063, p=0.436, p=328, p=0.632, and p=0.179, respectively). Time to the first flatus and length of hospitalization were significantly longer in Group 2 (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Delay in recovery of bowel motility may be due to the local hypersensitivity reaction caused by GS and/or dislocation of this local hemostat. Women who receive gelatin sponge treatment during CS should be monitored closely for the recovery of postoperative intestinal motility.

  17. Splenic Artery Embolization in Blunt Trauma: A Single-Center Retrospective Comparison of the Use of Gelatin Sponge Versus Coils.

    PubMed

    Rasuli, Pasteur; Moosavi, Bardia; French, Gordon J; Petrcich, William; Hammond, Ian

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of gelatin sponge with that of coils for splenic artery embolization in the treatment of blunt splenic injury. A single-center retrospective review was performed with the records of 63 patients (45 men, 18 women; mean age, 45.5 years; range, 16-84 years) with blunt splenic injury treated at a tertiary care trauma center by splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge (n = 30 patients) or metallic coils (n = 33 patients) between 2005 and 2014. The two groups had comparable median American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades of IV and comparable angiographic appearances regarding active extravasation and pseudoaneurysm formation at preembolization splenic arteriography (p = 0.32). Clinical outcomes and procedure-related outcomes were evaluated. The success rates were similar in the two groups: splenic artery embolization failed in 6.6% (2/30) of patients in the gelatin sponge group and 12.1% (4/33) in the coil embolization group (p = 0.45; 95% CI, -30.1% to 19.2%). Major complications occurred in six patients (20.0%) in the gelatin sponge group and in six patients (18.1%) in the coil group (p = 0.85; 95% CI, -23.0% to 26.6%). Minor complications occurred in three patients (10.0%) in the gelatin sponge group and seven patients (21.2%) in the coil group (p = 0.21; 95% CI, -35.4% to 14.0%). Procedure time was significantly shorter in the gelatin sponge group (median, 32 minutes; interquartile range, 18-48 minutes) than in the coil group (median, 53 minutes; interquartile range, 30-76 minutes) (p = 0.01). Splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge appears to be as effective and as safe as coil embolization and can be completed in a shorter time.

  18. Thai Silk Fibroin/Gelatin Sponges for the Dual Controlled Release of Curcumin and Docosahexaenoic Acid for Anticancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lerdchai, Kantarat; Kitsongsermthon, Jutarat; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    In this study, curcumin and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were encapsulated in Thai silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/G) sponges, prepared at different blending ratios, aimed to be applied as a controlled release system for localized cancer therapy. The SF/G sponges were fabricated by freeze-drying and glutaraldehyde cross-linking techniques. Physicochemical properties of the SF/G sponges were characterized. Then, curcumin and/or DHA were loaded in the sponges by physical adsorption. The encapsulation efficiency and the in vitro release of curcumin and/or DHA from the sponges were evaluated. SF/G sponges could encapsulate curcumin and/or DHA at high encapsulation efficiency. The highly cross-linked and slowly degrading SF/G (50/50) sponge released curcumin and/or DHA at the slowest rate. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the sponges against noncancer cells (L929 mouse fibroblast) and anticancer of curcumin and/or DHA released from the sponges against cervical cancer cells (CaSki) were tested. All sponges were not toxic to L929 mouse fibroblast. The mixed curcumin–DHA at the ratio of 1:4 had the highest inhibiting effect on the growth of CaSki, comparing with the release of curcumin or DHA alone. SF/G sponges could be a potential carrier for dual release of curcumin and DHA for anticancer effect.

  19. Gelatine/PLLA sponge-like scaffolds: morphological and biological characterization.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Luigi; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Danti, Serena; Serino, Lorenzo Pio; Moscato, Stefania; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2006-12-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) are widely used to prepare scaffolds for cell transplantation and tissue growth, using different techniques set up for the purpose. However the poor hydrophilicity of these polymers represents the main limitation to their use as scaffolds because it causes a low affinity for the cells. An effective way to solve this problem could be represented by the addition of biopolymers that are in general highly hydrophilic. The present work concerns porous biodegradable sponge-like systems based on poly(L-lactic acid) and gelatine. Morphology and porosity characteristics of the sponges were studied by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry respectively. Blood compatibility was investigated by bovine plasma fibrinogen adsorption test and platelet adhesion test. The cell culture method was used in order to evaluate the ability of the matrices to work as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The obtained results indicate that the sponges have interesting porous characteristics, good blood compatibility and above all good ability to support cell adhesion and growth. In fact viable and metabolically active animal cells were found inside the sponges after 8 weeks in culture. On this basis the systems produced seem to be good candidates as scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  20. Gelatine/PLLA sponge-like scaffolds: morphological and biological characterization.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Luigi; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Danti, Serena; Serino, Lorenzo Pio; Moscato, Stefania; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2007-07-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) are widely used to prepare scaffolds for cell transplantation and tissue growth, using different techniques set up for the purpose. However the poor hydrophilicity of these polymers represents the main limitation to their use as scaffolds because it causes a low affinity for the cells. An effective way to solve this problem could be represented by the addition of biopolymers that are in general highly hydrophilic. The present work concerns porous biodegradable sponge-like systems based on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and gelatine. Morphology and porosity characteristics of the sponges were studied by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry respectively. Blood compatibility was investigated by bovine plasma fibrinogen (BPF) adsorption test and platelet adhesion test (PAT). The cell culture method was used in order to evaluate the ability of the matrices to work as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The obtained results indicate that the sponges have interesting porous characteristics, good blood compatibility and above all good ability to support cell adhesion and growth. In fact viable and metabolically active animal cells were found inside the sponges after 8 weeks in culture. On this basis the systems produced seem to be good candidates as scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  1. Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatin Sponges Treated by Vacuum Heating as a Novel Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Li, Peiqi; Huang, Anqi; Sasayama, Satoshi; Hara, Eiki; Uemura, Naoya; Ueda, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Masanori; Arita, Kenji; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Baba, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Tomonari

    2018-04-11

    Chemical modification of gelatin using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) promotes bone formation in vivo. However, further improvements are required to increase the mechanical strength and bone-forming ability of fabricated EGCG-modified gelatin sponges (EGCG-GS) for practical applications in regenerative therapy. In the present study, we investigated whether vacuum heating-induced dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS enhances bone formation in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. The bone-forming ability of vacuum-heated EGCG-GS (vhEGCG-GS) and other sponges was evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological staining. The degradation of sponges was assessed using protein assays, and cell morphology and proliferation were verified by scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining using osteoblastic UMR106 cells in vitro. Four weeks after the implantation of sponges, greater bone formation was detected for vhEGCG-GS than for EGCG-GS or vacuum-heated gelatin sponges (dehydrothermal cross-linked sponges without EGCG). In vitro experiments revealed that the relatively low degradability of vhEGCG-GS supports cell attachment, proliferation, and cell-cell communication on the matrix. These findings suggest that vacuum heating enhanced the bone forming ability of EGCG-GS, possibly via the dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS, which provides a scaffold for cells, and by maintaining the pharmacological effect of EGCG.

  2. A tissue engineering approach for prenatal closure of myelomeningocele: comparison of gelatin sponge and microsphere scaffolds and bioactive protein coatings.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miho; Li, Hiaying; Roybal, Jessica; Santore, Matthew; Radu, Antonetta; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Kaneko, Michio; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Flake, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a common and devastating malformation. As an alternative to fetal surgical repair, tissue engineering has the potential to provide a less invasive approach for tissue coverage applicable at an earlier stage of gestation. We have previously evaluated the use of gelatin hydrogel composites composed of gelatin sponges and sheets as a platform for tissue coverage of the MMC defect in the retinoic acid induced fetal rat model of MMC. In the current study, we compare our previous composite with gelatin microspheres as a scaffold for tissue ingrowth and cellular adhesion within the amniotic fluid environment. We also examine the relative efficacy of various bioactive protein coatings on the adhesion of amniotic fluid cells to the construct within the amniotic cavity. We conclude from this study that gelatin microspheres are as effective as gelatin sponges as a scaffold for cellular ingrowth and amniotic fluid cell adhesion and that collagen type I and fibronectin coatings enhance amniotic fluid cell adhesion to the gelatin-based scaffolds. These findings support the potential for the development of a tissue-engineered injectable scaffold that could be applied by ultrasound-guided injection, much earlier and less invasively than sponge or sheet-based composites.

  3. Local delivery of HMGB1 in gelatin sponge scaffolds combined with mesenchymal stem cell sheets to accelerate fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Xue, Deting; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Erman; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Ling; Ye, Chenyi; Tan, Yanbin; Pan, Zhijun; Li, Hang

    2017-06-27

    Fracture nonunion and delayed union continue to pose challenges for orthopedic surgeons. In the present study, we combined HMGB1 gelatin sponges with MSC sheets to promote bone healing after surgical treatment of rat tibial fractures. The HMGB1 gelatin sponge scaffolds supported the expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and MSC sheets. Lentiviral vectors were then used to overexpress HMGB1 in MSCs. The results indicated that HMGB1 promotes the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through the STAT3 pathway. Both siRNA and a STAT3 inhibitor downregulated STAT3, further confirming that HMGB1 induces the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs partly via the STAT3 signal pathway. In a rat tibial osteotomy model, we demonstrated the ability of HMGB1 gelatin sponge scaffolds to increase bone formation. The addition of MSC sheets further enhanced fracture healing. These findings support the use of HMGB1-loaded gelatin sponge scaffolds combined with MSC sheets to enhance fracture healing after surgical intervention.

  4. Local delivery of HMGB1 in gelatin sponge scaffolds combined with mesenchymal stem cell sheets to accelerate fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Deting; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Erman; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Ling; Ye, Chenyi; Tan, Yanbin; Pan, Zhijun; Li, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Fracture nonunion and delayed union continue to pose challenges for orthopedic surgeons. In the present study, we combined HMGB1 gelatin sponges with MSC sheets to promote bone healing after surgical treatment of rat tibial fractures. The HMGB1 gelatin sponge scaffolds supported the expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and MSC sheets. Lentiviral vectors were then used to overexpress HMGB1 in MSCs. The results indicated that HMGB1 promotes the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through the STAT3 pathway. Both siRNA and a STAT3 inhibitor downregulated STAT3, further confirming that HMGB1 induces the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs partly via the STAT3 signal pathway. In a rat tibial osteotomy model, we demonstrated the ability of HMGB1 gelatin sponge scaffolds to increase bone formation. The addition of MSC sheets further enhanced fracture healing. These findings support the use of HMGB1-loaded gelatin sponge scaffolds combined with MSC sheets to enhance fracture healing after surgical intervention. PMID:28431400

  5. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Sell, Scott A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Saxena, Gunjan; Spence, Andrew J.; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma), hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone. PMID:24709699

  6. Evaluation of the Role of Cisplatin-conjugated-soluble Gelatin Sponge: Feasibility Study in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ikoma, Akira; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio, E-mail: morisato@wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and the delivery function of cisplatin-conjugated-soluble gelatin sponge in a swine model.MethodsFifteen healthy young swine were assigned into three groups: transarterial cisplatin infusion group, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with cisplatin-conjugated 120-min soluble gelatin sponge (TACE-120) group, and TACE with cisplatin-conjugated 360-min soluble gelatin sponge (TACE-360) group. A total volume of 0.8 mL/kg cisplatin in each group and 8 mg/kg soluble gelatin sponge in TACE-120 and TACE-360 groups were injected from the left hepatic artery in small increments for 10 min. Common hepatic angiography and whole-blood sampling via the left hepatic vein were conducted to explore recanalization immediatelymore » after the procedure and again at 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 420 min later. The area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) of non-protein-bound platinum was compared among the three groups. Each liver was removed and cut into 10-cm-thick sections for calculating liver-damaged volume ratio.ResultsSequential angiography depicted gradual recanalization of the occluded hepatic artery and total recanalization at 120 and 360 min after embolization in the TACE-120 and TACE-360 groups, respectively. Of the three groups, AUC{sub 0-30}, AUC{sub 30-120}, and AUC{sub 120-420} were significantly highest in the transarterial cisplatin infusion group (p < 0.001), the TACE-120 group (p < 0.001), and the TACE-360 group (p < 0.001), respectively. The liver-damaged volume ratio in the TACE-360 group was small (8.20 %) but significantly higher than that in the TACE-120 group (2.67 %, p = 0.014).ConclusionCisplatin-conjugated soluble gelatin sponge functions as a cisplatin carrier and is associated with tolerable liver damage.« less

  7. Healing of skin wounds with a chitosan-gelatin sponge loaded with tannins and platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Li, Zhiquan; Dai, Fangying; Lv, Lingmei; Tang, Fengling; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Lan, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    A chitosan-gelatin sponge (CSGT) was prepared using a chitosan/ascorbic acid solution blend containing gelatin, followed by crosslinking with tannin acid and freeze-drying, thereby combining the chitosan sponge and gelatin sponge. The structure of the CSGT was observed by scanning electron microscopy and was shown to have uniform and abundant pores measuring about 145-240μm in size. We also characterized the sponges by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, swelling behavior analysis, water retention capacity tests, antibacterial property analysis, and cytotoxicity tests. Our data showed that the CSGT had good thermostability and mechanical properties as well as efficient water absorption and retention capacities. Moreover, the CSGT could effectively inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with low toxicity. In animal experiments, macroscopic observations and histological examinations showed that the wound covered by the CSGT healed quickly. Additionally, loading of the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma resulted in further acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, the CSGT and the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma were suitable for application as a wound dressing and may have potential for use in various biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with autologous bone marrow for bone regeneration of X-ray-irradiated rabbit ulnar defects.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Hokugo, Akishige; Takahashi, Yoshitake; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules (gelatin/β-TCP sponges) to enhance bone regeneration at a segmental ulnar defect of rabbits with X-ray irradiation. After X-ray irradiation of the ulnar bone, segmental critical-sized defects of 20-mm length were created, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with or without autologous bone marrow were applied to the defects to evaluate bone regeneration. Both gelatin/β-TCP sponges containing autologous bone marrow and BMP-2-releasing sponges enhanced bone regeneration at the ulna defect to a significantly greater extent than the empty sponges (control). However, in the X-ray-irradiated bone, the bone regeneration either by autologous bone marrow or BMP-2 was inhibited. When combined with autologous bone marrow, the BMP-2 exhibited significantly high osteoinductivity, irrespective of the X-ray irradiation. The bone mineral content at the ulna defect was similar to that of the intact bone. It is concluded that the combination of bone marrow with the BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponge is a promising technique to induce bone regeneration at segmental bone defects after X-ray irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Liver Biopsy With Gelatin Sponge Pledget Tract Embolization in Infants Weighing Less Than 10 kg.

    PubMed

    Lungren, Matthew P; Lindquester, Will S; Seidel, Frank Glen; Kothary, Nishita; Monroe, Eric J; Shivaram, Giri; Gill, Anne E; Hawkins, Matthew C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and assess the technical success and safety of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization technique in infants <10 kg across 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals. There were 67 pediatric patients weighing <10 kg (36 boys; 31 girls; average age 202 days; average weight 6 kg, range 1.5-9.9 kg) referred for liver biopsy performed with ultrasound guidance and gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization during a 2-year period. Patient history, procedural records, and clinical follow-up documents were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 67 procedures were included. There was 100% technical success rate and all samples obtained provided adequate tissue for histological assessment. Average number of 18 G biopsy passes was 3 (range 1-6). There were no procedure-related deaths. There was 1 complication (1%) in a 5-kg infant who was readmitted 36 hours after biopsy with a fever and fully recovered after antibiotics were administered. Biliary atresia was the most common underlying diagnosis (20%), whereas others included acute rejection (16%) and biliary obstruction (7%). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization technique in children weighing <10 kg is safe, effective, and use of this technique may lead to a reduction in rates of adverse events reported in other pediatric series.

  10. Direct Injection of Blood Products Versus Gelatin Sponge as a Technique for Local Hemostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Haaga, John; Rahim, Shiraz, E-mail: Shiraz.rahim@uhhospitals.org

    PurposeTo provide a method of reducing risk of minimally invasive procedures on patients with abnormal hemostasis and evaluate efficacy of direct fresh frozen plasma injection through a procedure needle tract compared to Gelfoam (gelatin sponge) administration.Materials and MethodsEighty patients with elevated international standardized ratio (INR) undergoing minimally invasive procedures using imaging guidance were selected retrospectively. Forty patients had received Gelfoam as a means of tract embolization during the procedure. The other 40 received local fresh frozen plasma (FFP) through the needle tract. The number of complications and clinically significant bleeding events were recorded. A threshold of 30 cc of blood lossmore » after a procedure was used to identify excess bleeding.ResultsNo patients experienced clinically significant bleeding after administration of FFP. Five patients experienced postoperative drops in hemoglobin or hematomas after administration of Gelfoam.ConclusionLocal injection of blood products can reduce postprocedure bleeding in patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures and provides a safe alternative to the use of synthetic fibrin plugs.« less

  11. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, U. S.; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Verma, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge), group B (zinc oxide eugenol group), and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only). The clinical progress was noted at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, and 15th day after the treatment. Results: Patient's healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket. PMID:23853450

  12. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization With Gelatin Sponge Microparticles Treated for BCLC Stage B Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Center Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Asad Ullah; Liu, Ying; Li, Feng E; Liu, Song; Wu, Jian Lin; Zhang, Yue Wei

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin sponge particles are commonly used in the conventional transarterial chemoembolization (c-TACE) as an adjuvant embolizing agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are few reports regarding the clinical applications of gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs) as a main embolizing agent in the treatment of HCC. This retrospective study aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B HCC treated with intra-arterial injection of 350 to 560 μm GSMs mixed with anticancer agents.Twenty-four patients with unresectable BCLC stage B HCC without any prior treatment underwent transarterial chemoembolization with gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs-TACE) of diameter 350 to 560 μm mixed with lobaplatin. The mixture was injected into tumor-feeding arteries until the sluggish flow in selective artery. Safety was measured by assessing complication rate, and efficacy was reflected by assessing response to mRECIST therapy and overall survival. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.All 24 BCLC stage B HCC patients showed good tolerance to the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27 months and mean number of TACE treatments per patient was 3.7 sessions (range 1-10) during the follow-up period. Postprocedure complications were mild and treated by symptomatic treatment. Six months and 1 year overall survival rates were 100% and 87.5%, respectively. Overall median survival time was 25 months (95%CI: 21.06-28.95 months).GSMs-TACE is a safe and effective method for BCLC stage B HCC patients.

  13. Gelatin

    MedlinePlus

    Gelatin contains collagen, which is one of the materials that make up cartilage and bone. This is why some people think ... Collagen Hydrolysate, Collagène Dénaturé, Collagène Hydrolysé, Collagène Marin Hydrolysé, Denatured Collagen, Gelatina, Gelatine, Gélatine, Gélatine Hydrolysée, Hydrolised ...

  14. Study of gelatin as an effective energy absorbing layer for laser bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ruitong; Zhang, Zhengyi; Chai, Wenxuan; Chrisey, Douglas B; Huang, Yong

    2017-06-09

    Laser-induced forward transfer printing, also commonly known as laser printing, has been widely implemented for three-dimensional bioprinting due to its unique orifice-free nature during printing. However, the printing quality has the potential to be further improved for various laser bioprinting applications. The objectives of this study are to investigate the feasibility of using gelatin as an energy absorbing layer (EAL) material for laser bioprinting and its effects on the quality of printed constructs, bioink printability, and post-printing cell viability and process-induced DNA damage. The gelatin EAL is applied between the quartz support and the coating of build material, which is to be printed. Printing quality can be improved by EAL-assisted laser printing when using various alginate solutions (1%, 2%, and 4%) and cell-laden bioinks (2% alginate and 5 × 10 6 cells ml -1 in cell culture medium). The required laser fluence is also reduced due to a higher absorption coefficient of gelatin gel, in particular when to achieve the best printing type/quality. The post-printing cell viability is improved by ∼10% and DNA double-strand breaks are reduced by ∼50%. For all the build materials investigated, the gelatin EAL helps reduce the droplet size and average jet velocity.

  15. Complication rates in patients using absorbable collagen sponges in third molar extraction sockets: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Jung, Young-Soo

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction.

  16. Ridge augmentation using recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 with biodegradable gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate: a preclinical study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, S; Akizuki, T; Matsuura, T; Ikawa, T; Kinoshita, A; Oda, S; Tabata, Y; Matsui, M; Izumi, Y

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) regulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteogenic cells, resulting in the promotion of bone formation. Biodegradable gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been reported as a scaffold, which has the ability to control growth factor release, offering sufficient mechanical strength and efficient migration of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the combined use of recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) and gelatin/β-TCP sponge on ridge augmentation in dogs. Six male beagle dogs were used in this study. Twelve wk after tooth extraction, bilateral 10 × 5 mm (width × depth) saddle-type defects were created 3 mm apart from the mesial side of the maxillary canine. At the experimental sites, the defects were filled with gelatin/β-TCP sponge infiltrated with 0.3% rhFGF-2, whereas gelatin/β-TCP sponge infiltrated with saline was applied to the control sites. Eight wk after surgery, qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. There were no signs of clinical inflammation at 8 wk after surgery. Histometric measurements revealed that new bone height at the experimental sites (2.98 ± 0.65 mm) was significantly greater than that at the control sites (1.56 ± 0.66 mm; p = 0.004). The total tissue height was greater at the experimental sites (6.62 ± 0.66 mm) than that at the control sites (5.95 ± 0.74 mm), although there was no statistical significant difference (p = 0.051). Cast model measurements revealed that the residual defect height at the experimental sites (2.31 ± 0.50 mm) was significantly smaller than that at the control sites (3.51 ± 0.78 mm; p = 0.012). The combined use of rhFGF-2 and gelatin/β-TCP sponge promotes ridge augmentation in canine saddle-type bone defects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. In vitro characterization of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on organic-inorganic lyophilized gelatin sponges for early bone healing.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Isaac A; Saxena, Gunjan; Hixon, Katherine R; Sell, Scott A; Bowlin, Gary L

    2016-08-01

    The development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds with enhanced osteogenic and angiogenic potential would be beneficial for inducing early-stage bone regeneration. Previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of mineralized and nonmineralized acellular 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linked gelatin sponges enhanced with preparations rich in growth factors, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. In this study, those same scaffolds were mineralized and dynamically seeded with MG-63 cells. Cell proliferation, protein/cytokine secretion, and compressive mechanical properties of scaffolds were evaluated. It was found that mineralization and the addition of growth factors increased cell proliferation compared to gelatin controls. Cells on all scaffolds responded in an appropriate bone regenerative fashion as shown through osteocalcin secretion and little to no secretion of bone resorbing markers. However, compressive mechanical properties of cellularized scaffolds were not significantly different from acellular scaffolds. The combined results of increased cellular attachment, infiltration, and bone regenerative protein/cytokine secretion on scaffolds support the need for the addition of a bone-like mineral surface. Cellularized scaffolds containing growth factors reported similar advantages and mechanical values in the range of native tissues present in the early stages of bone healing. These results suggest that the developed composite sponges exhibited cellular responses and mechanical properties appropriate for promoting early bone healing in various applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2011-2019, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Histological observation of a gelatin sponge transplant loaded with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet-rich plasma in repairing an annulus defect

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Hu, Jianzhong; Lu, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To research the histological characteristics of a gelatin sponge transplant loaded with goat BMSCs (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) combined with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) in repairing an annulus defect. Method BMSCs were separated from the iliac crest of goats, sub-cultured and identified after the third generation. Then, PRP was obtained using blood from the jugular vein of goats via two degrees of centrifugation. In the animal experiments, the goats were divided into the following three groups: a sham group, an injury group and a therapeutic group. In the sham group, we decompressed the lamina and exposed the annulus fibrosus. In the injury group, we exposed the annulus fibrosus after decompression of the lamina and created a 1 × 1 cm defect in the annulus using surgical instruments. In the therapeutic group, after decompression of the lamina, we exposed the annulus, created a 1 × 1 cm defect using surgical instruments, and placed a gelatin sponge combined with BMSCs and PRP into the defect for a combined method of repair. Three, six and twelve weeks after the surgery, the previously damaged or undamaged annulus tissue was removed from the three groups. Then, the above tissue was assayed using HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining, Masson trichrome staining, AB-PAS (Alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff) staining, and type II collagen staining and observed by microscopy. Results From the HE staining, we observed that the number of repair cells gradually increased. Compared to the injury group, the cell density and gross morphology of cells in the therapeutic group were closer to those of the sham group. As observed by Masson trichrome gelatin staining, many of the fibroblast cells or tissues were under repair, and as time progressed, the number of fibroblast cells and amount of tissue gradually increased. The results of the AB-PAS staining suggest that chondrocytes participated in the repair of the annulus. The level of type II collagen gradually

  19. [Absorbable shanching satin rb-bFGF prepreg sheet and expansion hemostatic sponge together to cure epistaxis with blood disease].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Gao, Zhanmei; Song, Yang; Lu, Mancun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects and Numerical Rating Pain Scale (NRS) of using absorbable shanching satin rb-bFGF prepreg sheet and expansion hemostatic sponge together nasal packing in the control of epistaxis with blood disease, and compared it with traditional vaseline gauze. Ninety-six blood disease patient with epistaxis were enrolled between January 2009 and February 2011, they were divided into two groups at random, and differently treated with absorbable shanching satin rb-bFGF prepreg sheet and the vaseline gauze nasal packing for haemostasis. Then haemostasis efficacy,the hemorrhage rate after nasal packing removed and host response, such as nasal pain and headache, which evaluated pain degrees against NRS, were all observed. There was no significant difference between the two groups of the haemostatic effect. But the hemorrhage rate of treatment group was obviously lower than that of the control group after paching,in addition, host responses, such as nasal pain and headache, remarkably better than the control group, the difference had statistical significance. It is indicate that absorbable shanching satin rb-bFGF prepreg sheet presents reliable hemostasis effect, good biocompatibility and compliance; the pain and headache caused by packing are superior to vaseline gauze. Moreover, this method avoids the direct touch of vaseline gauze with nasal mucosal wound, and reduce hemorrhage after packing. Absorbable shanching satin rb-bFGF prepreg sheet and expansion hemostatic sponge together is better to select the nasal packing material for blood disease patient with epistaxis.

  20. One-step fabrication of novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sponge with outstanding absorbency and flame-retardancy for the selective removal of oily organic solvent from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Pang, Youyou; Jiang, Xiaomei; Huang, Jie; Xi, Fengna; Liu, Jiyang

    2018-01-01

    Absorbent materials integrated with superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity and flame-retardancy are highly desired in the adsorption/removal of flammable oils/organic compounds as well as reducing the risk of fire and explosion. Here, one-step fabrication of novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sponge with outstanding absorbency and flame-retardancy was presented. Using raw melamine (ME) sponge as the supporting matrix, the formation of polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates via in-situ self-polymerization of high-concentrated dopamine and the covalent grafting of hydrophobic n-dodecylthiol (DT) onto PDA were combined in a feasible alkaline water/ethanol medium. As investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the as-prepared ME/PDA/DT sponge possessed hierarchical structure with submicron PDA nanoaggregates containing DT motif (low surface energy) on 3D interconnected porous network. It exhibited superhydrophobic (water contact angle 157.7°) and superoleophilic (oily/organic solvent contact angle 0° properties. Owing to the highly porous structure, superhydrophobic property, chemical and mechanical stability, the ME/PDA/DT sponge exhibited outstanding absorbency properties of oily organic solvents including fast absorption kinetics, high absorption capacity, and easy reusability. Also, the ME/PDA/DT sponge could be used for one-line continuous organic solvent/water separation. More interestingly, the ME/PDA/DT sponge demonstrated improved flame-retardant property as compared to the intrinsic flame-retardant nature of the raw melamine sponge. Consequently, the risk of fire and explosion was expected to reduce when the fabricated sponge was used as an absorbent for flammable oils and organic compounds. The ease of the one-step superhydrophobic/superoleophilic modification and the promising feature of the obtained materials exhibit great potential for application in oils/organic solvents clean-up.

  1. Passive mode locking of a Nd:YAG laser with a thin gelatine-film saturable absorber containing organic-dye J-aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeeva, V I; Shapiro, Boris I; Kuch'yanov, Aleksandr S

    2003-06-30

    Ultrashort pulses of duration {approx}13 ps are first obtained in a passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with a negative feedback using a thin gelatine-film saturable absorber containing organic-dye J-aggregates. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Gastric varices and hepatic encephalopathy: treatment with vascular plug and gelatin sponge-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration--a primary report.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Song, Ho-Young

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate technical safety, clinical safety, and effectiveness of vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (RTO) for treatment of gastric varices (GV) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written informed consent was waived. From April 2009 to December 2011, 20 patients (13, GV; seven, HE) who had undergone vascular plug-assisted RTO were retrospectively evaluated. After retrograde transvenous placement of a vascular plug in the left adrenal vein or gastrorenal shunt, subsequent gelatin-sponge embolization of both gastrorenal shunt and GV was performed. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) and upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were performed; clinical and laboratory data were collected to evaluate primary (technical success, complications, clinical success) and secondary (change of liver function by using the Child-Pugh score, worsening of esophageal varices) end points. Laboratory data before and after vascular plug-assisted RTO were compared (paired-sample t test). Placement of the vascular plug and subsequent gelatin-sponge embolization were technically successful in all 20 patients, with no procedure-related complications. Follow-up CT within 1 week after vascular plug-assisted RTO showed complete thrombosis of GV and gastrorenal shunts in all patients. Clinical symptoms of HE completely resolved in all seven patients with HE; mean serum NH3 level of 127.4 μmol/L ± 58 (standard deviation) before vascular plug-assisted RTO decreased significantly to 28.1 μmol/L ± 9.8 within 1 week after vascular plug-assisted RTO (P = .002). Eighteen patients who underwent follow-up longer than 2 months showed complete obliteration of GV and gastrorenal shunts at CT and endoscopy. There were no cases of variceal bleeding or HE during mean follow-up of 422 days. Improvement in Child-Pugh score was observed in 12 of 18 (67%) patients 1 month after vascular plug-assisted RTO. Worsening

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage: Predictive Factors of Need for Embolic Material Conversion of Gelatin Sponge Particles to N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Tanahashi, Yukichi; Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp; Kondo, Hiroshi

    PurposeTo identify predictive factors for embolic material conversion to N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after failed transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) using gelatin sponge (GS).Materials and MethodsInstitutional review board approval was obtained. We retrospectively studied 62 consecutive women with primary PPH who underwent TAE between January 2006 and March 2015. Five of them were excluded for the following: cardiopulmonary arrest at arrival (n = 1), uterine inversion (n = 1), and hysterectomy after TAE (n = 3). Remaining 57 women (age range, 21–43 years; mean, 32.6 years) comprised study population. TAE was initially performed using GS in all cases andmore » then converted to NBCA after two embolizations using GS with persistent hemodynamic instability or vaginal bleeding. The patients’ background, uterine height, vital signs, laboratory tests, disseminated intravascular coagulation score, and details of procedure were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors related to embolic material conversion.ResultsTechnical success rate was 100%. Fourteen patients (25%) needed embolic material conversion to NBCA. Univariate analysis showed that uterine height, systolic blood pressure (sBP), and hemoglobin level were significantly related to embolic material conversion to NBCA (P = 0.029, 0.030, and 0.042). Logistic regression analysis showed that uterine height (odds ratio, 1.37; P = 0.025) and sBP (odds ratio, 0.96; P = 0.003) were associated with embolic material conversion to NBCA.ConclusionUterine height and sBP can be predictive factors for embolic material conversion to NBCA for the treatment of PPH.Level of EvidenceLevel 4, Case Control Study.« less

  4. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze, cotton...

  5. Comparison of Hemostatic Durability between N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Gelatin Sponge Particles in Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in a Coagulopathic Condition in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio, E-mail: morisato@mail.wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT < 200 s state); severe coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 30% and preserving ACT > 400 s (ACT >more » 400-second state). For each state, of ACT < 200 s or ACT > 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT < 200-second state, follow-up angiography at 5-30 min after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage. In the ACT > 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.« less

  6. Comparison of hemostatic durability between N-butyl cyanoacrylate and gelatin sponge particles in transcatheter arterial embolization for acute arterial hemorrhage in a coagulopathic condition in a swine model.

    PubMed

    Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sahara, Shinya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Naka, Toshio; Shinozaki, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT < 200 s state); severe coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 30% and preserving ACT > 400 s (ACT > 400-second state). For each state, of ACT < 200 s or ACT > 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT < 200-second state, follow-up angiography at 5-30 min after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage. In the ACT > 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.

  7. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Poursamar, S Ali; Lehner, Alexander N; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Antunes, A P M

    2016-06-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so that...

  9. Comparison between a β-tricalcium phosphate and an absorbable collagen sponge carrier technology for rhGDF-5-stimulated periodontal wound healing/regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Taek; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare a candidate β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) carrier technology with the absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) benchmark to support recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5)-stimulated periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Routine, bilateral, critical-size (5-mm), 1-wall, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandibular premolar region in 10 beagle dogs. Five animals received rhGDF-5/β-TCP and five animals received rhGDF-5/ACS, with a total of 20 μg rhGDF-5 per defect. The animals were euthanized for histologic and histometric analyses at 8 weeks postsurgery. Both rhGDF-5/ACS and rhGDF-5/β-TCP stimulated the formation of functionally oriented periodontal ligament, cellular mixed fiber cementum, and woven/lamellar bone. Bone regeneration (height and area) was significantly greater for the rhGDF-5/β-TCP construct than for the rhGDF-5/ACS (3.26 ± 0.30 mm versus 2.22 ± 0.82 mm, P <0.01; and 10.45 ± 2.26 mm(2) versus 5.62 ± 2.39 mm(2), P <0.01, respectively). Cementum formation ranged from 3.83 ± 0.73 mm to 3.03 ± 1.18 mm without significant differences between groups. Root resorption/ankylosis was not observed. The β-TCP carrier technology significantly enhanced rhGDF-5-stimulated bone formation compared with the ACS benchmark in this discriminating periodontal defect model. The structural integrity of the β-TCP carrier, preventing compression while providing a framework for bone ingrowth, may account for the observed results.

  10. Application of Gelatin Sponge Impregnated with a Mixture of 3 Drugs to Intraoperative Nerve Root Block Combined with Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery in the Treatment of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: A Clinical Observation Including 96 Patients.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin Peng; Fan, Yong; Liu, Ji Jun; Zhang, Jia Nan; Chang Liu, Shi; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-12-01

    Application of nerve root block is mainly for diagnosis with less application in intraoperative treatment. The aim of this study was to observe clinical and imaging outcomes of application of gelatin sponge impregnated with a mixture of 3 drugs to intraoperative nerve root block combined with robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery in to treat adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. From January 2012 to November 2014, 108 patients with adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis were treated with robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery combined with intraoperative gelatin sponge impregnated with a mixture of 3 drugs. Visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores were used to evaluate postoperative improvement of back and leg pain, and clinical effects were assessed according to the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Imaging was obtained preoperatively, 1 week and 3 months postoperatively, and at the last follow-up. Fusion status, complications, and other outcomes were assessed. Follow-up was complete for 96 patients. Visual analog scale scores of leg and back pain on postoperative days 1-7 were decreased compared with preoperatively. At 1 week postoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and last follow-up, visual analog scale score, Oswestry Disability Index score, coronal Cobb angle, and coronal and sagittal deviated distance decreased significantly (P = 0.000) and lumbar lordosis angle increased (P = 0.000) compared with preoperatively. Improvement rate of Oswestry Disability Index was 81.8% ± 7.4. Fusion rate between vertebral bodies was 92.7%. Application of gelatin sponge impregnated with 3 drugs combined with robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for treatment of adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis is safe and feasible with advantages of good short-term analgesia effect, minimal invasiveness, short length of stay, and good long-term clinical

  11. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of squid ink polysaccharide-chitosan as a wound-healing sponge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; Lin, Jiali; Li, Sidong; Deng, Yifeng; Kong, Songzhi; Hong, Pengzhi; Yang, Ping; Liao, Mingneng; Hu, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    A new type of wound healing agent was developed using two marine biomaterials (squid ink polysaccharide and chitosan) as carriers and calcium chloride as an initiator for coagulation. Based on central composite design-response surface methodology, comprehensive evaluation of appearance quality for composite sponges and water absorbency were used as evaluation indices to identify the optimized preparation conditions and further evaluate the performance of the squid ink polysaccharide-chitosan sponge (SIP-CS). The optimized formulation of SIP-CS was as follows: chitosan concentration, 2.29%; squid ink polysaccharide concentration, 0.55%; and calcium chloride concentration, 2.82%, at a volume ratio of 15:5:2. SIP-CS was conducive to sticking on the wound, characterized by the spongy property, strong absorptivity, and tackiness. Rabbit ear arterial, hepatic, and femoral artery hemorrhage experiments indicated that, compared with chitosan dressings and absorbable gelatin, the hemostatic times were shorter and the bleeding volume was smaller. Furthermore, SIP-CS absorbed a large amount of hemocytes, leading to rapid hemostasis. The healing areas and wound pathological sections in scalded New Zealand rabbits indicated that SIP-CS promoted wound healing more rapidly than chitosan and better than commercially available burn cream. Thus, SIP-CS is a good wound healing agent for rapid hemostasis, promoting burn/scalded skin healing, and protecting from wound infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Gelatin-Based Crosslinkers for the Fabrication of Superabsorbent Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Amonpattaratkit, Penphitcha; Khunmanee, Sureerat; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Hansoo

    2017-01-01

    In this work, crosslinkers were prepared by conjugating high- and low-molecular-weight gelatin with different mole ratios of itaconic acid (IA) with double bonds. Then, the gelatin-itaconic acid (gelatin-IA) crosslinkers were compared with the gelatin-methacrylate (gelatin-MA) crosslinkers. The molecular weights and structures of gelatin-MA and gelatin-IA were confirmed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Additionally, the swelling ratio and biodegradation properties of the hydrogels using IA as starting monomers and gelatin-IA and gelatin-MA as crosslinkers were investigated. Both hydrogels prepared with high and low molecular weights of gelatin-IA showed higher swelling ratios than those prepared with the gelatin-MA. The results also showed that absorbent hydrogels with different biodegradabilities and swelling ratios could be prepared by changing the ratio of the gelatin-based crosslinkers. PMID:28773186

  14. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control - over the counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide or sponge is much ...

  15. [Gelatin allergy].

    PubMed

    Hassoun, S; Sabbah, A

    1998-03-01

    Allergy to the gelatin used as a plasma filler product has not been recognised until now. Methods used have not been validated but are composed of specific serum IgE, skin tests and histamine release by leucotrienes. The clinical observation that we report has the merit of showing the reality of an allergy that is dependent on plasma filler products due to development of a protocol which includes firstly, during anaphylactic shock, measurement of the mediators of immediate hypersensitivity and secondly, after the clinical accident, test of the activation of basophils by flow cytometry (TAB) and measurement of leucotrienes.

  16. Cultivation of marine sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hua; Yu, Xingju; Jin, Meifang

    2005-06-01

    Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges. The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.

  17. DYNAPHORE, INC. FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. The Developer states that the technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy metals f...

  18. DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface voters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  19. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  20. Local rhBMP-12 on an Absorbable Collagen Sponge as an Adjuvant Therapy for Rotator Cuff Repair - A Phase 1, Randomized, Standard of Care Control, Multicenter Study: Safety and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Stefan; Ide, Junji; Van Noort, Arthur; Mochizuki, Yu; Ochi, Hiroshi; Marraffino, Shannon; Sridharan, Sudhakar; Rudicel, Sally; Itoi, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-12 (rhBMP-12) has been shown to induce tendon and ligament formation in rats and to improve tendon healing; however, the safety and feasibility of implanting rhBMP-12/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) in humans are not known. To investigate the safety and feasibility of rhBMP-12 on an ACS as an adjuvant therapy in open rotator cuff repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. This study consisted of 20 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Patients were randomized either to standard of care (SOC) treatment (open rotator cuff repair) or to receive 0.015 mg/mL rhBMP-12/ACS and SOC treatment during their open rotator cuff repair (rhBMP-12/ACS group) at a rate of 1/4 SOC/rhBMP-12/ACS. The feasibility of implanting the product and the safety of the product were evaluated during the 1-year follow-up period. The evaluation involved up to 10 postoperative visits, which included physical examinations, radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with an emphasis on heterotopic ossification (HO), pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, laboratory evaluations, and local and systemic adverse events at specified time points. Small amounts of HO were seen on follow-up CT scans in 10 of 16 patients in the rhBMP-12/ACS group and in 2 of 3 patients in the SOC group. HO did not increase at 26 weeks and was not associated with any adverse events or unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. Pharmacokinetics demonstrated that circulating levels of rhBMP-12 were not detectable after administration. Five of 16 patients showed a postoperative immunogenic response but did not show any correlating adverse events. Complete healing of the rotator cuff was observed in 14 of 16 patients; 2 of 16 imaging results could not be analyzed because of artifacts in the rhBMP-12 group on MRI scans. In the SOC group, 1 of 4 patients showed a retear at 12 weeks after surgery. The use of rhBMP-12/ACS has been shown

  1. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge for the selective absorption of oil from water.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Hong; Im, Hwon; Moon, Dong-Il; Baek, David J; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Duarte, Juan P; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    We present a sugar-templated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge for the selective absorption of oil from water. The process for fabricating the PDMS sponge does not require any intricate synthesis processes or equipment and it is not environmentally hazardous, thus promoting potential in environmental applications. The proposed PDMS sponge can be elastically deformed into any shape, and it can be compressed repeatedly in air or liquids without collapsing. Therefore, absorbed oils and organic solvents can be readily removed and reused by simply squeezing the PDMS sponge, enabling excellent recyclability. Furthermore, through appropriately combining various sugar particles, the absorption capacity of the PDMS sponge is favorably optimized. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Cultivation of Marine Sponges.

    PubMed

    Osinga; Tramper; Wijffels

    1999-11-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges, are still the easiest and least expensive way to obtain sponge biomass in bulk. However, success of cultivation with this method strongly depends on the unpredictable and often suboptimal natural environment. Hence, a better-defined production system would be desirable. Some progress has been made with culturing sponges in semicontrolled systems, but these still use unfiltered natural seawater. Cultivation of sponges under completely controlled conditions has remained a problem. When designing an in vitro cultivation method, it is important to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the nutritional demands of the species that is to be cultured. An adequate supply of food seems to be the key to successful sponge culture. Recently, some progress has been made with sponge cell cultures. The advantage of cell cultures is that they are completely controlled and can easily be manipulated for optimal production of the target metabolites. However, this technique is still in its infancy: a continuous cell line has yet to be established. Axenic cultures of sponge aggregates (primmorphs) may provide an alternative to cell culture. Some sponge metabolites are, in fact, produced by endosymbiotic bacteria or algae that live in the sponge tissue. Only a few of these endosymbionts have been cultivated so far. The biotechnology for the production of sponge metabolites needs further development. Research efforts should be continued to enable commercial exploitation of this valuable natural resource in the near future.

  3. The role of sponge-bacteria interactions: the sponge Aplysilla rosea challenged by its associated bacterium Streptomyces ACT-52A in a controlled aquarium system.

    PubMed

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Tanner, Jason E; Barnett, Stephen J; Franco, Christopher M M; Zhang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Sponge-associated bacteria play a critical role in sponge biology, metabolism and ecology, but how they interact with their host sponges and the role of these interactions are poorly understood. This study investigated the role of the interaction between the sponge Aplysilla rosea and its associated actinobacterium, Streptomyces ACT-52A, in modifying sponge microbial diversity, metabolite profile and bioactivity. A recently developed experimental approach that exposes sponges to bacteria of interest in a controlled aquarium system was improved by including the capture and analysis of secreted metabolites by the addition of an absorbent resin in the seawater. In a series of controlled aquaria, A. rosea was exposed to Streptomyces ACT-52A at 10 6  cfu/ml and monitored for up to 360 h. Shifts in microbial communities associated with the sponges occurred within 24 to 48 h after bacterial exposure and continued until 360 h, as revealed by TRFLP. The metabolite profiles of sponge tissues also changed substantially as the microbial community shifted. Control sponges (without added bacteria) and Streptomyces ACT-52A-exposed sponges released different metabolites into the seawater that was captured by the resin. The antibacterial activity of compounds collected from the seawater increased at 96 and 360 h of exposure for the treated sponges compared to the control group due to new compounds being produced and released. Increased antibacterial activity of metabolites from treated sponge tissue was observed only at 360 h, whereas that of control sponge tissue remained unchanged. The results demonstrate that the interaction between sponges and their associated bacteria plays an important role in regulating secondary metabolite production.

