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Sample records for absorbance circular dichroism

  1. Nuclear spin circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  2. Terahertz circular dichroism spectroscopy of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Galan, Jhenny; Ramian, Gerald; Savvidis, Pavlos; Scopatz, Anthony; Birge, Robert R.; Allen, S. James; Plaxco, Kevin

    2004-02-01

    Biopolymers such as proteins, DNA and RNA fold into large, macromolecular chiral structures. As charged macromolecules, they absorb strongly in the terahertz due to large-scale collective vibrational modes; as chiral objects, this absorption should be coupled with significant circular dichroism. Terahertz circular dichroism (TCD) is potentially important as a biospecific sensor, unobscured by spectral features related to abiological material. We have constructed atomistic simulations and elastic continuum models of TCD. These models estimate the magnitude of the TCD and the relation between TCD spectroscopic signatures (zero crossings) and the structure, charge distribution and mechanical properties of biomaterials. A broad band TCD spectrometer based on a polarizing interferometer is developed to explore TCD in biomolecules in aqueous solution. Preliminary results on TCD in lysozyme in water at several terahertz frequencies is presented.

  3. Perfect Circular Dichroism in the Haldane Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalamkari, Kazu; Tatsumi, Yuki; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically show that perfect circular dichroism (CD) occurs in the Haldane model in which the two-dimensional (2D) material absorbs only either left-handed or right-handed circularly polarized light. Perfect CD occurs in the phase diagram of the Haldane model when the zero-field quantum Hall conductivity has a nonzero value. The coincidence of the occurrence of perfect CD and zero-field quantum Hall effect is attributed to the fact that the effect of broken time-reversal symmetry is larger than the effect of broken inversion symmetry. On the other hand, valley polarization and perfect CD occur exclusively in the phase diagram. Further, for the four regions of the phase diagram, pseudospin polarization occurs at the K and K' points in the hexagonal Brillouin zone with either the same sign or opposite sign for the K and K' points and for the valence and conduction bands. This theoretical prediction may have an impact on search for a new optical device that selects circularly polarized light controlled by the electric field.

  4. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Qy transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9∘ than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  5. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = IRCP − ILCP) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = IRCP/ILCP) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:28139753

  6. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-31

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = I RCP  - I LCP ) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = I RCP /I LCP ) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform.

  7. Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S.; Comby, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Garcia, G. A.; Géneaux, R.; Harvey, A. G.; Légaré, F.; Mašín, Z.; Nahon, L.; Ordonez, A. F.; Petit, S.; Pons, B.; Mairesse, Y.; Smirnova, O.; Blanchet, V.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral effects appear in a wide variety of natural phenomena and are of fundamental importance in science, from particle physics to metamaterials. The standard technique of chiral discrimination—photoabsorption circular dichroism—relies on the magnetic properties of a chiral medium and yields an extremely weak chiral response. Here, we propose and demonstrate an orders of magnitude more sensitive type of circular dichroism in neutral molecules: photoexcitation circular dichroism. This technique does not rely on weak magnetic effects, but takes advantage of the coherent helical motion of bound electrons excited by ultrashort circularly polarized light. It results in an ultrafast chiral response and the efficient excitation of a macroscopic chiral density in an initially isotropic ensemble of randomly oriented chiral molecules. We probe this excitation using linearly polarized laser pulses, without the aid of further chiral interactions. Our time-resolved study of vibronic chiral dynamics opens a way to the efficient initiation, control and monitoring of chiral chemical change in neutral molecules at the level of electrons.

  8. Chiral surface waves for enhanced circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by more than two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.

  9. Photoelectron circular dichroism in different ionization regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) describes an asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) from photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers with circularly polarized light. Beaulieu et al present a comprehensive set of measured PADs from multiphoton ionization of limonene and fenchone in different ionization regimes (multiphoton and tunneling) and analyze the resulting PECD (Beaulieu et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18 102002). From their observations the authors conclude that the PECD is universal in the sense that the molecular chirality is encoded in the PAD independent of the ionization regime. The analysis is supplemented by a classical model based on electron scattering in a chiral potential. The paper presents beautiful data and is an important step towards a more complete physical picture of PECD. The results and their interpretation stimulate the ongoing vivid debate on the role of resonances in multiphoton PECD.

  10. Conformational effects in photoelectron circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a novel type of spectroscopy, which presents surprising sensitivity to conformational effects in chiral systems. While classical photoelectron spectroscopy mainly responds to conformational effects in terms of energy level shifts, PECD provides a rich and detailed response to tiny changes in electronic and structural properties by means of the intensity dispersion of the circular dichroism as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy. In this work, the basics of PECD will be outlined, emphasizing the role of interference from the l,l+/- 1 outgoing partial wave of the photoelectron in the PECD transition matrix element, which is responsible for the extreme sensitivity to conformational effects. Examples using molecular systems and interfaces will shed light on the powerful application of PECD to classical conformational effects such as group substitution, isomerism, conformer population and clustering. Moreover, the PECD results will be reported in challenging new fields where conformations play a key role, such as vibrational effects, transient chirality and time- resolved experiments. To date, PECD has mostly been based on synchrotron radiation facilities, but it also has a future as a table-top lab experiment by means of multiphoton ionization. An important application of PECD as an analytical tool will be reported. The aim of this review is to illustrate that in PECD, the presence of conformational effects is essential for understanding a wide range of effects from a new perspective, making it different from classical spectroscopy.

  11. Measurement of the Circular Dichroism of Electronic Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.

    2010-08-11

    This chapter describes the measurement of circular dichroism (CD) for absorption due to transitions between two distinct electronic states. This is distinguished from absorption of lower energy photons, which are associated with changes of only the vibrational modes of the absorber and from the absorption of higher energy photons, which may result in ionizations. From the instrumental viewpoint, the chapter describes the measurement of CD that can be recorded using a photomultiplier or avalanche photodiode to quantify the intensity of a light beam, a photoelastic modulator to periodically alter the beam's polarization, and a monochromator located between the light sourcemore » and the modulator. Using either criterion, the focus is on the spectral domain spanning about a decade in wavelength (photon energy) from roughly 1.2 {micro}m (1 eV {approx} 160 zJ) in the near infrared to 120 nm (10 eV {approx} 1.6 aJ) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). In the near infrared, there is overlap between the domain of electronic and purely vibrational transitions, the use of photomultipliers or avalanche photodiodes versus solid state detectors and dispersive versus Fourier-transform spectrometers. There is also some overlap in the VUV with synchrotron beamlines that use arrays of magnets called 'insertion devices' to cause the emitted synchrotron radiation to be elliptically polarized. To my knowledge, no single spectrometer spans this entire spectral domain discussed here, and the vast majority of laboratory instruments come nowhere close to either the upper or lower limit. However, similar analytical approaches and types of instrumentation are employed throughout this spectral domain and thus are logically treated together. The focus in this chapter is on the measurement of CD resulting from the inherent chirality of the absorbing system. Several spectroscopic methods that are closely related in terms of science or instrumentation are treated in other chapters. These include

  12. Circular dichroism in photo-single-ionization of unoriented atoms.

    PubMed

    Feagin, James M

    2002-01-28

    We predict circular dichroism in photo-single-ionization angular distributions from spherically symmetric atomic states if the ionized electron is detected using two-slit interferometry. We demonstrate that the resulting electron interference pattern captures phase information on quadrupole corrections to the photoionization amplitude lost in conventional angular distributions.

  13. Application of circular dichroism and magnetic circular dichroism for assessing biopharmaceuticals formulations photo-stability and small ligands binding properties.

    PubMed

    Longo, Edoardo; Hussain, Rohanah; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a powerful tool for photo-stability assessment of proteins. Recently our research has been interested in applying SRCD to develop screening methodologies for accelerated photo-stability assessment of monoclonal antibody formulations. Despite it was proven to be reliable and applicable within a wide range of salts and excipients containing solutions, the presence of far-UV (<260nm) strong absorbing species (e.g., sodium chloride, histidine, arginine) in common formulations completely prevent the analysis. Herein, we propose a new method based on CD coupled with magnetic CD (MCD) to address the problem and offer an additional versatile tool for monitoring the photo-stability. This is done by assessing the stability of the samples by looking at the near-UV band, as well as giving insights in the denaturation mechanism. We applied this method to four mAbs formulations and correlated the results with dynamic light scattering data. Finally, we applied MCD in ligand interaction to key proteins such as lysozyme, comparing the human with the hen enzyme in the binding of N,N',N''-triacetylchitotriose. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Circular dichroism in photoelectron images from aligned nitric oxide molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Ananya; Pratt, S. T.; Reid, K. L.

    2017-05-03

    We have used velocity map photoelectron imaging to study circular dichroism of the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of nitric oxide following two-color resonanceenhanced two-photon ionization via selected rotational levels of the A 2Σ +, v' = 0 state. By using a circularly polarized pump beam and a counter-propagating, circularly polarized probe beam, cylindrical symmetry is preserved in the ionization process, and the images can be reconstructed using standard algorithms. The VMI set up enables individual ion rotational states to be resolved with excellent collection efficiency, rendering the measurements considerably simpler to perform than previous measurements conducted with a conventional photoelectronmore » spectrometer. The results demonstrate that circular dichroism is observed even when cylindrical symmetry is maintained, and serve as a reminder that dichroism is a general feature of the multiphoton ionization of atoms and molecules. Furthermore, the observed PADs are in good agreement with calculations based on parameters extracted from previous experimental results obtained by using a time-offlight electron spectrometer.« less

  15. Circular dichroism in photoelectron images from aligned nitric oxide molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ananya; Pratt, S. T.; Reid, K. L.

    We have used velocity map photoelectron imaging to study circular dichroism of the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of nitric oxide following two-color resonanceenhanced two-photon ionization via selected rotational levels of the A 2Σ +, v' = 0 state. By using a circularly polarized pump beam and a counter-propagating, circularly polarized probe beam, cylindrical symmetry is preserved in the ionization process, and the images can be reconstructed using standard algorithms. The VMI set up enables individual ion rotational states to be resolved with excellent collection efficiency, rendering the measurements considerably simpler to perform than previous measurements conducted with a conventional photoelectronmore » spectrometer. The results demonstrate that circular dichroism is observed even when cylindrical symmetry is maintained, and serve as a reminder that dichroism is a general feature of the multiphoton ionization of atoms and molecules. Furthermore, the observed PADs are in good agreement with calculations based on parameters extracted from previous experimental results obtained by using a time-offlight electron spectrometer.« less

  16. Determination of absolute configuration of an isopimarane-type diterpenoid by experimental and theoretical electronic circular dichroism and vibrational circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hui; Huang, Chao; Huang, Jian; Wang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Tie-Min

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the stereochemistry of a new isopimarane-type diterpenoid isolated from the Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl, Callicapene M3, was studied by experimental electronic circular dichroism and vibrational circular dichroism with the aid of TDDFT theoretical calculations. The good consistence between the experimental and simulated circular dichroism has clearly confirmed the absolute configuration of the title compound as (4S, 5S, 9S, 10S, 13S, 14S)-14α-hydroxy-7,15-isopimaradien-18-oic acid.

  17. Quantized Rabi oscillations and circular dichroism in quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, D. T.; Cooper, N. R.; Goldman, N.

    2018-06-01

    The dissipative response of a quantum system upon periodic driving can be exploited as a probe of its topological properties. Here we explore the implications of such phenomena in two-dimensional gases subjected to a uniform magnetic field. It is shown that a filled Landau level exhibits a quantized circular dichroism, which can be traced back to its underlying nontrivial topology. Based on selection rules, we find that this quantized effect can be suitably described in terms of Rabi oscillations, whose frequencies satisfy simple quantization laws. We discuss how quantized dissipative responses can be probed locally, both in the bulk and at the boundaries of the system. This work suggests alternative forms of topological probes based on circular dichroism.

  18. Terahertz Absorption and Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of Solvated Biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Plaxco, Kevin; Allen, S. James

    2006-03-01

    Biopolymers are expected to exhibit broad spectral features in the terahertz frequency range, corresponding to their functionally relevant, global and sub-global collective vibrational modes with ˜ picosecond timescale. Recent advances in terahertz technology have stimulated researchers to employ terahertz absorption spectroscopy to directly probe these postulated collective modes. However, these pioneering studies have been limited to dry and, at best, moist samples. Successful isolation of low frequency vibrational activities of solvated biopolymers in their natural water environment has remained elusive, due to the overwhelming attenuation of the terahertz radiation by water. Here we have developed a terahertz absorption and circular dichroism spectrometer suitable for studying biopolymers in biologically relevant water solutions. We have precisely isolated, for the first time, the terahertz absorption of solvated prototypical proteins, Bovine Serum Albumin and Lysozyme, and made important direct comparison to the existing molecular dynamic simulations and normal mode calculations. We have also successfully demonstrated the magnetic circular dichroism in semiconductors, and placed upper bounds on the terahertz circular dichroism signatures of prototypical proteins in water solution.

  19. Magnetic circular dichroism of chlorofullerenes: Experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Straka, Michal; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Bouř, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of C60Cl6, C70Cl10 and C60Cl24 were measured and interpreted using a sum-over-state (SOS) protocol exploiting time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Unlike for plain absorption, the MCD spectra exhibited easily recognizable features specific for each chlorinated molecule and appear as a useful tool for chlorofullerene identification. MCD spectrum of C60Cl24 was below 400 nm partially obscured due to scattering and low solubility. In all cases a finer vibrational structure of the electronic bands was observed at longer wavelengths. The TDDFT simulations provided a reasonable basis for interpretation of the most prominent spectral features.

  20. Magnetic circular dichroism of CdTe nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhovskii, A. V.; Sokolov, A. E.; Tsipotan, A. S.; Zharkov, S. M.; Zabluda, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of water-soluble CdTe nanoparticles was observed in the visible spectral range for the first time. Diameter of nanoparticles varied from 2.3 to 4.5 nm. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra were also recorded. Absorption line at 19400 cm-1 and luminescent line at 18200 cm-1 were observed. Splitting of value 960 cm-1 was revealed in the MCD spectrum. Approximately the same splitting was extracted from the absorption spectrum. The MCD was identified as the temperature independent paramagnetic mixing effect. Nature of the absorption line and of its splitting are discussed.

  1. Fourier transform vibrational circular dichroism of small pharmaceutical molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Fujin; Freedman, Teresa B.; Nafie, Laurence A.

    1998-06-01

    Fourier transform vibrational circular dichroism (FT-VCD) spectra of the small pharmaceutical molecules propanolol, ibuprofen and naproxen have been measured in the hydrogen stretching and mid-infrared regions to obtain information on solution conformation and to identify markers for absolute configuration determination. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations of low energy conformations, vibrational frequencies and VCD intensities for fragments of the drugs were utilized in interpreting the spectra. Features characteristic of five conformers of propranolol were identified. The weak positive CH stretching VCD signal in ibuprofen and naproxen is characteristic of the S-configuration of the chiral center common to these two analgesics.

  2. Understanding electron magnetic circular dichroism in a transition potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, J.; Mayer, J.; Rusz, J.; Ho, P.-L.; Zhong, X. Y.; Lentzen, M.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Urban, K. W.; Brown, H. G.; Findlay, S. D.; Allen, L. J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces an approach based on transition potentials for inelastic scattering to understand the underlying physics of electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). The transition potentials are sufficiently localized to permit atomic-scale EMCD. Two-beam and three-beam systematic row cases are discussed in detail in terms of transition potentials for conventional transmission electron microscopy, and the basic symmetries which arise in the three-beam case are confirmed experimentally. Atomic-scale EMCD in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), using both a standard STEM probe and vortex beams, is discussed.

  3. Twisting dirac fermions: circular dichroism in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Morell, E.; Chico, Leonor; Brey, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene is a chiral system which has been recently shown to present circular dichroism. In this work we show that the origin of this optical activity is the rotation of the Dirac fermions’ helicities in the top and bottom layer. Starting from the Kubo formula, we obtain a compact expression for the Hall conductivity that takes into account the dephasing of the electromagnetic field between the top and bottom layers and gathers all the symmetries of the system. Our results are based in both a continuum and a tight-binding model, and they can be generalized to any two-dimensional Dirac material with a chiral stacking between layers.

  4. Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) Spectroscopy - An Enhanced Method for Examining Protein Conformations and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    B Wallace; R Janes

    CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy is a well-established technique in structural biology. SRCD (synchrotron radiation circular dichroism) spectroscopy extends the utility and applications of conventional CD spectroscopy (using laboratory-based instruments) because the high flux of a synchrotron enables collection of data at lower wavelengths (resulting in higher information content), detection of spectra with higher signal-to-noise levels and measurements in the presence of absorbing components (buffers, salts, lipids and detergents). SRCD spectroscopy can provide important static and dynamic structural information on proteins in solution, including secondary structures of intact proteins and their domains, protein stability, the differences between wild-type and mutant proteins,more » the identification of natively disordered regions in proteins, and the dynamic processes of protein folding and membrane insertion and the kinetics of enzyme reactions. It has also been used to effectively study protein interactions, including protein-protein complex formation involving either induced-fit or rigid-body mechanisms, and protein-lipid complexes. A new web-based bioinformatics resource, the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB), has been created which enables archiving, access and analyses of CD and SRCD spectra and supporting metadata, now making this information publicly available. To summarize, the developing method of SRCD spectroscopy has the potential for playing an important role in new types of studies of protein conformations and their complexes.« less

  5. PCDDB: new developments at the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Lee; Miles, Andrew John; Mavridis, Lazaros; Janes, Robert W; Wallace, B A

    2017-01-04

    The Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB) has been in operation for more than 5 years as a public repository for archiving circular dichroism spectroscopic data and associated bioinformatics and experimental metadata. Since its inception, many improvements and new developments have been made in data display, searching algorithms, data formats, data content, auxillary information, and validation techniques, as well as, of course, an increase in the number of holdings. It provides a site (http://pcddb.cryst.bbk.ac.uk) for authors to deposit experimental data as well as detailed information on methods and calculations associated with published work. It also includes links for each entry to bioinformatics databases. The data are freely available to accessors either as single files or as complete data bank downloads. The PCDDB has found broad usage by the structural biology, bioinformatics, analytical and pharmaceutical communities, and has formed the basis for new software and methods developments. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  7. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  8. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; ...

    2015-11-03

    Here, we demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantummore » trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N 4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.« less

  9. Probing topology by "heating": Quantized circular dichroism in ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duc Thanh; Dauphin, Alexandre; Grushin, Adolfo G; Zoller, Peter; Goldman, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    We reveal an intriguing manifestation of topology, which appears in the depletion rate of topological states of matter in response to an external drive. This phenomenon is presented by analyzing the response of a generic two-dimensional (2D) Chern insulator subjected to a circular time-periodic perturbation. Because of the system's chiral nature, the depletion rate is shown to depend on the orientation of the circular shake; taking the difference between the rates obtained from two opposite orientations of the drive, and integrating over a proper drive-frequency range, provides a direct measure of the topological Chern number (ν) of the populated band: This "differential integrated rate" is directly related to the strength of the driving field through the quantized coefficient η 0 = ν/ ℏ 2 , where h = 2π ℏ is Planck's constant. Contrary to the integer quantum Hall effect, this quantized response is found to be nonlinear with respect to the strength of the driving field, and it explicitly involves interband transitions. We investigate the possibility of probing this phenomenon in ultracold gases and highlight the crucial role played by edge states in this effect. We extend our results to 3D lattices, establishing a link between depletion rates and the nonlinear photogalvanic effect predicted for Weyl semimetals. The quantized circular dichroism revealed in this work designates depletion rate measurements as a universal probe for topological order in quantum matter.

  10. Electrically controlled magnetic circular dichroism and Faraday rotation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Alexey; Poumirol, Jean-Marie; Liu, Peter Q. Liu; Slipchenko, Tetiana; Nikitin, Alexey; Martin-Moreno, Luis; Faist, Jerome

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and Faraday rotation (FR) are the fundamental phenomena of great practical importance arising from the breaking of the time reversal symmetry by a magnetic field. In most materials the strength and the sign of these effects can be only controlled by the field value and its orientation. Using broadband terahertz magneto-electro-optical spectroscopy, we demonstrate that in graphene both the MCD and the FR can be modulated in intensity, tuned in frequency and, importantly, inverted using only electrostatic doping at a fixed magnetic field due to the unique properties of the Dirac fermions. Our results indicate the fundamental possibility of compact, efficient, electrically invertible and wavelength-tunable non-reciprocal passive terahertz elements based on graphene operating at ambient temperature.

  11. Dielectric tuned circular dichroism of L-shaped plasmonic metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yu; Zhang, Zhidong; Fu, Tong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Tiankun; Wang, Mingyan; Bai, Yu; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a dielectric layer is introduced to tune circular dichroism (CD) of chiral plasmonic metasurfaces. The dielectric layer is used to control the optical phase of electric diploes in Born-Kuhn configurations. To prove our assumption, an L-shaped plasmonic metasurface consisting of two metallic slices is prepared by glancing angle deposition, and then an SiO2 slice is deposited on one arm of the L-shaped metasurface. Experimental results reveal that CD of the L-shaped plasmonic metasurface can be tuned by the thickness of the SiO2 slice. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the CD physical mechanism, but also can be used in nanophotonic metasurfaces because of the concise fabrication process.

  12. Circular dichroism spectra of uridine derivatives: ChiraSac study.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Tomoo; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Wada, Takehiko

    2014-04-24

    The experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectra of uridine and NH2-uridine that were different in the intensity and shape were studied in the light of the ChiraSac method. The theoretical CD spectra at several different conformations using the symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction (SAC-CI) theory largely depended on the conformational angle, but those of the anti-conformers and the Boltzmann average reproduced the experimentally obtained CD spectra of both uridine and NH2-uridine. The differences in the CD spectra between the two uridine derivatives were analyzed by using the angle θ between the electric transition dipole moment (ETDM) and the magnetic transition dipole moment (MTDM).

  13. A Circular Dichroism Reference Database for Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace,B.; Wien, F.; Stone, T.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane proteins are a major product of most genomes and the target of a large number of current pharmaceuticals, yet little information exists on their structures because of the difficulty of crystallising them; hence for the most part they have been excluded from structural genomics programme targets. Furthermore, even methods such as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy which seek to define secondary structure have not been fully exploited because of technical limitations to their interpretation for membrane embedded proteins. Empirical analyses of circular dichroism (CD) spectra are valuable for providing information on secondary structures of proteins. However, the accuracy of themore » results depends on the appropriateness of the reference databases used in the analyses. Membrane proteins have different spectral characteristics than do soluble proteins as a result of the low dielectric constants of membrane bilayers relative to those of aqueous solutions (Chen & Wallace (1997) Biophys. Chem. 65:65-74). To date, no CD reference database exists exclusively for the analysis of membrane proteins, and hence empirical analyses based on current reference databases derived from soluble proteins are not adequate for accurate analyses of membrane protein secondary structures (Wallace et al (2003) Prot. Sci. 12:875-884). We have therefore created a new reference database of CD spectra of integral membrane proteins whose crystal structures have been determined. To date it contains more than 20 proteins, and spans the range of secondary structures from mostly helical to mostly sheet proteins. This reference database should enable more accurate secondary structure determinations of membrane embedded proteins and will become one of the reference database options in the CD calculation server DICHROWEB (Whitmore & Wallace (2004) NAR 32:W668-673).« less

  14. Three-dimensional structural imaging of starch granules by second-harmonic generation circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, G-Y; Lee, H; Hsu, K-J; Huttunen, M J; Kauranen, M; Lin, Y-Y; Chu, S-W

    2014-03-01

    Chirality is one of the most fundamental and essential structural properties of biological molecules. Many important biological molecules including amino acids and polysaccharides are intrinsically chiral. Conventionally, chiral species can be distinguished by interaction with circularly polarized light, and circular dichroism is one of the best-known approaches for chirality detection. As a linear optical process, circular dichroism suffers from very low signal contrast and lack of spatial resolution in the axial direction. It has been demonstrated that by incorporating nonlinear interaction with circularly polarized excitation, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism can provide much higher signal contrast. However, previous circular dichroism and second-harmonic generation circular dichroism studies are mostly limited to probe chiralities at surfaces and interfaces. It is known that second-harmonic generation, as a second-order nonlinear optical effect, provides excellent optical sectioning capability when combined with a laser-scanning microscope. In this work, we combine the axial resolving power of second-harmonic generation and chiral sensitivity of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism to realize three-dimensional chiral detection in biological tissues. Within the point spread function of a tight focus, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism could arise from the macroscopic supramolecular packing as well as the microscopic intramolecular chirality, so our aim is to clarify the origins of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism response in complicated three-dimensional biological systems. The sample we use is starch granules whose second-harmonic generation-active molecules are amylopectin with both microscopic chirality due to its helical structure and macroscopic chirality due to its crystallized packing. We found that in a starch granule, the second-harmonic generation for right-handed circularly polarized excitation is

  15. Circular dichroism spectroscopy: Enhancing a traditional undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experience.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell L; Seal, Erin L; Lorts, Aimee R; Stewart, Amanda L

    2017-11-01

    The undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum is designed to provide students with experience in protein isolation and purification protocols as well as various data analysis techniques, which enhance the biochemistry lecture course and give students a broad range of tools upon which to build in graduate level laboratories or once they begin their careers. One of the most common biochemistry protein purification experiments is the isolation and characterization of cytochrome c. Students across the country purify cytochrome c, lysozyme, or some other well-known protein to learn these common purification techniques. What this series of experiments lacks is the use of sophisticated instrumentation that is rarely available to undergraduate students. To give students a broader background in biochemical spectroscopy techniques, a new circular dichroism (CD) laboratory experiment was introduced into the biochemistry laboratory curriculum. This CD experiment provides students with a means of conceptualizing the secondary structure of their purified protein, and assessments indicate that students' understanding of the technique increased significantly. Students conducted this experiment with ease and in a short time frame, so this laboratory is conducive to merging with other data analysis techniques within a single laboratory period. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(6):515-520, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Circular dichroism study of the carbohydrate-modified opioid peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, Štefica; Otvos, Laszlo; Urge, Laszlo; Horvat, Jaroslav; Čudić, Mare; Varga-Defterdarović, Lidija

    1999-09-01

    The conformational preferences of enkephalins and the related glycoconjugates in which free or protected carbohydrate moieties were linked to the opioid peptides through an ether, ester or amide bond were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy in water, trifluoroethanol and water-trifluoroethanol mixtures. The analysis of the spectra revealed that the conformation of the enkephalin molecule is very sensitive to slight changes in the peptide structure around the C-terminal region. It was found that the type II β-turn structures are populated in N-terminal tetrapeptide enkephalin fragment, while leucine-enkephalin amide feature a type I (III) β-turn structure in solution. Incorporation of the sugar moiety into opioid peptide compound did not significantly influence the overall conformation of the peptide backbone, although minor intensity changes may reflect shifts in the population of the different turn systems. These small structural alterations can be responsible for the receptor-subtype selectivity of the various carbohydrate-modified enkephalin analogs.

  17. Emitter-site-selective photoelectron circular dichroism of trifluoromethyloxirane

    DOE PAGES

    Ilchen, M.; Hartmann, G.; Rupprecht, P.; ...

    2017-05-30

    The angle-resolved inner-shell photoionization of R-trifluoromethyloxirane, C 3H 3F 3O, is studied experimentally and theoretically. Thereby, we investigate the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) for nearly symmetric O 1s and F 1s electronic orbitals, which are localized on different molecular sites. The respective dichroic β 1 and angular distribution β 2 parameters are measured at the photoelectron kinetic energies from 1 to 16 eV by using variably polarized synchrotron radiation and velocity map imaging spectroscopy. The present experimental results are in good agreement with the outcome of ab initio electronic structure calculations. We report a sizable chiral asymmetry β 1 ofmore » up to about 9% for the K -shell photoionization of oxygen atom. For the individual fluorine atoms, the present calculations predict asymmetries of similar size. However, being averaged over all fluorine atoms, it drops down to about 2%, as also observed in the present experiment. Our study demonstrates a strong emitter and site sensitivity of PECD in the one-photon inner-shell ionization of this chiral molecule.« less

  18. Determination of protein-dye association by near infrared fluorescence-detected circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Meadows, F; Narayanan, N; Patonay, G

    2000-01-10

    Near-infrared (NIR) squarylium dye spectral properties were evaluated by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence-detected circular dichroism (FDCD). Substituents of the two NN dyes differed at R(1) and R(2), located symmetrically on the chromophore. The side chains of NN525 are R(1)=hexanoic acid, R(2)=butyl sulfonate and R(1)=R(2)=ethyl for NN127. FDCD signals were first confirmed by denaturing BSA with 2-8 M urea showing a diminution of dye FDCD peaks, but no change occurred in spectral properties of the dyes in urea. This indicated that the observed cotton effects occurred by noncovalent interactions with the secondary structure of the protein. The average BSA-dye association constants found by fluorescence, absorbance, and FDCD were 1.27 x 10(6) (n=1) and 3.3 x 10(6) M(-1) (n=1) for NN127 and NN525 respectively. These values were in good agreement when calculated by the three spectroscopic methods validating the use of NIRFDCD for optical parameter calculations. These results are useful to describe NIR squarylium dye labeling of BSA.

  19. Experimental demonstration of the microscopic origin of circular dichroism in two-dimensional metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Khanikaev, A. B.; Arju, N.; Fan, Z.; Purtseladze, D.; Lu, F.; Lee, J.; Sarriugarte, P.; Schnell, M.; Hillenbrand, R.; Belkin, M. A.; Shvets, G.

    2016-01-01

    Optical activity and circular dichroism are fascinating physical phenomena originating from the interaction of light with chiral molecules or other nano objects lacking mirror symmetries in three-dimensional (3D) space. While chiral optical properties are weak in most of naturally occurring materials, they can be engineered and significantly enhanced in synthetic optical media known as chiral metamaterials, where the spatial symmetry of their building blocks is broken on a nanoscale. Although originally discovered in 3D structures, circular dichroism can also emerge in a two-dimensional (2D) metasurface. The origin of the resulting circular dichroism is rather subtle, and is related to non-radiative (Ohmic) dissipation of the constituent metamolecules. Because such dissipation occurs on a nanoscale, this effect has never been experimentally probed and visualized. Using a suite of recently developed nanoscale-measurement tools, we establish that the circular dichroism in a nanostructured metasurface occurs due to handedness-dependent Ohmic heating. PMID:27329108

  20. Chirality sensing of bioactive compounds with amino alcohol unit via circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Marcin; Groszek, Grażyna; Frelek, Jadwiga

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to test various chiroptical techniques, including in particular the in situ dirhodium methodology, to assign the absolute configuration of 1,2- and 1,3-amino alcohols. As models, we selected mainly compounds that have both an additional strongly absorbing and interfering chromophoric system and application in medicinal chemistry. Determination of the absolute configuration (AC) of the tested molecules such as cinchona alkaloids, Tamiflu, and others was carried out using a combination of electronic and vibrational circular dichroism (ECD, VCD) spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that both 1,2- and 1,3-aminol moieties are subject to the same sector rule correlating stereostructure of formed Rh 2 -complex with chiroptical properties, and that the changes in the position of the stereogenic center do not affect its proper use. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Amide I vibrational circular dichroism of dipeptide: Conformation dependence and fragment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2004-03-01

    The amide I vibrational circular dichroic response of alanine dipeptide analog (ADA) was theoretically investigated and the density functional theory calculation and fragment analysis results are presented. A variety of vibrational spectroscopic properties, local and normal mode frequencies, coupling constant, dipole, and rotational strengths, are calculated by varying two dihedral angles determining the three-dimensional ADA conformation. Considering two monopeptide fragments separately, we show that the amide I vibrational circular dichroism of the ADA can be quantitatively predicted. For several representative conformations of the model ADA, vibrational circular dichroism spectra are calculated by using both the density functional theory calculation and fragment analysis methods.

  2. Frenkel-exciton decomposition analysis of circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence for multichromophoric systems.

    PubMed

    Shiraogawa, Takafumi; Ehara, Masahiro; Jurinovich, Sandro; Cupellini, Lorenzo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2018-06-15

    Recently, a method to calculate the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra based on the exciton coupling has been developed. In this work, the method was utilized for the decomposition of the CD and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectra of a multichromophoric system into chromophore contributions for recently developed through-space conjugated oligomers. The method which has been implemented using rotatory strength in the velocity form and therefore it is gauge-invariant, enables us to evaluate the contribution from each chromophoric unit and locally excited state to the CD and CPL spectra of the total system. The excitonic calculations suitably reproduce the full calculations of the system, as well as the experimental results. We demonstrate that the interactions between electric transition dipole moments of adjacent chromophoric units are crucial in the CD and CPL spectra of the multichromophoric systems, while the interactions between electric and magnetic transition dipole moments are not negligible. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Near shot-noise limited time-resolved circular dichroism pump-probe spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnytskyi, Valentyn; Orf, Gregory S.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2018-03-01

    We describe an optical near shot-noise limited time-resolved circular dichroism (TRCD) pump-probe spectrometer capable of reliably measuring circular dichroism signals in the order of μdeg with nanosecond time resolution. Such sensitivity is achieved through a modification of existing TRCD designs and introduction of a new data processing protocol that eliminates approximations that have caused substantial nonlinearities in past measurements and allows the measurement of absorption and circular dichroism transients simultaneously with a single pump pulse. The exceptional signal-to-noise ratio of the described setup makes the TRCD technique applicable to a large range of non-biological and biological systems. The spectrometer was used to record, for the first time, weak TRCD kinetics associated with the triplet state energy transfer in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna pigment-protein complex.

  4. DichroMatch at the protein circular dichroism data bank (DM@PCDDB): A web-based tool for identifying protein nearest neighbors using circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Lee; Mavridis, Lazaros; Wallace, B A; Janes, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is a well-used, but simple method in structural biology for providing information on the secondary structure and folds of proteins. DichroMatch (DM@PCDDB) is an online tool that is newly available in the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB), which takes advantage of the wealth of spectral and metadata deposited therein, to enable identification of spectral nearest neighbors of a query protein based on four different methods of spectral matching. DM@PCDDB can potentially provide novel information about structural relationships between proteins and can be used in comparison studies of protein homologs and orthologs. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  5. Conformational analysis and circular dichroism of bilirubin, the yellow pigment of jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, David A.; Person, Richard; Peterson, Blake; Puzicha, Gisbert; Pu, Yu-Ming; Bojadziev, Stefan

    1991-06-01

    Conformational analysis of (4Z, 15Z)-bilirubin-IX(alpha) by molecular mechanics computations reveals a global energy minimum folded conformation. Powerful added stabilization is achieved through intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Theoretical treatment of bilirubin as a molecular exciton predicts an intense bisignate circular dichroism spectrum for the folded conformation: (Delta) (epsilon) is congruent to 270 L (DOT) mole-1 (DOT) cm-1 for the $OM450 nm electronic transition(s). Synthesis of bilirubin analogs with propionic acid groups methylated at the (alpha) or (beta) position introduces an allosteric effect that allows for an optical resolution of the pigments, with enantiomers exhibiting the theoretically predicted circular dichroism.

  6. X-ray circular dichroism signals: a unique probe of local molecular chirality

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yu; Rouxel, Jeremy R.; Autschbach, Jochen; ...

    2017-06-26

    Core-resonant circular dichroism (CD) signals are induced by molecular chirality and vanish for achiral molecules and racemic mixtures. The highly localized nature of core excitations makes them ideal probes of local chirality within molecules. Simulations of the circular dichroism spectra of several molecular families illustrate how these signals vary with the electronic coupling to substitution groups, the distance between the X-ray chromophore and the chiral center, geometry, and chemical structure. As a result, clear insight into the molecular structure is obtained through analysis of the X-ray CD spectra.

  7. Isotope effect on the circular dichroism spectrum of methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yukiko; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Kato, Koichi; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    H/D isotope effect on the circular dichroism spectrum of methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in aqueous solution has been analyzed by multicomponent density functional theory calculations using the polarizable continuum model. By comparing the computational spectra with the corresponding experimental spectrum obtained with a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer, it was demonstrated that the isotope effect provides insights not only into the isotopic difference of the intramolecular interactions of the solutes, but also into that of the solute–solvent intermolecular interaction. PMID:26658851

  8. X-ray circular dichroism signals: a unique probe of local molecular chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Rouxel, Jeremy R.; Autschbach, Jochen

    Core-resonant circular dichroism (CD) signals are induced by molecular chirality and vanish for achiral molecules and racemic mixtures. The highly localized nature of core excitations makes them ideal probes of local chirality within molecules. Simulations of the circular dichroism spectra of several molecular families illustrate how these signals vary with the electronic coupling to substitution groups, the distance between the X-ray chromophore and the chiral center, geometry, and chemical structure. As a result, clear insight into the molecular structure is obtained through analysis of the X-ray CD spectra.

  9. A Simple Spreadsheet Program to Simulate and Analyze the Far-UV Circular Dichroism Spectra of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abriata, Luciano A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple algorithm was implemented in a spreadsheet program to simulate the circular dichroism spectra of proteins from their secondary structure content and to fit [alpha]-helix, [beta]-sheet, and random coil contents from experimental far-UV circular dichroism spectra. The physical basis of the method is briefly reviewed within the context of…

  10. Unboiling an Egg: An Introduction to Circular Dichroism and Protein Refolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoben, John P.; Wang, Jianing; Miller, Anne-Frances

    2017-01-01

    A signature of life is that biological molecules occur as a single stereoisomer with respect to each chiral center, and this is echoed in the structures of biological polymers. Thus, circular dichroism (CD) has emerged as a hallmark of biomolecular structures. The tangible and familiar phenomenon of raw egg white's conversion from transparent…

  11. Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess-Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G.

    2005-01-01

    Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation is an experiment that provides an avenue to the introduction of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in organic chemistry curriculum as a diagnostic tool for examination of the results of a familiar reaction, and absolute configuration. From the experiment, students increased their understanding of CD theory and…

  12. Theoretical Calculation of Electronic Circular Dichroism of a Hexahydroxydiphenoyl-Containing Flavanone Glycoside

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was employed for theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-containing flavanone glycoside, mattucinol-7-O-[4'',6''-O-(aS)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2). It identified the roles of t...

  13. Wavelength dependent photoelectron circular dichroism of limonene studied by femtosecond multiphoton laser ionization and electron-ion coincidence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee Fanood, Mohammad M.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.; Powis, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Enantiomers of the monoterpene limonene have been investigated by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and photoelectron circular dichroism employing tuneable, circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses. Electron imaging detection provides 3D momentum measurement while electron-ion coincidence detection can be used to mass-tag individual electrons. Additional filtering, by accepting only parent ion tagged electrons, can be then used to provide discrimination against higher energy dissociative ionization mechanisms where more than three photons are absorbed to better delineate the two photon resonant, one photon ionization pathway. The promotion of different vibrational levels and, tentatively, different electronic ion core configurations in the intermediate Rydberg states can be achieved with different laser excitation wavelengths (420 nm, 412 nm, and 392 nm), in turn producing different state distributions in the resulting cations. Strong chiral asymmetries in the lab frame photoelectron angular distributions are quantified, and a comparison made with a single photon (synchrotron radiation) measurement at an equivalent photon energy.

  14. Probing ultrafast spin dynamics with high-harmonic magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, F.; Smeenk, C. T. L.; Zhavoronkov, N.; Kornilov, O.; Radu, I.; Schmidbauer, M.; Hanke, M.; von Korff Schmising, C.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Eisebitt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range is a powerful technique for element-specific probing of magnetization in multicomponent magnetic alloys and multilayers. We combine a high-harmonic generation source with a λ /4 phase shifter to obtain circularly polarized XUV femtosecond pulses for ultrafast magnetization studies. We report on simultaneously measured resonant magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of Co and Ni at their respective M2 ,3 edges and of Pt at its O edge, originating from interface magnetism. We present a time-resolved MCD absorption measurement of a thin magnetic Pt/Co/Pt film, showing simultaneous demagnetization of Co and Pt on a femtosecond time scale.

  15. Observation of circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Appling, J.R.; White, M.G.; Orlando, T.M.

    1986-12-01

    The first observations of dichroic effects in photoelectron angular distributions are reported for photoionization of aligned molecular excited states with circularly polarized light. Photoelectron angular distributions resulting from the two-color, (2+1) REMPI of NO via the A /sup 2/summation/sup +/, v = 0, J = 3/2,5/2 excited states exhibit significant left--right asymmetry. The experimental CD angular distributions are found to be well described by the general theoretical framework recently developed by Dubs, Dixit, and McKoy and are in good qualitative agreement with their calculated REMPI--CD distributions.

  16. Observation of circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appling, Jeffrey R.; White, Michael G.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Anderson, Scott L.

    1986-12-01

    The first observations of dichroic effects in photoelectron angular distributions are reported for photoionization of aligned molecular excited states with circularly polarized light. Photoelectron angular distributions resulting from the two-color, (2+1) REMPI of NO via the A 2∑+, v=0, J=3/2,5/2 excited states exhibit significant left-right asymmetry. The experimental CD angular distributions are found to be well described by the general theoretical framework recently developed by Dubs, Dixit, and McKoy and are in good qualitative agreement with their calculated REMPI-CD distributions.

  17. Quantitative characterization of nanoscale polycrystalline magnets with electron magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Muto, Shunsuke; Rusz, Ján; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Adam, Roman; Arai, Shigeo; Kocevski, Vancho; Oppeneer, Peter M; Bürgler, Daniel E; Schneider, Claus M

    2014-01-01

    Electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) allows the quantitative, element-selective determination of spin and orbital magnetic moments, similar to its well-established X-ray counterpart, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). As an advantage over XMCD, EMCD measurements are made using transmission electron microscopes, which are routinely operated at sub-nanometre resolution, thereby potentially allowing nanometre magnetic characterization. However, because of the low intensity of the EMCD signal, it has not yet been possible to obtain quantitative information from EMCD signals at the nanoscale. Here we demonstrate a new approach to EMCD measurements that considerably enhances the outreach of the technique. The statistical analysis introduced here yields robust quantitative EMCD signals. Moreover, we demonstrate that quantitative magnetic information can be routinely obtained using electron beams of only a few nanometres in diameter without imposing any restriction regarding the crystalline order of the specimen.

  18. Natural circular dichroism in non-resonant x-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtras, Olav; Ågren, Hans; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    1997-03-01

    The possibility of observing natural circular dichroism in non-resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy is investigated by means of simulations of the chiral molecules twisted ethylene, propylene oxide and trans-1, 2-dimethylcyclopropane, in a two-step model and at the SCF level, with or without relaxation of the core-hole states. We observe both a chemical and an element dependence of the phenomenon and also an effect of electron relaxation. However, the latter is much less crucial than for circular dichroism in x-ray absorption. The calculations indicate that, at least for the decay of the carbon core-hole states, the effect could be detectable with the present or soon to be available experimental equipment.

  19. A circular dichroism and structural study of the inclusion complex artemisinin-β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, Giancarlo; Monti, Sandra; Manoli, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Mayer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The inclusion complex between the powerful antimalarial agent Artemisinin and β-cyclodextrin has been studied by means of Circular Dichroism and elucidated by Density Functional Theory calculations on the isolated molecule combined to a statistical Monte Carlo search of the most stable geometry of the complex. The results evidence a host-guest structure in full agreement with the almost unaffected functionality of the drug, which is found to experience a significant hydrophilic environment when complexed.

  20. Computer programs to assist in high resolution thermal denaturation and circular dichroism studies on nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Thomas C.; Hardies, Stephen C.; Cortez, Carlos; Hillen, Wolfgang

    1981-01-01

    Computer programs are described that direct the collection, processing, and graphical display of numerical data obtained from high resolution thermal denaturation (1-3) and circular dichroism (4) studies. Besides these specific applications, the programs may also be useful, either directly or as programming models, in other types of spectrophotometric studies employing computers, programming languages, or instruments similar to those described here (see Materials and Methods). PMID:7335498

  1. A computational protocol for the study of circularly polarized phosphorescence and circular dichroism in spin-forbidden absorption.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Maciej; Cukras, Janusz; Pecul, Magdalena; Rizzo, Antonio; Coriani, Sonia

    2015-07-15

    We present a computational methodology to calculate the intensity of circular dichroism (CD) in spin-forbidden absorption and of circularly polarized phosphorescence (CPP) signals, a manifestation of the optical activity of the triplet-singlet transitions in chiral compounds. The protocol is based on the response function formalism and is implemented at the level of time-dependent density functional theory. It has been employed to calculate the spin-forbidden circular dichroism and circularly polarized phosphorescence signals of valence n → π* and n ← π* transitions, respectively, in several chiral enones and diketones. Basis set effects in the length and velocity gauge formulations have been explored, and the accuracy achieved when employing approximate (mean-field and effective nuclear charge) spin-orbit operators has been investigated. CPP is shown to be a sensitive probe of the triplet excited state structure. In many cases the sign of the spin-forbidden CD and CPP signals are opposite. For the β,γ-enones under investigation, where there are two minima on the lowest triplet excited state potential energy surface, each minimum exhibits a CPP signal of a different sign.