  4. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges are widely used for clinical applications, including ophthalmic surgical treatments, wound healing and tissue engineering. There is, however, a lack of sufficient data on the mechanical properties of PVA sponges. In this study, a biomechanical method is used to characterize the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain as well as the swelling ratio of a fabricated PVA sponge (P-sponge) and it is compared with two commercially available PVA sponges (CENEFOM and EYETEC). The results indicate that the elastic modulus of the P-sponge is 5.32% and 13.45% lower than that of the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, while it bears 4.11% more and 10.37% less stress compared to the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, respectively. The P-sponge shows a maximum strain of 32% more than the EYETEC sponge as well as a 26.78% higher swelling ratio, which is a significantly higher absorbency compared to the CENEFOM. It is believed that the results of this study would help for a better understanding of the extension, rupture and swelling mechanism of PVA sponges, which could lead to crucial improvement in the design and application of PVA-based materials in ophthalmic and plastic surgeries as well as wound healing and tissue engineering.

  5. The sponge microbiome project.

    PubMed

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J; Vicente, Jan; Björk, Johannes R; Montoya, Jose M; Olson, Julie B; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Marra, Maria V; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M; Schupp, Peter J; Simister, Rachel L; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-10-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  7. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of curcumin-β-cyclodextrin-loaded sponge for effective drug delivery in thermal burns chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navdeep; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to determine the role of curcumin-β-cyclodextrin-loaded sponge on burn wound healing in rats. Curcumin-β-cyclodextrin complex was prepared by the solvent evaporation encapsulation method. Molecular inclusion complex of curcumin-β-cyclodextrin was incorporated into gelatin sponge. The developed sponge was characterized for drug entrapment, drug release and morphology. The biological activity of optimized formulation was determined on burn wounds which were made on rats. The burn wound healing efficacy was analyzed through physical and histological changes observed at the wound sites. There was a significant decrease in rate of wound contraction in experimental groups then the control group. Curcumin-β-cyclodextrin-loaded sponge treated wound was found to heal in rate comparable to marketed formulation with no sign of adverse consequence. The result clearly substantiates the beneficial effects of curcumin-β-cyclodextrin-loaded sponge in the acceleration of wound healing.

  8. Capillary rise and swelling in cellulose sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jonghyun; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    A cellulose sponge, which is a mundane example of a porous hydrophilic structure, can absorb and hold a significant amount of liquid. We present the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of the capillary imbibition of various aqueous solutions in the sponge that swells at the same time. We find that the rate of water rise against the resistance caused by gravitational and viscous effects deviates from Washburn's rule beyond a certain threshold height. We rationalize the novel power law of the rise height versus time by combining Darcy's law with hygroscopic swelling equation and also predict the threshold height. The scaling law constructed through this work agrees well with the experimental results, shedding light on the physics of capillary flow in deforming porous media.

  9. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigators unable to substantiate suspected link between sponge, TSS.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    contraceptive sponge does not cause TSS: Remarketing trials of the sponge included more than 1000 women years of experience without a reported case of TSS; nonoxynol 9 spermicide and citric, ascorbic, and benzoic acids in the sponge are hostile to S. aureus; unlike tampons, the sponge is not highly absorbant and does not cause microabrasions of the vagina; and during testing, contraceptive sponges were innoculated with the Harrisburg strain of S. aureus known to cause TSS fatality, and after incubation in growth medium for 28 days the S. aureus failed to grow in the innoculated sponges.

  11. The Sponge Hologenome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host’s phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of “holobiont” research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge’s phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont. PMID:27103626

  12. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  13. Modification of gelatin-DNA interaction for optimised DNA extraction from gelatin and gelatin capsule.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nurhidayatul Asma; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Khairil Mokhtar, Nur Fadhilah; Ismail, Amin; Ali, Md Eaqub

    2016-05-01

    Poor quality and quantity of DNA extracted from gelatin and gelatin capsules often causes failure in the determination of animal species using PCR. Gelatin, which is mainly derived from porcine and bovine, has been a matter of concern among customers in order to fulfill religious obligation and safety precaution against several transmissible infectious diseases associated with bovine species. Thus, optimised DNA extraction from gelatin is very important for successful real-time PCR detection of gelatin species. In this work, the DNA extraction method was optimised in terms of lysis incubation period and inclusion of pre-treatment pH modification of samples. The yield of DNA extracted from porcine gelatin was significantly increased when the pH of the samples was adjusted to pH 8.5 prior to DNA precipitation with isopropanol. The optimal pH for DNA precipitation from bovine gelatin solution was then determined at the original pH range of solution: pH 7.6 to 8. A DNA fragment of approximately 300 base pairs was available for PCR amplification. DNA extracted from gelatin and commercially available capsules has been successfully utilised for species detection using real-time PCR assay. However, significant adulterations of porcine and bovine in pure gelatin and capsules have been detected, which require further analytical techniques for validation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Polymer/reduced graphene oxide functionalized sponges as superabsorbents for oil removal and recovery.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Wu, Wen-Ping; Ravindranath, Rini; Roy, Prathik; Lin, Guan-Lin; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2017-01-30

    Polyurethane dish-washing (PU-DW) sponges are functionalized sequentially with polyethylenimine (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO) to form PEI/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) PU-DW sponges. The PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge consists of PEI/RGO sheets having numerous pores, with diameters ranging from 236 to 254nm. To further enhance hydrophobicity and absorption capacity of oil, PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge is further coated with 20% phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS). The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge absorbs various oils within 20s, with maximum absorption capacity values of 880% and 840% for bicycle chain oil and motorcycle engine oil, respectively. The absorbed oils were released completely by squeezing or immersed in hexane. The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge efficiently separates oil/water mixtures through a flowing system. Having the advantages of faster absorption rate, reusability, and low cost, the PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge holds great potential as a superabsorbent for efficient removal and recovery of oil spills as well as for the separation of oil/water mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Poro-elasto-capillary wicking of cellulose sponges

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Nyun

    2018-01-01

    We mundanely observe cellulose (kitchen) sponges swell while absorbing water. Fluid flows in deformable porous media, such as soils and hydrogels, are classically described on the basis of the theories of Darcy and poroelasticity, where the expansion of media arises due to increased pore pressure. However, the situation is qualitatively different in cellulosic porous materials like sponges because the pore expansion is driven by wetting of the surrounding cellulose walls rather than by increase of the internal pore pressure. We address a seemingly so simple but hitherto unanswered question of how fast water wicks into the swelling sponge. Our experiments uncover a power law of the wicking height versus time distinct from that for nonswelling materials. The observation using environmental scanning electron microscopy reveals the coalescence of microscale wall pores with wetting, which allows us to build a mathematical model for pore size evolution and the consequent wicking dynamics. Our study sheds light on the physics of water absorption in hygroscopically responsive multiscale porous materials, which have far more implications than everyday activities (for example, cleaning, writing, and painting) carried out with cellulosic materials (paper and sponge), including absorbent hygiene products, biomedical cell cultures, building safety, and cooking. PMID:29682606

  16. An experimental-finite element analysis on the kinetic energy absorption capacity of polyvinyl alcohol sponge.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is in widespread use for biomedical and tissue engineering applications owing to its biocompatibility, availability, relative cheapness, and excellent mechanical properties. This study reports a novel concept of design in energy absorbing materials which consist in the use of PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material to enhance the energy loss of impact loads. An experimental study is carried out to measure the mechanical properties of the PVA sponge under uniaxial loading. The kinetic energy absorption capacity of the PVA sponge is computed by a hexahedral finite element (FE) model of the steel ball and bullet through the LS-DYNA code under impact load at three different thicknesses (5, 10, 15mm). The results show that a higher sponge thickness invokes a higher energy loss of the steel ball and bullet. The highest energy loss of the steel ball and bullet is observed for the thickest sponge with 160 and 35J, respectively. The most common type of traumatic brain injury in which the head subject to impact load causes the brain to move within the skull and consequently brain hemorrhaging. These results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as a great kinetic energy absorber material compared to commonly used expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) to absorb most of the impact energy and reduces the transmitted load. The results might have implications not only for understanding of the mechanical properties of PVA sponge but also for use as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and packaging material design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Silver-halide gelatin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, B. J.; Winick, K.

    1980-05-01

    The use of a silver-halide gelatin for volume phase holograms having a wide spectral response and lower exposure requirements than alternatives and using commercially available silver salts, is proposed. The main difference between the dichromated gelatin and silver-halide processes is the creation of a hologram latent image, which is given in the form of a hardness differential between exposed and unexposed regions in the silver halide hologram; the differential is in turn created by the reaction products of either tanning development or tanning bleach, which harden the gelatin with link-bonds between molecules.

  18. Fabrication of polysiloxane-modified polyurethane sponge as low-cost organics/water separation and selective absorption material.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhengshan; He, Wanxia; Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Jiang, Liang; Huang, Jun; Lv, Xiaomeng

    2016-10-01

    Through sol-gel and dip-coating processes, commercial polyurethane sponge modified by polysiloxane was fabricated under low temperature (60 °C) and atmosphere. The contact angle of the obtained polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge is 145 ± 5°. Hence, the polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge could float on water and selectively absorb organics from the surface of the water, indicating simultaneous properties of hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. The absorbent maximum value is 50-150 times of its own weight. The polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge exhibited excellent recyclability, which could be reused by squeezing the sponge due to its high mechanical stability and flexibility. Thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis test indicated that the polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge exhibited good thermal stability and the stable contact angle of samples tested under increasing temperature indicated its good weather resistance. Due to the commercial property of polyurethane sponge and easy-handling of polysiloxane, the polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge can be easily scaled up to recover a large-area oil spill in water and further work based on the designed equipment has been under consideration.

  19. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  20. Functionalized three-dimensional graphene sponges for highly efficient crude and diesel oil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Bagoole, Oscar; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Shah, Sohail; Hong, Haiping; Chen, Hang; Al Ghaferi, Amal; Younes, Hammad

    2018-06-02

    Modified Hummer's method has been used in this study to synthesize graphene oxide (GO) solution that was utilized for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) graphene sponges and their subsequent functionalization through a low-cost and facile vapor-based surface enhancement approach. The functionalized 3D-graphene sponge is an excellent absorbent, which can remove more than 3300 wt.% of crude oil (calculated with respect to the original sorbent mass). The functionalization of the obtained graphene sponges with trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane enhanced their wettability properties due to the super-hydrophobic nature of the resulting materials characterized by the contact angles in water greater than 150°. Furthermore, their elastic compression modulus (estimated by conducting a series of compression tests) was about 22.3 kPa. The equilibrium modeling of the oil removal process, which was performed by plotting Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms, confirmed the properties of the fabricated 3D graphene sponges as exceptional absorbents for crude and diesel oil, which could be attributed to the oleophilic nature of graphene. Moreover, the obtained 3D graphene sponges could be regenerated via heat treatment, which was conducted to release the adsorbed species. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, the sorption capacity of the produced 3D graphene sponges towards crude oil reached 95% of the initial value.

  1. Anti-adhesive effects of a newly developed two-layered gelatin sheet in dogs.

    PubMed

    Torii, Hiroko; Takagi, Toshitaka; Urabe, Mamoru; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Ozamoto, Yuki; Miyamoto, Hiroe; Ikada, Yoshihito; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2017-08-01

    Adhesion after pelvic surgery causes infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and ileus or abdominal pain. The materials currently available for clinical use are insufficient. The purpose of this study was to develop an anti-adhesive material that overcomes the limitations of conventional anti-adhesive agents. The adhesion prevention effects of three methods - a two-layered sheet composed of gelatin film and gelatin sponge, Seprafilm and INTERCEED - were evaluated in 37 dogs. Anti-adhesive effects were investigated macroscopically and microscopically in a cauterized uterus adhesion model. Cell growth on the materials in vitro using human peritoneal mesothelial cells, fibroblasts and uterine smooth muscle cells were also evaluated. The two-layered gelatin sheet had significantly superior anti-adhesive effects compared to the conventional materials (Seprafilm and INTERCEED). A single-cell layer of mature mesothelium formed three weeks after surgery in the gelatin group. Peritoneum regeneration in the Seprafilm and INTERCEED groups was delayed and incomplete in the early phase. Little inflammation around the materials occurred and cell growth was significantly proliferated with the gelatin sheet. The anti-adhesive effects of a two-layered gelatin sheet were superior to conventional agents in a cauterized canine uterus model, demonstrating early regeneration of the peritoneum, little inflammation and material endurance. The newly developed two-layered gelatin sheet is a useful option as an anti-adhesive agent for deeply injured and hemorrhagic sites. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Gelatin-containing diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine causes sensitization to gelatin in the recipients.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, T; Ozaki, T; Kamada, M; Igarashi, C; Yuri, K; Furukawa, H; Wagatuma, K; Chiba, S; Sato, M; Kojima, H; Saito, A; Okui, T; Yano, S

    2000-02-14

    Gelatin-specific T cell response was performed to determine whether a series of vaccinations with gelatin-containing DTP is a primary sensitization process in gelatin allergy. Thirty-seven recipients with gelatin-containing DTP who developed adverse reactions after vaccination and eight recipients of DTP without gelatin who also developed adverse reactions were studied. In addition, 10 subjects receiving gelatin-containing vaccine and 10 subjects inoculated with non-gelatin vaccine who did not show any adverse reactions were also investigated. All subjects inoculated with gelatin-containing DTP vaccine showed positive T cell responses against gelatin, however, occurrence of adverse reactions did not correlate with T cell responses. We conclude that DTP vaccine containing gelatin induces sensitization to gelatin in the recipients, but the mechanism of local reactions remains unknown.

  3. Is the universe a sponge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Does the large-scale universe look more like meatballs, like Swiss cheese or like a sponge? The differences between these types of universe are described in J Richard Gott's The Cosmic Web: Mysterious Architecture of the Universe.

  4. Soft gelatin capsules (softgels).

    PubMed

    Gullapalli, Rampurna Prasad

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) coming out of the current drug discovery process have poor biopharmaceutical properties, such as low aqueous solubility and/or permeability. These suboptimal properties pose significant challenges for the oral absorption of the compounds and for the development of orally bioavailable dosage forms. Development of soft gelatin capsule (softgel) dosage form is of growing interest for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble compounds (BCS class II or class IV). The softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound, delivering a low melting compound, and minimizing potential generation of dust during manufacturing and thereby improving the safety of production personnel. However, due to the very dynamic nature of the softgel dosage form, its development and stability during its shelf-life are fraught with several challenges. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on the softgel dosage form to formulation scientists who are considering developing softgels for therapeutic compounds.

  5. Reactivity of the immunoglobulin E in bovine gelatin-sensitive children to gelatins from various animals

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, M; Hori, H; Ebihara, T; Irie, S; Yanagida, M; Inouye, S

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that most children who showed anaphylaxis to measles, mumps and rubella vaccines containing bovine gelatin as a stabilizer have anti-bovine gelatin IgE. The present study was designed to investigate the reactivity of IgE in bovine gelatin-sensitive children to gelatins from various animals, and the antigenic cross-reactivity between the gelatins. Serum samples taken from 10 children who showed anaphylaxis to vaccines containing bovine gelatin were used in this study. The level of anti-bovine gelatin IgE in these serum samples ranged from 11·0 to 251 Ua/ml. The IgE in most of the children reacted to kangaroo and mouse gelatins, to which they had had little or no exposure as a food or a vaccine stabilizer. The IgE binding to kangaroo and mouse gelatins was completely inhibited by bovine gelatin, whereas reciprocal inhibition was not complete, indicating that antigenic cross-reactivity is present between the mammalian gelatins. Only one child had strong IgE reactivity to fish gelatins, and this reactivity was not inhibited by bovine gelatin, indicating that no antigenic cross-reactivity exists between bovine and fish gelatins. Most of the children who displayed sensitivity to bovine gelatin showed IgE reactivity to other mammalian gelatins. This reactivity may be due primarily to the antigenic cross-reactivity between mammalian gelatins. PMID:10233707

  6. An analysis of sponge genomes.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Maria

    2004-11-24

    The genome of sponges has only been investigated so far by Bartmann-Lindholm et al. [Progr. Colloid. Polym. Sci. 107 (1997) 122-126] who reported a multimodal CsCl profile which could be resolved into five peaks for Geodia cydonium. This problem was reinvestigated here on both G. cydonium and Suberites domuncula. It was shown that DNAs from both sponges are characterized by unimodal CsCl profiles, additional peaks being due to contaminating prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  7. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  8. Heat Sponge: A Concept for Mass-Efficient Heat Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Blosser, Max L.; Gifford, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    The heat sponge is a device for mass-efficient storage of heat. It was developed to be incorporated in the substructure of a re-entry vehicle to reduce thermal- protection-system requirements. The heat sponge consists of a liquid/vapor mixture contained within a number of miniature pressure vessels that can be embedded within a variety of different types of structures. As temperature is increased, pressure in the miniature pressure vessels also increases so that heat absorbed through vaporization of the liquid is spread over a relatively large temperature range. Using water as a working fluid, the heat-storage capacity of the liquid/vapor mixture is many times higher than that of typical structural materials and is well above that of common phase change materials over a temperature range of 200 F to 700 F. The use of pure ammonia as the working fluid provides a range of application between 432 deg R and 730 deg R, or the use of the more practical water-ammonia solution provides a range of application between 432 deg R and 1160 deg R or in between that of water and pure ammonia. Prototype heat sponges were fabricated and characterized. These heat sponges consisted of 1.0-inch-diameter, hollow, stainless-steel spheres with a wall thickness of 0.020 inches which had varying percentages of their interior volumes filled with water and a water-ammonia solution. An apparatus to measure the heat stored in these prototype heat sponges was designed, fabricated, and verified. The heat-storage capacity calculated from measured temperature histories is compared to numerical predictions.

  9. Tear fluid collection in dogs and cats using ophthalmic sponges.

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Lionel; Harrington, Danielle M; Mochel, Jonathan P

    2018-05-01

    To compare the use of two ophthalmic sponges for tear collection in dogs and cats. Ten healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. A strip (4 × 10 mm) of either cellulose or polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponge was inserted into the ventral fornix of each eye for either 15, 30, or 60 s. The wetted strip was placed into a 0.2-mL tube that was first punctured at its bottom. Tears were eluted through the drainage hole into a 1.5-mL tube via centrifugation. Tear volume absorbed (VA) and tear volume recovered (VR) were calculated as the difference of the post- and precollection weight of the 0.2-mL tube and 1.5-mL tube, respectively. Recovery ratio (RR) was determined as the ratio between VR and VA. Ophthalmic sponges were well tolerated by all subjects. In dogs and cats, median (95% range) VA, VR, and RR were as follows: 44 μL (11-106 μL) and 16 μL (2-43 μL); 27 μL (1-84 μL) and 6 μL (0-29 μL); 64% (7-91%) and 35% (0-86%), respectively. PVA sponges achieved significantly greater VR in cats and RR in both species. All parameters were significantly greater with a collection time of 60 vs. 30 and 15 s. Body weight was associated with VA and VR in dogs but not cats. Polyvinyl acetal is better than cellulose for tear collection given its superior recovery. Ophthalmic sponges could facilitate routine analysis of tear fluid in dogs and cats, although further studies are needed to evaluate the quality of tears obtained with this method. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Martian 'Kitchen Sponge'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. It shows a tiny 1 kilometer by 1 kilometer (0.62 x 0.62 mile) area of the martian north polar residual ice cap as it appears in summertime.

    The surface looks somewhat like that of a kitchen sponge--it is flat on top and has many closely-spaced pits of no more than 2 meters (5.5 ft) depth. The upper, flat surface in this image has a medium-gray tone, while the pit interiors are darker gray. Each pit is generally 10 to 20 meters (33-66 feet) across. The pits probably form as water ice sublimes--going directly from solid to vapor--during the martian northern summer seasons. The pits probably develop over thousands of years. This texture is very different from what is seen in the south polar cap, where considerably larger and more circular depressions are found to resemble slices of swiss cheese rather than a kitchen sponge.

    This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during northern summer on March 8, 1999. It was one of the very last 'calibration' images taken before the start of the Mapping Phase of the MGS mission, and its goal was to determine whether the MOC was properly focused. The crisp appearance of the edges of the pits confirmed that the instrument was focused and ready for its 1-Mars Year mapping mission. The scene is located near 86.9oN, 207.5oW, and has a resolution of about 1.4 meters (4 ft, 7 in) per pixel.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - DYNAPHORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that has selective affinity for dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. The Forager™ Sponge technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy me...

  16. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (<120m/s). The results of sphere penetration depth versus projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano- composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad Bashir, M.; Shahid, M.; Ahmed, Riaz; Yahya, A. G.

    2014-06-01

    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent δ, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites.The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix.

  18. Why Do Dolphins Carry Sponges?

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L.; Watson-Capps, Jana J.; Gibson, Quincy A.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Connor, Richard C.; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission. PMID:19066625

  19. Graphene-Montmorillonite Composite Sponge for Safe and Effective Hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guofeng; Quan, Kecheng; Liang, Yuping; Li, Tianyi; Yuan, Qipeng; Tao, Lei; Xie, Qian; Wang, Xing

    2016-12-28

    Montmorillonite (MMT) is considered to be the most effective hemostat among natural phyllosilicates. However, there is a barrier against using MMT for the commercial hemostatics because the invaded MMT powders might cause thrombosis in vessel. Until now, it is still a challenge to manage the release of MMT and eliminate its side effect. Herein, we present a graphene-MMT composite sponge (GMCS), synthesized under a hydrothermal reaction, fixing MMT powders into the cross-linked graphene sheets. We demonstrate that only a few embedded MMT can evoke remarkable platelet stimulation at the sponge interface, while maintaining fast plasma absorbency of the innate sponge. In the synergy of the above hemostatic mechanisms, the GMCS can rapidly stop bleeding in approximately 85 s in rabbit artery injury test. More importantly, computed tomography angiography certifies that the GMCS does not cause thrombus or blood clot in vessels. Cytotoxicity assay further highlights its biocompatibility. In-depth analysis proposes that two-dimensional graphene overmatches one-dimensional linear polymers in the composite construction, and dimension transformation of blood distribution plays a crucial role for reinforcing the hemostatic performance. This GMCS hemostat not only opens a new perspective for graphene composite, but also makes a new chance of using clays for trauma therapy.

  20. Modified wick method using Weck-Cel sponges for collection of human rectal secretions and analysis of mucosal HIV antibody.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, P A; Lynch, R M; Patterson, R R; Cu-Uvin, S; Flanigan, T P; Neutra, M R

    2000-08-01

    Weck-Cel sponges were examined for suitability as an absorbent material for nontraumatic collection of rectal secretions in humans. Sponges were tested in vitro and determined by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of releasing 100% of absorbed albumin and all immunoglobulin subtypes after treatment with detergent-supplemented buffer. Protein composition in rectal secretions collected from normal women with dry sponges (DS) or with sponges previously softened by moistening with saline (MS) was subsequently compared. DS secretions showed evidence of contamination with blood and interstitial fluid-derived albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and monomeric IgA. MS secretions appeared to represent local mucosal secretions more accurately because they contained negligible blood, a greater percentage of secretory IgA within the total IgA, and both lower albumin/IgG ratios and more dramatic alterations in IgG subclass distribution compared with corresponding serum. Anti-HIV IgG, IgM, IgA, and antibodies with secretory component could be demonstrated by ELISA in rectal secretions collected with moist sponges from 8 of 8, 1 of 8, 5 of 8, and 3 of 8 HIV-infected women, respectively. The data show that Weck-Cel sponges, if premoistened, can be used to collect rectal fluids nontraumatically and to obtain quantitative information about concentrations of immunoglobulins and specific antibodies on rectal mucosal surfaces.

  1. Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera)

    PubMed Central

    Van Soest, Rob W. M.; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dohrmann, Martin; Erpenbeck, Dirk; De Voogd, Nicole J.; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Vanhoorne, Bart; Kelly, Michelle; Hooper, John N. A.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP) and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD), we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a description of the structure of our main source of data for this paper, the WPD. From this we extracted numbers of all ‘known’ sponges to date: the number of valid Recent sponges is established at 8,553, with the vast majority, 83%, belonging to the class Demospongiae. We also mapped for the first time the species richness of a comprehensive set of marine ecoregions of the world, data also extracted from the WPD. Perhaps not surprisingly, these distributions appear to show a strong bias towards collection and taxonomy efforts. Only when species richness is accumulated into large marine realms does a pattern emerge that is also recognized in many other marine animal groups: high numbers in tropical regions, lesser numbers in the colder parts of the world oceans. Preliminary similarity analysis of a matrix of species and marine ecoregions extracted from the WPD failed to yield a consistent hierarchical pattern of ecoregions into marine provinces. Global sponge diversity information is mostly generated in regional projects and resources: results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious. We also review information on invasive sponges that might well have some influence on distribution patterns of the future. PMID:22558119

  2. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sangram K.; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L.; Dediu, V. Alek

    2016-01-01

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 °C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial–magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26451743

  3. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L; Dediu, V Alek

    2015-10-21

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 °C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial-magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications.

  4. Intraoperative anaphylaxis to gelatin in topical hemostatic agents during anterior spinal fusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Hillard T; Hsu, Joyce T; McDonald, Douglas R; Karlin, Lawrence I

    2012-08-01

    The use of topical hemostatic agents is widespread and has been shown to reduce bleeding during a wide variety of surgical procedures. Nonetheless, as biologically active agents, there is potential for allergic reactions to these products. This is a report of intraoperative anaphylaxis to gelatin associated with the use of two topical hemostatic agents. Case report. There is no outside funding or potential conflict of interest. A patient with anaphylaxis during anterior spinal fusion. Laboratory assays for tryptase, gelatin-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and total IgE. A 14-year-old male with myelomeningocele and scoliosis was treated with anterior spinal fusion from T12 to L3. Gelfoam sponges were applied during the preparation of the disc spaces. Approximately 1 hour later, Floseal hemostatic matrix was applied to a briskly bleeding screw hole in the L3 vertebral body, and the patient experienced an abrupt onset of hypotension and ventilatory difficulty. Epinephrine, dexamethasone, and blood products were administered for hemodynamic support while the surgical site was closed. Removal of the drapes revealed a widespread erythematous rash, and the patient was then transferred to the intensive care unit. When stable 3 days later, he returned to the operating room for completion of the spinal fusion. Postoperative laboratory assays were sent that revealed elevated levels of tryptase, total IgE, porcine, and bovine gelatin-specific IgE. The patient was counseled to avoid gelatin-containing products. At 6-month follow-up, his instrumented spine was radiographically fused and he reported no further allergic issues. Anaphylaxis may occur because of animal gelatin components of topical hemostatic agents. Previous reports have focused on the thrombin components. Care should be taken in the administration of these products, particularly in the atopic individual. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The lymphoproliferative response to enzymatically digested gelatin in subjects with gelatin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, T; Nakayama, T; Kamada, M; Igarashi, C; Yuri, K; Furukawa, H; Wagatuma, K; Tsutsumi, H; Chiba, S; Kojima, H; Saito, A; Okui, T; Yano, S

    2000-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenic characteristics of enzymatically digested gelatin, 'FreAlagin', employing the lymphoproliferative response in subjects with gelatin hypersensitivity. Our purpose was to assess the response of primed lymphocytes to the newly developed FreAlagin and compare it to the response to conventional gelatin. A gelatin-specific lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) was performed in 110 children with adverse reactions to gelatin-containing vaccines, who showed positive gelatin-specific cell-mediated immunity and were thus diagnosed as having gelatin hypersensitivity. Gelatin-specific IgE was measured in all subjects. The antigenic activity of FreAlagin to lymphocytes was compared with that of conventional bovine gelatin. Positive and negative control specimens were obtained from the patients with anaphylaxis and from subjects inoculated with gelatin-free vaccine who showed no adverse reactions in order to establish the fluorometric ELISA system to determine IgE antibody to gelatin and LPT. The lymphocyte activity against FreAlagin was much less than that to Wako gelatin and more than half of the subjects who reacted positively to Wako gelatin had a negative LPT to FreAlagin. Although 47% of the subjects had positive LPTs to FreAlagin, all but two still had lower SIs to FreAlagin compared with Wako gelatin. We conclude that the antigenic activity of FreAlagin as measured by the cell-mediated immune response is significantly less than that of conventional bovine gelatin. However, it is still necessary to perform clinical trials to show a reduced or absent clinical reactivity to FreAlagin in sensitized patients to conventional gelatin.

  6. Chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite sponge dressing containing asiaticoside for wound healing and angiogenesis promotion in chronic wound.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Yodkhum, Kotchamon; Charoenteeraboon, Juree; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    There are many factors that delay healing in chronic wounds including lowering level of growth factors and increasing exudate level comprising high amount of tissue destructive enzymes. Asiaticoside possesses interesting wound healing and angiogenic activities that are employed to stimulate tissue regeneration in wound healing application. This study attempted to develop chitosan-aluminum monostearate (Alst) composite sponge containing asiaticoside for use as an absorbent medical dressing in chronic wound. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used to enhance homogeneity of asiaticoside in the polymer composite matrix. The sponge dressings were prepared by lyophilization and dehydrothermal treatment (DHT). Functional group interaction, crystallinity, and morphology of the prepared sponges were investigated using FT-IR, PXRD, and SEM, respectively. Physicochemical properties, porosity, hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and mechanical property, were evaluated. Wound dressing properties, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), fluid absorbency, oxygen permeation (OP), and bio-adhesive property, were investigated. In vitro asiaticoside release study was conducted using immersion method. Cytotoxicity was studied in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) and normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK). Angiogenic activity of asiaticoside was evaluated using chick-chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. FT-IR and PXRD results revealed the amidation after DHT to enhance the crystallinity of the prepared sponges. The prepared sponges had high porosity comprising high Alst-loaded amount that exhibited more compact structure. Alst enhanced hydrophobicity therefore it reduced the fluid absorption and WVTR together with bio-adhesion of the prepared sponge dressings. Porosity of all sponges was more than 85% therefore resulting in their high OP. Enhancing hydrophobicity of the material by Alst and more homogeneity caused by NMP eventually retarded the asiaticoside release for 7 days. The

  7. Laser damage threshold of gelatin and a copper phthalocyanine doped gelatin optical limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, M.C.; McLean, D.G.; Sutherland, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    The authors demonstrate optical limiting in a unique guest-host system which uses neither the typical liquid or solid host. Instead, they dope a gelatin gel host with a water soluble Copper (II) phthalocyaninetetrasulfonic acid, tetrasodium salt (CuPcTs). They report on the gelatin`s viscoelasticity, laser damage threshold, and self healing of this damage. The viscoelastic gelatin has mechanical properties quite different than a liquid or solid. The authors` laser measurements demonstrate that the single shot damage threshold of the undoped gelatin host increases with decreasing gelatin concentration. The gelatin also has a much higher laser damage threshold than a stiff acrylic.more » Unlike brittle solids, the soft gelatin self heals from laser induced damage. Optical limiting test also show the utility of a gelatin host doped with CuPcTs. The CuPcTs/gelatin matrix is not damaged at incident laser energies 5 times the single shot damage threshold of the gelatin host. However, at this high laser energy the CuPcTs is photo bleached at the beam waist. The authors repair photo bleached sites by annealing the CuPcTs/gelatin matrix.« less

  8. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Paco

    2016-04-01

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research.

  10. Diaminopropionic Acid Reinforced Graphene Sponge and Its Use for Hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Kecheng; Li, Guofeng; Tao, Lei; Xie, Qian; Yuan, Qipeng; Wang, Xing

    2016-03-01

    2,3-Diaminopropionic acid (DapA), a medicinal amino acid, is used for the first time to prepare a DapA cross-linked graphene sponge (DCGS) for hemostasis treatment. In a comparison with the reported ethanediamine (EDA) cross-linked graphene sponge (CGS), this carboxyl-functionalized DCGS can not only quickly absorb plasma, but also stimulate erythrocytes and platelets to change their normal form and structure at the interface, which largely affects a cell's metabolism and biofunction, thus further promoting blood coagulation. Whole blood clotting and rat-tail amputation tests indicated that on the basis of the additional interfacial stimulation, the hemostatic efficiency of the DCGS has been significantly improved in comparison with that of the CGS control (P < 0.05). In-depth insight revealed that the increased oxidation degree and the negative charge density play the crucial rule in the enhanced hemostatic performance. The chiral effect contributes mainly to the selective adhesion of erythrocytes and platelets rather than practical hemostasis. Nevertheless, this presentation demonstrated that, on the premise of keeping the fast absorbability, this is an effective method to improve the hemostatic efficiency by enhancing the cell/graphene interface interaction.

  11. UV-responsive nano-sponge for oil absorption and desorption

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jung, Min Chan; Cho, So-Hye; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Heon Ju; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2015-01-01

    Controlled surface wettability for oil has been intensively studied to remove industrial oil waste or oil spill pollution from seas or rivers. In particular, external stimuli-induced special wetting materials, such as photo-responsive TiO2, have attracted considerable attention for oil-water separation. In this study, a novel method is reported to fabricate a nano-sponge which is composed of hydrophobic hydrocarbon and hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles for oil absorption or desorption that are responsive to UV irradiation. The hydrocarbon in the nano-sponge could selectively absorb oil from water, whereas the absorbed oil is released into the water by TiO2 in response to UV irradiation. The nano-sponge functionalized porous polydimethylsiloxane released more than 98% of the absorbed crude oil with UV irradiation and air-bubbling. It could be continuously reused while maintaining a high absorption capacity and desorption efficiency without incurring secondary air or water pollution. This smart oil absorption/desorption methodology with excellent selectivity and recyclability with almost perfect removal of absorbed oil can be applied for oil-water separation, oil spill cleanup and reuse of spilled oil. PMID:26260470

  12. Panel Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MECHEL, F. P.

    2001-11-01

    A plane wave is incident on a simply supported elastic plate covering a back volume; the arrangement is surrounded by a hard baffle wall. The plate may be porous with a flow friction resistance; the back volume may be filled either with air or with a porous material. The back volume may be bulk reacting (i.e., with sound propagation parallel to the plate) or locally reacting. Since this arrangement is of some importance in room acoustics, Cremer in his book about room acoustics [1] has presented an approximate analysis. However, Cremer's analysis uses a number of assumptions which make his solution, in his own estimate, unsuited for low frequencies, where, on the other hand, the arrangement mainly is applied. This paper presents a sound field description which uses modal analysis. It is applicable not only in the far field, but also near the absorber. Further, approximate solutions are derived, based on simplifying assumptions like Cremer has used. The modal analysis solution is of interest not only as a reference for approximations but also for practical applications, because the aspect of computing time becomes more and more unimportant (the 3D-plots presented below for the sound field were evaluated with modal analysis in about 6 s).

  13. The development of a novel wound healing material, silk-elastin sponge.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shingo; Kawai, Katsuya; Somamoto, Satoshi; Noda, Kazuo; Matsuura, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2017-12-01

    Silk-elastin is a recombinant protein polymer with repeating units of silk and elastin blocks. This novel wound healing promoting material has the ability to self-assemble from a liquid to a gel. We have already reported that an aqueous solution of silk-elastin has the potential to accelerate wound healing; however, there are several problems in applying silk-elastin in the clinical setting. To solve these problems, we developed a silk-elastin sponge that is easy to use in the clinical setting. In the present study, we examined whether the wound healing effect of the silk-elastin sponge is equal to the aqueous solution of silk-elastin in vivo. The granulation tissue formation promoting effect of the silk-elastin sponge was equal to that of the aqueous solution the silk-elastin, as after application to the wound surface, the sponge was absorbed and dissolved by the exudate. At body temperature the silk-elastin then formed temperature gel. The silk-elastin gel that was obtained contained abundant cytokines from the exudate. We believe that silk-elastin sponge can be applied to various wounds that are difficult to treat with the aqueous solution.

  14. Study of gelatin supplemented diet on amino acid homeostasis in the horse.

    PubMed

    Coenen, M; Appelt, K; Niemeyer, A; Vervuert, I

    2006-08-01

    Gelatin supplementation is a common measure in an attempt to assist cartilage repair, but little scientific evidence exists to support its efficacy. To investigate the effects of gelatin administration on post prandial homeostasis. Twelve Standardbred horses (mean 404 kg bwt) were fed a hay-concentrate diet supplemented by soy bean meal and oil (control [C], n = 6) or with the addition of 60 g gelatin/day (G, n = 6). The horses were trained by an alternate order of interval and prolonged exercise every second day. The velocities of the treadmill corresponding to 2 and 10 mmol lactate/l blood were derived from lactate curves during a standardised exercise test at the start and middle of the 64 day training period. Blood samples for amino acid analysis were obtained weekly at rest (2 h post prandial). In the second part of the training period, a post prandial sampling was conducted on a day without exercise (prior feeding up to 8 h post prandial). Plasma free amino acids (AA) were determined by HPLC. The change from pre- to the training diet induced an increase in many AA during the total training period. At rest free glycine and proline in blood increased with gelatin supplementation during 7 days after the start of supplementation. The AA in plasma showed a post prandial curve with peak concentrations 2-3 h after feeding. Significant post prandial effects of gelatin intake were detectable for glycine, proline and arginine. The AA from gelatin are absorbed quickly and become available for AA metabolism. It is evident that in the horse, gelatin influences the homeostasis of those amino acids required for cartilage synthesis. Further research is needed to elucidate the utilisation of those amino acids for the prevention or repair of cartilage damage.

  15. Surface modification of melamine sponges for pH-responsive oil absorption and desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhiwen; Zhang, Guangzhao; Deng, Yonghong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2017-09-01

    Inspired by the development of smart oil/water separation materials, a pH responsive melamine sponge has been obtained by grafting poly (4-vinylpyridine) on the skeleton surface through atom transfer radical polymerization. Through scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the successful grafting of poly (4-vinylprridine) onto the melamine sponge has been confirmed. When contacting with different pH water droplets in air, the as-prepared product shows excellent switchable wettability between super-hydrophilicity (0°) and highly hydrophobicity (135°). Meanwhile, this responsive sponge also exhibits super-hydrophilic/oleophobic property underwater at pH = 1.0, and highly hydrophobic/super-oleophilic property in neutral solution at pH = 7.0. Furthermore, the excellent responsiveness is remained after five cycle water contact angle tests between two different pH stages at pH 1.0 and 7.0. The modified melamine sponges could not only absorb the oil from the oily water at pH = 7.0, but also quickly release the absorbed oil underwater at pH = 1.0 without leaving any residues and hurting the environment nearly, showing a good potential in controlled oil/water separation and oil recovery.

  16. Novel fabrication of a robust superhydrophobic PU@ZnO@Fe3O4@SA sponge and its application in oil-water separations.

    PubMed

    Tran, Viet-Ha Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-12-13

    We report a novel superhydrophobic material based on commercially available polyurethane (PU) sponge with high porosity, low density and good elasticity. The fabrication of a superhydrophobic sponge capable of efficiently separating oil from water was achieved by imitating or mimicking nature's designs. The original PU sponge was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO), stearic acid (SA) and iron oxide particles (Fe 3 O 4 ) via a facile and environmentally friendly method. After each treatment, the properties of the modified sponge were characterized, and the changes in wettability were examined. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements confirmed the excellent superhydrophobicity of the material withhigh static WCA of 161° andlow dynamic WCA (sliding WCA of 7° and shedding WCA of 8°). The fabricated sponge showed high efficiency in separation (over 99%) of different oils from water. Additionally, the fabricated PU@ZnO@Fe 3 O 4 @SA sponge could be magnetically guided to quickly absorb oil floating on the water surface. Moreover, the fabricated sponge showed excellent stability and reusability in terms of superhydrophobicity and oil absorption capacity. The durable, magnetic and superhydrophobic properties of the fabricated sponge render it applicable to the cleanup of marine oil spills and other oil-water separation issues, with eco-friendly recovery of the oil by simple squeezing process.

  17. Resistance of dichromated gelatin as photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pang; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wu, Minxian

    1999-09-01

    Based on the photographic chemistry, chemically hardening method was selected to enhance the anti-etch capability of gelatin. With the consideration of hardener and permeating processing, formaldehyde is the most ideal option due to the smallest molecule size and covalent cross-link with gelatin. After hardened in formaldehyde, the resistance of the gelatin was obtained by etched in 1% HF solution. The result showed that anti-etch capability of the gelatin layer increased with tanning time, but the increasing rate reduced gradually and tended to saturation. Based on the experimental results, dissolving-flaking hypothesis for chemically hardening gelatin was presented. Sol-gel coatings were etched with 1% HF solution. Compared with the etching rate of gelatin layer, it showed that gelatin could be used as resist to fabricate optical elements in sol-gel coating. With the cleaving-etch method and hardening of dichromated gelatin (DCG), DCG was used as a photoresist for fabricating sol-gel optical elements. As an application, a sol-gel random phase plate was fabricated.

  18. Ultralight Fe@C Nanocapsules/Sponge Composite with Reversibly Tunable Microwave Absorption Performances.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixing; Mao, Zhe; Liu, Rongge; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yanhui; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Xuefeng

    2017-08-11

    Microwave absorbers are usually designed to solve electromagnetic interferences at a specific frequency, while the requirements may be dynamic during service life. Therefore, a recoverable tuning for microwave absorption properties in response to an external stimulus would be highly desirable. We herein present a micro/nano-scale hybrid absorber, in which high-performance Fe@C nanocapsule absorbents are integrated with a porous melamine sponge skeleton, exhibiting multiple merits of light weight, strong absorption and high elasticity. By mechanically compressing and decompressing the absorber, microwave absorption performances can be effectively shifted between 18 GHz and 26.5 GHz. The present study thus provides a new strategy for the design of a 'dynamic' microwave absorber.

  19. Ultralight Fe@C Nanocapsules/Sponge Composite with Reversibly Tunable Microwave Absorption Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixing; Mao, Zhe; Liu, Rongge; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yanhui; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Xuefeng

    2017-08-01

    Microwave absorbers are usually designed to solve electromagnetic interferences at a specific frequency, while the requirements may be dynamic during service life. Therefore, a recoverable tuning for microwave absorption properties in response to an external stimulus would be highly desirable. We herein present a micro/nano-scale hybrid absorber, in which high-performance Fe@C nanocapsule absorbents are integrated with a porous melamine sponge skeleton, exhibiting multiple merits of light weight, strong absorption and high elasticity. By mechanically compressing and decompressing the absorber, microwave absorption performances can be effectively shifted between 18 GHz and 26.5 GHz. The present study thus provides a new strategy for the design of a ‘dynamic’ microwave absorber.

  20. Competitive interactions between sponge-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Ana I S; Cullen, Alescia; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    The diversity of the microbial communities associated with marine sponges has been extensively studied, but their functioning and interactions within the sponge holobiont are only recently being appreciated. Sponge-associated microorganisms are known for the production of a range of inhibitory metabolites with biotechnological application, but the ecological role that these compounds remains elusive. In this work, we explore the competitive interactions between cultivated sponge-associated bacteria to inspect whether bacteria that produce antimicrobial activities are able to inhibit potentially pathogenic bacteria. We isolated a Bacillus sp. bacterium with sponge-degrading activity, which likely has a negative impact on the host. This bacterium, along with other sponge isolates from the same genus, was found to be inhibited by a subpopulation of closely related sponge-derived Pseudovibrio spp. In some Pseudovibrio strains, these inhibitory activities were correlated with the genetic capacity to produce polyketides, such as erythronolide. Our observations suggest that antagonistic activities likely influence the composition of the sponge microbiome, including the abundance of bacteria that can be harmful to the host. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.; Kneisel, P.

    1995-12-26

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area. 4 figs.

  2. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati R.; Kneisel, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area.

  3. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin.

    PubMed

    Aykin-Dinçer, E; Koç, A; Erbas, M

    2017-09-01

    Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P < 0.01). The differences in physical properties between the broiler and commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. The Material Properties of Gelatin Gels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Since the gelatin gel is soluble in water, a seare’h was conducted to find a liquid that would be totally inert to the gel, and that had a dei,sity less...amount of foam removed from a gelatin batch. For example, in the 0.0% gelatin p-paration, 43g of foam was recovered out of a total of of water *.id...indeed, some hakples appeared totally unchanged iafter 75 dtas ale the container. Another particular container had only gtwo aplea on the lower level

  5. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gelatin coated electrodes allow prolonged bioelectronic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Silver electrodes treated with an anodizing electrolyte containing gelatin are used for long term monitoring of bioelectronic potentials in humans. The electrodes do not interact with perspiration, cause skin irritation, or promote the growth of bacteria.

  7. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each 100 milliliters contains 8 grams of gelatin in a 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 054771 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. The exact...

  8. Preparation and oil absorption properties of magnetic melamine sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, LUO; Jia-qi, HU; Na, LV

    2017-12-01

    The magnetic melamine sponge (MS-Fe3O4) with magnetic response and high hydrophobicity was fabricated by two-step method. First, the magnetic nano-particles were fixed on the skeleton of melamine sponge (MS) using 3-hydroxytyramine hydrochloride and 1-dodecanethiol, then hydrophobicity modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). The structures and chemical compositions of MS and MS-Fe3O4 were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wettability of the sample was obtained by using contact angle analysis system. MS-Fe3O4 endowed with outstanding selectivity and excellent oil absorption capacities, which can be widely used in absorbing various sorts of oil. The oil absorption capacities for crude oil, diesel oil, lubricating oil, soybean oil and peanut oil were 71g/g, 51g/g, 62g/g, 54g/g, 57g/g. In addition, MS-Fe3O4 showed excellent recyclability which can be forecasted as an ideal candidate for oil-water separation.