  2. Time-resolved circular dichroism: Application to the study of conformal changes in biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hache, F.

    2010-06-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) is known to be a very sensitive probe of the conformation of molecules and biomolecules. It is therefore tempting to implement CD in a pump-probe experiment in order to measure ultrarapid conformational changes which occur in photochemical processes. We present two technical developments of such time-resolved CD experiments. The first one relies on the modulation of the probe polarization from left to right circular whereas the second one measures the pump-induced ellipticity of the probe with a Babinet-Soleil compensator. Some applications are described and extension of these techniques towards the study of elementary protein folding processes is discussed.

  3. UV-CD12: synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamline at ANKA

    PubMed Central

    Bürck, Jochen; Roth, Siegmar; Windisch, Dirk; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Moss, David; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a rapidly growing technique for structure analysis of proteins and other chiral biomaterials. UV-CD12 is a high-flux SRCD beamline installed at the ANKA synchrotron, to which it had been transferred after the closure of the SRS Daresbury. The beamline covers an extended vacuum-UV to near-UV spectral range and has been open for users since October 2011. The current end-station allows for temperature-controlled steady-state SRCD spectroscopy, including routine automated thermal scans of microlitre volumes of water-soluble proteins down to 170 nm. It offers an excellent signal-to-noise ratio over the whole accessible spectral range. The technique of oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was recently implemented for determining the membrane alignment of α-helical peptides and proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers as mimics of cellular membranes. It offers improved spectral quality <200 nm compared with an OCD setup adapted to a bench-top instrument, and accelerated data collection by a factor of ∼3. In addition, it permits investigations of low hydrated protein films down to 130 nm using a rotatable sample cell that avoids linear dichroism artifacts. PMID:25931105

  4. Imaging photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules by femtosecond multiphoton coincidence detection.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, C Stefan; Ram, N Bhargava; Powis, Ivan; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2013-12-21

    Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flight mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations

  5. Imaging photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules by femtosecond multiphoton coincidence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Janssen, Maurice H. M., E-mail: m.h.m.janssen@vu.nl

    2013-12-21

    Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flightmore » mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations

  6. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, G.; Lindahl, A. O.; Knie, A.; Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Shevchuk, I.; Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Kazansky, A. K.; Liu, J.; Marinelli, A.; Mazza, T.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J.; Meyer, M.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M.

    2016-08-01

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O2 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  7. Corrigendum to "Co-occurrence of linear and circular dichroism in chiral sculptured ZrO2 thin films" [Opt. Mater. 75 (January 2018) 319-324

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Zahir; Wali, Faiz; Song, Li

    2018-05-01

    The authors regret circular dichroism and linear dichroism [1]>.

  8. Enhancement of magnetic circular dichroism in bi-layered ZnO-Bi:YIG thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, Shinichiro; Shiotsu, Yusaku; Sasano, Junji; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2017-05-01

    Bi-layered zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG) was fabricated and magneto-optically investigated. Enhancement of Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) was observed. The wavelength of MCD enhancement was in good agreement with exciton wavelength of ZnO. This enhancement was only observed in the bi-layer, and implies that the exciton generated in ZnO interacted with Bi:YIG. Because the exciton wavelength of ZnO can be controlled by electro-optic effect, this result has the potential for realizing voltage control of magneto-optic effect.

  9. Strong coupling between adenine nucleobases in DNA single strands revealed by circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadhane, Umesh; Holm, Anne I. S.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2008-02-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) experiments on DNA single strands (dAn) at the ASTRID synchrotron radiation facility reveal that eight adenine (A) bases electronically couple upon 190nm excitation. After n=8 , the CD signal increases linearly with n with a slope equal to the sum of the coupling terms. Nearest neighbor interactions account for only 24% of the CD signal whereas electronic communication is limited to nearest neighbors for two other exciton bands observed at 218 and 251nm (i.e., dimer excited states). Electronic coupling between bases in DNA is important for nonradiative deexcitation of electronically excited states since the hazardous energy is spread over a larger spatial region.

  10. Circular Dichroism studies on the interactions of antimicrobial peptides with bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Concetta; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    Studying how antimicrobial peptides interact with bacterial cells is pivotal to understand their mechanism of action. In this paper we explored the use of Circular Dichroism to detect the secondary structure of two antimicrobial peptides, magainin 2 and cecropin A, with E. coli bacterial cells. The results of our studies allow us to gain two important information in the context of antimicrobial peptides- bacterial cells interactions: peptides fold mainly due to interaction with LPS, which is the main component of the Gram negative bacteria outer membrane and the time required for the folding on the bacterial cells depends on the peptide analyzed.

  11. Assignment of absolute stereostructures through quantum mechanics electronic and vibrational circular dichroism calculations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Jiang, Nan; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of absolute configuration of chiral molecules including structurally complex natural products remains a challenging problem in organic chemistry. A reliable method for assigning the absolute stereostructure is to combine the experimental circular dichroism (CD) techniques such as electronic and vibrational CD (ECD and VCD), with quantum mechanics (QM) ECD and VCD calculations. The traditional QM methods as well as their continuing developments make them more applicable with accuracy. Taking some chiral natural products with diverse conformations as examples, this review describes the basic concepts and new developments of QM approaches for ECD and VCD calculations in solution and solid states.

  12. Enhanced Circular Dichroism of Gold Bilayered Slit Arrays Embedded with Rectangular Holes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yongkai; Luo, Lina; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2017-01-01

    Gold bilayered slit arrays with rectangular holes embedded into the metal surface are designed to enhance the circular dichroism (CD) effect of gold bilayered slit arrays. The rectangular holes in these arrays block electric currents and generate localized surface plasmons around these holes, thereby strengthening the CD effect. The CD enhancement factor depends strongly on the rotational angle and the structural parameters of the rectangular holes; this factor can be enhanced further by drilling two additional rectangular holes into the metal surfaces of the arrays. These results help facilitate the design of chiral structures to produce a strong CD effect and large electric fields.

  13. Enhanced Circular Dichroism via Symmetry Breaking in a Chiral Plasmonic Nanoparticle Oligomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Khai Q.

    2018-02-01

    A chiral plasmonic nanoparticle oligomer, consisting of four symmetrically arranged nanodisks of different heights and having different optical absorption responses to left and right-handed circularly polarized light illumination, has been experimentally reported in the literature. The resulting circular dichroism (CD) signal was detectable with state of the art CD spectrometers but was much weaker than those of existing chiral nanostructures, i.e., three-dimensional (3-D) chiral metamaterials. In this letter, via symmetry breaking in such an oligomer, the author demonstrates that the CD can be enhanced up to six times compared to that of a symmetric oligomer, and is in the range of a relevant 3-D chiral metamolecule. Through investigation of geometrical parameters including particle size, asymmetric and symmetric gaps, the CD evolution was reported, which provides a useful guideline for design of two-dimensional chiral oligomers adopted as efficient probes for CD spectroscopic applications.

  14. Chiral detection in high-performance liquid chromatography by vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Tran, C D; Grishko, V I; Huang, G

    1994-09-01

    A novel chiral detector for high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. This detector is based on the measurement of circular dichroism of chiral effluents in the infrared region, i.e., vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). In this instrument, a solid-state spectral tunable (from 2.4 to 3.5 microns) F-center laser was used as the light source. The linearly polarized laser beam was converted into left circularly polarized light (LCPL) and right circularly polarized light (RCPL) at 42 kHz by means of a photoelastic modulator. The intensity of the LCPL and RCPL transmitted through the sample was measured by a liquid nitrogen cooled indium antimonide detector. Double modulation was employed to reduce the noise associated with the laser beam. Specifically, the linearly polarized laser beam, prior to being converted to CPL, was modulated at 85 Hz by a mechanical chopper. Demodulation and amplification were accomplished with the use of two lock-in amplifiers. In its present configuration, the instrument can be used to measure the VCD of O-H groups. Its sensitivity is so high that it was able, for the first time, to detect chirally (with limits of detection of micrograms) (R)- and (S)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(9- anthryl)ethanol and (R)- and (S)-benzoin when these compounds were chromatographically separated from the corresponding racemic mixtures by a Chiralcel-OD column. The main advantage of this chiral detector is, however, its universality; i.e., it can be used to virtually detect any chiral compounds which has O-H group (e.g, aliphatic alcohols such as 2-octanol).

  15. Circular dichroism of magnetically induced transitions for D2 lines of alkali atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonoyan, A.; Sargsyan, A.; Klinger, E.; Hakhumyan, G.; Leroy, C.; Auzinsh, M.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this letter we study magnetic circular dichroism in alkali atoms exhibiting asymmetric behaviour of magnetically induced transitions. The magnetic field \\textbf{B}\\parallel\\textbf{k} induces transitions between Δ F = +/-2 hyperfine levels of alkali atoms and in the range of ∼0.1{\\text{--}}3 \\text{kG} magnetic field, the intensities of these transitions experience significant enhancement. We have inferred a general rule applicable for the D 2 lines of all alkali atoms, that is the transition intensity enhancement is around four times larger for the case of σ+ than for σ- excitation for Δ F = +2 , whereas it is several hundreds of thousand times larger in the case of σ- than that for σ+ polarization for Δ F = -2 . This asymmetric behaviour results in circular dichroism. For experimental verification we employed half-wavelength-thick atomic vapor nanocells using a derivative of the selective reflection technique, which provides a sub-Doppler spectroscopic linewidth (∼50 \\text{MHz} ). The presented theoretical curves well describe the experimental results. This effect can find applications particularly in parity violation experiments.

  16. Homonuclear 1H NMR and circular dichroism study of the HIV-1 Tat Eli variant.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Jennifer D; Campbell, Grant R; Halimi, Hubert; Loret, Erwann P

    2008-09-22

    The HIV-1 Tat protein is a promising target to develop AIDS therapies, particularly vaccines, due to its extracellular role that protects HIV-1-infected cells from the immune system. Tat exists in two different lengths, 86 or 87 residues and 99 or 101 residues, with the long form being predominant in clinical isolates. We report here a structural study of the 99 residue Tat Eli variant using 2D liquid-state NMR, molecular modeling and circular dichroism. Tat Eli was obtained from solid-phase peptide synthesis and the purified protein was proven biologically active in a trans-activation assay. Circular dichroism spectra at different temperatures up to 70 degrees C showed that Tat Eli is not a random coil at 20 degrees C. Homonuclear 1H NMR spectra allowed us to identify 1639 NMR distance constraints out of which 264 were interresidual. Molecular modeling satisfying at least 1474 NMR constraints revealed the same folding for different model structures. The Tat Eli model has a core region composed of a part of the N-terminus including the highly conserved Trp 11. The extra residues in the Tat Eli C-terminus protrude from a groove between the basic region and the cysteine-rich region and are well exposed to the solvent. We show that active Tat variants share a similar folding pattern whatever their size, but mutations induce local structural changes.

  17. Homonuclear 1H NMR and circular dichroism study of the HIV-1 Tat Eli variant

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Jennifer D; Campbell, Grant R; Halimi, Hubert; Loret, Erwann P

    2008-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 Tat protein is a promising target to develop AIDS therapies, particularly vaccines, due to its extracellular role that protects HIV-1-infected cells from the immune system. Tat exists in two different lengths, 86 or 87 residues and 99 or 101 residues, with the long form being predominant in clinical isolates. We report here a structural study of the 99 residue Tat Eli variant using 2D liquid-state NMR, molecular modeling and circular dichroism. Results Tat Eli was obtained from solid-phase peptide synthesis and the purified protein was proven biologically active in a trans-activation assay. Circular dichroism spectra at different temperatures up to 70°C showed that Tat Eli is not a random coil at 20°C. Homonuclear 1H NMR spectra allowed us to identify 1639 NMR distance constraints out of which 264 were interresidual. Molecular modeling satisfying at least 1474 NMR constraints revealed the same folding for different model structures. The Tat Eli model has a core region composed of a part of the N-terminus including the highly conserved Trp 11. The extra residues in the Tat Eli C-terminus protrude from a groove between the basic region and the cysteine-rich region and are well exposed to the solvent. Conclusion We show that active Tat variants share a similar folding pattern whatever their size, but mutations induce local structural changes. PMID:18808674

  18. Sensing site-specific structural characteristics and chirality using vibrational circular dichroism of isotope labeled peptides.

    PubMed

    Keiderling, Timothy A

    2017-12-01

    Isotope labeling has a long history in chemistry as a tool for probing structure, offering enhanced sensitivity, or enabling site selection with a wide range of spectroscopic tools. Chirality sensitive methods such as electronic circular dichroism are global structural tools and have intrinsically low resolution. Consequently, they are generally insensitive to modifications to enhance site selectivity. The use of isotope labeling to modify vibrational spectra with unique resolvable frequency shifts can provide useful site-specific sensitivity, and these methods have been recently more widely expanded in biopolymer studies. While the spectral shifts resulting from changes in isotopic mass can provide resolution of modes from specific parts of the molecule and can allow detection of local change in structure with perturbation, these shifts alone do not directly indicate structure or chirality. With vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), the shifted bands and their resultant sign patterns can be used to indicate local conformations in labeled biopolymers, particularly if multiple labels are used and if their coupling is theoretically modeled. This mini-review discusses selected examples of the use of labeling specific amides in peptides to develop local structural insight with VCD spectra. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Advantages of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to study intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Patricia S; DeMarco, Ricardo; Lopes, Jose L S

    2017-10-01

    The unordered secondary structural content of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) is susceptible to conformational changes induced by many different external factors, such as the presence of organic solvents, removal of water, changes in temperature, binding to partner molecules, and interaction with lipids and/or other ligands. In order to characterize the high-flexibility nature of an IDP, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a particularly useful method due to its capability of monitoring both subtle and remarkable changes in different environments, relative ease in obtaining measurements, the small amount of sample required, and the capability for sample recovery (sample not damaged) and others. Using synchrotron radiation as the light source for CD spectroscopy represents the state-of-the-art version of this technique with feasibility of accessing the lower wavelength UV region, and therefore presenting a series of advantages over conventional circular dichroism (cCD) to monitor a protein conformational behavior, check protein stability, detect ligand binding, and many others. In this paper, we have performed a comparative study using cCD and SRCD methods for investigating the secondary structure and the conformational behavior of natively unfolded proteins: MEG-14 and soybean trypsin inhibitor. We show that the SRCD technique greatly improves the analysis and accuracy of the studies on the conformations of IDPs.

  20. DichroCalc: Improvements in Computing Protein Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy in the Near-Ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Jasim, Sarah B; Li, Zhuo; Guest, Ellen E; Hirst, Jonathan D

    2017-12-16

    A fully quantitative theory connecting protein conformation and optical spectroscopy would facilitate deeper insights into biophysical and simulation studies of protein dynamics and folding. The web server DichroCalc (http://comp.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/dichrocalc) allows one to compute from first principles the electronic circular dichroism spectrum of a (modeled or experimental) protein structure or ensemble of structures. The regular, repeating, chiral nature of secondary structure elements leads to intense bands in the far-ultraviolet (UV). The near-UV bands are much weaker and have been challenging to compute theoretically. We report some advances in the accuracy of calculations in the near-UV, realized through the consideration of the vibrational structure of the electronic transitions of aromatic side chains. The improvements have been assessed over a set of diverse proteins. We illustrate them using bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and present a new, detailed analysis of the interactions which are most important in determining the near-UV circular dichroism spectrum. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Dynamic perturbation effects upon the circular dichroism intensity induced in an aggregate of dye chromophores bound to biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Mamoru

    1980-11-01

    The dynamic perturbation effects of polarizable monomer perturbers upon the circular dichroism intensity arising from absorption transitions of an arbitrary aggregate of dye chromophores bound to a large host polymer are formulated using the linear response theory in the decorrelation approximation, where the interchromophoric retardation phase factors are eliminated by a first-order Taylor expansion which is compatible with the use of the retarded helix selection rules in the long-wavelength approximation. A space-averaged and closed-form formulation of the non-conservative circular dichroism intensity which is perturbed by intensity with the outside perturber transitions is derived in the limit of the weak dynamic perturbation where perturber—perturber interactions are negligible. The relevant formulation is applied in order to investigate the intercalation model dependence of the non-conservative circular dichroism intensity induced at the visible absorption band of proflavine molecules intercalated in either poly(A—T) or poly(G—C).

  2. Absorbed Power Minimization in Cellular Users with Circular Antenna Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofilakis, Vasilis; Votis, Constantinos; Tatsis, Giorgos; Raptis, Vasilis; Kostarakis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic pollution of non ionizing radiation generated by cellular phones concerns millions of people. In this paper the use of circular antenna array as a means of minimizing the absorbed power by cellular phone users is introduced. In particular, the different characteristics of radiation patterns produced by a helical conventional antenna used in mobile phones operating at 900 MHz and those produced by a circular antenna array, hypothetically used in the same mobile phones, are in detail examined. Furthermore, the percentage of decrement of the power absorbed in the head as a function of direction of arrival is estimated for the circular antenna array.

  3. Room temperature high circular dichroism ultraviolet lasing from planar spiral metal-GaN nanowire cavity (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    Circularly polarized light and chiroptical effect have received considerable attention in advanced photonic and electronic technologies including optical spintronics, quantum-based optical information processing and communication, and high-efficiency liquid crystal display backlights. Moreover, the development of circularly polarized photon sources has played a major role in circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, which is important for analyses of optically active molecules, chiral synthesis in biology and chemistry, and ultrafast magnetization control. However, the conventional collocation of light-emitting devices and additional circular-polarization converters that produce circularly polarized beams makes the setup bulky and hardly compatible with nanophotonic devices in ultrasmall scales. In fact, the direct generation of circularly polarized photons may simplify the system integration, compact the setup, lower the cost of external components, and perhaps enhance the power efficiency. In this work, with the spiral-type metal-gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire cavity, we demonstrated an ultrasmall semiconductor laser capable of emitting circularly-polarized photons. The left- and right-hand spiral metal nanowire cavities with varied periods were designed at ultraviolet wavelengths to achieve the high quality factor circular dichroism metastructures. The dissymmetry factors characterizing the degrees of circular polarizations of the left- and right-hand chiral lasers were 1.4 and -1.6 (2 if perfectly circular polarized), respectively. The results show that the chiral cavities with only 5 spiral periods can achieve lasing signals with decently high degrees of circular polarizations.

  4. [Study of "bound insulin" of the blood sera of blood/donors and patients with diabetes mellitus by circular dichroism].

    PubMed

    Gracheva, N K; Kharitonenkov, I G

    1978-01-01

    Circular dichroism was applied to the study of the structure of the insulin-transferrin complexes ("bound insulin") isolated from the blood sera of donors and patients suffering from diabetes mellitus of moderate severity. There proved to be a considerable (in comparison with the normal) reduction of the alpha-helix areas in the "bound insulin"molecule of the patients. A comparative study of the circular dichroism spectra in the area of absorption of aromatic amino acids permitted to suppose that the structural changes of the molecule of a complex isolated from the blood sera of patients could not be explained by alterations in the area of the aromatic amino acids.

  5. Suppressed magnetic circular dichroism and valley-polarized magnetoabsorption due to the mass anisotopy in Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Alexey B.

    We measure broadband far-infrared magneto-optical conductivity spectra of pure bismuth separately for left- and right-handed circular polarizations in magnetic fields up to 7 T that allows us to obtain the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). Thanks to a high spectral resolution we distinguish the Landau level (LL) transitions in the Dirac-like electron and the parabolic hole bands. The hole transitions exhibit a full (100%) MCD as is indeed expected for a circular cyclotron orbit. However, the MCD for electron-pocket transitions is reduced to only 13 +/-1%. This strong suppression can be attributed to the huge effective-mass anisotropy ( 200) in the electron pockets and can be generally interpreted as a signature of the mismatch between the spatial metric experienced by the photons and the electrons. An important consequence of this observation is that the magneto-absorption in bismuth is highly valley sensitive, which paves the way to future valleytronic applications in materials with a strong effective-mass anisotropy.

  6. Probing topology by “heating”: Quantized circular dichroism in ultracold atoms

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duc Thanh; Dauphin, Alexandre; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Zoller, Peter; Goldman, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    We reveal an intriguing manifestation of topology, which appears in the depletion rate of topological states of matter in response to an external drive. This phenomenon is presented by analyzing the response of a generic two-dimensional (2D) Chern insulator subjected to a circular time-periodic perturbation. Because of the system’s chiral nature, the depletion rate is shown to depend on the orientation of the circular shake; taking the difference between the rates obtained from two opposite orientations of the drive, and integrating over a proper drive-frequency range, provides a direct measure of the topological Chern number (ν) of the populated band: This “differential integrated rate” is directly related to the strength of the driving field through the quantized coefficient η0 = ν/ℏ2, where h = 2π ℏ is Planck’s constant. Contrary to the integer quantum Hall effect, this quantized response is found to be nonlinear with respect to the strength of the driving field, and it explicitly involves interband transitions. We investigate the possibility of probing this phenomenon in ultracold gases and highlight the crucial role played by edge states in this effect. We extend our results to 3D lattices, establishing a link between depletion rates and the nonlinear photogalvanic effect predicted for Weyl semimetals. The quantized circular dichroism revealed in this work designates depletion rate measurements as a universal probe for topological order in quantum matter. PMID:28835930

  7. Circular Dichroism Control of Tungsten Diselenide (WSe2) Atomic Layers with Plasmonic Metamolecules.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ting; Chang, Chiao-Yun; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Li, Ming-Yang; Cheng, Chia-Chin; Chang, Shu-Wei; Li, Lance L J; Chu, Chih-Wei; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2018-05-09

    Controlling circularly polarized (CP) states of light is critical to the development of functional devices for key and emerging applications such as display technology and quantum communication, and the compact circular polarization-tunable photon source is one critical element to realize the applications in the chip-scale integrated system. The atomic layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit intrinsic CP emissions and are potential chiroptical materials for ultrathin CP photon sources. In this work, we demonstrated CP photon sources of TMDCs with device thicknesses approximately 50 nm. CP photoluminescence from the atomic layers of tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) was precisely controlled with chiral metamolecules (MMs), and the optical chirality of WSe 2 was enhanced more than 4 times by integrating with the MMs. Both the enhanced and reversed circular dichroisms had been achieved. Through integrations of the novel gain material and plasmonic structure which are both low-dimensional, a compact device capable of efficiently manipulating emissions of CP photon was realized. These ultrathin devices are suitable for important applications such as the optical information technology and chip-scale biosensing.

  8. Phosphorylation effect on the GSSS peptide conformation in water: Infrared, vibrational circular dichroism, and circular dichroism experiments and comparisons with molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Joo, Cheonik; Yang, Seongeun; Han, Hogyu; Cho, Minhaeng

    2007-06-01

    The phosphorylation effect on the small peptide conformation in water has not been clearly understood yet, despite the widely acknowledged notion that control of protein activity by phosphorylation works mainly by inducing conformational change. To elucidate the detailed mechanism, we performed infrared (IR) absorption and vibrational and electronic circular dichroism studies of both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated tetrapeptides, GSSS 1 and GSSpS 2. The solution structure of the tetrapeptide is found to be little dependent on the presence of the neutral or negatively charged phosphoryl group, and to be a mixture of extended structures including polyproline II (PII) and β-sheet conformations. The additional band at 1598cm-1 in the amide I IR spectrum of the phosphorylated peptide GSSpS at neutral pD appears to be clear spectroscopic evidence for direct intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction between the side chain dianionic phosphoryl group and the backbone amide proton. On the basis of amide I IR band analyses, the authors found that the probability of finding the phosphoryl group strongly H bonded to the backbone proton in GSSpS is about 43% at pD 7.0 and 37°C. Such a H-bonding interaction in GSSpS has the biological standard enthalpy and entropy of -15.1kJ /mol and -51.2J/Kmol, respectively. Comparisons between the experimentally measured IR and VCD spectra and the numerically simulated ones suggested that the currently available force field parameters need to be properly modified. The results in this paper may shed light on an unknown mechanism of controlling the peptide conformation by phosphorylation.

  9. Atomic scale imaging of magnetic circular dichroism by achromatic electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zechao; Tavabi, Amir H; Jin, Lei; Rusz, Ján; Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Jiang, Hanbo; Moritomo, Yutaka; Mayer, Joachim; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Jing; Zhong, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    In order to obtain a fundamental understanding of the interplay between charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in magnetic materials and to predict and control their physical properties 1-3 , experimental techniques are required that are capable of accessing local magnetic information with atomic-scale spatial resolution. Here, we show that a combination of electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism 4 and chromatic-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, which reduces the focal spread of inelastically scattered electrons by orders of magnitude when compared with the use of spherical aberration correction alone, can achieve atomic-scale imaging of magnetic circular dichroism and provide element-selective orbital and spin magnetic moments atomic plane by atomic plane. This unique capability, which we demonstrate for Sr 2 FeMoO 6 , opens the door to local atomic-level studies of spin configurations in a multitude of materials that exhibit different types of magnetic coupling, thereby contributing to a detailed understanding of the physical origins of magnetic properties of materials at the highest spatial resolution.

  10. Theoretical Investigation of Single-Molecule Sensing Using Nanotube-Enhanced Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaime; Milne, Bruce F; Nogueira, Fernando

    2018-06-19

    First-principles calculations have been used to investigate the potential use of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in single-molecule sensing. Using a real-space implementation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), several systems involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and small molecules have been studied to evaluate their CD response. Large induced CD (ICD) effects, differing for each test molecule, were observed in all SWCNT-molecule complexes. As the SWCNT used in this study shows no intrinsic CD response, the ICD spectra are the result of interaction with the small molecules. This finding is general and independent of the (a)chiral nature of the adsorbed molecule. Our results indicate that it is possible to design a system that uses SWCNT for detection of molecules using the change in CD spectrum of the system induced by adsorption of the molecule onto the SWCNT surface.

  11. Relativistic effects on magnetic circular dichroism studied by GUHF/SECI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Y.; Hada, M.; Ehara, M.; Nakatsuji, H.; Downing, J.; Michl, J.

    2002-04-01

    Quasi-relativistic formulation of the Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) Faraday terms are presented using the generalized unrestricted Hartree-Fock (GUHF)/single excitation configuration interaction (SECI) method combined with the finite perturbation method and applied to the MCD of the three n-σ ∗ states ( 3Q1, 3Q0, 1Q1) of CH 3I. The Faraday B term for the 1Q1 state was 0.1976( Debye) 2( Bohr magneton )/(10 3 cm-1) in the non-relativistic theory, but was dramatically improved by the relativistic effect and became 0.0184 in agreement with the experimental values, 0.014 and 0.0257. This change was mainly due to the one-electron spin-orbit (SO1) term rather than the spin-free relativistic (SFR) and the two-electron spin-orbit (SO2) terms.

  12. Adaptive design of an X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy experiment with Gaussian process modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Hino, Hideitsu; Hashimoto, Ai; Takeichi, Yasuo; Sawada, Masahiro; Ono, Kanta

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopy is a widely used experimental technique, and enhancing its efficiency can have a strong impact on materials research. We propose an adaptive design for spectroscopy experiments that uses a machine learning technique to improve efficiency. We examined X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy for the applicability of a machine learning technique to spectroscopy. An XMCD spectrum was predicted by Gaussian process modelling with learning of an experimental spectrum using a limited number of observed data points. Adaptive sampling of data points with maximum variance of the predicted spectrum successfully reduced the total data points for the evaluation of magnetic moments while providing the required accuracy. The present method reduces the time and cost for XMCD spectroscopy and has potential applicability to various spectroscopies.

  13. Intrinsic transmission magnetic circular dichroism spectra of GaMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Hiroshi; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    Transmission magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy has been widely used to reveal the spin-dependent band structure of ferromagnetic semiconductors. In these previous studies, some band pictures have been proposed from the spectral shapes observed in transmission MCD; however, extrinsic signals originating from optical interference have not been appropriately considered. In this study, we calculate the MCD spectra taking into account the optical interference of the layered structure of samples and show that the spectral shape of MCD is strongly influenced by optical interference. To correctly understand the transmission MCD, we also calculate the intrinsic MCD spectra of GaMnAs that are not influenced by the optical interference. The spectral shape of the intrinsic MCD can be explained by the characteristic band structure of GaMnAs, that is, the spin-polarized valence band and the impurity band existing above the valence band top.

  14. Elucidation of the absolute configuration of rhizopine by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography and vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Krief, Alain; Dunkle, Melissa; Bahar, Masoud; Bultinck, Patrick; Herrebout, Wouter; Sandra, Pat

    2015-07-01

    The absolute configuration of rhizopine, an opine-like natural product present in nitrogen-fixing nodules of alfalfa infected by rhizobia, is elucidated using a combination of state-of-the-art analytical and semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy. A synthetic peracetylated racemate was fractionated into its enantiomers and subjected to absolute configuration analysis revealing that natural rhizopine exists as a single enantiomer. The stereochemistry of non-derivatized natural rhizopine corresponds to (1R,2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-4-amino-6-methoxycyclohexane-1,2,3,5-tetraol. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Circular dichroism of stem bromelain: a third spectral class within the family of cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Reyna, A; Hernandez-Arana, A; Arreguin-Espinosa, R

    1994-01-01

    Two forms of stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) were isolated from commercial, crude and chromatographically purified preparations of the enzyme by means of gel-filtration and cation-exchange liquid chromatography. These forms possess nearly identical secondary and tertiary structures, as judged from their circular dichroism (c.d.) spectra. The spectral characteristics of stem bromelain suggest that this enzyme belongs to the alpha + beta protein class, as other cysteine proteinases do. In agreement with these results, quantitative estimation of secondary structures yielded amounts similar to those for papain and proteinase omega. However, the bromelain c.d. curve is clearly distinguishable from those reported for papain and proteinase omega, on one hand, and that of chymopapain, on the other. Thus, it is apparent that there are at least three types of c.d. spectra associated with the family of cysteine proteinases. PMID:8198520

  16. Photoelectron circular dichroism of bicyclic ketones from multiphoton ionization with femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Lux, Christian; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Sarpe, Cristian; Baumert, Thomas

    2015-01-12

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a CD effect up to the ten-percent regime and shows contributions from higher-order Legendre polynomials when multiphoton ionization is compared to single-photon ionization. We give a full account of our experimental methodology for measuring the multiphoton PECD and derive quantitative measures that we apply on camphor, fenchone and norcamphor. Different modulations and amplitudes of the contributing Legendre polynomials are observed despite the similarity in chemical structure. In addition, we study PECD for elliptically polarized light employing tomographic reconstruction methods. Intensity studies reveal dissociative ionization as the origin of the observed PECD effect, whereas ionization of the intermediate resonance is dominating the signal. As a perspective, we suggest to make use of our tomographic data as an experimental basis for a complete photoionization experiment and give a prospect of PECD as an analytic tool. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enantiomeric characterization and structure elucidation of LH601A using vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian; Magesh, Sadagopan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Longqin; He, Yanan

    2018-03-01

    LH601A is a novel non-reactive chiral molecule inhibiting Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction. The absolute configuration (AC) was independently determined in this study using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. Because of band overlapping and broadening in the IR spectrum, a direct VCD spectrum comparison method is devised without the conventional IR band alignment. Being an unbiased AC inquiry, all possible chiralities are evaluated based on the statistical analysis of VCD similarity, Sv. The AC of three-center stereoisomer LH601A is unambiguously assigned to (S,R,S). A comparative study was also carried out to investigate the structural and energy differences of calculated conformers using the polarized continuum model of dimethyl sulfoxide.

  18. Stability of some Cactaceae proteins based on fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Vargas-Albores, F; Ochoa, J L; Paredes-Lopez, O; Scheler, C; Aksu, S; Salnikow, J

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of three cactus proteins (native and denatured) from Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria), Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo), and Cholla opuntia (Cholla), was based on electrophoretic, fluorescence, CD (circular dichroism), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements. The obtained results of intrinsic fluorescence, DSC, and CD were dissimilar for the three species of cactus, providing evidence of differences in secondary and tertiary structures. Cactus proteins may be situated in the following order corresponding to their relative stability: Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria) > Cholla opuntia (Cholla) > Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo). Thermodynamic properties of proteins and their changes upon denaturation (temperature of denaturation, enthalphy, and the number of ruptured hydrogen bonds) were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of alpha-helix.

  19. Computational circular dichroism estimation for point-of-care diagnostics via vortex half-wave retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Shahid A.; Tran, Megan Y.; Wong, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Observing the circular dichroism (CD) caused by organic molecules in biological fluids can provide powerful indicators of patient health and provide diagnostic clues for treatment. Methods for this kind of analysis involve tabletop devices that weigh tens of kilograms with costs on the order of tens of thousands of dollars, making them prohibitive in point-of-care diagnostic applications. In an e ort to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of CD estimation systems for point-of-care diagnostics, we propose a novel method for CD estimation that leverages a vortex half-wave retarder in between two linear polarizers and a two-dimensional photodetector array to provide an overall complexity reduction in the system. This enables the measurement of polarization variations across multiple polarizations after they interact with a biological sample, simultaneously, without the need for mechanical actuation. We further discuss design considerations of this methodology in the context of practical applications to point-of-care diagnostics.

  20. Analysis of protein circular dichroism spectra for secondary structure using a simple matrix multiplication.

    PubMed

    Compton, L A; Johnson, W C

    1986-05-15

    Inverse circular dichroism (CD) spectra are presented for each of the five major secondary structures of proteins: alpha-helix, antiparallel and parallel beta-sheet, beta-turn, and other (random) structures. The fraction of the each secondary structure in a protein is predicted by forming the dot product of the corresponding inverse CD spectrum, expressed as a vector, with the CD spectrum of the protein digitized in the same way. We show how this method is based on the construction of the generalized inverse from the singular value decomposition of a set of CD spectra corresponding to proteins whose secondary structures are known from X-ray crystallography. These inverse spectra compute secondary structure directly from protein CD spectra without resorting to least-squares fitting and standard matrix inversion techniques. In addition, spectra corresponding to the individual secondary structures, analogous to the CD spectra of synthetic polypeptides, are generated from the five most significant CD eigenvectors.

  1. Fe/Rh (100) multilayer magnetism probed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaz, M. A.; Ingram, D. C.; Harp, G. R.; Lederman, D.; Mayo, E.; O'brien, W. L.

    1997-09-01

    We report the layer-averaged magnetic moments of both Fe and Rh in sputtered Fe/Rh (100) multilayer thin films as measured by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We observe two distinct regimes in these films. The first is characterized by Rh moments of at least 1μB, Fe moments enhanced as much as 30% above bulk, and a bct crystal structure. The second regime is distinguished by sharp declines of both Fe and Rh moments accompanied by a transition to an fct crystal lattice. The demarcation between the two regions is identified as the layer thickness for which both bct and fct phases first coexist, which we term the critical thickness tcrit. We attribute the change in magnetic behavior to the structural transformation.

  2. Fano resonance assisting plasmonic circular dichroism from nanorice heterodimers for extrinsic chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Liang; Chen, Guo; Wei, Hua; Fang, Yurui

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the circular dichroisms (CD) of nanorice heterodimers consisting of two parallel arranged nanorices with the same size but different materials are investigated theoretically. Symmetry-breaking is introduced by using different materials and oblique incidence to achieve strong CD at the vicinity of Fano resonance peaks. We demonstrate that all Au-Ag heterodimers exhibit multipolar Fano resonances and strong CD effect. A simple quantitative analysis shows that the structure with larger Fano asymmetry factor has stronger CD. The intensity and peak positions of the CD effect can be flexibly tuned in a large range by changing particle size, shape, the inter-particle distance and surroundings. Furthermore, CD spectra exhibit high sensitivity to ambient medium in visible and near infrared regions. Our results here are beneficial for the design and application of high sensitive CD sensors and other related fields.

  3. Irreversible Denaturation of Maltodextrin Glucosidase Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Circular Dichroism, and Turbidity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Megha; Chaudhuri, Tapan K.; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of Escherichia coli maltodextrin glucosidase was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism (230 nm), and UV-absorption measurements (340 nm), which were respectively used to monitor heat absorption, conformational unfolding, and the production of solution turbidity. The denaturation was irreversible, and the thermal transition recorded at scan rates of 0.5–1.5 K/min was significantly scan-rate dependent, indicating that the thermal denaturation was kinetically controlled. The absence of a protein-concentration effect on the thermal transition indicated that the denaturation was rate-limited by a mono-molecular process. From the analysis of the calorimetric thermograms, a one-step irreversible model well represented the thermal denaturation of the protein. The calorimetrically observed thermal transitions showed excellent coincidence with the turbidity transitions monitored by UV-absorption as well as with the unfolding transitions monitored by circular dichroism. The thermal denaturation of the protein was thus rate-limited by conformational unfolding, which was followed by a rapid irreversible formation of aggregates that produced the solution turbidity. It is thus important to note that the absence of the protein-concentration effect on the irreversible thermal denaturation does not necessarily means the absence of protein aggregation itself. The turbidity measurements together with differential scanning calorimetry in the irreversible thermal denaturation of the protein provided a very effective approach for understanding the mechanisms of the irreversible denaturation. The Arrhenius-equation parameters obtained from analysis of the thermal denaturation were compared with those of other proteins that have been reported to show the one-step irreversible thermal denaturation. Maltodextrin glucosidase had sufficiently high kinetic stability with a half-life of 68 days at a physiological temperature (37°C). PMID

  4. Irreversible denaturation of maltodextrin glucosidase studied by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, and turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Megha; Chaudhuri, Tapan K; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of Escherichia coli maltodextrin glucosidase was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism (230 nm), and UV-absorption measurements (340 nm), which were respectively used to monitor heat absorption, conformational unfolding, and the production of solution turbidity. The denaturation was irreversible, and the thermal transition recorded at scan rates of 0.5-1.5 K/min was significantly scan-rate dependent, indicating that the thermal denaturation was kinetically controlled. The absence of a protein-concentration effect on the thermal transition indicated that the denaturation was rate-limited by a mono-molecular process. From the analysis of the calorimetric thermograms, a one-step irreversible model well represented the thermal denaturation of the protein. The calorimetrically observed thermal transitions showed excellent coincidence with the turbidity transitions monitored by UV-absorption as well as with the unfolding transitions monitored by circular dichroism. The thermal denaturation of the protein was thus rate-limited by conformational unfolding, which was followed by a rapid irreversible formation of aggregates that produced the solution turbidity. It is thus important to note that the absence of the protein-concentration effect on the irreversible thermal denaturation does not necessarily means the absence of protein aggregation itself. The turbidity measurements together with differential scanning calorimetry in the irreversible thermal denaturation of the protein provided a very effective approach for understanding the mechanisms of the irreversible denaturation. The Arrhenius-equation parameters obtained from analysis of the thermal denaturation were compared with those of other proteins that have been reported to show the one-step irreversible thermal denaturation. Maltodextrin glucosidase had sufficiently high kinetic stability with a half-life of 68 days at a physiological temperature (37°C).

  5. Mid-infrared Plasmonic Circular Dichroism Generated by Graphene Nanodisk Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Zhao, Runbo; Wang, Zhiming; Govorov, Alexander O

    2017-08-09

    It is very interesting to bring plasmonic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the mid-infrared spectral interval, and there are two reasons for this. This spectral interval is very important for thermal bioimaging, and simultaneously, this spectral range includes vibrational lines of many chiral biomolecules. Here we demonstrate that graphene plasmons indeed offer such opportunity. In particular, we show that chiral graphene assemblies consisting of a few graphene nanodisks can generate strong circular dichroism (CD) in the mid-infrared interval. The CD signal is generated due to the plasmon-plasmon coupling between adjacent nanodisks in the specially designed chiral graphene assemblies. Because of the large dimension mismatch between the thickness of a graphene layer and the incoming light's wavelength, three-dimensional configurations with a total height of a few hundred nanometers are necessary to obtain a strong CD signal in the mid-infrared range. The mid-infrared CD strength is mainly governed by the total dimensions (total height and helix scaffold radius) of the graphene nanodisk assembly and by the plasmon-plasmon interaction strength between its constitutive nanodisks. Both positive and negative CD bands can be observed in the graphene assembly array. The frequency interval of the plasmonic CD spectra overlaps with the vibrational modes of some important biomolecules, such as DNA and many different peptides, giving rise to the possibility of enhancing the vibrational optical activity of these molecular species by attaching them to the graphene assemblies. Simultaneously the spectral range of chiral mid-infrared plasmons in our structures appears near the typical wavelength of the human-body thermal radiation, and therefore, our chiral metastructures can be potentially utilized as optical components in thermal imaging devices.

  6. Preliminary Understanding of Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy by Single Particle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Kangshu

    evaluated. Full spectrum reconstruction using a set of selected optical filters was carried out and data visualization using a Matlab based 3D mapping method was demonstrated. The third chapter describes the introduction of biomolecules in chiral particle studies. By measuring the circular dichroism spectrum and image of nanorods during lysozyme adsorption and denaturation, I was able to monitor the conformation change of proteins on large gapped nanorods. Experiment results suggested that the conformational change of absorbed protein could lead to the change of chiral signal of nanoparticles, suggesting the potentials of detecting biomolecular structural changes at the single nanoparticle level, though much uncertainty still present. The inherent high background of large, gapped nanoparticles when they interact with biomolecules led to the research described in the 4th chapter where I studied small palladium-silver coreshell nanoparticle properties and its interaction with proteins. SEM was used to characterize particles structures; UV-Vis and darkfield microscopy was used to capture particles' optical responses; and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was used to simulate resulting spectra and to compare with experimental outcomes. Lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as the model molecules to study their conformational changes after being adsorbed onto particles. Last but the least, the 5th chapter is dedicated to FDTD simulation of a pair of perfectly shaped triangle nanoprisms to illustrate possible CD responses to be expected from extreme particles with sharp corners and much concentrated local EM field. Different coupling modes of triangle nanoprism were analyzed. It is found that many factors, such as particle orientation, spacing, and their relative position, could lead to significantly different coupling efficient, for both homodimers and heterodimers. The modeling data suggested interesting potentials of nanoparticles of extreme geometric

  7. Circular Dichroism of G-Quadruplex: A Laboratory Experiment for the Study of Topology and Ligand Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Josue´; Queiroz, João A.; Cruz, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) has emerged as one of the standard biophysical techniques for the study of guaninequadruplex (G4) folding, cation effect, and ligand binding. The utility of this technique is based on its robustness, ease of use, and requirement of only small quantities of nucleic acid. This experiment is also extendable to the classroom…

  8. 4-Arylflavan-3-ols as Proanthocyanidin Models: Absolute Configuration via Density Functional Calculation of Electronic Circular Dichroism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Density functional theory/B3LYP has been employed to optimize the conformations of selected 4-arylflavan-3-ols and their phenolic methyl ether 3-O-acetates. The electronic circular dichroism spectra of the major conformers have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory to valida...

  9. Holographic Reconstruction of Photoelectron Diffraction and Its Circular Dichroism for Local Structure Probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    The local atomic structure around a specific element atom can be recorded as a photoelectron diffraction pattern. Forward focusing peaks and diffraction rings around them indicate the directions and distances from the photoelectron emitting atom to the surrounding atoms. The state-of-the-art holography reconstruction algorithm enables us to image the local atomic arrangement around the excited atom in a real space. By using circularly polarized light as an excitation source, the angular momentum transfer from the light to the photoelectron induces parallax shifts in these diffraction patterns. As a result, stereographic images of atomic arrangements are obtained. These diffraction patterns can be used as atomic-site-resolved probes for local electronic structure investigation in combination with spectroscopy techniques. Direct three-dimensional atomic structure visualization and site-specific electronic property analysis methods are reviewed. Furthermore, circular dichroism was also found in valence photoelectron and Auger electron diffraction patterns. The investigation of these new phenomena provides hints for the development of new techniques for local structure probing.

  10. Stokes-Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for circular dichroism/birefringence sensing with scattering effects.

    PubMed

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2017-04-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-enhanced method is proposed for measuring the circular dichroism (CD), circular birefringence (CB), and degree of polarization (DOP) of turbid media using a Stokes–Mueller matrix polarimetry technique. The validity of the analytical model is confirmed by means of numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed detection method enables the CD and CB properties to be measured with a resolution of 10 ? 4 refractive index unit (RIU) and 10 ? 5 ?? RIU , respectively, for refractive indices in the range of 1.3 to 1.4. The practical feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the CB/CD/DOP properties of glucose–chlorophyllin compound samples containing polystyrene microspheres. It is shown that the extracted CB value decreases linearly with the glucose concentration, while the extracted CD value increases linearly with the chlorophyllin concentration. However, the DOP is insensitive to both the glucose concentration and the chlorophyllin concentration. Consequently, the potential of the proposed SPR-enhanced Stokes–Mueller matrix polarimetry method for high-resolution CB/CD/DOP detection is confirmed. Notably, in contrast to conventional SPR techniques designed to detect relative refractive index changes, the SPR technique proposed in the present study allows absolute measurements of the optical properties (CB/CD/DOP) to be obtained.