  9. Gelatin as Biomaterial for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Echave, Mari C; Saenz del Burgo, Laura; Pedraz, Jose L; Orive, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering is considered one of the most important therapeutic strategies of regenerative medicine. The main objective of these new technologies is the development of substitutes made with biomaterials that are able to heal, repair or regenerate injured or diseased tissues and organs. These constructs seek to unlock the limited ability of human tissues and organs to regenerate. In this review, we highlight the convenient intrinsic properties of gelatin for the design and development of advanced systems for tissue engineering. Gelatin is a natural origin protein derived from collagen hydrolysis. We outline herein a state of the art of gelatin-based composites in order to overcome limitations of this polymeric material and modulate the properties of the formulations. Control release of bioactive molecules, formulations with conductive properties or systems with improved mechanical properties can be obtained using gelatin composites. Many studies have found that the use of calcium phosphate ceramics and diverse synthetic polymers in combination with gelatin improve the mechanical properties of the structures. On the other hand, polyaniline and carbon-based nanosubstrates are interesting molecules to provide gelatin-based systems with conductive properties, especially for cardiac and nerve tissue engineering. Finally, this review provides an overview of the different types of gelatin-based structures including nanoparticles, microparticles, 3D scaffolds, electrospun nanofibers and in situ gelling formulations. Thanks to the significant progress that has already been made, along with others that will be achieved in a near future, the safe and effective clinical implementation of gelatin-based products is expected to accelerate and expand shortly. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Anaphylaxis to gelatin-containing rectal suppositories.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S

    2001-12-01

    Some children--though the number is few-have been sensitized with gelatin. To investigate the relationship between the presence of antigelatin IgE and anaphylaxis to gelatin-containing rectal suppository, we measured antigelatin IgE in the sera of the children with anaphylaxis. Ten children showed systemic allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, to a chloral hydrate rectal suppository containing gelatin (231 mg/dose) that had been used as a sedative. These children's clinical histories and serum samples were submitted from physicians to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases during a 2-year period from 1996 to 1997. Of the 10 children, 5 showed apparent anaphylaxis, including hypotension and/or cyanosis, along with urticaria or wheezing; 2 showed both urticaria and wheezing without hypotension or cyanosis; the other 3 showed only urticaria. All of the children had antigelatin IgE (mean value +/- SD, 7.9 +/- 8.4 Ua/mL). As a control, samples from 250 randomly selected children had no antigelatin IgE. These findings suggest that the 10 children's systemic allergic reactions to this suppository were caused by the gelatin component. Gelatin-containing suppositories must be used with the same caution as gelatin-containing vaccines and other medications.

  11. Magnetic sponge prepared with an alkanedithiol-bridged network of nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Akira; Takai, Kazuyuki; Sivamurugan, Vajiravelu; Maeno, Takashi; Kadono, Takeshi; Kitano, Masaaki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Naotake; Hara, Michikazu; Valiyaveettil, Suresh; Enoki, Toshiaki

    2011-08-03

    The magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between nanomagnets having huge magnetic moments can have a strength comparable to that of the van der Waals interaction between them, and it can be manipulated by applying an external magnetic field of conventional strength. Therefore, the cooperation between the dipole-dipole interaction and the applied magnetic field allows the magnetic moments of nanomagnets to be aligned and organized in an ordered manner. In this work, a network of magnetic nanoparticles connected with flexible long-alkyl-chain linkers was designed to develop a "magnetic sponge" capable of absorbing and desorbing guest molecules with changes in the applied magnetic field. The magnetization of the sponge with long-alkyl-chain bridges (30 C atoms) exhibited a 500% increase after cooling in the presence of an applied field of 7 T relative to that in the absence of a magnetic field. Cooling in a magnetic field leads to anisotropic stretching in the sponge due to reorganization of the nanomagnets along the applied field, in contrast to the isotropic organization under zero-field conditions. Such magnetic-responsive organization and reorganization of the magnetic particle network significantly influences the gas absorption capacity of the nanopores inside the material. The absorption and desorption of guests in an applied magnetic field at low temperature can be regarded as a fascinating "breathing feature" of our magnetic sponge.

  12. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Absorbable Antimicrobial Battlefield Hemostat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    to graphene sheet and carbon nanotubes . Coupled with ABTS, the GQDs can be used for the detection of hydrogen peroxide with the limit of detection......dressing could be made of any material that is compatible to our coating solvent. Examples include gelatin based and cellulose based substrates. The

  14. Dextran and gelatin based photocrosslinkable tissue adhesive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Nie, Jun; Yang, Dongzhi

    2012-11-06

    A two-component tissue adhesive based on biocompatible and bio-degradable polymers (oxidized urethane dextran (Dex-U-AD) and gelatin) was prepared and photocrosslinked under the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The adhesive could adhere to surface of gelatin, which simulated the human tissue steadily. The structures of above Dex-U-AD were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and XRD. The adhesion property of result products was evaluated by lap-shear test. The maximum adhesion strength could reach to 4.16±0.72 MPa which was significantly higher than that of fibrin glue. The photopolymerization process of Dex-U-AD/gelatin was monitored by real time infrared spectroscopy (RTIR). It took less than 5 min to complete the curing process. The cytotoxicity of Dex-U-AD/gelatin also was evaluated which indicated that Dex-U-AD/gelatin gels were nontoxic to L929 cell. The relationship between all the above-mentioned properties and degree of oxidization of Dex-U-AD was assessed. The obtained products have the potential to serve as tissue adhesive in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the Absolute Configuration of the Pseudo-Symmetric Natural Product Elatenyne by the Crystalline Sponge Method.

    PubMed

    Urban, Sylvia; Brkljača, Robert; Hoshino, Manabu; Lee, Shoukou; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-02-18

    Elatenyne is a marine natural product that was isolated in 1986. Despite its simple 2,2'-bifuranyl backbone, its relative structure was only recently determined. The absolute configuration of elatenyne has still not been unequivocally confirmed because of its pseudo-meso core structure, which results in a specific rotation, [α]D  , of almost zero. In this work, the structure of natural elatenyne was determined by the crystalline sponge method and the use of a porous coordination network (a crystalline sponge) capable of absorbing organic guests; in the sponge, the absorbed guests are ordered and crystallographically observable. The crystalline sponge could differentiate between the two very similar alkyl side chains, and the absolute structure of elatenyne was thus reliably determined. The total amount required for the experiments was only approximately 100 μg, and the majority (95 μg) could be recovered after the experiments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. GELATIN CARRIERS FOR DRUG AND CELL DELIVERY IN TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Marco; Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of gelatin to form complexes with different drugs has been investigated for controlled release applications. Gelatin parameters, such as crosslinking density and isoelectric point, have been tuned in order to optimize gelatin degradation and drug delivery kinetics. In recent years, focus has shifted away from the use of gelatin in isolation towards the modification of gelatin with functional groups and the fabrication of material composites with embedded gelatin carriers. In this review, we highlight some of the latest work being performed in these areas and comment on trends in the field. Specifically, we discuss gelatin modifications for immune system evasion, drug stabilization, and targeted delivery, as well as gelatin composite systems based on ceramics, naturally-occurring polymers, and synthetic polymers. PMID:24746627

  17. Application of thermal model for pan evaporation to the hydrology of a defined medium, the sponge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H.; Artley, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A technique is presented which estimates pan evaporation from the commonly observed values of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. These two variables are transformed to saturation vapor pressure equivalents which are used in a simple linear regression model. The model provides reasonably accurate estimates of pan evaporation rates over a large geographic area. The derived evaporation algorithm is combined with precipitation to obtain a simple moisture variable. A hypothetical medium with a capacity of 8 inches of water is initialized at 4 inches. The medium behaves like a sponge: it absorbs all incident precipitation, with runoff or drainage occurring only after it is saturated. Water is lost from this simple system through evaporation just as from a Class A pan, but at a rate proportional to its degree of saturation. The contents of the sponge is a moisture index calculated from only the maximum and minium temperatures and precipitation.

  18. Environmental Shaping of Sponge Associated Archaeal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Aline S.; Batista, Daniela; Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Martins, Orlando B.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Background Archaea are ubiquitous symbionts of marine sponges but their ecological roles and the influence of environmental factors on these associations are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the diversity and composition of archaea associated with seawater and with the sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila, Paraleucilla magna and Petromica citrina in two distinct environments: Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the nearby Cagarras Archipelago. For this we used metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene libraries. Hymeniacidon heliophila was more abundant inside the bay, while P. magna was more abundant outside and P. citrina was only recorded at the Cagarras Archipelago. Principal Component Analysis plots (PCA) generated using pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the archaeal community structure of inner bay seawater and sponges was different from that of coastal Cagarras Archipelago. Rarefaction analyses showed that inner bay archaeaoplankton were more diverse than those from the Cagarras Archipelago. Only members of Crenarchaeota were found in sponge libraries, while in seawater both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were observed. Although most amoA archaeal genes detected in this study seem to be novel, some clones were affiliated to known ammonia oxidizers such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum. Conclusion/Significance The composition and diversity of archaeal communities associated with pollution-tolerant sponge species can change in a range of few kilometers, probably influenced by eutrophication. The presence of archaeal amoA genes in Porifera suggests that Archaea are involved in the nitrogen cycle within the sponge holobiont, possibly increasing its resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The higher diversity of Crenarchaeota in the polluted area suggests that some marine sponges are able to change the composition of their associated

  19. Development of electrospun beaded fibers from Thai silk fibroin and gelatin for controlled release application.

    PubMed

    Somvipart, Siraporn; Kanokpanont, Sorada; Rangkupan, Rattapol; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn

    2013-04-01

    Thai silk fibroin and gelatin are attractive biomaterials for tissue engineering and controlled release applications due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactive properties. The development of electrospun fiber mats from silk fibroin and gelatin were reported previously. However, burst drug release from such fiber mats remained the problem. In this study, the formation of beads on the fibers aiming to be used for the sustained release of drug was of our interest. The beaded fiber mats were fabricated using electrospinning technique by controlling the solution concentration, weight blending ratio of Thai silk fibroin/gelatin blend, and applied voltage. It was found that the optimal conditions including the solution concentration and the weight blending ratio of Thai silk fibroin/gelatin at 8-10% (w/v) and 70/30, respectively, with the applied voltage at 18 kV provided the fibers with homogeneous formation of beads. Then, the beaded fiber mats obtained were crosslinked by the reaction of carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Methylene blue as a model active compound was loaded on the fiber mats. The release test of methylene blue from the beaded fiber mats was carried out in comparison to that of the smooth fiber mats without beads. It was found that the beaded fiber mats could prolong the release of methylene blue, comparing to the smooth fiber mats without beads. This was possibly due to the beaded fiber mats that would absorb and retain higher amount of methylene blue than the fiber mats without beads. Thai silk fibroin/gelatin beaded fiber mats were established as an effective carrier for the controlled release applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Urticaria following varicella vaccine associated with gelatin allergy.

    PubMed

    Singer, S; Johnson, C E; Mohr, R; Holowecky, C

    1999-01-28

    An uncommon reaction to varicella vaccine has been urticaria. Based on two reports of urticaria believed to be due to gelatin in recipients of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, we suspected gelatin as the cause of generalized urticaria in two children after varicella vaccination. Intradermal testing with gelatin yielded a wheal and flare reaction in both children. We conclude that children known to be allergic to gelatin should not receive Oka/Merck varicella vaccine (VARIVAX).

  1. Physicochemical and functional properties of gelatin extracted from Yak skin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengqi; Wei, Lixin; Xiao, Yuancan; Bi, Hongtao; Yang, Hongxia; Du, Yuzhi

    2017-02-01

    Different molecular weight distribution (MWD) gelatin was extracted from Yak skin after enzymatic pretreatments and their physicochemical and functional properties (SDS-PAGE, UV-vis absorption spectra, DSC, FT-IR, Amino acid analysis, AFM, emulsibility and foamability) were analyzed. The gelatin was extracted by pepsin and got different MWD of Yak skin gelatin by controlling the enzymolysis time. The SDS-PAGE showed the MWD of the Yak skin gelatin. The UV-vis absorption turned out that the broad MWD of Yak skin gelatin had a higher maximum absorption peaks. The FT-IR and AFM indicated that the gelatin structures and microstructures changed with the change of the MWD. The broad MWD of the Yak skin gelatin had a higher denaturation temperature (T D ), and it was higher than most of the other mammals and marine biological gelatin. The broad MWD gelatin also had higher imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) contents and lower foamability and emulsibility compared to the narrow MWD gelatin. These findings, obtained for the first time for Yak skin gelatin, showed that it has great potential for application as an alternative to commercial gelatin due to its good thermotolerance, particularly in the applications of the biological materials, stabilizer of thermo-tolerant and so on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electro-Responsive Behaviour Multi-Wall Nanotubes/Gelatin Composites and Cross-Linked Gelatin Electrospun Mats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-11

    sample , could explain large swelling in blend samples which might enhance ions diffusion and lead to an increase of bending. 21 References [1...1 Final Report on Electro-responsive behaviour multi-wall nanotubes/gelatin composites and cross-linked gelatin electrospun mats...12-10-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electro-responsive behaviour multi-wall nanotubes/gelatin composites and cross-linked gelatin electrospun mats

  3. Comparison of artificial absorbing boundaries for acoustic wave equation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingjie; Song, Hanjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Absorbing boundary conditions are necessary in numerical simulation for reducing the artificial reflections from model boundaries. In this paper, we overview the most important and typical absorbing boundary conditions developed throughout history. We first derive the wave equations of similar methods in unified forms; then, we compare their absorbing performance via theoretical analyses and numerical experiments. The Higdon boundary condition is shown to be the best one among the three main absorbing boundary conditions that are based on a one-way wave equation. The Clayton and Engquist boundary is a special case of the Higdon boundary but has difficulty in dealing with the corner points in implementaion. The Reynolds boundary does not have this problem but its absorbing performance is the poorest among these three methods. The sponge boundary has difficulties in determining the optimal parameters in advance and too many layers are required to achieve a good enough absorbing performance. The hybrid absorbing boundary condition (hybrid ABC) has a better absorbing performance than the Higdon boundary does; however, it is still less efficient for absorbing nearly grazing waves since it is based on the one-way wave equation. In contrast, the perfectly matched layer (PML) can perform much better using a few layers. For example, the 10-layer PML would perform well for absorbing most reflected waves except the nearly grazing incident waves. The 20-layer PML is suggested for most practical applications. For nearly grazing incident waves, convolutional PML shows superiority over the PML when the source is close to the boundary for large-scale models. The Higdon boundary and hybrid ABC are preferred when the computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is not required, such as migration and migration velocity analyses, since they are not as sensitive to the amplitude errors as the full waveform inversion.

  4. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  5. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  6. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  7. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  8. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  9. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  10. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  11. Think like a sponge: The genetic signal of sensory cells in sponges.

    PubMed

    Mah, Jasmine L; Leys, Sally P

    2017-11-01

    A complex genetic repertoire underlies the apparently simple body plan of sponges. Among the genes present in poriferans are those fundamental to the sensory and nervous systems of other animals. Sponges are dynamic and sensitive animals and it is intuitive to link these genes to behaviour. The proposal that ctenophores are the earliest diverging metazoan has led to the question of whether sponges possess a 'pre-nervous' system or have undergone nervous system loss. Both lines of thought generally assume that the last common ancestor of sponges and eumetazoans possessed the genetic modules that underlie sensory abilities. By corollary extant sponges may possess a sensory cell homologous to one present in the last common ancestor, a hypothesis that has been studied by gene expression. We have performed a meta-analysis of all gene expression studies published to date to explore whether gene expression is indicative of a feature's sensory function. In sponges we find that eumetazoan sensory-neural markers are not particularly expressed in structures with known sensory functions. Instead it is common for these genes to be expressed in cells with no known or uncharacterized sensory function. Indeed, many sensory-neural markers so far studied are expressed during development, perhaps because many are transcription factors. This suggests that the genetic signal of a sponge sensory cell is dissimilar enough to be unrecognizable when compared to a bilaterian sensory or neural cell. It is possible that sensory-neural markers have as yet unknown functions in sponge cells, such as assembling an immunological synapse in the larval globular cell. Furthermore, the expression of sensory-neural markers in non-sensory cells, such as adult and larval epithelial cells, suggest that these cells may have uncharacterized sensory functions. While this does not rule out the co-option of ancestral sensory modules in later evolving groups, a distinct genetic foundation may underlie the

  12. Gelatin-induced T-cell activation in children with nonanaphylactic-type reactions to vaccines containing gelatin.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, K; Fujisawa, T; Ihara, T; Kamiya, H

    1998-12-01

    Many cases of anaphylactic or nonanaphylactic reactions have been reported to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine or its component vaccines that contain gelatin as a stabilizer. Increased levels of specific IgE antibodies to gelatin have been reported in children with anaphylactic reactions. However, IgE is not increased in cases of nonanaphylactic reaction, and the mechanisms of the reaction are still controversial. The study was aimed to elucidate the relationship between nonanaphylactic reaction and gelatin. We investigated in vitro induction of activated memory helper T cells (CD4(+ )CD25(+ )CD45RO+ cells) in response to gelatin in children with nonanaphylactic reactions to vaccines containing gelatin. In patients with delayed-type sensitivity to gelatin confirmed with a positive skin test response, CD4(+ )CD25(+ )CD45RO+ cells were significantly more strongly induced in culture containing gelatin than in control cultures. However, there was no significant difference between cultures with gelatin and those with control solvent in patients without reactions after vaccination. Of 76 patients with nonanaphylactic reactions after immunization with vaccine containing gelatin, 61 had an increased lymphocyte stimulation index to gelatin versus control children. These results suggest the possibility that nonanaphylactic reactions to gelatin-containing vaccine in Japan might be mediated by delayed hypersensitivity reactions against gelatin.

  13. Facile synthesis of a two-tier hierarchical structured superhydrophobic-superoleophilic melamine sponge for rapid and efficient oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiucun; You, Hui; Xu, Liqun; Li, Tianhao; Jiang, Xianquan; Li, Chang Ming

    2017-11-15

    Oil leakages often cause fatal disasters for environmental pollution but an efficient treatment of the oil spills is still very challenging. Sponge-substrates with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity have been attracted much attention for oil/water separation. In this study, an inexpensive commercial melamine sponge was chemically modified for the uses of oil spills treatment by oil/water separation. Inspiring from the superhydrophobic property of lotus leaf, pyrrole was polymerized by a simple vapor-phase deposition to encapsulate the raw melamine-formaldehyde (MF) sponge. The as-formed thin polypyrrole walls were utilized as reducing reagent to generate Ag nanoparticles on the capsuled sponge. Accordingly, a superhydrophobic melamine sponge with a two-tier hierarchical structure was achieved after fluorination, and this material was applied to absorb oil from water. The absorption capacity, absorption rate and recyclability were investigated. This superhydrophobic sponge exhibited an efficient and fast oil/water separation performance in complicated environment and could be applied in industrial production because of its low cost and simple fabrication procedure. This study presents a facile strategy for the fabrication of efficient oil sorbents based on a two-tier hierarchical structure, providing a novel means for the upgrading of engineered sorption materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Fromont, Jane; Brümmer, Franz; Usher, Kayley M

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA) with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide range of sponges in a wide range

  15. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Friederike; Røy, Hans; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute; Pfannkuchen, Martin; Brümmer, Franz; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba specimens with Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes (tip diameters 18-30 μm). Total oxygen consumption rates of whole sponges were measured in closed chambers. These rates were used to back-calculate the oxygen distribution in a finite-element model. Combining direct measurements with calculations of diffusive flux and modeling revealed that the tissue of non-pumping sponges turns anoxic within 15 min, with the exception of a 1 mm surface layer where oxygen intrudes due to molecular diffusion over the sponge surface. Molecular diffusion is the only transport mechanism for oxygen into non-pumping sponges, which allows total oxygen consumption rates of 6-12 μmol cm -3  sponge day -1 . Sponges of different sizes had similar diffusional uptake rates, which is explained by their similar surface/volume ratios. In pumping sponges, oxygen consumption rates were between 22 and 37 μmol cm -3  sponge day -1 , and the entire tissue was oxygenated. Combining different approaches of direct oxygen measurement in living sponges with a dynamic model, we can show that tissue anoxia is a direct function of the pumping behavior. The sponge-microbe system of A. aerophoba thus has the possibility to switch actively between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism by stopping the water flow for more than 15 min. These periods of anoxia will greatly influence physiological variety and activity of the sponge microbes. Detailed knowledge about the varying chemical microenvironments in sponges will help to develop protocols to cultivate sponge-associated microbial lineages and improve our understanding of the sponge-microbe-system.

  16. Sustainable use of marine resources: cultivation of sponges.

    PubMed

    Brümmer, F; Nickel, M

    2003-01-01

    Among all metazoan phyla, sponges are known to produce the largest number of bioactive compounds, some of them metabolites with human therapeutic value. Therefore, an increasing interest in basic cell biology research up to biochemical engineering can be observed aiming at the production of sponge metabolites under completely controlled conditions. One major obstacle is the limited availability of larger quantities of defined sponge material--the so-called supply problem. In this chapter, different approaches used so far for producing sponge biomass by in situ aquaculture as well as some significant progress in the maintenance of sponges in aquaria are reviewed. These approaches are mainly based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges as well as on experience in maintaining sponges in public aquaria and on the usage of artificial substrates for a natural-like colonization structure. In recent years, great efforts have been made to set up in vitro culture systems for the cultivation of sponge cells. One of the major advantages of cell cultures is the possibility to control and manipulate the cultivation conditions depending on the sponge species and the target metabolite. Up to now, monolayer cultures of dissociated sponge cells have been shown in a few cases to produce the desired product. However, to date, no continuously growing sponge cell line has been established. Organotypic culture systems, which maintain or mimic the natural tissue structure, have been developed in recent years and demonstrate a promising way towards the biotechnology of sponges. Successful attempts to produce sponge metabolites using the three-dimensional growing primmorphs are given. The use of sponge fragments, another three-dimensional approach, has reappeared and has also been successfully used as an in vitro approach as well as for the biotechnological production of boreal sponge tissue.

  17. Rifle bullet penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Jin, Yongxi; Batra, R C

    2017-03-01

    The penetration of a rifle bullet into a block of ballistic gelatin is experimentally and computationally studied for enhancing our understanding of the damage caused to human soft tissues. The gelatin is modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous elastic-plastic linearly strain-hardening material that obeys a polynomial equation of state. Effects of numerical uncertainties on penetration characteristics are found by repeating simulations with minute variations in the impact speed and the angle of attack. The temporary cavity formed in the gelatin and seen in pictures taken by two high speed cameras is found to compare well with the computed one. The computed time histories of the hydrostatic pressure at points situated 60 mm above the line of impact are found to have "two peaks", one due to the bullet impact and the other due to the bullet tumbling. Contours of the von Mises stress and of the effective plastic strain in the gelatin block imply that a very small region adjacent to the cavity surface is plastically deformed. The angle of attack is found to noticeably affect the penetration depth at the instant of the bullet tumbling through 90°. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solubilization of bovine gelatin using power ultrasound: gelation without heating.

    PubMed

    Farahnaky, Asgar; Zendeboodi, Fatemeh; Azizi, Rezvan; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of power ultrasound without using any heating stage in solubilizeing gelatin dispersions, and to characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resulting gels using texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. For solubilising gelatin, an ultrasound equipment with a frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 100% and power range of 50-150 W was used. Aqueous gelatin dispersions (4% w/v) were subjected to ultrasound for different times (40-240 s) at a constant temperature of 13C. Applying ultrasound to gelatin dispersions caused increases in water absorption and water solubility of the hydrocolloid. The textural parameters of the resulting gelatin gels, increased with increasing time and power of ultrasound. Moreover, a generalized Maxwell model with three elements was used for calculating relaxation times of the gels. The microstructural observations by SEM showed that the structural cohesiveness of the gels increased by increasing ultrasonication time. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals, food and non-food systems. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. Therefore, the use of gelatin as a hydrocolloid in food processings or pharmaceutical formulations which lack a heating step has been a technological and practical challenge. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. Ultrasound-assisted solubilisation of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals

  19. Sterilization of rotary NiTi instruments within endodontic sponges.

    PubMed

    Chan, H W A; Tan, K H; Dashper, S G; Reynolds, E C; Parashos, P

    2015-08-17

    To determine whether the following can be sterilized by autoclaving - endodontic sponges, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments within endodontic sponges, and rotary NiTi instruments with rubber stoppers. Sixty-four samples of eight different endodontic sponges (n = 512) were placed into brain heart infusion broth (BHI) for 72 h. An aliquot of this was then spread onto horse blood agar and cultured aerobically and anaerobically to test sterility at purchase. Bacterial suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in BHI were used to contaminate sterile sponges and rotary NiTi instruments (with and without rubber stoppers) inserted into sponges. The various samples were autoclaved and then cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Success of sterilization was measured qualitatively as no growth. The experiment was repeated with clinically used rotary NiTi instruments (n = 512). All experiments were conducted in quadruplicate. No sponges on purchase had microbial growth when anaerobically cultured but some did when aerobically cultured. All autoclaved sponges and instruments (within or without sponges, and with or without rubber stoppers) were associated with no microbial growth. All nonautoclaved positive control samples showed microbial growth. Autoclaving was effective in the sterilization of sponges and endodontic instruments. Endodontic sponges should be autoclaved before clinical use. For clinical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, rotary NiTi instruments can be sterilized in endodontic sponges without removal of rubber stoppers. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  1. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  2. An evaluation of sterilization of endodontic instruments in artificial sponges.

    PubMed

    Vélez, A E; Thomas, D D; del Río, C E

    1998-01-01

    The ability to sterilize endodontic files inserted into synthetic sponges was tested. Sponges were subjected to 5 cycles of either dry heat (Driclave) or steam under pressure (autoclave) sterilization. Sterilization was corroborated by microbiological tests. The sponges and files were pre-sterilized separately using steam under pressure. One hundred eighty files contaminated with Bacillus stearothermophilus spores (experimental and positive control) and 60 noncontaminated files (negative control), were inserted into 60 sponges. After each cycle, each file and a portion of sponge surrounding the file were transferred aseptically to tubes containing trypticase soy broth culture medium for bacteriological analysis. None of the tubes containing files and portions of sponges that were subjected to autoclave grew Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Two of 60 (3.33%) of the tubes that were subjected to sterilization by Driclave demonstrated bacterial growth. Although the sponges tolerated the dry heat cycles well physically, sterilization was achieved in only 96.67% of the cases.

  3. Benzene derivatives from the marine sponges Cinachyrella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham; Syah, Y. M.; Natsir, H.; Hariani Soekamto, Nunuk

    2018-03-01

    The benzene derivatives from the Spermonde Archipelago sponges Cinachyrella was isolated. 4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acid (1) from Cinachyrella australiensis, 4-methyl- benzoic acid (2) and 4-hydroxy-benzonitrile (3) from Cinachyrella sp. The structues of 1, 2, and 3 have been determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and HR-MS.

  4. The acceptance of the collagen sponge diaphragm as an intravaginal contraceptive in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chvapil, M; Heine, M W; Horton, H

    1976-12-01

    Two types of highly resilient and liquid-absorbent collagen sponge contraceptives (CSC) in the shape of cylindrical cups (6 cm wide and 2.5 cm thick) were evaluated for acceptance as an intravaginal contraceptive method for a period of 3 months in 27 volunteers. Parameters such as retention, odor, irritation, itching, discharge, and convenience for the user and her sexual partner were tested. Average retention time was 7 to 9 days (range, 2 to 28 days); still, most sexually active volunteers preferred to remove the CSC every 3 to 4 days, rinse them in tap water, and reinsert them. Odor was noticed by users in 4% of the tested sponges and in 30% of all volunteers by medical personnel at the time of removal of the CSC from the vagina. No irritation, itching, or discharge was reported. The CSC alone did not cause any inconvenience to the user or partner, while the CSC with inserted rubber ring was felt by both partners and was found to be dislocated. This study indicates good acceptance of the CSC in intravaginal use. Studies to evaluate the efficacy of collagen sponges as mechanical contraceptive barriers are in progress.

  5. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hoped to be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  6. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  7. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  8. Sponge-Associated Microorganisms: Evolution, Ecology, and Biotechnological Potential†

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael W.; Radax, Regina; Steger, Doris; Wagner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. In some cases, these microbial associates comprise as much as 40% of the sponge volume and can contribute significantly to host metabolism (e.g., via photosynthesis or nitrogen fixation). We review in detail the diversity of microbes associated with sponges, including extensive 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses which support the previously suggested existence of a sponge-specific microbiota. These analyses provide a suitable vantage point from which to consider the potential evolutionary and ecological ramifications of these widespread, sponge-specific microorganisms. Subsequently, we examine the ecology of sponge-microbe associations, including the establishment and maintenance of these sometimes intimate partnerships, the varied nature of the interactions (ranging from mutualism to host-pathogen relationships), and the broad-scale patterns of symbiont distribution. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sponge-microbe associations is mirrored by their enormous biotechnological potential: marine sponges are among the animal kingdom's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, and in at least some cases, the compounds are of microbial rather than sponge origin. We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations. PMID:17554047

  9. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  10. The Development of Novel Recombinant Human Gelatins as Replacements for Animal-Derived Gelatin in Pharmaceutical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, David; Chang, Robert; Williams, Kim E.; Polarek, James W.

    We have developed a recombinant expression system to produce a series of novel recombinant human gelatins that can substitute for animal sourced gelatin preparations currently used in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. This system allows the production of human sequence gelatins, or, if desired, gelatins from any other species depending on the availability of the cloned gene. The gelatins produced with this recombinant system are of defined molecular weight, unlike the animal-sourced gelatins, which consist of numerous polypeptides of varying size. The fermentation and purification process used to prepare these recombinant gelatins does not use any human- or animal-derived components and thus this recombinant material should be free from viruses and agents that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The recombinant gelatins exhibit lot-to-lot reproducibility and we have performed extensive analytical testing on them. We have demonstrated the utility of these novel gelatins as biological stabilizers and plasma expanders, and we have shown they possess qualities that are important in applications where gel formation is critical. Finally, we provide examples of how our system allows the engineering of these recombinant gelatins to optimize the production process.

  11. Projectile Impact Evaluation on Ballistic Gelatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-13

    g en ormu a on w near u mo u us Impact modeling • Damage model [DuBois, Kolling, LSTC] Methods – Gelatin Calibration • Calibration (10%/4°C...FE (LS-Dyna v971) w/ LSOPT • High strain rate material properties w/ damage/failure L i ALE EFG f l ti Loading [Impact] • agrang an, , ormu a ons

  12. Simplified dichromated gelatin hologram recording process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgekutty, Tharayil G.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method for making dichromated gelatin (DCG) holographic optical elements (HOE) has been discovered. The method is much less tedious and it requires a period of processing time comparable with that for processing a silver halide hologram. HOE characteristics including diffraction efficiency (DE), linearity, and spectral sensitivity have been quantitatively investigated. The quality of the holographic grating is very high. Ninety percent or higher diffraction efficiency has been achieved in simple plane gratings made by this process.

  13. Intraoperative anaphylaxis secondary to intraosseous gelatin administration.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Scott J; Sucato, Daniel J; Bacharier, Leonard; Ellis, Alysa; Woerz, Cyndi

    2013-01-01

    FloSeal and SurgiFlo Hemostatic Matrices are commonly used in surgical procedures to promote coagulation and minimize blood loss. They are composed of bovine and porcine gelatin matrix, respectively, that can be injected into pedicles to stop osseous bleeding during pedicle screw insertion. This report details 2 pediatric spinal deformity reconstructive surgery patients who experienced intraoperative cardiovascular events after the intraosseous administration of animal-derived gelatin. Case #1 is an 11-year-old female with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who was undergoing routine posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion. During placement of the fourth pedicle screw, the patient developed profound hypotension, tachycardia, and elevated airway pressures requiring intravenous epinephrine and phenylephrine for hemodynamic support. Surgery was aborted. Postoperative work-up demonstrated a positive ImmunoCAP study for bovine gelatin. Surgery was repeated 1 week later, without the use of FloSeal, and no episodes of hemodynamic instability. Case #2 was a 9-year-old female with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis who was undergoing a growing spine construct. As in Case #1, SurgiFlo was placed into 2 pedicle tracts after which there was profound hypotension, tachycardia, and elevated airway pressures. Resuscitative efforts included intravenous atropine and epinephrine with resolution. Surgery was aborted. Surgery was repeated 2 weeks later, without the use of SurgiFlo, with no episodes of hemodynamic instability. Given that the patient's symptoms were classic for anaphylaxis, and that the timing of the anaphylaxis immediately followed the administration of FloSeal and SurgiFlo we believe that FloSeal and SurgiFlo were the causes of the reactions. These are the first known reported cases of intraoperative anaphylaxis associated with FloSeal and SurgiFlo. On the basis of our experience, in order to avoid intraoperative cardiovascular events, we obtain preoperative Immuno

  14. Gelatin-Based Materials in Ocular Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rose, James B.; Pacelli, Settimio; El Haj, Alicia J.; Dua, Harminder S.; Hopkinson, Andrew; White, Lisa J.; Rose, Felicity R. A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin has been used for many years in pharmaceutical formulation, cell culture and tissue engineering on account of its excellent biocompatibility, ease of processing and availability at low cost. Over the last decade gelatin has been extensively evaluated for numerous ocular applications serving as cell-sheet carriers, bio-adhesives and bio-artificial grafts. These different applications naturally have diverse physical, chemical and biological requirements and this has prompted research into the modification of gelatin and its derivatives. The crosslinking of gelatin alone or in combination with natural or synthetic biopolymers has produced a variety of scaffolds that could be suitable for ocular applications. This review focuses on methods to crosslink gelatin-based materials and how the resulting materials have been applied in ocular tissue engineering. Critical discussion of recent innovations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will highlight future opportunities for gelatin-based materials in ophthalmology. PMID:28788609

  15. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Nanocellulose-Gelatin Films

    PubMed Central

    Taokaew, Siriporn; Seetabhawang, Sutasinee; Siripong, Pongpun; Phisalaphong, Muenduen

    2013-01-01

    A nanocellulose-gelatin (bacterial cellulose gelatin (BCG)) film was developed by a supplement of gelatin, at a concentration of 1%–10% w/v, in a coconut-water medium under the static cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum. The two polymers exhibited a certain degree of miscibility. The BCG film displayed dense and uniform homogeneous structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results demonstrated interactions between the cellulose and gelatin. Incorporation of gelatin into a cellulose nanofiber network resulted in significantly improved optical transparency and water absorption capacity of the films. A significant drop in the mechanical strengths and a decrease in the porosity of the film were observed when the supplement of gelatin was more than 3% (w/v). The BCG films showed no cytotoxicity against Vero cells. PMID:28809339

  16. Gelatin-Based Materials in Ocular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Rose, James B; Pacelli, Settimio; Haj, Alicia J El; Dua, Harminder S; Hopkinson, Andrew; White, Lisa J; Rose, Felicity R A J

    2014-04-17

    Gelatin has been used for many years in pharmaceutical formulation, cell culture and tissue engineering on account of its excellent biocompatibility, ease of processing and availability at low cost. Over the last decade gelatin has been extensively evaluated for numerous ocular applications serving as cell-sheet carriers, bio-adhesives and bio-artificial grafts. These different applications naturally have diverse physical, chemical and biological requirements and this has prompted research into the modification of gelatin and its derivatives. The crosslinking of gelatin alone or in combination with natural or synthetic biopolymers has produced a variety of scaffolds that could be suitable for ocular applications. This review focuses on methods to crosslink gelatin-based materials and how the resulting materials have been applied in ocular tissue engineering. Critical discussion of recent innovations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will highlight future opportunities for gelatin-based materials in ophthalmology.

  17. Kinetic study on bonding reaction of gelatin with CdS nanopaticles by UV-visible spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shihua; Wang, Baiyang; Li, Youqun

    2015-04-15

    The chemical kinetics on gelatin-CdS direct conjugates has been systematically investigated as a function of different temperature and reactant concentration (i.e. Cd(2+), S(2-) and gelatin) by UV-visible spectroscopy, for the first time. The nonlinear fitting and the differential method were used to calculate the initial rate based on the absorbance-time data. A double logarithmic linear equation for calculating the rate constant (k) and the reaction order (n) was introduced. The reaction kinetic parameters (n, k, Ea, and Z) and activation thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(≠), ΔH(≠), and ΔS(≠)) were obtained from variable temperature kinetic studies. The overall rate equation allowing evaluation of conditions that provide required reaction rate could be expressed as: r = 1.11 × 10(8) exp(-4971/T)[Cd(2+)][gelatin](0.6)[S(2-)](0.6) (M/S) The calculated values of the reaction rate are well coincide with the experimental results. A suitable kinetic model is also proposed. This work will provide guidance for the rational design of gelatin-directed syntheses of metal sulfide materials, and help to understand the biological effects of nanoparticles at the molecular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  19. New dichromated gelatin technologies for diffraction optical element fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigovsky, Yury N.; Malov, Alexander N.; Malov, Sergey N.; Feshchenko, Valeriy S.; Konop, Sergey P.

    1998-01-01

    The hologram recording mechanism in the dichromated gelatin layers are discussed. A new technologies are described for red rainbow hologram recording in the photographic emulsion and selfdeveloped dichromated gelatin--glycerol layers. A new method is suggested and experimentally approbated for relief plastic replica of the rainbow hologram fabrication based on the tanning developed or bleached photographic emulsion. This method is modification of the old photographic `bromoil' process. Some aspects of the noncoherent hologram coping on the dichromated gelatin films are discussed too.

  20. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  1. Cavitation nucleation in gelatin: Experiment and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonmo; Adnan, Ashfaq; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas; Bagchi, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic cavitation in soft materials is becoming increasingly relevant due to emerging medical implications such as the potential of cavitation-induced brain injury or cavitation created by therapeutic medical devices. However, the current understanding of dynamic cavitation in soft materials is still very limited, mainly due to lack of robust experimental techniques. To experimentally characterize cavitation nucleation under dynamic loading, we utilize a recently developed experimental instrument, the integrated drop tower system. This technique allows quantitative measurements of the critical acceleration (a cr ) that corresponds to cavitation nucleation while concurrently visualizing time evolution of cavitation. Our experimental results reveal that a cr increases with increasing concentration of gelatin in pure water. Interestingly, we have observed the distinctive transition from a sharp increase (pure water to 1% gelatin) to a much slower rate of increase (∼10× slower) between 1% and 7.5% gelatin. Theoretical cavitation criterion predicts the general trend of increasing a cr , but fails to explain the transition rates. As a likely mechanism, we consider concentration-dependent material properties and non-spherical cavitation nucleation sites, represented by pre-existing bubbles in gels, due to possible interplay between gelatin molecules and nucleation sites. This analysis shows that cavitation nucleation is very sensitive to the initial configuration of a bubble, i.e., a non-spherical bubble can significantly increase a cr . This conclusion matches well with the experimentally observed liquid-to-gel transition in the critical acceleration for cavitation nucleation. From a medical standpoint, understanding dynamic cavitation within soft materials, i.e., tissues, is important as there are both potential injury implications (blast-induced cavitation within the brain) as well as treatments utilizing the phenomena (lithotripsy). In this regard, the main

  2. Impact absorption properties of carbon fiber reinforced bucky sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevamaran, Ramathasan; Saini, Deepika; Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M.; Daraio, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    We describe the super compressible and highly recoverable response of bucky sponges as they are struck by a heavy flat-punch striker. The bucky sponges studied here are structurally stable, self-assembled mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon fibers (CFs). We engineered the microstructure of the sponges by controlling their porosity using different CF contents. Their mechanical properties and energy dissipation characteristics during impact loading are presented as a function of their composition. The inclusion of CFs improves the impact force damping by up to 50% and the specific damping capacity by up to 7% compared to bucky sponges without CFs. The sponges also exhibit significantly better stress mitigation characteristics compared to vertically aligned CNT foams of similar densities. We show that delamination occurs at the MWCNT-CF interfaces during unloading, and it arises from the heterogeneous fibrous microstructure of the bucky sponges.

  3. Ultraporous, Compressible, Wettable Polylactide/Polycaprolactone Sponges for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Mader, Michael; Jérôme, Valérie; Freitag, Ruth; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2018-05-14

    Ultraporous, degradable sponges made of either polylactide or of blends of polylactide/poly(ε-caprolactone) are prepared by freeze-drying of dispersions of short electrospun fibers and subsequent thermal annealing. The sponges feature ultrahigh porosity (99.6%), a hierarchical cellular structure, and high reversible compressibility with fast recovery from deformation in the dry as well as in the wet state. The sponge properties depend on the fiber dispersion concentration and the annealing temperature. Sponge characteristics like fiber density (2.5-20 mg/cm 3 ), size, shape, crystallinity, mechanical strength, wetability, and structural integrity are user adjustable. Cell culture experiments were successfully performed with Jurkat cells with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and MTT staining showing rapid cell proliferation. Live/Dead staining demonstrated high viability of the seeded cells. The sponge characteristics and modifications investigated and presented here reveal that these sponges are highly promising for tissue engineering applications.

  4. Comparison of ballistic impact effects between biological tissue and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongxi; Mai, Ruimin; Wu, Cheng; Han, Ruiguo; Li, Bingcang

    2018-02-01

    Gelatin is commonly used in ballistic testing as substitute for biological tissue. Comparison of ballistic impact effects produced in the gelatin and living tissue is lacking. The work in this paper was aimed to compare the typical ballistic impact effects (penetration trajectory, energy transfer, temporary cavity) caused by 4.8mm steel ball penetrating the 60kg porcine hind limbs and 10wt% gelatin. The impact event in the biological tissue was recorded by high speed flash X-ray machine at different delay time, while the event in the gelatin continuously recorded by high speed video was compared to that in the biological tissue. The collected results clearly displayed that the ballistic impact effects in the muscle and gelatin were similar for the steel ball test; as for instance, the projectile trajectory in the two targets was basically similar, the process of energy transfer was highly coincident, and the expansion of temporary cavity followed the same pattern. This study fully demonstrated that choosing gelatin as muscle simulant was reasonable. However, the maximum temporary cavity diameter in the gelatin was a little larger than that in the muscle, and the expansion period of temporary cavity was longer in the gelatin. Additionally, the temporary cavity collapse process in the two targets followed different patterns, and the collapse period in the gelatin was two times as long as that in the muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Properties of gelatin film from horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) scale.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy; Maki, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kigen; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2015-04-01

    Optimal conditions for extracting gelatin and preparing gelatin film from horse mackerel scale, such as extraction temperature and time, as well as the protein concentration of film-forming solutions were investigated. Yields of extracted gelatin at 70 °C, 80 °C, and 90 °C for 15 min to 3 h were 1.08% to 3.45%, depending on the extraction conditions. Among the various extraction times and temperatures, the film from gelatin extracted at 70 °C for 1 h showed the highest tensile strength and elongation at break. Horse mackerel scale gelatin film showed the greatly low water vapor permeability (WVP) compared with mammalian or fish gelatin films, maybe due to its containing a slightly higher level of hydrophobic amino acids (total 653 residues per 1000 residues) than that of mammalian, cold-water fish and warm-water fish gelatins. Gelatin films from different preparation conditions showed excellent UV barrier properties at wavelength of 200 nm, although the films were transparent at visible wavelength. As a consequence, it can be suggested that gelatin film from horse mackerel scale extracted at 70 °C for 1 h can be applied to food packaging material due to its lowest WVP value and excellent UV barrier properties. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Bound states of water in gelatin discriminated by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Yukiko; Shirakashi, Ryo; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-11-01

    By near-infrared spectroscopy, we classified water molecules in hydrated gelatin membranes in a drying process. Absorbance spectra in the frequency range of 4500-5500 cm-1 were resolved into three peaks, S0, S1, and S2, that correspond to water molecules with different hydrogen bond states. From the areas of the absorbance peaks as a function of the water content of gelatin, together with the information on the freezing properties of water measured by differential scanning calorimetry, we found that, when the water content is less than 20%, free water disappears and only weakly and strongly bound waters remain. We also found that the weakly bound water consists of S0, S1, and S2 water molecules with a simple composition of \\text{S}0:\\text{S}1:\\text{S}2 ≈ 1:2:0. Using this information, most of the freezable water was determined to be free water. Our classification provides a simple method of estimating the retention and freezing properties of processed foods or drugs by infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Modeling the Distribution of Geodia Sponges and Sponge Grounds in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Knudby, Anders; Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds provide structurally complex habitat for fish and invertebrates and enhance local biodiversity. They are also vulnerable to bottom-contact fisheries and prime candidates for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem designation and related conservation action. This study uses species distribution modeling, based on presence and absence observations of Geodia spp. and sponge grounds derived from research trawl catches, as well as spatially continuous data on the physical and biological ocean environment derived from satellite data and oceanographic models, to model the distribution of Geodia sponges and sponge grounds in the Northwest Atlantic. Most models produce excellent fits with validation data although fits are reduced when models are extrapolated to new areas, especially when oceanographic regimes differ between areas. Depth and minimum bottom salinity were important predictors in most models, and a Geodia spp. minimum bottom salinity tolerance threshold in the 34.3-34.8 psu range was hypothesized on the basis of model structure. The models indicated two currently unsampled regions within the study area, the deeper parts of Baffin Bay and the Newfoundland and Labrador slopes, where future sponge grounds are most likely to be found. PMID:24324768

  8. Instrumental texture profile analysis of gelatin gel extracted from grouper skin and commercial (bovine and porcine) gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Mahrouqi, Abdullah Issa

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical compression was used to study the gelling characteristics of gelatin gels. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that the hardness of fish and mammalian gelatin increased significantly as the concentrations of gels increased. TPA attributes of 10% fish skin gel showed significant differences from those obtained from 20% and 30% gels. In bovine and porcine cases, such generic trends were not observed. Mechanical characteristics of 10% gels of gelatin from fish skin, determined from one cycle compression, were significantly lower than other sources of gelatin gels, while bovine and porcine gels did not show any significant differences. In the case of TPA, hardness of bovine gelatin gel was highest at 41 N for 10% gel, followed by porcine (30 N) then fish skin (5 N) gelatin gels. The gels prepared from different sources did not show any generic trends when all other mechanical attributes were considered.