  11. Circular birefringence/dichroism measurement of optical scattering samples using amplitude-modulation polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Chun; Lo, Yu-Lung; Phan, Quoc-Hung

    2018-03-01

    A method is proposed for extracting the circular birefringence (CB), circular dichroism (CD) and depolarization (Dep) properties of optical scattering samples using an amplitude-modulation polarimetry technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by extracting the CB property of pure glucose aqueous samples, the CB/Dep properties of glucose solutions containing 0.02% lipofundin particles, and the CD/Dep properties of chlorophyllin solutions containing suspended polystyrene microspheres. The results show that the proposed technique has the ability to detect pure glucose with a resolution of 66 mg/dL over a concentration range of 0-500 mg/dL. Moreover, the glucose concentration of the CB/Dep samples can be detected over the same range with a resolution of 168 mg/dL. Finally, the chlorophyllin concentration of the CD/Dep sample can be detected over the range of 0-200 μg/dL with a resolution of 6.5 × 10-5. In general, the results show that the proposed technique provides a reliable and accurate means of measuring the CB/CD properties of optical samples with scattering effects, and thus has significant potential for biological sensing applications.

  12. Optimized Spiral Metal-Gallium-Nitride Nanowire Cavity for Ultra-High Circular Dichroism Ultraviolet Lasing at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Chun; Liao, Shu-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Hao; Chang, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-05-25

    Circularly polarized laser sources with small footprints and high efficiencies can possess advanced functionalities in optical communication and biophotonic integrated systems. However, the conventional lasers with additional circular-polarization converters are bulky and hardly compatible with nanophotonic circuits, and most active chiral plasmonic nanostructures nowadays exhibit broadband emission and low circular dichroism. In this work, with spirals of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWRs) covered by a metal layer, we demonstrated an ultrasmall semiconductor laser capable of emitting circularly-polarized photons. The left- and right-hand spiral metal nanowire cavities with varied periods were designed at ultraviolet wavelengths to achieve the high quality factor circular dichroism metastructures. The dissymmetry factors characterizing the degrees of circular polarizations of the left- and right-hand chiral lasers were 1.4 and -1.6 (±2 if perfectly circular polarized), respectively. The results show that the chiral cavities with only 5 spiral periods can achieve lasing signals with the high degrees of circular polarizations.

  13. Laser mass spectrometry with circularly polarized light: circular dichroism of cold molecules in a supersonic gas beam.

    PubMed

    Titze, Katharina; Zollitsch, Tilo; Heiz, Ulrich; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-09-15

    An experiment on chiral molecules that combines circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, mass-selective detection by laser mass spectrometry (MS), and cooling of molecules by using a supersonic beam is presented. The combination of the former two techniques (CD-laser-MS) is a new method to investigate chiral molecules and is now used by several research groups. Cooling in a supersonic beam supplies a substantial increase in spectroscopic resolution, a feature that has not yet been used in CD spectroscopy. In the experiments reported herein, a large variation in the electronic CD of carbonyl 3-methylcyclopentanone was observed depending on the excited vibrational modes in the n → π* transition. This finding should be of interest for the detection of chiral molecules and for the theoretical understanding of the CD of vibronic bands. It is expected that this effect will show up in other chiral carbonyls because the n → π* transition is typical for the carbonyl group. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High Field Magnetic Circular Dichroism in Ferromagnetic InMnSb and InMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeker, M. A.; Magill, B. A.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Saha, D.; Stanton, C. J.; McGill, S.; Wessels, B. W.

    An understanding of the fundamental interactions in narrow gap ferromagnetic semiconductors such as InMnAs and InMnSb has been developed primarily from static magnetization and electrical transport measurements. In this study, to provide a better understanding of the coupling of the Mn impurities to the conduction and valence bands through the sp-d exchange interactions, we have performed magnetic circular dichroism measurements (MCD) on MOVPE grown InMnAs and InMnSb. In our samples, the Mn content varies from 2% to 10.7% and all the samples have Curie temperatures above 300 K. The samples were photo-excited using a Quartz Tungsten Halogen lamp with energies ranging between 0.92-1.45 eV, and in magnetic fields up to 31 T. The temperatures ranged from 15-190 K. Comparison of the observed MCD with theoretical calculations provides a direct method to probe the band structure including the temperature dependence of the spin-orbit split-off bandgap and g-factors, as well as a means to estimate the sp-d coupling constants. Supported by the AFOSR through grant FA9550-14-1-0376, NSF-Career Award DMR-0846834 , NSF-DMR-60035274 , NSF-DMR-1305666, NSF MRI program (DMR-1229217).

  15. On the magnetic circular dichroism of benzene. A density-functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminský, Jakub; Kříž, Jan; Bouř, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Spectroscopy of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) provides enhanced information on molecular structure and a more reliable assignment of spectral bands than absorption alone. Theoretical modeling can significantly enhance the information obtained from experimental spectra. In the present study, the time dependent density functional theory is employed to model the lowest-energy benzene transitions, in particular to investigate the role of the Rydberg states and vibrational interference in spectral intensities. The effect of solvent is explored on model benzene-methane clusters. For the lowest-energy excitation, the vibrational sub-structure of absorption and MCD spectra is modeled within the harmonic approximation, providing a very good agreement with the experiment. The simulations demonstrate that the Rydberg states have a much stronger effect on the MCD intensities than on the absorption, and a very diffuse basis set must be used to obtain reliable results. The modeling also indicates that the Rydberg-like states and associated transitions may persist in solutions. Continuum-like solvent models are thus not suitable for their modeling; solvent-solute clusters appear to be more appropriate, providing they are large enough.

  16. Binding of anti-prion agents to glycosaminoglycans: Evidence from electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zsila, Ferenc; Gedeon, Gabor

    2006-08-11

    The polyanionic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of protein conformational disorders such as amyloidosis and prion diseases. Several cationic agents are known to exhibit anti-prion activity but their mechanism of action is poorly understood. In this study, UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the interaction between heparin and chondroitin-6-sulfate and anti-prion drugs including acridine, quinoline, and phenothiazine derivatives. UV band hypochromism of ({+-})-quinacrine, ({+-})-primaquine, tacrine, quinidine, chlorpromazine, and induced CD spectra of ({+-})-quinacrine upon addition of GAGs provided evidence for the GAG binding of these compounds. The association constants ({approx}10{sup 6}-10{supmore » 7} M{sup -1}) estimated from the UV titration curves show high-affinity drug-heparin interactions. Ionic strength-dependence of the absorption spectra suggested that the interaction between GAGs and the cationic drugs is principally electrostatic in nature. Drug binding differences of heparin and chondroitin-6-sulfate were attributed to their different negative charge density. These results call the attention to the alteration of GAG-prion/GAG-amyloid interactions by which these compounds might exert their anti-prion/anti-amyloidogenic activities.« less

  17. Structural changes in calcium-binding allergens: use of circular dichroism to study binding characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, D; Ferreira, F

    2005-09-01

    Several studies showed that calcium-binding proteins have a fixed place in the spectrum of allergenic substances. Often the binding of a calcium ion induces conformational changes and affects immunoglobulin E-binding to the allergen. Hence, the quantitative characterization of the binding to calcium is of importance to understand both the biologic and allergenic activity of these proteins. In the present study we describe a procedure for determining the stoichiometry and dissociation constant (K(D)) of calcium-binding allergens using circular dichroism (CD) techniques. For the experiments, we used recombinant Bet v 4, a two EF-hand allergen from birch pollen. Solutions of Bet v 4 were titrated with calcium and the change in molar ellipticity at 222 nm was monitored with a CD spectropolarimeter. The determination of the binding stoichiometry as well as of the K(D) for one EF-hand (4 microM) demonstrated the applicability of the method. CD-monitored calcium-titration of protein solutions represents a fast and easy method for determining the binding characteristics of calcium-binding allergens.

  18. Detection of magnetic circular dichroism in amorphous materials utilizing a single-crystalline overlayer

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, J.; Zhong, X. Y.; Song, C.; ...

    2017-12-27

    Physicists are fascinated with topological defects in solid-state materials, because by breaking the translational symmetry they offer emerging properties that are not present in their parental phases. For example, edge dislocations—the 2π phase-winding topological defects—in antiferromagnetic NiO crystals can exhibit ferromagnetic behaviors. Herein, we study how these defects could give rise to exotic topological orders when they interact with a high energy electron beam. To probe this interaction, we formed a coherent electron nanobeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope and recorded the far-field transmitted patterns as the beam steps through the edge dislocation core in [001] NiO. Surprisingly, wemore » found the amplitude patterns of the <020> Bragg disks evolve in a similar manner to the evolution of an annular solar eclipse. Using the ptychographic technique, we recovered the missing phase information in the diffraction plane and revealed the topological phase vortices in the diffracted beams. Through atomic topological defects, the wave function of electrons can be converted from plane wave to electron vortex. This approach provides a new perspective for boosting the collection efficiency of magnetic circular dichroism spectra with high spatial resolution and understanding the relationship between symmetry breaking and exotic property of individual topological defect at atomic level.« less

  19. Use of magnetic circular dichroism to study dinuclear metallohydrolases and the corresponding biomimetics.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, James A; Schenk, Gerhard; Mitić, Nataša; Riley, Mark J

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) is a convenient technique for providing structural and mechanistic insight into enzymatic systems in solution. The focus of this review is on aspects of geometric and electronic structure that can be determined by MCD, and how this method can further our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms. Dinuclear Co(II) systems that catalyse hydrolytic reactions were selected to illustrate the approach. These systems all contain active sites with similar structures consisting of two Co(II) ions bridged by one or two carboxylates and a water or hydroxide. In most of these active sites one Co(II) is five-coordinate and one is six-coordinate, with differing binding affinities. It is shown how MCD can be used to determine which binding site--five or six-coordinate--has the greater affinity. Importantly, zero-field-splitting data and magnetic exchange coupling constants may be determined from the temperature and field dependence of MCD data. The relevance of these data to the function of the enzymatic systems is discussed.

  20. Advanced Applications of Vibrational Circular Dichroism: from Small Chiral Molecules to Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukor, Rina K.

    2017-06-01

    Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD), first discovered in the early 1970s, and commercialized in the late 1990's, is finally coming of age! No longer a curiosity of the few selected academic groups, it is now used by all major pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies, government labs and academic institutions. The main application for the technology has been determination of absolute configuration of small pharmaceutical molecules. In more recent years, this has extended to more complicated molecules such as natural products with many chiral centers and conformational flexibility. Other applications include determination of enantiomeric purity, chiral polymers, and characterization of other biological molecules such as proteins, carohydrates and nucleic acids. One of the most fascinating discoveries in the VCD field has been been unusual enhancement in intensity for proteins that form fibrils. We have demonstrated sensitivity of VCD to in situ solution-phase probe of the process of fibrillogenesis and subsequent development that currently can only be studied in detail with dried samples by such techniques as scanning electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We have further shown that several different proteins, that in their native state have different secondary structures, have a very similar unique signature of mature fibrils. In this presentation, we will discuss fundamentals of VCD, demonstrate a few examples of different applications and showcase the sensitivity to structure of fibrils, including new results on micro-sampling.

  1. Electronic Circular Dichroism of [16]Helicene With Simplified TD-DFT: Beyond the Single Structure Approach.

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, Christoph; Seibert, Jakob; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    The electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum of the recently synthesized [16]helicene and a derivative comprising two triisopropylsilyloxy protection groups was computed by means of the very efficient simplified time-dependent density functional theory (sTD-DFT) approach. Different from many previous ECD studies of helicenes, nonequilibrium structure effects were accounted for by computing ECD spectra on "snapshots" obtained from a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation including solvent molecules. The trajectories are based on a molecule specific classical potential as obtained from the recently developed quantum chemically derived force field (QMDFF) scheme. The reduced computational cost in the MD simulation due to the use of the QMDFF (compared to ab-initio MD) as well as the sTD-DFT approach make realistic spectral simulations feasible for these compounds that comprise more than 100 atoms. While the ECD spectra of [16]helicene and its derivative computed vertically on the respective gas phase, equilibrium geometries show noticeable differences, these are "washed" out when nonequilibrium structures are taken into account. The computed spectra with two recommended density functionals (ωB97X and BHLYP) and extended basis sets compare very well with the experimental one. In addition we provide an estimate for the missing absolute intensities of the latter. The approach presented here could also be used in future studies to capture nonequilibrium effects, but also to systematically average ECD spectra over different conformations in more flexible molecules. Chirality 28:365-369, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Analysis of conjugation of chloramphenicol and hemoglobin by fluorescence, circular dichroism and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Wei; Sun, Ye; Yang, Xin-Ling; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Chloramphenicol is a low cost, broad spectrum, highly active antibiotic, and widely used in the treatment of serious infections, including typhoid fever and other life-threatening infections of the central nervous system and respiratory tract. The purpose of the present study was to examine the conjugation of chloramphenicol with hemoglobin (Hb) and compared with albumin at molecular level, utilizing fluorescence, UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) as well as molecular modeling. Fluorescence data indicate that drug bind Hb generate quenching via static mechanism, this corroborates UV/vis absorption measurements that the ground state complex formation with an affinity of 10 4 M -1, and the driving forces in the Hb-drug complex are hydrophilic interactions and hydrogen bonds, as derived from computational model. The accurate binding site of drug has been identified from the analysis of fluorescence and molecular modeling, α1β2 interface of Hb was assigned to possess high-affinity for drug, which located at the β-37 Trp nearby. The structural investigation of the complexed Hb by synchronous fluorescence, UV/vis absorption, and CD observations revealed some degree of Hb structure unfolding upon complexation. Based on molecular modeling, we can draw the conclusion that the binding affinity of drug with albumin is superior, compared with Hb. These phenomena can provide salient information on the absorption, distribution, pharmacology, and toxicity of chloramphenicol and other drugs which have analogous configuration with chloramphenicol.

  3. Characterization of Glutaredoxin Fe-S Cluster-Binding Interactions Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Albetel, Angela-Nadia; Outten, Caryn E

    2018-01-01

    Monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) with a conserved Cys-Gly-Phe-Ser (CGFS) active site are iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-binding proteins that interact with a variety of partner proteins and perform crucial roles in iron metabolism including Fe-S cluster transfer, Fe-S cluster repair, and iron signaling. Various analytical and spectroscopic methods are currently being used to monitor and characterize glutaredoxin Fe-S cluster-dependent interactions at the molecular level. The electronic, magnetic, and vibrational properties of the protein-bound Fe-S cluster provide a convenient handle to probe the structure, function, and coordination chemistry of Grx complexes. However, some limitations arise from sample preparation requirements, complexity of individual techniques, or the necessity for combining multiple methods in order to achieve a complete investigation. In this chapter, we focus on the use of UV-visible circular dichroism spectroscopy as a fast and simple initial approach for investigating glutaredoxin Fe-S cluster-dependent interactions. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Characterization of structural change of ascorbate peroxidase from Chinese kale during denaturation by circular dichroism].

    PubMed

    Xi, Jia-Fu; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-11-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) is a special absorption spectrum. The secondary structure of protein such as α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn in the far ultraviolet region (190-250 nm) has a characteristic CD spectrum. In order to understand the activity and structural changes of ascorbate peroxidase from Chinese kale (BaAPX) during denaturation, specific activity and percentage of secondary structure of BaAPX under different time, temperature and concentration were analyzed by CD dynamically. In addition, the percentage of four secondary structures in BaAPX was calculated by CD analysis software Dichroweb. The results show that BaAPX is a full α-type enzyme whose specific activity is positively related to the percentage of α-helix. During denaturation of BaAPX, three kinds of structural changes were proposed: the one-step structural change from initial state (N state) to minimum state of α-helix (R state) under low concentration and low temperature; the one-step structural change from N state to equilibrium state (T state) under high concentration and low temperature; the two-step structural changes from N state through R state to final T state under heat treatment and low temperature renaturation.

  5. Helical Inversion of Gel Fibrils by Elongation of Perfluoroalkyl Chains as Studied by Vibrational Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisako; Yajima, Tomoko; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy was applied to gelation by a chiral low-molecular mass weight gelator, N,N'-diperfluoroalkanoyl-1,2-trans-diaminocyclohexane. Attention was focused on the winding effects of (-CF2 )n chains on the gelating ability. For this purpose, a series of gelators were synthesized with perfluoroalkyl chains of different length (n = 6-8). When gelation was studied using acetonitrile as a solvent, the fibrils took different morphologies, depending on the chain length: twisted saddle-like ribbon or helical ribbon from fibril (n = 6) and a helical ribbon from platelet (n = 8). The signs of VCD peaks assigned to the couplet of C=O stretching and to the C-F stretching were also dependent on n, indicating that a gelator molecule changed conformation on elongating perfluoroalkyl chains. A model is proposed for the aggregation modes in fibrils. Chirality 28:361-364, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Local structure and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism of Au in Au-Co nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurizio, C.; Michieli, N.; Kalinic, B.; Mattarello, V.; Bello, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Ollefs, K.; Mattei, G.

    2018-03-01

    Coupling a plasmonic metal with a magnetic one in thin films and nanostructures is very interesting for the emerging field of magnetoplasmonics. In particular, coupling through alloying is a promising strategy to induce a magnetic moment on the plasmonic metal atoms, in a way that is intimately related to the local structure of the (metastable) alloy material. In this framework, Au:Co bimetallic films have been produced via magnetron co-sputtering deposition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at both Au- and Co-edges clearly indicates the formation of a full-metallic layer composed for the major part of a binary AuxCo1-x alloy, with x = 0.7-0.8. XAS and transmission electron microscopy analyses suggest the presence of a minor fraction of segregated metals. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) analysis at Au L2,3 edges detected a net magnetic moment of Au atoms (μ = 0.06 μB), significantly larger (≈3.5 times) that the one for Au-capped Co nanoclusters and comparable to the one for a Co-rich Au/Co multilayer, despite the 4 times larger concentration of Co with respect to the present case. This Au-Co magnetic coupling is favored by a high degree of mixing of the two metals in the alloy.

  7. Vertical-type chiroptical spectrophotometer (I): instrumentation and application to diffuse reflectance circular dichroism measurement.

    PubMed

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Reiko

    2008-07-01

    We have designed and built a novel universal chiroptical spectrophotometer (UCS-2: J-800KCMF), which can carry out in situ chirality measurement of solid samples without any pretreatment, in the UV-vis region and with high relative efficiency. The instrument was designed to carry out transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DR) circular dichroism (CD) measurements simultaneously, thus housing two photomultipliers. It has a unique feature that light impinges on samples vertically so that loose powders can be measured by placing them on a flat sample holder in an integrating sphere. As is our first universal chiroptical spectrophotometer, UCS-1, two lock-in amplifiers are installed to remove artifact signals arising from macroscopic anisotropies which are unique to solid samples. High performance was achieved by theoretically analyzing and experimentally proven the effect of the photoelastic modulator position on the CD base line shifts, and by selecting high-quality optical and electric components. Measurement of microcrystallines of both enantiomers of ammonium camphorsulfonate by the DRCD mode gave reasonable results.

  8. pH titration monitored by quantum cascade laser-based vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Rüther, Anja; Pfeifer, Marcel; Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; Lüdeke, Steffen

    2014-04-10

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of aqueous solutions of proline were recorded in the course of titrations from basic to acidic pH using a spectrometer equipped with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as an infrared light source in the spectral range from 1320 to 1220 cm(-1). The pH-dependent spectra were analyzed by singular value decomposition and global fitting of a two-pK Henderson-Hasselbalch model. The analysis delivered relative fractions of the three different protonation species. Their agreement with the relative fractions obtained from performing the same analysis on pH-dependent Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and QCL-IR spectra validates the quantitative results from QCL-VCD. Global fitting of the pH-dependent VCD spectra of L-proline allowed for extraction of pure spectra corresponding to anionic, zwitterionic, and cationic L-proline. From a static experiment, only pure spectra of the zwitterion would be accessible in a straightforward way. A comparison to VCD spectra calculated for all three species led to assignment of vibrational modes that are characteristic for the respective protonation states. The study demonstrates the applicability of QCL-VCD both for quantitative evaluation and for qualitative interpretation of dynamic processes in aqueous solutions.

  9. Absolute Configuration of 3-METHYLCYCLOHEXANONE by Chiral Tag Rotational Spectroscopy and Vibrational Circular Dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Holdren, Martin S.; Mayer, Kevin J.; Smart, Taylor; West, Channing; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The absolute configuration of 3-methylcyclohexanone was established by chiral tag rotational spectroscopy measurements using 3-butyn-2-ol as the tag partner. This molecule was chosen because it is a benchmark measurement for vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). A comparison of the analysis approaches of chiral tag rotational spectroscopy and VCD will be presented. One important issue in chiral analysis by both methods is the conformational flexibility of the molecule being analyzed. The analysis of conformational composition of samples will be illustrated. In this case, the high spectral resolution of molecular rotational spectroscopy and potential for spectral simplification by conformational cooling in the pulsed jet expansion are advantages for chiral tag spectroscopy. The computational chemistry requirements for the two methods will also be discussed. In this case, the need to perform conformer searches for weakly bound complexes and to perform reasonably high level quantum chemistry geometry optimizations on these complexes makes the computational time requirements less favorable for chiral tag rotational spectroscopy. Finally, the issue of reliability of the determination of the absolute configuration will be considered. In this case, rotational spectroscopy offers a "gold standard" analysis method through the determination of the ^{13}C-subsitution structure of the complex between 3-methylcyclohexanone and an enantiopure sample of the 3-butyn-2-ol tag.

  10. Accuracy of Td-DFT in the Ultraviolet and Circular Dichroism Spectra of Deoxyguanosine and Uridine.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Tomoo; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2018-01-11

    Accuracy of the time-dependent density functional theory (Td-DFT) was examined for the ultraviolet (UV) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of deoxyguanosine (dG) and uridine, using 11 different DFT functionals and two different basis sets. The Td-DFT results of the UV and CD spectra were strongly dependent on the functionals used. The basis-set dependence was observed only for the CD spectral calculations. For the UV spectra, the B3LYP and PBE0 functionals gave relatively good results. For the CD spectra, the B3LYP and PBE0 with 6-311G(d,p) basis gave relatively permissible result only for dG. The results of other functionals were difficult to be used for the studies of the UV and CD spectra, though the symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method reproduced well the experimental spectra of these molecules. To obtain valuable information from the theoretical calculations of the UV and CD spectra, the theoretical tool must be able to reproduce correctly both of the intensities and peak positions of the UV and CD spectra. Then, we can analyze the reasons of the changes of the intensity and/or the peak position to clarify the chemistry involved. It is difficult to recommend Td-DFT as such tools of science, at least from the examinations using dG and uridine.

  11. Linear and circular dichroism characterization of thionine binding mode with DNA polynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuite, Eimer Mary; Nordén, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    The binding mode of thionine (3,7-diamino-5-phenothiazinium) with alternating and non-alternating DNA polynucleotides at low binding ratios was conclusively determined using linear and circular dichroism spectroscopies. The binding to [poly(dG-dC)]2 and poly(dG)·poly(dC) was purely intercalative and was insensitive to ionic strength. Intercalative binding to [poly(dA-dT)]2 is observed at low ionic strength, but a shift of some dye to an non-intercalative mode is observed as the background salt concentration increases. With poly(dA)·poly(dT), intercalative binding is unfavourable, although some dye molecules may intercalate at low ionic strength, and groove binding is strongly promoted with increasing concentration of background salt. However, stacking with bases is observed with single-stranded poly(dA) and with triplex poly(dT)*poly(dA)·poly(dT) which suggests that the unusual structure of poly(dA)·poly(dT) precludes intercalation. Thionine behaves similarly to the related dye methylene blue, and small differences may be attributed either to the ability of thionine to form H-bonds that stabilize intercalation or to its improved stacking interactions in the basepair pocket on steric grounds.

  12. Simulation of Electronic Circular Dichroism of Nucleic Acids: From the Structure to the Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Padula, Daniele; Jurinovich, Sandro; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-11-14

    We present a quantum mechanical (QM) simulation of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of nucleic acids (NAs). The simulation combines classical molecular dynamics, to obtain the structure and its temperature-dependent fluctuations, with a QM excitonic model to determine the ECD. The excitonic model takes into account environmental effects through a polarizable embedding and uses a refined approach to calculate the electronic couplings in terms of full transition densities. Three NAs with either similar conformations but different base sequences or similar base sequences but different conformations have been investigated and the results were compared with experimental observations; a good agreement was seen in all cases. A detailed analysis of the nature of the ECD bands in terms of their excitonic composition was also carried out. Finally, a comparison between the QM and the DeVoe models clearly revealed the importance of including fluctuations of the excitonic parameters and of accurately determining the electronic couplings. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the ab initio simulation of the ECD spectra of NAs, that is, without the need of experimental structural or electronic data. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. First-principles analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism for transition metal complex oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeno, Hidekazu, E-mail: h-ikeno@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2016-10-14

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is widely used for the characterization of magnetism of materials. However, information from XMCD related to the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures is not fully utilized due to the lack of reliable theoretical tools for spectral analysis. In this work, the first-principles configuration interaction (CI) calculations for X-ray absorption spectra developed by the author were extended for the calculation of XMCD, where the Zeeman energy was taken into the Hamiltonian of the CI to mimic magnetic polarization in the solid state. This technique was applied to interpret the L{sub 2,3} XMCD from 3d transition metalmore » complex oxides, such as NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and FeTiO{sub 3}. The experimental XMCD spectra were quantitatively reproduced using this method. The oxidation states as well as the magnetic ordering between transition metal ions on crystallographically different sites in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be unambiguously determined. A first-principles analysis of XMCD in FeTiO{sub 3} revealed the presence of Fe{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 3+} ions, which indicates that the charge transfer from Fe to Ti ions occurs. The origin of magnetic polarization of Ti ions in FeTiO{sub 3} was also discussed.« less

  14. Detection of magnetic circular dichroism in amorphous materials utilizing a single-crystalline overlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.; Zhong, X. Y.; Song, C.

    Physicists are fascinated with topological defects in solid-state materials, because by breaking the translational symmetry they offer emerging properties that are not present in their parental phases. For example, edge dislocations—the 2π phase-winding topological defects—in antiferromagnetic NiO crystals can exhibit ferromagnetic behaviors. Herein, we study how these defects could give rise to exotic topological orders when they interact with a high energy electron beam. To probe this interaction, we formed a coherent electron nanobeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope and recorded the far-field transmitted patterns as the beam steps through the edge dislocation core in [001] NiO. Surprisingly, wemore » found the amplitude patterns of the <020> Bragg disks evolve in a similar manner to the evolution of an annular solar eclipse. Using the ptychographic technique, we recovered the missing phase information in the diffraction plane and revealed the topological phase vortices in the diffracted beams. Through atomic topological defects, the wave function of electrons can be converted from plane wave to electron vortex. This approach provides a new perspective for boosting the collection efficiency of magnetic circular dichroism spectra with high spatial resolution and understanding the relationship between symmetry breaking and exotic property of individual topological defect at atomic level.« less

  15. Circular Dichroism reveals evidence of coupling between immunoglobulin constant and variable region secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Janda, Alena; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-04-01

    Antibodies (Ab) are bifunctional molecules with two domains, a constant region (C) that confers effector properties and a variable (V) region responsible of antigen (Ag) binding. Historically the C and V regions were considered to be functionally independent, with Ag specificity being solely determined by the V region. However, recent studies suggest that the C region can affect Ab fine specificity. This has led to the proposal that the C(H) domain influences the structure of the V region, thus affecting Ab affinity and fine specificity. An inference from this proposal is that V region identical monoclonal Abs (mAbs) differing in C region (eg isotype) would manifest different secondary structures arising from isotype-induced variation in the V-C regions after Ag binding. We hypothesized that such effects could translate into differences in Circular Dichroism (CD) upon Ag-Ab complexes formation. Consequently we studied the interaction of a set of V region identical IgG(1), IgG(2a), IgG(2b) and IgG(3) mAbs with glucuronoxylomannan (GXM). The native CD spectra of the pairs IgG(1)/IgG(2a) and IgG(3)/IgG(2b) were strikingly similar, implying similar secondary structure content. GXM binding by IgG(1), IgG(2a), IgG(2b) and IgG(3) produced different CD changes, with the pairs IgG(1)/IgG(2a) and IgG(3)/IgG(2b) again manifesting qualitatively similar trends in secondary structure changes. The magnitude of the changes differed among the isotypes with IgG(2a)>IgG(3)>IgG(2b)>IgG(1). These differences in CD changes were interpreted to reflect differences in V-C secondary structures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ligand- and drug-binding studies of membrane proteins revealed through circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Siligardi, Giuliano; Hussain, Rohanah; Patching, Simon G; Phillips-Jones, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    A great number of membrane proteins have proven difficult to crystallise for use in X-ray crystallographic structural determination or too complex for NMR structural studies. Circular dichroism (CD) is a fast and relatively easy spectroscopic technique to study protein conformational behaviour. In this review examples of the applications of CD and synchrotron radiation CD (SRCD) to membrane protein ligand binding interaction studies are discussed. The availability of SRCD has been an important advancement in recent progress, most particularly because it can be used to extend the spectral region in the far-UV region (important for increasing the accuracy of secondary structure estimations) and for working with membrane proteins available in only small quantities for which SRCD has facilitated molecular recognition studies. Such studies have been accomplished by probing in the near-UV region the local tertiary structure of aromatic amino acid residues upon addition of chiral or non-chiral ligands using long pathlength cells of small volume capacity. In particular, this review describes the most recent use of the technique in the following areas: to obtain quantitative data on ligand binding (exemplified by the FsrC membrane sensor kinase receptor); to distinguish between functionally similar drugs that exhibit different mechanisms of action towards membrane proteins (exemplified by secretory phospholipase A2); and to identify suitable detergent conditions to observe membrane protein-ligand interactions using stabilised proteins (exemplified by the antiseptic transporter SugE). Finally, the importance of characterising in solution the conformational behaviour and ligand binding properties of proteins in both far- and near-UV regions is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Structural and biophysical characterisation of membrane protein-ligand binding. © 2013.

  17. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy study of recombinant T β4 folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-Chin; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Chen, Peng-Jen; Chang, Chia-Ching

    Thymosin beta 4 (T β4) is a 43-amino acid small peptide, has been demonstrated that it can promote cardiac repair, wound repair, tissue protection, and involve in the proliferation of blood cell precursor stem cells of bone marrow. Moreover, T β4 has been identified as a multifunction intrinsically disordered protein, which is lacking the stable tertiary structure. Owing to the small size and disordered character, the T β4 protein degrades rapidly and the storage condition is critical. Therefore, it is not easy to reveal its folding mechanism of native T β4. However, recombinant T β4 protein (rT β4), which fused with a 5-kDa peptide in its amino-terminal, is stable and possesses identical function of T β4. Therefore, rT β4 can be used to study its folding mechanism. By using over-critical folding process, stable folding intermediates of rT β4 can be obtained. Structure analysis of folding intermediates by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and fluorescence spectroscopies indicate that rT β4 is a random coli major protein and its hydrophobic region becomes compact gradually. Moreover, the rT β4 folding is a two state transition. Thermal denaturation analysis indicates that rT β4 lacks stable tertiary structure. These results indicated that rT β4, similar to T β4, is an intrinsically disordered protein. Research is supported by MOST, Taiwan. MOST 103-2112-M-009-011-MY3. Corresponding author: Chia-Ching Chang; ccchang01@faculty.nctu.edu.tw.

  18. Accurate secondary structure prediction and fold recognition for circular dichroism spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Micsonai, András; Wien, Frank; Kernya, Linda; Lee, Young-Ho; Goto, Yuji; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Kardos, József

    2015-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a widely used technique for the study of protein structure. Numerous algorithms have been developed for the estimation of the secondary structure composition from the CD spectra. These methods often fail to provide acceptable results on α/β-mixed or β-structure–rich proteins. The problem arises from the spectral diversity of β-structures, which has hitherto been considered as an intrinsic limitation of the technique. The predictions are less reliable for proteins of unusual β-structures such as membrane proteins, protein aggregates, and amyloid fibrils. Here, we show that the parallel/antiparallel orientation and the twisting of the β-sheets account for the observed spectral diversity. We have developed a method called β-structure selection (BeStSel) for the secondary structure estimation that takes into account the twist of β-structures. This method can reliably distinguish parallel and antiparallel β-sheets and accurately estimates the secondary structure for a broad range of proteins. Moreover, the secondary structure components applied by the method are characteristic to the protein fold, and thus the fold can be predicted to the level of topology in the CATH classification from a single CD spectrum. By constructing a web server, we offer a general tool for a quick and reliable structure analysis using conventional CD or synchrotron radiation CD (SRCD) spectroscopy for the protein science research community. The method is especially useful when X-ray or NMR techniques fail. Using BeStSel on data collected by SRCD spectroscopy, we investigated the structure of amyloid fibrils of various disease-related proteins and peptides. PMID:26038575

  19. Assessment of amsacrine binding with DNA using UV-visible, circular dichroism and Raman spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Jangir, Deepak Kumar; Dey, Sanjay Kumar; Kundu, Suman; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2012-09-03

    Proper understanding of the mechanism of binding of drugs to their targets in cell is a fundamental requirement to develop new drug therapy regimen. Amsacrine is a rationally designed anticancer drug, used to treat leukemia and lymphoma. Binding with cellular DNA is a crucial step in its mechanism of cytotoxicity. Despite numerous studies, DNA binding properties of amsacrine are poorly understood. Its reversible binding with DNA does not permit X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopic evaluation of amsacrine-DNA complexes. In the present work, interaction of amsacrine with calf thymus DNA is investigated at physiological conditions. UV-visible, FT-Raman and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques were employed to determine the binding mode, binding constant, sequence specificity and conformational effects of amsacrine binding to native calf thymus DNA. Our results illustrate that amsacrine interacts with DNA by and large through intercalation between base pairs. Binding constant of the amsacrine-DNA complex was found to be K=1.2±0.1×10(4) M(-1) which is indicative of moderate type of binding of amsacrine to DNA. Raman spectroscopic results suggest that amsacrine has a binding preference of intercalation between AT base pairs of DNA. Minor groove binding is also observed in amsacrine-DNA complexes. These results are in good agreement with in silico investigation of amsacrine binding to DNA and thus provide detailed insight into DNA binding properties of amsacrine, which could ultimately, renders its cytotoxic efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibronic coupling effect on circular dichroism spectrum: Carotenoid-retinal interaction in xanthorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Kazuhiro J.; Balashov, Sergei P.

    2017-03-01

    The role of vibronic coupling of antenna carotenoid and retinal in xanthorhodopsin (XR) in its circular dichroism (CD) spectrum is examined computationally. A vibronic exciton model combined with a transition-density-fragment interaction (TDFI) method is developed, and applied to absorption and CD spectral calculations of XR. The TDFI method is based on the electronic Coulomb and exchange interactions between transition densities for individual chromophores [K. J. Fujimoto, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034101 (2012)], which provides a quantitative description of electronic coupling energy. The TDFI calculation reveals a dominant contribution of the Coulomb interaction to the electronic coupling energy and a negligible contribution of the exchange interaction, indicating that the antenna function of carotenoid results from the Förster type of excitation-energy transfer, not from the Dexter one. The calculated absorption and CD spectra successfully reproduce the main features of the experimental results, which allow us to investigate the mechanism of biphasic CD spectrum observed in XR. The results indicate that vibronic coupling between carotenoid and retinal plays a significant role in the shape of the CD spectrum. Further analysis reveals that the negative value of electronic coupling directly contributes to the biphasic shape of CD spectrum. This study also reveals that the C6—C7 bond rotation of salinixanthin is not the main factor for the biphasic CD spectrum although it gives a non-negligible contribution to the spectral shift. The present method is useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying the chromophore-chromophore interactions in biological systems.

  1. Characterization of Aptamer BC 007 Substance and Product Using Circular Dichroism and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Weisshoff, Hardy; Wenzel, Katrin; Schulze-Rothe, Sarah; Nikolenko, Heike; Davideit, Hanna; Becker, Niels-Peter; Göttel, Peter; Srivatsa, G Susan; Dathe, Margitta; Müller, Johannes; Haberland, Annekathrin

    2018-04-18

    Possible unwanted folding of biopharmaceuticals during manufacturing and storage has resulted in analysis schemes compared to small molecules that include bioanalytical characterization besides chemical characterization. Whether bioanalytical characterization is required for nucleotide-based drugs, may be decided on a case-by-case basis. Nucleotide-based pharmaceuticals, if chemically synthesized, occupy an intermediate position between small-molecule drugs and biologics. Here, we tested whether a physicochemical characterization of a nucleotide-based drug substance, BC 007, was adequate, using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed CD data in one experimental setup. BC 007 forms a quadruplex structure under specific external conditions, which was characterized for its stability and structural appearance also after denaturation using CD and nuclear magnetic resonance. The amount of the free energy (ΔG 0 ) involved in quadruplex formation of BC 007 was estimated at +8.7 kJ/mol when dissolved in water and +1.4 kJ/mol in 154 mM NaCl, indicating structural instability under these conditions. However, dissolution of the substance in 5 mM of KCl reduced the ΔG 0 to -5.6 kJ/mol due to the stabilizing effect of cations. These results show that positive ΔG 0 of quadruplex structure formation in water and aqueous NaCl prevents BC 007 from preforming stable 3-dimensional structures, which could potentially affect drug function. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What can we Learn on Gas Phase Chiral Compounds by Photoelectron Circular Dichroism ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahon, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Since 15 years, a new type of chiroptical effect has been the subject of a large array of both theoretical and experimental studies: Photoelectron Circular Dichroism (PECD) in the angular distribution of photoelectrons produced by CPL-ionization of pure enantiomers in the gas phase observed as a very intense (up to 35 %) forward/backward asymmetry with respect to the photon axis and which reveals the chirality of the molecule (configuration). PECD happens to be an orbital-specific, photon energy dependent effect and is a very subtle probe of the molecular potential being very sensitive to static molecular structures such as conformers, chemical substitution, clusters, as well as to vibrational motion, much more so than other observables in photoionization such as the cross section or the β asymmetry parameter (for a recent review see L. Nahon, G. A. Garcia, and I. Powis, J. Elec. Spec. Rel. Phen. 204, 322 (2015)). Therefore PECD studies have both a fundamental interest as well and analytical interest, especially since chiral species are ubiquitous in the biosphere, food and medical industry. This last aspect is probably the driving force for the recent extension of PECD studies by the laser community using UV REMPI schemes. After a large introduction to the PECD process itself, and a description of our double imaging electron/ion coincidence set-up, several recent results on one-photon VUV PECD will be presented, including: - Sensitivity to chemical substitutions, isomerism and conformation - Case of floppy biomolecules such as amino acids alanine and proline with a conformer analysis and possible consequences for the origin of life's homochirality - Analytical capabilities in terms of enantiomeric excess determination on a pure molecule as well as on a mixture of compounds. Future trends for PECD studies will be given regarding the case of more complex/structured chiral systems as well as opportunities for time-resolved PECD opened by the recent first performance

  3. Freeze-Quench Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopic Study of the "Very Rapid" Intermediate in Xanthine Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert M.; Inscore, Frank E.; Hille, Russ; Kirk, Martin L.

    1999-11-01

    Freeze-quench magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (MCD) has been used to trap and study the excited-state electronic structure of the Mo(V) active site in a xanthine oxidase intermediate generated with substoichiometric concentrations of the slow substrate 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine. EPR spectroscopy has shown that the intermediate observed in the MCD experiment is the "very rapid" intermediate, which lies on the main catalytic pathway. The low-energy (< approximately 30 000 cm(-1)) C-term MCD of this intermediate is remarkably similar to that of the model compound LMoO(bdt) (L = hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate; bdt = 1,2-benzenedithiolate), and the MCD bands have been assigned as dithiolate S(ip) --> Mo d(xy) and S(op) --> Mo d(xz,yz) LMCT transitions. These transitions result from a coordination geometry of the intermediate where the Mo=O bond is oriented cis to the ene-1,2-dithiolate of the pyranopterin. Since X-ray crystallography has indicated that a terminal sulfido ligand is oriented cis to the ene-1,2-dithiolate in oxidized xanthine oxidase related Desulfovibrio gigas aldehyde oxidoreductase, we have suggested that a conformational change occurs upon substrate binding. The substrate-mediated conformational change is extremely significant with respect to electron-transfer regeneration of the active site, as covalent interactions between the redox-active Mo d(xy) orbital and the S(ip) orbitals of the ene-1,2-dithiolate are maximized when the oxo ligand is oriented cis to the dithiolate plane. This underlies the importance of the ene-1,2-dithiolate portion of the pyranopterin in providing an efficient superexchange pathway for electron transfer. The results of this study indicate that electron-transfer regeneration of the active site may be gated by the orientation of the Mo=O bond relative to the ene-1,2-dithiolate chelate. Poor overlap between the Mo d(xy) orbital and the S(ip) orbitals of the dithiolate in the oxidized enzyme geometry may

  4. The circular dichroism properties of phi W-14 DNA containing alpha-putrescinylthymine.

    PubMed

    Spetter, S; Chen, C; Warren, R A; Hanlon, S

    1985-03-08

    The circular dichroism properties of phi W-14 DNA containing alpha-putrescinylthymine and its acetylated derivative have been examined in a number of aqueous solvents. Native phi W-14 DNA exhibits a B-type CD spectrum whose characteristics do not entirely conform to what would be expected for its GC content (51%). The conformationally sensitive positive band above 260 nm has a rotational strength greater than that normally found in prokaryotic DNAs of comparable GC content, such as Escherichia coli DNA. The rotational strength of this band in the spectrum of the heat-denatured form of phi W-14 DNA, however, is similar to that of heat denatured E. coli DNA. Abolition of the positive charge on the putrescine residues of native phi W-14 DNA by reaction with CH2O or by acetylation reduces the rotational strength to a level appropriate for its GC content. Increases in the electrolyte content of the solvent have the same effect, although the rotational strength of this band in phi W-14 DNA does not become comparable to that of E. coli DNA until 6-7 M LiCl. Titration to pH 10.6 in solvents of modest electrolyte content, however, fails to appreciably affect the CD spectral properties of either native phi W-14 DNA or the derivative in which half of the secondary and all of the primary amino groups have been acetylated. On the basis of these results we have concluded that the enhanced rotational strength of the positive band above 260 nm in the CD spectrum of phi W-14 DNA is due to a conformational difference caused by an ion-pair interaction of the positively charged primary amino groups of putrescine with the phosphate backbone. The CD spectral properties, however, reveal that these differences, averaged over the entire basepair population, appear to be relatively small. The average conformation, at least in dilute aqueous solutions, seems to be an unexceptional B variant with conformational properties which would be more appropriate for a DNA of higher CG content.

  5. Atomic moments in Mn 2CoAl thin films analyzed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE PAGES

    Jamer, M. E.; Assaf, B. A.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; ...

    2014-12-05

    Spin gapless semiconductors are known to be strongly affected by structural disorder when grown epitaxially as thin films. The magnetic properties of Mn 2CoAl thin films grown on GaAs (001) substrates are investigated here as a function of annealing. This study investigates the atomic-specific magnetic moments of Mn and Co atoms measured through X-ray magnetic circular dichroism as a function of annealing and the consequent structural ordering. Results indicate that the structural distortion mainly affects the Mn atoms as seen by the reduction of the magnetic moment from its predicted value.

  6. Circular dichroism spectroscopic investigation of double-decker phthalocyanine with G-Quadruplex as promising telomerase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧda, Efkan; Baǧda, Esra; Yabaş, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, interaction of a double-decker phthalocyanine with two G-quadruplex DNA, Tel 21 and cMYC, was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about G-quadruplex-double decker phthalocyanine interaction. The spectrophotometric titration method was used for binding constant calculations. From the binding constants, it can be said that double-decker phthalocyanine more likely to bind Tel 21 rather than cMYC. The conformational changes upon binding were monitored via circular dichroism spectroscopy. The ethidium bromide replacement assay was investigated spectrofluorometrically.

  7. Determination of the absolute configurations of natural products via density functional theory calculations of optical rotation, electronic circular dichroism, and vibrational circular dichroism: the cytotoxic sesquiterpene natural products quadrone, suberosenone, suberosanone, and suberosenol A acetate.

    PubMed

    Stephens, P J; McCann, D M; Devlin, F J; Smith, A B

    2006-07-01

    The determination of the absolute configurations (ACs) of chiral molecules using the chiroptical techniques of optical rotation (OR), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) has been revolutionized by the development of density functional theory (DFT) methods for the prediction of these properties. Here, we demonstrate the significance of these advances for the stereochemical characterization of natural products. Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the specific rotations, [alpha](D), of four cytotoxic natural products, quadrone (1), suberosenone (2), suberosanone (3), and suberosenol A acetate (4), are used to assign their ACs. TDDFT calculations of the ECD of 1 are used to assign its AC. The VCD spectrum of 1 is reported and also used, together with DFT calculations, to assign its AC. The ACs of 1 derived from its [alpha](D), ECD, and VCD are identical and in agreement with the AC previously determined via total synthesis. The previously undetermined ACs of 2-4, derived from their [alpha](D) values, have absolute configurations of their tricyclic cores identical to that of 1. Further studies of the ACs of these molecules using ECD and, especially, VCD are recommended to establish more definitively this finding. Our studies of the OR, ECD, and VCD of quadrone are the first to utilize DFT calculations of all three properties for the determination of the AC of a chiral natural product molecule.

  8. Calculation of density functional theory (DFT) vibrational parameters of nucleotides for use in theoretical optical calculations: Herein applied to circular dichroism (CD) and absorption of polynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, Steven Dwight

    2005-11-01

    The Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) of Nucleic Acids is a sensitive function of their conformation. DeVoe's classically derived polarizability theory allows the calculation of polymer absorption and circular dichroism spectra in any frequency range. Following the approach of Tinoco and Cech as modified by Moore and Self, calculations were done in the infrared (IR) region with theoretically derived monomer input parameters. Presented herein are calculated absorption and CD spectra for nucleic acid oligomers and polymers. These calculations improve upon earlier attempts, which utilized frequencies, intensities and normal modes from empirical analysis of the nitrogenous base of the monomers. These more complete input polarizability parameters include all contributions to specific vibrational normal modes for the entire nucleotide structure. They are derived from density functional theory (DFT) vibrational analysis on quasi-nucleotide monomers using the GAUSSIAN '98/'03 program. The normal modes are "integrated" for the first time into single virtual (DeVoe) oscillators by incorporating "fixed partial charges" in the manner of Schellman. The results include the complete set of monomer normal modes. All of these modes may be analyzed, in a manner similar to those demonstrated here (for the 1500-1800 cm-1 region). A model is utilized for the polymer/oligomer monomers which maintains the actual electrostatic charge on the adjacent protonated phosphoryl groups (hydrogen phosphate, a mono-anion). This deters the optimization from "collapsing" into a hydrogen-bonded "ball" and thereby maintains the extended (polymer-like) conformation. As well, the precise C2 "endo" conformation of the sugar ring is maintained in the DNA monomers. The analogous C3 "endo" conformation is also maintained for the RNA monomers, which are constrained by massive "anchors" at the phosphates. The complete IR absorbance spectra (0-4,000 cm-1) are calculated directly in Gaussian. Calculated VCD

  9. Room-temperature photomagnetism in the spinel ferrite (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 as seen via soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinger, J. S.; Piamonteze, C.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-10-01

    We have used x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in conjunction with multiplet simulations to directly probe the origin of photomagnetism in nanocrystalline (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 . A photomagnetic effect at room temperature has been observed in these films with HeNe illumination. We have verified an intervalence charge transfer among octahedral Fe cations to account for the increase in magnetization observed at and above room temperature in small magnetic fields. Using XMCD, we demonstrate that the dichroism of Fe in octahedral sites increases by 18% at room temperature, while the dichroism of Fe in tetrahedral sites does not change.

  10. Detection of biological particles by the use of circular dichroism measurements improved by scattering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, David L.; Pendleton, J. David

    1995-09-01

    Light scattered from optically active spheres was theoretically analyzed for biodetection. The circularly polarized signal of near-forward scattering from circularly dichroic spheres was calculated. Both remote and point biodetection were considered. The analysis included the effect of a circular aperture and beam block at the detector. If the incident light is linearly polarized, a false signal would limit the sensitivity of the biodetector. If the incident light is randomly polarized, shot noise would limit the sensitivity. Suggested improvements to current techniques include a beam block, precise angular measurements, randomly polarized light, index-matching fluid, and larger apertures for large particles.

  11. Magnetic properties of Co/Rh (001) multilayers studied by x-ray magnetic-circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaz, M. A.; Mayo, E.; Lederman, D.; Hallin, E.; Sham, T. K.; O'brien, W. L.; Harp, G. R.

    1998-11-01

    The layer-averaged magnetic moments of Co and Rh have been measured in sputter deposited Co/Rh (001) multilayer thin films using the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The Rh moments were measured at both the L and M absorption edges, where we find that the Rh moment decreases as a function of increasing Rh layer thickness (tRh). The decline of the layer-averaged Rh moment is well described in terms of a simple dilution, implying that the Rh moment is confined to the interfacial region. We find that the Co moment remains largely unaffected, maintaining a bulklike value of 1.7μB in the region preceding the first antiferromagnetic coupling peak where tRh ranges from 0 to 4 Å. We also find, via application of the dichroism sum rules, that the ratio / for Co increases ~10% for this same region. Finally, we contrast the magnetic behavior of the Co/Rh (001) and Fe/Rh (001) multilayer systems.

  12. Local X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Cu(111) using a tunneling smart tip

    DOE PAGES

    DiLullo, Andrew; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin; ...

    2016-01-28

    Localized spectroscopy with simultaneous topographic, elemental and magnetic information is presented. A synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope has been employed for the local study of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the FeL 2,3-edges of a thin iron film grown on Cu(111). Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra have been obtained through a tunneling smart tip that serves as a photoelectron detector. In contrast to conventional spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray excitations provide magnetic contrast even with a non-magnetic tip. Intensity variations in the photoexcited tip current point to chemical variations within a single magnetic Fe domain.

  13. Local X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Cu(111) using a tunneling smart tip.

    PubMed

    DiLullo, Andrew; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin; Kersell, Heath; Chang, Hao; Rosenmann, Daniel; Miller, Dean; Freeland, John W; Hla, Saw-Wai; Rose, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Localized spectroscopy with simultaneous topographic, elemental and magnetic information is presented. A synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope has been employed for the local study of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe L2,3-edges of a thin iron film grown on Cu(111). Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra have been obtained through a tunneling smart tip that serves as a photoelectron detector. In contrast to conventional spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray excitations provide magnetic contrast even with a non-magnetic tip. Intensity variations in the photoexcited tip current point to chemical variations within a single magnetic Fe domain.

  14. Using circular dichroism collected as a function of temperature to determine the thermodynamics of protein unfolding and binding interactions

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Norma J.

    2009-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) is an excellent spectroscopic technique for following the unfolding and folding of proteins as a function of temperature. One of its principal applications is to determine the effects of mutations and ligands on protein and polypeptide stability If the change in CD as a function of temperature is reversible, analysis of the data may be used to determined the van't Hoff enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of unfolding, the midpoint of the unfolding transition (TM) and the free energy (ΔG) of unfolding. Binding constants of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions may also be estimated from the unfolding curves. Analysis of CD spectra obtained as a function of temperature is also useful to determine whether a protein has unfolding intermediates. Measurement of the spectra of five folded proteins and their unfolding curves at a single wavelength takes approximately eight hours. PMID:17406506

  15. Synthesis and studies of axial chiral bisbenzocoumarins: Aggregation-induced emission enhancement properties and aggregation-annihilation circular dichroism effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaojin; Liu, Wei; Ge, Zhaohai; Zhang, Wenxuan; Wang, Kunpeng; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    Axial chiral bisbenzocoumarins were synthesized for the first time by converting naphthanol units in 1,1‧-binaphthol (BINOL) molecule to the benzocoumarin rings. The substitute groups on 3,3‧-positions of bisbenzocoumarins showed significant influence on their aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AEE) properties. It was also found that BBzC1 with ester groups on 3,3‧-positions exhibit an abnormal aggregation-annihilation circular dichroism (AACD) phenomenon, which could be caused by the decrease of the dihedral angle between adjacent benzocoumarin rings in the aggregation state. The single crystal structure of BBzC1 showed that the large dihedral angle in molecule prohibited the strong π-π stacking interactions, which could be main factors for its AEE properties.

  16. Local X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Cu(111) using a tunneling smart tip

    PubMed Central

    DiLullo, Andrew; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin; Kersell, Heath; Chang, Hao; Rosenmann, Daniel; Miller, Dean; Freeland, John W.; Hla, Saw-Wai; Rose, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Localized spectroscopy with simultaneous topographic, elemental and magnetic information is presented. A synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope has been employed for the local study of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe L 2,3-edges of a thin iron film grown on Cu(111). Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra have been obtained through a tunneling smart tip that serves as a photoelectron detector. In contrast to conventional spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray excitations provide magnetic contrast even with a non-magnetic tip. Intensity variations in the photoexcited tip current point to chemical variations within a single magnetic Fe domain. PMID:26917146

  17. Gigantic transverse x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in ultrathin Co in Au/Co/Au(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, T.; Mamiya, K.; Asakura, D.; Osatune, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Katayama, T.; Yuasa, S.

    2014-04-01

    Transverse-geometry x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TXMCD) measurements on Au/Co-staircase/Au(001) reveal the orbital origin of intrinsic in-plane magnetic anisotropy A gigantic TXMCD was successfully observed at the Co L3,2 edges for Co thickness (tC0) in the 2-monolayer regime. A TXMCD-sum-rule analysis shows a remarkable enhancement of an orbital-moment anisotropy (Δmorb) and of an in-plane magnetic dipole moment (m||T). Both Δmorb and m||T exhibit close similarity in tCo dependence, reflecting the in-plane magnetic anisotropy These observations evidence that extremely strong, intrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy originates from the anisotropic orbital part of the wave function, dominating the dipole-dipole-interaction-derived, extrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

  18. Probing the binding interaction of a phenazinium dye with serum transport proteins: a combined fluorometric and circular dichroism study.

    PubMed

    Bose, Debosreeta; Sarkar, Deboleena; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of phenosafranin (PSF), a cationic phenazinium dye with the transport proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), employing steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The photophysical properties of the dye are altered on binding with the serum proteins. An explicit study with respect to the modification of the fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy upon binding, effect of denaturant, fluorescence lifetime and CD measurements reveal that the dye binds to both BSA and HSA with almost the same affinity. Far-UV CD spectra indicate a decrease in the percentage of alpha-helicity only for BSA upon binding with the probe. Near-UV CD responses indicate an alteration in the tertiary structure of both the transport proteins because of binding.

  19. A QM/MM-MD study on protein electronic properties: Circular dichroism spectra of oxytocin and insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Yuya; Akinaga, Yoshinobu; Kawashima, Yukio; Jung, Jaewoon; Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2012-06-01

    A QM/MM (quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical) molecular-dynamics approach based on the generalized hybrid-orbital (GHO) method, in conjunction with the second-order perturbation (MP2) theory and the second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) model, is employed to calculate electronic property accounting for a protein environment. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra originating from chiral disulfide bridges of oxytocin and insulin at room temperature are computed. It is shown that the sampling of thermal fluctuation of molecular geometries facilitated by the GHO-MD method plays an important role in the obtained spectra. It is demonstrated that, while the protein environments in an oxytocin molecule have significant electrostatic influence on its chiral center, it is compensated by solvent induced charges. This gives a reasonable explanation to experimental observations. GHO-MD simulations starting from different experimental structures of insulin indicate that existence of the disulfide bridges with negative dihedral angles is crucial.

  20. Toroidal Interaction and Propeller Chirality of Hexaarylbenzenes. Dynamic Domino Inversion Revealed by Combined Experimental and Theoretical Circular Dichroism Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Tomoyo; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Mori, Tadashi

    2016-03-03

    Hexaarylbenzenes (HABs) have greatly attracted much attention due to their unique propeller-shaped structure and potential application in materials science, such as liquid crystals, molecular capsules/rotors, redox materials, nonlinear optical materials, as well as molecular wires. Less attention has however been paid to their propeller chirality. By introducing small point-chiral group(s) at the periphery of HABs, propeller chirality was effectively induced, provoking strong Cotton effects in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. Temperature and solvent polarity manipulate the dynamics of propeller inversion in solution. As such, whizzing toroids become more substantial in polar solvents and at an elevated temperature, where radial aromatic rings (propeller blades) prefer orthogonal alignment against the central benzene ring (C6 core), maximizing toroidal interactions.

  1. How and How Much Molecular Conformation Affects Electronic Circular Dichroism: The Case of 1,1-Diarylcarbinols.

    PubMed

    Padula, Daniele; Pescitelli, Gennaro

    2018-01-09

    Chiroptical spectra such as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) are said to be much more sensitive to conformation than their non-chiroptical counterparts, however, it is difficult to demonstrate such a common notion in a clear-cut way. We run DFT and TDDFT calculations on two closely related 1,1-diarylmethanols which show mirror-image ECD spectra for the same absolute configuration. We demonstrate that the main reason for the different chiroptical response of the two compounds lies in different conformational ensembles, caused by a single hydrogen-to-methyl substitution. We conclude that two compounds, having the same configuration but different conformation, may exhibit mirror-image ECD signals, stressing the importance and impact of conformational factors on ECD spectra.

  2. On the interplay between chirality and exciton coupling: a DFT calculation of the circular dichroism in π-stacked ethylene.

    PubMed

    Norman, Patrick; Linares, Mathieu

    2014-09-01

    The chirality of stacked weakly interacting π-systems was interpreted in terms of Frenkel exciton states and the formation of excitonic circular dichroism (CD) bands was monitored for ethylene stacks of varying sizes. Convergence of CD bands with respect to the system size was observed for stacks involving around 10 molecules. By means of rotation around the C-C double bond in ethylene, chirality was induced in the monomeric system and which was shown to dominate the spectral responses, even for polymer aggregates. In helical assemblies of chiral entities, there will always be a mix of excitonic and monomeric contributions to the CD signal and it is demonstrated that the complex polarization propagator approach in combination with Density Functional Theory is a suitable method to address this situation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism of Heusler-type alloy Co 2MnGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Iori, K.; Kimura, A.; Xie, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Qiao, S.; Tsuchiya, K.

    2003-10-01

    Co and Mn 2p core absorption (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra have been measured for the ferromagnetic ternary alloy Co 2MnGe. The observed Co 2p XAS spectrum can be understood on the basis of the unoccupied Co 3d partial density of states, whereas the overall features of the Mn 2p XAS and XMCD spectra have been partly reproduced by the Mn 2p 53d 6 final state multiplets. We have found that the orbital polarization of the Co 3d and even the Mn 3d states are recognizable, which suggests that a spin-orbit coupling should be taken into account in the energy band structure in order to reproduce the half metallic nature of this alloy.

  4. Stereospecific analysis of loxoprofen in plasma by chiral column liquid chromatography with a circular dichroism-based detector.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hideko; Tsubayashi, Akane; Nagata, Yoshiko; Matsushima, Yoshikazu; Mori, Chiharu; Kizu, Junko; Higaki, Megumu

    2002-03-01

    The chiral separation of loxoprofen was achieved on a chiral column with UV and circular dichroism (CD) detection. The good resolution of four loxoprofen stereoisomers was obtained. The column used for the chiral separation was Chiralcel OJ column (250 x 4.6 mm) using hexane-2-propanol-trifluoroacetic acid (95:5:0.1), as an eluent. The flow-rate was 1.0 ml/min and the detection was at 225 nm. In addition, CD and UV spectra were obtained by stopped flow scanning. The method allows the determination of the stereoisomers of loxoprofen in human plasma after the administration of therapeutic dose of the racemic drug, thus HPLC with CD detector is useful for the stereospecific determination of loxoprofen products in biological samples.

  5. Conformational analysis of quinine and its pseudo enantiomer quinidine: a combined jet-cooled spectroscopy and vibrational circular dichroism study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ananya; Bouchet, Aude; Lepère, Valeria; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Scuderi, D; Piuzzi, F; Zehnacker-Rentien, A

    2012-08-16

    Laser-desorbed quinine and quinidine have been studied in the gas phase by combining supersonic expansion with laser spectroscopy, namely, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), and IR-UV double resonance experiments. Density funtional theory (DFT) calculations have been done in conjunction with the experimental work. The first electronic transition of quinine and quinidine is of π-π* nature, and the studied molecules weakly fluoresce in the gas phase, in contrast to what was observed in solution (Qin, W. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. C2009, 113, 11790). The two pseudo enantiomers quinine and quinidine show limited differences in the gas phase; their main conformation is of open type as it is in solution. However, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments in solution show that additional conformers exist in condensed phase for quinidine, which are not observed for quinine. This difference in behavior between the two pseudo enantiomers is discussed.

  6. Determination of the absolute configurations of synthetic daunorubicin analogues using vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guochun; Tran, Ha; Fan, Eric; Shi, Wei; Lowary, Todd L; Xu, Yunjie

    2010-08-01

    The absolute configurations of three synthesized anthracycline analogues have been determined using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy and the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental VCD spectra of the three compounds have been measured for the first time in the film state, prepared from their CDCl(3) solutions. Conformational searches for the monomers and some dimers of the three compounds have been performed at the DFT level using the B3LYP functional and the 6-311G** and 6-311++G** basis sets. The corresponding vibrational absorption and VCD spectra have been calculated. The good agreement between the experimental and the calculated spectra allows one to assign the absolute configurations of the three compounds with high confidence. In addition, the dominant conformers of the three compounds have also been identified. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. PDB2CD: a web-based application for the generation of circular dichroism spectra from protein atomic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Lazaros; Janes, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is extensively utilized for determining the percentages of secondary structure content present in proteins. However, although a large contributor, secondary structure is not the only factor that influences the shape and magnitude of the CD spectrum produced. Other structural features can make contributions so an entire protein structural conformation can give rise to a CD spectrum. There is a need for an application capable of generating protein CD spectra from atomic coordinates. However, no empirically derived method to do this currently exists. PDB2CD has been created as an empirical-based approach to the generation of protein CD spectra from atomic coordinates. The method utilizes a combination of structural features within the conformation of a protein; not only its percentage secondary structure content, but also the juxtaposition of these structural components relative to one another, and the overall structure similarity of the query protein to proteins in our dataset, the SP175 dataset, the 'gold standard' set obtained from the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB). A significant number of the CD spectra associated with the 71 proteins in this dataset have been produced with excellent accuracy using a leave-one-out cross-validation process. The method also creates spectra in good agreement with those of a test set of 14 proteins from the PCDDB. The PDB2CD package provides a web-based, user friendly approach to enable researchers to produce CD spectra from protein atomic coordinates. http://pdb2cd.cryst.bbk.ac.uk CONTACT: r.w.janes@qmul.ac.ukSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Circular dichroism study of the interaction between mutagens and bilirubin bound to different binding sites of serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Sergey; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanová, Marie

    Although recent investigations have shown that bilirubin not only has a negative role in the organism but also exhibits significant antimutagenic properties, the mechanisms of interactions between bilirubin and mutagens are not clear. In this study, interaction between bilirubin bound to different binding sites of mammalian serum albumins with structural analogues of the mutagens 2-aminofluorene, 2,7-diaminofluorene and mutagen 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone were investigated by circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. Homological human and bovine serum albumins were used as chiral matrices, which preferentially bind different conformers of bilirubin in the primary binding sites and make it observable by circular dichroism. These molecular systems approximated a real system for the study of mutagens in blood serum. Differences between the interaction of bilirubin bound to primary and to secondary binding sites of serum albumins with mutagens were shown. For bilirubin bound to secondary binding sites with low affinity, partial displacement and the formation of self-associates were observed in all studied mutagens. The associates of bilirubin bound to primary binding sites of serum albumins are formed with 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone. It was proposed that 2,7-diaminofluorene does not interact with bilirubin bound to primary sites of human and bovine serum albumins due to the spatial hindrance of the albumins binding domains. The spatial arrangement of the bilirubin bound to serum albumin along with the studied mutagens was modelled using ligand docking, which revealed a possibility of an arrangement of the both bilirubin and 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone in the primary binding site of human serum albumin.

  9. Developing a Magnetic Circular Dichroism Apparatus Equipped with Neodymium Magnet for Students to Investigate the Electronic Structures of Transition Metals and Lanthanoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubu, Abdallah; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kita, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) apparatus from a wood base and neodymium magnets and its configuration in the Faraday alignment. The applicability and effectiveness of the apparatus for MCD spectra measurements have been examined. The apparatus was used by undergraduate students to conduct MCD…

  10. Rapid analysis of NSAIDs binding to β-cyclodextrin using the simultaneous measurement of absorption and circular dichroism with a novel multi-cell low-volume device.

    PubMed

    Aboel Dahab, Ali; El-Hag, Dhia

    2012-10-01

    One of the relatively recent and most widely used approaches to reduce side effects associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the complexation of NSAIDs with Cyclodextrins (CyD). So far, CyD interaction with drugs is not well understood. There have been many reports along these lines; however, rarely do these studies exploit the full potential of optical techniques. The purpose of this work is to produce a versatile, compact, low-volume, routine apparatus for the simultaneous measurements of absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) which allows for the concurrent use of three different pathlengths for binding studies of NSAIDs/CyD as a function of pH. A new rotating multi-cell holder which holds four cells was designed and manufactured. The work was achieved using an effective novel method for binding titration employing four separate flow cells connected in series in a flow system involving a titration flask and a pump. The pK(a), binding constants, stoichiometry and structural co-conformations of NSAIDs/β-CyD complexes were elucidated and determined with accuracy. The system proved to be efficient and the analysis time was reduced to less than or equal to one fourth of total analysis time used in one-cell systems, with possible automation for high-throughput analysis.

  11. Magnetic circular dichroism of thiolate-protected plasmonic gold nanoparticles: separating the effects of interband transitions and surface magnetoplasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratsu, Taisuke; Yao, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Magneto-optical activity is demonstrated in thiolate-protected Au nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The samples examined are decanethiolate-protected Au nanoparticles with the mean diameters ranging from 2.0 to 4.7 nm. The nanoparticles larger than 2.4 nm in diameter exhibit a derivative-like MCD signal, indicating the presence of two circular modes of surface magnetoplasmon, but the spectral shape is so asymmetric that its identification is rather difficult. This is due to the contribution of interband transitions occurring at around the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) frequency. We then develop an efficient method to phenomenologically separate the effects of magnetoplasmonic intraband (= Drude) and interband transitions in the measured MCD spectra using an approximation that the optical response of the Au nanoparticle with a critical size (˜2.0 nm) for the disappearance of LSPR, which is also experimentally obtainable, is substantially dominated by the interband transitions. The consistency of the method is ensured for tiopronin-protected Au nanoparticles, and a very small bisignate magnetoplasmonic response hidden in the total MCD spectrum can be extracted. The practical advantage of the proposed method is that we can intuitively and effectively evaluate the characteristic features of the surface magnetoplasmon of thiolate-protected Au nanoparticles without performing complicated Mie or quasielectrostatic calculations.

  12. Strong circular dichroism in a non-chiral metasurface based on an array of metallic V-shaped nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardakani, Abbas Ghasempour; Moradi, Khatereh

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, an extrinsic chiral metasurface based on a silver thin film containing a periodic array of V-shaped nanostructures is proposed. The proposed structure is normally and obliquely illuminated by right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves and the transmission through the structure is calculated using the frequency domain finite-integration technique. Our simulation results show that the designed metasurface exhibits strong circular dichroism (CD) in the transmission Δ = T_{RCP}- T_{LCP}=0.98 in the near-infrared region under oblique incidence. To our knowledge, this is one of highest CD effects that have been achieved so far in the single-layer metasurface based on metallic nanostructures. The physical mechanism for this strong CD effect is explained in terms of the current density distribution. Furthermore, the effects of change of the incident angle, the refractive index of surrounding medium and structure parameters, such as film thickness and lattice constants on CD spectrum, are investigated. In addition, the CD phenomenon in the structure is analyzed in other frequency regions.

  13. Experimental Demonstration of the Microscopic Origin of Circular Dichroism in Two dimensional Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-22

    ARTICLE Received 16 Sep 2015 | Accepted 25 May 2016 | Published 22 Jun 2016 Experimental demonstration of the microscopic origin of circular...dissipation of the constituent metamolecules. Because such dissipation occurs on a nanoscale, this effect has never been experimentally probed and...never been experimentally verified because of the challenge of measuring non-radiative loss on the nanoscale. In this study we use a combination of

  14. Extension of fourier transform vibrational circular dichroism into the near-infrared region: continuous spectral coverage from 800 to 10 000 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolin; Shah, Rekha D; Dukor, Rina K; Guo, Changning; Freedman, Teresa B; Nafie, Laurence A

    2004-09-01

    We report the first vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra with continuous coverage from 800 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared (MIR) region to 10 000 cm(-1) in the near-infrared (NIR) region. This coverage is illustrated with MIR and NIR absorbance and VCD spectra of 2,2-dimethyl-dioxolane-4-methanol (DDM), alpha-pinene, and camphor that serve as calibration samples over this entire region. Commercially available, dual-source Fourier transform (FT) MIR and NIR VCD spectrometers were equipped with appropriate light sources, optics, and detectors, and were modified for dual-polarization-modulation (DPM) operation. The combination of liquid-nitrogen- and thermoelectric-cooled HgCdTe (MCT) detectors, as well as InGaAs and Germanium (Ge) detectors operating at room temperature, permitted collection of the desired absorbance and VCD spectra across the range of vibrational fundamental, combination band, and overtone frequencies. The spectra of DDM and alpha-pinene were measured as neat liquids and recorded for both enantiomers in the various spectral regions. Spectra for camphor were all measured in CCl(4) solution at a concentration of 0.6 M, except for the carbonyl-stretching region, where a more dilute concentration was used. The typical anisotropy ratios (g) of the three molecules were estimated with respect to their strongest VCD bands in each spectral region. It was found that for all three molecules in the spectral regions above 2000 cm(-1), anisotropy ratios are approximately the same order (10(-5)) of magnitude. However, in the MIR region, the typical anisotropy ratios are significantly different for the three molecules. This study demonstrates that with modern FT-VCD spectrometers modified for DPM operation, VCD spectra can be measured continuously across a wide spectral range from the MIR to nearly the visible region with an unsurpassed combination of signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution.

  15. All-optical switching in granular ferromagnets caused by magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Matthew O. A.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic recording using circularly polarised femto-second laser pulses is an emerging technology that would allow write speeds much faster than existing field driven methods. However, the mechanism that drives the magnetisation switching in ferromagnets is unclear. Recent theories suggest that the interaction of the light with the magnetised media induces an opto-magnetic field within the media, known as the inverse Faraday effect. Here we show that an alternative mechanism, driven by thermal excitation over the anisotropy energy barrier and a difference in the energy absorption depending on polarisation, can create a net magnetisation over a series of laser pulses in an ensemble of single domain grains. Only a small difference in the absorption is required to reach magnetisation levels observed experimentally and the model does not preclude the role of the inverse Faraday effect but removes the necessity that the opto-magnetic field is 10 s of Tesla in strength.

  16. Normal and reversed supramolecular chirality of insulin fibrils probed by vibrational circular dichroism at the protofilament level of fibril structure.

    PubMed

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Dukor, Rina K; Lu, Xuefang; Nafie, Laurence A; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-08-08

    Fibrils are β-sheet-rich aggregates that are generally composed of several protofibrils and may adopt variable morphologies, such as twisted ribbons or flat-like sheets. This polymorphism is observed for many different amyloid associated proteins and polypeptides. In a previous study we proposed the existence of another level of amyloid polymorphism, namely, that associated with fibril supramolecular chirality. Two chiral polymorphs of insulin, which can be controllably grown by means of small pH variations, exhibit opposite signs of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Herein, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrate that indeed VCD supramolecular chirality is correlated not only by the apparent fibril handedness but also by the sense of supramolecular chirality from a deeper level of chiral organization at the protofilament level of fibril structure. Our microscopic examination indicates that normal VCD fibrils have a left-handed twist, whereas reversed VCD fibrils are flat-like aggregates with no obvious helical twist as imaged by atomic force microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. A scheme is proposed consistent with observed data that features a dynamic equilibrium controlled by pH at the protofilament level between left- and right-twist fibril structures with distinctly different aggregation pathways for left- and right-twisted protofilaments. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TD-DFT investigation of the magnetic circular dichroism spectra of some purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Coriani, Sonia

    2015-05-28

    We present a computational study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200-300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil, thymine, and cytosine, using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. Solvent effects are investigated within the polarizable continuum model and by inclusion of explicit water molecules. In general, the computed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones, apart from some overall blue shifts. Both the pseudo-A term shape of the MCD spectra of the purines and the B term shape of the spectra of pyrimidine bases are reproduced. Our calculations also correctly reproduce the reversed phase of the MCD bands in purine compared to that of its derivatives present in nucleic acids. Solvent effects are sizable and system specific, but they do not in general alter the qualitative shape of the spectra. The bands are dominated by the bright π → π* transitions, and our calculations in solution nicely reproduce their energy differences, improving the estimates obtained in the gas phase. Shoulders are predicted for purine and uracil due to n → π* excitations, but they are too weak to be observed in the experiment.

  18. Time-Resolved X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism - A Selective Probe of Magnetization Dynamics on Nanosecond Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzini, Stefania; Vogel, Jan; Bonfim, Marlio; Fontaine, Alain

    Many synchrotron radiation techniques have been developed in the last 15 years for studying the magnetic properties of thin-film materials. The most attractive properties of synchrotron radiation are its energy tunability and its time structure. The first property allows measurements in resonant conditions at an absorption edge of each of the magnetic elements constituting the probed sample, and the latter allows time-resolved measurements on subnanosecond timescales. In this review, we introduce some of the synchrotron-based techniques used for magnetic investigations. We then describe in detail X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and how time-resolved XMCD studies can be carried out in the pump-probe mode. Finally, we illustrate some applications to magnetization reversal dynamics in spin valves and tunnel junctions, using fast magnetic field pulses applied along the easy magnetization axis of the samples. Thanks to the element-selectivity of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the magnetization dynamics of the soft (Permalloy) and the hard (cobalt) layers can be studied independently. In the case of spin valves, this allowed us to show that two magnetic layers that are strongly coupled in a static regime can become uncoupled on nanosecond timescales.Present address: Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico CP 19011, Curitiba - PR CEP 81531-990, Brazil

  19. Microscopic Magnetic Properties of the Itinerant Metamagnet UCoAl by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combier, Tristan; Palacio-Morales, Alexandra; Sanchez, Jean-Pierre; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Pourret, Alexandre; Brison, Jean-Pascal; Aoki, Dai; Rogalev, Andrei

    2017-02-01

    The itinerant metamagnet UCoAl has been investigated by high field X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the U M4,5 and Co K edges. The orbital and spin moments of U at 2.1 K for H || c applied below and above the first order metamagnetic transition field (HM) have been determined. The magnetism of UCoAl is dominated by the U moment. There is no evidence for any change of the orbital to spin moment ratio (˜-2.05) across HM and within the ferromagnetic phase up to 17 T. The possibility of a Fermi surface reconstruction at HM remains an open option. XMCD at the Co K-edge reveals the presence of a small Co 4p-orbital moment parallel to the macroscopic magnetization. In addition, the Co 3d-moment is estimated to be at most 0.1 μB at 17 T. The similar field dependence of the U and Co magnetizations indicates that the Co moment is induced by the U moment.

  20. Magnetic circular dichroism of UCl 6– in the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer spectral region

    DOE PAGES

    Gendron, Frederic; Fleischauer, Valerie R.; Duignan, Thomas J.; ...

    2017-06-23

    Here, we present a combined ab initio theoretical and experimental study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectrum of the octahedral UCl 6- complex ion in the UV-Vis spectral region. The ground state is an orbitally non-degenerate doublet E 5/2u and the MCD is a $C$-term spectrum caused by spin–orbit coupling. Calculations of the electronic spectrum at various levels of theory indicate that differential dynamic electron correlation has a strong influence on the energies of the dipole-allowed transitions and the envelope of the MCD spectrum. The experimentally observed bands are assigned to dipole-allowed ligand-to-metal charge transfer into the 5f shell,more » and 5f to 6d transitions. Charge transfer excitations into the U 6d shell appear at much higher energies. The MCD-allowed transitions can be assigned via their signs of the $C$-terms: Under O h double group symmetry, E 5/2u → E 5/2g transitions have negative $C$-terms whereas E 5/2u → F 3/2g transitions have positive $C$-terms if the ground state g-factor is negative, as it is the case for UCl 6-.« less

  1. Including thermal disorder of hydrogen bonding to describe the vibrational circular dichroism spectrum of zwitterionic L-alanine in water.

    PubMed

    Orestes, Ednilsom; Bistafa, Carlos; Rivelino, Roberto; Canuto, Sylvio

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectrum of l-alanine amino acid in aqueous solution in ambient conditions has been studied. The emphasis has been placed on the inclusion of the thermal disorder of the solute-solvent hydrogen bonds that characterize the aqueous solution condition. A combined and sequential use of molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics was adopted. To calculate the average VCD spectrum, the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of calculation was employed, over one-hundred configurations composed of the solute plus all water molecules making hydrogen bonds with the solute. Simplified considerations including only four explicit solvent molecules and the polarizable continuum model were also made for comparison. Considering the large number of vibration frequencies with only limited experimental results a direct comparison is presented, when possible, and in addition a statistical analysis of the calculated values was performed. The results are found to be in line with the experiment, leading to the conclusion that including thermal disorder may improve the agreement of the vibrational frequencies with experimental results, but the thermal effects may be of greater value in the calculations of the rotational strengths.

  2. Hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equation towards the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism spectra.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yaling; Zhao, Yi

    2017-05-07

    A theoretically solid and numerically exact method is presented for the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of molecular aggregates immersed in a harmonic bath constituted as the combination of some prominent quantized vibrational modes and continuous overdamped Brownian oscillators. The feasibility and the validity of newly proposed method are affirmed in the analytical monomer spectra. To go beyond the independent local bath approximation, all the correlations of site energy fluctuations and excitonic coupling fluctuations are included in our strategy, and their influence on the absorption and CD spectra is investigated based on the Frenkel exciton model of homodimer. In the end, a good fit of the absorption and part of CD spectra for the entire B800-B850 ring in the light-harvesting complexes 2 of purple bacteria to the experimental data is given, and the simulation results suggest that the asymmetry in the 800 nm region of CD spectra is actually an indication of B800-B850 inter-ring coupling.

  3. Similarities and Differences between RNA and DNA Double-Helical Structures in Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: A SAC-CI Study.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Tomoo; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-17

    The helical structures of DNA and RNA are investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The signs and the shapes of the CD spectra are much different between the right- and left-handed structures as well as between DNA and RNA. The main difference lies in the sign at around 295 nm of the CD spectra: it is positive for the right-handed B-DNA and the left-handed Z-RNA but is negative for the left-handed Z-DNA and the right-handed A-RNA. We calculated the SAC-CI CD spectra of DNA and RNA using the tetramer models, which include both hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions that are important in both DNA and RNA. The SAC-CI results reproduced the features at around 295 nm of the experimental CD spectra of each DNA and RNA, and elucidated that the strong stacking interaction between the two base pairs is the origin of the negative peaks at 295 nm of the CD spectra for both DNA and RNA. On the basis of these facts, we discuss the similarities and differences between RNA and DNA double-helical structures in the CD spectroscopy based on the ChiraSac methodology.

  4. An atomic orbital based real-time time-dependent density functional theory for computing electronic circular dichroism band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: xsli@uw.edu

    2016-06-21

    One of the challenges of interpreting electronic circular dichroism (ECD) band spectra is that different states may have different rotatory strength signs, determined by their absolute configuration. If the states are closely spaced and opposite in sign, observed transitions may be washed out by nearby states, unlike absorption spectra where transitions are always positive additive. To accurately compute ECD bands, it is necessary to compute a large number of excited states, which may be prohibitively costly if one uses the linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. Here we implement a real-time, atomic-orbital based TDDFT method for computing the entiremore » ECD spectrum simultaneously. The method is advantageous for large systems with a high density of states. In contrast to previous implementations based on real-space grids, the method is variational, independent of nuclear orientation, and does not rely on pseudopotential approximations, making it suitable for computation of chiroptical properties well into the X-ray regime.« less

  5. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  6. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated watermore » (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.« less

  7. Ground-state wave function of plutonium in PuSb as determined via x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE PAGES

    Janoschek, M.; Haskel, D.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, J.; ...

    2015-01-14

    Measurements of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the Pu M₄,₅ edges of the ferromagnet PuSb are reported. Using bulk magnetization measurements and a sum rule analysis of the XMCD spectra, we determine the individual orbital [μ L = 2.8(1)μ B/Pu] and spin moments [μ S = –2.0(1)μ B/Pu] of the Pu 5f electrons for the first time. Atomic multiplet calculations of the XMCD and XANES spectra reproduce well the experimental data and are consistent with the experimental value of the spin moment. These measurements of L z and S z are inmore » excellent agreement with the values that have been extracted from neutron magnetic form factor measurements, and confirm the local character of the 5f electrons in PuSb. We demonstrate that a split M₅ as well as a narrow M₄ XMCD signal may serve as a signature of 5f electron localization in actinide compounds.« less

  8. Investigation of guanosine-quartet assemblies by vibrational and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy, a novel approach for studying supramolecular entities.

    PubMed

    Setnicka, Vladimír; Urbanová, Marie; Volka, Karel; Nampally, Sreenivasachary; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2006-11-24

    The self-assembly of guanosine-5'-hydrazide G-1 in D(2)O, in the presence and absence of sodium cations, has been investigated by chiroptical techniques: electronic (ECD) and the newly introduced vibrational (VCD) circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using a combination of ECD and VCD with other methods such as IR, electron microscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it was found that G-1 produces long-range chiral aggregates consisting of G-quartets, (G-1)(4), subsequently stacked into columns, [(G-1)(4)](n), induced by binding of metal cations between the (G-1)(4) species. This process, accompanied by gelation of the sample, is highly efficient in the presence of an excess of sodium cations, leading to aggregates with strong quartet-quartet interaction. Thermally induced conformational changes and conformational stability of guanosine-5'-hydrazide assemblies were studied by chiroptical techniques and the melting temperature of the hydrogels formed was obtained. The temperature-dependent experiments indicate that the long-range supramolecular aggregates are dissociated by increasing temperature into less ordered species, monomers, or other intermediates in equilibrium, as indicated by MS experiments.

  9. Energy- and k -resolved mapping of the magnetic circular dichroism in threshold photoemission from Co films on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staab, Maximilian; Kutnyakhov, Dmytro; Wallauer, Robert; Chernov, Sergey; Medjanik, Katerina; Elmers, Hans Joachim; Kläui, Mathias; Schönhense, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic circular dichroism in threshold photoemission (TPMCD) for perpendicularly magnetized fcc Co films on Pt(111) has been revisited. A complete mapping of the spectral function I (EB,kx,ky) (binding energy EB, momentum parallel to surface kx, ky) and the corresponding TPMCD asymmetry distribution AMCD(EB,kx,ky) has been performed for one-photon and two-photon photoemission using time-of-flight momentum microscopy. The experimental results allow distinguishing direct from indirect transitions. The measurements reveal clear band features of direct transitions from bulk bands that show a nontrivial asymmetry pattern. A significant homogeneous background with substantial asymmetry stemming from indirect transitions superposes direct transitions. Two-photon photoemission reveals enhanced emission intensity via an image potential state, acting as intermediate state. The image potential state enhances not only intensity but also asymmetry. The present results demonstrate that two-photon photoemission is a powerful method for mapping the spin-polarized unoccupied band structures and points out pathways for applying TPMCD as a contrast mechanism for various classes of magnetic materials.

  10. Coherent Raman detected electron spin resonance spectroscopy of metalloproteins: linking electron spin resonance and magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Stephen J; Wolverson, Daniel; Thomson, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    The simultaneous excitation of paramagnetic molecules with optical (laser) and microwave radiation in the presence of a magnetic field can cause an amplitude, or phase, modulation of the transmitted light at the microwave frequency. The detection of this modulation indicates the presence of coupled optical and ESR transitions. The phenomenon can be viewed as a coherent Raman effect or, in most cases, as a microwave frequency modulation of the magnetic circular dichroism by the precessing magnetization. By allowing the optical and magnetic properties of a transition metal ion centre to be correlated, it becomes possible to deconvolute the overlapping optical or ESR spectra of multiple centres in a protein or of multiple chemical forms of a particular centre. The same correlation capability also allows the relative orientation of the magnetic and optical anisotropies of each species to be measured, even when the species cannot be obtained in a crystalline form. Such measurements provide constraints on electronic structure calculations. The capabilities of the method are illustrated by data from the dimeric mixed-valence Cu(A) centre of nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR) from Paracoccus pantotrophus.

  11. Hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equation towards the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yaling; Zhao, Yi

    2017-05-01

    A theoretically solid and numerically exact method is presented for the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of molecular aggregates immersed in a harmonic bath constituted as the combination of some prominent quantized vibrational modes and continuous overdamped Brownian oscillators. The feasibility and the validity of newly proposed method are affirmed in the analytical monomer spectra. To go beyond the independent local bath approximation, all the correlations of site energy fluctuations and excitonic coupling fluctuations are included in our strategy, and their influence on the absorption and CD spectra is investigated based on the Frenkel exciton model of homodimer. In the end, a good fit of the absorption and part of CD spectra for the entire B800-B850 ring in the light-harvesting complexes 2 of purple bacteria to the experimental data is given, and the simulation results suggest that the asymmetry in the 800 nm region of CD spectra is actually an indication of B800-B850 inter-ring coupling.

  12. Conformational study of bovine lactoferricin in membrane-micking conditions by molecular dynamics simulation and circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Daidone, Isabella; Magliano, Alessandro; Di Nola, Alfredo; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Clarkson, Matilda Manuela; Lizzi, Anna Rita; Oratore, Arduino; Mazza, Fernando

    2011-04-01

    Lactoferricins are potent antimicrobial peptides released by pepsin cleavage of Lactoferrins. Bovine Lactoferricin (LfcinB) has higher activity than the intact bovine Lactoferrin, and is the most active among the other Lactoferricins of human, murine and caprine origin. In the intact protein the fragment corresponding to LfcinB is in an helical conformation, while in water LfcinB adopts an amphipathic β-hairpin structure. However, whether any of these structural motifs is the antibacterial active conformation, i.e., the one interacting with bacterial membrane components, remains to be seen. Here we present Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations indicating that in membrane-mimicking solvents the LfcinB adopts an amphipathic β-hairpin structure similar to that observed in water, but differing in the dynamic behavior of the side-chains of the two tryptophan residues. In the membrane-mimicking solvent these side-chains show a high propensity to point towards the hydrophobic environment, rather than being in the hydrophobic core as seen in water, while the backbone preserves the hairpin conformation as found in water. These results suggest that the tryptophans might act as anchors pulling the stable, solvent-invariant hairpin structure into the membrane.

  13. Competitive binding of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and 5-fluorouracil to human serum albumin: A fluorescence and circular dichroism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lixia; Liu, Min; Liu, Guiqin; Li, Dacheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Bingquan; Han, Jun; Zhang, Min

    2017-02-01

    Combination therapy with more than one therapeutic agent can improve therapeutic efficiency and decrease drug resistance. In this study, the interactions of human serum albumin (HSA) with individual or combined anticancer drugs, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and 5-fluorouracil (FU), were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the interaction of EGCG or FU with HSA is a process of static quenching and EGCG formed a more stable complex. The competitive experiments of site markers suggested that both anti-carcinogens mainly bound to site I (subdomain IIA). The interaction forces which play important roles in the binding process were discussed based on enthalpy and entropy changes. Moreover, the competition binding model for a ternary system was proposed so as to precisely calculate the binding parameters. The results demonstrated that one drug decreased the binding affinity of another drug with HSA, resulting in the increasing free drug concentration at the action sites. CD studies indicated that there was an alteration in HSA secondary structure due to the binding of EGCG and FU. It can be concluded that the combination of EGCG with FU may enhance anticancer efficacy. This finding may provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatments.