  9. Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera).

    PubMed

    Wörheide, G; Dohrmann, M; Erpenbeck, D; Larroux, C; Maldonado, M; Voigt, O; Borchiellini, C; Lavrov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse taxon of benthic aquatic animals of great ecological, commercial, and biopharmaceutical importance. They are arguably the earliest-branching metazoan taxon, and therefore, they have great significance in the reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. Yet, the phylogeny and systematics of sponges are to some extent still unresolved, and there is an on-going debate about the exact branching pattern of their main clades and their relationships to the other non-bilaterian animals. Here, we review the current state of the deep phylogeny of sponges. Several studies have suggested that sponges are paraphyletic. However, based on recent phylogenomic analyses, we suggest that the phylum Porifera could well be monophyletic, in accordance with cladistic analyses based on morphology. This finding has many implications for the evolutionary interpretation of early animal traits and sponge development. We further review the contribution that mitochondrial genes and genomes have made to sponge phylogenetics and explore the current state of the molecular phylogenies of the four main sponge lineages (Classes), that is, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea, and Homoscleromorpha, in detail. While classical systematic systems are largely congruent with molecular phylogenies in the class Hexactinellida and in certain parts of Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha, the high degree of incongruence in the class Calcarea still represents a challenge. We highlight future areas of research to fill existing gaps in our knowledge. By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, we support previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification. In summary, while deep sponge phylogenetics has made many advances in the past years, considerable efforts are still required to achieve a

  10. Molecular beacon-based real-time PCR method for detection of porcine DNA in gelatin and gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nurhidayatul Asma; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khairil Mokhtar, Nur Fadhilah; El Sheikha, Aly Farag

    2018-03-05

    The pharmaceutical industry has boosted gelatin consumption worldwide. This is supported by the availability of cost-effective gelatin production from porcine by-products. However, cross-contamination of gelatin materials, where porcine gelatin was unintentionally included in the other animal sources of gelatin, has caused significant concerns about halal authenticity. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has enabled a highly specific and sensitive animal species detection method in various food products. Hence, such a technique was employed in the present study to detect and quantify porcine DNA in gelatin using a molecular beacon probe, with differences in performance between mitochondrial (cytochrome b gene) and chromosomal DNA-(MPRE42 repetitive element) based porcine-specific PCR assays being compared. A higher sensitivity was observed in chromosomal DNA (MPRE-PCR assay), where this assay allows the detection of gelatin DNA at amounts as as low as 1 pg, whereas mitochondrial DNA (CBH-PCR assay) can only detect at levels down to 10 pg of gelatin DNA. When an analysis with commercial gelatin and gelatin capsule samples was conducted, the same result was observed, with a significantly more sensitive detection being provided by the repetitive element of chromosomal DNA. The present study has established highly sensitive DNA-based porcine detection systems derived from chromosomal DNA that are feasible for highly processed products such as gelatin and gelatin capsules containing a minute amount of DNA. This sensitive detection method can also be implemented to assist the halal authentication process of various food products available on the market. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Re-plumbing in a Mediterranean sponge.

    PubMed

    Mendola, D; van den Boogaart, J G M; van Leeuwen, J L; Wijffels, R H

    2007-12-22

    Observations are reported for Dysidea avara sponges where once functioning oscula (outlets) are converted through internal re-plumbing into functioning oversized ostia (OSO; inlets). Flow tank studies employed high-speed photography and particle tracking of laser-illuminated 0.5-6.0 microm diameter glass beads to trace particles streaming into OSO. A fluorescein dye/glass bead uptake experiment showed that an oversized ostium was connected through internal structures to the lone osculum. Beginning 30 s after uptake and continuing over a 20 min period, dye streamed from the osculum, but no beads emerged. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that beads were deposited only on the inhalant side of particle filtering choanocyte chambers and not on the exhalant side, suggesting that internal re-plumbing had occurred. Functioning OSO were also found on freshly collected specimens in the field, making it highly unlikely that formation of OSO was only an artefact of sponges being held in a laboratory tank.

  12. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  13. Characterization of partially hydrolyzed OCP crystals deposited in a gelatin matrix as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yushi; Anada, Takahisa; Yamazaki, Hajime; Handa, Takuto; Kobayashi, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Tetsu; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate how hydrolysis of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) into hydroxyapatite is affected by the presence of gelatin (Gel) molecules and how osteoblastic cells respond to the resultant OCP hydrolyzate/Gel composites as the hydrolysis advances. OCP was prepared from a solution containing calcium and phosphate ions and Gel molecules, having a composition to produce a 40 wt% OCP as a final co-precipitate as the OCP/Gel. The precipitate was further incubated up to 40 h to advance the hydrolysis of OCP. These precipitates were processed to mold OCP/Gel sponges through lyophilization and dehydrothermal treatment. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction revealed that the hydrolysis of OCP/Gel composite in hot water advanced in a time-dependent manner and faster than hydrolysis of OCP alone. The effect of Gel on the OCP hydrolysis was further examined in the presence of distinct concentrations of Gel molecules in hot water, showing that the Gel enhanced the hydrolysis as the concentration increased. Proliferation and differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells on the hydrolyzed OCP/Gel composites were compatible with Gel sponge alone after 21 days of culture, suggesting that these composites could be a candidate as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering.

  14. Tactile texture and friction of soft sponge surfaces.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Makoto; Imai, Yumi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the tactile texture and frictional properties of five soft sponges with various cell sizes. The frictional forces were measured by a friction meter containing a contact probe with human-finger-like geometry and mechanical properties. When the subjects touched these sponges with their fingers, hard-textured sponges were deemed unpleasant. This tactile feeling changed with friction factors including friction coefficients, their temporal patterns, as well as mechanical and shape factors. These findings provide useful information on how to control the tactile textures of various sponges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacteria From Marine Sponges: A Source of New Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Fehmida; Faheem, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Yasir, Muhammad; Alvi, Sana A; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ullah, Ikram; Naseer, Muhammad I

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are rich source of bioactive natural products synthesized by the symbiotic bacteria belonging to different phyla. Due to a competition for space and nutrients the marine bacteria associated with sponges could produce more antibiotic substances. To explore the proactive potential of marine microbes extensive research has been done. These bioactive metabolites have some unique properties that are pharmaceutically important. For this review, we have performed a non-systematic search of the available literature though various online search engines. This review provides an insight that how majority of active metabolites have been identified from marine invertebrates of which sponges predominate. Sponges harbor abundant and diverse microorganisms, which are the sources of a range of marine bioactive metabolites. From sponges and their associated microorganisms, approximately 5,300 different natural compounds are known. Current research on sponge-microbe interaction and their active metabolites has become a focal point for many researchers. Various active metabolites derived from sponges are now known to be produced by their symbiotic microflora. In this review, we attempt to report the latest studies regarding capability of bacteria from sponges as producers of bioactive metabolite. Moreover, these sponge associated bacteria are an important source of different enzymes of industrial significance. In present review, we will address some novel approaches for discovering marine metabolites from bacteria that have the greatest potential to be used in clinical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Deciphering Galactic Hydrogen with 21-SPONGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Claire; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Goss, Miller; Heiles, Carl E.; Miller Dickey, John; Lindner, Robert; Babler, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial to the life cycles of galaxies. The balance between disparate phases of HI -- including the cold neutral (CNM) and warm neutral (WNM) medium -- governs the formation of dense, star-forming material, and reflects the nature of feedback in galaxies. To probe the multi-phase structure of HI, we present results from 21-SPONGE: the largest and most sensitive survey for Galactic HI absorption ever at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Complemented by HI emission from the Arecibo Observatory, 21-SPONGE is uniquely sensitive to CNM and WNM temperatures from 10-104 K and column densities from 1018-1022 cm-2. Despite our unprecedented sensitivity, the maximum temperature we detect for individual spectral lines is Ts~1500 K, although stacking analysis of 21-SPONGE absorption lines indicates the presence of pervasive, high-Ts WNM population with Ts~7000 K. To understand the physics underlying these results, we developed Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), a Python-based tool for efficiently and objectively analyzing spectral lines. By applying AGD to 21-SPONGE and 1000s of synthetic HI spectra from 3D numerical simulations, we correct our measurements for completeness and observational biases. We further prove that we can successfully recover the temperatures and densities of real clouds along simulated lines of sight. In addition, we show that absorption line shapes are sensitive to the strength and topology of the Lyman alpha radiation field and its role in HI excitation, which are poorly-constrained yet important for understanding the energy balance of the ISM. Our results are among the first to statistically quantify the success of observational methods at reproducing true HI properties, and represent crucial steps towards understanding the role of HI in star formation.

  17. Optimization of biodegradable sponges as controlled release drug matrices. I. Effect of moisture level on chitosan sponge mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2004-04-01

    Cross-linked chitosan sponges as controlled release drug carrier systems were developed. Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting analgesic, was used as a model drug. The sponges were prepared by freeze-drying 1.25% and 2.5% (w/w) high and low M.wt. chitosan solutions, respectively, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The hardness of the prepared sponges was a function of glutaraldehyde concentration and volume where the optimum concentration that offered accepted sponge consistency was 5%. Below or above 5%, very soft or very hard and brittle sponges were obtained, respectively. The determined drug content in the prepared sponges was uniform and did not deviate markedly from the calculated amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the internal structures of the sponges. The SEM photos revealed that cross-linked high M.wt. chitosan sponges have larger size surface pores that form connections (channels) with the interior of the sponge than cross-linked low M.wt. ones. Moreover, crystals of the incorporated Tramadol hydrochloride were detected on the lamellae and within pores in both chitosan sponges. Differences in pore size and dissolution medium uptake capacity were crucial factors for the more delayed drug release from cross-linked low M.wt. chitosan sponges over high M.wt. ones at pH 7.4. Kinetic analysis of the release data using linear regression followed the Higuchi diffusion model over 12 hours. Setting storage conditions at room temperature under 80-92% relative humidity resulted in soft, elastic, and compressible sponges.

  18. Morphology, orientation, and mechanical properties of gelatin films

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, T.N.; Tsou, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Gelatin is a polypeptide derived from degradation and disorganization of collagen fibers and is the primary binder in photographic emulsions. Gelatin provides the mechanical integrity and strength to the photographic emulsion allowing for packaging, handling, and photofinishing operations. Gelatin films generated from aqueous-solution casting can exist in a semicrystalline or an amorphous state. When a gelatin solution is cooled below its helix-coil transition temperature, partial renaturation of gelatin to form triple helices can occur. The degree of renaturation in a coated film is dependent upon the drying temperature and the drying rate. During the drying process, gelatin crystals can bemore » formed by lateral association of the triple helices through a mechanism of nucleation and growth of a fringed micelle structure. X-ray scattering techniques have been utilized to examine the morphology and orientation of gelatin films. Based on X-ray diffraction data, it is observed that aggregates of triple-helix rods lie parallel to the film plane but are symmetrically distributed within the film plane. Since a material`s physical and mechanical properties are related to its structure, it is necessary to understand and to characterize the morphological development in gelatin film formation. In this study, an X-ray diffractometer and pole figure goniometer were utilized to examine the structural development and orientation anisotropy in solid-state gelatin films. Also, in this study, the in-plane mechanical properties of a gelatin film were determined from a uniaxial tensile test, and the gelatin film properties in the thickness direction were extracted from an indentation test based on the finite element analysis of the indentation results using a viscoelastic material model.« less

  19. The modern calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium (Lamarck, 1815), Great Bahama Bank: Implications for ancient sponge mud-mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuweiler, Fritz; Burdige, David J.

    2005-04-01

    Modern calcified siliceous sponges from the Great Bahama Bank, living at water depth ranges of 2 to 5 m, have been proposed as likely analogues for calcified sponges in Upper Jurassic sponge "reefs" (e.g., southern Germany), or Lower Jurassic bioherms that consist of reddish, spiculiferous limestones (e.g., Broccatello Formation of the Southern Alps). Indeed, sponge-related calcification or siliceous sponge diagenesis, in general, is widely considered a key feature for the mechanisms of accretion and textural maturation in Phanerozoic sponge mounds or spiculiferous carbonate mud-mounds. Based on a revisit of the original sites on the Great Bahama Bank (NW of Andros Island) the biostratonomy of the calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium (Lamarck, 1815) was explored using the patterns of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) as revealed by the application of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Geochemical sampling distinguished between FDOM that was extracted from sponge tissue and FDOM that was intimately associated with CaCO 3 (from particles due to sediment agglutination and authigenic CaCO 3), both obtained from the living sponge at the sediment surface and from the calcified sponge at the shallow subsurface (from 5 to 10 cm of depth). As expected, the sponge tissue shows highest intensities for protein-like fluorescence. However, from the surface to the subsurface, there is a loss of such relatively pristine fluorescent material in the range of 70%. Humic-like fluorescence that occurs associated with sponge tissue is relatively mature or aged, thus it most probably represents seawater FDOM taken up through active filter feeding. Relative to the sponge tissue material, the FDOM patterns associated with Ca-carbonates show much lower total fluorescence intensities, by up to two orders of magnitude. The agglutinated sedimentary carbonate particles from the surface (pellets, ooids, grapestones) exclusively show a

  20. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05). Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  1. The role of burrowing sponges in bioerosion.

    PubMed

    Rützler, Klaus

    1975-09-01

    Among the large number of limestone-eroding organisms, sponges, mainly of the family Clinonidae are of special interest because of their efficient means of substratum penetration by cellular etching and because they release characteristically shaped calcium carbonate chips which can be detected in the mud-size fraction of many sediments. Identifiable trace fossils and sediments are of great ecological and paleoecological significance.As new data on the excavating mechanism have become available, the questions of burrowing rates and sediment production have gained importance. Extrapolation from shortterm experiments (under 6 months) on substrate invasion are inconclusive because of high initial penetration rates resulting from mechanical stimulation and lack of competition. New experiments show that the rate curve flattens after 6 months and that optimum longterm erosion of CaCO 3 does not exceed 700 mg m -2 year -1 (Cliona lampa and C. aprica). Substrate limitations and competition will further reduce this rate.By monitoring the production of CaCO 3 chips by Cliona lampa, it was possible to link activity patterns to certain environmental factors. Mechanical stimuli, high light intensity, strong currents and, possibly, low temperature seem to accelerate the burrowing process. Sponge-generated chips can make up over 40% of coral mud when deposited in the current shadow of the reef framework.Using transect counts and sponge area-biomass conversion factors, the mean abundance of burrowing sponges on the Bermuda platform could be calculated. On suitable hard bottom substrates it averages 16 g dry weight per m 2 . From this value the burrowing potential of sponges can be estimated as 256 g CaCO 3 per m 2 substrate per year. Since 97-98% of the eroded limestone remains in particulate form, the contribution of fine sediments can amount to 250 g m -2 year -1 .Attention is called to the fact that erosion rates by burrowers can not directly be compared with those of borers or

  2. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    None

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence ofmore » CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.« less

  3. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    PubMed Central

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  4. Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These

  5. Assessment of Matrix Metalloproteinases by Gelatin Zymography.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are endopeptidases responsible for remodeling of the extracellular matrix and have been identified as critical contributors to breast cancer progression. Gelatin zymography is a valuable tool which allows the analysis of MMP expression. In this approach, enzymes are resolved electrophoretically on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with the substrate for the MMP of interest. Post electrophoresis, the enzymes are refolded in order for proteolysis of the incorporated substrate to occur. This assay yields valuable information about MMP isoforms or changes in activation and can be used to analyze the role of MMPs in normal versus pathological conditions.

  6. Solution blow spinning of food-grade gelatin nanofibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary advantage of nanofibers over larger diameter fibers is the larger surface area to volume ratio. This study evaluated solution blow spinning (SBS) processing conditions for obtaining food-grade gelatin nanofibers from mammalian and fishery by-products, such as pork skin gelatins (PGs) and...

  7. Preparation and characterization of gelatin/chitosan/carbodiimide films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In prior studies, we examined the effects of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and water-dispersible polycarbodiimides (pCDIs) on the properties of gels produced from gelatin and a gelatin/chitosan blend that may be suitable for a role in leather processing. Those studies showed m...

  8. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Jalaja, K; Sreehari, V S; Kumar, P R Anil; Nirmala, R James

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29±0.53MPa to 21±2.03MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4±2.03MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dehydration of pollock skin prior to gelatin production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) is the U.S.A.'s largest commercial fishery, with an annual catch of over 1 million tons. During pollock processing, the skins are discarded or made into fish meal, despite their value for gelatin production. The absence of gelatin-processing facilities in Alask...

  10. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. PMID:21085196

  11. Shock absorber servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tool to assist in the servicing of a shock absorber wherein the shock absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the shock absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.

  12. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  13. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan

    PubMed Central

    Leys, Sally P.; Yahel, Gitai; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Shavit, Uri; Reiswig, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes) to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be <1% of its total metabolism implying there is little adaptive value to reducing the cost of pumping by using “passive” flow induced by the ambient current. We quantified the pumping activity and respiration of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus at a 150 m deep reef in situ and in a flow flume; we also modeled the glass sponge filtration system from measurements of the aquiferous system. Excurrent flow from the sponge osculum measured in situ and in the flume were positively correlated (r>0.75) with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges. PMID:22180779

  14. Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A lightweight, inexpensive shock-absorbing system, developed by Langley Research Center 20 years ago, is now in service as safety device for an automated railway at Duke University Medical Center. The transportation system travels at about 25 miles per hour, carrying patients, visitors, staff and cargo. At the end of each guideway of the system are "frangible," (breakable) tube "buffers." If a slowing car fails to make a complete stop at the terminal, it would bump and shatter the tubes, absorbing energy that might otherwise jolt the passengers or damage the vehicle.

  15. Properties of electrospun pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were exami...

  16. Acyl-gelatins for cell-hybrid biomaterials: preparation of gelatins with high melting point and affinity for hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Keiichi; Chinzei, Hiroko; Komai, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    In the development of cell-hybrid biomaterials, the functional activity of cells depends on the selective binding of cells to artificial ligands on the biomaterials. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most important ligand for cell activity. ECM is known to contain collagen, one of whose constituents is gelatin. Although natural gelatin has good cell attachment properties, the melting point of gelatin hydrogel is lower than body temperature. Thus, non-chemically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel is not a biomaterial that is used for prostheses. In the present study, we report the preparation of acyl-gelatin hydrogels with high melting point (>37 degrees C) and high affinity for hydrophobic surfaces for easy handling for transportation and adhesion activities on the hydrophobic surfaces. In addition, the doubling time of endothelial cells on the coated cell culture plate was faster than that of natural gelatin owing to the higher adhesion activity of acyl-gelatin. The results clearly demonstrated that the acyl-gelatin acted as an interface that enabled cell adhesion to artificial materials surfaces.

  17. The Life of a Sponge in a Sandy Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ilan, M; Abelson, A

    1995-12-01

    Infaunal soft-bottom invertebrates benefit from the presence of sediment, but sedimentation is potentially harmful for hard-bottom dwellers. Most sponges live on hard bottom, but on coral reefs in the Red Sea, the species Biemna ehrenbergi (Keller, 1889) is found exclusively in soft-bottom lagoons, usually in the shallowest part. This location is a sink environment, which increases the deposition of particulate organic matter. Most of the sponge body is covered by sediment, but the chimney-like siphons protrude from the sediment surface. The sponge is attached to the buried beach-rock, which reduces the risk of dislodgment during storms. Dye injected above and into the sediment revealed, for the first time, a sponge pumping interstitial water (rich with particles and nutrients) into its aquiferous system. Visual examination of plastic replicas of the aquiferous system and electron microscopical analysis of sponge tissue revealed that the transcellular ostia are mostly located on the buried surface of the sponge. The oscula, however, are located on top of the siphons; their elevated position and their ability to close combine to prevent the filtering system outflow from clogging. The transcellular ostia presumably remain open due to cellular mobility. The sponge maintains a large population of bacteriocytes, which contains bacteria of several different species. Some of these bacteria disintegrate, and may be consumed by the sponge.

  18. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars. PMID:26154741

  19. Keratin sponge/hydrogel part 1. fabrication and characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keratin sponge/hydrogel products formed by either the oxidation or reduction of U.S. domestic fine- or coarse-grade wool exhibited distinctively different topologies and molecular weights of 6- 8 kDa and 40-60 kDa, each with unique macro-porous structure and microstructural behaviors. The sponge/ ...

  20. The Dimension of the Pore Space in Sponges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, L. H. F.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm[superscript -3] was 2.948 [plus or minus] 0.008. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. The Dynamic Behaviour of Ballistic Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, C. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Allsop, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    In order to characterise the effect of projectiles it is necessary to understand the mechanism of both penetration and resultant wounding in biological systems. Porcine gelatin is commonly used as a tissue simulant in ballistic tests because it elastically deforms in a similar manner to muscular tissue. Bullet impacts typically occur in the 350-850 m/s range; thus knowledge of the high strain-rate dynamic properties of both the projectile and target materials are desirable to simulate wounds. Unlike projectile materials, relatively little data exists on the dynamic response of flesh simulants. The Hugoniot for a 20 wt.% porcine gelatin, which exhibits a ballistic response similar to that of human tissues at room temperature, was determined using the plate-impact technique at impact velocities of 75-860 m/s. This resulted in impact stresses around three times higher than investigated elsewhere. In US-uP space the Hugoniot had the form US = 1.57+1.77 uP, while in P-uP space it was essentially hydrodynamic. In both cases this was in good agreement with the limited available data from the literature.

  2. Coils versus gelatin particles with or without intraarterial antibiotics for partial splenic embolization: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Masada, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakagomi, Masahiro; Miura, Yuko; Hidaka, Teruyuki; Sato, Yozo; Sato, Takeshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Furuich, Kinya; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2014-06-01

    To compare the efficacy, complications, and inflammatory levels in partial splenic embolization (PSE) with coils or gelatin sponge (GS) particles with or without intraarterial antibiotic agents. Forty-four patients with hypersplenism treated by PSE were assessed. GS particles were used in 31 patients, and coils were used in 13 patients. In 17 of the 31 patients who received GS, GS suspended in antibiotic solution was injected via the splenic artery. In the other 14 patients, antibiotic agents were not used. In all 13 coil group patients, an antibiotic solution was intraarterially injected before embolization. Platelet counts were compared between the GS and coil groups. Complications and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared among the three groups. There were no significant differences in platelet counts and platelet increased ratios at 6 months (10.0 × 10(4)/µL and 193% in the GS group vs 9.0 × 10(4)/µL and 221% in the coil group), and no significant differences in frequencies of complications. However, one splenic abscess occurred in a patient treated with GS without antibiotics, resulting in death. The mean serum CRP level in the GS with antibiotic group at 2 weeks was significantly lower than in the other two groups. The efficacy of PSE is similar with the use of coils versus GS particles. Prophylactic intraarterial antibiotic treatment could be useful in preventing inflammatory reactions after PSE. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Gelatin Hydrogel Loading Mitomycin C on Conjunctival Scarring in a Canine Filtration Surgery Model.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shota; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Takai, Shinji; Jin, Denan; Ueki, Mari; Oku, Hidehiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects and toxicities of gelatin hydrogel (GH) loading mitomycin C (MMC) on IOP and conjunctival scarring in a canine model of glaucoma surgery in comparison with conventional MMC application. Glaucoma surgery models were made in six beagles. An MMC-loaded GH was implanted under the conjunctiva of one eye (GH-MMC group) and 0.04% MMC-soaked sponges were placed under the conjunctiva of the other eye (MMC group) for 5 minutes. Intraocular pressures and bleb features were then assessed for 4 weeks postoperative, followed by histological evaluation. The ratio of conjunctival area to scleral area, the densities of collagen and the numbers of fibroblasts, vessels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were then quantified. In both groups, IOP reduction and bleb formation were maintained in a similar manner for 4 weeks postoperative. No significant difference in the ratio of conjunctival area to scleral area was found between the two groups. Collagen density and the numbers of fibroblasts and vessels were significantly lower in the MMC-treated group than in the GH-MMC-treated group. No significant difference in PCNA-positive cells was found between the two groups. Implantation of MMC-loaded GH ameliorated toxicity to conjunctiva compared with the 5-minute placement of MMC, whereas its effect on IOP reduction and bleb formation was similar. These results suggest that using GH for the application of MMC is a safer method than the conventional application of MMC in glaucoma filtration surgery.

  4. Highly deformation-tolerant carbon nanotube sponges as supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peixu; Kong, Chuiyan; Shang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Enzheng; Yu, Yuntao; Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Cao, Anyuan; Wu, Dehai

    2013-09-21

    Developing flexible and deformable supercapacitor electrodes based on porous materials is of high interest in energy related fields. Here, we show that carbon nanotube sponges, consisting of highly porous conductive networks, can serve as compressible and deformation-tolerant supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous or organic electrolytes. In aqueous electrolytes, the sponges maintain a similar specific capacitance (>90% of the original value) under a predefined compressive strain of 50% (corresponding to a volume reduction of 50%), and retain more than 70% of the original capacitance under 80% strain while the volume normalized capacitance increases by 3-fold. The sponge electrode maintains a stable performance after 1000 large strain compression cycles. A coin-shaped cell assembled with these sponges shows excellent stability over 15,000 charging cycles with negligible degradation after 500 cycles. Our results indicate that carbon nanotube sponges have the potential to fabricate deformable supercapacitor electrodes with stable performance.

  5. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  6. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  7. Barcoding Sponges: An Overview Based on Comprehensive Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Sergio; Schuster, Astrid; Sacher, Katharina; Büttner, Gabrielle; Schätzle, Simone; Läuchli, Benjamin; Hall, Kathryn; Hooper, John N. A.; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylum Porifera includes ∼8,500 valid species distributed world-wide in aquatic ecosystems ranging from ephemeral fresh-water bodies to coastal environments and the deep-sea. The taxonomy and systematics of sponges is complicated, and morphological identification can be both time consuming and erroneous due to phenotypic convergence and secondary losses, etc. DNA barcoding can provide sponge biologists with a simple and rapid method for the identification of samples of unknown taxonomic membership. The Sponge Barcoding Project (www.spongebarcoding.org), the first initiative to barcode a non-bilaterian metazoan phylum, aims to provide a comprehensive DNA barcode database for Phylum Porifera. Methodology/Principal Findings ∼7,400 sponge specimens have been extracted, and amplification of the standard COI barcoding fragment has been attempted for approximately 3,300 museum samples with ∼25% mean amplification success. Based on this comprehensive sampling, we present the first report on the workflow and progress of the sponge barcoding project, and discuss some common pitfalls inherent to the barcoding of sponges. Conclusion A DNA-barcoding workflow capable of processing potentially large sponge collections has been developed and is routinely used for the Sponge Barcoding Project with success. Sponge specific problems such as the frequent co-amplification of non-target organisms have been detected and potential solutions are currently under development. The initial success of this innovative project have already demonstrated considerable refinement of sponge systematics, evaluating morphometric character importance, geographic phenotypic variability, and the utility of the standard barcoding fragment for Porifera (despite its conserved evolution within this basal metazoan phylum). PMID:22802937

  8. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  9. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  10. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGES

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  11. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert sponge...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial...

  13. Gelatin Nanoparticles with Enhanced Affinity for Calcium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Farbod, Kambiz; Diba, Mani; Zinkevich, Tatiana; Schmidt, Stephan; Harrington, Matthew J; Kentgens, Arno P M; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin nanoparticles can be tuned with respect to their drug loading efficiency, degradation rate, and release kinetics, which renders these drug carriers highly suitable for a wide variety of biomedical applications. The ease of functionalization has rendered gelatin an interesting candidate material to introduce specific motifs for selective targeting to specific organs, but gelatin nanoparticles have not yet been modified to increase their affinity to mineralized tissue. By means of conjugating bone-targeting alendronate to biocompatible gelatin nanoparticles, a simple method is developed for the preparation of gelatin nanoparticles which exhibit strong affinity to mineralized surfaces. It has been shown that the degree of alendronate functionalization can be tuned by controlling the glutaraldehyde crosslinking density, the molar ratio between alendronate and glutaraldehyde, as well as the pH of the conjugation reaction. Moreover, it has been shown that the affinity of gelatin nanoparticles to calcium phosphate increases considerably upon functionalization with alendronate. In summary, gelatin nanoparticles have been developed, which exhibit great potential for use in bone-specific drug delivery and regenerative medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A novel gelatin hydrogel carrier sheet for corneal endothelial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryou; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Kimura, Yu; Tanaka, Yuji; Kageyama, Tomofumi; Hara, Susumu; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Nishida, Kohji

    2011-09-01

    We examined the feasibility of using gelatin hydrogels as carrier sheets for the transplantation of cultivated corneal endothelial cells. The mechanical properties, transparency, and permeability of gelatin hydrogel sheets were compared with those of atelocollagen sheets. Immunohistochemistry (ZO-1, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and N-cadherin), hematoxylin and eosin staining, and scanning electron microscopy were performed to assess the integrity of corneal endothelial cells that were cultured on gelatin hydrogel sheets. The gelatin hydrogel sheets displayed greater transparency, elastic modulus, and albumin permeability compared to those of atelocollagen sheets. The corneal endothelial cells on gelatin hydrogel sheets showed normal expression levels of ZO-1, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and N-cadherin. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed the formation of a continuous monolayer of cells attached to the gelatin hydrogel sheet. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the corneal endothelial cells were arranged in a regular, mosaic, and polygonal pattern with normal cilia. These results indicate that the gelatin hydrogel sheet is a promising material to transport corneal endothelial cells during transplantation.

  15. Synthesis and Property of Ag(NP)/catechin/Gelatin Nanofiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhamad; Apriani, Dita

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterial play important role future industry such as for the medical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Ag (NP) and catechin exhibit antibacterial property. Ag(NP) with diameter around 15 nm was synthesis by microwaved method. We have successfully produce Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber composite by electrospinning process. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber was synthesized by using gelatin from tuna fish, polyethylene oxide (PEO), acetic acid as solvent and silver nanoparticle(NP)/catechin as bioactive component, respectively. Morphology and structure of bioactive catechin-gelatin nanofiber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. SEM analysis showed that morphology of nanofiber composite was smooth and had average diameter 398.97 nm. FTIR analysis results were used to confirm structure of catechin-gelatin nanofiber. It was confirmed by FTIR that specific vibration band peak amide A (N-H) at 3286,209 cm-1, amide B (N-H) 3069,396 cm-1, amide I (C=O) at 1643,813 cm-1, amide II (N-H and CN) at 1538,949 cm-1, amide III (C-N) at 1276,789 cm-1, C-O-C from polyethylene oxide at 1146,418 cm-1, respectively. When examined to S. Aureus bacteria, Ag/catechin/gelatin nanofiber show inhabitation performance around 40.44%. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber has potential application antibacterial medical application.

  16. Extraction and electrospinning of gelatin from fish skin.

    PubMed

    Songchotikunpan, Panida; Tattiyakul, Jirarat; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-04-01

    Ultra-fine gelatin fibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning from the solutions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin-extracted gelatin in either acetic acid or formic acid aqueous solutions. The extracted gelatin contained 7.3% moisture, 89.4% protein, 0.3% lipid, and 0.4% ash contents (on the basis of wet weight), while the bloom gel strength, the shear viscosity, and the pH values were 328 g, 17.8 mPa s, and 5.0, respectively. Both the acid concentration and the concentration of the gelatin solutions strongly influenced the properties of the as-prepared solutions and the obtained gelatin fibers. At low acid concentrations (i.e., 15% (w/v) extracted gelatin solutions in 10 and 20% (v/v) acetic acid solvents or 10-60% (v/v) formic acid solvents), a combination between smooth and beaded fibers was observed. At low concentrations of the gelatin solutions in either 40% (v/v) acetic acid solvent or 80% (v/v) formic acid solvent (i.e., 5-11%, w/v), either discrete beads or beaded fibers were obtained, while, at higher concentrations (i.e., 14-29%, w/v), only smooth or a combination of smooth and beaded fibers were obtained. The average diameters of the obtained fibers, regardless of the types of the acid solvents used, ranged between 109 and 761 nm. Lastly, cross-linking of the obtained gelatin fiber mats with glutaraldehyde vapor caused slight shrinkage from their original dimension, and the cross-linked gelatin fiber mats became stiffer.

  17. Gelatin-specific cellular immune responses persist for more than 3 years after priming with gelatin containing DTaP vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, T; Kamada, M; Igarashi, C; Yuri, K; Furukawa, H; Nagata, N; Saito, A; Okui, T; Yano, S

    2002-10-01

    Gelatin-specific cell-mediated immunity develops in subjects inoculated with gelatin containing DTaP vaccine. However, it is not yet known whether such established sensitization to gelatin disappears or persists with time. The aim of this study was to follow the patients with gelatin sensitization elicited by DTaP vaccination for their lymphocyte responsiveness and IgE, IgG antibody specific to gelatin over several years and to compare the activities with those at the time of enrollment into the study. We studied 28 subjects who developed positive lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) after receiving gelatin containing DTaP vaccine and eight subjects who had a negative LPT after inoculation of non-gelatin DTaP. Determination of IgE, IgG antibodies and specific lymphoproliferative response directed against gelatin were performed at enrollment and on follow up. None of the subjects had antibody to gelatin at enrollment and none developed gelatin IgE or IgG during follow-up. There was no significant difference in the SIs of the subjects receiving gelatin DTaP (P = 0.150, 95% CI, -0.198-0.032), whereas lymphocyte activity to gelatin increased between enrollment and follow-up in the subjects with non-gelatin DTaP (P = 0.011, 95% CI, 0.063-0.338). Gelatin-specific lymphocyte activity persists at comparable levels for more than 3 years in subjects who acquire a positive LPT response to gelatin after receiving primary DTaP vaccine containing gelatin. Furthermore, five out of eight subjects initially with negative LPT to gelatin have been shown to acquire specific LPT with time.

  18. IgE sensitization to gelatin: the probable role of gelatin-containing diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S

    2000-04-03

    We recently found that most events of anaphylaxis to live attenuated viral vaccines containing gelatin as a stabilizer might be caused by the gelatin. However, the mechanism that the children were sensitized to gelatin was unclear. In Japan, both diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines with and without gelatin are available. We explored the possibility that gelatin-containing DTaP vaccines before live viral vaccines sensitize children to gelatin. We received the serum samples of 87 children who had systemic immediate-type reactions including anaphylaxis to the vaccines from both physicians and vaccine manufacturers throughout Japan. We then surveyed the DTaP vaccination histories of the children who demonstrated anti-gelatin IgE. Of the above 87 children, 79 (91%) had anti-gelatin IgE. We successfully collected DTaP vaccination histories including the manufacturers' names and numbers of doses on 55 children. Only one child had not received any DTaP vaccine, the other 54 had received gelatin-containing DTaP vaccines and none received gelatin-free DTaP vaccines. We concluded that there was a strong causal relationship between gelatin-containing DTaP vaccination, anti-gelatin IgE production, and risk of anaphylaxis following subsequent immunization with live viral vaccines which contain a larger amount of gelatin.

  19. Protein gradient films of fibroin and gelatine.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Kai U; Lintz, Eileen S; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Gradients are a natural design principle in biological systems that are used to diminish stress concentration where materials of differing mechanical properties connect. An interesting example of a natural gradient material is byssus, which anchors mussels to rocks and other hard substrata. Building upon previous work with synthetic polymers and inspired by byssal threads, protein gradient films are cast using glycerine-plasticized gelatine and fibroin exhibiting a highly reproducible and smooth mechanical gradient, which encompasses a large range of modulus from 160 to 550 MPa. The reproducible production of biocompatible gradient films represents a first step towards medical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  1. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  2. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  3. Shape Memory Silk Protein Sponges for Minimally Invasive Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph E; Moreau, Jodie E; Berman, Alison M; McSherry, Heather J; Coburn, Jeannine M; Schmidt, Daniel F; Kaplan, David L

    2017-01-01

    Porous silk protein scaffolds are designed to display shape memory characteristics and volumetric recovery following compression. Two strategies are utilized to realize shape recovery: addition of hygroscopic plasticizers like glycerol, and tyrosine modifications with hydrophilic sulfonic acid chemistries. Silk sponges are evaluated for recovery following 80% compressive strain, total porosity, pore size distribution, secondary structure development, in vivo volume retention, cell infiltration, and inflammatory responses. Glycerol-modified sponges recover up to 98.3% of their original dimensions following compression, while sulfonic acid/glycerol modified sponges swell in water up to 71 times their compressed volume, well in excess of their original size. Longer silk extraction times (lower silk molecular weights) and higher glycerol concentrations yielded greater flexibility and shape fidelity, with no loss in modulus following compression. Sponges are over 95% porous, with secondary structure analysis indicating glycerol-induced β-sheet physical crosslinking. Tyrosine modifications with sulfonic acid interfere with β-sheet formation. Glycerol-modified sponges exhibit improved rates of cellular infiltration at subcutaneous implant sites with minimal immune response in mice. They also degrade more rapidly than unmodified sponges, a result posited to be cell-mediated. Overall, this work suggests that silk sponges may be useful for minimally invasive deployment in soft tissue augmentation procedures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierts, Thomas; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.; de Leeuw, Christiaan A.; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; de Voogd, Nicole J.

    2017-09-01

    Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these populations agreed with current taxonomic consensus or, in contrast, whether there was evidence of cryptic species. Using molecular data, we assessed whether giant barrel sponges in each oceanic realm represented separate monophyletic lineages. Giant barrel sponges from 17 coral reef systems across the globe were sequenced for mitochondrial (partial CO1 and ATP6 genes) and nuclear (ATPsβ intron) DNA markers. In total, we obtained 395 combined sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 markers, which resulted in 17 different haplotypes. We compared a phylogenetic tree constructed from 285 alleles of the nuclear intron ATPsβ to the 17 mitochondrial haplotypes. Congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees of giant barrel sponges provided evidence for the existence of multiple reproductively isolated species, particularly where they occurred in sympatry. The species complexes in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific, however, do not form separate monophyletic lineages. This rules out the scenario that one species of giant barrel sponge developed into separate species complexes following geographic separation and instead suggests that multiple species of giant barrel sponges already existed prior to the physical separation of the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic.

  5. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed. PMID:27144573

  6. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-07

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

  7. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  8. Exploring the diversity-stability paradigm using sponge microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Glasl, Bettina; Smith, Caitlin E; Bourne, David G; Webster, Nicole S

    2018-05-30

    A key concept in theoretical ecology is the positive correlation between biodiversity and ecosystem stability. When applying this diversity-stability concept to host-associated microbiomes, the following questions emerge: (1) Does microbial diversity influence the stability of microbiomes upon environmental fluctuations? (2) Do hosts that harbor high versus low microbial diversity differ in their stress response? To test the diversity-stability concept in host-associated microbiomes, we exposed six marine sponge species with varying levels of microbial diversity to non-lethal salinity disturbances and followed their microbial composition over time using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. No signs of sponge stress were evident following salinity amendment and microbiomes exhibited compositional resistance irrespective of their microbial diversity. Compositional stability of the sponge microbiome manifests itself at distinct host taxonomic and host microbial diversity groups, with (1) stable host genotype-specific microbiomes at oligotype-level; (2) stable host species-specific microbiomes at genus-level; and (3) stable and specific microbiomes at phylum-level for hosts with high versus low microbial diversity. The resistance of sponge microbiomes together with the overall stability of sponge holobionts upon salinity fluctuations suggest that the stability-diversity concept does not appear to hold for sponge microbiomes and provides further evidence for the widely recognized environmental tolerance of sponges.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Robert W.; Díaz, M. Cristina; de Voogd, Nicole J.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mobley, Andrew S.; LaPietra, Jessica; Cope, Kevin; McKenna, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. Conclusions/Significance This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity. PMID:20502643

  10. Apollo couch energy absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, C. J.; Drexel, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Load attenuators for the Apollo spacecraft crew couch and its potential applications are described. Energy absorption is achieved through friction and cyclic deformation of material. In one concept, energy absorption is accomplished by rolling a compressed ring of metal between two surfaces. In another concept, energy is absorbed by forcing a plastically deformed washer along a rod. Among the design problems that had to be solved were material selection, fatigue life, ring slippage, lubrication, and friction loading.

  11. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  12. Gelatin prepared from tuna skin: a risk factor for fish allergy or sensitization?

    PubMed

    André, Françoise; Cavagna, Sylvie; André, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Although fish gelatin may represent a useful alternative to bovine or porcine gelatin, the clearly recognized high prevalence of fish allergy could increase the risk of anaphylaxis to gelatin. The rationale for investigating tuna gelatin rather than gelatin from more allergenic fishes is the availability of an industrial gelatin under development. The infrequent occurrence of tuna allergy should influence the safety of a derived product. The present study investigated IgE antibodies to tuna-skin-derived gelatin in adults and children with documented fish allergy or sensitization. Serum samples were taken from 100 consecutive patients with fish allergy or sensitization and tested for IgE antibodies against hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed gelatin extracted from tuna skin as compared to extracts from tuna flesh, tuna skin as well as bovine or porcine gelatin. Patients with tuna allergies or sensitization were sensitive to the same tuna species (yellowfin) as that from which the gelatin was obtained. IgE antibodies to these various extracts were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Only 3 of the 100 serum samples tested gave evidence of reactivity to gelatin extracted from tuna skin. Cross-reactivity between bovine/porcine and fish gelatin was not observed. The risk of adverse reactions to tuna skin gelatin seems to be significantly lower than the risk of fish allergy. Fish gelatin may represent a valuable alternative to bovine or porcine gelatin. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based on tapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Marvizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Oladzadabbasabadi, Nazila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Jokar, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    To exploring a nano-packaging materials for using as coating or edible films, tapioca starch/gelatin/nanorod ZnO (ZnON) bionanocomposites were prepared via solution casting technique. The effects of nanofiller addition on the mechanical, physicochemical, and crystalline structures, as well as the barrier properties of bionanocomposite films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the bionanocomposite film incorporated with ZnON at a concentration of 3.5% w/w exhibited high intensity peaks compared with control samples. Results of UV-vis spectra analysis showed that incorporation of ZnON into the films can absorb the whole UV light. Tensile strength of the films was increased from 14 to 18MPa whereas elongation at breaks decreased from 18 to 8 percent and oxygen permeability decreased from 151.03 to 91.52cm 3 μm/(m 2 -day) by incorporation of 3.5% ZnON into biopolymer matrix. In summary combined starch/gelatin films supported by ZnON showed better properties compared to starch or gelatin alone. Thus, the bionanocomposite films can be used in food, medicine, and pharmaceutical packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Possible influences on bullet trajectory deflection in ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Riva, Fabiano; Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects. A surprisingly consistent 6.5° absolute deflection angle was found when these bullets passed through 22.5 to 23.5cm of ballistic gelatine. The projection angle, determined by the direction of the deflection, appeared to be random. The consistent absolute angle, in combination with the random projection angle, resulted in a cone-like deflection pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dichromated-gelatin hologram process for improved optical quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Optical distortions are eliminated by use of wetting agency followed by sequential immersion in several alcohol-water baths of increasing alcohol concentration. Dehydration proceeds uniformly over surface of gelatin. Dried plate is free of optically-distorting thickness variations.

  16. [Anaphylaxis after vaccination due to hypersensitivity to gelatin].

    PubMed

    Kamin, W; Staubach, P; Klär-Hlawatsch, B; Erdnüss, F; Knuf, M

    2006-01-01

    Most allergic reactions after vaccination occur in patients sensitive to egg protein. Therefore this subject is well investigated, and the majority of common vaccines today contain only traces of egg protein. In contrast, there is little knowledge of hypersensitivities to other substances frequently contained in vaccines, e. g. antibiotics, phenol, gelatin and different preservatives. Here we report the case of a boy who had an anaphylactic reaction after being vaccinated against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and tick-born encephalitis (TBE) simultaneously. Different tests finally revealed a hypersensitivity to gelatin. This should be kept in mind especially during emergency care, since gelatin containing products like Haemaccel, Gelifundol or Gelofusin are widely used as colloid for resuscitation. If type 1 reactions after vaccination occur, gelatin should be taken into account as the causative agent. A medical alert card is recommended for such patients.