  14. The effect of nonenzymatic glycation on the stability and conformation of two deoxyoligonucleotide duplexes: a spectroscopic analysis by circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Udayan; Cohenford, Menashi A; Dain, Joel A

    2007-01-15

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a significant role in the pathophysiology of diabetes leading to such conditions as atherosclerosis, cataract formation, and renal dysfunction. While the formation of nucleoside AGEs was previously demonstrated, no extensive studies have been performed to assess the effect of AGEs on DNA structure and folding. The objective of this study was to investigate the nonenzymatic glycation of two DNA oligonucleotide duplexes with one duplex consisting of deoxy-poly(A)15 and deoxy-poly(T)15 and the other consisting of deoxy-poly(GA)15 and deoxy-poly(CT)15. With D-glucose, D-galactose, D/L-glyceraldehyde, and D-glucosamine serving as the model glycating carbohydrates, D-glucosamine was found to exhibit the greatest effect on the stability and structure of the oligonucleotide duplexes, a finding that was confirmed by circular dichroism. The nonenzymatic glycation of deoxy-poly(AT) by D-glucosamine destabilized the deoxy-poly(AT) structure and changed its conformation from A form to X form. D-glucosamine also altered the conformation of deoxy-poly(GA)15 and deoxy-poly(CT)15 from A form to B form. Capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that, of the various purines and pyrimidines, 2'-deoxyguanosine and guanine were most reactive with D-glucosamine. The nonenzymatic modification of nucleic acids warrants further investigation because this phenomenon may occur in vivo, altering DNA structure and/or function.

  15. Optical and biological properties of plasma-treated Neurospora crassa spores as studied by absorption, circular dichroism, and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2017-11-01

    We studied the effect of plasma treatment on the optical, structural and biological properties of Neurospora crassa ( N. crassa) spores. An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in aqueous solution. The APPJ treatment of N. crassa spores in water significantly reduced the viability of spores. The reduction in the spore viability can be attributed to the reactive species from the plasma itself and those derived from the reaction of plasma radicals with aqueous solution. These structural modifications were contingent on the medium in which N. crassa spores were suspended; plasma treatment of N. crassa spores in PBS did not significantly affect the viability of spores as compared with N. crassa spores in water. Scanning electron microscopy images and circular dichroism spectra indicated that the spore cell wall was damaged by plasma treatment. The optical absorption spectrum of untreated N. crassa spores exhibited two resonance absorption bands at approximately λ1 ≈ 260 nm and λ2 ≈ 472 nm, originating from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and β-carotene. The Raman spectrum of untreated N. crassa spores exhibited three main peaks at 1519, 1157 and 1006 cm -1, attributed to β-carotene inside the cell wall. The Raman spectra showed that the APPJ treatment of N. crassa spores in water caused degradation of β-carotene, affecting the viability of spores.

  16. Circular dichroism studies of the mitochondrial channel, VDAC, from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Shao, L; Kinnally, K W; Mannella, C A

    1996-01-01

    The protein that forms the voltage-gated channel VDAC (or mitochondrial porin) has been purified from Neurospora crassa. At room temperature and pH 7, the circular dichoism (CD) spectrum of VDAC suspended in octyl beta-glucoside is similar to those of bacterial porins, consistent with a high beta-sheet content. When VDAC is reconstituted into phospholipid liposomes at pH 7, a similar CD spectrum is obtained and the liposomes are rendered permeable to sucrose. Heating VDAC in octyl beta-glucoside or in liposomes results in thermal denaturation. The CD spectrum irreversibly changes to one consistent with total loss of beta-sheet content, and VDAC-containing liposomes irreversibly lose sucrose permeability. When VDAC is suspended at room temperature in octyl beta-glucoside at pH < 5 or in sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 7, its CD spectrum is consistent with partial loss of beta-sheet content. The sucrose permeability of VDAC-containing liposomes is decreased at low pH and restored at pH 7. Similarly, the pH-dependent changes in the CD spectrum of VDAC suspended in octyl beta-glucoside also are reversible. These results suggest that VDAC undergoes a reversible conformational change at low pH involving reduced beta-sheet content and loss of pore-forming activity. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8842216

  17. Evidence that a formyl-substituted iron porphyrin is the prosthetic group of myeloperoxidase: magnetic circular dichroism similarity of the peroxidase to Spirographis heme-reconstituted myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Sono, M; Bracete, A M; Huff, A M; Ikeda-Saito, M; Dawson, J H

    1991-01-01

    To probe the identity of the active site heme-type prosthetic group of myeloperoxidase, whose structure has not been established unambiguously [proposed structures are (i) a chlorin (dihydroporphyrin) or (ii) a formyl-substituted porphyrin such as present in heme a], Spirographis heme (2-formyl-4-vinyldeuteroheme IX) has been incorporated into apo-myoglobin as a possible iron porphyrin model. Comparison of parallel derivatives of these two green proteins with magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals considerable similarities between several derivatives of these proteins, including the pyridine hemochromogen, the native ferric, ferrous-oxy, and ferrous-CO forms. In contrast, the magnetic circular dichroism spectra of available iron chlorin (octaethylchlorin) model complexes in analogous ligation and oxidation states do not show any significant spectral similarities to myeloperoxidase. This finding provides important evidence in favor of a formyl-substituted porphyrin as the structure of the prosthetic group macrocycle of myeloperoxidase. PMID:1662385

  18. A magnetic and electronic circular dichroism study of azurin, plastocyanin, cucumber basic protein, and nitrite reductase based on time-dependent density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhekova, Hristina R; Seth, Michael; Ziegler, Tom

    2010-06-03

    The excitation, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of small models of four blue copper proteins are simulated on the TDDFT/BP86 level. X-Ray diffraction geometries are used for the modeling of the blue copper sites in azurin, plastocyanin, cucumber basic protein, and nitrite reductase. Comparison with experimental data reveals that the calculations reproduce most of the qualitative trends of the observed experimental spectra with some discrepancies in the orbital decompositions and the values of the excitation energies, the g( parallel) components of the g tensor, and the components of the A tensor. These discrepancies are discussed relative to deficiencies in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methodology, as opposed to previous studies which address them as a result of insufficient model size or poor performance of the BP86 functional. In addition, attempts are made to elucidate the correlation between the MCD and EPR signals.

  19. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of tetragonal Mn72Ge28 epitaxial thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinhyeok; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Inami, Nobuhito; Ueno, Tetsuro; Ueda, Shigenori; Takanashi, Koki

    2018-04-01

    An epitaxially grown Mn72Ge28 film with a tetragonal crystal structure was fabricated. It was clarified that the film had a perpendicular magnetization and a high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy of 14.3 Merg/cm3. The electronic structure was investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectrum revealed that the Mn orbital magnetic moment governed the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Mn72Ge28 film. A doublet structure was observed for the Mn 2p3/2 peak of hard X-ray photoelectron spectrum, indicating the spin exchange interaction between the 2p core-hole and 3d valence electrons.

  20. Investigation into the energy-absorbing properties of multilayered circular thin-walled tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Aidong; Liu, Chuanhua; Hu, Gongli; Gu, Hongjun

    2002-05-01

    With the rise in collision accident and the increase in requirement for resistance of blastproof structures in recent years, people attach much importance to the research and application of energy-absorbing device. In this paper the author calculates the specific strength, the specific hardness and ultimate internal force of a circular thin-walled tube by theoretic calculations, discusses the feasibility of using circular thin-walled tube as an energy-absorbing element, analyzes the energy-absorbing properties and the energy-absorbing mechanism through the energy-absorbing experiments using various materials and forms of arrangement, reaches the conclusion that the load-bearing capacity and energy-absorbing properties of multilayered tubes are superior to that of single tube, and puts forward the concept of 'grading tube'.

  1. Thermal and urea-induced unfolding in T7 RNA polymerase: Calorimetry, circular dichroism and fluorescence study

    PubMed Central

    Griko, Yuri; Sreerama, Narasimha; Osumi-Davis, Patricia; Woody, Robert W.; Woody, A-Young Moon

    2001-01-01

    Structural changes in T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) induced by temperature and urea have been studied over a wide range of conditions to obtain information about the structural organization and the stability of the enzyme. T7RNAP is a large monomeric enzyme (99 kD). Calorimetric studies of the thermal transitions in T7RNAP show that the enzyme consists of three cooperative units that may be regarded as structural domains. Interactions between these structural domains and their stability strongly depend on solvent conditions. The unfolding of T7RNAP under different solvent conditions induces a highly stable intermediate state that lacks specific tertiary interactions, contains a significant amount of residual secondary structure, and undergoes further cooperative unfolding at high urea concentrations. Circular dichroism (CD) studies show that thermal unfolding leads to an intermediate state that has increased β-sheet and reduced α-helix content relative to the native state. Urea-induced unfolding at 25°C reveals a two-step process. The first transition centered near 3 M urea leads to a plateau from 3.5 to 5.0 M urea, followed by a second transition centered near 6.5 M urea. The CD spectrum of the enzyme in the plateau region, which is similar to that of the enzyme thermally unfolded in the absence of urea, shows little temperature dependence from 15° to 60°C. The second transition leads to a mixture of poly(Pro)II and unordered conformations. As the temperature increases, the ellipticity at 222 nm becomes more negative because of conversion of poly(Pro)II to the unordered conformation. Near-ultraviolet CD spectra at 25°C at varying concentrations of urea are consistent with this picture. Both thermal and urea denaturation are irreversible, presumably because of processes that follow unfolding. PMID:11274475

  2. Zeeman Splitting of Ferromagnetic GaMnAs on InP Observed by Magnetic Circular Dichroism in Reflection Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Bsatee, M.; Jadwisienczak, W. M.

    2016-08-01

    Systematic investigations of Ga1- x Mn x As grown on InP with different Mn concentrations have been conducted using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in reflection mode. The MCD spectrum of Ga0.97Mn0.03As/InP was decomposed into two dispersion curves originating from E 1 and E 1 + Δ1 optical transitions using the energy derivative of a Gaussian function. The Zeeman splitting energy E 1 at the L critical point (0.6 meV) of ferromagnetic Ga0.97Mn0.03As/InP was estimated using a rigid band shift model. Based on the relationship between E 1 and E 0 (Γ critical point) observed in Cd1- x Mn x Te dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS), the Zeeman splitting energy E 1 (9.6 meV) of ferromagnetic Ga1- x Mn x As/InP was calculated. In addition, it was established that the peaks in the MCD spectra at L critical points shift toward the lower energy side as the Mn concentration is increased, and the observed shift saturates for Mn content of x = 0.001. Furthermore, the measured absorption spectra for Ga1- x Mn x As/InP did not show noticeable peak shifts with increasing Mn content. This suggests that the s, p- d exchange interaction induced in Ga1- x Mn x As/InP has localized nature due to the presence of a Mn rigid sphere of influence.

  3. Effects of central metal ions on vibrational circular dichroism spectra of tris-(beta-diketonato)metal(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisako; Taniguchi, Tohru; Nakahashi, Atsufumi; Monde, Kenji; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2007-08-06

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of a series of [M(III)(acac)3] (acac = acetylacetonato; M = Cr, Co, Ru, Rh, Ir, and Al) and [M(III)(acac)2(dbm)] (dbm = dibenzoylmethanato; M = Cr, Co, and Ru) have been investigated experimentally and/or theoretically in order to see the effect of the central metal ion on the vibrational dynamics of ligands. The optical antipodes give the mirror-imaged spectra in the region of 1700-1000 cm(-1). The remarkable effect of the central metal ion is observed experimentally on the VCD peaks due to C-O stretches (1500-1300 cm(-1)) for both [M(III)(acac)3] and [M(III)(acac)2(dbm)]. In the case of Delta-[M(III)(acac)3], for example, the order of frequency of two C-O stretches (E and A2 symmetries) is dependent on the kind of a central metal ion as follows: E (-) > A2 (+) for M = Co, Rh, and Ir, while A2 (+) > E (-) for M = Cr and Ru. In the case of Delta-[M(III)(acac)2(dbm)], the order of frequency of three C-O stretches (A, B, and B symmetries) is as follows: A (-) > B (+) > B (+) for Co(III), B (+) > A (-) > B (-) for Cr(III), and A (-) > B (+) > B (-) for Ru(III). These results imply that the energy levels of C-O stretches are delicately affected by the kind of central metal ion. Since such detailed information is not obtained from the IR spectra alone, the VCD spectrum can probe the effect of the central metal ion on interligand cooperative vibration modes.

  4. Circular dichroism and site-directed spin labeling reveal structural and dynamical features of high-pressure states of myoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Michael T.; Horwitz, Joseph; McCoy, John; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-01-01

    Excited states of proteins may play important roles in function, yet are difficult to study spectroscopically because of their sparse population. High hydrostatic pressure increases the equilibrium population of excited states, enabling their characterization [Akasaka K (2003) Biochemistry 42:10875–85]. High-pressure site-directed spin-labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR) was developed recently to map the site-specific structure and dynamics of excited states populated by pressure. To monitor global secondary structure content by circular dichroism (CD) at high pressure, a modified optical cell using a custom MgF2 window with a reduced aperture is introduced. Here, a combination of SDSL-EPR and CD is used to map reversible structural transitions in holomyoglobin and apomyoglobin (apoMb) as a function of applied pressure up to 2 kbar. CD shows that the high-pressure excited state of apoMb at pH 6 has helical content identical to that of native apoMb, but reversible changes reflecting the appearance of a conformational ensemble are observed by SDSL-EPR, suggesting a helical topology that fluctuates slowly on the EPR time scale. Although the high-pressure state of apoMb at pH 6 has been referred to as a molten globule, the data presented here reveal significant differences from the well-characterized pH 4.1 molten globule of apoMb. Pressure-populated states of both holomyoglobin and apoMb at pH 4.1 have significantly less helical structure, and for the latter, that may correspond to a transient folding intermediate. PMID:24248390

  5. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in amorphous NdxCo1 -x thin films studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, R.; Alameda, J. M.; Valvidares, S. M.; Cezar, J. C.; Bencok, P.; Brookes, N. B.; Díaz, J.

    2017-06-01

    The origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in amorphous NdxCo1 -x thin films is investigated using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy at the Co L2 ,3 and Nd M4 ,5 edges. The magnetic orbital and spin moments of the 3 d cobalt and 4 f neodymium electrons were measured as a function of the magnetic field orientation, neodymium concentration, and temperature. In all the studied samples, the magnetic anisotropy of the neodymium subnetwork is always oriented perpendicular to the plane, whereas the anisotropy of the orbital moment of cobalt is in the basal plane. The ratio Lz/Sz of the neodymium 4 f orbitals changes with the sample orientation angle, being higher and closer to the atomic expected value at normal orientation and smaller at grazing angles. This result is well explained by assuming that the 4 f orbital is distorted by the effect of an anisotropic crystal field when it is magnetized along its hard axis, clearly indicating that the 4 f states are not rotationally invariant. The magnetic anisotropy energy associated to the neodymium subnetwork should be proportional to this distortion, which we demonstrate is accessible by applying the XMCD sum rules for the spin and intensity at the Nd M4 ,5 edges. The analysis unveils a significant portion of neodymium atoms magnetically uncoupled to cobalt, i.e., paramagnetic, confirming the inhomogeneity of the films and the presence of a highly disordered neodymium rich phase already detected by extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The presence of these inhomogeneities is inherent to the evaporation preparation method when the chosen concentration in the alloy is far from its eutectic concentrations. An interesting consequence of the particular way in which cobalt and neodymium segregates in this system is the enhancement of the cobalt spin moment which reaches 1.95 μB in the sample with the largest segregation.

  6. Ag(I)-mediated homo and hetero pairs of guanosine and cytidine: monitoring by circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Iryna

    2014-01-24

    Ag(I)-containing compounds are attractive as antibacterial and antifungal agents. The renewed interest in the application of silver(I) compounds has led to the need for detailed knowledge of the mechanism of their action. One of the possible ways is the coordination of Ag(I) to G-C pairs of DNA, where Ag(+) ions form Ag(I)-mediated base pairs and inhibit the transcription. Herein, a systematic chiroptical study on silver(I)-mediated homo and mixed pairs of the C-G complementary-base derivatives cytidine(C) and 5'-guanosine monophosphate(G) in water is presented. Ag(I)-mediated homo and hetero pairs of G and C and their self-assembled species were studied under two pH levels (7.0 and 10.0) by vibrational (VCD) and electronic circular dichroism(ECD). VCD was used for the first time in this field and showed itself to be a powerful method for obtaining specific structural information in solution. Based on results of the VCD experiments, the different geometries of the homo pairs were proposed under pH 7.0 and 10.0. ECD was used as a diagnostic tool to characterize the studied systems and as a contact point between the previously defined structures of the metal or proton mediated pairs of nucleobases and the systems studied here. On the basis of the obtained data, the formation of the self-assembled species of cytidine with a structure similar to the i-motif structure in DNA was proposed at pH 10.0. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ag(I)-mediated homo and hetero pairs of guanosine and cytidine: Monitoring by circular dichroism spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharova, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Ag(I)-containing compounds are attractive as antibacterial and antifungal agents. The renewed interest in the application of silver(I) compounds has led to the need for detailed knowledge of the mechanism of their action. One of the possible ways is the coordination of Ag(I) to G-C pairs of DNA, where Ag+ ions form Ag(I)-mediated base pairs and inhibit the transcription. Herein, a systematic chiroptical study on silver(I)-mediated homo and mixed pairs of the C-G complementary-base derivatives cytidine(C) and 5‧-guanosine monophosphate(G) in water is presented. Ag(I)-mediated homo and hetero pairs of G and C and their self-assembled species were studied under two pH levels (7.0 and 10.0) by vibrational (VCD) and electronic circular dichroism(ECD). VCD was used for the first time in this field and showed itself to be a powerful method for obtaining specific structural information in solution. Based on results of the VCD experiments, the different geometries of the homo pairs were proposed under pH 7.0 and 10.0. ECD was used as a diagnostic tool to characterize the studied systems and as a contact point between the previously defined structures of the metal or proton mediated pairs of nucleobases and the systems studied here. On the basis of the obtained data, the formation of the self-assembled species of cytidine with a structure similar to the i-motif structure in DNA was proposed at pH 10.0.

  8. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in d and f ferromagnetic materials: recent theoretical progress. Part II (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. N.; Shpak, A. P.; Yaresko, A. N.

    2008-02-01

    The present state of theoretical understanding of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of 4f and 5f compounds is reviewed. Energy band theory based upon the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) describes the XMCD spectra of transition metal compounds with high accuracy. However, the LSDA does not suffice for lanthanide compounds which have a correlated 4f shell. A satisfactory description of the XMCD spectra could be obtained by using a generalization of the LSDA, in which explicitly f electron Coulomb correlations are taken into account (LSDA +U approach). As examples of this group we consider the compound GdN. We also consider uranium 5f compounds. In those compounds where the 5f electrons are rather delocalized, the LSDA describes the XMCD spectra reasonably well. As an example of this group we consider UFe2. Particular differences occur for uranium compounds in which the 5f electrons are neither delocalized nor localized, but more or less semilocalized. Typical examples are UXAl (X =Co, Rh, and Pt), and UX (X =S, Se, Te). However, the semilocalized 5f's are not inert, but their interaction with conduction electrons plays an important role. We also consider the electronic structure and XMCD spectra of the heavy-fermion compounds UPt3, URu2Si2, UPd2Al3, UNi2Al3, and UBe13, where the degree of the 5f localization is increased in comparison with other uranium compounds. The electronic structure and XMCD spectra of UGe2 which possesses simultaneously ferromagnetism and superconductivity also presented. Recently achieved improvements for describing 5f compounds are discussed.

  9. Aromatic Cluster Sensor of Protein Folding: Near-UV Electronic Circular Dichroism Bands Assigned to Fold Compactness.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Viktor; Jákli, Imre; Tóth, Gábor K; Perczel, András

    2016-09-19

    Both far- and near-UV electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra have bands sensitive to thermal unfolding of Trp and Tyr residues containing proteins. Beside spectral changes at 222 nm reporting secondary structural variations (far-UV range), L b bands (near-UV range) are applicable as 3D-fold sensors of protein's core structure. In this study we show that both L b (Tyr) and L b (Trp) ECD bands could be used as sensors of fold compactness. ECD is a relative method and thus requires NMR referencing and cross-validation, also provided here. The ensemble of 204 ECD spectra of Trp-cage miniproteins is analysed as a training set for "calibrating" Trp↔Tyr folded systems of known NMR structure. While in the far-UV ECD spectra changes are linear as a function of the temperature, near-UV ECD data indicate a non-linear and thus, cooperative unfolding mechanism of these proteins. Ensemble of ECD spectra deconvoluted gives both conformational weights and insight to a protein folding↔unfolding mechanism. We found that the L b 293 band is reporting on the 3D-structure compactness. In addition, the pure near-UV ECD spectrum of the unfolded state is described here for the first time. Thus, ECD folding information now validated can be applied with confidence in a large thermal window (5≤T≤85 °C) compared to NMR for studying the unfolding of Trp↔Tyr residue pairs. In conclusion, folding propensities of important proteins (RNA polymerase II, ubiquitin protein ligase, tryptase-inhibitor etc.) can now be analysed with higher confidence. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A combined binding mechanism of nonionic ethoxylated surfactants to bovine serum albumin revealed by fluorescence and circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Iovescu, Alina; Băran, Adriana; Stîngă, Gabriela; Cantemir-Leontieş, Anca Ruxandra; Maxim, Monica Elisabeta; Anghel, Dan Florin

    2015-12-01

    The study systematically investigates aqueous mixtures of fixed bovine serum albumin (BSA) and various ethoxylated nonionic surfactants belonging to a homologous series or not. Mono-disperse tetra-(C12E4), hexa-(C12E6) and octa-ethyleneglycol mono-n-dodecyl ether (C12E8), and poly-disperse eicosa-ethyleneglycol mono-n-tetradecyl ether (C14EO20) are respectively employed. Fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements are performed at surfactant/protein molar ratios (rm)s lower and higher than one. We aim to get new insights into the binding mechanism of these species and to differentiate among the interaction abilities of these surfactants. The relative magnitude of the binding thermodynamic parameters by fluorescence, and the increase of α-helix prove that hydrogen bonding drives the interaction next to the hydrophobic attraction. C12En (n=4,6,8) develop more H bonds with the albumin than C14EO20 owing to a zigzag conformation of their short ethyleneoxide chains. Among the homologous surfactants, C12E6 has a slightly stronger interaction with BSA due to a maximal number of H bonds at a minimal hindering. Static fluorescence and dynamic fluorescence indicate an inter-conversion between the tryptophan (Trp) rotamers which happens around the surfactants critical micellar concentration. For C14EO20, the meander conformation of the polar group determines a less evident conversion of the Trp rotamers and smaller α-helix rise. Binding isotherms of the homologous surfactants and the fluorescence quenching mechanism by C12E6 are also provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural rearrangements in chloroplast thylakoid membranes revealed by differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Thermo-optic effect.

    PubMed

    Dobrikova, Anelia G; Várkonyi, Zsuzsanna; Krumova, Sashka B; Kovács, László; Kostov, Georgi K; Todinova, Svetla J; Busheva, Mira C; Taneva, Stefka G; Garab, Gyozo

    2003-09-30

    The thermo-optic mechanism in thylakoid membranes was earlier identified by measuring the thermal and light stabilities of pigment arrays with different levels of structural complexity [Cseh, Z., et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 15250-15257]. (According to the thermo-optic mechanism, fast local thermal transients, arising from the dissipation of excess, photosynthetically not used, excitation energy, induce elementary structural changes due to the "built-in" thermal instabilities of the given structural units.) The same mechanism was found to be responsible for the light-induced trimer-to-monomer transition in LHCII, the main chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII) [Garab, G., et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 15121-15129]. In this paper, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy on thylakoid membranes of barley and pea are used to correlate the thermo-optically inducible structural changes with well-discernible calorimetric transitions. The thylakoid membranes exhibited six major DSC bands, with maxima between about 43 and 87 degrees C. The heat sorption curves were analyzed both by mathematical deconvolution of the overall endotherm and by a successive annealing procedure; these yielded similar thermodynamic parameters, transition temperature and calorimetric enthalpy. A systematic comparison of the DSC and CD data on samples with different levels of complexity revealed that the heat-induced disassembly of chirally organized macrodomains contributes profoundly to the first endothermic event, a weak and broad DSC band between 43 and 48 degrees C. Similarly to the main macrodomain-associated CD signals, this low enthalpy band could be diminished by prolonged photoinhibitory preillumination, the extent of which depended on the temperature of preillumination. By means of nondenaturing, "green" gel electrophoresis and CD fingerprinting, it is shown that the second main endotherm, around 60 degrees C

  12. Quantitatively analyzing the mechanism of giant circular dichroism in extrinsic plasmonic chiral nanostructures by tracking the interplay of electric and magnetic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Tian, Xiaorui; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Liang; Fang, Yurui

    2016-02-14

    Plasmonic chirality has drawn much attention because of tunable circular dichroism (CD) and the enhancement for chiral molecule signals. Although various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the plasmonic CD, a quantitative explanation like the ab initio mechanism for chiral molecules, is still unavailable. In this study, a mechanism similar to the mechanisms associated with chiral molecules was analyzed. The giant extrinsic circular dichroism of a plasmonic splitting rectangle ring was quantitatively investigated from a theoretical standpoint. The interplay of the electric and magnetic modes of the meta-structure is proposed to explain the giant CD. We analyzed the interplay using both an analytical coupled electric-magnetic dipole model and a finite element method model. The surface charge distributions showed that the circular current yielded by the splitting rectangle ring causes the ring to behave like a magneton at some resonant modes, which then interact with the electric modes, resulting in a mixing of the two types of modes. The strong interplay of the two mode types is primarily responsible for the giant CD. The analysis of the chiral near-field of the structure shows potential applications for chiral molecule sensing.

  13. Vibrational circular dichroism of a 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) peptide: Evidence for dimer formation in cyclo LL or LD diphenylalanine in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mellor, Ariel; Zehnacker, Anne

    2017-02-01

    The diastereomer diketopiperazine (DKP) peptides built on phenylalanine, namely, cyclo diphenylalanine LPhe-LPhe and LPhe-DPhe, were studied in the solid phase by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) coupled to quantum chemical calculations. The unit structure of cyclo LPhe-LPhe in KBr pellets is a dimer bridged by two strong NH…O hydrogen bonds. The intense bisignate signature in the CO stretch region is interpreted in terms of two contributions arising from the free COs of the dimer and the antisymmetrical combination of the bound COs. In contrast, cyclo LPhe-DPhe shows no VCD signal in relation to its symmetric nature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multi-frame acquisition scheme for efficient energy-dispersive X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in pulsed high magnetic fields at the Fe K-edge

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Cornelius; Perrin, Florian; Dominguez, Marie-Christine; Headspith, Jon; van der Linden, Peter; Mathon, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Using a fast silicon strip detector, a multi-frame acquisition scheme was implemented to perform energy-dispersive X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the iron K-edge in pulsed high magnetic fields. The acquisition scheme makes use of the entire field pulse. The quality of the signal obtained from samples of ferrimagnetic erbium iron garnet allows for quantitative evaluation of the signal amplitude. Below the compensation point, two successive field-induced phase transitions and the reversal of the net magnetization of the iron sublattices in the intermediate phase were observed. PMID:21335909

  15. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. II. Three- and four-photon ionization of fenchone and camphor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne D; Artemyev, Anton N; Demekhin, Philipp V

    2018-06-07

    Angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of fenchone and camphor by short intense laser pulses is computed by the time-dependent single center method. Thereby, the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the three-photon resonance enhanced ionization and four-photon above-threshold ionization of these molecules is investigated in detail. The computational results are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data, measured for randomly oriented fenchone and camphor molecules at different wavelengths of the exciting pulses. We predict a significant enhancement of the multiphoton PECD for uniaxially oriented fenchone and camphor.

  16. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. II. Three- and four-photon ionization of fenchone and camphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Anne D.; Artemyev, Anton N.; Demekhin, Philipp V.

    2018-06-01

    Angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of fenchone and camphor by short intense laser pulses is computed by the time-dependent single center method. Thereby, the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the three-photon resonance enhanced ionization and four-photon above-threshold ionization of these molecules is investigated in detail. The computational results are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data, measured for randomly oriented fenchone and camphor molecules at different wavelengths of the exciting pulses. We predict a significant enhancement of the multiphoton PECD for uniaxially oriented fenchone and camphor.

  17. Lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) as useful probes for chirality determination of biological amino alcohols in vibrational circular dichroism: ligand to ligand chirality transfer in lanthanide coordination sphere.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiroyuki; Terada, Keiko; Tsukube, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    A series of lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) functioned as useful chirality probes in the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) characterization of biological amino alcohols. Various chiral amino alcohols induced intense VCD signals upon ternary complexation with racemic lanthanide tris(β-diketonates). The VCD signals observed around 1500 cm(-1) (β-diketonate IR absorption region) correlated well with the stereochemistry and enantiomeric purity of the targeted amino alcohol, while the corresponding monoalcohol, monoamine, and diol substrates induced very weak VCD signals. The high-coordination number and dynamic property of the lanthanide complex offer an effective chirality VCD probing of biological substrates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Modeling of Viscoelastic Circular Plates for Use as Waveguide Absorbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    oncituoe Security Ciasstircation) X THE MODELING OF VISCOELASTIC CIRCULAR PLATES FOR USE AS WAVEGUIDE ABSORBERS C 12 PERSONAL AUTmO ?S) -Hettema...33mvU3dT’U Figure 67. Experimental Jmainiey Part ot the Driving Point Jmpedancs of a 6 in Radius Elastic Plate, With and Without aaker and Mount Conecon, In

  19. Specific features of the circular dichroism of a chiral photonic crystal with a defect layer inside in the presence of a gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The specific features of the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layer with a defect layer inside in the presence of gain have been investigated. The features of the dependence of CD on the parameter characterizing the gain on the defect mode are analyzed for two cases: (i) gain is present in the defect layer and is absent in the CLC sublayers and (ii) gain is absent in the defect layer but is present in the CLC sublayers. It is shown that these dependences significantly differ in the two aforementioned cases. The dependences of the reflection, transmission, and absorption on the defect mode on the gain parameter have been investigated for incident light with both circular polarizations.

  20. Circular dichroism and optical absorption spectra of mononuclear and trinuclear chiral Cu(II) amino-alcohol coordinated compounds: A combined theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Israel; Ávila-Torres, Yenny; Barba-Behrens, Norah; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the physicochemical properties of biomimetic compounds of multicopper oxidases are fundamental to understand their reaction mechanisms and catalytic behavior. In this work, electronic, optical, and chiroptical properties of copper(II) complexes with amino-alcohol chiral ligands are theoretically studied by means of time-dependent density functional theory. The calculated absorption and circular dichroism spectra are compared with experimental measurements of these spectra for an uncoordinated pseudoephedrine derivative, as well as for the corresponding mononuclear and trinuclear copper(II)-coordinated complexes. This comparison is useful to gain insights into their electronic structure, optical absorption and optical activity. The optical absorption and circular dichroism bands of the pseudoephedrine derivative are located in the UV-region. They are mainly due to transitions originated from n to π anti-bonding orbitals of the alcohol and amino groups, as well as from π bonding to π anti-bonding orbitals of carboxyl and phenyl groups. In the case of the mononuclear and trinuclear compounds, additional signals in the visible spectral region are present. In both systems, the origin of these bands is due to charge transfer from ligand to metal and d-d transitions.

  1. Electronic structure and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in Mn-doped topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. N.; Bekenov, L. V.; Uba, S.; Ernst, A.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Mn-doped topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 within the density-functional theory (DFT) using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the framework of the fully relativistic spin-polarized Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital band-structure method. The x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Mn K and L2 ,3 edges were investigated theoretically from first principles. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data. The complex fine structure of the Mn L2 ,3 XAS in Mn-doped Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 was found to be not compatible with a pure Mn3 + valency state. Its interpretation demands mixed valent states. The theoretically calculated x-ray emission spectra at the Mn K and L2 ,3 edges are also presented and analyzed.

  2. A high-performance liquid chromatography-electronic circular dichroism online method for assessing the absolute enantiomeric excess and conversion ratio of asymmetric reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Mingchao; Li, Li; Yin, Dali

    2017-03-01

    Asymmetric reactions often need to be evaluated during the synthesis of chiral compounds. However, traditional evaluation methods require the isolation of the individual enantiomer, which is tedious and time-consuming. Thus, it is desirable to develop simple, practical online detection methods. We developed a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electronic circular dichroism (HPLC-ECD) that simultaneously analyzes the material conversion ratio and absolute optical purity of each enantiomer. In particular, only a reverse-phase C18 column instead of a chiral column is required in our method because the ECD measurement provides a g-factor that describes the ratio of each enantiomer in the mixtures. We used our method to analyze the asymmetric hydrosilylation of β-enamino esters, and we discussed the advantage, feasibility, and effectiveness of this new methodology.

  3. A rapid alternative to X-ray crystallography for chiral determination: case studies of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) to advance drug discovery projects.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Steven S; Pivonka, Don E

    2013-07-15

    The absolute stereochemistry of chiral drugs is usually established via X-ray crystallography. However, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy coupled with quantum mechanics simulations offers a rapid alternative to crystallography and is readily applied to both crystalline and non-crystalline samples. VCD is an effective complement to X-ray analysis of drug candidates, and it can be used as a high-throughput means of assessing absolute stereochemistry at all phases of the discovery process (hundreds of assignments per year). The practical implementation (or fee-for-service outsourcing) of VCD and selected case studies are illustrated with an emphasis on providing utility and impact to pharmaceutical discovery programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranium 5f shell in UPd2Al3 and URu2Si2 studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaouanc, A.; Dalmas de Réotier, P.; van der Laan, G.; Hiess, A.; Goulon, J.; Neumann, C.; Lejay, P.; Sato, N.

    1998-10-01

    We report x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements performed at the uranium M4,5 edges in the paramagnetic phase of the heavy fermion superconductors UPd2Al3 and URu2Si2. The analysis of the spectra with the first sum rule yields the orbital moment of the 5f shell for both compounds. The shape of the dichroic spectrum at the M5 edge for the two compounds is qualitatively different: a single lobe is observed for URu2Si2 and two lobes are detected for UPd2Al3. This two lobe structure reflects the strong effect of the interaction of the uranium 5f electrons with their environment in the latter compound.

  5. Application of Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy to the Analysis of the Interaction Between the Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Coactivators: The Case of Calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Miclet, Emeric; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Byrne, Cillian; Jacquot, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor α ligand-binding domain (ERα-LBD) binds the natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) to induce transcription and cell proliferation. This process occurs with the contribution of protein and peptide partners (also called coactivators) that can modulate the structure of ERα, and therefore its specificity of action. As with most transcription factors, ERα exhibits a high content of α helix, making it difficult to routinely run spectroscopic studies capable of deciphering the secondary structure of the different partners under binding conditions. Ca(2+)-calmodulin, a protein also highly structured in α-helix, is a key coactivator for ERα activity. Here, we show how circular dichroism can be used to study the interaction of ERα with Ca(2+)-calmodulin. Our approach allows the determination not only of the conformational changes induced upon complex formation but also the dissociation constant (K d) of this interaction.

  6. A compact permanent-magnet system for measuring magnetic circular dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Jun; Suga, Shigemasa; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Niwa, Hideharu; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2017-03-01

    A compact and portable magnet system for measuring magnetic dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (SX-RIXS) has been developed at the beamline BL07LSU in SPring-8. A magnetic circuit composed of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, which realised ∼0.25 T at the center of an 11 mm gap, was rotatable around the axis perpendicular to the X-ray scattering plane. Using the system, a SX-RIXS spectrum was obtained under the application of the magnetic field at an angle parallel, nearly 45° or perpendicular to the incident X-rays. A dedicated sample stage was also designed to be as compact as possible, making it possible to perform SX-RIXS measurements at arbitrary incident angles by rotating the sample stage in the gap between the magnetic poles. This system enables facile studies of magnetic dichroism in SX-RIXS for various experimental geometries of the sample and the magnetic field. A brief demonstration of the application is presented.

  7. Vibrational and electronic circular dichroism study of the interactions of cationic porphyrins with (dG-dC)10 and (dA-dT)10.

    PubMed

    Nový, Jakub; Urbanová, Marie

    2007-03-01

    The interactions of two different porphyrins, without axial ligands-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin-Cu(II) tetrachloride (Cu(II)TMPyP) and with bulky meso substituents-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N,N,N-trimethylanilinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetrachloride (TMAP), with (dG-dC)10 and (dA-dT)10 were studied by combination of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy at different [oligonucleotide]/[porphyrin] ratios, where [oligonucleotide] and [porphyrin] are the concentrations of oligonucleotide per base-pair and porphyrin, respectively. The combination of VCD and ECD spectroscopy enables us to identify the types of interactions, and to specify the sites of interactions: The intercalative binding mode of Cu(II)TMPyP with (dG-dC)(10), which has been well described, was characterized by a new VCD "marker" and it was shown that the interaction of Cu(II)TMPyP with (dA-dT)10 via external binding to the phosphate backbone and major groove binding caused transition from the B to the non-B conformer. TMAP interacted with the major groove of (dG-dC)10, was semi-intercalated into (dA-dT)10, and caused significant variation in the structure of both oligonucleotides at the higher concentration of porphyrin. The spectroscopic techniques used in this study revealed that porphyrin binding with AT sequences caused substantial variation of the DNA structure. It was shown that VCD spectroscopy is an effective tool for the conformational studies of nucleic acid-porphyrin complexes in solution. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modified spectrophotometer for multi-dimensional circular dichroism/fluorescence data acquisition in titration experiments: application to the pH and guanidine-HCI induced unfolding of apomyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, G; Ionescu, R; Eftink, M R

    1995-08-01

    In a previous paper (Ramsay and Eftink, Biophys. J. 66:516-523) we reported the development of a modified spectrophotometer that can make nearly simultaneous circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence measurements. This arrangement allows multiple data sets to be collected during a single experiment, resulting in a saving of time and material, and improved correlation between the different types of measurements. The usefulness of the instrument was shown by thermal melting experiments on several different protein systems. This CD/fluorometer spectrophotometer has been further modified by interfacing with a syringe pump and a pH meter. This arrangement allows ligand, pH, and chemical denaturation titration experiments to be performed while monitoring changes in the sample's CD, absorbance, fluorescence, and light scattering properties. Our data acquisition program also has an ability to check whether the signals have approached equilibrium before the data is recorded. For performing pH titrations we have developed a procedure which uses the signal from a pH meter in a feedback circuit in order to collect data at evenly spaced pH intervals. We demonstrate the use of this instrument with studies of the unfolding of sperm whale apomyoglobin, as induced by acid pH and by the addition of guanidine-HCI.

  9. Modified spectrophotometer for multi-dimensional circular dichroism/fluorescence data acquisition in titration experiments: application to the pH and guanidine-HCI induced unfolding of apomyoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, G; Ionescu, R; Eftink, M R

    1995-01-01

    In a previous paper (Ramsay and Eftink, Biophys. J. 66:516-523) we reported the development of a modified spectrophotometer that can make nearly simultaneous circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence measurements. This arrangement allows multiple data sets to be collected during a single experiment, resulting in a saving of time and material, and improved correlation between the different types of measurements. The usefulness of the instrument was shown by thermal melting experiments on several different protein systems. This CD/fluorometer spectrophotometer has been further modified by interfacing with a syringe pump and a pH meter. This arrangement allows ligand, pH, and chemical denaturation titration experiments to be performed while monitoring changes in the sample's CD, absorbance, fluorescence, and light scattering properties. Our data acquisition program also has an ability to check whether the signals have approached equilibrium before the data is recorded. For performing pH titrations we have developed a procedure which uses the signal from a pH meter in a feedback circuit in order to collect data at evenly spaced pH intervals. We demonstrate the use of this instrument with studies of the unfolding of sperm whale apomyoglobin, as induced by acid pH and by the addition of guanidine-HCI. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8527683

  10. Valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer MoS2 probed by low-field magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. J.; Shen, C.; Tan, Q. H.; Shi, J.; Liu, X. F.; Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, J.; Tan, P. H.; Zheng, H. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer two-dimensional (2D) materials in the magnetic field plays an important role in the valley and spin manipulations. In general, a high magnetic field (6-65 T) and low temperature (2-30 K) were two key measurement conditions to observe the resolvable valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer 2D materials in current reported experiments. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate an effective measurement scheme by employing magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, which enables us to distinguish the valley Zeeman splitting under a relatively low magnetic field of 1 T at room temperature. MCD peaks related to both A and B excitonic transitions in monolayer MoS2 can be clearly observed. Based on the MCD spectra under different magnetic fields (-3 to 3 T), we obtained the valley Zeeman splitting energy and the g-factors of A and B excitons, respectively. Our results show that MCD spectroscopy is a high-sensitive magneto-optical technique to explore the valley and spin manipulation in 2D materials.

  11. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in α -Fe2O3 measured by magnetic circular dichroism in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Jun; Suga, Shigemasa; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Urasaki, Masato; Ikeno, Hidekazu; Niwa, Hideharu; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2017-12-01

    Fe L2 ,3-edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) of α -Fe2O3 were measured to identify the electronic structure responsible for its weak ferromagnetism caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) at room temperature. In contrast to negligible MCD in XAS, MCD in RIXS (RIXS-MCD) was clearly observed in the d d excitation at 1.8 eV via excitation to charge-transfer states. Furthermore, RIXS-MCD showed a crystal orientation dependence, indicating that the observed RIXS-MCD originated from DMI. The observed RIXS-MCD is well described by ab initio charge-transfer multiplet calculations, revealing that the RIXS-MCD derives from spin flip excitations at delocalized eg orbitals. By the combination of the experiments and calculations, RIXS-MCD has unraveled that the origin of DMI in α -Fe2O3 is the eg orbitals, which are strongly hybridized with the 2 p orbitals of oxygen atoms. The results demonstrate the importance of RIXS-MCD for identifying the electronic structure related to DMI.

  12. Element-specific observation of the ferromagnetic ordering process in UCoAl via soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Okane, Tetsuo; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2018-05-01

    We have performed soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments on the itinerant-electron metamagnet UCoAl at the U 4 d -5 f (N4 ,5) and Co 2 p -3 d (L2 ,3) absorption edges in order to investigate the magnetic properties of the U 5 f and Co 3 d electrons separately. From the line shape of the XMCD spectrum, it is deduced that the orbital magnetic moment of the Co 3 d electrons is unusually large. Through the systematic temperature (T )- and magnetic field (H )-dependent XMCD measurements, we have obtained two types of the magnetization curve as a function of H and T (M-H curve and M-T curve, respectively). The metamagnetic transition from a paramagnetic state to a field-induced ferromagnetic state was clearly observed under 15 K at HM. The value of the HM and its T dependence agree well between the U and Co sites, and the bulk magnetization. Whereas, we have discovered the remarkable differences in the M-H and M-T curves between the U and Co sites. The present findings clearly show that the role of the Co 3 d electrons should be considered more carefully in order to understand the origin of the magnetic ordering in UCoAl.

  13. Quantitative analysis of magnetic spin and orbital moments from an oxidized iron (1 1 0) surface using electron magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Thersleff, Thomas; Rusz, Jan; Rubino, Stefano; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin; Ito, Yasuo; J Zaluzec, Nestor; Leifer, Klaus

    2015-08-17

    Understanding the ramifications of reduced crystalline symmetry on magnetic behavior is a critical step in improving our understanding of nanoscale and interfacial magnetism. However, investigations of such effects are often controversial largely due to the challenges inherent in directly correlating nanoscale stoichiometry and structure to magnetic behavior. Here, we describe how to use Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) to obtain Electron Magnetic Circular Dichroism (EMCD) signals as a function of scattering angle to locally probe the magnetic behavior of thin oxide layers grown on an Fe (1 1 0) surface. Experiments and simulations both reveal a strong dependence of the magnetic orbital to spin ratio on its scattering vector in reciprocal space. We exploit this variation to extract the magnetic properties of the oxide cladding layer, showing that it locally may exhibit an enhanced orbital to spin moment ratio. This finding is supported here by both spatially and angularly resolved EMCD measurements, opening up the way for compelling investigations into how magnetic properties are affected by nanoscale features.

  14. Quantitative analysis of magnetic spin and orbital moments from an oxidized iron (1 1 0) surface using electron magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE PAGES

    Thersleff, Thomas; Rusz, Jan; Rubino, Stefano; ...

    2015-08-17

    Understanding the ramifications of reduced crystalline symmetry on magnetic behavior is a critical step in improving our understanding of nanoscale and interfacial magnetism. However, investigations of such effects are often controversial largely due to the challenges inherent in directly correlating nanoscale stoichiometry and structure to magnetic behavior. Here, we describe how to use Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) to obtain Electron Magnetic Circular Dichroism (EMCD) signals as a function of scattering angle to locally probe the magnetic behavior of thin oxide layers grown on an Fe (1 1 0) surface. Experiments and simulations both reveal a strong dependence of the magneticmore » orbital to spin ratio on its scattering vector in reciprocal space. We exploit this variation to extract the magnetic properties of the oxide cladding layer, showing that it locally may exhibit an enhanced orbital to spin moment ratio. This finding is supported here by both spatially and angularly resolved EMCD measurements, opening up the way for compelling investigations into how magnetic properties are affected by nanoscale features.« less

  15. Proteolytically-induced changes of secondary structural protein conformation of bovine serum albumin monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-circular dichroism spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, Günnur; Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatically-induced degradation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by serine proteases (trypsin and α-chymotrypsin) in various concentrations was monitored by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy. In this study, the applicability of both spectroscopies to monitor the proteolysis process in real time has been proven, by tracking the spectral changes together with secondary structure analysis of BSA as proteolysis proceeds. On the basis of the FTIR spectra and the changes in the amide I band region, we suggest the progression of proteolysis process via conversion of α-helices (1654 cm- 1) into unordered structures and an increase in the concentration of free carboxylates (absorption of 1593 and 1402 cm- 1). For the first time, the correlation between the degree of hydrolysis and the concentration of carboxylic groups measured by FTIR spectroscopy was revealed as well. The far UV-CD spectra together with their secondary structure analysis suggest that the α-helical content decreases concomitant with an increase in the unordered structure. Both spectroscopic techniques also demonstrate that there are similar but less spectral changes of BSA for the trypsin attack than for α-chymotrypsin although the substrate/enzyme ratio is taken the same.

  16. Salts employed in hydrophobic interaction chromatography can change protein structure - insights from protein-ligand interaction thermodynamics, circular dichroism spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Komaromy, Andras Z; Kulsing, Chadin; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-03-01

    Key requirements of protein purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) are preservation of the tertiary/quaternary structure, maintenance of biological function, and separation of the correctly folded protein from its unfolded forms or aggregates. This study examines the relationship between the HIC retention behavior of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) in high concentrations of several kosmotropic salts and its conformation, assessed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Further, the physicochemical properties of HEWL in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and magnesium chloride were investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at different temperatures. Radii of gyration were extrapolated from Guinier approximations and the indirect transform program GNOM with protein-protein interaction and contrast variation taken into account. A bead model simulation provided information on protein structural changes using ab initio reconstruction with GASBOR. These results correlated to the secondary structure content obtained from CD spectroscopy of HEWL. These changes in SAXS and CD data were consistent with heat capacity ΔCp -values obtained from van't Hoff plot analyses of the retention data. Collectively, these insights enable informed decisions to be made on the choice of chromatographic conditions, leading to improved separation selectivity and opportunities for innovative column-assisted protein refolding methods. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Magnetic states of Mn and Co atoms at Co2MnGe/MgO interfaces seen via soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, D.; Koide, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Shioya, T.; Amemiya, K.; Singh, V. R.; Kataoka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Taira, T.; Yamamoto, M.

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic states of Mn and Co atoms in Co-rich Co2MnGe Heusler alloy thin films facing an MgO barrier were studied by means of soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In particular, the Co2MnGe film-thickness dependence of the Mn and Co magnetic moments was investigated. With a decrease in the Co2MnGe film thickness to 1-2 monolayers (MLs), the spin magnetic moment of Mn decreased and the MnL2,3 -edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) showed a Mn2+ -like multiplet structure in MnO, in contrast to samples thicker than 4 ML, indicating that the Mn atoms of the 1 and 2 ML samples were oxidized. The Co spin magnetic moment increased slightly with decreasing thickness. A Co2+ -like multiplet structure in CoO was not observed in all the CoL2,3 -edge XAS and XMCD, indicating that, even in the ultrathin samples, the Co atoms were not oxidized, and were more strongly spin polarized than those in the thicker samples. Co spin magnetic moments of 1.40-1.77μB larger than the theoretical value for ideal stoichiometric Co2MnGe (˜1μB) and the Co-rich film composition imply the presence of Co antisites that would lower the spin polarization.

  18. BeStSel: a web server for accurate protein secondary structure prediction and fold recognition from the circular dichroism spectra.

    PubMed

    Micsonai, András; Wien, Frank; Bulyáki, Éva; Kun, Judit; Moussong, Éva; Lee, Young-Ho; Goto, Yuji; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Kardos, József

    2018-06-11

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a widely used method to study the protein secondary structure. However, for decades, the general opinion was that the correct estimation of β-sheet content is challenging because of the large spectral and structural diversity of β-sheets. Recently, we showed that the orientation and twisting of β-sheets account for the observed spectral diversity, and developed a new method to estimate accurately the secondary structure (PNAS, 112, E3095). BeStSel web server provides the Beta Structure Selection method to analyze the CD spectra recorded by conventional or synchrotron radiation CD equipment. Both normalized and measured data can be uploaded to the server either as a single spectrum or series of spectra. The originality of BeStSel is that it carries out a detailed secondary structure analysis providing information on eight secondary structure components including parallel-β structure and antiparallel β-sheets with three different groups of twist. Based on these, it predicts the protein fold down to the topology/homology level of the CATH protein fold classification. The server also provides a module to analyze the structures deposited in the PDB for BeStSel secondary structure contents in relation to Dictionary of Secondary Structure of Proteins data. The BeStSel server is freely accessible at http://bestsel.elte.hu.

  19. The Effect of the π-Electron Delocalization Curvature on the Two-Photon Circular Dichroism of Molecules with Axial Chirality.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Carlos; Lin, Na; Toro, Carlos; Passier, Remy; Rizzo, Antonio; Hernández, Florencio E

    2012-07-05

    Herein we report on the theoretical-experimental study of the effect of curvature of the π-electron delocalization on the two-photon circular dichroism (TPCD) of a family of optically active biaryl derivatives (S-BINOL, S-VANOL, and S-VAPOL). The comparative analysis of the influence of the different transition moments to their corresponding TPCD rotatory strength reveals an enhanced contribution of the magnetic transition dipole moment on VAPOL. This effect is hereby attributed to the additional twist in the π-electron delocalization on this compound. TPCD measurements were done using the double L-scan technique in the picosecond regime. Theoretical calculations were completed using modern analytical response theory, within a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach, at both, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP levels, with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set for S-BINOL and S-VANOL, and 6-31G* for S-VAPOL. Solvent effects were included by means of the polarizable continuum model (PCM) in CH2Cl2.

  20. Intra- versus Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Solvent-Dependent Conformational Preferences of a Common Supramolecular Binding Motif from 1 H NMR and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectra.

    PubMed

    Demarque, Daniel P; Merten, Christian

    2017-12-19

    When predicting binding properties of small molecules or larger supramolecular aggregates, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds are often considered the most important factor. Spectroscopic techniques such as 1 H NMR spectroscopy are typically utilized to characterize such binding events, but interpretation is often qualitative and follows chemical intuition. In this study, we compare the effects of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and solvation on two chiral 2,6-pyridinediyl-dialkylamides. In comparison with 1 H NMR spectroscopy, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy proved to be more sensitive to conformational changes. In fact, the change of the solvent from CDCl 3 to [D 6 ]DMSO generates mirror-image VCD spectra for the same enantiomer. Here, the common sense that the sterically less hindered group is more prone to solvation proved to be wrong according predicted VCD spectra, which clearly show that both asymmetric amide hydrogens are equally likely to be solvated, but never simultaneously. The competition between intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding and their importance for a correct prediction of spectral properties are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. On vibrational circular dichroism chirality transfer in electron donor-acceptor complexes: a prediction for the quinine···BF3 system.

    PubMed

    Rode, Joanna E; Jamróz, Michał H; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz; Sadlej, Joanna

    2012-08-02

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) chirality transfer occurs when an achiral molecule interacts with a chiral one and becomes VCD-active. Unlike for H-bonds, for organic electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes this phenomenon remains almost unknown. Here, the VCD chirality transfer from chiral quinine to achiral BF3 is studied at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level. Accessibility of four quinine electron donor sites changes with conformation. Therefore, the quinine conformational landscape was explored and a considerable agreement between X-ray and the most stable conformer geometries was achieved. The BF3 complex through the aliphatic quinuclidine N atom is definitely dominating and is predicted to be easily recognizable in the VCD spectrum. Out of several VCD chirality transfer modes, the ν(s)(BF3) mode, the most intense in the entire VCD spectrum, satisfies the VCD mode robustness criterion and can be used for monitoring the chirality transfer phenomenon in quinine···BF3 system.

  2. Production of unusual dispiro metabolites in Pestalotiopsis virgatula endophyte cultures: HPLC-SPE-NMR, electronic circular dichroism, and time-dependent density-functional computation study.

    PubMed

    Kesting, Julie R; Olsen, Lars; Staerk, Dan; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2011-10-28

    The endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula, derived from the plant Terminalia chebula and previously found to produce a large excess of a single metabolite when grown in the minimal M1D medium, was induced to produce a variety of unusual metabolites by growing in potato dextrose broth medium. Analysis of the fermentation medium extract was performed using an HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR hyphenated system, which led to the identification of a total of eight metabolites (1-8), six of which are new. Most of the metabolites are structurally related and are derivatives of benzo[c]oxepin, rare among natural products. This includes dispiro derivatives 7 and 8 (pestalospiranes A and B), having a novel 1,9,11,18-tetraoxadispiro[6.2.6.2]octadecane skeleton. Relative and absolute configurations of the latter were determined by a combination of NOESY spectroscopy and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy supported by time-dependent density-functional theory calculations (B3LYP/TZVP level). This work demonstrates that a largely complete structure elucidation of numerous metabolites present in a raw fermentation medium extract can be performed by the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique using only a small amount of the extract, even with unstable metabolites that are difficult to isolate by traditional methods.

  3. Two rare-class tricyclic diterpenes with antitubercular activity from the Caribbean sponge Svenzea flava. Application of vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy for determining absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Edward; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Vicente, Jan

    2013-11-15

    Two new natural products, 3 and 4, and their predecessor 7-isocyanoisoneoamphilecta-1(14),15-diene (2), of the rare isoneoamphilectane class of marine diterpenes, along with the known amphilectane diterpenes 6-8, were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the marine sponge Svenzea flava collected at Great Inagua Island, Bahamas. The molecular structures of compounds 3 and 4 were established by spectroscopic (1D/2D NMR, IR, UV, HRMS) methods and confirmed by a series of chemical correlation studies. In a first ever case study of the assignment of the absolute configuration of a molecule based on the isoneoamphilectane carbon skeleton, the absolute configuration of compound 5 was established as 3S,4R,7S,8S,11R,12S,13R by application of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). In vitro anti-TB screenings revealed that metabolites 2-4 and, in particular, semisynthetic analogue 5, are strong growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

  4. A circular dichroism sensor for selective detection of Cd2 + and S2 - based on the in-situ generation of chiral CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianglam, Pradthana; Kulchat, Sirinan; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate an advance in the fabrication of circular dichroism (CD) sensors for detection of Cd2 + and S2 - based on chiral CdS quantum dots (QDs) generated by a facile in-situ reaction. The chiral quantum dots are generated in solutions composed of Cd2 +, S2 -, cysteamine (CA) and L-penicillamine (L-PA), with the number of the generated particles limited by either the Cd2 + or S2 - concentration. We show that the magnitude of the CD signal produced by the QDs is linearly related to the initial concentration of Cd2 + and S2 -, with excellent selectivity over other ions. Our sensor functions over concentration ranges of 65-200 μM and 7-125 μM with detection limits of 59.7 and 1.6 μM for Cd2 + and S2 -, respectively. The sensor is applied in real water samples with results comparing favorably with those obtained from ICP-OES (for Cd2 +) and HPLC (for S2 -).

  5. Ratio of ellipticities between 192 and 208 nm (R1 ): An effective electronic circular dichroism parameter for characterization of the helical components of proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Raja; Sheet, Tridip

    2017-11-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy represents an important tool for characterization of the peptide and protein secondary structures that mainly arise from the conformational disposition of the peptide backbone in solution. In 1991 Manning and Woody proposed that, in addition to the signal intensity, the ratio between [θ]nπ* and [θ]ππ*ǁ ((R 2 ) ≅ [θ] 222 /[θ] 208 ), along with [θ]ππ*⊥ and [θ]ππ*ǁ ((R 1 ) ≅ [θ] 192 /[θ] 208 ), may be utilized towards identifying the peptide/protein conformation (especially 3 10 - and α-helices). However, till date the use of the ratiometric ellipticity component for helical structure analysis of peptides and proteins has not been reported. We studied a series of temperature dependent CD spectra of a thermally stable, model helical peptide and its related analogs in water as a function of added 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) in order to explore their landscape of helicity. For the first time, we have experimentally shown here that the R 1 parameter can characterize better the individual helices, while the other parameter R 2 and the signal intensity do not always converge. We emphasize the use of the R 1 ratio of ellipticities for helical characterization because of the common origin of these two bands (exciton splitting of the amide π→ π* transition in a helical polypeptide). This approach may become worthwhile and timely with the increasing accessibility of CD synchrotron sources. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stabilizing interactions between aromatic and basic side chains in alpha-helical peptides and proteins. Tyrosine effects on helix circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Charles D; Bhattacharjee, Samita; Kokkoni, Nicoleta; Hirst, Jonathan D; Jones, Gareth R; Doig, Andrew J

    2002-10-30

    Here we investigate the structures and energetics of interactions between aromatic (Phe or Tyr) and basic (Lys or Arg) amino acids in alpha-helices. Side chain interaction energies are measured using helical peptides, by quantifying their helicities with circular dichroism at 222 nm and interpreting the results with Lifson-Roig-based helix/coil theory. A difficulty in working with Tyr is that the aromatic ring perturbs the CD spectrum, giving an incorrect helicity. We calculated the effect of Tyr on the CD at 222 nm by deriving the intensities of the bands directly from the electronic and magnetic transition dipole moments through the rotational strengths corresponding to each excited state of the polypeptide. This gives an improved value of the helix preference of Tyr (from 0.48 to 0.35) and a correction to the helicity for the peptides containing Tyr. We find that Phe-Lys, Lys-Phe, Phe-Arg, Arg-Phe, and Tyr-Lys are all stabilizing by -0.10 to -0.18 kcal.mol-1 when placed i, i + 4 on the surface of a helix in aqueous solution, despite the great difference in polarity between these residues. Interactions between these side chains have previously been attributed to cation-pi bonds. A survey of protein structures shows that they are in fact predominantly hydrophobic interactions between the CH2 groups of Lys or Arg and the aromatic rings.

  7. Characterization of the binding of metoprolol tartrate and guaifenesin drugs to human serum albumin and human hemoglobin proteins by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Kancı Bozoğlan, Bahar

    2013-07-01

    The interactions of metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and guaifenesin (GF) drugs with human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (HMG) proteins at pH 7.4 were studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Drugs quenched the fluorescence spectra of HSA and HMG proteins through a static quenching mechanism. For each protein-drug system, the values of Stern-Volmer quenching constant, bimolecular quenching constant, binding constant and number of binding site on the protein molecules were determined at 288.15, 298.15, 310.15 and 318.15 K. It was found that the binding constants of HSA-MPT and HSA-GF systems were smaller than those of HMG-MPT and HMG-GF systems. For both drugs, the affinity of HMG was much higher than that of HSA. An increase in temperature caused a negative effect on the binding reactions. The number of binding site on blood proteins for MPT and GF drugs was approximately one. Thermodynamic parameters showed that MPT interacted with HSA through electrostatic attraction forces. However, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were the main interaction forces in the formation of HSA-GF, HMG-MPT and HMG-GF complexes. The binding processes between protein and drug molecules were exothermic and spontaneous owing to negative ∆H and ∆G values, respectively. The values of binding distance between protein and drug molecules were calculated from Förster resonance energy transfer theory. It was found from CD analysis that the bindings of MPT and GF drugs to HSA and HMG proteins altered the secondary structure of HSA and HMG proteins.

  8. Biomolecular and structural analyses of cauliflower-like DNAs by ultraviolet, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopies in comparison with natural DNA.

    PubMed

    Gill, Pooria; Ranjbar, Bijan; Saber, Reza; Khajeh, Khosro; Mohammadian, Mehdi

    2011-07-01

    Cauliflower-like DNAs are stem-loop DNAs that are fabricated periodically in inverted repetitions from deoxyribonucleic acid phosphates (dNTPs) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Cauliflower-like DNAs have ladder-shape behaviors on gel electrophoresis, and increasing the time of LAMP leads to multiplying the repetitions, stem-loops, and electrophoretic bands. Cauliflower-like DNAs were fabricated via LAMP using two loop primers, two bumper primers, dNTPs, a λ-phage DNA template, and a Bst DNA polymerase in 75- and 90-min periods. These times led to manufacturing two types of cauliflower-like DNAs with different contents of inverted repetitions and stem-loops, which were clearly indicated by two comparable electrophoresis patterns in agarose gel. LAMP-fabricated DNAs and natural dsB-DNA (salmon genomic DNA) were dialyzed in Gomori phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4) to be isolated from salts, nucleotides, and primers. Dialyzed DNAs were studied using UV spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectropolarimetry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Structural analyses indicated reduction of the molecular ellipticity and extinction coefficients in comparison with B-DNA. Also, cauliflower-like DNAs demonstrated less intrinsic and more extrinsic fluorescence in comparison with natural DNA. The overwinding and lengthening of the cauliflower-like configurations of LAMP DNAs led to changes in physical parameters of this type of DNA in comparison with natural DNA. The results obtained introduced new biomolecular characteristics of DNA macromolecules fabricated within a LAMP process and show the effects of more inverted repeats and stem-loops, which are manufactured by lengthening the process.

  9. Real time observation of proteolysis with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-circular dichroism spectroscopy: Watching a protease eat a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, Günnur; Džafić, Enela; Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2011-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)- and UV-circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy have been used to study real-time proteolytic digestion of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and β-casein (β-CN) by trypsin at various substrate/enzyme ratios in D 2O-buffer at 37 °C. Both techniques confirm that protein substrate looses its secondary structure upon conversion to the peptide fragments. This perturbation alters the backbone of the protein chain resulting in conformational changes and degrading of the intact protein. Precisely, the most significant spectral changes which arise from digestion take place in the amide I and amide II regions. The FT-IR spectra for the degraded β-LG show a decrease around 1634 cm -1, suggesting a decrease of β-sheet structure in the course of hydrolysis. Similarly, the intensity around the 1654 cm -1 band decreases for β-CN digested by trypsin, indicating a reduction in the α-helical part. On the other hand, the intensity around ˜1594 cm -1 and ˜1406 cm -1 increases upon enzymatic breakdown of both substrates, suggesting an increase in the antisymmetric and symmetric stretching modes of free carboxylates, respectively, as released digestion products. Observation of further H/D exchange in the course of digestion manifests the structural opening of the buried groups and accessibility to the core of the substrate. On the basis of the UV-CD spectra recorded for β-LG and β-CN digested by trypsin, the unordered structure increases concomitant with a decrease in the remaining structure, thus, revealing breakdown of the intact protein into smaller fragments. This model study in a closed reaction system may serve as a basis for the much more complex digestion processes in an open reaction system such as the stomach.

  10. Combination of acoustic levitation with small angle scattering techniques and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Application to the study of protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Cristiglio, Viviana; Grillo, Isabelle; Fomina, Margarita; Wien, Frank; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Novikov, Alexey; Brassamin, Séverine; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Pérez, Javier; Hennet, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The acoustic levitation technique is a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquids samples, suspended in air by means of an ultrasonic field. This method was previously used at synchrotron sources for studying pharmaceutical liquids and protein solutions using x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). In this work we combined for the first time this containerless method with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) to study the structural behavior of proteins in solutions during the water evaporation. SANS results are also compared with SAXS experiments. The aggregation behavior of 45μl droplets of lysozyme protein diluted in water was followed during the continuous increase of the sample concentration by evaporating the solvent. The evaporation kinetics was followed at different drying stage by SANS and SAXS with a good data quality. In a prospective work using SRCD, we also studied the evolution of the secondary structure of the myoglobin protein in water solution in the same evaporation conditions. Acoustic levitation was applied for the first time with SANS and the high performances of the used neutron instruments made it possible to monitor fast container-less reactions in situ. A preliminary work using SRCD shows the potentiality of its combination with acoustic levitation for studying the evolution of the protein structure with time. This multi-techniques approach could give novel insights into crystallization and self-assembly phenomena of biological compound with promising potential applications in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Science for Life" Guest Editor: Dr. Austen Angell, Dr. Salvatore Magazù and Dr. Federica Migliardo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecules-in-molecules fragment-based method for the calculation of chiroptical spectra of large molecules: Vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity spectra of alanine polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Jose, K V Jovan; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-12-01

    The molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method has recently been adapted to evaluate the chiroptical (vibrational circular dichroism [VCD] and Raman optical activity [ROA]) spectra of large molecules such as peptides. In the MIM-VCD and MIM-ROA methods, the relevant higher energy derivatives of the parent molecule are assembled from the corresponding derivatives of smaller fragment subsystems. In addition, the missing long-range interfragment interactions are accounted at a computationally less expensive level of theory (MIM2). In this work we employed the MIM-VCD and MIM-ROA fragment-based methods to explore the evolution of the chiroptical spectroscopic characteristics of 3 10 -helix, α-helix, β-hairpin, γ-turn, and β-extended conformers of gas phase polyalanine (chain length n = 6-14). The different conformers of polyalanine show distinctive features in the MIM chiroptical spectra and the associated spectral intensities increase with evolution of system size. For a better understanding the site-specific effects on the vibrational spectra, isotopic substitutions were also performed employing the MIM method. An increasing redshift with the number of isotopically labeled 13 C=O functional groups in the peptide molecule was seen. For larger polypeptides, we implemented the two-step-MIM model to circumvent the high computational expense associated with the evaluation of chiroptical spectra at a high level of theory using large basis sets. The chiroptical spectra of α-(alanine) 20 polypeptide obtained using the two-step-MIM model, including continuum solvation effects, show good agreement with the full calculations and experiment. This benchmark study suggests that the MIM-fragment approach can assist in predicting and interpreting chiroptical spectra of large polypeptides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The influence of carbon nanotubes on enzyme activity and structure: investigation of different immobilization procedures through enzyme kinetics and circular dichroism studies.

    PubMed

    Cang-Rong, Jason Teng; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2009-06-24

    In the last decade, many environmental organizations have devoted their efforts to identifying renewable biosystems, which could provide sustainable fuels and thus enhance energy security. Amidst the myriad of possibilities, some biofuels make use of different types of waste biomasses, and enzymes are often employed to hydrolyze these biomasses and produce sugars that will be subsequently converted into ethanol. In this project, we aimed to bridge nanotechnology and biofuel production: here we report on the activity and structure of the enzyme amyloglucosidase (AMG), physically adsorbed or covalently immobilized onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). In fact, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present several properties that render them ideal support systems, without the diffusion limitations displayed by porous material and with the advantage of being further functionalizable at their surface. Chemical ligation was achieved both on oxidized nanotubes (via carbodiimide chemistry), as well as on amino-functionalized nanotubes (via periodate-oxidized AMG). Results showed that AMG retained a certain percentage of its specific activity for all enzyme-carbon nanotubes complexes prepared, with the physically adsorbed samples displaying better catalytic efficiency than the covalently immobilized samples. Analysis of the enzyme's structure through circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed significant structural changes in all samples, the degree of change being consistent with the activity profiles. This study proves that AMG interacts differently with carbon nanotubes depending on the method employed. Due to the higher activity reported by the enzyme physically adsorbed onto CNTs, these samples demonstrated a vast potential for further development. At the same time, the possibility of inducing magnetic properties into CNTs offers the opportunity to easily separate them from the original solution. Hence, substances to which they

  13. The shape of the electronic circular dichroism spectrum of (2,6-dimethylphenyl)(phenyl)methanol: interplay between conformational equilibria and vibronic effects.

    PubMed

    Padula, Daniele; Cerezo, Javier; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2017-12-13

    Comparison between chiroptical spectra and theoretical predictions is the method of choice for the assignment of the absolute configuration of chiral compounds in solution. Here we report the case of an apparently simple biarylcarbinol, whose electronic circular dichroism (ECD) in the 1 L b region exhibits a peculiar alternation of negative and positive bands. Adopting Density Functional Theory, and describing solvent effects with implicit methods, we found three stable conformers in ethanol, each of them with two close lying states corresponding to similar local 1 L b excitations on the two phenyls. We computed the corresponding vibronic ECD spectra in harmonic approximation, including Duschinsky mixings as well as both Franck Condon (FC) and Herzberg Teller (HT) effects. Exploiting a recently developed mixed quantum/classical method, we further investigated the contribution of the vibronic spectra of out-of-equilibrium structures along the interconversion path connecting the different conformers. In this way, we achieved a reasonable agreement with experiment and attributed the alternating signs of the bands to the existence of different conformers. The remaining discrepancies with experiment indicate that specific solute-solvent interactions modulate the relative conformers' stabilities, calling for new methods able to combine Molecular Dynamics explorations and vibronic calculations. Moreover, the poor performance of HT approaches and the existence of two closely-lying states suggest the necessity of an improved fully-nonadiabatic vibronic approach. These findings demonstrate that even for such a simple system as the biarylcarbinol investigated here, a full reproduction of the fine details of the ECD spectrum requires the development of new improved methods.

  14. Ab initio study of excited state electronic circular dichroism. Two prototype cases: methyl oxirane and R-(+)-1,1'-bi(2-naphthol).

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonio; Vahtras, Olav

    2011-06-28

    A computational approach to the calculation of excited state electronic circular dichroism (ESECD) spectra of chiral molecules is discussed. Frequency dependent quadratic response theory is employed to compute the rotatory strength for transitions between excited electronic states, by employing both a magnetic gauge dependent and a (velocity-based) magnetic gauge independent approach. Application is made to the lowest excited states of two prototypical chiral molecules, propylene oxide, also known as 1,2-epoxypropane or methyl oxirane, and R-(+)-1,1'-bi(2-naphthol), or BINOL. The dependence of the rotatory strength for transitions between the lowest three excited states of methyl oxirane upon the quality and extension of the basis set is analyzed, by employing a hierarchy of correlation consistent basis sets. Once established that basis sets of at least triple zeta quality, and at least doubly augmented, are sufficient to ensure sufficiently converged results, at least at the Hartree-Fock self-consistent field (HF-SCF) level, the rotatory strengths for all transitions between the lowest excited electronic states of methyl oxirane are computed and analyzed, employing HF-SCF, and density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure models. For DFT, both the popular B3LYP and its recently highly successful CAM-B3LYP extension are exploited. The strong dependence of the spectra upon electron correlation is highlighted. A HF-SCF and DFT study is carried out also for BINOL, a system where excited states show the typical pairing structure arising from the interaction of the two monomeric moieties, and whose conformational changes following photoexcitation were studied recently with via time-resolved CD.

  15. The influence of carbon nanotubes on enzyme activity and structure: investigation of different immobilization procedures through enzyme kinetics and circular dichroism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang-Rong, Jason Teng; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2009-06-01

    In the last decade, many environmental organizations have devoted their efforts to identifying renewable biosystems, which could provide sustainable fuels and thus enhance energy security. Amidst the myriad of possibilities, some biofuels make use of different types of waste biomasses, and enzymes are often employed to hydrolyze these biomasses and produce sugars that will be subsequently converted into ethanol. In this project, we aimed to bridge nanotechnology and biofuel production: here we report on the activity and structure of the enzyme amyloglucosidase (AMG), physically adsorbed or covalently immobilized onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). In fact, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present several properties that render them ideal support systems, without the diffusion limitations displayed by porous material and with the advantage of being further functionalizable at their surface. Chemical ligation was achieved both on oxidized nanotubes (via carbodiimide chemistry), as well as on amino-functionalized nanotubes (via periodate-oxidized AMG). Results showed that AMG retained a certain percentage of its specific activity for all enzyme-carbon nanotubes complexes prepared, with the physically adsorbed samples displaying better catalytic efficiency than the covalently immobilized samples. Analysis of the enzyme's structure through circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed significant structural changes in all samples, the degree of change being consistent with the activity profiles. This study proves that AMG interacts differently with carbon nanotubes depending on the method employed. Due to the higher activity reported by the enzyme physically adsorbed onto CNTs, these samples demonstrated a vast potential for further development. At the same time, the possibility of inducing magnetic properties into CNTs offers the opportunity to easily separate them from the original solution. Hence, substances to which they

  16. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: new evidences from element- and site-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism analyses

    PubMed Central

    Menguy, Nicolas; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Juhin, Amélie; Wang, Yinzhao; Chen, Haitao; Bunau, Oana; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Pan, Yongxin

    2016-01-01

    The biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science due to the precise morphology of the particles, the chain-like assembly and their unique magnetic properties. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. Despite some successful outcomes, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remain largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe2+ ions by Co2+ ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Both XMCD at Fe and Co L2,3 edges, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt occurring either in different particles or inside individual particles. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study also demonstrates that the addition of trace cobalt in the growth medium can significantly improve both the cell growth and the magnetosome formation within M. magneticum AMB-1. Together with the cobalt occupancy within the spinel structure of magnetosomes, this study indicates that MTB may provide a promising biomimetic system for producing chains of metal-doped single-domain magnetite with an appropriate tuning of the magnetic properties for technological and biomedical applications. PMID:27512138

  17. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: new evidences from element- and site-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Juhin, Amélie; Wang, Yinzhao; Chen, Haitao; Bunau, Oana; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Pan, Yongxin

    2016-08-01

    The biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science due to the precise morphology of the particles, the chain-like assembly and their unique magnetic properties. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. Despite some successful outcomes, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remain largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe(2+) ions by Co(2+) ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Both XMCD at Fe and Co L2,3 edges, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt occurring either in different particles or inside individual particles. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study also demonstrates that the addition of trace cobalt in the growth medium can significantly improve both the cell growth and the magnetosome formation within M. magneticum AMB-1. Together with the cobalt occupancy within the spinel structure of magnetosomes, this study indicates that MTB may provide a promising biomimetic system for producing chains of metal-doped single-domain magnetite with an appropriate tuning of the magnetic properties for technological and biomedical applications. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Protocol for the Solid-phase Synthesis of Oligomers of RNA Containing a 2'-O-thiophenylmethyl Modification and Characterization via Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew J; Resendiz, Marino J E

    2017-07-28

    Solid-phase synthesis has been used to obtain canonical and modified polymers of nucleic acids, specifically of DNA or RNA, which has made it a popular methodology for applications in various fields and for different research purposes. The procedure described herein focuses on the synthesis, purification, and characterization of dodecamers of RNA 5'-[CUA CGG AAU CAU]-3' containing zero, one, or two modifications located at the C2'-O-position. The probes are based on 2-thiophenylmethyl groups, incorporated into RNA nucleotides via standard organic synthesis and introduced into the corresponding oligonucleotides via their respective phosphoramidites. This report makes use of phosphoramidite chemistry via the four canonical nucleobases (Uridine (U), Cytosine (C), Guanosine (G), Adenosine (A)), as well as 2-thiophenylmethyl functionalized nucleotides modified at the 2'-O-position; however, the methodology is amenable for a large variety of modifications that have been developed over the years. The oligonucleotides were synthesized on a controlled-pore glass (CPG) support followed by cleavage from the resin and deprotection under standard conditions, i.e., a mixture of ammonia and methylamine (AMA) followed by hydrogen fluoride/triethylamine/N-methylpyrrolidinone. The corresponding oligonucleotides were purified via polyacrylamide electrophoresis (20% denaturing) followed by elution, desalting, and isolation via reversed-phase chromatography (Sep-pak, C18-column). Quantification and structural parameters were assessed via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and circular dichroism (CD) photometric analysis, respectively. This report aims to serve as a resource and guide for beginner and expert researchers interested in embarking in this field. It is expected to serve as a work-in-progress as new technologies and methodologies are developed. The description of the methodologies and techniques within this document correspond to a DNA/RNA synthesizer (refurbished and purchased in

  19. Recognition of T·G mismatched base pairs in DNA by stacked imidazole-containing polyamides: surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism studies

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Eilyn R.; Cox, Kari K.; Wilson, W. David; Lee, Moses

    2002-01-01

    An imidazole-containing polyamide trimer, f-ImImIm, where f is a formamido group, was recently found using NMR methods to recognize T·G mismatched base pairs. In order to characterize in detail the T·G recognition affinity and specificity of imidazole-containing polyamides, f-ImIm, f-ImImIm and f-PyImIm were synthesized. The kinetics and thermodynamics for the polyamides binding to Watson–Crick and mismatched (containing one or two T·G, A·G or G·G mismatched base pairs) hairpin oligonucleotides were determined by surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism (CD) methods. f-ImImIm binds significantly more strongly to the T·G mismatch-containing oligonucleotides than to the sequences with other mismatched or with Watson–Crick base pairs. Compared with the Watson–Crick CCGG sequence, f-ImImIm associates more slowly with DNAs containing T·G mismatches in place of one or two C·G base pairs and, more importantly, the dissociation rate from the T·G oligonucleotides is very slow (small kd). These results clearly demonstrate the binding selectivity and enhanced affinity of side-by-side imidazole/imidazole pairings for T·G mismatches and show that the affinity and specificity increase arise from much lower kd values with the T·G mismatched duplexes. CD titration studies of f-ImImIm complexes with T·G mismatched sequences produce strong induced bands at ∼330 nm with clear isodichroic points, in support of a single minor groove complex. CD DNA bands suggest that the complexes remain in the B conformation. PMID:11937638

  20. Theoretical analysis of the influence of chelate-ring size and vicinal effects on electronic circular dichroism spectra of cobalt(III) EDDA-type complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai; Wang, Yuekui; Jia, Jie; Feng, Lixia; Zhang, Chunxia; Liu, Linlin

    2013-06-20

    To assess the contributions of configurational and vicinal effects as well as chelate-ring size to rotational strengths, the geometries of a series of cobalt(III) complexes [Co(EDDA-type)(L)](±) with the tetradentate EDDA-type ligands, EDDA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), DMEDDA (N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), DEEDDA (N,N'-diethylethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), and a bidentate ancillary ligand L (L = ethylenediamine, oxalate, carbonate, (S)-alanine, and malonate) in aqueous solution have been optimized at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Based on the optimized geometries, the excitation energies and oscillator and rotational strengths have been calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method with the same functional and basis set. The calculated circular dichroism (CD) curves are in excellent agreement with the observed ones except for some small red or blue shifts in peak wavelengths. For the influence of chelate-ring size of the bidentate ligands on the CD intensities, a qualitative analysis together with the quantitative TDDFT calculation reveal that it depends on the symmetry of the cobalt-EDDA backbone. For the s-cis-isomers, the influence is negligible due to the perturbation is symmetric. For the uns-cis-isomers, the perturbation is unsymmetric. Since a small ring size means a large perturbation, this leads to the integral CD intensities decreasing with increasing the chelate ring size. The vicinal effects of asymmetric nitrogens incorporate both the substitutent effects and conformational relaxation effects, with the former being dominant. By analyzing the contributions of chiral arrays to rotational strengths, we found that the part of contributions dominated by the S-type chiral nitrogens could be considered as a good measure for the vicinal effects of chiral nitrogens. In addition, we found that the twist form (δ/λ) of the backbone ethylenediamine ring (E-ring) of the coordinated EDDA

  1. Elucidating the Role of the Proximal Cysteine Hydrogen Bonding Network in Ferric Cytochrome P450cam and corresponding mutants using Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Mary Grace I.; Spolitak, Tatyana; Ballou, David P.; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on various Cytochrome P450s, especially Cyt P450cam, there is much to be learned about the mechanism of how its functional unit, a heme b ligated by an axial cysteine, is finely tuned for catalysis by its second coordination sphere. Here we study how the hydrogen bonding network affects the proximal cysteine and the Fe-S(Cys) bond in ferric Cyt P450cam. This is accomplished using low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy on wild-type (wt) Cyt P450cam, and on the mutants Q360P (pure ferric high-spin at low temperature) and L358P with which the “Cys pocket” has been altered (by removing amino acids involved in the hydrogen bonding network), and Y96W (pure ferric low-spin). The MCD spectrum of Q360P reveals fourteen electronic transitions between 15200 and 31050 cm-1. Variable-temperature variable-field (VTVH) saturation curves were used to determine the polarizations of these electronic transitions, with respect to in-plane (xy) and out-of-plane (z) polarization relative to the heme. The polarizations, oscillator strengths, and TD-DFT calculations were then used to assign the observed electronic transitions. In the lower energy region, prominent bands at 15909 and 16919 cm-1 correspond to porphyrin (P) → Fe charge transfer (CT) transitions. The band at 17881 cm-1 has distinct sulfur S(π)→ Fe CT contributions. The Q band is observed as a pseudo A-term (derivative shape) at 18604 and 19539 cm-1. In the case of the Soret band, the negative component of the expected pseudo A-term is split into two features due to mixing with another π → π* and potentially a P → Fe CT excited state. These features are observed at 23731, 24859, and 25618 cm-1. Most importantly, the broad, prominent band at 28570 cm-1 is assigned to the S(σ)→ Fe CT transition, whose intensity is generated through a multitude of CT transitions with strong iron character. For wt, Q360P, and L358P, this band occurs at 28724

  2. Absolute configuration determination through the unique intramolecular excitonic coupling in the circular dichroisms of o,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDD. A combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Nakano, Takeshi; Mori, Tadashi

    2017-04-12

    Circular dichroisms (CDs) of the o,p'-isomers of 1,1,1-trichloro- and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethanes (DDT and DDD) were investigated experimentally and theoretically. A series of strong Cotton effect peaks in a characteristic negative-negative-positive-negative, or its mirror-imaged, pattern were observed in the CD spectra of these persistent organic pollutants. The theoretical CD spectra at the SAC-CI/B95(d) and RI-CC2/def2-TZVPP levels well reproduced the experimental ones, enabling us to unambiguously assign the absolute configuration of (+)-DDT and (-)-DDD as S.

  3. Investigation of human serum albumin (HSA) binding specificity of certain photosensitizers related to pyropheophorbide-a and bacteriopurpurinimide by circular dichroism spectroscopy and its correlation with in vivo photosensitizing efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yihui; Miclea, Razvan; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu; Balasubramanian, Sathyamangalam; Dougherty, Thomas J; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2005-07-01

    A series of pyropheophorbide-a and bacteriopurpurinimides were investigated to understand the correlation between HSA (site II) binding affinity and in vivo photosensitizing activity. In our study, photosensitizers that bound to site II of HSA produced a significant difference in the circular dichroism spectra of the corresponding complexes, especially at Soret band region of the photosensitizers. Our results suggest that CD spectroscopy of the photosensitizer-HSA complexes could be a valuable tool in screening new photosensitizers before evaluating them for in vivo efficacy.

  4. Horizon-absorbed energy flux in circularized, nonspinning black-hole binaries, and its effective-one-body representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Alessandro; Akcay, Sarp

    2012-02-01

    We propose, within the effective-one-body approach, a new, resummed analytical representation of the gravitational-wave energy flux absorbed by a system of two circularized (nonspinning) black holes. This expression is such that it is well-behaved in the strong-field, fast-motion regime, notably up to the effective-one-body-defined last unstable orbit. Building conceptually upon the procedure adopted to resum the multipolar asymptotic energy flux, we introduce a multiplicative decomposition of the multipolar absorbed flux made by three factors: (i) the leading-order contribution, (ii) an “effective source” and (iii) a new residual amplitude correction (ρ˜ℓmH)2ℓ. In the test-mass limit, we use a frequency-domain perturbative approach to accurately compute numerically the horizon-absorbed fluxes along a sequence of stable and unstable circular orbits, and we extract from them the functions ρ˜ℓmH. These quantities are then fitted via rational functions. The resulting analytically represented test-mass knowledge is then suitably hybridized with lower-order analytical information that is valid for any mass ratio. This yields a resummed representation of the absorbed flux for a generic, circularized, nonspinning black-hole binary. Our result adds new information to the state-of-the-art calculation of the absorbed flux at fractional 5 post-Newtonian order [S. Taylor and E. Poisson, Phys. Rev. D 78, 084016 (2008)], which is recovered in the weak-field limit approximation by construction.

  5. Anisotropic spin-density distribution and magnetic anisotropy of strained La1-xSrxMnO3 thin films: angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Goro; Kitamura, Miho; Minohara, Makoto; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Kadono, Toshiharu; Ishigami, Keisuke; Harano, Takayuki; Takahashi, Yukio; Sakamoto, Shoya; Nonaka, Yosuke; Ikeda, Keisuke; Chi, Zhendong; Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Okano, Makoto; Fujihira, Jun-ichi; Uchida, Akira; Watanabe, Kazunori; Fujihira, Hideyuki; Fujihira, Seiichi; Tanaka, Arata; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Koide, Tsuneharu; Fujimori, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropies of ferromagnetic thin films are induced by epitaxial strain from the substrate via strain-induced anisotropy in the orbital magnetic moment and that in the spatial distribution of spin-polarized electrons. However, the preferential orbital occupation in ferromagnetic metallic La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) thin films studied by x-ray linear dichroism (XLD) has always been found out-of-plane for both tensile and compressive epitaxial strain and hence irrespective of the magnetic anisotropy. In order to resolve this mystery, we directly probed the preferential orbital occupation of spin-polarized electrons in LSMO thin films under strain by angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Anisotropy of the spin-density distribution was found to be in-plane for the tensile strain and out-of-plane for the compressive strain, consistent with the observed magnetic anisotropy. The ubiquitous out-of-plane preferential orbital occupation seen by XLD is attributed to the occupation of both spin-up and spin-down out-of-plane orbitals in the surface magnetic dead layer.

  6. Investigation of a Spin Transition in a LaCoO3 Single Crystal by the Method of X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Cobalt K- and L 2,3-Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikolenko, V. V.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Rosenberg, R.; Prabhakaran, D.; Efimova, E. A.; Efimov, V. V.; Tiutiunnikov, S. I.; Bobrikov, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Spin transitions of cobalt ions in LaCoO3 single crystals have been studied by the method of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the K- and L 2,3-edges of Co3+ ions. The orbital momentum of cobalt ions obtained for the K-edge at the 3 d level in the region of the spin transition in the temperature range from 25 to 120 K increases by a factor of approximately 1.6, whereas the slope of the magnetization curve value in the same temperature range and magnetic field increases by a factor of more than 10. XMCD experiments at the cobalt L 2,3-edges demonstrate gradual growth of the ratio of the orbital momentum to the spin one L/ S from 0.48 to 0.53 in the temperature range from 60 K to 120 K.

  7. Investigation on the effect of MR elastomer based adaptive vibration absorbers on the radiated sound from circular elastic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatian, M.; Sedaghati, R.

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of using magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based adaptive tuned vibration absorbers (ATVA) on the sound transmission in an elastic plate. Sound transmission loss (STL) of an elastic circular thin plate is analytically studied. The plate is excited by a plane acoustic wave as an incident sound and the displacement of the plate is calculated using corresponding mode shapes of the system for clamped boundary condition. Rayleigh integral approach is used to express the transmitted sound pressure in terms of the plate's displacement modal amplitude. In order to increase sound transmission loss of the plate, the MRE-based ATVA is considered. The basic idea is to be able to change the stiffness of the ATVA by varying magnetic field in order to reduce the transmitted acoustic energy of the host structure in a wide frequency range. Here, a MRE-based ATVA under the shear mode consisting of an oscillator mass, magnetic conductor, coils and MRE is investigated. In order to predict the viscoelastic characteristics of the field-dependent MRE based on the applied magnetic field, the double pole model is used. Finally, MRE-based ATVAs are integrated with the plate to absorb the plate energy with the aim of decreasing the transmitted sound power. Results show that plate with integrated MRE-based ATVAs suppresses the axisymmetric vibration of the plate and thus considerably improves the STL. Parametric studies on the influence of the position of MRE-based ATVAs and the effects of applied current on their performance are also presented.

  8. Preferred site occupation of 3 d atoms in NixF e4 -xN (x =1 and 3) films revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Fumiya; Ito, Keita; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Takanashi, Koki; Kimura, Akio; Suemasu, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements were performed at the Ni and Fe L2 ,3 absorption edges for N ixF e4 -xN (x =1 and 3) epitaxial films. Spectral line-shape analysis and element-specific magnetic moment evaluations are presented. Shoulders at approximately 2 eV above the Ni L2 ,3 main peaks in the XAS spectrum of N i3FeN were interpreted to originate from hybridization of orbitals between Ni 3 d at face-centered (II) sites and N 2 p at body-centered sites, while such features were missing in NiF e3N film. Similar shoulders were observed at Fe L2 ,3 edges in both films. These results indicate that the orbitals of Ni atoms did not hybridize with those of N atoms in the NiF e3N film. Hence, Ni atoms preferentially occupied corner (I) sites, where the hybridization was weak because of the relatively long distance between Ni at I sites and N atoms. The relatively large magnetic moment deduced from sum-rule analysis of NiF e3N also showed a good agreement with the presence of Ni atoms at I sites.