  17. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM WASHINGTON MONUMENT, October 3, 1929, photography Commercial Photo - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, VIEW OF NORTH WALL OF MAIN COURT, May 1, 1935, photographer Reni - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, C STREET FACADE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, C STREET FACADE, October 3, 1929, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER, April 1, 1929, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, WEST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, WEST END OF PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE ELL SHOWING TEMPORARY BRICK WALL, March 1, 1935, photographer Reni - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, TWELFTH STREET DRIVEWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, TWELFTH STREET DRIVEWAY ENTRANCE, August 31, 1929, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, C STREET AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, C STREET AT TWELFTH STREET, May 1, 1930, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, WEST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, WEST END OF PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE ELL SHOWING TEMPORARY BRICK WALL, May 1, 1935, photographer Reni - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM JUSTICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM JUSTICE BUILDING LOOKING WEST, June 4, 1934, photographer Reni - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST CORNER, April 1, 1929, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FOR NORTHEAST CORNER OF WING, November 1, 1934, photographer Reni - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Spiral crystal growth of potassium dichromate in gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Jun-Ichiro; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    1995-02-01

    Huge spiral crystals of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) have been found to grow three-dimensionally in a gelatin medium when gelatin containing K2Cr2O7 was dried slowly in a test tube at a low temperature. These spirals were all right-handed, and their widths, axial pitches and lengths were 2-3 mm, 5-6 mm and 20-25 mm, repectively. When the gelatin concentration in the medium was decreased, ordinary plate-like crystals were observed to grow, instead of the spiral crystals. To the best of our knowledge, inorganic compounds such as K2Cr2O7 have so far not been reported to form such huge spiral crystals. It is conjectured that collagen molecules, which compose the gelatin medium and have right-handed triple helix structure lead to the growth of spiral crystals.

  9. Recent advances in the use of gelatin in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Su, Kai; Wang, Chunming

    2015-11-01

    The biomacromolecule, gelatin, has increasingly been used in biomedicine-beyond its traditional use in food and cosmetics. The appealing advantages of gelatin, such as its cell-adhesive structure, low cost, off-the-shelf availability, high biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity, among others, have made it a desirable candidate for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Gelatin can be formulated in the form of nanoparticles, employed as size-controllable porogen, adopted as surface coating agent and mixed with synthetic or natural biopolymers forming composite scaffolds. In this article, we review recent advances in the versatile applications of gelatin within biomedical context and attempt to draw upon its advantages and potential challenges.

  10. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of γ-irradiated silver nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Hakimi, Mohammad; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, Ali Khorsand; Hosseini, Hasan Ali; Zargar, Mohsen

    2013-04-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were obtained through γ-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The absorbed dose of γ-irradiation influences the particle diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. When the γ-irradiation dose was increased (from 2 to 50 kGy), the mean particle size was decreased continuously as a result of γ-induced Ag-NPs fragmentation. The antibacterial properties of the Ag-NPs were tested against Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) (Gram-negative) bacteria. This approach reveals that the γ-irradiation-mediated method is a promising simple route for synthesizing highly stable Ag-NPs in aqueous solutions with good antibacterial properties for different applications.

  11. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  12. Enzymatic regulation of functional vascular networks using gelatin hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chia-Hui; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Chu, Ya-Chun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    To manufacture tissue engineering-based functional tissues, scaffold materials that can be sufficiently vascularized to mimic the functionality and complexity of native tissues are needed. Currently, vascular network bioengineering is largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds, but most natural hydrogels have poor mechanical stability and durability, factors that critically limit their widespread use. In this study, we examined the suitability of gelatin-phenolic hydroxyl (gelatin-Ph) hydrogels that can be enzymatically crosslinked, allowing tuning of the storage modulus and the proteolytic degradation rate, for use as injectable hydrogels to support the human progenitor cell-based formation of a stable and mature vascular network. Porcine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were found to be cytocompatible with human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells and white adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in >87% viability, and cell proliferation and spreading could be modulated by using hydrogels with different proteolytic degradability and stiffness. In addition, gelatin was extracted from mouse dermis and murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were prepared. Importantly, implantation of human cell-laden porcine or murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels into immunodeficient mice resulted in the rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, the degree of enzymatic crosslinking of the gelatin-Ph hydrogels could be used to modulate cell behavior and the extent of vascular network formation in vivo. Our report details a technique for the synthesis of gelatin-Ph hydrogels from allogeneic or xenogeneic dermal skin and suggests that these hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues. PMID:25749296

  13. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  14. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  15. Gelatin- hydroxyapatite- calcium sulphate based biomaterial for long term sustained delivery of bone morphogenic protein-2 and zoledronic acid for increased bone formation: In-vitro and in-vivo carrier properties.

    PubMed

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Larsson, David; Mrkonjic, Filip; Isaksson, Hanna; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2018-02-28

    In this study, a novel macroporous composite biomaterial consisting of gelatin-hydroxyapatite-calcium sulphate for delivery of bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and zoledronic acid (ZA) has been developed. The biomaterial scaffold has a porous structure and functionalization of the scaffold with rhBMP-2 induces osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-e1 cells seen by a significant increase in biochemical and genetic markers of osteoblastic differentiation. In-vivo muscle pouch experiments showed higher mineralization using scaffold+rhBMP-2 when compared to an approved absorbable collagen sponge (ACS)+rhBMP-2 as verified by micro-CT. Co-delivery of rhBMP-2+ZA via the novel scaffold enabled a reduction in the effective rhBMP-2 doses. The presence of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining in the rhBMP-2 group indicates osteoclastic resorption, which could be stalled by adding ZA, which by speculation could explain the net increase in mineralization. The new scaffold allowed for slow release of rhBMP-2 in-vitro (3.3±0.1%) after 4weeks. Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the release kinetics of 125 I-rhBMP-2 in-vivo was followed for 4weeks and a total of 65.3±15.2% 125 I-rhBMP-2 was released from the scaffolds. In-vitro 14 C-ZA release curve shows an initial burst release on day 1 (8.8±0.7%) followed by a slow release during the following 4weeks (13±0.1%). In-vivo, an initial release of 43.2±7.6% of 14 C-ZA was detected after 1day, after which the scaffold retained the remaining ZA during 4-weeks. Taken together, our results show that the developed biomaterial is an efficient carrier for spatio-temporal delivery of rhBMP-2 and ZA leading to increased bone formation compared to commercially available carrier for rhBMP-2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular interactions in gelatin/chitosan composite films.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Congde; Ma, Xianguang; Zhang, Jianlong; Yao, Jinshui

    2017-11-15

    Gelatin and chitosan were mixed at different mass ratios in solution forms, and the rheological properties of these film-forming solutions, upon cooling, were studied. The results indicate that the significant interactions between gelatin and chitosan promote the formation of multiple complexes, reflected by an increase in the storage modulus of gelatin solution. Furthermore, these molecular interactions hinder the formation of gelatin networks, consequently decreasing the storage modulus of polymer gels. Both hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions are formed between gelatin and chitosan, as evidenced by the shift of the amide-II bands of polymers. X-ray patterns of composite films indicate that the contents of triple helices decrease with increasing chitosan content. Only one glass transition temperature (T g ) was observed in composite films with different composition ratios, and it decreases gradually with an increase in chitosan proportion, indicating that gelatin and chitosan have good miscibility and form a wide range of blends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of HLA in children with gelatin allergy.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Nakayama, T; Kaku, H; Taniguchi, K; Saito, S; Kimura, A; Inouye, S

    2002-05-01

    Systemic immediate reactions including anaphylaxis to gelatin in vaccines have been reported. However, the number of such reports is very small compared with the number of children exposed to gelatin. The present study was designed to investigate whether susceptibility or resistance to gelatin allergy is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II gene. Blood samples were obtained from 49 patients with gelatin allergy and specific IgE to gelatin. DNA-based HLA class II typing was performed to determine the DRB1, DQB1 and DPB1 alleles. Genotype frequencies were compared with those found in 240 unrelated controls. The frequency of DQB1*0303 (55.1%) was significantly higher in the patients than in the control subjects (32.1%). The frequency of DPB1*0402 was also significantly higher in the patients (32.7%) than in the control subjects (15.4%). On the other hand, the frequency of subjects carrying DRB1*15 (DRB1*1501 and DRB1*1502) was significantly lower among the patients group (18.4%) than among the controls (40.8%). We found that DQB1*0303 and DPB1*0402 were positively associated with the IgE response for gelatin, while DRB1*15 was negatively associated with it.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

  20. Femtosecond laser printing of living cells using absorbing film-assisted laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Béla; Smausz, Tomi; Szabó, Gábor; Kolozsvári, Lajos; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Fotakis, Costas; Nógrádi, Antal

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of a femtosecond KrF laser in absorbing film-assisted, laser-induced forward transfer of living cells was studied. The absorbing materials were 50-nm-thick metal films and biomaterials (gelatine, Matrigel, each 50 μm thick, and polyhydroxybutyrate, 2 μm). The used cell types were human neuroblastoma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and osteogenic sarcoma cell lines, and primary astroglial rat cells. Pulses of a 500-fs KrF excimer laser focused onto the absorbing layer in a 250-μm diameter spot with 225 mJ/cm2 fluence were used to transfer the cells to the acceptor plate placed at 0.6 mm distance, which was a glass slide either pure or covered with biomaterials. While the low-absorptivity biomaterial absorbing layers proved to be ineffective in transfer of cells, when applied on the surface of acceptor plate, the wet gelatine and Matrigel layers successfully ameliorated the impact of the cells, which otherwise did not survive the arrival onto a hard surface. The best short- and long-term survival rate was between 65% and 70% for neuroblastoma and astroglial cells. The long-term survival of the transferred osteosarcoma cells was low, while the myeloid leukemia cells did not tolerate the procedure under the applied experimental conditions.

  1. Removal of gelatin from live vaccines and DTaP-an ultimate solution for vaccine-related gelatin allergy.

    PubMed

    Kuno-Sakai, Harumi; Kimura, Mikio

    2003-12-01

    From the early 1990s infants started to receive acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTaP) before live vaccines such as measles, rubella, and mumps vaccines, which contained gelatin as a stabilizer. Then, an increasing number of cases of anaphylactic/allergic reactions to those live vaccines were reported. Almost all these cases had a previous history of receiving three or four doses of DTaP containing gelatin.Anaphylactic/allergic reactions to live measles vaccine were analyzed using information obtained from the Reporting System, a retrospective study, as well as from the Monitoring System, a prospective study. Dramatic decreases in anaphylactic/allergic reactions to live measles vaccines were observed immediately after each manufacturer marketed gelatin-free or gelatin (hypo-allergic)-containing live measles vaccine, and since the end of 1998 reports on anaphylactic/allergic reactions to live measles vaccine have almost ceased.

  2. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  3. Absorber for solar power.

    PubMed

    Powell, W R

    1974-10-01

    A simple, economical absorber utilizing a new principle of operation to achieve very low reradiation losses while generating temperatures limited by material properties of quartz is described. Its performance is analyzed and indicates approximately 90% thermal efficiency and 73% conversion efficiency for an earth based unit with moderately concentrated (~tenfold) sunlight incident. It is consequently compatible with the most economic of concentrator mirrors (stamped) or mirrors deployable in space. Space applications are particularly attractive, as temperatures significantly below 300 K are possible and permit even higher conversion efficiency.

  4. Robotic deposition and in vitro characterization of 3D gelatin-bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Gao, Qiang; Teramoto, Akira; Abe, Koji

    2013-07-01

    The development of inorganic-organic hybrid scaffolds with controllable degradation and bioactive properties is receiving considerable interest for bone and tissue regeneration. The objective of this study was to create hybrid scaffolds of gelatin and bioactive glass (BG) with a controlled, three-dimensional (3D) architecture by a combined sol-gel and robotic deposition (robocasting) method and evaluate their mechanical response, bioactivity, and response to cells in vitro. Inks for robotic deposition of the scaffolds were prepared by dissolving gelatin in a sol-gel precursor solution of the bioactive glass (70SiO2 -25CaO-5P2 O5 ; mol%) and aging the solution to form a gel with the requisite viscosity. After drying and crosslinking, the gelatin-BG scaffolds, with a grid-like architecture (filament diameter ∼350 µm; pore width ∼550 µm), showed an elasto-plastic response, with a compressive strength of 5.1 ± 0.6 MPa, in the range of values for human trabecular bone (2-12 MPa). When immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, the crosslinked scaffolds rapidly absorbed water (∼440% of its dry weight after 2 h) and showed an elastic response at deformations up to ∼60%. Immersion of the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid resulted in the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like surface layer within 5 days, indicating their bioactivity in vitro. The scaffolds supported the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro, showing their biocompatibility. Altogether, the results indicate that these gelatin-BG hybrid scaffolds with a controlled, 3D architecture of inter-connected pores have potential for use as implants for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Baeva, M R; Panchev, I N; Terzieva, V V

    2000-08-01

    The complete sucrose elimination and its replacement by microencapsulated aspartame (Nutra Sweet) and bulking agents (sorbitol, wheat starch and wheat germ) on the physical and textural sensory characteristics of two diabetic sponge cakes against a control sponge cake was studied. Mathematical and statistical methods were used and regression models worked out, describing the physical and textural characteristics of the three sponge cakes and their values were optimized. The effect on the porosity, springiness, volume and shrinkage of sponge takes was substantial and depended on the amount of the added ingredients. The diabetic sponge cake containing wheat germ showed the least physical and sensory deviations against the control sponge cake. The energy value of the diabetic sponge cakes against the control one was reduced with 25% for the ordinary sponge cake without sucrose and with 29% for sponge cake without sucrose containing wheat germ.

  6. Call to protect deep-sea coral, sponge ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    More than 1100 scientists are signatories to a 15 February consensus statement calling for the protection of deep sea coral and sponge ecosystems. The statement indicates that ``the greatest human threat'' to these ecosystems ``is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling.''

  7. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R.; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B.; Erwin, Patrick M.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J.; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W.; Thacker, Robert W.; Montoya, Jose M.; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host–microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  8. Carbon nanotube sponges as tunable materials for electromagnetic applications.

    PubMed

    Shuba, Mikhail; Yuko, Dzmitry; Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey A; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Scarselli, Manuela

    2018-06-26

    The microwave conductivity and permittivity of both single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT and MWCNT) sponges were measured while compressing the samples. Compression leads to a huge variation of the absorptance, reflectance, and transmittance of the samples. The dependence of the microwave conductivity on the sponge density follows a power-law relation with exponents 1.7±0.1 and 2.0±0.2 for MWCNT and SWCNT sponges, respectively. These exponents can be decreased slightly by the addition of a nonconducting component which partly electrically separates adjacent tubes within the samples. The conductivity of MWCNT sponge was measured in the terahertz range while heating in air from 300 K to 513 K and it increased due to an increase of a number of conducting channels in MWCNTs. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effect of egg albumen protein addition on physicochemical properties and nanostructure of gelatin from fish skin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Luyun; Feng, Jianhui; Peng, Xichun; Regenstein, Joe M; Li, Xiuxia; Li, Jianrong; Zhao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The physicochemical properties and nanostructure of mixtures of egg albumen protein (EAP) and gelatin from under-utilised grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) skins were studied. The gelatin with 1% EAP had an acceptable gel strength. The addition of 5% EAP significantly increased the melting and gelling temperatures of gelatin gels. Additionally, the colour turned white and the crystallinity was higher in gelatin gels with gradient concentrations of EAP (1, 3, and 5%). Gelatin with 5% EAP had the highest G' values while gelatin with 1% EAP had the lowest G' values. Atomic force microscopy showed the heterogeneous nanostructure of fish gelatin, and a simple coacervate with a homogeneous distribution was only observed with the addition of 1% EAP, indicating interaction between gelatin and EAP. These results showed that EAP effect fish gelatin's physicochemical and nanostructure properties and has potential applications in foods and pharmaceuticals.

  10. The physico-chemical properties of pangas catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradarameswari, K. A.; Zaelani, K.; Waluyo, E.; Nurdiani, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gelatin can be used as emulsifier and stabilizer in food products. Until now, the most widely used raw materials for the production of gelatin industry are cow bone, cow skin and pig skin. Fish gelatin has been highlighted as a better alternative to replace mammals gelatin based on ethical and religious perspective. Fish gelatin was extracted from Pangas catfish skin to determine its physico-chemical properties. Different temperatures (45 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C) were employed during gelatin extraction. Higher temperature increased the yield and fat contents of Pangas catfish skin gelatin. In contrary, higher water, protein, ash contents were observed during lower temperature. Temperature significantly (p < 0.05) affected the gel strength, viscosity, melting point, and gelling point of fish skin gelatin. Based on the FTIR spectrum catfish skin gelatin functional groups can be identified as N-H, O-H, C = H, C-O and C-H.

  11. Comparison of water gel desserts from fish skin and pork gelatins using instrumental measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Regenstein, Joe M

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare water gel desserts from various gelatins using instrumental measurements. The puncture test and texture profile analysis (TPA) with compression were determined at 25% and 75% deformation; the melting properties were determined rheologically by monitoring the change of storage modulus (G') with increasing temperature. The measurements with 25% deformation were always nondestructive, while measurements with 75% deformation were mostly destructive. Desserts made from Alaska pollock gelatin (AG) or gelatin mixtures containing AG were more resistant to the destruction caused by the large deformation than tilapia gelatin and pork gelatins. In addition, the gel dessert made from AG melted at a lower temperature than those from tilapia skin gelatin and pork gelatins, while desserts made from gelatin mixtures reflected the melting properties of the separate gelatins.

  12. Fabrication of an ultrafine fish gelatin nanofibrous web from an aqueous solution by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyo Won; Shin, Munju; Lee, Jeong Yun; Yun, Haesung; Song, Dae Woong; Yang, Yesol; Shin, Bong-Seob; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Electrospinning of aqueous gelatin solution obtained from bovine or porcine sources has been difficult to achieve without additional facilities, such as a temperature control oven or heating cover. Gelatin from cold-water fish has low contents of proline (Pro) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) compared with mammalian-derived gelatin. For this reason, the fish-derived gelatin maintains a sol state without showing gelation behavior at room temperature. In the present study, we prepared an ultrafine fish gelatin nanofibrous web by electrospinning from aqueous solutions without any additive polymers or temperature control facilities. The concentration and viscosity of fish gelatin are the most important factor in determining the electrospinnability and fiber diameter. Electrospinning of aqueous fish gelatin has the highest nanofiber productivity compared to other organic solvent systems. Using glutaraldehyde vapor (GTA), the water stability was improved and substantial enhancement was achieved in the mechanical properties. Finally, the cytotoxicity of a fish gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was evaluated based on a cell proliferation study by culturing human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) compared with a fish gelatin film and nanofibrous mat from mammalian gelatin. The result shows better initial cell attachment and proliferation compared with the fish gelatin film and no significant difference compared with mammalian-derived gelatin nanofibrous mat. We expect that electrospinning of aqueous fish gelatin could be an effective alternative mammalian gelatin source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient Absorption of X-Hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly after Oral Administration of a Novel Gelatin Hydrolysate Prepared Using Ginger Protease.

    PubMed

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-04-13

    Recent studies have reported that oral intake of gelatin hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as reduction of joint pain and lowering of blood sugar levels. In this study, we produced a novel gelatin hydrolysate using a cysteine-type ginger protease having unique substrate specificity with preferential peptide cleavage with Pro at the P2 position. Substantial amounts of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides were generated up to 2.5% (w/w) concomitantly with Gly-Pro-Y-type tripeptides (5%; w/w) using ginger powder. The in vivo absorption of the ginger-degraded gelatin hydrolysate was estimated using mice. The plasma levels of collagen-derived oligopeptides, especially X-Hyp-Gly, were significantly high (e.g., 2.3-fold for Glu-Hyp-Gly, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control gelatin hydrolysate, which was prepared using gastrointestinal proteases and did not contain detectable X-Hyp-Gly. This study demonstrated that orally administered X-Hyp-Gly was effectively absorbed into the blood, probably due to the high protease resistance of this type of tripeptide.

  14. Identification Sponges-Associated Fungi From Karimunjawa National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, Agus; Sabdono, Agus; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Wulan Triningsih, Desy; Seswita Zilda, Dewi

    2018-02-01

    Marine sponges are rich sources of bioactive substances with various pharmacological activities. Previous studies have shown that most bioactive compounds were originally produced by associated-microorganisms. Fungi associated with the marine sponges collected off Karimunjawa National Park were isolated and identified by morphological characteristics and molecular level analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. A total of 2 isolates which were characterized, the fungi Penicillium spinulosum and Trichoderma virens have been revealed.

  15. Electrospun Blends of Gelatin and Gelatin-dendrimer Conjugates as a Wound Dressing and Drug Delivery Platform

    PubMed Central

    Dongargaonkar, Alpana A.; Bowlin, Gary L.; Yang, Hu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report a new nanofiber construct based on electrospun blends of gelatin and gelatin-dendrimer conjugates. Highly branched star-shaped polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G3.5 was covalently conjugated to gelatin via EDC/NHS chemistry. Blends of gelatin and gelatin-dendrimer conjugates mixed with various loading levels of silver acetate (0, 0.83, 1.65, and 3.30% w/w) were successfully electrospun into nanofiber constructs (NCs). The NCs were further converted into semi-interpenetrating networks (sIPNs) with photoreactive polyethylene glycol diacrylate (Mn=575 gmol-1) (PEG DA575). They were characterized in terms of fiber morphology, diameter, pore size, permeability, degradation, and mechanical properties. The resulting sIPN NCs retained nanofiber morphology, possessed similar fiber diameters to counterpart NCs, and gained improved structural stability. The sIPN NCs also showed good swelling capacity owing to porous structures and were permeable to aqueous solutions. Silvercontaining sIPN NCs allowed sustained silver release and showed antimicrobial activity against two common types of pathogens—Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Incorporation of dendrimers into the gelatin nanofibers through covalent conjugation not only expands drug loading capacity of nanofiber constructs but provides tremendous flexibility for developing multifunctional electrospun dressing materials. PMID:24127747

  16. Controlled Fabrication of Gelatin Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, M.; Sanati, M. H.; Minuchehr, Z.; Hajizadeh, S.; Babaei, Z.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, significant effort has been devoted to develop nanotechnology for drug delivery since it offers a suitable means of delivering small molecular weight drugs, as well as macromolecules such as proteins, peptides or genes by either localized or targeted delivery to the tissue of interest. Nanotechnology focuses on formulating therapeutic agents in biocompatible nanocomposites such as nanoparticles, nanocapsules, micellar systems, and conjugates. Protein nanoparticles (BSA, HAS and gelatin) generally vary in size from 50-300 nm and they hold certain advantages such as greater stability during storage, stability in vivo, non-toxicity, non-antigen and ease to scale up during manufacture over the other drug delivery systems. The primary structure of gelatin offers many possibilities for chemical modification and covalent drug attachment. Here nanoparticles of gelatin type A were prepared by a two-step desolvation method as a colloidal drug delivery system and the essential parameters in fabrication were considered. Gelatin was dissolved in 25 mL distilled water under room temperature range. Then acetone was added to the gelatin solution as a desolvating agent to precipitate the high molecular weight (HMW) gelatin. The supernatant was discarded and the HMW gelatin re-dissolved by adding 25 mL distilled water and stirring at 600 rpm. Acetone were added drop-wise to form nanoparticles. At the end of the process, glutaraldehyde solution was used for preparing nanoparticles as a cross-linking agent, and stirred for 12h at 600 rpm. For purification stage we use centrifuge with 600rpm for 3 times. The objective of the present study is consideration of some factors such as temperature, gelatin concentration, agitation speed and the amount of acetone and their effects on size and distribution of nanoparticles. Among the all conditions, 60° C, 50 mg/ml gelatin concentration, 75 ml acetone had the best result and the nanoparticle size was under 170 nm. The effect

  17. High-performance nanostructured supercapacitors on a sponge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Rakhi, R B; Hu, Liangbing; Xie, Xing; Cui, Yi; Alshareef, H N

    2011-12-14

    A simple and scalable method has been developed to fabricate nanostructured MnO2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge hybrid electrodes. A novel supercapacitor, henceforth referred to as "sponge supercapacitor", has been fabricated using these hybrid electrodes with remarkable performance. A specific capacitance of 1,230 F/g (based on the mass of MnO2) can be reached. Capacitors based on CNT-sponge substrates (without MnO2) can be operated even under a high scan rate of 200 V/s, and they exhibit outstanding cycle performance with only 2% degradation after 100,000 cycles under a scan rate of 10 V/s. The MnO2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors show only 4% of degradation after 10,000 cycles at a charge-discharge specific current of 5 A/g. The specific power and energy of the MnO2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors are high with values of 63 kW/kg and 31 Wh/kg, respectively. The attractive performances exhibited by these sponge supercapacitors make them potentially promising candidates for future energy storage systems.

  18. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  19. Interpreting environmental signals from the coralline sponge Astrosclera willeyana

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, S J; McCulloch, M T; Guilderson, T P

    2004-06-30

    Coralline sponges (sclerosponges) have been proposed as a new source for paleo subsurface temperature reconstructions by utilizing methods developed for reef-building corals. However unlike corals, coralline sponges do not have density variations making age determination difficult. In this study we examined multiple elemental rations (B, Mg, Sr, Ba, U) in the coralline sponge Astrosclera willeyana. We also measured skeletal density profiles along the outer ''living'' edge of the sponges and this data indicates significant thickening of skeletal material over intervals of 2-3 mm or 2-3 years. This suggests that any skeletal recovered environmental record from Astrosclera willeyana is an integrationmore » of signals over a 2-3 year period. Sponge Sr/Ca seemed to hold the most promise as a recorder of water temperature and we compared Sr/Ca from 2 sponges in the Great Barrier Reef and one from Truk in Micronesia to their respective sea surface temperature record. The correlations were not that strong ({approx} r=-0.5) but they were significant. It appears that the signal smoothing due to thickening or perhaps even some biologic control on Sr skeletal partitioning limits the use of Sr/Ca as an indicator of water temperature in Astrosclera willeyana.« less

  20. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Embolization Materials Made of Gelatin: Comparison Between Gelpart and Gelatin Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Shinichi, E-mail: junryuhei@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga

    2010-02-15

    Purpose:The object of this study was to assess the level of embolization in the embolized artery and the degradation period of these two embolic agents in the renal arteries using rabbit models.Materials and Methods: The renal artery was embolized using 5 mg of gelatin microspheres (GMSs; diameter, 35-100 {mu}m; group 1) or 1 mg of Gelpart (diameter, 1 mm; group 2). For each group, angiographies were performed on two kidneys immediately after the embolic procedure and on days 3, 7, and 14 after embolization. This was followed by histopathological examinations of the kidneys.Results:Follow-up angiograms on each day revealed the persistencemore » of poorly enhanced wedge-shaped areas in the parenchymal phase in all cases. In group 1, four of six cases showed poorly enhanced small areas in the follow-up angiograms. In group 2, all cases showed poorly enhanced large areas. In the histopathological specimens, it was observed that immediately after embolization, the particles reached the interlobular arteries in group 1 and the interlobar arteries in group 2. In all cases in group 1, the particles were histologically identified even on day 14. In one case in group 2 on day 14, the particles were not identified.Conclusion:In conclusion, although GMSs and Gelpart were similar in the point of gelatin particles, the level of embolization and the degradation period were different between GMSs and Gelpart.« less

  2. Deposition of shallow water sponges in response to seasonal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Enrique; Carballo, José Luis; Vega, Cristina; Camacho, Leonardo; Barrón-Álvarez, José J.; Padilla-Verdín, Claudia; Yáñez-Chávez, Benjamín

    2011-08-01

    Removal of organisms from the subtidal zone plays an important role in shaping benthic communities in shallow bays. The main objective of this research was to quantify the biomass of sponges washed up on the beach at Mazatlan Bay (Mexico, eastern Pacific Ocean), and to determine its relationship with local weather and oceanographic conditions. To know whether this process has a significant effect on the sponge populations, changes in abundance of the species washed into the beach were also quantified in adjoining sublittoral areas. The sponges that were washed ashore were mainly branching ( Mycale ramulosa), massive ( Haliclona caerulea) and cushion-shaped ( Callyspongia californica) species. Species with high content of spongin in their structure (e.g. Hyattella intestinalis) were common in the subtidal zone but were rarely found on the beach. Encrusting species were never found. Four-year data of sponge deposition on the beach showed that the total annual sponge biomass ranged from 30 to 60 g DW m - 2 with an inter-annual range from 0.1 to 17.3 g DW m - 2 . The highest deposition of sponges was during the spring-summer transition (from April to July), which was associated with a change in wind direction (from NW to WSW). This change also matched with low tides and a high resuspension of bottom sediments, suggesting a high-energy environment during this transition. The increase in sponge biomass washed on the beach coincided with a decrease in the density of adjacent sponge populations. A multiple regression analysis showed that 68.48% of the variation on sponge biomass on the beach could be statistically explained using a combination of environmental factors (wind speed, sediment resuspension and tides). Thus, seasonal changes in wind direction combined with the effect of low tides and sediment resuspension could serve to predict fragmentation/detachment events of benthic organisms in shallow sublittoral areas worldwide. This study also provides insights to

  3. Hemostatic techniques following multilevel posterior lumbar spine surgery: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Jin, Yongming; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Haiyu; Yang, Di; Chen, Jinping

    2014-12-01

    This was a prospective, randomized controlled clinical study. To determine the efficacy of absorbable gelatin sponge in reducing blood loss, as well as shortening the length of hospital stay in patients undergoing multilevel posterior lumbar spinal surgery. Absorbable gelatin sponge is reported to decrease postoperative drain output and the length of hospital stay after multilevel posterior cervical spine surgery. However, there is a dearth of literature on prospective study of the efficacy of absorbable gelatin sponge in reducing postoperative blood loss, as well as shortening the length of hospital stay in patients undergoing multilevel posterior lumbar spinal surgery. A total of 82 consecutive patients who underwent multilevel posterior lumbar fusion or posterior lumbar interbody fusion between June 2011 and June 2012 were prospectively randomized into one of the 2 groups according to whether absorbable gelatin sponge for postoperative blood management was used or not. Demographic distribution, total drain output, blood transfusion rate, the length of stay, the number of readmissions, and postoperative complications were analyzed. Total drain output averaged 173 mL in the study group and 392 mL in the control group (P=0.000). Perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion rate were lower in the Gelfoam group (34.1% vs. 58.5%, P=0.046); moreover, length of stay in patients with the use of absorbable gelatin sponge (12.58 d) was significantly shorter (P=0.009) than the patients in the control group (14.46 d). No patient developed adverse reactions attributable to the absorbable gelatin sponge. Application of absorbable gelatin sponge at the end of multilevel posterior lumbar fusion can significantly decrease postoperative drain output and length of hospital stay.

  4. Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

  5. Micromolded gelatin hydrogels for extended culture of engineered cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    McCain, Megan L; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Nesmith, Haley W; Nesmith, Alexander P; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-07-01

    Defining the chronic cardiotoxic effects of drugs during preclinical screening is hindered by the relatively short lifetime of functional cardiac tissues in vitro, which are traditionally cultured on synthetic materials that do not recapitulate the cardiac microenvironment. Because collagen is the primary extracellular matrix protein in the heart, we hypothesized that micromolded gelatin hydrogel substrates tuned to mimic the elastic modulus of the heart would extend the lifetime of engineered cardiac tissues by better matching the native chemical and mechanical microenvironment. To measure tissue stress, we used tape casting, micromolding, and laser engraving to fabricate gelatin hydrogel muscular thin film cantilevers. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes adhered to gelatin hydrogels and formed aligned tissues as defined by the microgrooves. Cardiac tissues could be cultured for over three weeks without declines in contractile stress. Myocytes on gelatin had higher spare respiratory capacity compared to those on fibronectin-coated PDMS, suggesting that improved metabolic function could be contributing to extended culture lifetime. Lastly, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes adhered to micromolded gelatin surfaces and formed aligned tissues that remained functional for four weeks, highlighting their potential for human-relevant chronic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Micromolded Gelatin Hydrogels for Extended Culture of Engineered Cardiac Tissues

    PubMed Central

    McCain, Megan L.; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Nesmith, Haley W.; Nesmith, Alexander P.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-01-01

    Defining the chronic cardiotoxic effects of drugs during preclinical screening is hindered by the relatively short lifetime of functional cardiac tissues in vitro, which are traditionally cultured on synthetic materials that do not recapitulate the cardiac microenvironment. Because collagen is the primary extracellular matrix protein in the heart, we hypothesized that micromolded gelatin hydrogel substrates tuned to mimic the elastic modulus of the heart would extend the lifetime of engineered cardiac tissues by better matching the native chemical and mechanical microenvironment. To measure tissue stress, we used tape casting, micromolding, and laser engraving to fabricate gelatin hydrogel muscular thin film cantilevers. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes adhered to gelatin hydrogels and formed aligned tissues as defined by the microgrooves. Cardiac tissues could be cultured for over three weeks without declines in contractile stress. Myocytes on gelatin had higher spare respiratory capacity compared to those on fibronectin-coated PDMS, suggesting that improved metabolic function could be contributing to extended culture lifetime. Lastly, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes adhered to micromolded gelatin surfaces and formed aligned tissues that remained functional for four weeks, highlighting their potential for human-relevant chronic studies. PMID:24731714

  7. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  8. Gelatin-Modified Polyurethanes for Soft Tissue Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Kucińska-Lipka, Justyna; Janik, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Recently, in the field of biomaterials for soft tissue scaffolds, the interest of their modification with natural polymersis growing. Synthetic polymers are often tough, and many of them do not possess fine biocompatibility. On the other hand, natural polymers are biocompatible but weak when used alone. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers gives the suitable properties for tissue engineering requirements. In our study, we modified gelatin synthetic polyurethanes prepared from polyester poly(ethylene-butylene adipate) (PEBA), aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and two different chain extenders 1,4-butanediol (BDO) or 1-ethoxy-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethanol (EHEE). From a chemical point of view, we replaced expensive components for building PU, such as 2,6-diisocyanato methyl caproate (LDI) and 1,4-diisocyanatobutane (BDI), with cost-effective HDI. The gelatin was added in situ (in the first step of synthesis) to polyurethane to increase biocompatibility and biodegradability of the obtained material. It appeared that the obtained gelatin-modified PU foams, in which chain extender was BDO, had enhanced interactions with media and their hydrolytic degradation profile was also improved for tissue engineering application. Furthermore, the gelatin introduction had positive impact on gelatin-modified PU foams by increasing their hemocompatibility. PMID:24363617

  9. Recent advancement of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Nityananda; Sahoo, Ranjan Ku; Biswas, Nikhil; Guha, Arijit; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2015-11-01

    Novel drug delivery system using nanoscale materials with a broad spectrum of applications provides a new therapeutic foundation for technological integration and innovation. Nanoparticles are suitable drug carrier for various routes of administration as well as rapid recognition by the immune system. Gelatin, the biological macromolecule is a versatile drug/vaccine delivery carrier in pharmaceutical field due to its biodegradable, biocompatible, non-antigenicity and low cost with easy availability. The surface of gelatin nanoparticles can be modified with site-specific ligands, cationized with amine derivatives or, coated with polyethyl glycols to achieve targeted and sustained release drug delivery. Compared to other colloidal carriers, gelatin nanoparticles are better stable in biological fluids to provide the desired controlled and sustained release of entrapped drug molecules. The current review highlights the different formulation aspects of gelatin nanoparticles which affect the particle characteristics like zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficacy and drug release properties. It has also given emphasis on the major applications of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery, gene delivery to target tissues and nutraceutical delivery for improving the poor bioavailabity of bioactive phytonutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  11. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activities of tropical marine sponge extracts.

    PubMed

    Beesoo, Rima; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Li, Wen-Wu; Kagansky, Alexander; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2017-06-01

    Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has led research to focus on discovering new antimicrobial agents derived from the marine biome. Although ample studies have investigated sponges for their bioactive metabolites with promising prospects in drug discovery, the potentiating effects of sponge extracts on antibiotics still remains to be expounded. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial capacity of seven tropical sponges collected from Mauritian waters and their modulatory effect in association with three conventional antibiotics namely chloramphenicol, ampicillin and tetracycline. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of the sponge total crude extracts (CE), hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AF) fractions against nine standard bacterial isolates whereas broth microdilution method was used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and antibiotic potentiating activity of the most active sponge extract. MIC values of the sponge extracts ranged from 0.039 to 1.25mg/mL. Extracts from Neopetrosia exigua rich in beta-sitosterol and cholesterol displayed the widest activity spectrum against the 9 tested bacterial isolates whilst the best antibacterial profile was observed by its EAF particularly against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus with MIC and MBC values of 0.039mg/mL and 0.078mg/mL, respectively. The greatest antibiotic potentiating effect was obtained with the EAF of N. exigua (MIC/2) and ampicillin combination against S. aureus. These findings suggest that the antibacterial properties of the tested marine sponge extracts may provide an alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Summons, Roger E

    2016-03-08

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650-540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago.

  13. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, David A.; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650–540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago. PMID:26903629

  14. Locomotor adaptations of some gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q

    1985-01-01

    cost of locomotion is greater in Doliolum. Few gelatinous zooplankton show special adaptations both for rapid escape movements, and for slow sustained swimming, those that do deserve further study.

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of gelatin-free varicella vaccine in epidemiological and serological studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Muto, Taichiro; Sugata, Ken; Kawabe, Shinji; Goto, Kensei; Koyama, Kuniaki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Akiyama, Masataka

    2005-01-26

    Following gelatin-containing varicella vaccine (1994-1999: 1,410,000 distributed doses), 28 serious anaphylactic reactions and 139 non-serious allergic reactions were reported, with no serious and only five non-serious reactions following gelatin-free vaccine (1999-2000: 1,300,000 distributed doses). All nine sera available from children with serious reactions tested positive for gelatin-specific IgE, whereas 55 of the 70 available from those with non-serious reactions were positive, with one false positive. There was no correlation between gelatin-specific IgE antibody titers and severity of allergic reaction. Post-immunization anti-varicella antibody titers were comparable for both gelatin-free and gelatin-containing vaccine groups. The new gelatin-free varicella vaccine is thought to be safe, with similar immunogenicity to the earlier gelatin-containing vaccine.

  16. [Morphological, optical, and structural characteristics of glass sponge spicules and the photoreceptor hypothesis of their survival].

    PubMed

    Voznesenskiĭ, S S; Kul'chin, Iu N; Galkina, A N; Sergeev, A A

    2010-01-01

    The morphology, structure, and optical characteristics of spicules of some sea glass sponges have been studied. The results obtained are interpreted from the point of view of their possible role in the survival of the organism of sponges.

  17. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and ... Cervical Cap FAQ022, March 2018 PDF Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and ...

  18. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... into ewe's vagina 13 days before desired start of breeding. For intravaginal use in sheep only. Do not... sponges to minimize exposure to drug. Do not leave sponge in the vagina for more than 21 days. Ewes must...

  19. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... into ewe's vagina 13 days before desired start of breeding. For intravaginal use in sheep only. Do not... sponges to minimize exposure to drug. Do not leave sponge in the vagina for more than 21 days. Ewes must...

  20. Evaluation of tilapia skin gelatin as a mammalian gelatin replacer in acid milk gels and low-fat stirred yogurt.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhihua; Deeth, Hilton; Yang, Hongshun; Prakash, Sangeeta; Bansal, Nidhi

    2017-05-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin (TSG) was studied in a 3-stage process (cooling, annealing, and heating) for pure gelatin gels and in a 4-stage process (acidification, cooling, annealing, and heating) for acid milk gels and cultured yogurt. The aim was to evaluate the use of TSG as a replacement for mammalian gelatin in yogurt. In pure TSG gels, stronger gels with higher melting temperatures were formed with increasing TSG concentrations. Compared with bovine gelatin (BG), which gelled at a concentration of 2.5%, TSG gels had lower gelling (14.1°C) and melting (24°C) temperatures but comparable storage moduli during annealing. In acid milk gels, addition of TSG increased the firmness of the gels with increasing concentration. Gelling and melting points of TSG in milk gels were observed at sufficient concentrations during cooling and heating. Strands and sheets were observed in the electron micrographs of milk gels with 1% TSG and a very dense structure was observed with 2.5% TSG. Yogurt with 0.4% TSG had similar viscosity, consistency, pseudoplasticity, and thixotropy as yogurt containing 0.4% BG; no difference was perceived by sensory panelists according to a triangle test. Addition of 0.4% TSG completely prevented whey separation from the acid milk gel and yogurt. The results suggest that TSG could be a suitable replacement for mammalian gelatin in low-fat stirred yogurt. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of konjac glucomannan-gelatin IPN physical hydrogel scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiliang; Chen, Qinghua; Yan, Tingting; Liu, Jinkun

    2017-06-01

    A novel IPN hydrogel scaffold is prepared by freeze-drying method, in which konjac galactomannan (KGM) and gelatin are physically crosslinked respectively. This scaffold is thermostable, and the structure of this scaffold is analysed by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and X-ray diffraction method. The FT-IR results show that hydrogen bonds are formed between KGM and gelatin molecules, which hinder the formation of their respective crosslinking. This is consistent with the XRD results that the crystallinity gets lower in the IPN gels compared with pure gelatin and KGM gels. The morphologies of freeze-dried hydrogels are observed by SEM and the mechanical properties of the scaffolds are tested to analyse the relationship between the structures and properties. Although this novel IPN hydrogel is physical gel, it shows rubber-like performance as chemical gels. And it is nontoxic, so it can be used as the scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering that embedded in human bodies.

  3. Novel formulations of ballistic gelatin. 1. Rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Zecheru, Teodora; Său, Ciprian; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu; Zaharia, Cătălin; Rotariu, Traian; Stănescu, Paul-Octavian

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic gelatin is the simulant of the human body during field tests in forensics and other related fields, due to its physical and mechanical similarities to human trunk and organs. Since the ballistic gelatin used in present has important issues to overcome, an alternative approach is the use of gelatin-polymer composites, where a key factor is the insertion of biocompatible materials, which replicate accurately the human tissues. In order to be able to obtain an improved material in terms of mechanical performances by an easy industrial-scale technology, before the verification of the ballistic parameters by shooting in agreement with military standards, one of the best and cheapest solutions is to perform a thorough check of their rheological properties, in standard conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses into gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Hanqun; Casperson, Lee W.; Shearin, Alan; Gregory, Kenton W.; Prahl, Scott A.

    1996-07-01

    Photoacoustic drug delivery is a technique for localized drug delivery by laser-induced hydrodynamic pressure following cavitation bubble expansion and collapse. Photoacoustic drug delivery was investigated on gelatin-based thrombus models with planar and cylindrical geometries by use of one microsecond laser pulses. Solutions of a hydrophobic dye in mineral oil permitted monitoring of delivered colored oil into clear gelatin-based thrombus models. Cavitation bubble development and photoacoustic drug delivery were visualized with flash photography. This study demonstrated that cavitation is the governing mechanism for photoacoustic drug delivery, and the deepest penetration of colored oil in gels followed the bubble collapse. Spatial distribution measurements revealed that colored oil could be driven a few millimeters into the gels in both axial and radial directions, and the penetration was less than 500 mu m when the gelatin structure was not fractured. localized drug delivery, cavitation bubble, laser thrombolysis.

  5. Drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses into gelatin.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, H; Casperson, L W; Shearin, A; Gregory, K W; Prahl, S A

    1996-07-01

    Photo acoustic drug delivery is a technique for localized drug delivery by laser-induced hydrodynamic pressure following cavitation bubble expansion and collapse. Photoacoustic drug delivery was investigated on gelatin-based thrombus models with planar and cylindrical geometries by use of one microsecond laser pulses. Solutions of a hydrophobic dye in mineral oil permitted monitoring of delivered colored oil into clear gelatin-based thrombus models. Cavitation bubble development and photoacoustic drug delivery were visualized with flash photography. This study demonstrated that cavitation is the governing mechanism for photoacoustic drug delivery, and the deepest penetration of colored oil in gels followed the bubble collapse. Spatial distribution measurements revealed that colored oil could be driven a few millimeters into the gels in both axial and radial directions, and the penetration was less than 500 µm when the gelatin structure was not fractured.