  9. Determination of the ground state of an Au-supported FePc film based on the interpretation of Fe K - and L -edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natoli, Calogero R.; Krüger, Peter; Bartolomé, Juan; Bartolomé, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    We determine the magnetic ground state of the FePc molecule on Au-supported thin films based on the observed values of orbital anisotropy and spectroscopic x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Fe K and L edges. Starting from ab initio molecular orbital multiplet calculations for the isolated molecule, we diagonalize the spin-orbit interaction in the subspace spanned by the three lowest spin triplet states of 3A2 g and 3Eg symmetry in the presence of a saturating magnetic field at a polar angle θ with respect to the normal to the plane of the film, plus an external perturbation representing the effect of the molecules in the stack on the FePc molecule under consideration. We find that the orbital moment of the ground state strongly depends on the magnetic field direction in agreement with the sum rule analysis of the L23-edge XMCD data. We calculate integrals over the XMCD spectra at the Fe K and L23 edges as used in the sum rules and explicitly show that they agree with the expectation values of the orbital moment and effective spin moment of the ground state. On the basis of this analysis, we can rule out alternative candidates proposed in the literature.

  10. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measured at the Fe K-edge with a reduced intrinsic broadening: x-ray absorption spectroscopy versus resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhin, Amélie; Sainctavit, Philippe; Ollefs, Katharina; Sikora, Marcin; Filipponi, Adriano; Glatzel, Pieter; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism is measured at the Fe K pre-edge in yttrium iron garnet using two different procedures that allow reducing the intrinsic broadening due to the 1s corehole lifetime. First, deconvolution of XMCD data measured in total fluorescence yield (TFY) with an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio enables a factor of 2.4 to be gained in the XMCD intensity. Ligand field multiplet calculations performed with different values of intrinsic broadening show that deconvolving such high quality XMCD data is similar to reducing the lifetime broadening from a 1s corehole to a 2p corehole. Second, MCD is measured by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy as a function of incident energy and emission energy. Selection of a fixed emission energy, instead of using the TFY, allows enhancing the MCD intensity up to a factor of  ˜4.7. However, this significantly changes the spectral shape of the XMCD signal, which cannot be interpreted any more as an absorption spectrum.

  11. Characterization of the Cu(Π) and Zn(Π) binding to the Amyloid-β short peptides by both the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and the Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyin; Sun, Shuaishuai; Xu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Bingbing; Tao, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative pathology, clinically characterized by dementia, cognitive impairment, personality disorders and memory loss. It is generally accepted that, misfolding of Aβ peptides is the key element in pathogenesis and the secondary structure of Aβ can be changed to major β-strand with reasons unknown yet. Many studies have shown that the misfolding may be linked with some biometals, mainly copper and zinc ions. To characterize interactions of Aβ and metal ions, we utilized both the extended X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy (SRCD). Aβ (13-22), Aβ (13-21), Aβ (E22G) and Aβ(HH-AA) were selected to study the mechanism of copper and zinc binding to Aβ. We found that Cu interaction with H13 and H14 residues led to the disappearance of the PPΠ, while the Cu binding E22 residue caused a remarkable conformation change to β-sheet enrichment. The Zn ion, in contrast, made little effect on the conformation and it coordinated to only one histidine (H residue) or not.

  12. Systematic study on the TD-DFT calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra of chiral aromatic nitro compounds: A comparison of B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP.

    PubMed

    Komjáti, Balázs; Urai, Ákos; Hosztafi, Sándor; Kökösi, József; Kováts, Benjámin; Nagy, József; Horváth, Péter

    2016-02-15

    B3LYP is one of the most widely used functional for the prediction of electronic circular dichroism spectra, however if the studied molecule contains aromatic nitro group computations may fail to produce reliable results. A test set of molecules of known stereochemistry were synthesized to study this phenomenon in detail. Spectra were computed by B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals with 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. It was found that the range separated CAM-B3LYP gives better predictions than B3LYP for all test molecules. Fragment population analysis revealed that the nitro groups form highly localized molecule orbitals but the exact composition depends on the functional. CAM-B3LYP allows sufficient spatial overlap between the nitro group and distant parts of the molecule, which is necessary for the accurate description of excited states especially for charge transfer states. This phenomenon and the synthesized test molecules can be used to benchmark theoretical methods as well as to help the development of new functionals intended for spectroscopical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spin and orbital magnetic moments of Fe and Co in Co/Fe and Fe/Co multilayers on Si from L2,3 edge X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemuru, Krishnamurthy; Rosenberg, Richard; Mankey, Gary

    Nanostructured FeCo thin films are interesting for magnetic recording applications due to their high saturation magnetization, high Curie temperature and low magnetocrystalline anisotropy. It is desirable to know how the magnetism is modified by the nanostructrure. We report Fe L 2 , 3 edge and Co L2 , 3 edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) investigations of element specific spin and orbital magnetism of Fe and Co in two multilayer samples: (S1) Si/SiO2/[Co 0.8 nm/Fe 1.6 nm]x32/W (2nm) and (S2) Si/SiO2/[Co 1.6 nm/Fe 0.8 nm]x32/W (2nm) thin films at room temperature. Sum rule analysis of XMCD at Fe L2 , 3 edge in sample S1 shows that the orbital moment of Fe is strongly enhanced and the spin moment is strongly reduced as compared to the values found in bulk Fe. Details of sum rule analysis will be presented to compare and contrast spin magnetic moments and orbital magnetic moments of Fe and Co in the two multilayer samples. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. The application of chiroptical spectroscopy (circular dichroism) in quantifying binding events in lanthanide directed synthesis of chiral luminescent self-assembly structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 999267–999270 and 1026036. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02474e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Salvador; Twamley, Brendan; O'Brien, John; Peacock, Robert D.; Kitchen, Jonathan A.; Martínez-Calvo, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The binding of asymmetrical and optically pure tridentate ligands (L = 1(S) and 1(R)) containing one carboxylic group and 2-naphthyl as an antenna to lanthanide ions (M = La(iii) and Eu(iii)) was studied in CH3CN, showing the successive formation of M:L, M:L2 and M:L3 stoichiometric species in solution. The europium complexes EuL3 were also synthesised, structurally characterised and their photophysical properties probed in CH3OH and CH3CN. The changes in the chiroptical properties of both 1(S) and 1(R) were used (by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy) to monitor the formation of these chiral self-assemblies in solution. While circularly polarised luminescence (CPL) showed the formation of Eu(1(S))3 and Eu(1(R))3 as enantiomers, with high luminescence dissymmetry factors (g lum), fitting the CD changes allowed for binding constants to be determined that were comparable to those seen in the analyses of absorbance and luminescence changes. PMID:28936303

  15. Pulsed laser induced heat transfer from a phthalocyanine-based thin film to a Bi, Al-substituted DyIG substrate: photothermal demagnetization observed by magnetic circular dichroism and numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Masanobu; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2018-05-03

    We have investigated the demagnetization of a ferrimagnetic substrate, Bi, Al-substituted dysprosium iron garnet (Bi0.8Dy2.2Fe4.3Al0.7O12), based on selective pulsed laser irradiation of a molecular thin film consisting of μ-oxo-bis[hydroxyl{2,9(or 10),16(or 17),23(or 24)-tetra-tert-butylphthalocyanato}silicon] ((SiPc)2) and poly(vinylidene fluoride), and succeeded in reproducing photothermal energy transfer from a molecular thin film to an inorganic magnetic substrate in a submicrometer-order and a submicrosecond time scale using numerical analysis. After the instant temperature rise due to nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of the (SiPc)2-based film, followed by heat transfer from the film to the neighboring magnetic substrate, demagnetization of the magnetic substrate was spectroscopically monitored by the decrease in its magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) intensity. The MCD intensity decreased with increasing pulsed laser energy, which reflects the fact that the submicrometer-order region of the substrate was demagnetized as a result of temperature rise reaching high Curie temperature. This heat transfer phenomenon resulting in the demagnetization of the magnetic substrate was numerically analyzed in a submicrometer-order and a submicrosecond time scale using the finite difference method: the demagnetized regions were calculated to be the same order of magnitude as those experimentally evaluated. These results would provide a more detailed understanding of photothermal energy transfer in organic-inorganic hybrid materials, which would be useful for developing photofunctional materials.

  16. Coordination modes of tyrosinate-ligated catalase-type heme enzymes: magnetic circular dichroism studies of Plexaura homomalla allene oxide synthase, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis protein-2744c, and bovine liver catalase in their ferric and ferrous states.

    PubMed

    Bandara, D M Indika; Sono, Masanori; Bruce, Grant S; Brash, Alan R; Dawson, John H

    2011-12-01

    Bovine liver catalase (BLC), catalase-related allene oxide synthase (cAOS) from Plexaura homomalla, and a recently isolated protein from the cattle pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-2744c (MAP)) are all tyrosinate-ligated heme enzymes whose crystal structures have been reported. cAOS and MAP have low (<20%) sequence similarity to, and significantly different catalytic functions from, BLC. cAOS transforms 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid to an allene epoxide, whereas the MAP protein is a putative organic peroxide-dependent peroxidase. To elucidate factors influencing the functions of these and related heme proteins, we have investigated the heme iron coordination properties of these tyrosinate-ligated heme enzymes in their ferric and ferrous states using magnetic circular dichroism and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The MAP protein shows remarkable spectral similarities to cAOS and BLC in its native Fe(III) state, but clear differences from ferric proximal heme ligand His93Tyr Mb (myoglobin) mutant, which may be attributed to the presence of an Arg(+)-N(ω)-H···¯O-Tyr (proximal heme axial ligand) hydrogen bond in the first three heme proteins. Furthermore, the spectra of Fe(III)-CN¯, Fe(III)-NO, Fe(II)-NO (except for five-coordinate MAP), Fe(II)-CO, and Fe(II)-O(2) states of cAOS and MAP, but not H93Y Mb, are also similar to the corresponding six-coordinate complexes of BLC, suggesting that a tyrosinate (Tyr-O¯) is the heme axial ligand trans to the bound ligands in these complexes. The Arg(+)-N(ω)-H to ¯O-Tyr hydrogen bond would be expected to modulate the donor properties of the proximal tyrosinate oxyanion and, combined with the subtle differences in the catalytic site structures, affect the activities of cAOS, MAP and BLC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Homochiral zinc(II) coordination compounds based on in-situ-generated chiral amino acid-tetrazole ligands: circular dichroism, excitation light-induced tunable photoluminescence, and energetic performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai-Hua; Zheng, Fa-Kun; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Zhi-Fa; Chen, Jun; Xiao, Yu; Wu, A-Qing; Guo, Guo-Cong; Huang, Jin-Shun

    2013-09-03

    We employed two pairs of new in-situ-generated chiral amino acid-tetrazole ligands in constructing homochiral Zn(II) coordination compounds: [Zn(tzet)]n (1a for (S)-tzet and 1b for (R)-tzet, H2tzet = N-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethyl]tryptophan) and [Zn(tzep)(H2O)2]·H2O (2a for (S)-tzep and 2b for (R)-tzep, H2tzep = N-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethyl]proline), which were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis reveals that 1 features a 2D homochiral framework generated by both tetrazolate and carboxylate bridges in tzet(2-) ligands. The isolated structure of 2 is stabilized by extensive hydrogen bonds, which leads to formation of a supramolecular 2D architecture. The absolute configuration induced at the nitrogen atoms of 1 and 2 is strictly related to the neighboring chiral carbon atoms by hydrogen-bond interactions. To further investigate their chirality, the combined experimental and theoretical analyses of circular dichroism spectra reveal the absolute configurations and nature of the Cotton effects. Solid-state excitation and emission spectra for 1 and 2 at room temperature were investigated with relevant density of states calculation, and tunable photoluminescence emission of 1 under different excitation wavelengths was discussed. As nitrogen-rich tetrazolate compounds, 1 and 2 possess higher enthalpies of combustion and may serve as a new family of promising energetic materials.

  18. Phytochemical and Bioactive Potential of in vivo and in vitro Grown Plants of Centaurea ragusina L. - Detection of DNA/RNA Active Compounds in Plant Extracts via Thermal Denaturation and Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Vujčić, Valerija; Radić Brkanac, Sandra; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; Ivanković, Siniša; Stojković, Ranko; Žilić, Irena; Radić Stojković, Marijana

    2017-11-01

    The phytochemical composition and biological activity of non-volatile components of Centaurea ragusina L. has not been studied previously. Our aim was to evaluate the phytochemical and bioactive potential (including interactions with polynucleotides) of C. ragusina L. depending on the origin of plant material (in vivo - leaves from natural habitats, ex vitro - leaves from plants acclimated from culture media, in vitro - leaves and calli from plants grown in culture media) and polarity of solvents used in extract preparation (80 and 96% ethanol and water combinations or single solvents). The polyphenol composition was determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Biological activity of extracts was evaluated by following methods: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods for antioxidative activity, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) microdilution method for antibacterial activity, crystal-violet test for cytotoxic activity and thermal denaturation (TD) and circular dichroism (CD) for DNA/RNA interactions. Conditions for the most efficient polyphenol extraction were determined: the 80% ethanol/water solvent system was the most suitable for callus and leaf ex vitro samples and 80 or 96% ethanol for leaf in vivo samples. Significantly higher levels of chlorogenic acid and naringenin were detected in callus tissue than in vivo plant. Ethanolic extracts exhibited the significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. DNA/RNA active compounds in plant extracts were detected by TD and CD methods. Callus tissue and ex vitro leaves represent a valuable source of polyphenols as in vivo leaves. TD and CD can be applied for detection of DNA/RNA active compounds in extracts from natural resources. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of pH, Mg2+, CO2 and Mercurials on the Circular Dichroism, Thermal Stability and Light Scattering of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylases from Alfalfa, Spinach and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tomimatsu, Yoshio; Donovan, John W.

    1981-01-01

    Circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry and light-scattering measurements of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (E.C. 4.1.1.39) from alfalfa, spinach and tobacco show: a) The conformation and thermal stability of the native carboxylases are sensitive to changes in pH and to activation of the enzyme with Mg2+ and CO2. The helical content, denaturation temperature (Td) and specific enthalpy of denaturation (Δq) decreased with increase in pH. Addition of Mg2+ and CO2 at pH 9 increased Td by 4 to 5 C; at pH 7.5 the changes in Td were smaller. b) Addition of mercurials produced changes in conformation and thermal stability. The decrease in helical content of the enzymes with increase in pH was enhanced by the addition of p-chloromercuribenzoate. At pH 9, addition of p-chloromercuribenzoate or of 1-(3-(chloromercuri)-2-methoxypropyl)urea decreased Td by 11.4 to 20.2 C and Δq by 2.1 to 2.8 calories per gram. c) The spinach carboxylase undergoes the largest and the tobacco the smallest changes in conformation and thermal stability upon change in pH or treatment with mercurials. d) The calorimetric data suggest that the large and small subunits are heat denatured independently but at the same temperature. e) Light scattering measurements at pH 9 of p-chloromercuribenzoate treated tobacco enzyme showed that there is no dissociation into subunits upon heating to temperatures greater than Td. A `ball and string' model for the carboxylase molecule is proposed to reconcile independence of subunit denaturation with apparent strong interactions between subunits. PMID:16662003

  20. Element specific determination of the magnetic properties of two macrocyclic tetranuclear 3d-4f complexes with a Cu3Tb core by means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD).

    PubMed

    Balinski, K; Schneider, L; Wöllermann, J; Buling, A; Joly, L; Piamonteze, C; Feltham, H L C; Brooker, S; Powell, A K; Delley, B; Kuepper, K

    2018-06-20

    We apply X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to study the internal magnetic structure of two very promising star shaped macrocyclic complexes with a CuII3TbIII core. These complexes are rare examples prepared with a macrocyclic ligand that show indications of SMM (Single Molecule Magnet) behavior, and they differ only in ring size: one has a propylene linked macrocycle, [CuII3TbIII(LPr)(NO3)2(MeOH)(H2O)2](NO3)·3H2O (nickname: Cu3Tb(LPr)), and the other has the butylene linked analogue, [CuII3TbIII(LBu)(NO3)2(MeOH)(H2O)](NO3)·3H2O (nickname: Cu3Tb(LBu)). We analyze the orbital and spin contributions to the Cu and Tb ions quantitatively by applying the spin and orbital sum rules concerning the L2 (M4)/L3 (M5) edges. In combination with appropriate ligand field simulations, we demonstrate that the Tb(iii) ions contribute with high orbital magnetic moments to the magnetic anisotropy, whereas the ligand field determines the easy axis of magnetization. Furthermore, we confirm that the Cu(ii) ions in both molecules are in a divalent valence state, the magnetic moments of the three Cu ions appear to be canted due to 3d-3d intramolecular magnetic interactions. For Cu3Tb(LPr), the corresponding element specific magnetization loops reflect that the Cu(ii) contribution to the overall magnetic picture becomes more important as the temperature is lowered. This implies a low value for the 3d-4f coupling.

  1. Utilization of circular dichroism and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to understand the formation and conversion of G-quadruplex DNA at the human c-myb proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hengqing; Yang, Pengfei; Hai, Jinhui; Li, Huihui

    2018-10-05

    G-quadruplex DNAs are involved in a number of key biological processes, including gene expression, transcription, and apoptosis. The c-myb oncogene contains a number of GGA repeats in its promoter which forms G-quadruplex, thus it could be used as a target in cancer therapeutics. Several in-vitro studies have used Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to demonstrate formation and stability of G-quadruplex DNA structure in the promoter region of human c-myb oncogene. The factors affecting the c-myb G-quadruplex structures were investigated, such as cations (i.e. K + , NH 4 + and Na + ) and co-solutes (methanol and polyethylene glycol). The results indicated that the presence of cations and co-solutes could change the G-quadruplex structural population and promote its thermodynamic stabilization as indicated by CD melting curves. It indicated that the co-solutes preferentially stabilize the c-myb G-quadruplex structure containing both homo- and hetero-stacking. In addition, protopine was demonstrated as a binder of c-myb G-quadruplex as screened from a library of natural alkaloids using ESI-MS method. CD spectra showed that it could selectively stabilize the c-myb G-quadruplex structure compared to other six G-quadruplexes from tumor-related G-rich sequences and the duplex DNAs (both long and short-chain ones). The binding of protopine could induce the change in the G-quadruplex structural populations. Therefore, protopine with its high binding specificity could be considered as a precursor for the design of drugs to target and regulate c-myb oncogene transcription. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theoretical Prediction of Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Chabalowski U.S. ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABORATORY January 1990 DTIC ELECTESMAR 6U99 CHEMICAL COMMAN4D Aberden Proving Ground . MeMand 21010-5423 IDWPM...TASK [WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO.11 46 2 6 2 2 NO. A5531 ACCESSION NO. Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21010-5423 IC4648061 D020 1 11. TITLE (Include...Engineering Center ATITN: SDCCR-RSP-C Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21010-5423 U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD

  3. Circular dichroism and DNA secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Baase, W A; Johnson, W C

    1979-01-01

    The change in average rotation of the DNA helix has been determined for the transfer from 0.05 M NaCl to 3.0 M CsCl, 6.2 M LiCl and 5.4 M NH4Cl. This work, combined with data at lower salt from other laboratories, allows us to relate the intensity of the CD of DNA at 275 nm directly to the change in the number of base pairs per turn. The change in secondary structure for the transfer of DNA from 0.05 M NaCl (where it is presumably in the B-form) to high salt (where the characteristic CD has been interpreted as corresponding to C-form geometry) is found to be -0.22 (+/- 0.02) base pairs per turn. In the case of mononucleosomes, where the CD indicates the "C-form", the change in secondary structure (including temperature effects) would add -0.31 (+/- 0.03) turns about the histone core to the -1.25 turns estimated from work on SV40 chromatin. Accurate winding angles and molar extinction coefficients were determined for ethidium. PMID:424316

  4. Analysis of the major chiral compounds of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils (EOs) using reconstructed vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra: En route to a VCD chiral signature of EOs.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Vanloot, Pierre; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Dahmane, El Montassir; Aamouche, Ahmed; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2016-01-15

    An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs. The VCD spectra of enantiomer of known enantiomeric excess shall be recorded if they are not yet available in a library of VCD spectra. For IR, the spectra of pure enantiomer or racemic mixture can be used. The full spectra modelizations were performed using a well known and powerful mathematical model (least square estimation: LSE) which resulted in a weighting of each contributing compound. For VCD modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the associate compound while the attached sign addressed the correctness of the enantiomeric form used to build the model. As an example, a model built with the non-prevailing enantiomer will show a negative sign of the weighting value. For IR spectra modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the compounds without of course accounting for the chirality of the prevailing enantiomers. Comparison of the weighting values issuing from IR and VCD spectra modelizations is a valuable source of information: if they are identical, the EOs are composed of nearly pure enantiomers, if they are different the chiral compounds of the EOs are not in an optically pure form. The method was applied on four samples of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba in which the three major compounds namely (-)-α-thujone, (+)-β-thujone and (-)-camphor were found in different proportions as determined by GC-MS and chiral HPLC using polarimetric detector. In order to validate the

  5. Iron L2,3-Edge X-ray Absorption and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Studies of Molecular Iron Complexes with Relevance to the FeMoco and FeVco Active Sites of Nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Herein, a systematic study of a series of molecular iron model complexes has been carried out using Fe L2,3-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopies. This series spans iron complexes of increasing complexity, starting from ferric and ferrous tetrachlorides ([FeCl4]−/2–), to ferric and ferrous tetrathiolates ([Fe(SR)4]−/2–), to diferric and mixed-valent iron–sulfur complexes [Fe2S2R4]2–/3–. This test set of compounds is used to evaluate the sensitivity of both Fe L2,3-edge XAS and XMCD spectroscopy to oxidation state and ligation changes. It is demonstrated that the energy shift and intensity of the L2,3-edge XAS spectra depends on both the oxidation state and covalency of the system; however, the quantitative information that can be extracted from these data is limited. On the other hand, analysis of the Fe XMCD shows distinct changes in the intensity at both L3 and L2 edges, depending on the oxidation state of the system. It is also demonstrated that the XMCD intensity is modulated by the covalency of the system. For mononuclear systems, the experimental data are correlated with atomic multiplet calculations in order to provide insights into the experimental observations. Finally, XMCD is applied to the tetranuclear heterometal–iron–sulfur clusters [MFe3S4]3+/2+ (M = Mo, V), which serve as structural analogues of the FeMoco and FeVco active sites of nitrogenase. It is demonstrated that the XMCD data can be utilized to obtain information on the oxidation state distribution in complex clusters that is not readily accessible for the Fe L2,3-edge XAS data alone. The advantages of XMCD relative to standard K-edge and L2,3-edge XAS are highlighted. This study provides an important foundation for future XMCD studies on complex (bio)inorganic systems. PMID:28653855

  6. Ultra-Thin Dual-Band Polarization-Insensitive and Wide-Angle Perfect Metamaterial Absorber Based on a Single Circular Sector Resonator Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hao; Cheng, Yong Zhi

    2018-01-01

    We present a simple design for an ultra-thin dual-band polarization-insensitive and wide-angle perfect metamaterial absorber (PMMA) based on a single circular sector resonator structure (CSRS). Both simulation and experimental results reveal that two resonance peaks with average absorption above 99% can be achieved. The dual-band PMMA is ultra-thin with total thickness of 0.5 mm, which is

  7. Direct surface magnetometry with photoemission magnetic x-ray dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W.; Schumann, F.O.

    1997-04-01

    Element specific surface magnetometry remains a central goal of synchrotron radiation based studies of nanomagnetic structures. One appealing possibility is the combination of x-ray absorption dichroism measurements and the theoretical framework provided by the {open_quotes}sum rules.{close_quotes} Unfortunately, sum rule analysis are hampered by several limitations including delocalization of the final state, multi-electronic phenomena and the presence of surface dipoles. An alternative experiment, Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism in Photoelectron Spectroscopy, holds out promise based upon its elemental specificity, surface sensitivity and high resolution. Computational simulations by Tamura et al. demonstrated the relationship between exchange and spin orbit splittings and experimental data ofmore » linear and circular dichroisms. Now the authors have developed an analytical framework which allows for the direct extraction of core level exchange splittings from circular and linear dichroic photoemission data. By extending a model initially proposed by Venus, it is possible to show a linear relation between normalized dichroism peaks in the experimental data and the underlying exchange splitting. Since it is reasonable to expect that exchange splittings and magnetic moments track together, this measurement thus becomes a powerful new tool for direct surface magnetometry, without recourse to time consuming and difficult spectral simulations. The theoretical derivation will be supported by high resolution linear and circular dichroism data collected at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the Advanced Light Source.« less

  8. [Presence of the trace elements from carbon dioxide absorbent containing lime using a circular apparatus during general anesthesia. ].

    PubMed

    Macheta, A; Słodowski, W; Kocot, M; Muszyński, T; Rokita, E; Andres, J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate release of the trace elements from carbon dioxide absorbent containing soda lime during general anesthesia. We compared two suppliers Polish "Polfa" and German "Dräger". Following trace elements were evaluated: chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, nickel in soda lime. In blood of the patients we evaluated: copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, bromine, rubidium, iron, mercury. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to measure concentrations of the elements. Probes of soda lime were analyzed before anesthesia (Polfa, Dräger), 6 hr after the use (Polfa only) and after 10 weeks (Dräger only). 10 patients were divided in two equal groups, one was anesthetized using soda lime from Polfa and another one from Dräger. Blood samples were taken before anesthesia, immediately after and the next day. Mean values of the concentrations of the elements in soda lime coming from Polfa ranged from 0.20 ppm (nickel) to 7.19 ppm (zinc). In Dräger the measurements were from 0.22 ppm (nickel) to 3.70 ppm (zinc). Mean concentrations of trace elements in blood samples were between 0.20 ppm (lead) and 487 ppm (iron) for the patients anesthetized with Polfa soda lime. In Dräger the measurements ranged from 0.15 ppm (lead) to 485 ppm (iron). Concentrations of cadmium and mercury were below the method's limit. Mean values were almost the same in all time points. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-tests. Values of P < 0.05 were consider significant. We concluded that there were no statistically significant differences between examined groups. Thus, we can say that trace elements were not released from soda lime and concentrations of examined elements in patients' blood were not affected by general anesthesia.

  9. Employing Theories Far beyond Their Limits - Linear Dichroism Theory.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2018-05-15

    Using linear polarized light, it is possible in case of ordered structures, such as stretched polymers or single crystals, to determine the orientation of the transition moments of electronic and vibrational transitions. This not only helps to resolve overlapping bands, but also assigning the symmetry species of the transitions and to elucidate the structure. To perform spectral evaluation quantitatively, a sometimes "Linear Dichroism Theory" called approach is very often used. This approach links the relative orientation of the transition moment and polarization direction to the quantity absorbance. This linkage is highly questionable for several reasons. First of all, absorbance is a quantity that is by its definition not compatible with Maxwell's equations. Furthermore, absorbance seems not to be the quantity which is generally compatible with linear dichroism theory. In addition, linear dichroism theory disregards that it is not only the angle between transition moment and polarization direction, but also the angle between sample surface and transition moment, that influences band shape and intensity. Accordingly, the often invoked "magic angle" has never existed and the orientation distribution influences spectra to a much higher degree than if linear dichroism theory would hold strictly. A last point that is completely ignored by linear dichroism theory is the fact that partially oriented or randomly-oriented samples usually consist of ordered domains. It is their size relative to the wavelength of light that can also greatly influence a spectrum. All these findings can help to elucidate orientation to a much higher degree by optical methods than currently thought possible by the users of linear dichroism theory. Hence, it is the goal of this contribution to point out these shortcomings of linear dichroism theory to its users to stimulate efforts to overcome the long-lasting stagnation of this important field. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  10. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W.; Cummins, T.R.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of highmore » resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction.« less

  11. A complex-polarization-propagator protocol for magneto-chiral axial dichroism and birefringence dispersion.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Janusz; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Rizzo, Antonio; Rikken, Geert L J A; Coriani, Sonia

    2016-05-21

    A computational protocol for magneto-chiral dichroism and magneto-chiral birefringence dispersion is presented within the framework of damped response theory, also known as complex polarization propagator theory, at the level of time-dependent Hartree-Fock and time-dependent density functional theory. Magneto-chiral dichroism and magneto-chiral birefringence spectra in the (resonant) frequency region below the first ionization threshold of R-methyloxirane and l-alanine are presented and compared with the corresponding results obtained for both the electronic circular dichroism and the magnetic circular dichroism. The additional information content yielded by the magneto-chiral phenomena, as well as their potential experimental detectability for the selected species, is discussed.

  12. X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism of LaCoO3 , La0.7Ce0.3CoO3 , and La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 films: Evidence for cobalt-valence-dependent magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, M.; Nagel, P.; Pinta, C.; Samartsev, A.; v. Löhneysen, H.; Wissinger, M.; Uebe, S.; Assmann, A.; Fuchs, D.; Schuppler, S.

    2010-11-01

    Epitaxial thin films of undoped LaCoO3 , of electron-doped La0.7Ce0.3CoO3 , and of hole-doped La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 exhibit ferromagnetic order with a transition temperature TC≈84K , 23 K, and 194 K, respectively. The spin-state structure for these compounds was studied by soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and by near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure at the CoL2,3 and OK edges. It turns out that superexchange between Co3+ high-spin and Co3+ low-spin states is responsible for the ferromagnetism in LaCoO3 . For La0.7Ce0.3CoO3 the Co3+ ions are in a low-spin state and the spin and orbital moments are predominantly determined by a Co2+ high-spin configuration. A spin blockade naturally explains the low transition temperature and the insulating characteristics of La0.7Ce0.3CoO3 . For La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 , on the other hand, the magnetic moments in the epitaxial films originate from high-spin Co3+ and high-spin Co4+ states. Ferromagnetism is induced by t2g double exchange between the two high-spin configurations. For all systems, a strong magnetic anisotropy is observed, with the magnetic moments essentially oriented within the film plane.

  13. Conformational effects on circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, Devis; Stener, Mauro; Fronzoni, Giovanna; Decleva, Piero

    2006-04-10

    The B-spline density-functional method has been applied to the conformers of the (1R, 2R)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-dichloro-1,2-difluoroethane molecule. The cross section, asymmetry, and dichroic parameters relative to core and valence orbitals, which do not change their nature along the conformational curve, have been systematically studied. While the cross section and the asymmetry parameter are weakly affected, the dichroic parameter appears to be rather sensitive to the particular conformer of the molecule, suggesting that this dynamical property could be a useful tool for conformational analysis. The computational method has also been applied to methyl rotation in methyloxirane. Unexpected and dramatic sensitivity of the dichroic-parameter profile to the methyl rotation, both in the core and valence states, has been found. Boltzmann averaging over the conformers reproduces quite closely the profiles previously obtained for the minimum-energy conformation, which is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Absolute configuration of (-)-myrtenal by vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Burgueño-Tapia, Eleuterio; Zepeda, L Gerardo; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2010-07-01

    The VCD spectrum of the monoterpene (-)-myrtenal (1) was compared with theoretical spectra using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31G+(d,p), B3LYP/6-311G+(d,p), B3LYP/DGDZVP, and B3PW91/DGTZVP levels of theory. Conformational analysis of 1 indicated that the lowest energy conformer was s-trans-C2-C10, which contributes more than 98.5% to the total conformational population regardless of the employed level of theory. The use of a recently developed confidence level algorithm demonstrated that VCD spectra calculated for the main conformer, using the indicated hybrid functionals and basis set, gave no significant changes, from where it follows that B3LYP/DGDZVP calculations provide a superior balance between computer cost and VCD spectral accuracy. The DGDZVP basis set demanded around a quarter the time than the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set while providing similar results. The spectral comparison also provided evidence that the levorotatory enantiomer of myrtenal has the 1R absolute configuration. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Enhancing a Traditional Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Russell L.; Seal, Erin L.; Lorts, Aimee R.; Stewart, Amanda L.

    2017-01-01

    The undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum is designed to provide students with experience in protein isolation and purification protocols as well as various data analysis techniques, which enhance the biochemistry lecture course and give students a broad range of tools upon which to build in graduate level laboratories or once they…

  16. Imaging linear and circular polarization features in leaves with complete Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Patty, C H Lucas; Luo, David A; Snik, Frans; Ariese, Freek; Buma, Wybren Jan; Ten Kate, Inge Loes; van Spanning, Rob J M; Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Garab, Győző; Kudenov, Michael W

    2018-06-01

    Spectropolarimetry of intact plant leaves allows to probe the molecular architecture of vegetation photosynthesis in a non-invasive and non-destructive way and, as such, can offer a wealth of physiological information. In addition to the molecular signals due to the photosynthetic machinery, the cell structure and its arrangement within a leaf can create and modify polarization signals. Using Mueller matrix polarimetry with rotating retarder modulation, we have visualized spatial variations in polarization in transmission around the chlorophyll a absorbance band from 650 nm to 710 nm. We show linear and circular polarization measurements of maple leaves and cultivated maize leaves and discuss the corresponding Mueller matrices and the Mueller matrix decompositions, which show distinct features in diattenuation, polarizance, retardance and depolarization. Importantly, while normal leaf tissue shows a typical split signal with both a negative and a positive peak in the induced fractional circular polarization and circular dichroism, the signals close to the veins only display a negative band. The results are similar to the negative band as reported earlier for single macrodomains. We discuss the possible role of the chloroplast orientation around the veins as a cause of this phenomenon. Systematic artefacts are ruled out as three independent measurements by different instruments gave similar results. These results provide better insight into circular polarization measurements on whole leaves and options for vegetation remote sensing using circular polarization. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Circular Coinduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  18. An in-plane magnetic chiral dichroism approach for measurement of intrinsic magnetic signals using transmitted electrons

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dongsheng; Tavabi, Amir H.; Li, Zi-An; Kovács, András; Rusz, Ján; Huang, Wenting; Richter, Gunther; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Zhu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism is a powerful technique that allows the local magnetic properties of materials to be measured quantitatively with close-to-atomic spatial resolution and element specificity in the transmission electron microscope. Until now, the technique has been restricted to measurements of the magnetic circular dichroism signal in the electron beam direction. However, the intrinsic magnetization directions of thin samples are often oriented in the specimen plane, especially when they are examined in magnetic-field-free conditions in the transmission electron microscope. Here, we introduce an approach that allows in-plane magnetic signals to be measured using electron magnetic chiral dichroism by selecting a specific diffraction geometry. We compare experimental results recorded from a cobalt nanoplate with simulations to demonstrate that an electron magnetic chiral dichroism signal originating from in-plane magnetization can be detected successfully. PMID:28504267

  19. Circularly polarized luminescence of syndiotactic polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Guerra, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    Syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS) films, when crystallized from the amorphous state by temporary sorption of non-racemic guest molecules (like carvone) not only exhibit unusually high optical activity, both in the UV-Visible and Infrared ranges, but also present circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with high dissymmetry ratios (g = ΔI/I values in the range 0.02-0.03). Experimental evidences provide support, rather than to the usual molecular circular dichroism, to a supramolecular chiral optical response being extrinsic to the site of photon absorption and emission, possibly associated with a helical morphology of s-PS crystallites.

  20. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  1. Circular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kuller, L H

    1999-11-01

    Circular epidemiology can be defined as the continuation of specific types of epidemiologic studies beyond the point of reasonable doubt of the true existence of an important association or the absence of such an association. Circular epidemiology is an extreme example of studies of the consistency of associations. A basic problem for epidemiology is the lack of a systematic approach to acquiring new knowledge to reach a goal of improving public health and preventive medicine. For epidemiologists, research support unfortunately is biased toward the continued study of already proven hypotheses. Circular epidemiology, however, freezes at one point in the evolution of epidemiologic studies, failing to move from descriptive to analytical case-control and longitudinal studies, for example, to experimental, clinical trials. Good epidemiology journals are filled with very well-conducted epidemiologic studies that primarily repeat the obvious or are variations on the theme.

  2. Vibrationally induced inversion of photoelectron forward-backward asymmetry in chiral molecule photoionization by circularly polarized light

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Electron–nuclei coupling accompanying excitation and relaxation processes is a fascinating phenomenon in molecular dynamics. A striking and unexpected example of such coupling is presented here in the context of photoelectron circular dichroism measurements on randomly oriented, chiral methyloxirane molecules, unaffected by any continuum resonance. Here, we report that the forward-backward asymmetry in the electron angular distribution, with respect to the photon axis, which is associated with photoelectron circular dichroism can surprisingly reverse direction according to the ion vibrational mode excited. This vibrational dependence represents a clear breakdown of the usual Franck–Condon assumption, ascribed to the enhanced sensitivity of photoelectron circular dichroism (compared with other observables like cross-sections or the conventional anisotropy parameter-β) to the scattering phase off the chiral molecular potential, inducing a dependence on the nuclear geometry sampled in the photoionization process. Important consequences for the interpretation of such dichroism measurements within analytical contexts are discussed. PMID:23828557

  3. Chiral monolithic absorbent constructed by optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide: preparation and chiral absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Wantai; Deng, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    Chiral monolithic absorbent is successfully constructed for the first time by using optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide (GO). The preparative strategy is facile and straightforward, in which chiral-substituted acetylene monomer (Ma), cross-linker (Mb), and alkynylated GO (Mc) undergo copolymerization to form the desired monolithic absorbent in quantitative yield. The resulting monoliths are characterized by circular dichroism, UV-vis absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, Raman, energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), XPS, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The polymer chains derived from Ma form chiral helical structures and thus provide optical activity to the monoliths, while GO sheets contribute to the formation of porous structures. The porous structure enables the monolithic absorbents to demonstrate a large swelling ratio in organic solvents, and more remarkably, the helical polymer chains provide optical activity and further enantio-differentiating absorption ability. The present study establishes an efficient and versatile methodology for preparing novel functional materials, in particular monolithic chiral materials based on substituted polyacetylene and GO. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  5. Quantitation of protein orientation in flow-oriented unilamellar liposomes by linear dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendra, Jascindra; Damianoglou, Angeliki; Hicks, Matthew; Booth, Paula; Rodger, P. Mark; Rodger, Alison

    2006-07-01

    The linear dichroism of the visible wavelength transitions of retinal have been used to analyse linear dichroism spectra to determine the orientation of aromatic and peptide structural motifs of Bacteriorhodopsin incorporated into unilamellar soy bean liposomes. The results are consistent with the available X-ray data. This proves that visible light absorbing chromophores can be used to analyse linear dichroism data to give the orientation of membrane proteins in membrane mimicking environments. The work has been extended by screening a wide range of hydrophobic molecules with high extinction coefficients in transitions above 300 nm to find molecules that could be used as independent probes of liposome orientation for experiments involving proteins incorporated into liposomes. Three probes were found to have potential for future work: bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol (DiBAC 4), retinol and rhodamine B. All three can be used to determine the orientation of the porphyrin of cytochrome c, the aromatic residues of gramicidin and the helices of both proteins. The orientation parameter, S, for the liposomes varied from batch to batch of unilamellar liposomes prepared by extruding through a 100 nm membrane. The value and variation in S was 0.030 ± 0.010. Repeat experiments with the same batch of liposomes showed less variation. Film LD data were measured for DiBAC 4 and rhodamine B to determine the polarisations of their long wavelength transitions.

  6. Protein fiber linear dichroism for structure determination and kinetics in a low-volume, low-wavelength couette flow cell.

    PubMed

    Dafforn, Timothy R; Rajendra, Jacindra; Halsall, David J; Serpell, Louise C; Rodger, Alison

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution structure determination of soluble globular proteins relies heavily on x-ray crystallography techniques. Such an approach is often ineffective for investigations into the structure of fibrous proteins as these proteins generally do not crystallize. Thus investigations into fibrous protein structure have relied on less direct methods such as x-ray fiber diffraction and circular dichroism. Ultraviolet linear dichroism has the potential to provide additional information on the structure of such biomolecular systems. However, existing systems are not optimized for the requirements of fibrous proteins. We have designed and built a low-volume (200 microL), low-wavelength (down to 180 nm), low-pathlength (100 microm), high-alignment flow-alignment system (couette) to perform ultraviolet linear dichroism studies on the fibers formed by a range of biomolecules. The apparatus has been tested using a number of proteins for which longer wavelength linear dichroism spectra had already been measured. The new couette cell has also been used to obtain data on two medically important protein fibers, the all-beta-sheet amyloid fibers of the Alzheimer's derived protein Abeta and the long-chain assemblies of alpha1-antitrypsin polymers.

  7. Note: Derivation of two-photon circular dichroism—Addendum to “Two-photon circular dichroism” [J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1006 (1975)

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no

    2015-09-07

    This addendum shows the detailed derivation of the fundamental equations for two-photon circular dichroism which are given in a very condensed form in the original publication [I. Tinoco, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1006 (1975)]. In addition, some minor errors are corrected and some of the derivations in the original publication are commented.

  8. Iridium(iii) phosphorescent complexes with dual stereogenic centers: single crystal, electronic circular dichroism evidence and circularly polarized luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Yi; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zhou, Yong-Hui

    2016-12-06

    Iridium complexes with a chiral metal center and chiral carbons, Λ/Δ-(dfppy) 2 Ir(chty-R) and Λ/Δ-(dfppy) 2 Ir(chty-S), were synthesized and characterized. These isomers have the same steady-state photophysical properties, and obvious offsets in ECD spectra highlight both the chiral sources. Each enantiomeric couple shows mirror-image CPL bands with a dissymmetry factor in the order of 10 -3 .

  9. High-Energy Vacuum Birefringence and Dichroism in an Ultrastrong Laser Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, Sergey; Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing prediction of quantum electrodynamics, yet to be experimentally observed, is the interaction between real photons in vacuum. As a consequence of this interaction, the vacuum is expected to become birefringent and dichroic if a strong laser field polarizes its virtual particle-antiparticle dipoles. Here, we derive how a generally polarized probe photon beam is influenced by both vacuum birefringence and dichroism in a strong linearly polarized plane-wave laser field. Furthermore, we consider an experimental scheme to measure these effects in the nonperturbative high-energy regime, where the Euler-Heisenberg approximation breaks down. By employing circularly polarized high-energy probe photons, as opposed to the conventionally considered linearly polarized ones, the feasibility of quantitatively confirming the prediction of nonlinear QED for vacuum birefringence at the 5 σ confidence level on the time scale of a few days is demonstrated for upcoming 10 PW laser systems. Finally, dichroism and anomalous dispersion in vacuum are shown to be accessible at these facilities.

  10. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    DOE PAGES

    Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan -Carlos; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2014-09-30

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase front using the aberration-corrected optics of a scanning transmission electron microscope. The probe’s required phase distribution depends on the sample’s magnetic symmetry and crystal structure. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals that use the electron probe’s phase are as strongmore » as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.« less

  11. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  12. Conformational properties of chiral tobacco alkaloids by DFT calculations and vibrational circular dichroism: (-)-S-anabasine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Ortega, P G; Montejo, M; Márquez, F; López González, J J

    2015-07-01

    A thorough DFT and MM study of the conformational landscape, molecular and electronic structures of (-)-S-anabasine is reported aimed to reveal the mechanism controlling its conformational preference. Although the conformational flexibility and diversity of this system is quite extensive, only two structures are populated both in gas-phase and solution (CCl4 and DMSO). NBO-aided electronic structure analyses performed for the eight conformers representing minima in the potential energy surface of (-)-S-anabasine indicate that both steric and electrostatic factors are determinant in the conformational distribution of the sample in gas phase. Nonetheless, hyperconjugative effects are the key force tipping the balance in the conformational equilibrium between the two main rotamers. Increasing the polarity of the medium (using the IEF-PCM formalism) barely affect the conformational energy profile, although a slight increase in the theoretical population of those structures more affected by electrostatic interactions is predicted. The validity of the theoretical models and calculated conformers populations are endorsed by the accurate reproduction of the IR and VCD spectra (recorded in pure liquid and in CCl4 solution) of the sample (that have been firstly recorded and assigned in the present work) which are consistent with the occurrence of a 2:1 conformational ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metallocorroles as inherently chiral chromophores: resolution and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy of a tungsten biscorrole.

    PubMed

    Schies, Christine; Alemayehu, Abraham B; Vazquez-Lima, Hugo; Thomas, Kolle E; Bruhn, Torsten; Bringmann, Gerhard; Ghosh, Abhik

    2017-06-01

    An inherently chiral metallocorrole has been resolved for the first time by means of HPLC on a chiral stationary phase. For the compound in question, a homoleptic tungsten biscorrole, the absolute configurations of the enantiomers were assigned using online HPLC-ECD measurements in conjunction with time-dependent CAM-B3LYP calculations, which provided accurate simulations of the ECD spectra.