  6. EFFECT OF POLONIUM /cap alpha/ RADIATION ON GELATINE (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, M.

    1962-08-01

    When a nuclear plate, which has been exposed to radiation, developed, and dried, is exposed to a Po source, no effect can be detected by either the eye or the microscope. However if the plate is placed in distilled water, the emulsion thickness of the irradiated region is reduced by approximately 20 mu . A ridge'' separates this region from the nonirradiated region. The ridge contains piles of silver grains, very deformed traces of the old radiation, and some gelatin fragments. It appears that the alpha particles penetrating the gelatine transforms this gelatin, reversible protein, into a substance soluble'' inmore » distilled water or entrained by the distilled water. (J.S.R.)« less

  7. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materialsmore » for transient, low cost energy storage device.« less

  8. Controlled release of anticancer drug methotrexate from biodegradable gelatin microspheres.

    PubMed

    Narayani, R; Rao, K P

    1994-01-01

    Biodegradable hydrophilic gelatin microspheres containing the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) of different mean particle sizes (1-5, 5-10, and 15-20 microns) were prepared by polymer dispersion technique and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. The microspheres were uniform, smooth, solid and in the form of free-flowing powder. About 80 per cent of MTX was incorporated in gelatin microspheres of different sizes. The in vitro release of MTX was investigated in two different media, namely simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The release profiles indicated that gelatin microspheres released MTX in a zero-order fashion for 4-6 days in simulated gastric fluid and for 5-8 days in simulated intestinal fluid. The rate of release of MTX decreased with increase in the particle size of the microspheres. MTX release was faster in gastric fluid when compared to intestinal fluid.

  9. IgE antibody to fish gelatin (type I collagen) in patients with fish allergy.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Toda, M; Ebihara, T; Irie, S; Hori, H; Imai, A; Yanagida, M; Miyazawa, H; Ohsuna, H; Ikezawa, Z; Inouye, S

    2000-09-01

    Most children with anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines had shown sensitivity to bovine gelatin that was included in the vaccines. Recently, it was found that bovine type I collagen, which is the main content in the gelatin, is a major allergen in bovine gelatin allergy. Fish meat and skin also contain type I collagen. The present study was designed to investigate IgE antibody to fish gelatin in children with fish allergy. Serum samples were taken from patients in 3 groups: (1) 10 patients with fish allergy and specific IgE to fish meat; (2) two patients with allergies to both fish meat and bovine gelatin and specific IgE to fish meat and bovine gelatin; and (3) 15 patients with atopic dermatitis and specific IgE to fish meat. Various fish gelatins (type I collagen) were prepared from fish skin. IgE antibody to fish gelatin was analyzed by using ELISA and immunoblotting. Of 10 patients with fish allergy, 3 had specific IgE to fish gelatin. Of two patients with fish allergy and bovine gelatin allergy, all had specific IgE to fish gelatin. Of 15 patients with atopic dermatitis and specific IgE to fish meat, 5 had specific IgE to fish gelatin. Furthermore, IgE from pooled serum of the patients reacted with both the alpha1 and alpha2 chains of fish type I collagen in immunoblots. There is cross-reactivity among gelatins from various fishes, but there is little cross-reactivity between fish and bovine gelatins. Some fish-sensitive patients possessed IgE antibody to fish gelatin. Fish gelatin (type I collagen) might be an allergen in subjects with fish allergy.

  10. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Difficulties arise in operating on test samples or on materials with porosity varied for decay. While carrying on the test, fluctuations in the bearing of the environmental parameters were negligible, but not the pressure applied to the surface, that induced the release of different water amounts towards the material. For this reason we designed a metal piece of the same diameter of the plate carrying the sponge, to be screwed at the tip of a pocket penetrometer. With this instrument the sponge was kept in contact with the surface for 1 minute applying two different loads, at first pushed with 0.3 kg/cm2 in order to press the sponge, but not its holder, against the surface. Then, a load of 1.1 kg/ cm2 was applied, still avoiding deviating the load to the sponge holder. We applied both the current and our implemented method to determine the water absorption by contact sponge on 5 fresh rock types (4 limestones: Fine - and Coarse grained Pietra di Vicenza, Rosso Verona, Breccia Aurora, and the silicoclastic Macigno sandstone). The results show that 1) the current methodology imply manual skill and experience to produce a coherent set of data; the variable involved are in fact not only the imposed pressure but also the compression mechanics. 2) The control on the applied pressure allowed reproducible measurements. Moreover, 3) the use of a thicker sponge enabled to apply the method even on rougher surfaces, as the device holding the sponge is not in contact with the tested object. Finally, 4) the

  11. Diisocyanate mediated polyether modified gelatin drug carrier for controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Vediappan; Subramanian, Kaliappagounder

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin is an extensively studied biopolymer hydrogel drug carrier due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity of its biodegraded products formed in vivo. But with the pristine gelatin it is difficult to achieve a controlled and desirable drug release characteristics due to its structural and thermal lability and high solubility in aqueous biofluids. Hence it is necessary to modify its solubility and structural stability in biofluids to achieve controlled release features with improved drug efficacy and broader carrier applications. In the present explorations an effort is made in this direction by cross linking gelatin to different extents using hitherto not studied isocyanate terminated poly(ether) as a macrocrosslinker prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) and isophorone diisocyanate in dimethyl sulfoxide. The crosslinked samples were analyzed for structure by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermal behavior through thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The cross linked gelatins were biodegradable, insoluble and swellable in biofluids. They were evaluated as a carrier for in vitro drug delivery taking theophylline as a model drug used in asthma therapy. The crosslinking of gelatin decreased the drug release rate by 10–20% depending upon the extent of crosslinking. The modeled drug release characteristics revealed an anomalous transport mechanism. The release rates for ampicillin sodium, 5-fluorouracil and theophylline drugs in a typical crosslinked gelatin carrier were found to depend on the solubility and hydrophobicity of the drugs, and the pH of the fluid. The observed results indicated that this material can prove its mettle as a viable carrier matrix in drug delivery applications. PMID:24493973

  12. Ultralight, scalable, and high-temperature-resilient ceramic nanofiber sponges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haolun; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Yan; Feng, Xue; Huang, Ya; Zhao, Chunsong; Liu, Zhenglian; Fang, Minghao; Ou, Gang; Gao, Huajian; Li, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Ultralight and resilient porous nanostructures have been fabricated in various material forms, including carbon, polymers, and metals. However, the development of ultralight and high-temperature resilient structures still remains extremely challenging. Ceramics exhibit good mechanical and chemical stability at high temperatures, but their brittleness and sensitivity to flaws significantly complicate the fabrication of resilient porous ceramic nanostructures. We report the manufacturing of large-scale, lightweight, high-temperature resilient, three-dimensional sponges based on a variety of oxide ceramic (for example, TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 , and BaTiO 3 ) nanofibers through an efficient solution blow-spinning process. The ceramic sponges consist of numerous tangled ceramic nanofibers, with densities varying from 8 to 40 mg/cm 3 . In situ uniaxial compression in a scanning electron microscope showed that the TiO 2 nanofiber sponge exhibits high energy absorption (for example, dissipation of up to 29.6 mJ/cm 3 in energy density at 50% strain) and recovers rapidly after compression in excess of 20% strain at both room temperature and 400°C. The sponge exhibits excellent resilience with residual strains of only ~1% at 800°C after 10 cycles of 10% compression strain and maintains good recoverability after compression at ~1300°C. We show that ceramic nanofiber sponges can serve multiple functions, such as elasticity-dependent electrical resistance, photocatalytic activity, and thermal insulation.

  13. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source. PMID:22163194

  14. Bleaching and recovery of a phototrophic bioeroding sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, Joseph; Davy, Simon K.; Shaffer, Megan; Haris, Abdul; Bell, James J.

    2018-06-01

    In the Wakatobi region of Indonesia, a prolonged period of elevated water temperature in 2016 caused extensive coral bleaching and mortality. Unusually, bleaching was also observed in the bioeroding sponge Cliona aff. viridis, with affected sponges expelling 99% of their Symbiodinium. Bleaching surveys of C. aff. viridis were conducted 6 weeks apart, coinciding with a 0.8 °C drop in water temperature. Over this period, bleaching prevalence dropped from 73.9% (± 9.9 SE) to 25.7% (± 5.8 SE), and bleaching severity dropped from 25.95% (± 4.5 SE) to 11.54% (± 1.9 SE) of sponge tissue. Over the same period, monitored bleached sponges showed an 81% drop in bleaching severity, but also a 13% reduction in overall sponge size. Our results show that while the clionaid- Symbiodinium relationship is susceptible to break down under thermal stress, rapid recovery can occur, although incurring some partial host mortality.

  15. Ultralight, scalable, and high-temperature–resilient ceramic nanofiber sponges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haolun; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Yan; Feng, Xue; Huang, Ya; Zhao, Chunsong; Liu, Zhenglian; Fang, Minghao; Ou, Gang; Gao, Huajian; Li, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Ultralight and resilient porous nanostructures have been fabricated in various material forms, including carbon, polymers, and metals. However, the development of ultralight and high-temperature resilient structures still remains extremely challenging. Ceramics exhibit good mechanical and chemical stability at high temperatures, but their brittleness and sensitivity to flaws significantly complicate the fabrication of resilient porous ceramic nanostructures. We report the manufacturing of large-scale, lightweight, high-temperature resilient, three-dimensional sponges based on a variety of oxide ceramic (for example, TiO2, ZrO2, yttria-stabilized ZrO2, and BaTiO3) nanofibers through an efficient solution blow-spinning process. The ceramic sponges consist of numerous tangled ceramic nanofibers, with densities varying from 8 to 40 mg/cm3. In situ uniaxial compression in a scanning electron microscope showed that the TiO2 nanofiber sponge exhibits high energy absorption (for example, dissipation of up to 29.6 mJ/cm3 in energy density at 50% strain) and recovers rapidly after compression in excess of 20% strain at both room temperature and 400°C. The sponge exhibits excellent resilience with residual strains of only ~1% at 800°C after 10 cycles of 10% compression strain and maintains good recoverability after compression at ~1300°C. We show that ceramic nanofiber sponges can serve multiple functions, such as elasticity-dependent electrical resistance, photocatalytic activity, and thermal insulation. PMID:28630915

  16. Soaking it up: new lipid sponge phases and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasnett, Christopher; Seddon, Annela

    Recent work has demonstrated that cubic lipid systems may be doped with charged lipids, with important consequences for their physical properties. Among others, Tyler et al. have reported some of the largest lipid cubic phases seen to date using this technique. The sponge phase is a disordered bicontinuous phase, formed when the membrane curvature of a cubic phase is reduced through the addition of butane diol. Additionally, it is known that sponge phases may be converted back into highly ordered cubic ones. Whilst past work has concentrated on sponge phases formed from monoolein, we have investigated the properties and behaviour of a bipartite sponge phase formed of monoolein and DOPG, and their conversion to cubic phases using shear. Furthermore, as both the sponge and cubic phase are of interest with respect to their applications in protein crystallography, we have explored the interaction of the protein light-harvesting complex with the lipid system. CB is supported by a University of Bristol EPSRC funded studentship.

  17. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended. PMID:27840819

  18. Effect of collagen sponge and fibrin glue on bone repair

    PubMed Central

    SANTOS, Thiago de Santana; ABUNA, Rodrigo Paolo Flores; de ALMEIDA, Adriana Luisa Gonçalves; BELOTI, Marcio Mateus; ROSA, Adalberto Luiz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of hemostatic agents to promote bone repair has been investigated using in vitro and in vivo models but, up to now, the results are inconclusive. Objective In this context, the aim of this study was to compare the potential of bone repair of collagen sponge with fibrin glue in a rat calvarial defect model. Material and Methods Defects of 5 mm in diameter were created in rat calvariae and treated with either collagen sponge or fibrin glue; untreated defects were used as control. At 4 and 8 weeks, histological analysis and micro-CT-based histomorphometry were carried out and data were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test when appropriated (p≤0.05). Results Three-dimensional reconstructions showed increased bone formation in defects treated with either collagen sponge or fibrin glue compared with untreated defects, which was confirmed by the histological analysis. Morphometric parameters indicated the progression of bone formation from 4 to 8 weeks. Additionally, fibrin glue displayed slightly higher bone formation rate when compared with collagen sponge. Conclusion Our results have shown the benefits of using collagen sponge and fibrin glue to promote new bone formation in rat calvarial bone defects, the latter being discreetly more advantageous. PMID:26814464

  19. Treatment of wet blue with fillers produced from quebracho-modified gelatin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gelatin modified with quebracho to produce high molecular weight, high viscosity products was investigated as a filler in leather processing. The uptake of quebracho/gelatin product by the wet blue was on the average about 55% of the 10% gelatin/quebracho product offered; the reaction appeared to be...

  20. Interactions of quercetin, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate and folic acid with gelatin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Yang, Huiru; Fan, Yan; Li, Bafang; Hou, Hu

    2018-06-15

    Some small bioactive molecules from food show the potential health benefits, but with poor chemical stability and bioavailability. The interactions between small molecules and gelatin were investigated. Fluorescence experiments demonstrated that the bimolecular quenching constants (k q ) of complexes (gelatin-quercetin, gelatin-curcumin, gelatin-epigallocatechin gallate, gelatin-folic acid) were 3.7 × 10 12  L·mol -1 ·s -1 , 1.4 × 10 12  L·mol -1 ·s -1 , 2.7 × 10 12  L·mol -1 ·s -1 and 8.5 × 10 12  L·mol -1 ·s -1 , indicating that fluorescence quenching did not arise from a dynamical mechanism, but from gelatin-small molecules binding. Furthermore, the affinity with gelatin was ranked in the order of folic acid > quercetin > epigallocatechin gallate > curcumin. Fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, FTIR and circular dichroism showed that the interactions between small molecules and gelatin did not significantly alter the conformation and secondary structure of gelatin. Non-covalent interactions may result in the binding of gelatin with small molecules. The interactions were considered to be through two modes: (1) small molecules bound within the hydrophobic pockets of gelatin; (2) small molecules surrounded the gelatin molecule mainly through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. THE GENERALIZATION OF SIERPINSKI CARPET AND MENGER SPONGE IN n-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Feng, Yuting; Yu, Yanhua

    In this paper, we generalize Sierpinski carpet and Menger sponge in n-dimensional space, by using the generations and characterizations of affinely-equivalent Sierpinski carpet and Menger sponge. Exactly, Menger sponge in 4-dimensional space could be drawn out clearly under an affine transformation. Furthermore, the method could be used to a much broader class in fractals.

  2. A novel filtering mutualism between a sponge host and its endosymbiotic bivalves.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Remi; Kato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Sponges, porous filter-feeding organisms consisting of vast canal systems, provide unique substrates for diverse symbiotic organisms. The Spongia (Spongia) sp. massive sponge is obligately inhabited by the host-specific endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella, which benefits from this symbiosis by receiving protection from predators. However, whether the host sponge gains any benefit from this association is unclear. Considering that the bivalves exhale filtered water into the sponge body rather than the ambient environment, the sponge is hypothesized to utilize water exhaled by the bivalves to circulate water around its body more efficiently. We tested this hypothesis by observing the sponge aquiferous structure and comparing the pumping rates of sponges and bivalves. Observations of water currents and the sponge aquiferous structure revealed that the sponge had a unique canal system enabling it to inhale water exhaled from bivalves, indicating that the host sponge adapted morphologically to receive water from the bivalves. In addition, the volume of water circulating in the sponge body was dramatically increased by the water exhaled from bivalves. Therefore, this sponge-bivalve association can be regarded as a novel mutualism in which two filter-feeding symbionts promote mutual filtering rates. This symbiotic association should be called a "filtering mutualism".

  3. Effectiveness of a new gelatin sealant system for dural closure.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shuko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2014-10-01

    Watertight dural closure is imperative after neurosurgical procedures because inadequately treated leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can have serious consequences. In this study, the authors test the use of a new gelatin glue as a dural sealant in in vitro and in vivo canine models of transdural CSF leakage. The in vitro model was sutured semicircles of canine dura mater and artificial dural substitute. The sutures were sealed with gelatin glue (n  =  20), fibrin glue (n  =  20), or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel sealant (n  =  20). Each sample was set in a device to measure water pressure, and pressure was increased until leakage occurred. Bonding strength was subjectively evaluated. The in vivo model was dogs who underwent dural excision and received either no sealant (control group; n  =  5) or gelatin glue sealant (n  =  5) before dural closure. Twenty-eight days post-surgery, the maximum intracranial pressure was measured at the cisterna magna using Valsalva maneuver and tissue adhesion was evaluated. The water pressure at which leakage occurred in the in vitro model was higher with gelatin glue (76·5 ± 39·8 mmHg) than with fibrin glue (38·3 ± 27·4 mmHg, P < 0·001) or the PEG-based hydrogel sealant (46·3 ± 20·9 mmHg, P  =  0·007). Bonding strength was higher for the gelatin glue than fibrin glue (P < 0·001) or PEG-based hydrogel sealant (P  =  0·001). The maximum intracranial pressure in the in vivo model was higher for the gelatin glue group (59·0 ± 2·2 mmHg) than the control group (13·8 ± 4·0 mmHg, P < 0·001). Tissue adhesion was lower for the gelatin glue group than the control group (P  =  0·005). The new gelatin glue provides an effective watertight closure when used as an adjunct to sutured dural repair.

  4. Three-dimensional periodic supramolecular organic framework ion sponge in water and microcrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Jia; Zhou, Tian-You; Zhang, Shao-Chen; ...

    2014-12-02

    Self-assembly has emerged as a powerful approach to generating complex supramolecular architectures. Despite there being many crystalline frameworks reported in the solid state, the construction of highly soluble periodic supramolecular networks in a three-dimensional space is still a challenge. In this paper we demonstrate that the encapsulation motif, which involves the dimerization of two aromatic units within cucurbit[8]uril, can be used to direct the co-assembly of a tetratopic molecular block and cucurbit[8]uril into a periodic three-dimensional supramolecular organic framework in water. The periodicity of the supramolecular organic framework is supported by solution-phase small-angle X-ray-scattering and diffraction experiments. Upon evaporating themore » solvent, the periodicity of the framework is maintained in porous microcrystals. Lastly, as a supramolecular 'ion sponge', the framework can absorb different kinds of anionic guests, including drugs, in both water and microcrystals, and drugs absorbed in microcrystals can be released to water with selectivity.« less

  5. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  6. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  7. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  8. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    PubMed

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of Fricke-gel dosimeter calibration for attaining precise measurements of the absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Liosi, Giulia Maria; Benedini, Sara; Giacobbo, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    A method has been studied for attaining, with good precision, absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose by means of the Fricke gelatin Xylenol Orange dosimetric system. With this aim, the dose response to subsequent irradiations was analyzed. In fact, the proposed modality is based on a pre-irradiation of each single dosimeter in a uniform field with a known dose, in order to extrapolate a calibration image for a subsequent non-uniform irradiation with an un-known dose to be measured. (authors)

  10. Ferroelectric nanoparticle-embedded sponge structure triboelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Daehoon; Shin, Sung-Ho; Yoon, Ick-Jae; Nah, Junghyo

    2018-05-01

    We report high-performance triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) employing ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a sponge structure. The ferroelectric BaTiO3 NPs inside the sponge structure play an important role in increasing surface charge density by polarized spontaneous dipoles, enabling the packaging of TENGs even with a minimal separation gap. Since the friction surfaces are encapsulated in the packaged device structure, it suffers negligible performance degradation even at a high relative humidity of 80%. The TENGs also demonstrated excellent mechanical durability due to the elasticity and flexibility of the sponge structure. Consequently, the TENGs can reliably harvest energy even under harsh conditions. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, and reliable way to fabricate compact and packaged TENGs for potential applications in wearable energy-harvesting devices.

  11. Ferroelectric nanoparticle-embedded sponge structure triboelectric generators.

    PubMed

    Park, Daehoon; Shin, Sung-Ho; Yoon, Ick-Jae; Nah, Junghyo

    2018-05-04

    We report high-performance triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) employing ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a sponge structure. The ferroelectric BaTiO 3 NPs inside the sponge structure play an important role in increasing surface charge density by polarized spontaneous dipoles, enabling the packaging of TENGs even with a minimal separation gap. Since the friction surfaces are encapsulated in the packaged device structure, it suffers negligible performance degradation even at a high relative humidity of 80%. The TENGs also demonstrated excellent mechanical durability due to the elasticity and flexibility of the sponge structure. Consequently, the TENGs can reliably harvest energy even under harsh conditions. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, and reliable way to fabricate compact and packaged TENGs for potential applications in wearable energy-harvesting devices.

  12. Brackish habitat dictates cultivable Actinobacterial diversity from marine sponges

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Shaurya; Adnani, Navid; Szachowicz, Emily; Braun, Doug R.; Harper, Mary Kay; Wyche, Thomas P.; Bugni, Tim S.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates such as sponges and ascidians have demonstrated potential as sources of bio-medically relevant small molecules. Metagenomic analysis has shown that many of these invertebrates harbor populations of Actinobacteria, many of which are cultivable. While some populations within invertebrates are transmitted vertically, others are obtained from the environment. We hypothesized that cultivable diversity from sponges living in brackish mangrove habitats have associations with Actinobacterial populations that differ from those found in clear tropical waters. In this study, we analyzed the cultivable Actinobacterial populations from sponges found in these two distinct habitats with the aim of understanding the secondary metabolite potential. Importantly, we wanted to broadly evaluate the potential differences among these groups to guide future Actinobacterial collection strategies for the purposes of drug discovery. PMID:28692665

  13. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine. © 2013.

  14. Diversity and Distribution Patterns in High Southern Latitude Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Rachel V.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Janussen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%). Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent connectivity. PMID

  15. Synthesis and viscoelastic characterization of microstructurally aligned Silk fibroin sponges.

    PubMed

    Panda, Debojyoti; Konar, Subhajit; Bajpai, Saumendra K; Arockiarajan, A

    2017-07-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a model candidate for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine owing to its bio-compatible mechanochemical properties. Despite numerous advances made in the fabrication of various biomimetic substrates using SF, relatively few clinical applications have been designed, primarily due to the lack of complete understanding of its constitutive properties. Here we fabricate microstructurally aligned SF sponge using the unidirectional freezing technique wherein a novel solvent-processing technique involving Acetic acid is employed, which obviates the post-treatment of the sponges to induce their water-stability. Subsequently, we quantify the anisotropic, viscoelastic response of the bulk SF sponge samples by performing a series of mechanical tests under uniaxial compression over a wide range of strain rates. Results for these uniaxial compression tests in the finite strain regime through ramp strain and ramp-relaxation loading histories applied over two orders of strain rate magnitude show that microstructural anisotropy is directly manifested in the bulk viscoelastic solid-like response. Furthermore, the experiments reveal a high degree of volume compressibility of the sponges during deformation, and also evince for their remarkable strain recovery capacity under large compressive strains during strain recovery tests. Finally, in order to predict the bulk viscoelastic material properties of the fabricated and pre-characterized SF sponges, a finite strain kinematics-based, nonlinear, continuum model developed within a thermodynamically-consistent framework in a parallel investigation, was successfully employed to capture the viscoelastic solid-like, transversely isotropic, and compressible response of the sponges macroscopically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios.

    PubMed

    Shady, Nourhan Hisham; El-Hossary, Ebaa M; Fouad, Mostafa A; Gulder, Tobias A M; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2017-05-11

    Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios , reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus , Hyrtios reticulatus , Hyrtios gumminae , Hyrtios communis , and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  17. Lecithin, gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen orally disintegrating films: functional properties.

    PubMed

    Borges, J G; Silva, A G; Cervi-Bitencourt, C M; Vanin, F M; Carvalho, R A

    2016-05-01

    Orally disintegrating films (ODFs) can transport natural active compounds such as ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). This paper aimed to investigate the effect of lecithin on different gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen (HC) polymeric matrices with addition of EEP. ODFs were prepared by casting technique and were characterized (color parameters, water content, mechanical properties, microstructure, disintegration time (DT), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle (CA), swelling degree and total phenolic content). The mechanical properties were influenced by HC. The microstructure demonstrated increased porosity and roughness in films with EEP, and the addition of lecithin resulted in an increase in the number of pores. Lecithin-gelatin and lecithin-EEP-gelatin interactions were observed by FTIR. The addition of HC and EEP reduced the DT and CA, and HC and lecithin reduced the swelling capacity. However, the swelling capacity was not affected by presence of EEP. The addition of lecithin to gelatin and HC ODFs may improve the incorporation and the oral transport of active compounds such as EEP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Process for Preparing Microcapsules Having Gelatin Walls Crosslinked with Quinone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A process for conveniently producing microcapsules containing a gelatin wall crosslinked with quinone and a core of an active compound such as a...provides microcapsules of excellent strength, storage stability, and resistance to aqueous exposure, such that the rate of release of the fouling reducing agent can be controlled with precision. jg

  19. The use of gelatine in wound ballistics research.

    PubMed

    Carr, D J; Stevenson, T; Mahoney, P F

    2018-04-25

    Blocks of gelatine are used in both lethality and survivability studies for broadly the same reason, i.e. comparison of ammunition effects using a material that it is assumed represents (some part of) the human body. The gelatine is used to visualise the temporary and permanent wound profiles; elements of which are recognised as providing a reasonable approximation to wounding in humans. One set of researchers aim to improve the lethality of the projectile, and the other to understand the effects of the projectile on the body to improve survivability. Research areas that use gelatine blocks are diverse and include ammunition designers, the medical and forensics communities and designers of ballistic protective equipment (including body armour). This paper aims to provide an overarching review of the use of gelatine for wound ballistics studies; it is not intended to provide an extensive review of wound ballistics as that already exists, e.g. Legal Med 23:21-29, 2016. Key messages are that test variables, projectile type (bullet, fragmentation), impact site on the body and intermediate layers (e.g. clothing, personal protective equipment (PPE)) can affect the resulting wound profiles.

  20. Antibacterial and wound healing analysis of gelatin/zeolite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ninan, Neethu; Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Bt Yahaya, Nur Aliza; Park, In-Kyu; Elain, Anne; Wong, Tin Wui; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves

    2014-03-01

    In this article, gelatin/copper activated faujasites (CAF) composite scaffolds were fabricated by lyophilisation technique for promoting partial thickness wound healing. The optimised scaffold with 0.5% (w/w) of CAF, G (0.5%), demonstrated pore size in the range of 10-350 μm. Agar disc diffusion tests verified the antibacterial role of G (0.5%) and further supported that bacterial lysis was due to copper released from the core of CAF embedded in the gelatin matrix. The change in morphology of bacteria as a function of CAF content in gelatin scaffold was studied using SEM analysis. The confocal images revealed the increase in mortality rate of bacteria with increase in concentration of incorporated CAF in gelatin matrix. Proficient oxygen supply to needy cells is a continuing hurdle faced by tissue engineering scaffolds. The dissolved oxygen measurements revealed that CAF embedded in the scaffold were capable of increasing oxygen supply and thereby promote cell proliferation. Also, G (0.5%) exhibited highest cell viability on NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells which was mainly attributed to the highly porous architecture and its ability to enhance oxygen supply to cells. In vivo studies conducted on Sprague Dawley rats revealed the ability of G (0.5%) to promote skin regeneration in 20 days. Thus, the obtained data suggest that G (0.5%) is an ideal candidate for wound healing applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biopolymers produced from gelatin and other sustainable resources using polyphenols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several researchers have recently demonstrated the feasibility of producing biopolymers from the reaction of polyphenolics with gelatin in combination with other proteins (e.g. whey) or with carbohydrates (e.g. chitosan and pectin). These combinations would take advantage of the unique properties o...

  2. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, AERIAL VIEW OF FEDERAL TRIANGLE, IRS BUILDING EAST SIDE OF THE OLD POST OFFICE BUILDING, 1936, photographer unknown - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Dichromated Gelatine as a Material of Optical Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyuk-Soo; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Choi, Yong-Jin; Son, Jung-Young; Park, Seung-Han

    1999-04-01

    In the fabrication process of optical elements (OEs) by the laser scanning method using a dichromated gelatin (DCG) photoplate, the expansion and drying stress of gelatine caused by inhomogeneous liquid flow inside the gelatine affects the shape of OEs. The reason this inhomogeneous liquid flow exists in the energy oversaturated parts of OEs is the presence of surplus energy. In order to obtain the OEs of desired spherical lens shape, the drying stress should be reduced and therefore the maximum energy of the illuminating laser should be defined not to cause the surplus energy. The maximum energy is investigated according to the relative concentrations of (NH4)2Cr2O7 to DCG. The use of photoplates with a relative concentration of (NH4)2Cr2O7 to gelatin of more than 20% has some advantages when making the lens raster, especially a short-focal-length lens raster. It is also very important to increase the drying time to reduce the total drying stress by maintaining high humidity during the drying process.

  4. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to amore » liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it's usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.« less

  5. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Jody L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to amore » liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it`s usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.« less

  6. Prolonged Culture of Aligned Skeletal Myotubes on Micromolded Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Bettadapur, Archana; Suh, Gio C.; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Wang, Evelyn R.; Hua, Clara; Huber, Holly A.; Viscio, Alyssa A.; Kim, Joon Young; Strickland, Julie B.; McCain, Megan L.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro models of skeletal muscle are critically needed to elucidate disease mechanisms, identify therapeutic targets, and test drugs pre-clinically. However, culturing skeletal muscle has been challenging due to myotube delamination from synthetic culture substrates approximately one week after initiating differentiation from myoblasts. In this study, we successfully maintained aligned skeletal myotubes differentiated from C2C12 mouse skeletal myoblasts for three weeks by utilizing micromolded (μmolded) gelatin hydrogels as culture substrates, which we thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Compared to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microcontact printed (μprinted) with fibronectin (FN), cell adhesion on gelatin hydrogel constructs was significantly higher one week and three weeks after initiating differentiation. Delamination from FN-μprinted PDMS precluded robust detection of myotubes. Compared to a softer blend of PDMS μprinted with FN, myogenic index, myotube width, and myotube length on μmolded gelatin hydrogels was similar one week after initiating differentiation. However, three weeks after initiating differentiation, these parameters were significantly higher on μmolded gelatin hydrogels compared to FN-μprinted soft PDMS constructs. Similar results were observed on isotropic versions of each substrate, suggesting that these findings are independent of substrate patterning. Our platform enables novel studies into skeletal muscle development and disease and chronic drug testing in vitro. PMID:27350122

  7. Cashew gum and gelatin blend for food packaging application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cashew gum (CG) and gelatin (G) films were developed using the casting method and response surface methodology. The objective was produce packaging films from CG/G blends that exhibit effective barrier properties. A study of zeta potential versus pH was first carried out to determine the isoelectric...

  8. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  9. Effect of temperature, viscosity and surface tension on gelatine structures produced by modified 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkandelen, C.; Ozbek, B.; Ergul, N. M.; Akyol, S.; Moukbil, Y.; Oktar, F. N.; Ekren, N.; Kılıc, O.; Kılıc, B.; Gunduz, O.

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, gelatine scaffolds were manufactured by using modified 3D (3 Dimensional) printing machine and the effect of different parameters on scaffold structure were investigated. Such as; temperature, viscosity and surface tension of the gelatine solutions. The varying of gelatine solutions (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) were prepared and characterized. It has been detected that, viscosity of those solutions were highly influenced by temperature and gelatine concentration. Specific CAD (Computer Assistant Design) model which has 67% porosity and original design were created via computer software. However, at high temperatures gelatine solutions caused like liquid but at the lower temperatures were observed the opposite behaviour. In addition to that, viscosity of 1,3,5 wt.% solutions were not enough to build a structure and 20 wt.% gelatine solution too hard to handle, because of the sudden viscosity changes with temperature. Even though, scaffold of the 20 wt.% gelatine solution printed hardly but it was observed the best printed solutions, which were 10 and 15 wt.% gelatine solutions. As a result, 3D printing of gelatine were found the values of the best temperature, viscosity, surface tension and gelatine concentration such as 25-35 °C, 36-163 cP, 46-59 mN/m and 15 wt.% gelatine concentration respectively.

  10. Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Ali, Eaqub; Sultana, Sharmin; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Yehya, Wageeh A; Kader, Abdul; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2018-06-13

    Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.

  11. Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kanae; Fujisawa, Kenji; Nagai, Hirokazu; Takamaru, Natsumi; Ohe, Go; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio; Miyamoto, Youji

    2016-01-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam for bone replacement, CO3Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO3Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam. PMID:28773832

  12. Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kanae; Fujisawa, Kenji; Nagai, Hirokazu; Takamaru, Natsumi; Ohe, Go; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio; Miyamoto, Youji

    2016-08-23

    Carbonate apatite (CO₃Ap) foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO₃Ap foam for bone replacement, CO₃Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO₃Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO₃Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO₃Ap foam.

  13. Quantitative detection of bovine and porcine gelatin difference using surface plasmon resonance based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardani, Devy P.; Arifin, Muhammad; Suharyadi, Edi; Abraha, Kamsul

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin is a biopolymer derived from collagen that is widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Due to some religion restrictions and health issues regarding the gelatin consumption which is extracted from certain species, it is necessary to establish a robust, reliable, sensitive and simple quantitative method to detect gelatin from different parent collagen species. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a gelatin differentiation method based on optical sensor that could detect gelatin from different species quantitatively. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor is known to be a sensitive, simple and label free optical method for detecting biomaterials that is able to do quantitative detection. Therefore, we have utilized SPR-based biosensor to detect the differentiation between bovine and porcine gelatin in various concentration, from 0% to 10% (w/w). Here, we report the ability of SPR-based biosensor to detect difference between both gelatins, its sensitivity toward the gelatin concentration change, its reliability and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the sensor. The sensor's LOD and LOQ towards bovine gelatin concentration are 0.38% and 1.26% (w/w), while towards porcine gelatin concentration are 0.66% and 2.20% (w/w), respectively. The results show that SPR-based biosensor is a promising tool for detecting gelatin from different raw materials quantitatively.

  14. Effects of Pressure-shift Freezing on the Structural and Physical Properties of Gelatin Hydrogel Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeongsoo; Gil, Hyung Bae; Min, Sang-Gi; Lee, Si-Kyung; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the gelatin concentration (10-40%, w/v), freezing temperatures (from -20℃ to -50℃) and freezing methods on the structural and physical properties of gelatin matrices. To freeze gelatin, the pressure-shift freezing (PSF) is being applied at 0.1 (under atmospheric control), 50 and 100 MPa, respectively. The freezing point of gelatin solutions decrease with increasing gelatin concentrations, from -0.2℃ (10% gelatin) to -6.7℃ (40% gelatin), while the extent of supercooling did not show any specific trends. The rheological properties of the gelatin indicate that both the storage (G') and loss (G") moduli were steady in the strain amplitude range of 0.1-10%. To characterize gelatin matrices formed by the various freezing methods, the ice crystal sizes which were being determined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are affected by the gelatin concentrations. The ice crystal sizes are affected by gelatin concentrations and freezing temperature, while the size distributions of ice crystals depend on the freezing methods. Smaller ice crystals are being formed with PSF rather than under the atmospheric control where the freezing temperature is above -40℃. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the PSF processing at a very low freezing temperature (-50℃) offers a potential advantage over commercial atmospheric freezing points for the formation of small ice crystals. PMID:26760743

  15. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  16. UV treatments on the physicochemical properties of tilapia skin and pig skin gelatin.

    PubMed

    Wu, C K; Tsai, J S; Chen, Z Y; Sung, W C

    2015-06-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin, pig skin gelatin, and their mousse premixes were exposed to UV irradiation for 103, 206, and 309 kJ/cm(2). All samples after 309 kJ/cm(2) exposure exhibited a significant increase in gel strength, gel forming ability as well as viscosity of solutions. It was shown that UV treatment could also improve the pig skin gelatin foam stability and foam formation ability compared to those of tilapia skin gelatin. Nevertheless, the panelists gave the lowest scores to mousse made with 309 kJ/cm(2) UV-irradiated premix mousse pig skin gelatin. Tilapia skin gelatin could be used as a substitute ingredient for premix mousse made from pig skin gelatin. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Implementation of a protocol to reduce occurrence of retained sponges after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Monica A; Schindler, Lynnett L; Hill, James B; Magann, Everett F; O'Boyle, John D

    2011-06-01

    Retained sponges (gossypiboma) following vaginal delivery are an uncommon occurrence. Although significant morbidity from such an event is unlikely, there are many reported adverse effects, including symptoms of malodorous discharge, loss of confidence in providers and the medical system, and legal claims. To report a protocol intended to reduce the occurrence of retained sponges following vaginal delivery. After identification of limitations with existing delivery room protocols, we developed a sponge count protocol to reduce occurrence of retained vaginal sponges. We report our experience at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, a large tertiary care military treatment facility with our efforts to implement a sponge count protocol to reduce retained sponges following vaginal delivery. With appropriate pre-implementation training, protocols which incorporate post-delivery vaginal sweep and sponge counts are well accepted by the health care team and can be incorporated into the delivery room routine.

  18. Sponge non-metastatic Group I Nme gene/protein - structure and function is conserved from sponges to humans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleoside diphosphate kinases NDPK are evolutionarily conserved enzymes present in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, with human Nme1 the most studied representative of the family and the first identified metastasis suppressor. Sponges (Porifera) are simple metazoans without tissues, closest to the common ancestor of all animals. They changed little during evolution and probably provide the best insight into the metazoan ancestor's genomic features. Recent studies show that sponges have a wide repertoire of genes many of which are involved in diseases in more complex metazoans. The original function of those genes and the way it has evolved in the animal lineage is largely unknown. Here we report new results on the metastasis suppressor gene/protein homolog from the marine sponge Suberites domuncula, NmeGp1Sd. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of the sponge Group I Nme gene and protein, and compare it to its human homolog in order to elucidate the evolution of the structure and function of Nme. Results We found that sponge genes coding for Group I Nme protein are intron-rich. Furthermore, we discovered that the sponge NmeGp1Sd protein has a similar level of kinase activity as its human homolog Nme1, does not cleave negatively supercoiled DNA and shows nonspecific DNA-binding activity. The sponge NmeGp1Sd forms a hexamer, like human Nme1, and all other eukaryotic Nme proteins. NmeGp1Sd interacts with human Nme1 in human cells and exhibits the same subcellular localization. Stable clones expressing sponge NmeGp1Sd inhibited the migratory potential of CAL 27 cells, as already reported for human Nme1, which suggests that Nme's function in migratory processes was engaged long before the composition of true tissues. Conclusions This study suggests that the ancestor of all animals possessed a NmeGp1 protein with properties and functions similar to evolutionarily recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues

  19. Effect of ageing on the calibration of ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Guey, Jason; Rodrigues, S; Pullen, A; Shaw, B; Kieser, D C

    2018-02-27

    Ballistic gelatin is commonly used as a validated surrogate for soft tissue during terminal ballistic testing. However, the effect of a delay between production and testing of a gelatin mould remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine any potential effects of ageing on ballistic gelatin. Depth of penetration (DoP) of 4.5 mm spherical fragment simulating projectiles was ascertained using mixtures of 10%, 11.25% and 20% Type A 250 Bloom ballistic gelatin. Testing was performed daily for 5 days using velocities between 75 and 210 m/s. DoP at day 5 was statistically compared with day 1, and net mass change was recorded daily. No significant difference was found for DoP observed with time in any of the samples (P>0.05). Spearman correlation was excellent in all moulds. The moulds with known standard calibrations remained in calibration throughout the study period. Mass loss of less than 1% was noted in all samples. Mass loss was the only quantifiable measure of changes in the blocks with time, but did not correlate with any changes in DoP. This may provide reassurance when undertaking such testing that an inadvertent delay will not significantly alter the penetration properties of the mould. Future research is recommended to determine any potential effect on the mechanical properties of gelatin at higher velocity impacts and whether the calibration corresponds to an adequate simulation under such conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. State diagram of salmon (Salmo salar) gelatin films.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Paulo; López, Daniel; Matiacevich, Silvia; Osorio, Fernando; Enrione, Javier

    2011-11-01

    A state diagram presents different physical states of a biomaterial as a function of solid content and temperature. Despite their technological interest, little information is available on protein systems such as gelatin/water mixtures. The objective of this work was to develop state diagrams of salmon gelatin (SG) and bovine gelatin (BG) in order to determine maximal freeze concentration parameters (T'(g) , T'(m) and X(s') ) and to relate possible differences to their biochemical characteristics. Biochemical characterisation of SG showed lower molecular weight and iminoacid concentration compared with BG. Likewise, the glass transition temperature (T(g) ) was lower for SG at X(s) > 0.8, which was associated with its lower molecular weight. Unexpectedly, the depression of freezing temperature (T(f) ) was greater for SG at X(s) > 0.1, which was associated with its higher ash content. Isothermal annealing produced effective values of T'(g) ≈ - 52 °C, T'(m) ≈ - 46 °C and X'(s) ≈ 0.6 for both gelatins. Interestingly, the enthalpy change associated with T'(m) (ΔH T m) was significantly higher for SG than for BG after annealing, indicating a higher proportion of ice present at about - 50 °C. Maximal freeze concentration parameters were similar between the two gelatins, though differences in biochemical properties were evident. The results show that there are likely different ways of interaction of SG and BG with water. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite/gelatin composite membranes for immunoisolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Chang, Feng-Nian

    2012-12-01

    Composite membranes are fabricated from hydroxyapatite (HAP) and gelatin for immunoisolation of cells. The films were fabricated by crosslinking 5 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% gelatin with 1 wt% glutaraldehyde (GA) in the presence of HAP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirms imide bond formation between GA and gelatin, while the crystal structure of HAP powder remains unchanged from X-ray diffraction analysis. The degree of crosslinking depends on crosslinking time and gelatin concentration. For 5% and 10% gelatin, the degree of crosslinking levels off at 90% within 48 h. From scanning electron microscopy micrographs, the microstructure of the composite membrane depends on the amount of gelatin used in the crosslinking reaction. The mechanical strength of the composite membrane could be enhanced by increasing the gelatin concentration. BET analysis indicates that pore size of the micropores on the surface HAP/gelatin agglomerates decreases with increasing gelatin concentration. However, the macropore, through which diffusion of molecules occurs, is larger at higher gelatin concentrations. The permeability coefficients of different molecules through a HAP/gelatin composite membrane increase with increasing gelatin concentration and is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the molecule. For immunoisolation of cells, the diffusion of large molecules stimulated by the immune system can be rejected by a chamber constructed from the HAP/gelatin membrane. Insulinoma cells were encapsulated in alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules and enclosed in a HAP/gelatin chamber. The chamber did not impair the viability and function of insulinoma cells and cells can secrete insulin in response to glucose concentration change. The chamber is therefore useful for the physiologically controlled secretion of insulin in response to the blood glucose level. Intraperitoneal transplantation of the chamber into streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats could

  2. Biomimetic Engineering of Nanofibrous Gelatin Scaffolds with Noncollagenous Proteins for Enhanced Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Qilin; Gao, Tian; Feng, Jian Q.; Dechow, Paul; D'Souza, Rena N.; Qin, Chunlin

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic approaches are widely used in scaffolding designs to enhance tissue regeneration. In this study, we integrated noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) from bone extracellular matrix (ECM) with three-dimensional nanofibrous gelatin (NF-Gelatin) scaffolds to form an artificial matrix (NF-Gelatin-NCPs) mimicking both the nano-structured architecture and chemical composition of natural bone ECM. Through a chemical coupling process, the NCPs were evenly distributed over all the surfaces (inner and outer) of the NF-gelatin-NCPs. The in vitro study showed that the number of osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) on the NF-Gelatin-NCPs was significantly higher than that on the NF-Gelatin after being cultured for 14 days. Both the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteogenic genes (OPN, BSP, DMP1, CON, and Runx2) were significantly higher in the NF-Gelatin-NCPs than in the NF-Gelatin at 3 weeks. Von Kossa staining, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, and microcomputed tomography all revealed a higher amount of mineral deposition in the NF-Gelatin-NCPs than in the NF-Gelatin after in vitro culturing for 3 weeks. The in vivo calvarial defect study indicated that the NF-Gelatin-NCPs recruited more host cells to the defect and regenerated a higher amount of bone than the controls after implantation for 6 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining also showed high-level mineralization of the bone matrix in the NF-Gelatin-NCPs. Taken together, both the in vitro and in vivo results confirmed that the incorporation of NCPs onto the surfaces of the NF-Gelatin scaffold significantly enhanced osteogenesis and mineralization. Biomimetic engineering of the surfaces of the NF-Gelatin scaffold with NCPs, therefore, is a promising strategy to enhance bone regeneration. PMID:23469769

  3. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  4. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  5. Tactile device utilizing a single magnetorheological sponge: experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soomin; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    In the field of medicine, several new areas have been currently introduced such as robot-assisted surgery. However, the major drawback of these systems is that there is no tactile communication between doctors and surgical sites. When the tactile system is brought up, telemedicine including telerobotic surgery can be enhanced much more than now. In this study, a new tactile device is designed using a single magnetorhological (MR) sponge cell to realize the sensation of human organs. MR fluids and an open celled polyurethane foam are used to propose the MR sponge cell. The viscous and elastic sensational behaviors of human organs are realized by the MR sponge cell. Before developing the tactile device, tactile sensation according to touch of human fingers are quantified in advance. The finger is then treated as a reduced beam bundle model (BBM) in which the fingertip is comprised of an elastic beam virtually. Under the reduced BBM, when people want to sense an object, the fingertip is investigated by pushing and sliding. Accordingly, while several magnitudes of magnetic fields are applied to the tactile device, normal and tangential reaction forces and bending moment are measured by 6-axis force/torque sensor instead of the fingertip. These measured data are used to compare with soft tissues. It is demonstrated that the proposed MR sponge cell can realize any part of the organ based on the obtained data.

  6. Manoalide-related Sesterterpene from the Marine Sponge Luffariella variabilis.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Toshiyuki; Harada, Daisuke; Hirata, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Keisuke; Palaniveloo, Kishneth; Okamura, Hiroaki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo; Arima, Naomichi; Iriguchi, Toshiyuki; de Voogd, Nicole J; Vairappan, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    A new manoalide-related sesterterpene, (4E,6E)-dehydro-25-O-methylmanoalide (1), was isolated from the organic extracts of the Bornean marine sponge Luffariella variabilis, together with the known compound (4E,6E)-dehydromanoalide (2). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of its spectroscopic data.

  7. Enhancement of healing in osteochondral defects by collagen sponge implants.

    PubMed

    Speer, D P; Chvapil, M; Volz, R G; Holmes, M D

    1979-10-01

    Implants of porous, highly cross-linked collagen sponge (CS) were tested for their capacity to enhance the healing of osteochondral defects in rabbits. Comparison was made to the healing of similar defects with polyvinyl alcohol sponge (PVAS) implants and with no implants (CONT). Evaluation was carried out up to 44 weeks following implantation and included observation of host cellular response, biodegradability of implant, gross appearance of restored joint surface, collagenous architecture of repair tissue, and properties of the junctions of implants and host articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and medullary bone. Collagen sponge proved most effective in promoting healing of osteochondral defects with fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue over restored subchondral bone. Collagen sponge showed many desirable properties as a potential material for biologic resurfacing of damaged joints. These properties included porosity, biodegradability, biocompatability, ability to mechanically protect cells and matrix while directing cell ingrowth, and an available chemical technology for modifying its biomechanical and biological properties. Comparative analysis of results of healing of CS, PVAS, and CONT osteochondral defects suggest rational design criteria for implant materials to improve their effectiveness in restoration of articular surfaces.

  8. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  9. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  10. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  11. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. The technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters, and process waters by absorbi...

  12. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  14. Growth efficiency and carbon balance for the sponge Haliclona oculata.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marieke; Martens, Dirk; Wijffels, Rene H

    2010-06-01

    To obtain more knowledge about carbon requirements for growth by sponges, the growth rate, respiration rate, and clearance rate was measured in situ in Haliclona oculata. We found that only 34% of the particulate carbon pumped through the sponge was used for both respiration and growth. The net growth efficiency, being the ratio of carbon incorporated in biomass and the total carbon used by the sponge for respiration and growth, was found to be 0.099 +/- 0.013. Thus, about 10% of the total used carbon was fixed in biomass, and over 90% was used for generating energy for growth, maintenance, reproduction, and pumping. H. oculata had 2.5 micromol C available for every micromole O2 consumed. A value of 0.75 for respiratory quotient (RQ in micromole CO2 micromole O2(-1) ) was used for H. oculata, which is the average value reported in literature for different marine invertebrates. Thus, carbon was available in excess to meet the respiratory demand. Oxygen was found not to be the limiting factor for growth, since only 3.3% of the oxygen pumped through the sponge body was used. Our results indicate that both oxygen and carbon availability are not limiting. The low growth efficiency agrees with the low growth rates found for the species used in this study.

  15. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  16. Endosymbiotic calcifying bacteria across sponge species and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate, Leire; Sureda, Jan; Agell, Gemma; Uriz, Maria J.

    2017-03-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, sponges are ideal targets to study marine symbioses as they are the most ancient living metazoans and harbour highly diverse microbial communities. A recently discovered association between the sponge Hemimycale columella and an intracellular bacterium that generates large amounts of calcite spherules has prompted speculation on the possible role of intracellular bacteria in the evolution of the skeleton in early animals. To gain insight into this purportedly ancestral symbiosis, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria in Mediterranean and Caribbean sponges. We found four new calcibacteria OTUs belonging to the SAR116 in two orders (Poecilosclerida and Clionaida) and three families of Demospongiae, two additional OTUs in cnidarians and one more in seawater (at 98.5% similarity). Using a calcibacteria targeted probe and CARD-FISH, we also found calcibacteria in Spirophorida and Suberitida and proved that the calcifying bacteria accumulated at the sponge periphery, forming a skeletal cortex, analogous to that of siliceous microscleres in other demosponges. Bacteria-mediated skeletonization is spread in a range of phylogenetically distant species and thus the purported implication of bacteria in skeleton formation and evolution of early animals gains relevance.

  17. Effect of wheat flour characteristics on sponge cake quality.

    PubMed

    Moiraghi, Malena; de la Hera, Esther; Pérez, Gabriela T; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To select the flour parameters that relate strongly to cake-making performance, in this study the relationship between sponge cake quality, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile and flour physicochemical characteristics was investigated using 38 soft wheat samples of different origins. Particle size average, protein, damaged starch, water-soluble pentosans, total pentosans, SRC and pasting properties were analysed. Sponge cake volume and crumb texture were measured to evaluate cake quality. Cluster analysis was applied to assess differences in flour quality parameters among wheat lines based on the SRC profile. Cluster 1 showed significantly higher sponge cake volume and crumb softness, finer particle size and lower SRC sucrose, SRC carbonate, SRC water, damaged starch and protein content. Particle size, damaged starch, protein, thickening capacity and SRC parameters correlated negatively with sponge cake volume, while total pentosans and pasting temperature showed the opposite effect. The negative correlations between cake volume and SRC parameters along with the cluster analysis results indicated that flours with smaller particle size, lower absorption capacity and higher pasting temperature had better cake-making performance. Some simple analyses, such as SRC, particle size distribution and pasting properties, may help to choose flours suitable for cake making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Expression and characterization of a low molecular weight recombinant human gelatin: development of a substitute for animal-derived gelatin with superior features.

    PubMed

    Olsen, David; Jiang, Jenny; Chang, Robert; Duffy, Robert; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Leigh, Scott; Lundgard, Robert; Ju, Julia; Buschman, Frank; Truong-Le, Vu; Pham, Binh; Polarek, James W

    2005-04-01

    Gelatin is used as a stabilizer in several vaccines. Allergic reactions to gelatins have been reported, including anaphylaxis. These gelatins are derived from animal tissues and thus represent a potential source of contaminants that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. We have developed a low molecular weight human sequence gelatin that can substitute for the animal sourced materials. A cDNA fragment encoding 101 amino acids of the human proalpha1 (I) chain was amplified, cloned into plasmid pPICZalpha, integrated into Pichia pastoris strain X-33, and isolates expressing high levels of recombinant gelatin FG-5001 were identified. Purified FG-5001 was able to stabilize a live attenuated viral vaccine as effectively as porcine gelatin. This prototype recombinant gelatin was homogeneous with respect to molecular weight but consisted of several charge isoforms. These isoforms were separated by cation exchange chromatography and found to result from a combination of truncation of the C-terminal arginine and post-translational phosphorylation. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify the primary site of phosphorylation as serine residue 546; serine 543 was phosphorylated at a low level. A new construct was designed encoding an engineered gelatin, FG-5009, with point mutations that eliminated the charge heterogeneity. FG-5009 was not recognized by antigelatin IgE antibodies from children with confirmed gelatin allergies, establishing the low allergenic potential of this gelatin. The homogeneity of FG-5009, the ability to produce large quantities in a reproducible manner, and its low allergenic potential make this a superior substitute for the animal gelatin hydrolysates currently used to stabilize many pharmaceuticals.

  19. Preparation and characteristic of gelatine/oxidized corn starch and gelatin/corn starch blend microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhi Hua; Woo, Meng Wai; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of gelatin (G) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) were explored as a new microcapsule composite for single droplet spray drying. The blending solutions property, gel time, transparency and viscosity of G/CS (corn starch) and G/OCS blend solutions were compared at different ratios (10:0;9:1;8:2;7:3;6:4;5:5) and concentrations(1%wt; 3%wt; 5%wt). The drying and dissolution behaviors of composite droplet have been studied using the single droplet drying technique. Possible reaction mechanisms in the composite blend were elucidated by SEM and FTIR techniques. Blends solutions of G/OCS showed longer Gel time, higher transparency and lower viscosity; further displayed faster dissolution rate than that of G/CS under similar conditions. This was attributed to the formed Schiff base between the aldehyde group of OCS and amino group of G which improved the compatibility between G and OCS. All results indicated that the composites could be prepared with excellent properties by G/OCS (6:4) which would overcome some disadvantage such as thermodynamic incompatibility and phase separation by G/CS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisshak, M.; Schönberg, C. H. L.; Form, A.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure ( pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg m-2 year-1. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

  1. Giving the early fossil record of sponges a squeeze.

    PubMed

    Antcliffe, Jonathan B; Callow, Richard H T; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-11-01

    Twenty candidate fossils with claim to be the oldest representative of the Phylum Porifera have been re-analysed. Three criteria are used to assess each candidate: (i) the diagnostic criteria needed to categorize sponges in the fossil record; (ii) the presence, or absence, of such diagnostic features in the putative poriferan fossils; and (iii) the age constraints for the candidate fossils. All three criteria are critical to the correct interpretation of any fossil and its placement within an evolutionary context. Our analysis shows that no Precambrian fossil candidate yet satisfies all three of these criteria to be a reliable sponge fossil. The oldest widely accepted candidate, Mongolian silica hexacts from c. 545 million years ago (Ma), are here shown to be cruciform arsenopyrite crystals. The oldest reliable sponge remains are siliceous spicules from the basal Cambrian (Protohertzina anabarica Zone) Soltanieh Formation, Iran, which are described and analysed here in detail for the first time. Extensive archaeocyathan sponge reefs emerge and radiate as late as the middle of the Fortunian Stage of the Cambrian and demonstrate a gradual assembly of their skeletal structure through this time coincident with the evolution of other metazoan groups. Since the Porifera are basal in the Metazoa, their presence within the late Proterozoic has been widely anticipated. Molecular clock calibration for the earliest Porifera and Metazoa should now be based on the Iranian hexactinellid material dated to c. 535 Ma. The earliest convincing fossil sponge remains appeared at around the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, associated with the great radiation events of that interval. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. [Superficial sponge anesthesia in cataract surgery (with scleral tunnel incision)].

    PubMed

    Pham, D T; Scherer, V; Wollensak, J

    1996-12-01

    The successful development of cataract operation and IOL implantation in the last decade has resulted in progressive shortening of the incision length as well as in developing safer and simpler anesthetic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether cataract surgery with scleral incision is possible using only topical sponge anesthesia with oxybuprocaine 0.4%. This method was compared with retrobulbar injection. 150 patients (3 groups each consisting 50 eyes) underwent phaco with scleral incision. 1st group: oxybuprocaine sponge anesthesia. 2nd group: oxybuprocaine sponge anesthesia combined with mild systemic analgesia (tramadol p.o.). 3rd group: retrobulbar injection (prilocaine/etidocaine mixture). All patients received medazolam premedication (Dormicum, 3/10 of 1 cc). Pain and discomfort during and after operation were investigated and statistically analyzed. Neither in group 1, 2 or 3 an additional subconjunctival injection was necessary. Pain or discomfort during operation was felt in 14 percent of the patients anesthetized with the oxybuprocaine sponge but only in 6 percent of the patients additionally premedicated with tramadol (2nd group). Also 6 percent of the patients after retrobulbar injection felt pain during operation. Postoperatively no significant differences between group 1 and 2 were obtained: 6 percent felt pain, 30 percent had a short term foreign body sensation. After retrobulbar injection (group 3) only 10 percent felt postoperative pain or discomfort. Topically applied oxybuprocaine provides sufficient anesthesia during cataract surgery with scleral incision. A combination with mild systemic analgesia (tramadol) helps to minimize pain and discomfort. Retrobulbur injection yielded only in the postoperative period significantly better analgesia. In the operating room full cooperation of the patient is required. Therefore we recommend not to use sponge anesthesia in cases when communication between surgeon and patient is

  3. Effects of sludge concentrations and different sponge configurations on the performance of a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Li, Jianxin; Listowski, Andrzej

    2012-07-01

    The performance of a novel sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) was evaluated to treat primary treated sewage effluent at three different activated sludge concentrations. Polyurethane sponge cubes with size of 1 × 1 × 1 cm were used as attached growth media in the bioreactor. The results indicated the successful removal of organic carbon and phosphorous with the efficiency higher than 98% at all conditions. Acclimatised sponge MBR showed about 5% better ammonia nitrogen removal at 5 and 10 g/L sludge concentration as compared to the new sponge system. The respiration test revealed that the specific oxygen uptake rate was around 1.0-3.5 mgO(2)/gVSS.h and likely more stable at 10 g/L sludge concentration. The sludge volume index of less than 100 mL/g during the operation indicated the good settling property of the sludge. The low mixed liquor suspended solid increase indicated that SSMBR could control the sludge production. This SSMBR was also successful in reducing membrane fouling with significant lower transmembrane pressure (e.g. only 0.5 kPa/day) compared to the conventional MBR system. Further study will be conducted to optimise other operating conditions.

  4. Increasing Mechanical Strength of Gelatin Hydrogels by Divalent Metal Ion Removal

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Qi; Yates, Keegan; Vogt, Caleb; Qian, Zichen; Frost, Megan C.; Zhao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The usage of gelatin hydrogel is limited due to its instability and poor mechanical properties, especially under physiological conditions. Divalent metal ions present in gelatin such as Ca2+ and Fe2+ play important roles in the gelatin molecule interactions. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of divalent ion removal on the stability and mechanical properties of gelatin gels with and without chemical crosslinking. The gelatin solution was purified by Chelex resin to replace divalent metal ions with sodium ions. The gel was then chemically crosslinked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Results showed that the removal of divalent metal ions significantly impacted the formation of the gelatin network. The purified gelatin hydrogels had less interactions between gelatin molecules and form larger-pore network which enabled EDC to penetrate and crosslink the gel more efficiently. The crosslinked purified gels showed small swelling ratio, higher crosslinking density and dramatically increased storage and loss moduli. The removal of divalent ions is a simple yet effective method that can significantly improve the stability and strength of gelatin hydrogels. The in vitro cell culture demonstrated that the purified gelatin maintained its ability to support cell attachment and spreading. PMID:24736500

  5. Stress transfer and matrix-cohesive fracture mechanism in microfibrillated cellulose-gelatin nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Quero, Franck; Padilla, Cristina; Campos, Vanessa; Luengo, Jorge; Caballero, Leonardo; Melo, Francisco; Li, Qiang; Eichhorn, Stephen J; Enrione, Javier

    2018-09-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) obtained from eucalyptus was embedded in gelatin from two sources; namely bovine and salmon gelatin. Raman spectroscopy revealed that stress is transferred more efficiently from bovine gelatin to the MFC when compared to salmon gelatin. Young's modulus, tensile strength, strain at failure and work of fracture of the nanocomposite films were improved by ∼67, 131, 43 y 243% respectively when using salmon gelatin as matrix material instead of bovine gelatin. Imaging of the tensile fracture surface of the MFC-gelatin nanocomposites revealed that crack formation occurs predominantly within bovine and salmon gelatin matrices rather than within the MFC or at the MFC/gelatin interface. This suggests that the mechanical failure mechanism in these nanocomposite materials is predominantly governed by a matrix-cohesive fracture mechanism. Both strength and flexibility are desirable properties for composite coatings made from gelatin-based materials, and so the findings of this study could assist in their utilization in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D cell entrapment in crosslinked thiolated gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yao; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey; Mix, Adam W.; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2012-01-01

    The combined use of natural ECM components and synthetic materials offers an attractive alternative to fabricate hydrogel-based tissue engineering scaffolds to study cell-matrix interactions in three-dimensions (3D). A facile method was developed to modify gelatin with cysteine via a bifunctional PEG linker, thus introducing free thiol groups to gelatin chains. A covalently crosslinked gelatin hydrogel was fabricated using thiolated gelatin and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGdA) via thiol-ene reaction. Unmodified gelatin was physically incorporated in a PEGdA-only matrix for comparison. We sought to understand the effect of crosslinking modality on hydrogel physicochemical properties and the impact on 3D cell entrapment. Compared to physically incorporated gelatin hydrogels, covalently crosslinked gelatin hydrogels displayed higher maximum weight swelling ratio (Qmax), higher water content, significantly lower cumulative gelatin dissolution up to 7 days, and lower gel stiffness. Furthermore, fibroblasts encapsulated within covalently crosslinked gelatin hydrogels showed extensive cytoplasmic spreading and the formation of cellular networks over 28 days. In contrast, fibroblasts encapsulated in the physically incorporated gelatin hydrogels remained spheroidal. Hence, crosslinking ECM protein with synthetic matrix creates a stable scaffold with tunable mechanical properties and with long-term cell anchorage points, thus supporting cell attachment and growth in the 3D environment. PMID:21955690

  7. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin Concentration on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Duck Meat Jellies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of duck feet gelatin concentration on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of duck meat jellies. Duck feet gelatin was prepared with acidic swelling and hot water extraction. In this study, four duck meat jellies were formulated with 3, 4, 5, and 6% duck feet gelatin, respectively. In the preliminary experiment, the increase in duck feet gelatin ranged from 5 to 20%, resulting in a significant (p<0.001) increase in the color score, but a decline in the hardness and dispersibility satisfaction scores. An increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin contributed to decreased lightness and increased protein content in duck meat jellies. Regarding the textural properties, increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin highly correlated with the hardness in the center (p<0.01, R2=0.91), and edge (p<0.01, R2=0.89), of duck meat jellies. Meanwhile, the increase in duck feet gelatin decreased the score for textural satisfaction; duck meat jellies containing 6% duck feet gelatin had a significantly lower textural satisfaction score, than those containing 3% duck feet gelatin (p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference in the overall acceptance of duck meat jellies formulated with 5% duck feet gelatin was observed, as compared to those prepared with 3% duck feet gelatin. Therefore, this study suggested that duck feet gelatin is a useful ingredient for manufacturing cold-cut meat products. In consideration of the sensory acceptance, the optimal level of duck feet gelatin in duck meat jellies was determined to be 5%. PMID:26761181

  8. Food allergy to gelatin in children with systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Nakayama, T; Inouye, S

    1996-12-01

    Anaphylaxis to measles-mumps-rubella vaccines has been reported. We have suspected that most such reactions are caused by gelatin contained in the vaccines. To confirm the relation between systemic allergic reactions to vaccines and the presence of anti-gelatin IgE, we measured anti-gelatin IgE in children who demonstrated allergy to gelatin-containing vaccines. Furthermore, to clarify the relation between allergic reactions to gelatin in vaccines and foods, we surveyed the occurrence of allergic reactions to gelatin-containing foods in the same children. Serum samples were taken from 26 children who had systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylactic shock, to vaccines and the same number of children without allergic reactions. Specific IgE to gelatin in these samples was measured. We then surveyed whether these children had allergic reactions to gelatin-containing foods before and after vaccination. Twenty-four of the 26 children with allergic reactions to vaccines had anti-gelatin IgE ranging from 1.2 to 250 Ua/ml. Seven had allergic reactions on ingestion of gelatin-containing foods. Of these, two had reactions before vaccination, and five had reactions after vaccination. All the control children without allergic reactions to vaccines had no anti-gelatin IgE. We reconfirmed a strong relationship between systemic immediate-type allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines and the presence of specific IgE to gelatin. Moreover, some of the children also had allergic reactions to food gelatin before or after vaccination.

  9. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M.; Mueller, Christina E.; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S.; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21–40% of the mucus carbon and 32–39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019

  10. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  11. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra: isolation and phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Joseph; Gandhimathi, R.; Kiran, G. Seghal; Priya, S. Shanmugha; Ravji, T. Rajeetha; Hema, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Culturable heterotrophic bacterial composition of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was analysed using different enrichments. Five media compositions including without enrichment (control), enriched with sponge extract, with growth regulator (antibiotics), with autoinducers, and complete enrichment containing sponge extract, antibiotics, and autoinducers were developed. DNA hybridization assay was performed to explore host specific bacteria and ecotypes of culturable sponge-associated bacteria. Enrichment with selective inducers (AHLs and sponge extract) and regulators (antibiotics) considerably enhanced the cultivation potential of sponge-associated bacteria. It was found that Marinobacter (MSI032), Micromonospora (MSI033), Streptomyces (MSI051), and Pseudomonas (MSI057) were sponge-associated obligate symbionts. The present findings envisaged that “ Micromonospora-Saccharomonospora-Streptomyces” group was the major culturable actinobacteria in the marine sponge D. nigra. The DNA hybridization assay was a reliable method for the analysis of culturable bacterial community in marine sponges. Based on the culturable community structure, the sponge-associated bacteria can be grouped (ecotypes) as general symbionts, specific symbionts, habitat flora, and antagonists.

  12. Sponge epibionts on ecosystem-engineering ascidians: The case of Microcosmus sabatieri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni; Kyrodimou, Marianthi; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Vafidis, Dimitris

    2010-03-01

    The study of epibionts on habitat engineering ascidians is of increasing interest because changes in the population structure of the latter may affect associated communities, especially in the case of commercially exploited species. The solitary ascidian Microcosmus sabatieri lives on rocky cliffs in the Eastern Mediterranean and is harvested in certain Aegean areas. Its hard, wrinkled tunic is usually fouled by various epibionts both sessile and motile. Sponges are an important component of this complex and their biomass may be higher than that of the ascidian itself, strongly affecting diversity and abundance of the motile epifauna. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the structure of the epibiotic sponge assemblage on ascidians collected from their main fishing grounds in the South Aegean Sea. A rich (41 species) and taxonomically diverse sponge assemblage was found, while only eight species contributed 80% of the total sponge cover. Most of the epibiotic sponges commonly grow on the surrounding sublittoral cliffs. The encrusting sponge growth form prevailed in cover of the ascidian tunic, while two massive species dominated in terms of frequency of appearance and abundance. Ascidian dimensions, weight and volume were significantly correlated with sponge diversity, abundance and cover area, thus structuring the epibiotic sponge assemblage. Spatial patterns in sponge cover were not clear, but a general declining NW to SE trend in sponge richness, abundance and cover appeared in accordance with previous records. Sponge distribution on the ascidian tunic presented a clear pattern related with characteristic features of the ascidian: the posterior zone supported the richest and most expansive sponge fauna. The ecosystem-engineering process performed by the ascidian is enhanced by the diverse epibiotic sponge assemblage, thus further increasing habitat complexity in this space-limited, temperate, sublittoral, rocky environment.

  13. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO 2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO 2 removal was achieved with greater thanmore » 95% CO 2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO 2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.« less

  14. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved bymore » isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.« less

  15. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  16. Protection of biomass from snail overgrazing in a trickling filter using sponge media as a biomass carrier: down-flow hanging sponge system.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Harada, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) technology as a promising trickling filter (TF) using sponge media as a biomass carrier with an emphasis on protection of the biomass against macrofauna overgrazing. A pilot-scale DHS reactor fed with low-strength municipal sewage was operated under ambient temperature conditions for 1 year at a sewage treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand. The results showed that snails (macrofauna) were present on the surface of the sponge media, but could not enter into it, because the sponge media with smaller pores physically protected the biomass from the snails. As a result, the sponge media maintained a dense biomass, with an average value of 22.3 gVSS/L sponge (58.1 gTSS/L sponge) on day 370. The snails could graze biomass on the surface of the sponge media. The DHS reactor process performance was also successful. The DHS reactor requires neither chemical treatments nor specific operations such as flooding for snail control. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the DHS reactor is able to protect biomass from snail overgrazing.

  17. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. indicated by metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Lamellomorpha sp.. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp..

  18. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi indicated by metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi. PMID:24463735

  19. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. indicated by metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-27

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected] . at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected].

  20. Transglutaminase reactivity with gelatine: perspective applications in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, F; Barbani, N; Giusti, P; Ciardelli, G

    2006-05-01

    Gelatine was crosslinked by means of an enzymatic treatment using tissue transglutaminase (tTGase) (Sigma) and microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) (Ajinomoto) which catalyses the formation of isopeptide bonds between the gamma-carbonyl group of a glutamine residue and the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue. The reaction is an interesting alternative to the traditional glutaraldehyde crosslinking, which has several drawbacks (e.g., in medical application) due to the toxicity of the chemical reagent. To further investigate the possibility to utilize the modified protein for tissue engineering application, TGase crosslinked gelatine was incorporated in a gellan matrix, a polysaccharide, to enhance the stability in aqueous media. Films obtained by casting were characterized by thermal analysis, chemical imaging, swelling behaviour and cell adhesion.

  1. Gelation kinetics of gelatin using particle tracking microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Joseph; Bansil, Rama

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies with gelatin have observed four distinct stages during the physical gelation process [Normand et al. Macromolecules, 2000, 33, 1063]. In this presentation we report measurements of microrheology in an effort to examine the time evolution of the gel on short length scales and time scales. By tracking latex particles in gelatin solution at different temperatures we can follow the microrheological changes and kinetics of the gelation process. Using the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation viscoelastic properties of these quasi-static gel states the evolution of the storage and loss moduli, G' and G'', are examined as functions of both time and temperature. The data show that both G' and G'' exhibit power law scaling versus frequency with the same exponent. The temperature and concentration dependence of the frequency at which the system crosses over from viscous to elastic behavior will be presented.

  2. Simplified Method for Preparing Methylene-Blue-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Kazumasa; Koike, Satoshi; Namba, Sinji; Mizuno, Toru; Kubota, Toshihiro

    1998-05-01

    Methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) is a suitable material for recording full-color holograms in a single layer. However, a drying process in an ammonia atmosphere is necessary to prepare the MBDCG plate. This process is time-consuming and unstable. A simplified method for preparing the MBDCG plate is presented in which the MBDCG can be dried without ammonia. Elimination of the drying process is possible when the methylene blue in MBDCG does not separate. This is achieved by a decrease in the concentration of dichromate in the photosensitized solution and the addition of an ammonia solution to the photosensitized solution. Last, the gelatin is allowed to gel. A Lippmann color hologram grating with a diffraction efficiency of more than 80% is obtained by use of this MBDCG.

  3. Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Neipp, C; Pascual, I; Beléndez, A

    1999-03-10

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) is one of the most interesting techniques for the production of holographic optical elements, achieving relatively high sensitivity of photographic material with a low scattering of dichromated gelatin. Here we present experimental results for SHSG derived from the novel BB-640, a red-sensitive ultra-fine-grain emulsion from Holographic Recording Technologies (Steinau, Germany). The material is characterized before recording and after processing, and information about the thickness, absorption, and refractive-index modulation of the final holograms is obtained. The influence of the developer is analyzed, and diffraction efficiencies as great as 96.2% (after allowing for reflections) with a transmission of 1% and absorption and scatter losses of 2.8% are obtained with AAC developer. Our investigations reveal that high-quality SHSG transmission holograms may be obtained with the new BB-640 plates.

  4. Metagenomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Nutrient Cycling Pathways in the Microbiota of Deep-Sea and Shallow-Water Sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Fang; He, Liming; He, Ying; Wang, Shenyue

    2016-12-01

    Sponges host complex symbiotic communities, but to date, the whole picture of the metabolic potential of sponge microbiota remains unclear, particularly the difference between the shallow-water and deep-sea sponge holobionts. In this study, two completely different sponges, shallow-water sponge Theonella swinhoei from the South China Sea and deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi from the Indian Ocean, were selected to compare their whole symbiotic communities and metabolic potential, particularly in element transformation. Phylogenetically diverse bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae were detected in both shallow-water sponge T. swinhoei and deep-sea sponge N. huxleyi, and different microbial community structures were indicated between these two sponges. Metagenome-based gene abundance analysis indicated that, though the two sponge microbiota have similar core functions, they showed different potential strategies in detailed metabolic processes, e.g., in the transformation and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur by corresponding microbial symbionts. This study provides insight into the putative metabolic potentials of the microbiota associated with the shallow-water and deep-sea sponges at the whole community level, extending our knowledge of the sponge microbiota's functions, the association of sponge- microbes, as well as the adaption of sponge microbiota to the marine environment.

  5. Relationships between Host Phylogeny, Host Type and Bacterial Community Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Schöttner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Friederike; Cárdenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus low microbial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location and water depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that as many as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were shared between sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes in bacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation), sponge family (52%) or sponge type (30%), whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively small effects (<5% each). In addition, a highly significant, positive relationship between bacterial community dissimilarity and sponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity of sponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure, support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly to enhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:23393586

  6. Gelatin Methacrylate Microspheres for Growth Factor Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh H.; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (15–90%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor over conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite an order of magnitude greater gelatin content of GA MPs. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery. PMID:25463489

  7. Thermal analysis of microlens formation on a sensitized gelatin layer

    SciTech Connect

    Muric, Branka; Pantelic, Dejan; Vasiljevic, Darko

    2009-07-01

    We analyze a mechanism of direct laser writing of microlenses. We find that thermal effects and photochemical reactions are responsible for microlens formation on a sensitized gelatin layer. An infrared camera was used to assess the temperature distribution during the microlens formation, while the diffraction pattern produced by the microlens itself was used to estimate optical properties. The study of thermal processes enabled us to establish the correlation between thermal and optical parameters.

  8. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Shapardanis, Steven; Hudpeth, Mathew; Kaya, Tolga, E-mail: kaya2t@cmich.edu

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specializedmore » humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.« less

  9. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  10. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    DOE PAGES

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer; ...

    2018-03-30

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  11. Low temperature selective absorber research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzenberg, S. A.; Silberglitt, R.

    1982-04-01

    Research carried out since 1979 on selective absorbers is surveyed, with particular attention given to the low-temperature coatings seen as promising for flat plate and evacuated tube applications. The most thoroughly investigated absorber is black chrome, which is highly selective and is the most durable low-temperature absorber. It is believed that other materials, because of their low cost and lower content of strategic materials, may eventually supplant black chrome. Among these candidates are chemically converted black nickel; anodically oxidized nickel, zinc, and copper composites; and nickel or other low-cost multilayer coatings. In reviewing medium and high-temperature research, black chrome, multilayer coatings and black cobalt are seen as best medium-temperature candidates. For high temperatures, an Al2O3/Pt-Al203 multilayer composite or the zirconium diboride coating is preferred.

  12. Blending lecithin and gelatin improves the formation of thymol nanodispersions.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jia; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-04-02

    Delivery systems of lipophilic antimicrobials such as thymol prepared with generally recognized-as-safe ingredients are needed to enhance the microbiological safety of low-acid (pH > 4.6) foods. Nanodispersions with particle diameters below 100 nm are particularly demanded because of the low turbidity and physical stability. In this study, thymol dispersions were prepared by gelatin and soy lecithin on an individual basis or in combination. Dispersions prepared with the lecithin-gelatin blend were translucent and stable at pH 5.0-8.0, contrasting with turbid and unstable dispersions when the emulsifiers were used individually. The synergistic surface activity of gelatin and lecithin was due to complex formation that effectively prevented particle size change due to coalescence and Ostwald ripening. Electrostatic interactions were observed to be the colloidal force responsible for preventing particle aggregation. The studied generally recognized-as-safe nanodispersions have great potential to deliver lipophilic antimicrobials such as thymol in low-acid foods to enhance food safety.

  13. Effect of extraction temperature on characteristics of chicken legskin gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sompie, M.; Triasih, A.

    2018-01-01

    Gelatin is a denaturalized protein that is derived from collagen by acidic or alkaline hydrolysis and is an important functional biopolymer that has a very broad application in many industrial fields. Its functional properties depend on processing conditions as well as the raw material. The objective of the research was to study effect of extraction temperature on characteristics of native chicken legskin gelatin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments (T1 = 500C, T2 = 550C, T3 = 600C, T4 = 650C) and five replications. Statistical analysis were carried out by one Anova and the mean difference was tested using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of research indicated that, extraction temperature had significant effect (P<0.05) on yield, gel strength, viscocity and protein content of chicken legskin gelatin, but it had no significant effect (P>0.05) on water content. It was concluded that the use of extraction temperature 600C was (yields 13.75, gel strength 78.75 g bloom, viscosity 6.52 cP, protein content 84.23% and water content 6.20%).

  14. Biologically active and biomimetic dual gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P; Pedraz, J L; Orive, G

    2017-05-01

    We have designed, developed and optimized Genipin cross-linked 3D gelatin scaffolds that were biologically active and biomimetic, show a dual activity both for growth factor and cell delivery. Type B gelatin powder was dissolved in DI water. 100mg of genipin was dissolved in 10ml of DI water. Three genipin concentrations were prepared: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% (w/v). Solutions were mixed at 40°C and under stirring and then left crosslinking for 72h. Scaffolds were obtained by punching 8 mm-cylinders into ethanol 70% solution for 10min and then freeze-drying. Scaffolds were biologically, biomechanically and morphologically evaluated. Cell adhesion and morphology of D1-Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and L-929 fibroblast was studied. Vascular endothelial grwoth factor (VEGF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) were used as model proteins. Swelling ratio increased and younǵs module decreased along with the concentration of genipin. All scaffolds were biocompatible according to the toxicity test. MSC and L-929 cell adhesion improved in 0.2% of genipin, obtaining better results with MSCs. VEGF and SHH were released from the gels. This preliminary study suggest that the biologically active and dual gelatin scaffolds may be used for tissue engineering approaches like bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S R; Rodrigues, G; Martins, G G; Henriques, C M R; Silva, J C

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cosmetic textiles with biological benefits: gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Kan, Chi Wai; Cheuk, Kevin Ka Leung; Chui, Chung Hin; Lam, Kim Hung

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, textile materials with special applications in the cosmetic field have been developed. A new sector of cosmetic textiles is opened up and several cosmetic textile products are currently available in the market. Microencapsulation technology is an effective technique to control the release properties of active ingredients that prolong the functionality of cosmetic textiles. This study discusses the development of cosmetic textiles and addresses microencapsulation technology with respect to its historical background, significant advantages, microencapsulation methods and recent applications in the textile industry. Gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C were prepared using emulsion hardening technique. Both the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the newly developed microcapsules were in the form of core-shell spheres with relatively smooth surface. The particle size of microcapsules ranged from 5.0 to 44.1 microm with the average particle size being 24.6 microm. The gelatin microcapsules were proved to be non-cytotoxic based on the research findings of the toxicity studies conducted on human liver and breast cell lines as well as primary bone marrow culture obtained from patient with non-malignant haematological disorder. The gelatin microcapsules were successfully grafted into textile materials for the development of cosmetic textiles.

  17. An NMR Study of Biomimetic Fluorapatite – Gelatine Mesocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Vyalikh, Anastasia; Simon, Paul; Rosseeva, Elena; Buder, Jana; Scheler, Ulrich; Kniep, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The mesocrystal system fluoroapatite—gelatine grown by double-diffusion is characterized by hierarchical composite structure on a mesoscale. In the present work we apply solid state NMR to characterize its structure on the molecular level and provide a link between the structural organisation on the mesoscale and atomistic computer simulations. Thus, we find that the individual nanocrystals are composed of crystalline fluorapatite domains covered by a thin boundary apatite-like layer. The latter is in contact with an amorphous layer, which fills the interparticle space. The amorphous layer is comprised of the organic matrix impregnated by isolated phosphate groups, Ca3F motifs and water molecules. Our NMR data provide clear evidence for the existence of precursor complexes in the gelatine phase, which were not involved in the formation of apatite crystals, proving hence theoretical predictions on the structural pre-treatment of gelatine by ion impregnation. The interfacial interactions, which may be described as the glue holding the composite materials together, comprise hydrogen bond interactions with the apatite PO43− groups. The reported results are in a good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, which address the mechanisms of a growth control by collagen fibers, and with experimental observations of an amorphous cover layer in biominerals. PMID:26515127

  18. Gelation kinetics and characterization of enzymatically enhanced fish scale gelatin-pectin coacervate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Tu, Zong-Cai; Shangguan, Xinchen; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Nanhai; Zhang, Lu; Sha, Xiaomei

    2018-02-01

    Protein-polysaccharide complex coacervations have been considered extensively for the development of functional foods. The main problem of the complex coacervates is that they are highly unstable under different conditions and that cross-linking is necessary to stabilize them. In this study, the effects of pectin at different concentrations on the gel and structural properties of fish scale gelatin (FSG)-high methoxyl citrus pectin (HMP) coacervate enhanced by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) were studied. The gelation rates and gel strength of the MTGase-enhanced FSG-HMP coacervate gels decreased with increasing HMP concentration. However, the enhanced coacervate gels exhibited better thermal behavior and mechanical properties compared with the original gels. Also, TG-P 8 exhibited the highest melting point (27.15 ± 0.12 °C), gelation point (15.65 ± 0.01 °C) and stress (15.36 ± 0.48 kPa) as HMP was 8 g kg -1 . Particle size distribution, fluorescence emission and UV absorbance spectra indicated that MTGase and HMP could make FSG form large aggregates. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy of treated coacervate gels showed a continuous protein phase at low HMP concentrations. FSG and HMP could form soluble coacervate, and MTGase could improve the thermal and mechanical properties of coacervate gels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Gelation and thermal characteristics of microwave extracted fish gelatin-natural gum composite gels.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Joshy, C G; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the gelation and thermal characteristics of microwave extracted fish scale gelatin blended with natural gums such as gum arabic (AG), xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), and tragacanth gum (TG) was evaluated. The nature of interaction and behavior of gelatin in presence of various gums was confirmed by particle size analysis, viscosity profile, FT-IR analysis and turbidity measurements. DSC data revealed that addition of AG, TG and GG remarkably improved the thermal stability of fish gelatin gel. The composite gels of TG, AG, and XG exhibited higher hardness and bloom strength values as compared to pure fish gelatin implying its textural synergy. Based on qualitative descriptive analysis, TG was found to be superior in improving the stability of fish gelatin gel, closely followed by AG. The results suggest that addition of these gums can reduce syneresis and retard melting of gelatin gels at ambient temperature, which are otherwise soft and thermally unstable.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Equilibrium Plasma as a Green Tool to Crosslink Gelatin Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Anna; Bigi, Adriana; Colombo, Vittorio; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Gherardi, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Oleari, Maria Chiara; Panzavolta, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun gelatin nanofibers attract great interest as a natural biomaterial for cartilage and tendon repair despite their high solubility in aqueous solution, which makes them also difficult to crosslink by means of chemical agents. In this work, we explore the efficiency of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma in stabilizing gelatin nanofibers. We demonstrate that plasma represents an innovative, easy and environmentally friendly approach to successfully crosslink gelatin electrospun mats directly in the solid state. Plasma treated gelatin mats display increased structural stability and excellent retention of fibrous morphology after immersion in aqueous solution. This method can be successfully applied to induce crosslinking both in pure gelatin and genipin-containing gelatin electrospun nanofibers, the latter requiring an even shorter plasma exposure time. A complete characterization of the crosslinked nanofibres, including mechanical properties, morphological observations, stability in physiological solution and structural modifications, has been carried out in order to get insights on the occurring reactions triggered by plasma.

  1. Potential Use in Forensics of a Novel Hybrid Gelatin-Dynamic Impact Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zecheru, Teodora; Dena, Alexandru; Cîrmaci, Marius; Său, Ciprian; Zaharia, Cătălin; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu

    2018-05-01

    Ballistic gelatin as simulant of the human body and organs is a support in forensics. After having obtained very good results for a new gelatin-based composite in terms of physicochemical and rheological properties, this study focused on this material's mechanical behavior during stabbing and shooting versus bovine and porcine organs and standard ballistic gelatin. The hybrid gelatin has a predominantly elastic behavior at 23°C, whereas the elastic modulus becomes practically constant in the 10-0.1 Hz frequency range. In terms of stabbing behavior, the small variations obtained between porcine organs and surrogate are below 5%, the perforation indicating a good similarity. From the ballistic test results using 10 × 28T rubber balls, it has been seen that the hybrid ballistic gelatin conducts to more reliable and reproducible values of perforation/penetration versus standard gelatin, making from it a real candidate for use in forensic tests. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    SciTech Connect

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) andmore » proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.« less

  3. Analytical methods for gelatin differentiation from bovine and porcine origins and food products.

    PubMed

    Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz Raja; Ismail, Amin; Che Man, Yaakob B

    2012-01-01

    Usage of gelatin in food products has been widely debated for several years, which is about the source of gelatin that has been used, religion, and health. As an impact, various analytical methods have been introduced and developed to differentiate gelatin whether it is made from porcine or bovine sources. The analytical methods comprise a diverse range of equipment and techniques including spectroscopy, chemical precipitation, chromatography, and immunochemical. Each technique can differentiate gelatins for certain extent with advantages and limitations. This review is focused on overview of the analytical methods available for differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatin and gelatin in food products so that new method development can be established. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Transglutaminase-induced crosslinking of gelatin-calcium carbonate composite films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuemeng; Liu, Anjun; Ye, Ran; Wang, Wenhang; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of transglutaminase (TGase) on the rheological profiles and interactions of gelatin-calcium carbonate solutions were studied. In addition, mechanical properties, water vapour permeability and microstructures of gelatin-calcium carbonate films were also investigated and compared. Fluorescence data suggested that the interaction of TGase and gelation-calcium carbonate belonged to a static quenching mechanism, and merely one binding site between TGase and gelatin-calcium carbonate was identified. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mechanical properties and the water vapour permeability studies revealed that TGase favoured the strong intramolecular polymerisation of the peptides in gelatin. The microstructures of the surfaces and cross sections in gelatin-calcium carbonate films were shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. The results of the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that TGase caused conformational changes in the proteins films. Therefore, TGase successfully facilitated the formation of gelatin-calcium carbonate composite films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  6. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  7. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  8. Barrier layers against oxygen transmission on the basis of electron beam cured methacrylated gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherzer, Tom

    1997-08-01

    The development of barrier layers against oxygen transmission on the basis of radiation-curable methacrylated gelatin will be reported. The electron beam cured gelatin coatings show an extremely low oxygen permeability and a high resistance against boiling water. Moreover, the methacrylated gelatins possess good adhesion characteristics. Therefore, they are suited as barrier adhesives in laminates for food packaging applications. If substrate foils from biodegradable polymers are used, the development of completely biodegradable packaging materials seems to be possible.

  9. Sensitization to gelatin in children with systemic non-immediate-type reactions to varicella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Miyazawa, H; Inouye, S

    2000-03-01

    We recently found that four children who experienced systemic immediate-type reactions to varicella vaccine with gelatin had anti-gelatin IgE. We also found systemic non-immediate-type allergic reactions, which mainly consist of systemic cutaneous signs, appearing several hours or more after the vaccination. To investigate the relationship between immune responses to gelatin and non-immediate-type reactions to gelatin-containing varicella vaccines, we measured anti-gelatin IgE and IgG in the sera of the children with these allergic reactions. Serum samples were taken from 21 children who showed non-immediate-type reactions to varicella vaccines. As a positive control, serum samples were taken from 33 children who showed immediate-type reactions to varicella vaccine and had anti-gelatin IgE. As a negative control, serum samples were taken from 50 children who showed no reaction to the vaccine. We then examined anti-gelatin IgE and IgG in sera of the children. Of 21 children with non-immediate-type reactions, two (10%) had anti-gelatin IgE and six (29%) had anti-gelatin IgG. In the positive control group, all 33 children with immediate-type reactions had anti-gelatin IgG as well as IgE. In the negative control group, all 50 children who showed no allergic reaction to varicella vaccines had neither anti-gelatin IgE nor IgG. These results suggest that the possibility exists that some non-immediate-type reactions to varicella vaccine are caused by immune reactions to gelatin.

  10. Study on the development trend and practice of sponge cities with Chinese Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baihao; Zhang, Cunkuan; Lin, Hua

    2018-03-01

    The design of sponge city is the innovation and development of theory of rainwater utilization, which provides a new idea for the city to solve the problem of waterlogging and water shortage. The paper expounds the “sponge city” concept of the origins, development and application in engineering construction, and puts forward some suggestions for future research of “sponge city” for our city construction.

  11. Obtainment and partial characterization of biodegradable gelatin films with tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Zarama, Maria A; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R; Solorza-Feria, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Research studies concerning the overall effect of the addition of plasticizers, cross-linking and strengthening agents in gelatin film-forming mixtures are very scarce. Also, there are no studies focused on the interactions among their individual components, or showing what sort of effects they might cause all together. A gelatin film obtained from a composite consisting of tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol was evaluated. Nine gelatin films were manufactured by the casting method, using these materials, following a 2(3) factorial design with five replicates on the central point. The interactions among gelatin, tannic acid and bentonite caused a decrease in hydrogen bonds, while the polar groups of the gelatin chains were less exposed to interactions with water molecules. There was an increase in temperature and enthalpy of gelatin denaturation, due to increasing tannic acid and bentonite concentration. Tactoids were found in the gelatin films, caused mainly by bentonite polydispersion. A synergistic effect among tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol, which overall improved the measured gelatin film properties, was found. The best film formulation was that with 40, 150 and 250 g kg(-1) gelatin of tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol respectively, displaying a tensile strength of 38 MPa, an elongation at break of 136%, water vapor permeability of 1.28 × 10(-12) g (Pa s m)(-1) and solubility of 23.4%. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of electrospun gelatin nanofibers crosslinked with oxidized phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Fathi, Milad

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the ability of oxidized phenolic compounds of tannic, gallic, ferulic and caffeic acids to crosslink gelatin (G) was investigated. The electrospun crosslinked gelatin nanofibers were assessed in terms of gelatin solution properties, fiber morphology, thermal properties, FTIR spectra, XRD pattern and antioxidant activity. Tannic acid showed the most crosslinking activity towards gelatin (13.3 vs 7.44, 4.65, and 3.45% for caffeic, gallic and ferulic, respectively). Crosslinking enhanced roughly electrical conductivity of gelatin solution while the surface tension and viscosity reduced. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results, the fibrous structure of crosslinked gelatin nanofibers didn't change while their diameter increased to the highest value of 280nm for gelatin-tannic. Gelatin-gallic sample showed the highest total phenolic content (86.3mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and antioxidant activity (86.5%). Surprisingly, from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves, it was found that crosslinking led to the reduction of thermal stability of gelatin nanofibers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural studies on aqueous gelatin solutions: Implications in designing a thermo-responsive nanoparticulate formulation.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Saad M; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2017-02-01

    Gelatin as a polymer has found extensive application in the pharmaceutical industry. It is also being used, as a matrix molecule, for nanoparticle based drug delivery applications. Gelatin nanoparticles synthesised, keeping the native structure intact, show interesting properties. Synthesizing such nanoparticles requires an understanding of the structural features of gelatin under conditions of nanoparticle synthesis and preserving them during the process. To address this we have carried out an extensive characterization of gelatin using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under various reaction conditions that are utilized in the desolvation method for gelatin nanoparticle synthesis. We investigated the gel-sol transition, hysteresis and gelatin fibre morphology under different pH and temperature conditions. We also investigated the temperature and pH dependence of triple-helix to random-coil transition in gelatin. We finally demonstrate the synthesis of gelatin nanoparticles with native gelatin. These nanoparticles show shrinkage in size (∼90nm) with increase in temperature from 30°C (369.4 ±19.8) to 40°C (282.3±9.8). Our results suggest that by carefully selecting the reaction conditions, it is possible to synthesise nanoparticles having partially folded structures and with a varying degree of sensitivity towards temperature and pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanolayer formation on titanium by phosphonated gelatin for cell adhesion and growth enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Park, Shin-Hye; Mao, Hongli; Isoshima, Takashi; Wang, Yi; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Phosphonated gelatin was prepared for surface modification of titanium to stimulate cell functions. The modified gelatin was synthesized by coupling with 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid using water-soluble carbodiimide and characterized by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. Circular dichroism revealed no differences in the conformations of unmodified and phosphonated gelatin. However, the gelation temperature was changed by the modification. Even a high concentration of modified gelatin did not form a gel at room temperature. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed direct bonding between the phosphonated gelatin and the titanium surface after binding. The binding behavior of phosphonated gelatin on the titanium surface was quantitatively analyzed by a quartz crystal microbalance. Ellipsometry showed the formation of a several nanometer layer of gelatin on the surface. Contact angle measurement indicated that the modified titanium surface was hydrophobic. Enhancement of the attachment and spreading of MC-3T3L1 osteoblastic cells was observed on the phosphonated gelatin-modified titanium. These effects on cell adhesion also led to growth enhancement. Phosphonation of gelatin was effective for preparation of a cell-stimulating titanium surface. PMID:26366080

  15. Minimum estimated incidence in Japan of anaphylaxis to live virus vaccines including gelatin.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Nakayama, T; Fujita, H; Toda, M; Inouye, S

    2000-10-15

    We have previously found that most occurrences of anaphylaxis to live virus vaccines are caused by gelatin present in the vaccines as a stabilizer. After we published the evidence for the role of gelatin in anaphylaxis, vaccine manufacturers in Japan began to eliminate gelatin from live virus vaccines. In the present study, we tried to estimate its incidence before the gelatin elimination was started. Physicians and vaccine manufacturers submitted serum samples from children with anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella vaccine to National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) for 3 years from April 1994 to March 1997. Specific IgE to gelatin was assayed at NIID or two manufacturers by the CAP and ELISA methods. There were 44 children with life-threatening severe anaphylaxis (airway obstruction or anaphylactic shock) during the 3-year period, 41 of whom had anti-gelatin IgE. There were 64 children with mild anaphylaxis (without airway obstruction); 62 had anti-gelatin IgE. There were 100 children with only systemic cutaneous signs; 81 had anti-gelatin IgE. The estimates for the incidence of the severe anaphylaxis in 1994-1996 are: 6.84, 7.31, 4. 36, and 10.3 cases per million doses of gelatin-containing measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella vaccines, respectively.

  16. Gelatin Nano-coating for Inhibiting Surface Crystallization of Amorphous Drugs.

    PubMed

    Teerakapibal, Rattavut; Gui, Yue; Yu, Lian

    2018-01-05

    Inhibit the fast surface crystallization of amorphous drugs with gelatin nano-coatings. The free surface of amorphous films of indomethacin or nifedipine was coated by a gelatin solution (type A or B) and dried. The coating's effect on surface crystallization was evaluated. Coating thickness was estimated from mass change after coating. For indomethacin (weak acid, pK a  = 4.5), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 and 10 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. The coating thickness was 20 ± 10 nm. A gelatin coating deposited at pH 3, however, provided no protective effect. These results suggest that an effective gelatin coating does not require that the drug and the polymer have opposite charges. The ineffective pH 3 coating might reflect the poor wetting of indomethacin's neutral, hydrophobic surface by the coating solution. For nifedipine (weak base, pK a  = 2.6), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. Gelatin nano-coatings can be conveniently applied to amorphous drugs from solution to inhibit fast surface crystallization. Unlike strong polyelectrolyte coatings, a protective gelatin coating does not require strict pairing of opposite charges. This could make gelatin coating a versatile, pharmaceutically acceptable coating for stabilizing amorphous drugs.

  17. Extraction optimization and characterization of gelatine from fish dry skin of Spanish mackerel (Scomberromorus commersoni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningrum, I.; Pranoto, Y.; Hadiwiyoto, S.

    2018-04-01

    This work was to optimized gelatin extraction from dry skin of Spanish mackerel (Scomberromorus commersoni) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal condition of temperature and time for extraction process and properties of the gelatin extracted from dry mackerel skin. The optimal condition for extraction was 59.71°C for 4.25 hours. Results showed that predicted yield by RSM was 13.69% and predicted gel strength was 291.93 Bloom, whereas the actual experiment for yield and gel strength were 13.03% and 291.33 Bloom, respectively. The gelatin extracted from dried skin were analyzed for their proximate composition, yield, gel strength, viscosity, color, and amino acid composition. The results of dried skin gelatin properties compared to the commercial gelatin. Gelatin extracted from the dried skin gave content lower moisture, ash and protein content but higher fat compared to commercial gelatin. This study also shows that the gelatin extracted from the dried skin gave higher gel strength and pH but the lower amino acid composition compared to commercial gelatin.

  18. Study and characterization of powder mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) bone gelatin through hydrolysis of hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardawati, E.; Sugandi, H.; Kayaputri, I. L.; Cahyana, Y.; Wira, D. W.; Pujianto, T.; Kastaman, R.

    2018-02-01

    Gelatin is one of the most common food additives in the food and beverage industry. Gelatin is generally made of leather or pig bones, causing concerns about the halal and safety of its product. Mackerel fish bone (Scomberomorus commerson) is a waste fish that has not been utilized well and it contains 18.6% of collagen so that it can be made into gelatin. The purpose of this research is to know the relation between HCl concentration with physical and chemical characteristics of gelatin and to know the best HCl concentration for gelatin production. Based on the physical and chemical analysis of gelatin, it is known that the concentration of hydrochloric acid influences the yield, viscosity, gel strength and pH produced. The higher HCl concentration there will be decrease in the pH value, gel strength, viscosity and protein. The yield will rise to the optimum point then decrease with respect to the high HCl concentration. Gelatin with 2% HCl concentration was the best treatment, with pH value 3.83, viscosity 3.65cP, gel strength 190.50 blooms which fulfilled British Standard, yield 10.16%, protein content 43.34%. It has functional group such as amino acids glycine, proline and hydroxyproline and 15 other amino acids, the gelatin group uptake in the region of amide wave numbers A, amides I, II and III, with a gelatin molecular weight of 290.35 g/mol.

  19. Comparison of porcine thorax to gelatine blocks for wound ballistics studies.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, A; Carr, D J; Champion, S; Malbon, C

    2016-09-01

    Tissue simulants are typically used in ballistic testing as substitutes for biological tissues. Many simulants have been used, with gelatine amongst the most common. While two concentrations of gelatine (10 and 20 %) have been used extensively, no agreed standard exists for the preparation of either. Comparison of ballistic damage produced in both concentrations is lacking. The damage produced in gelatine is also questioned, with regards to what it would mean for specific areas of living tissue. The aim of the work discussed in this paper was to consider how damage caused by selected pistol and rifle ammunition varied in different simulants. Damage to gelatine blocks 10 and 20 % in concentration were tested with 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 full metal jacket; FMJ) rounds, while damage produced by .223 Remington (5.56 × 45 Federal Premium® Tactical® Bonded®) rounds to porcine thorax sections (skin, underlying tissue, ribs, lungs, ribs, underlying tissue, skin; backed by a block of 10 % gelatine) were compared to 10 and 20 % gelatine blocks. Results from the .223 Remington rifle round, which is one that typically expands on impact, revealed depths of penetration in the thorax arrangement were significantly different to 20 % gelatine, but not 10 % gelatine. The level of damage produced in the simulated thoraxes was smaller in scale to that witnessed in both gelatine concentrations, though greater debris was produced in the thoraxes.

  20. Gelatinization kinetic of waxy starches under pressure according to ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, Hélène; Guyon, Claire; de Lamballerie, Marie; Lebail, Alain

    2010-12-01

    High pressure is a potential technology for the texturization of food products at ambient temperature. In this area, waxy starches are particularly interesting because they gelatinize quickly under sufficient pressure. However, gelatinization may be influenced by other components in the food matrix. Here, we investigate the influence of increasing ionic strength on gelatinization rate and kinetics at 500 MPa for waxy corn and waxy rice starches. We show that increasing ionic strength strongly retards and inhibits starch gelatinization under pressure and leads to heterogeneous gels with remnant granules.

  1. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  2. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  3. Immunosuppressive compounds from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, S P; Cranick, S; Longley, R E

    1989-01-01

    Two immunosuppressive compounds, 4 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol and 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid were isolated from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis. Their structures were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of samples isolated from other organisms. Both compounds were highly active in suppression of the response of murine splenocytes in the two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with little to no demonstrable cytotoxicity at lower doses. In addition, 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid suppressed the proliferative response of splenocytes to suboptimal concentrations of the mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). These results describe for the first time compounds isolated from the marine sponge A. flabelliformis that possess potent in vitro immunosuppressive activity.

  4. A first exploration of genome size diversity in sponges.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Jardine, Catherine B; Gregory, T Ryan

    2013-08-01

    The phyla known as early-branching lineages of animals have become the subject of increasing interest from the perspectives of genomics and evolutionary biology. Unfortunately, data on even the most fundamental properties of their genomes, such as genome size, remain very scarce. In this study, genome size estimates are reported for 75 species of sponges (phylum Porifera) representing 33 families and 12 orders, marking the first large survey of genome size diversity for an early-branching phylum. Sponge genome sizes averaged around 0.2 pg but exhibited a 17-fold range overall (0.04-0.63 pg). In addition, the results of comparisons of two methods of genome size quantification (flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry) are presented, thereby facilitating future work on these animals. Some particularly promising avenues for future investigation are highlighted.

  5. NOAA to develop strategy to protect coral and sponge habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) will develop a strategy to address research, conservation, and management issues regarding deep-ocean coral and sponge habitat, the agency indicated in an 11 July Federal Register notice. The Service, which is a unit of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, indicated that this strategy “eventually may result in rulemaking for some fisheries” but that “emergency rulemaking is not warranted.”The NMFS announcement is in response to a 24 March 2004 petition to the Commerce Department filed by Oceana, a non-governmental organization. That petition urged the department through NMFS to “initiate immediate rulemaking” to protect coral and sponge habitats in the U.S. exclusive economic zone through mapping, monitoring, research, and enforcement measures.

  6. NOAA to develop strategy to protect coral and sponge habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) will develop a strategy to address research, conservation, and management issues regarding deep-ocean coral and sponge habitat, the agency indicated in an 11 July Federal Register notice. The Service, which is a unit of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, indicated that this strategy "eventually may result in rulemaking for some fisheries" but that "emergency rulemaking is not warranted."The NMFS announcement is in response to a 24 March 2004 petition to the Commerce Department filed by Oceana, a non-governmental organization. That petition urged the department through NMFS to "initiate immediate rulemaking" to protect coral and sponge habitats in the U.S. exclusive economic zone through mapping, monitoring, research, and enforcement measures.

  7. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  8. Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Anisha, B S; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20 nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by freeze drying to obtain a flexible and porous structure. The prepared sponges were characterized using SEM and FT-IR. The porosity, swelling, biodegradation and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was analysed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Chitosan-HA/nAg composite sponges showed potent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Sponges containing higher nAg (0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) concentrations showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. Cytotoxicity and cell attachment studies were done using human dermal fibroblast cells. The nanocomposite sponges showed a nAg concentration dependent toxicity towards fibroblast cells. Our results suggest that this nanocomposite sponges could be used as a potential material for wound dressing for DFU infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria if the optimal concentration of nAg exhibiting antibacterial action with least toxicity towards mammalian cells is identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiofrequency-Based Identification Medical Device: An Evaluable Solution for Surgical Sponge Retrieval?

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Alessandra; Corona, Arianna; Iezzi, Luca; Quaresima, Silvia; Armisi, Luca; Piccolo, Ilaria; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Sbrenni, Sergio; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Rosato, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille Lucio; Di Lorenzo, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    A retained surgical item in patients (gossypiboma) is a persisting problem, despite consistent improvements and existing guidelines in counting instruments and sponges. Previous experiences with radiofrequency identification technology (RFID) tracking sponges show that it could represent an innovation, in order to reduce the criticism and increase the effectiveness during surgical procedures. We present an automated system that allows reduction of errors and improves safety in the operating room. The system consists of 3 antennas, surgical sponges containing RFID tags, and dedicated software applications, with Wi-Fi real-time communication between devices. The first antenna provides the initial count of gauzes; the second a real-time counting during surgery, including the sponges thrown into the kick-bucket; and the third can be used in the event of uneven sponge count. The software allows management at all stages of the process. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed: the system provided excellent results in detecting sponges in patients' body. Hundred percent retained sponges were detected correctly, even when they were overlapped. No false positive or false negative was recorded. The counting procedure turned out to be more streamlined and efficient and it could save time in a standard procedure. The RFID system for sponge tracking was shown to be experimentally a reliable and feasible method to track sponges with a full detection accuracy in the operating room. The results indicate the system to be safe and effective with acceptable cost-effective parameters.

  10. Sponges-Cyanobacteria associations: Global diversity overview and new data from the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, Despoina; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2018-01-01

    Sponge-cyanobacteria associations have attracted research interest from an ecological, evolutionary and biotechnological perspective. Current knowledge is, in its majority, “hidden” in metagenomics research studying the entire microbial communities of sponges, while knowledge on these associations is totally missing for certain geographic areas. In this study, we (a) investigated the occurrence of cyanobacteria in 18 sponge species, several of which are studied for the first time for their cyanobionts, from a previously unexplored eastern Mediterranean ecoregion, the Aegean Sea, (b) isolated sponge-associated cyanobacteria, and characterized them based on a polyphasic (morphological-morphometric and molecular phylogenetic analysis) approach, and (c) conducted a meta-analysis on the global diversity of sponge species hosting cyanobacteria, as well as the diversity of cyanobacterial symbionts. Our research provided new records for nine sponge species, previously unknown for this association, while the isolated cyanobacteria were found to form novel clades within Synechococcus, Leptolyngbyaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae, and Schizotrichaceae, whose taxonomic status requires further investigation; this is the first report of a Schizotrichaceae cyanobacterium associated with sponges. The extensive evaluation of the literature along with the new data from the Aegean Sea raised the number of sponge species known for hosting cyanobacteria to 320 and showed that the cyanobacterial diversity reported from sponges is yet underestimated. PMID:29596453

  11. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  12. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  13. Collagen-coated cellulose sponge: three dimensional matrix for tissue culture of Walker tumor 256.

    PubMed

    Leighton, J; Justh, G; Esper, M; Kronenthal, R L

    1967-03-10

    Three-dimensional growth of large populations of cells in vitro has been observed in the interstices of a matrix consisting of collagen-coated cellu lose sponge. The growth of Walker tumor 256 in this composite matrix is com pared with that found in a matrix composed of either cellulose sponge alone or collagen sponge alone. The composite matrix is superior to either one. Collagen coated cellulose sponge may provide a simple tool for the study of social interaction of cells in the formation of organized elementary tissue structures.

  14. Chemical versus mechanical bioerosion of coral reefs by boring sponges--lessons from Pione cf. vastifica.

    PubMed

    Zundelevich, A; Lazar, B; Ilan, M

    2007-01-01

    Bioerosion by boring sponges is an important mechanism shaping the structure of coral reefs all around the world. To determine the excavation rate by boring sponges, we developed a system in which chemical and mechanical boring rates [calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) dissolution and chip production, respectively] were measured simultaneously in experimental tanks containing reefal rock inhabited by a boring sponge. Pione cf. vastifica (Hancock 1849) was chosen as a model species to study the erosion rate of boring sponges. It is an abundant species in the coral reefs of the Nature Reserve Reef, Elat, Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea, reaching maximum abundance at 25-30 m. The rate of chemical bioerosion was determined from the increase in tank-seawater alkalinity over time, and the mechanical bioerosion rate was estimated from the total amount of CaCO(3) chips produced over the same time interval. The measured bioerosion rate of P. cf. vastifica was 2.3 g m(-2) sponge day(-1), showing seasonal but not diurnal variations, suggesting that the zooxanthellae harboring the sponge have no effect on its boring rate. The experiments indicated clearly that per each mass of chips that P. cf. vastifica produces during its boring activity, it dissolves three masses of reef CaCO(3) framework. Assuming that some additional boring sponges can use a similar strategy of bioerosion, these findings suggest that chips, the most obvious erosion products of boring sponges, represent only a small fraction of boring sponge bioerosion capacity.

  15. Mediterranean sponges from shallow subtidal rocky reefs: Cystoseira canopy vs barren grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Gabriele; Bertolino, Marco; Pinna, Stefania; Bonaviri, Chiara; Padiglia, Andrea; Zinni, Matteo; Pronzato, Roberto; Manconi, Renata

    2018-07-01

    Porifera richness was investigated in Cystoseira canopies vs barren grounds considering different substrates at 6 areas in the Central-Western Mediterranean Sea. In total 31 sponge taxa were recorded at 2-7 m depth and the sponge community structure and composition were characterized by a notably low richness with 25 taxa in the Cystoseira forest and 15 in the barren area. As for the sponge habitus, the massive sponges were dominant in both facies, whereas encrusting, and cavity dwelling sponges were found in higher numbers in the Cystoseira forest. Results revealed that rocky substrata seem to play a key role in driving the sponge community composition and diversity in both facies. In this work we explore the role of Cystoseira canopy as a suitable facies for sponges. Sponge assemblages were persistent, strongly resilient in space occupation and consequently support stability in both facies. Some species seem to be pre-adapted to live under the sub-optimal conditions of the barren grounds, i.e. the absence of the Cystoseira fronds shelter. This focus on sponge successful eco-etological performances in 'submarine deserts' such as barren areas shows features as shown in a few other sessile benthic invertebrates.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in sponge spicule patches at Station M, northeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Laguionie-Marchais, C; Kuhnz, L A; Huffard, C L; Ruhl, H A; Smith, K L

    Changes in habitat-forming organisms can have complex consequences for associated species. Sessile epibenthic glass "plate" sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) are conspicuous inhabitants of soft-sediment abyssal areas and their siliceous spicules create persistent spicule patches on the seafloor. Sponge spicule patch density, spatial dispersion, and percent cover were examined over a seven-year period (2006-2013) using remotely operated vehicle videos from Station M in the abyssal northeast Pacific (50˚00N, 123˚00W, ~4,000 m depth). There was an apparent large increase in newly dead plate sponges in February 2007 compared with December 2006, with this trend continuing through June 2007 (mean 0.03 % cover increasing to 0.33 %). A second increase in mean percent cover of dead plate sponges occurred from May 2011 (0.24 %) through June 2012 (0.60 %). Among the 28 megafaunal taxa occurring in association with the patches, the distributions of three taxa [two sponge taxa (Porifera) and brittle stars (Ophiuroidea)] suggested selectivity for the sponge spicule patches. The community structure of visible megafauna within sponge spicule patches was different when compared with that outside the patches suggesting that the sponges, after death, provide preferred habitat patches for certain benthic megafauna. These findings indicate that sponge spicule patches contribute to habitat heterogeneity in space and time.

  17. Drivers of epibenthic megafaunal composition in the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, Lindsay; Kenchington, Ellen; Yashayaev, Igor; Murillo, Francisco Javier

    2015-04-01

    Deep-water sponges are considered ecosystem engineers, and the presence of large aggregations of these organisms, commonly referred to as sponge grounds, is associated with enhanced biodiversity and abundance of epibenthic fauna compared to non-sponge habitat. However, the degree and magnitude to which the presence of these sponge grounds elicits large changes in composition of the associated megafaunal community remains unknown. Here we identify the external drivers of epibenthic megafaunal community composition and explore the patterns and magnitude of compositional change in the megafaunal community within the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic. Epibenthic megafauna were quantified from five image transects collected on the Sackville Spur in 2009 between 1080 and 1723 m depth. Using Gradient Forest Modelling we found that the abundance of structure-forming sponges was the most important variable for predicting compositional patterns in the Sackville Spur megafaunal community, followed by depth, range in bottom current speed, in situ salinity, and longitude. Along the gradient in structure-forming sponge abundance, the largest turnover in megafaunal community composition occurred when the sponges reached 15 individuals m-2. Examination of the regional hydrographic conditions suggests that the dense sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur are associated with a warm, salty water mass that occurs between ~1300 and 1800 m.

  18. Morphological responses of dissociated sponge cells to different organic substrata.

    PubMed

    Gaino, E; Magnino, G; Burlando, B; Sara', M

    1993-06-01

    To study interactions between sponge cells and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), cells of the calcareous sponge Clathrina cerebrum were investigated in vitro by scanning electron microscopy. Cells were settled on glass coverslips, used as controls, and on coverslips coated with various ECM components (laminin, collagens and fibronectin), and with an adhesive substance (polylysine). Cells tended to conserve a rounded shape, producing thin, stiff processes (scleropodia) and lamellipodia, whose shape and extension varied according to the substrata. Spreading was observed only on polylysine, inducing cells to assume a fibroblast-like aspect. On laminin, cell adhesion was assured only by scleropodia. On fibronectin, scleropodia and lamellipodia were present, but reduced in size and length. On collagens, laminar processes occurred among prevailing scleropodia. Measurements of cell area and perimeter allowed statistical comparison of substrata, on the basis of their induction of cell flattening and protuberance formation. In summary, sponge cells were found to modulate their morphology in response to the external environment, expressing features for dynamic activities most fully in the presence of substances close to their natural ECM constituents. These results are discussed in the context of tissue rearrangement as a basic adaptation occurring throughout the life span of these organisms.

  19. Origin and Evolution of the Sponge Aggregation Factor Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Grice, Laura F; Gauthier, Marie E A; Roper, Kathrein E; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Degnan, Sandie M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2017-05-01

    Although discriminating self from nonself is a cardinal animal trait, metazoan allorecognition genes do not appear to be homologous. Here, we characterize the Aggregation Factor (AF) gene family, which encodes putative allorecognition factors in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, and trace its evolution across 24 sponge (Porifera) species. The AF locus in Amphimedon is comprised of a cluster of five similar genes that encode Calx-beta and Von Willebrand domains and a newly defined Wreath domain, and are highly polymorphic. Further AF variance appears to be generated through individualistic patterns of RNA editing. The AF gene family varies between poriferans, with protein sequences and domains diagnostic of the AF family being present in Amphimedon and other demosponges, but absent from other sponge classes. Within the demosponges, AFs vary widely with no two species having the same AF repertoire or domain organization. The evolution of AFs suggests that their diversification occurs via high allelism, and the continual and rapid gain, loss and shuffling of domains over evolutionary time. Given the marked differences in metazoan allorecognition genes, we propose the rapid evolution of AFs in sponges provides a model for understanding the extensive diversification of self-nonself recognition systems in the animal kingdom. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Origin and Evolution of the Sponge Aggregation Factor Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Laura F.; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Roper, Kathrein E.; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Degnan, Sandie M.

    2017-01-01

    Although discriminating self from nonself is a cardinal animal trait, metazoan allorecognition genes do not appear to be homologous. Here, we characterize the Aggregation Factor (AF) gene family, which encodes putative allorecognition factors in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, and trace its evolution across 24 sponge (Porifera) species. The AF locus in Amphimedon is comprised of a cluster of five similar genes that encode Calx-beta and Von Willebrand domains and a newly defined Wreath domain, and are highly polymorphic. Further AF variance appears to be generated through individualistic patterns of RNA editing. The AF gene family varies between poriferans, with protein sequences and domains diagnostic of the AF family being present in Amphimedon and other demosponges, but absent from other sponge classes. Within the demosponges, AFs vary widely with no two species having the same AF repertoire or domain organization. The evolution of AFs suggests that their diversification occurs via high allelism, and the continual and rapid gain, loss and shuffling of domains over evolutionary time. Given the marked differences in metazoan allorecognition genes, we propose the rapid evolution of AFs in sponges provides a model for understanding the extensive diversification of self–nonself recognition systems in the animal kingdom. PMID:28104746

  1. Secondary Metabolites from Three Florida Sponges with Antidepressant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kochanowska, Anna J.; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S.; Sufka, Kenneth J.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety–depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. PMID:18217716

  2. Secondary metabolites from three Florida sponges with antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Kochanowska, Anna J; Rao, Karumanchi V; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S; Sufka, Kenneth J; Hamann, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety-depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs.

  3. The relationship between red meat allergy and sensitization to gelatin and galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Raymond James; James, Hayley; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background We have observed patients clinically allergic to red meat and meat-derived gelatin. Objective We describe a prospective evaluation of the clinical significance of gelatin sensitization, the predictive value of a positive test and an examination of the relationship between allergic reactions to red meat and sensitization to gelatin and alpha-Gal. Methods Adult patients evaluated 1997-2011 for suspected allergy/anaphylaxis to medication, insect venom or food were skin tested with gelatin colloid. In vitro (ImmunoCap) testing was undertaken where possible. Results Positive gelatin tests were observed in 40/1335 individuals; 30/40 patients with red meat allergy (12 also clinically allergic to gelatin); 2/2 with gelatin colloid anaphylaxis; 4/172 with idiopathic anaphylaxis (all responded to intravenous gelatin challenge of 0.02 to 0.4g); 4/368 with drug allergy. Testing was negative in all patients with venom allergy (n=241), non-meat food allergy (n=222), and miscellaneous disorders (n=290). ImmunoCap was positive to alpha-Gal in 20/24 meat allergics and in 20/22 with positive gelatin skin tests. The results of gelatin skin testing and anti-alpha-Gal IgE were strongly correlated (r=0.46; P<0.01). Alpha-Gal was detected in bovine gelatin colloids at concentrations of ~ 0.44 to 0.52ug/gm gelatin by inhibition radioimmunoassay. Conclusion Most patients allergic to red meat were sensitized to gelatin and a subset was clinically allergic to both. The detection of alpha-Gal in gelatin and correlation between the results of alpha-Gal and gelatin testing raises the possibility that alpha-Gal IgE may be the target of reactivity to gelatin. The pathogenic relationship between tick bites and sensitization to red meat, alpha-Gal and gelatin (with or without clinical reactivity) remains uncertain. PMID:22480538

  4. [Study of new blended chemical absorbents to absorb CO2].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lian; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Yan, Shui-Ping; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2007-11-01

    Three kinds of blended absorbents were investigated on bench-scale experimental bench according to absorption rate and regeneration grade to select a reasonable additive concentration. The results show that, among methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine (PZ) mixtures, comparing MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4 (m : m) with MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.2 (m : m), the absorption rate is increased by about 70% at 0.2 mol x mol(-1). When regeneration lasting for 40 min, regeneration grade of blended absorbents with PZ concentration of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 is decreased to 83.06%, 77.77% and 76.67% respectively while 91.04% for PZ concentration of 0. MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4(m : m) is a suitable ratio for MDEA/PZ mixtures as absorption and regeneration properties of the blended absorbents are all improved. The aqueous blends with 10% primary amines and 2% tertiary amines could keep high CO2 absorption rate, and lower regeneration energy consumption. Adding 2% 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) to 10% diethanolamine (DEA), the blended amine solvents have an advantage in absorption and regeneration properties over other DEA/AMP mixtures. Blended solvents, which consist of a mixture of primary amines with a small amount of tertiary amines, have the highest absorption rate among the three. And mixed absorbents of secondary amines and a small amount of sterically hindered amines have the best regeneration property. To combine absorption and regeneration properties, blends with medium activator addition to tertiary amines are competitive.

  5. [A case of anaphylaxis induced by gelatin-contained gel capsule cold medicine].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masako; Inomata, Naoko; Matsuura, Midori; Ishida, Shuichi; Suzuki, Aki; Sohara, Mizue; Aihara, Michiko

    2014-11-01

    We report here a 20-year old woman who referred to our clinic for identify the responsible antigen of anaphylaxis. Five days before the reaction, she had a cold and had taken a gel capsule cold medicine, Stona IB Gel®. On the day of the reaction, she took a dose of Stona IB Gel® after eating yogurt. Five minutes after oral administration, she developed a heat sensation and pruritus on her neck, with flushing, abdominal pains, breathing difficulties, and syncope. The specific IgE antibodies measured by ImmunoCAP® were all negative except for gelatin. Prick-prick skin testing revealed positive responses to Stona IB Gel®, gelatin KS and gelatin RP600, of which the latter two were included in the Stona IB Gel® capsule. From these test results, she was diagnosed with anaphylaxis due to gelatin, and to date she has had no further allergic symptoms since avoiding foods containing gelatin. In infancy she had received four vaccinations against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus, which contained gelatin as a stabilizer. However, she had not developed allergic symptoms until this time. We hypothesize that she might be sensitized to gelatin by taking Stona IB Gel® during the preceding 4 days. This is the first case of anaphylaxis from the ingestion of an oral medication containing gelatin in Japan. Allergic reactions to gelatin are comparatively rare, but according to the past reports, the reactions were severe. Since many kinds of foods, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, and medication contain gelatin, it is important to be aware of gelatin allergy.

  6. Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; Pawlik, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological studies have rarely been performed at the community level across a large biogeographic region. Sponges are now the primary habitat-forming organisms on Caribbean coral reefs. Recent species-level investigations have demonstrated that predatory fishes (angelfishes and some parrotfishes) differentially graze sponges that lack chemical defenses, while co-occurring, palatable species heal, grow, reproduce, or recruit at faster rates than defended species. Our prediction, based on resource allocation theory, was that predator removal would result in a greater proportion of palatable species in the sponge community on overfished reefs. We tested this prediction by performing surveys of sponge and fish community composition on reefs having different levels of fishing intensity across the Caribbean. A total of 109 sponge species was recorded from 69 sites, with the 10 most common species comprising 51.0% of sponge cover (3.6–7.7% per species). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated that the species composition of sponge communities depended more on the abundance of sponge-eating fishes than geographic location. Across all sites, multiple-regression analyses revealed that spongivore abundance explained 32.8% of the variation in the proportion of palatable sponges, but when data were limited to geographically adjacent locations with strongly contrasting levels of fishing pressure (Cayman Islands and Jamaica; Curaçao, Bonaire, and Martinique), the adjusted R2 values were much higher (76.5% and 94.6%, respectively). Overfishing of Caribbean coral reefs, particularly by fish trapping, removes sponge predators and is likely to result in greater competition for space between faster-growing palatable sponges and endangered reef-building corals. PMID:24567392

  7. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs.

  8. Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2014-03-18

    Ecological studies have rarely been performed at the community level across a large biogeographic region. Sponges are now the primary habitat-forming organisms on Caribbean coral reefs. Recent species-level investigations have demonstrated that predatory fishes (angelfishes and some parrotfishes) differentially graze sponges that lack chemical defenses, while co-occurring, palatable species heal, grow, reproduce, or recruit at faster rates than defended species. Our prediction, based on resource allocation theory, was that predator removal would result in a greater proportion of palatable species in the sponge community on overfished reefs. We tested this prediction by performing surveys of sponge and fish community composition on reefs having different levels of fishing intensity across the Caribbean. A total of 109 sponge species was recorded from 69 sites, with the 10 most common species comprising 51.0% of sponge cover (3.6-7.7% per species). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated that the species composition of sponge communities depended more on the abundance of sponge-eating fishes than geographic location. Across all sites, multiple-regression analyses revealed that spongivore abundance explained 32.8% of the variation in the proportion of palatable sponges, but when data were limited to geographically adjacent locations with strongly contrasting levels of fishing pressure (Cayman Islands and Jamaica; Curaçao, Bonaire, and Martinique), the adjusted R(2) values were much higher (76.5% and 94.6%, respectively). Overfishing of Caribbean coral reefs, particularly by fish trapping, removes sponge predators and is likely to result in greater competition for space between faster-growing palatable sponges and endangered reef-building corals.

  9. First documentation of tidal-channel sponge biostromes (upper Pleistocene, southeastern Florida)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.J.; Rigby, J.K.; Wacker, M.A.; Curran, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sponges are not a common principal component of Cenozoic reefs and are more typically dominant in deep-water and/or cold-water localities. Here we report the discovery of extensive upper Pleistocene shallow-marine, tropical sponge biostromes from the Mami Limestone of southeastern Florida built by a new ceractinomorph demosponge. These upright, barrel- to vase-shaped sponges occur in monospecific aggregations constructed within the tidal channels of an oolitic tidal-bar belt similar to modern examples on the Great Bahama Bank. The biostromes appear to have a ribbon-like geometry, with densely spaced sponges populating a paleochannel along a 3.5 km extent in the most lengthy biostrome. These are very large (as high as 2 m and 1.8 m in diameter), particularly well-preserved calcified sponges with walls as hard as concrete. Quartz grains are the most common particles agglutinated in the structure of the sponge walls. Where exposed, sediment fill between the sponges is commonly a highly burrowed or cross-bedded ooid-bearing grainstone and, locally, quartz sand. It is postulated that the dense, localized distribution of these particular sponges was due to a slight edge over competitors for food or energy supply and space in a stressed environment of tidal-influenced salinity and nutrient changes, strong currents, and frequently shifting submarine sand dunes. To our knowledge, this represents the first documentation of sponge biostromes composed of very large upright sponges within high-energy tidal channels between ooid shoals. The remarkably well-preserved accumulations provide an alternative example of sponge reefs for comparative paleoenvironmental studies. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Host-specificity among abundant and rare taxa in the sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Reveillaud, Julie; Maignien, Loïs; Murat Eren, A; Huber, Julie A; Apprill, Amy; Sogin, Mitchell L; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Microbial communities have a key role in the physiology of the sponge host, and it is therefore essential to understand the stability and specificity of sponge-symbiont associations. Host-specific bacterial associations spanning large geographic distance are widely acknowledged in sponges. However, the full spectrum of specificity remains unclear. In particular, it is not known whether closely related sponges host similar or very different microbiota over wide bathymetric and geographic gradients, and whether specific associations extend to the rare members of the sponge microbiome. Using the ultra-deep Illumina sequencing technology, we conducted a comparison of sponge bacterial communities in seven closely related Hexadella species with a well-resolved host phylogeny, as well as of a distantly related sponge Mycale. These samples spanned unprecedentedly large bathymetric (15-960 m) gradients and varying European locations. In addition, this study included a bacterial community analysis of the local background seawater for both Mycale and the widespread deep-sea taxa Hexadella cf. dedritifera. We observed a striking diversity of microbes associated with the sponges, spanning 47 bacterial phyla. The data did not reveal any Hexadella microbiota co-speciation pattern, but confirmed sponge-specific and species-specific host-bacteria associations, even within extremely low abundant taxa. Oligotyping analysis also revealed differential enrichment preferences of closely related Nitrospira members in closely related sponges species. Overall, these results demonstrate highly diverse, remarkably specific and stable sponge-bacteria associations that extend to members of the rare biosphere at a very fine phylogenetic scale, over significant geographic and bathymetric gradients.

  11. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E.; Henkel, Timothy P.; Vicente, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs. PMID:25945305

  12. Acetylation of loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge as immobilization carrier for bioprocesses involving cellulase.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Ogbonna, James C; Aoyagi, Hideki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2007-04-01

    The feasibility of using loofa sponge for immobilization of cellulase-producing microorganisms was investigated by acetylating loofa sponge. Acetylation was achieved by autoclaving process of loofa sponge immersed in acetic anhydride at various temperatures for various times. The degree of acetylation, as inferred by the weight percentage gain (WPG), was enhanced by increasing both temperature and the duration of acetylation. The acetylation of a piece of loofa sponge in an autoclave at 120 degrees C for 20 min resulted in a WPG of about 8%, which was sufficient to protect the loofa sponge against cellulose degradation. The acetylated loofa sponge prepared under this condition was not decomposed by commercial cellulase and its structure was maintained for more than 720 h during repeated-batch treatments with commercial cellulase. A flocculating yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2) and a fungus (Trichoderma reesei QM9414) were successfully immobilized in the acetylated loofa sponge. In each case, the percentage of immobilized cells was as high as that obtained using nonacetylated loofa sponge. Acetylation had no adverse effects on cell growth and immobilization of T. reesei QM9414, as well as on cell growth and ethanol production by S. cerevisiae IR-2. T. reesei QM9414 immobilized on an acetylated loofa sponge was successfully used for repeated-batch cellulase production from commercial cellulose powder. Although the acetylated loofa sponge showed a slight weight loss, it was not disintegrated by activated sludge. The results obtained in this study showed that acetylated loofa sponge is suitable as an immobilization carrier for bioprocesses involving cellulase.

  13. Preparation of Chitosan-Based Hemostatic Sponges by Supercritical Fluid Technology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hu-Fan; Chen, Ai-Zheng; Wang, Shi-Bin; Kang, Yong-Qiang; Ye, Shi-Fu; Liu, Yuan-Gang; Wu, Wen-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Using ammonium bicarbonate (AB) particles as a porogen, chitosan (CS)-based hemostatic porous sponges were prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide due to its low viscosity, small surface tension, and good compatibility with organic solvent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that the chemical compositions of CS and poly-(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) were not altered during the phase inversion process. The morphology and structure of the sponge after the supercritical fluid (SCF) process were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting hemostatic sponges showed a relatively high porosity (about 80%) with a controllable pore size ranging from 0.1 to 200 μm. The concentration of PVM/MA had no significant influence on the porosity of the sponges. Comparative experiments on biological assessment and hemostatic effect between the resulting sponges and Avitene® were also carried out. With the incorporation of PVM/MA into the CS-based sponges, the water absorption rate of the sponges increased significantly, and the CS-PVM/MA sponges showed a similar water absorption rate (about 90%) to that of Avitene®. The results of the whole blood clotting experiment and animal experiment also demonstrated that the clotting ability of the CS-PVM/MA sponges was similar to that of Avitene®. All these results elementarily verified that the sponges prepared in this study were suitable for hemostasis and demonstrated the feasibility of using SCF-assisted phase inversion technology to produce hemostatic porous sponges. PMID:28788577

  14. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of alendronate-modified gelatin biopolymer as a novel osteotropic nanocarrier for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Mekhail, George M; Kamel, Amany O; Awad, Gehanne As; Mortada, Nahed D; Rodrigo, Rowena L; Spagnuolo, Paul A; Wettig, Shawn D

    2016-09-01

    To synthesize an osteotropic alendronate functionalized gelatin (ALN-gelatin) biopolymer for nanoparticle preparation and targeted delivery of DNA to osteoblasts for gene therapy applications. Alendronate coupling to gelatin was confirmed using Fourier transform IR, (31)PNMR, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry. ALN-gelatin biopolymers prepared at various alendronate/gelatin ratios were utilized to prepare nanoparticles and were optimized in combination with DNA and gemini surfactant for transfecting both HEK-293 and MG-63 cell lines. Gelatin functionalization was confirmed using the above methods. Uniform nanoparticles were obtained from a nanoprecipitation technique. ALN-gelatin/gemini/DNA complexes exhibited higher transfection efficiency in MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line compared with the positive control. ALN-gelatin is a promising biopolymer for bone targeting of either small molecules or gene therapy applications.

  16. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  17. PT-symmetric laser absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2010-09-15

    In a recent work, Y. D. Chong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010)] proposed the idea of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) as the time-reversed counterpart of a laser, in which a purely incoming radiation pattern is completely absorbed by a lossy medium. The optical medium that realizes CPA is obtained by reversing the gain with absorption, and thus it generally differs from the lasing medium. Here it is shown that a laser with an optical medium that satisfies the parity-time (PT) symmetry condition {epsilon}(-r)={epsilon}*(r) for the dielectric constant behaves simultaneously as a laser oscillator (i.e., it canmore » emit outgoing coherent waves) and as a CPA (i.e., it can fully absorb incoming coherent waves with appropriate amplitudes and phases). Such a device can thus be referred to as a PT-symmetric CPA laser. The general amplification or absorption features of the PT CPA laser below lasing threshold driven by two fields are determined.« less

  18. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  19. Rejoining of cut wounds by engineered gelatin-keratin glue.

    PubMed

    Thirupathi Kumara Raja, S; Thiruselvi, T; Sailakshmi, G; Ganesh, S; Gnanamani, A

    2013-08-01

    Rejoining of cut tissue ends of a critical site challenges clinicians. The toxicity, antigenicity, low adhesive strength, flexibility, swelling and cost of the currently employed glue demands an alternative. Engineered gelatin-keratin glue (EGK-glue) described in the present study was found to be suitable for wet tissue approximation. EGK-glue was prepared by engineering gelatin with caffeic acid using EDC and conjugating with keratin by periodate oxidation. UV-visible, (1)H NMR and circular dichroism analyses followed by experiments on gelation time, rheology, gel adhesive strength (in vitro), wet tissue approximation (in vivo), H&E staining of tissue sections at scheduled time intervals and tensile strength of the healed skin were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the EGK-glue in comparison with fibrin glue and cyanoacrylate. Results of UV-visible, NMR and CD analyses confirmed the functionalization and secondary structural changes. Increasing concentration of keratin reduces the gelation time (<15s). Lap-shear test demonstrates the maximum adhesive strength of 16.6±1.2kPa. Results of hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility studies suggested the suitability of the glue for clinical applications. Tissue approximation property assessed using the incision wound model (Wistar strain) in comparison with cyanoacrylate and fibrin glue suggested, that EGK-glue explicitly accelerates the rejoining of tissue with a 1.86 fold increase in skin tensile strength after healing. Imparting quinone moiety to gelatin-keratin conjugates through caffeic acid and a weaker oxidizing agent provides an adhesive glue with appreciable strength, and hemocompatible, cytocompatible and biodegradable properties, which, rejoin the cut tissue ends effectively. EGK-glue obtained in the present study finds wide biomedical/clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ELASTICITY, DOUBLE REFRACTION AND SWELLING OF ISOELECTRIC GELATIN

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1930-01-01

    Quincke's researches (1904) have demonstrated that when a 20 per cent gelatin gel is allowed to swell in water it gives rise to positive double refraction, as if the gel were under tensile stresses. If, on the other hand, the gel shrinks on being placed in alcohol it becomes negatively double refractive, as if it were compressed. But the double refraction as found by Quincke lasts only during the process of swelling or shrinking, and disappears as soon as the gel reaches a state of equilibrium. This phenomenon was investigated here and it was found that the reason for the disappearance of the double refraction is due to the fact that at equilibrium the percentage change in the size of a gel is equal in all three dimensions and the strain is therefore uniform. Double refraction persists as long as there is a difference in the elastic strain in the three dimensions of the strained material. It was found that when gels are cast on glass slides or in glass frames, so as to prevent swelling in certain directions, the double refraction produced by swelling at 6°C. persists permanently in the gel as long as it is swollen, and is proportional to the percentage change in the linear dimensions of the gel. Gels made up of various concentrations of isoelectric gelatin of less than 10 per cent when placed in dilute buffer of the same pH as that of the isoelectric point of the gelatin shrink and give rise to negative double refraction, while gels of concentrations of more than 10 per cent swell and give rise to positive double refraction. The double refraction produced in either case when divided by the percentage change in the dimensions of the gel and by its changed concentration gives a constant value both for swelling and shrinking. This constant which stands for the double refraction produced in a gel of unit concentration per unit strain is termed here the optical modulus of elasticity since it is proportional to the internal elastic stress in the swollen gelatin. It was