  14. Rapid magnetosome formation shown by real-time x-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Staniland, Sarah; Ward, Bruce; Harrison, Andrew; van der Laan, Gerrit; Telling, Neil

    2007-12-04

    Magnetosomes are magnetite nanoparticles formed by biomineralization within magnetotactic bacteria. Although there have been numerous genetic and proteomic studies of the magnetosome-formation process, there have been only limited and inconclusive studies of mineral-phase evolution during the formation process, and no real-time studies of such processes have yet been performed. Thus, suggested formation mechanisms still need substantiating with data. Here we report the examination of the magnetosome material throughout the formation process in a real-time in vivo study of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, strain MSR-1. Transmission EM and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that full-sized magnetosomes are seen 15 min after formation is initiated. These immature magnetosomes contain a surface layer of the nonmagnetic iron oxide-phase hematite. Mature magnetite is found after another 15 min, concurrent with a dramatic increase in magnetization. This rapid formation result is contrary to previously reported studies and discounts the previously proposed slow, multistep formation mechanisms. Thus, we conclude that the biomineralization of magnetite occurs rapidly in magnetotactic bacteria on a similar time scale to high-temperature chemical precipitation reactions, and we suggest that this finding is caused by a biological catalysis of the process.

  15. Acquisition of a Circular Dichroism Spectrometer to Study Biological Molecules at Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    H133C double mutant) was immobilized by itself and co-immobilized with poly- sorbitol methacrylate on maleimide SAM surfaces. The purpose of this...work is to see whether the hydromimetic poly- sorbitol methacrylate can protect protein secondary structure when the co-immobilized protein-polymer...partially lost its secondary structure after the sample was exposed to air for 1 day. The co-immobilized NsfB-H360C-H133C double mutant and poly- sorbitol

  16. Determination of absolute configuration of natural products: theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism as a tool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determination of absolute configuration (AC) is one of the most challenging features in the structure elucidation of chiral natural products, especially those with complex structures. With revolutionary advancements in the area of quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopy over the pa...

  17. Anharmonic Effects on Vibrational Spectra Intensities: Infrared, Raman, Vibrational Circular Dichroism and Raman Optical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bloino, Julien; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we want to report the extension of our virtual multifrequency spectrometer (VMS) to anharmonic intensities for Raman Optical Activity (ROA) with the full inclusion of first- and second-order resonances for both frequencies and intensities in the framework of the generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory (GVPT2) for all kinds of vibrational spectroscopies. Then, from a more general point of view, we want to present and validate the performance of VMS for the parallel analysis of different vibrational spectra for medium-sized molecules (IR, Raman, VCD, ROA) including both mechanical and electric/magnetic anharmonicity. For the well-known methyloxirane benchmark, careful selection of density functional, basis set, and resonance tresholds permitted to reach qualitative and quantitative vis-à-vis comparison between experimental and computed band positions and shapes. Next, the whole series of halogenated azetidinones is analyzed, showing that it is now possible to interpret different spectra in terms of electronegativity, polarizability, and hindrance variation between closely related substituents, chiral spectroscopies being particular effective in this connection. PMID:26580121

  18. Panel Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MECHEL, F. P.

    2001-11-01

    A plane wave is incident on a simply supported elastic plate covering a back volume; the arrangement is surrounded by a hard baffle wall. The plate may be porous with a flow friction resistance; the back volume may be filled either with air or with a porous material. The back volume may be bulk reacting (i.e., with sound propagation parallel to the plate) or locally reacting. Since this arrangement is of some importance in room acoustics, Cremer in his book about room acoustics [1] has presented an approximate analysis. However, Cremer's analysis uses a number of assumptions which make his solution, in his own estimate, unsuited for low frequencies, where, on the other hand, the arrangement mainly is applied. This paper presents a sound field description which uses modal analysis. It is applicable not only in the far field, but also near the absorber. Further, approximate solutions are derived, based on simplifying assumptions like Cremer has used. The modal analysis solution is of interest not only as a reference for approximations but also for practical applications, because the aspect of computing time becomes more and more unimportant (the 3D-plots presented below for the sound field were evaluated with modal analysis in about 6 s).

  19. Searching for Models Exhibiting High Circularly Polarized Luminescence: the Electroactive Inherently Chiral Oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Benincori, Tiziana; Appoloni, Giulio; Mussini, Patrizia Romana; Arnaboldi, Serena; Cirilli, Roberto; Quartapelle Procopio, Elsa; Panigati, Monica; Abbate, Sergio; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Longhi, Giovanna

    2018-05-02

    Two new inherently chiral oligothiophenes characterized by the atropisomeric 3,3'-bithianaphtene scaffold functionalized with fused ring bithiophene derivatives, namely 4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b3:4b']dithiophene (CPDT) and dithieno[3,3-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP), were synthesized. The racemates were fully characterized and resolved into antipodes by enantioselective HPLC. The enantiomers were analyzed through different chiroptical techniques: electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) were employed to attribute the absolute configuration (AC). Comparison of experimental and calculated VCD spectra confirmed the DFT calculated conformational characteristics. The compound functionalized with two CPDT units was oxidized with FeCl3 and ECD and CPL of the resulting material were measured. Circularly Polarized Luminescence (CPL) was measured in order to verify if inherently chiral oligothiophenes could be promising systems for chiral photonics applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Photoconductive detector of circularly polarized radiation based on a MIS structure with a CoPt layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, A. V.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Zdoroveishchev, A. V.; Demina, P. B.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Kalent'eva, I. L.; Ved', M. V.

    2017-11-01

    A photoconductive detector of circularly polarized radiation based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure of CoPt/(Al2O3/SiO2/Al2O3)/InGaAs/GaAs is created. The efficiency of detection of circularly polarized radiation is 0.75% at room temperature. The operation of the detector is based on the manifestation of the effect of magnetic circular dichroism in the CoPt layer, that is, the dependence of the CoPt transmission coefficient on the sign of the circular polarization of light and magnetization.

  1. Circular magnetoplasmonic modes in gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pineider, Francesco; Campo, Giulio; Bonanni, Valentina; Fernández, César de Julián; Mattei, Giovanni; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sangregorio, Claudio

    2013-10-09

    The quest for efficient ways of modulating localized surface plasmon resonance is one of the frontiers in current research in plasmonics; the use of a magnetic field as a source of modulation is among the most promising candidates for active plasmonics. Here we report the observation of magnetoplasmonic modes on colloidal gold nanoparticles detected by means of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy and provide a model that is able to rationalize and reproduce the experiment with unprecedented qualitative and quantitative accuracy. We believe that the steep slope observed at the plasmon resonance in the MCD spectrum can be very efficient in detecting changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium, and we give a simple proof of principle of its possible implementation for magnetoplasmonic refractometric sensing.

  2. [Circular migration in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Mantra, I B

    1979-12-01

    The author examines circular migration in Indonesia, with primary focus on the 1970s. It is found that circular, or repeated return migration, generally occurs over short distances and for short periods and is more frequent than lifetime migration. The relationships between improvements in the national transport system, access to labor force opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and circular migration are discussed.

  3. Angle-resolved photoemission with circularly polarized light in the nodal mirror plane of underdoped Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+ δ superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    He, Junfeng; Mion, Thomas R.; Gao, Shang

    2016-10-31

    Unraveling the nature of pseudogap phase in high-temperature superconductors holds the key to understanding their superconducting mechanisms and potentially broadening their applications via enhancement of their superconducting transition temperatures. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments using circularly polarized light have been proposed to detect possible symmetry breaking state in the pseudogap phase of cuprates. Here, the presence (absence) of an electronic order which breaks mirror symmetry of the crystal would in principle induce a finite (zero) circular dichroism in photoemission. Different orders breaking reflection symmetries about different mirror planes can also be distinguished by the momentum dependence of the measured circularmore » dichroism.« less

  4. The high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments at ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32.

    PubMed

    Kummer, K; Fondacaro, A; Jimenez, E; Velez-Fort, E; Amorese, A; Aspbury, M; Yakhou-Harris, F; van der Linden, P; Brookes, N B

    2016-03-01

    A new high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments has been installed and commissioned at the ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32. The magnet consists of two split-pairs of superconducting coils which can generate up to 9 T along the beam and up to 4 T orthogonal to the beam. It is connected to a cluster of ultra-high-vacuum chambers that offer a comprehensive set of surface preparation and characterization techniques. The endstation and the beam properties have been designed to provide optimum experimental conditions for X-ray magnetic linear and circular dichroism experiments in the soft X-ray range between 400 and 1600 eV photon energy. User operation started in November 2014.

  5. 2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular bastion wall. Metal roof beams extend up to form peak. World War II gun installation at right. - Fort Hamilton, Northwest Circular Bastion, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. Zero-field dichroism in the solar chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Sainz, R Manso; Bueno, J Trujillo

    2003-09-12

    We explain the linear polarization of the Ca ii infrared triplet observed close to the edge of the solar disk. In particular, we demonstrate that the physical origin of the enigmatic polarizations of the 866.2 and 854.2 nm lines lies in the existence of atomic polarization in their metastable (2)D(3)(/2, 5/2) lower levels, which produces differential absorption of polarization components (dichroism). To this end, we have solved the problem of the generation and transfer of polarized radiation by taking fully into account all the relevant optical pumping mechanisms in multilevel atomic models. We argue that "zero-field" dichroism may be of great diagnostic value in astrophysics.

  7. Circular polarization of twilight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Illing, R.; Martin, P. G.

    1972-01-01

    Review of observations of circular polarization of twilight performed with a polarimeter which uses an electronically switched Pockels cell operated as a reversible quarter-wave plate to convert circular into linear polarization. The latter was then analyzed by a Wollaston prism followed by two gallium-arsenide photomultipliers. The discovery of a definite natural circular polarization at twilight does suggest that, with increased observation precision, measurements of the small daylight component are possible. These could give useful information about particles in the atmosphere and be valuable in studies of meteorology and air pollution.

  8. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-08

    circularly-polarized laser pulses field-ionize a gas in a hollow - core waveguide. We use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism...polarized with opposite helicity in a gas-filled hollow waveguide (see Supplementary Section 6 for details on the important features of this source...mJ/pulse) driving lasers are focused into a 150-µm-diameter, 2-cm-long gas-filled hollow waveguide using lenses with focal lengths of 50 cm and 75 cm

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Generalized geometrical model for photoionization of polarized atoms: II. Magnetic dichroism in the 3p photoemission from the K 3p64s 2S1/2 ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Cubaynes, D.; Heinecke, E.; Hoffmann, P.; Zimmermann, P.; Meyer, M.

    2010-10-01

    The generalized geometrical model for photoionization from polarized atoms is extended to include mixing of configurations in the initial atomic and/or the final photoion states. The theoretical results for angle-resolved linear and circular magnetic dichroism are in good agreement with new high-resolution photoelectron data for 3p-1 photoionization of potassium atoms polarized in the K 3p64s 2S1/2 ground state by laser optical pumping.

  10. Probing the localization of magnetic dichroism by atomic-size astigmatic and vortex electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Negi, Devendra Singh; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Rusz, Ján

    We report localization of a magnetic dichroic signal on atomic columns in electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD), probed by beam distorted by four-fold astigmatism and electron vortex beam. With astigmatic probe, magnetic signal to noise ratio can be enhanced by blocking the intensity from the central part of probe. However, the simulations show that for atomic resolution magnetic measurements, vortex beam is a more effective probe, with much higher magnetic signal to noise ratio. For all considered beam shapes, the optimal SNR constrains the signal detection at low collection angles of approximately 6–8 mrad. Irrespective of the material thickness, themore » magnetic signal remains strongly localized within the probed atomic column with vortex beam, whereas for astigmatic probes, the magnetic signal originates mostly from the nearest neighbor atomic columns. Due to excellent signal localization at probing individual atomic columns, vortex beams are predicted to be a strong candidate for studying the crystal site specific magnetic properties, magnetic properties at interfaces, or magnetism arising from individual atomic impurities.« less

  11. Probing the localization of magnetic dichroism by atomic-size astigmatic and vortex electron beams.

    PubMed

    Negi, Devendra Singh; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Rusz, Ján

    2018-03-05

    We report localization of a magnetic dichroic signal on atomic columns in electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD), probed by beam distorted by four-fold astigmatism and electron vortex beam. With astigmatic probe, magnetic signal to noise ratio can be enhanced by blocking the intensity from the central part of probe. However, the simulations show that for atomic resolution magnetic measurements, vortex beam is a more effective probe, with much higher magnetic signal to noise ratio. For all considered beam shapes, the optimal SNR constrains the signal detection at low collection angles of approximately 6-8 mrad. Irrespective of the material thickness, the magnetic signal remains strongly localized within the probed atomic column with vortex beam, whereas for astigmatic probes, the magnetic signal originates mostly from the nearest neighbor atomic columns. Due to excellent signal localization at probing individual atomic columns, vortex beams are predicted to be a strong candidate for studying the crystal site specific magnetic properties, magnetic properties at interfaces, or magnetism arising from individual atomic impurities.

  12. Probing the localization of magnetic dichroism by atomic-size astigmatic and vortex electron beams

    DOE PAGES

    Negi, Devendra Singh; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Rusz, Ján

    2018-03-05

    We report localization of a magnetic dichroic signal on atomic columns in electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD), probed by beam distorted by four-fold astigmatism and electron vortex beam. With astigmatic probe, magnetic signal to noise ratio can be enhanced by blocking the intensity from the central part of probe. However, the simulations show that for atomic resolution magnetic measurements, vortex beam is a more effective probe, with much higher magnetic signal to noise ratio. For all considered beam shapes, the optimal SNR constrains the signal detection at low collection angles of approximately 6–8 mrad. Irrespective of the material thickness, themore » magnetic signal remains strongly localized within the probed atomic column with vortex beam, whereas for astigmatic probes, the magnetic signal originates mostly from the nearest neighbor atomic columns. Due to excellent signal localization at probing individual atomic columns, vortex beams are predicted to be a strong candidate for studying the crystal site specific magnetic properties, magnetic properties at interfaces, or magnetism arising from individual atomic impurities.« less

  13. Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

    1982-11-15

    The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors.

  14. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  15. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  16. Circular free-electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  17. Compact waveguide circular polarizer

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-08-16

    A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.

  18. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  19. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  20. Linear dichroism of DNA: Characterization of the orientation distribution function caused by hydrodynamic shear

    DOE PAGES

    Sutherland, John C.

    2017-04-15

    Linear dichroism provides information on the orientation of chromophores part of, or bound to, an orientable molecule such as DNA. For molecular alignment induced by hydrodynamic shear, the principal axes orthogonal to the direction of alignment are not equivalent. Thus, the magnitude of the flow-induced change in absorption for light polarized parallel to the direction of flow can be more than a factor of two greater than the corresponding change for light polarized perpendicular to both that direction and the shear axis. The ratio of the two flow-induced changes in absorption, the dichroic increment ratio, is characterized using the orthogonalmore » orientation model, which assumes that each absorbing unit is aligned parallel to one of the principal axes of the apparatus. The absorption of the alienable molecules is characterized by components parallel and perpendicular to the orientable axis of the molecule. The dichroic increment ratio indicates that for the alignment of DNA in rectangular flow cells, average alignment is not uniaxial, but for higher shear, as produced in a Couette cell, it can be. The results from the simple model are identical to tensor models for typical experimental configuration. Approaches for measuring the dichroic increment ratio with modern dichrometers are further discussed.« less

  1. Linear dichroism of DNA: Characterization of the orientation distribution function caused by hydrodynamic shear.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, John C

    2017-04-15

    Linear dichroism provides information on the orientation of chromophores part of, or bound to, an orientable molecule such as DNA. For molecular alignment induced by hydrodynamic shear, the principal axes orthogonal to the direction of alignment are not equivalent. Thus, the magnitude of the flow-induced change in absorption for light polarized parallel to the direction of flow can be more than a factor of two greater than the corresponding change for light polarized perpendicular to both that direction and the shear axis. The ratio of the two flow-induced changes in absorption, the dichroic increment ratio, is characterized using the orthogonal orientation model, which assumes that each absorbing unit is aligned parallel to one of the principal axes of the apparatus. The absorption of the alienable molecules is characterized by components parallel and perpendicular to the orientable axis of the molecule. The dichroic increment ratio indicates that for the alignment of DNA in rectangular flow cells, average alignment is not uniaxial, but for higher shear, as produced in a Couette cell, it can be. The results from the simple model are identical to tensor models for typical experimental configurations. Approaches for measuring the dichroic increment ratio with modern dichrometers are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Linear dichroism of DNA: Characterization of the orientation distribution function caused by hydrodynamic shear

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, John C.

    Linear dichroism provides information on the orientation of chromophores part of, or bound to, an orientable molecule such as DNA. For molecular alignment induced by hydrodynamic shear, the principal axes orthogonal to the direction of alignment are not equivalent. Thus, the magnitude of the flow-induced change in absorption for light polarized parallel to the direction of flow can be more than a factor of two greater than the corresponding change for light polarized perpendicular to both that direction and the shear axis. The ratio of the two flow-induced changes in absorption, the dichroic increment ratio, is characterized using the orthogonalmore » orientation model, which assumes that each absorbing unit is aligned parallel to one of the principal axes of the apparatus. The absorption of the alienable molecules is characterized by components parallel and perpendicular to the orientable axis of the molecule. The dichroic increment ratio indicates that for the alignment of DNA in rectangular flow cells, average alignment is not uniaxial, but for higher shear, as produced in a Couette cell, it can be. The results from the simple model are identical to tensor models for typical experimental configuration. Approaches for measuring the dichroic increment ratio with modern dichrometers are further discussed.« less

  3. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  4. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  5. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  6. Circularly polarized light to study linear magneto-optics for ferrofluids: θ-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangshen; Huang, Yan; He, Zhenghong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Decai; Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Circularly polarized light can be divided into two vertically linearly polarized light beams with  ±π/2 phase differences. In the presence of an external magnetic field, when circularly polarized light travels through a ferrofluid film, whose thickness is no more than that of λ/4 plate, magneto-optical, magnetic birefringence and dichroism effects cause the transmitted light to behave as elliptically polarized light. Using angular scan by a continuously rotating polarizer as analyzer, the angular (θ) distribution curve of relative intensity (T) corresponding to elliptically polarized light can be measured. From the T  ‑  θ curve having ellipsometry, the parameters such as the ratio of short to long axis, and angular orientation of the long axis to the vertical field direction can be obtained. Thus, magnetic birefringence and dichroism can be probed simultaneously by measuring magneto-optical, positive or negative birefringence and dichroism features from the transmission mode. The proposed method is called θ-scan technique, and can accurately determine sample stability, magnetic field direction, and cancel intrinsic light source ellipticity. This study may be helpful to further research done to ferrofluids and other similar colloidal samples with anisotropic optics.

  7. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  8. Modified circular velocity law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  9. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  10. Magneto-optical detection of the relaxation dynamics of alloy nanoparticles with a high-stability magnetic circular dichroism setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavigli, L.; de Julián Fernández, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Gurioli, M.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Bogani, L.

    2007-09-01

    We present a versatile high-stability and high-sensitivity magneto-optical setup that allows transmission and reflection measurements at high fields and low temperatures. We apply the technique to measure the decay in time of the magnetization of highly monodisperse 3.3 nm Co33Ni67 alloy nanoparticles embedded in a silica host. We demonstrate the possibility of observing the dynamics of the magnetization over a macroscopic timescale in dilute samples, where other techniques are unavailable.

  11. Dump system concepts for the Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, W.; Atanasov, M.; Barnes, M. J.; Borburgh, J.; Burkart, F.; Goddard, B.; Kramer, T.; Lechner, A.; Ull, A. Sanz; Schmidt, R.; Stoel, L. S.; Ostojic, R.; Rodziewicz, J.; van Trappen, P.; Barna, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) beam dump system must provide a safe and reliable extraction and dilution of the stored beam onto a dump absorber. Energy deposition studies show that damage limits of presently used absorber materials will already be reached for single bunches at 50 TeV. A fast field rise of the extraction kicker is required in order to sufficiently separate swept single bunches on the extraction protection absorbers in case of an asynchronous beam dump. In line with this demand is the proposal of a highly segmented extraction kicker system which allows for accepting a single kicker switch erratic and thus, significantly reduces the probability of an asynchronous beam dump. Superconducting septa are foreseen to limit the overall system length and power consumption. Two extraction system concepts are presented and evaluated regarding overall system length, energy deposition on absorbers, hardware requirements, radiation issues, and layout flexibility.

  12. Microwave Magnetochiral Dichroism in the Chiral-Lattice Magnet Cu2OSeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Y.; Kagawa, F.; Seki, S.; Kubota, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Through broadband microwave spectroscopy in Faraday geometry, we observe distinct absorption spectra accompanying magnetoelectric (ME) resonance for oppositely propagating microwaves, i.e., directional dichroism, in the multiferroic chiral-lattice magnet Cu2OSeO3. The magnitude of the directional dichroism critically depends on the magnetic-field direction. Such behavior is well accounted for by considering the relative direction of the oscillating electric polarizations induced via the ME effect with respect to microwave electric fields. Directional dichroism in a system with an arbitrary form of ME coupling can be also discussed in the same manner.

  13. Shock absorber servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tool to assist in the servicing of a shock absorber wherein the shock absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the shock absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.

  14. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  15. Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A lightweight, inexpensive shock-absorbing system, developed by Langley Research Center 20 years ago, is now in service as safety device for an automated railway at Duke University Medical Center. The transportation system travels at about 25 miles per hour, carrying patients, visitors, staff and cargo. At the end of each guideway of the system are "frangible," (breakable) tube "buffers." If a slowing car fails to make a complete stop at the terminal, it would bump and shatter the tubes, absorbing energy that might otherwise jolt the passengers or damage the vehicle.

  16. Magnetic circular dichroism and computational study of mononuclear and dinuclear iron(iv) complexes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: VT MCD spectra, VT and VTVH MCD intensity analysis of complex 1, energies, S x, S z values and Boltzmann populations of S = 1 magnetic sublevels as a function of the applied magnetic field, derivation of the excited states arising from the 1b2 → 2b1 transition, determination of the C-term sign of band 1 and the E(2e → 2a1) transitions for complex 1, VTVH MCD spectra, VTVH simulations and the computed MCD spectrum of complex 2. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03268c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Genqiang; Krivokapic, Itana; Petrenko, Taras

    2015-01-01

    High-valent iron(iv)-oxo species are key intermediates in the catalytic cycles of a range of O2-activating iron enzymes. This work presents a detailed study of the electronic structures of mononuclear ([FeIV(O)(L)(NCMe)]2+, 1, L = tris(3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxylpyridyl-2-methyl)amine) and dinuclear ([(L)FeIV(O)(μ-O)FeIV(OH)(L)]3+, 2) iron(iv) complexes using absorption (ABS), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy and wave-function-based quantum chemical calculations. For complex 1, the experimental MCD spectra at 2–10 K are dominated by a broad positive band between 12 000 and 18 000 cm–1. As the temperature increases up to ∼20 K, this feature is gradually replaced by a derivative-shaped signal. The computed MCD spectra are in excellent agreement with experiment, which reproduce not only the excitation energies and the MCD signs of key transitions but also their temperature-dependent intensity variations. To further corroborate the assignments suggested by the calculations, the individual MCD sign for each transition is independently determined from the corresponding electron donating and accepting orbitals. Thus, unambiguous assignments can be made for the observed transitions in 1. The ABS/MCD data of complex 2 exhibit ten features that are assigned as ligand-field transitions or oxo- or hydroxo-to-metal charge transfer bands, based on MCD/ABS intensity ratios, calculated excitation energies, polarizations, and MCD signs. In comparison with complex 1, the electronic structure of the FeIV 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000

  17. The magnitude of linear dichroism of biological tissues as a result of cancer changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojchuk, T. M.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Fedonyuk, L. Y.; Petryshen, O. I.; Guminetsky, S. G.; Prydij, O. G.

    2011-09-01

    The results of studies of linear dichroism values of different types of biological tissues (human prostate, esophageal epithelial human muscle tissue in rats) both healthy and infected tumor at different stages of development are shown here. The significant differences in magnitude of linear dichroism and its spectral dependence in the spectral range λ = 330 - 750 nm both among the objects of study, and between biotissues: healthy (or affected by benign tumors) and cancer patients are established. It is researched that in all cases in biological tissues (prostate gland, esophagus, human muscle tissue in rats) with cancer the linear dichroism arises, the value of which depends on the type of tissue and time of the tumor process. As for healthy tissues linear dichroism is absent, the results may have diagnostic value for detecting and assessing the degree of development of cancer.

  18. The magnitude of linear dichroism of biological tissues as a result of cancer changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojchuk, T. M.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Fedonyuk, L. Y.; Petryshen, O. I.; Guminetsky, S. G.; Prydij, O. G.

    2012-01-01

    The results of studies of linear dichroism values of different types of biological tissues (human prostate, esophageal epithelial human muscle tissue in rats) both healthy and infected tumor at different stages of development are shown here. The significant differences in magnitude of linear dichroism and its spectral dependence in the spectral range λ = 330 - 750 nm both among the objects of study, and between biotissues: healthy (or affected by benign tumors) and cancer patients are established. It is researched that in all cases in biological tissues (prostate gland, esophagus, human muscle tissue in rats) with cancer the linear dichroism arises, the value of which depends on the type of tissue and time of the tumor process. As for healthy tissues linear dichroism is absent, the results may have diagnostic value for detecting and assessing the degree of development of cancer.

  19. Circular states of atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwak, R.; Holley, J.; Chang, P.P.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the creation of circular states of hydrogen by adiabatic transfer of a Rydberg state in crossed electric and magnetic fields, and also by adiabatic passage in a rotating microwave field. The latter method permits rapid switching between the two circular states of a given n manifold. The two methods are demonstrated experimentally, and results are presented of an analysis of the field ionization properties of the circular states. An application for the circular states is illustrated by millimeter-wave resonance in hydrogen of the n=29{r_arrow}n=30 transition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  1. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  2. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOEpatents

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  3. Effects of dynamic diffraction conditions on magnetic parameter determination in a double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 using electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z C; Zhong, X Y; Jin, L; Chen, X F; Moritomo, Y; Mayer, J

    2017-05-01

    Electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) spectroscopy, which is similar to the well-established X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (XMCD), can determine the quantitative magnetic parameters of materials with high spatial resolution. One of the major obstacles in quantitative analysis using the EMCD technique is the relatively poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), compared to XMCD. Here, in the example of a double perovskite Sr 2 FeMoO 6 , we predicted the optimal dynamical diffraction conditions such as sample thickness, crystallographic orientation and detection aperture position by theoretical simulations. By using the optimized conditions, we showed that the SNR of experimental EMCD spectra can be significantly improved and the error of quantitative magnetic parameter determined by EMCD technique can be remarkably lowered. Our results demonstrate that, with enhanced SNR, the EMCD technique can be a unique tool to understand the structure-property relationship of magnetic materials particularly in the high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices by quantitatively determining magnetic structure and properties at the nanometer scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  5. Ultra-thin and -broadband microwave magnetic absorber enhanced by phase gradient metasurface incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ya; Wang, Jiafu; Li, Yongfeng; Pang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Lin; Xiang, Jiayu; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-05-01

    Based on the effect of anomalous reflection and refraction caused by the circularly cross-polarized phase gradient metasurface (PGM), an ultra-thin and -broadband composite absorber composed of metasurface and conventional magnetic absorbing film is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. In the case of keeping nearly the same thickness of absorbing layer, the equivalent thickness of magnetic absorbing film is enlarged by the effect of anomalous reflection and refraction, resulting in the expansion and improvement of the absorbing bandwidth and efficiency in low microwave frequency. A biarc metallic sub-cell for circularly crossed polarization is adopted to form a broadband phase gradient, by the means of rotating the Pancharatnam–Berry phases. As indicated in the experimental results, the fabricated 3.6 mm-thick absorber can averagely absorb microwave energy with the specular reflection below  ‑10 dB in the frequency interval of 2–12 GHz, which shows a good match with simulated results. Due to ultra-thin thickness and ultra-wide operating bandwidth, the proposed application of PGM in absorbing can provide an alternative way to enhance the absorbing property of current absorbing materials.

  6. Circular RNA: New Regulatory Molecules.

    PubMed

    Belousova, E A; Filipenko, M L; Kushlinskii, N E

    2018-04-01

    Circular RNA are a family of covalently closed circular RNA molecules, formed from pre-mRNA of coding genes by means of splicing (canonical and alternative noncanonical splicing). Maturation of circular RNA is regulated by cis- and trans-elements. Complete list of biological functions of these RNA is not yet compiled; however, their capacity to interact with specific microRNA and play a role of a depot attracts the greatest interest. This property makes circular RNA active regulatory transcription factors. Circular RNA have many advantages over their linear analogs: synthesis of these molecules is conservative, they are universal, characterized by clearly determined specificity, and are resistant to exonucleases. In addition, the level of their expression is often higher than that of their linear forms. It should be noted that expression of circular RNA is tissue-specific. Moreover, some correlations between changes in the repertoire and intensity of expression of circular RNA and the development of some pathologies have been detected. Circular RNA have certain advantages and can serve as new biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of response to therapy.

  7. Simulation of circularly polarized luminescence spectra using coupled cluster theory

    SciTech Connect

    McAlexander, Harley R.; Crawford, T. Daniel, E-mail: crawdad@vt.edu

    2015-04-21

    We report the first computations of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) rotatory strengths at the equation-of-motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) level of theory. Using a test set of eight chiral ketones, we compare both dipole and rotatory strengths for absorption (electronic circular dichroism) and emission to the results from time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and available experimental data for both valence and Rydberg transitions. For two of the compounds, we obtained optimized geometries of the lowest several excited states using both EOM-CCSD and TD-DFT and determined that structures and EOM-CCSD transition properties obtained with each structure were sufficiently similar thatmore » TD-DFT optimizations were acceptable for the remaining test cases. Agreement between EOM-CCSD and the Becke three-parameter exchange function and Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) corrected using the Coulomb attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) is typically good for most of the transitions, though agreement with the uncorrected B3LYP functional is significantly worse for all reported properties. The choice of length vs. velocity representation of the electric dipole operator has little impact on the EOM-CCSD transition strengths for nearly all of the states we examined. For a pair of closely related β, γ-enones, (1R)-7-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one, we find that EOM-CCSD and CAM-B3LYP agree with the energetic ordering of the two possible excited-state conformations, resulting in good agreement with experimental rotatory strengths in both absorption and emission, whereas B3LYP yields a qualitatively incorrect result for the CPL signal of (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one. Finally, we predict that one of the compounds considered here, trans-bicyclo[3.3.0]octane-3,7-dione, is unique in that it exhibits an achiral ground state and a chiral first excited state, leading to a

  8. Simulation of circularly polarized luminescence spectra using coupled cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlexander, Harley R.; Crawford, T. Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We report the first computations of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) rotatory strengths at the equation-of-motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) level of theory. Using a test set of eight chiral ketones, we compare both dipole and rotatory strengths for absorption (electronic circular dichroism) and emission to the results from time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and available experimental data for both valence and Rydberg transitions. For two of the compounds, we obtained optimized geometries of the lowest several excited states using both EOM-CCSD and TD-DFT and determined that structures and EOM-CCSD transition properties obtained with each structure were sufficiently similar that TD-DFT optimizations were acceptable for the remaining test cases. Agreement between EOM-CCSD and the Becke three-parameter exchange function and Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) corrected using the Coulomb attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) is typically good for most of the transitions, though agreement with the uncorrected B3LYP functional is significantly worse for all reported properties. The choice of length vs. velocity representation of the electric dipole operator has little impact on the EOM-CCSD transition strengths for nearly all of the states we examined. For a pair of closely related β, γ-enones, (1R)-7-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one, we find that EOM-CCSD and CAM-B3LYP agree with the energetic ordering of the two possible excited-state conformations, resulting in good agreement with experimental rotatory strengths in both absorption and emission, whereas B3LYP yields a qualitatively incorrect result for the CPL signal of (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one. Finally, we predict that one of the compounds considered here, trans-bicyclo[3.3.0]octane-3,7-dione, is unique in that it exhibits an achiral ground state and a chiral first excited state, leading to a strong CPL

  9. Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-03-13

    A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

  10. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  11. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  12. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  13. Apollo couch energy absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, C. J.; Drexel, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Load attenuators for the Apollo spacecraft crew couch and its potential applications are described. Energy absorption is achieved through friction and cyclic deformation of material. In one concept, energy absorption is accomplished by rolling a compressed ring of metal between two surfaces. In another concept, energy is absorbed by forcing a plastically deformed washer along a rod. Among the design problems that had to be solved were material selection, fatigue life, ring slippage, lubrication, and friction loading.

  14. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  15. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...-0055] Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... the September 29, 2011, Federal Register Notices titled ``Title VI; Proposed Circular'' and... September 29, 2011, Federal Register Notices titled ``Title VI; Proposed Circular'' (76 FR 60593) and...

  16. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  17. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  18. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  19. A boxplot for circular data.

    PubMed

    Buttarazzi, Davide; Pandolfo, Giuseppe; Porzio, Giovanni C

    2018-05-21

    The box-and-whiskers plot is an extraordinary graphical tool that provides a quick visual summary of an observed distribution. In spite of its many extensions, a really suitable boxplot to display circular data is not yet available. Thanks to its simplicity and strong visual impact, such a tool would be especially useful in all fields where circular measures arise: biometrics, astronomy, environmetrics, Earth sciences, to cite just a few. For this reason, in line with Tukey's original idea, a Tukey-like circular boxplot is introduced. Several simulated and real datasets arising in biology are used to illustrate the proposed graphical tool. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Intense Vibronic Modulation of the Chiral Photoelectron Angular Distribution Generated by Photoionization of Limonene Enantiomers with Circularly Polarized Synchrotron Radiation.

    PubMed

    Rafiee Fanood, Mohammad M; Ganjitabar, Hassan; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent; Turchini, Stefano; Powis, Ivan

    2018-04-17

    Photoionization of the chiral monoterpene limonene has been investigated using polarized synchrotron radiation between the adiabatic ionization threshold, 8.505 and 23.5 eV. A rich vibrational structure is seen in the threshold photoelectron spectrum and is interpreted using a variety of computational methods. The corresponding photoelectron circular dichroism-measured in the photoelectron angular distribution as a forward-backward asymmetry with respect to the photon direction-was found to be strongly dependent on the vibronic structure appearing in the photoelectron spectra, with the observed asymmetry even switching direction in between the major vibrational peaks. This effect can be ultimately attributed to the sensitivity of this dichroism to small phase shifts between adjacent partial waves of the outgoing photoelectron. These observations have implications for potential applications of this chiroptical technique, where the enantioselective analysis of monoterpene components is of particular interest. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  2. Absorber for solar power.

    PubMed

    Powell, W R

    1974-10-01

    A simple, economical absorber utilizing a new principle of operation to achieve very low reradiation losses while generating temperatures limited by material properties of quartz is described. Its performance is analyzed and indicates approximately 90% thermal efficiency and 73% conversion efficiency for an earth based unit with moderately concentrated (~tenfold) sunlight incident. It is consequently compatible with the most economic of concentrator mirrors (stamped) or mirrors deployable in space. Space applications are particularly attractive, as temperatures significantly below 300 K are possible and permit even higher conversion efficiency.

  3. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  4. Towards future circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  5. Invisible liposomes: refractive index matching with sucrose enables flow dichroism assessment of peptide orientation in lipid vesicle membrane.

    PubMed

    Ardhammar, Malin; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt

    2002-11-26

    Valuable information on protein-membrane organization may in principle be obtained from polarized-light absorption (linear dichroism, LD) measurement on shear-aligned lipid vesicle bilayers as model membranes. However, attempts to probe LD in the UV wavelength region (<250 nm) have so far failed because of strong polarized light scattering from the vesicles. Using sucrose to match the refractive index and suppress the light scattering of phosphatidylcholine vesicles, we have been able to detect LD bands also in the peptide-absorbing region (200-230 nm). The potential of refractive index matching in vesicle LD as a general method for studying membrane protein structure was investigated for the membrane pore-forming oligopeptide gramicidin incorporated into the liposome membranes. In the presence of sucrose, the LD signals arising from oriented tryptophan side chains as well as from n-->pi* and pi-->pi* transitions of the amide chromophore of the polypeptide backbone could be studied. The observation of a strongly negative LD for the first exciton transition ( approximately 204 nm) is consistent with a membrane-spanning orientation of two intertwined parallel gramicidin helices, as predicted by coupled-oscillator theory.

  6. Wideband-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Injected Liquid Metal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-08-22

    Metamaterial absorbers can provide good solutions for radar-cross-section (RCS) reduction. In spite of their attractive features of thinness, lightness, and low cost, resonant metamaterial absorbers have a drawback of narrow bandwidth. For practical radar applications, wideband absorbers are necessary. In this paper, we propose a wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using liquid metal. In order to reduce RCS both for X-band and C-band, the switchable Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator is introduced. The JC resonator consists of slotted circular rings, chip resistors, and microfluidic channels. The JC resonator is etched on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), and the microfluidic channels are laser-etched on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can switch the absorption frequency band by injecting a liquid metal alloy into the channels. The performance of the absorber was demonstrated through full-wave simulation and through measurements employing prototypes. The experimental results showed absorption ratios of over 90% from 7.43 GHz to 14.34 GHz, and from 5.62 GHz to 7.3 GHz, with empty channels and liquid metal-filled channels, respectively. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the C-band (4-8 GHz) and the X-band (8-12 GHz) by injecting liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) into the channels.

  7. Wideband-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Injected Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-08-01

    Metamaterial absorbers can provide good solutions for radar-cross-section (RCS) reduction. In spite of their attractive features of thinness, lightness, and low cost, resonant metamaterial absorbers have a drawback of narrow bandwidth. For practical radar applications, wideband absorbers are necessary. In this paper, we propose a wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using liquid metal. In order to reduce RCS both for X-band and C-band, the switchable Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator is introduced. The JC resonator consists of slotted circular rings, chip resistors, and microfluidic channels. The JC resonator is etched on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), and the microfluidic channels are laser-etched on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can switch the absorption frequency band by injecting a liquid metal alloy into the channels. The performance of the absorber was demonstrated through full-wave simulation and through measurements employing prototypes. The experimental results showed absorption ratios of over 90% from 7.43 GHz to 14.34 GHz, and from 5.62 GHz to 7.3 GHz, with empty channels and liquid metal-filled channels, respectively. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the C-band (4-8 GHz) and the X-band (8-12 GHz) by injecting liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) into the channels.

  8. Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.

  9. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, F.O.; Willis, R.F.; Goodman, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic structure of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films as a function of Fe concentration by measuring the linear dichroism of the 3p-core levels in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The alloy films, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Cu(001) surfaces, were fcc and approximately four monolayers thick. The intensity of the Fe dichroism varied with Fe concentration, with larger dichroisms at lower Fe concentrations. The implication of these results to an ultrathin film analogue of the bulk Invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys will be discussed. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Lightmore » Source.« less

  10. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    PubMed

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  11. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Construction and performance of BL28 of the Photon Factory for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagoshima, Yasushi; Muto, Sadatsugu; Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Koide, Tsuneharu; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kitamura, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A branch beamline, BL28A, has been constructed for the application of circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The radiation can be obtained in the helical undulator operation mode of an insertion device, EMPW♯28, which is also cut for elliptically polarized hard x-ray radiation. T first harmonic of the helical undulator radiation can be tuned from 40 to 350 eV with its corresponding K value from 3 to 0.2. A monochromator working basically with constant deviation optics was installed, and has started its operation. A circularly polarized flux of ˜1010 photons/s has been achieved with energy resolution of around 500-1000 at the first harmonic peak. The circular polarization after the monochromator was estimated to be higher than 70% by comparing theory and experiment on the magnetic circular dichroism of nickel films in the 3p-3d excitation region. The design philosophy of the beamline and recent results on the performance tests are presented.

  13. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  14. Linear dichroism and the nature of charge order in underdoped cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Norman, M. R.

    2015-04-21

    Recent experiments have addressed the nature of the charge order seen in underdoped cuprates. In this paper, I show that x-ray absorption and linear dichroism are excellent probes of such order. Ab initio calculations reveal that a d-wave charge density wave order involving the oxygen ions is a much better description of the data than alternate models.

  15. Detecting and characterizing circular RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Jeck, William R.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Circular RNA transcripts were first identified in the early 1990s but knowledge of these species has remained limited, as their study has been difficult through traditional methods of RNA analysis. Now, novel bioinformatic approaches coupled with biochemical enrichment strategies and deep sequencing have allowed comprehensive studies of circular RNA species. Recent studies have revealed thousands of endogenous circular RNAs (circRNAs) in mammalian cells, some of which are highly abundant and evolutionarily conserved. Evidence is emerging that some circRNAs might regulate microRNA (miRNA) function, and roles in transcriptional control have also been suggested. Therefore, study of this class of non-coding RNAs has potential implications for therapeutic and research applications. We believe the key future challenge to the field will be to understand the regulation and function of these unusual molecules. PMID:24811520

  16. Logistic regression for circular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Daffaie, Kadhem; Khan, Shahjahan

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the relationship between a binary response and a circular predictor. It develops the logistic regression model by employing the linear-circular regression approach. The maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters. The Newton-Raphson numerical method is used to find the estimated values of the parameters. A data set from weather records of Toowoomba city is analysed by the proposed methods. Moreover, a simulation study is considered. The R software is used for all computations and simulations.

  17. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  18. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  19. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  20. Generation of circularly polarized XUV and soft-x-ray high-order harmonics by homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules subject to bichromatic counter-rotating circularly polarized intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, studies of bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams from atoms in the soft-x-ray region as a source for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement in a tabletop-scale setup have received considerable attention. In this paper, we address the problem with molecular targets and perform a detailed quantum study of H2 +, CO, and N2 molecules in bichromatic counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields where we adopt wavelengths (1300 and 790 nm) and intensities (2 ×1014W /cm2 ) reported in a recent experiment [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 14206 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1519666112]. Our treatment of multiphoton processes in homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules is nonperturbative and based on the time-dependent density-functional theory for multielectron systems. The calculated radiation spectrum contains doublets of left and right circularly polarized harmonics with high-energy photons in the XUV and soft-x-ray ranges. Our results reveal intriguing and substantially different nonlinear optical responses for homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules subject to circularly polarized intense laser fields. We study in detail the below- and above-threshold harmonic regions and analyze the ellipticity and phase of the generated harmonic peaks.

  1. Circular spectropolarimetric sensing of chiral photosystems in decaying leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patty, C. H. Lucas; Visser, Luuk J. J.; Ariese, Freek; Buma, Wybren Jan; Sparks, William B.; van Spanning, Rob J. M.; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Snik, Frans

    2017-03-01

    Circular polarization spectroscopy has proven to be an indispensable tool in photosynthesis research and (bio)molecular research in general. Oxygenic photosystems typically display an asymmetric Cotton effect around the chlorophyll absorbance maximum with a signal ≤ 1 % . In vegetation, these signals are the direct result of the chirality of the supramolecular aggregates. The circular polarization is thus directly influenced by the composition and architecture of the photosynthetic macrodomains, and is thereby linked to photosynthetic functioning. Although ordinarily measured only on a molecular level, we have developed a new spectropolarimetric instrument, TreePol, that allows for both laboratory and in-the-field measurements. Through spectral multiplexing, TreePol is capable of fast measurements with a sensitivity of ∼ 1 *10-4 and is therefore suitable of non-destructively probing the molecular architecture of whole plant leaves. We have measured the chiroptical evolution of Hedera helix leaves for a period of 22 days. Spectrally resolved circular polarization measurements (450-900 nm) on whole leaves in transmission exhibit a strong decrease in the polarization signal over time after plucking, which we accredit to the deterioration of chiral macro-aggregates. Chlorophyll a levels measured over the same period by means of UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy showed a much smaller decrease. With these results we are able to distinguish healthy from deteriorating leaves. Hereby we indicate the potency of circular polarization spectroscopy on whole and intact leaves as a nondestructive tool for structural and plant stress assessment. Additionally, we underline the establishment of circular polarization signals as remotely accessible means of detecting the presence of extraterrestrial life.

  2. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-06-12

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  3. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  4. Design of a five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber using two resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Tianhua; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Qiaofen

    2018-05-01

    We present a polarization-insensitive five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber composed of two metallic circular rings and a metallic ground film separated by a dielectric layer. The calculated results show that the absorber has five distinctive absorption bands whose peaks are greater than 99% on average. The physical origin of the absorber originates from the combination of dipolar, hexapolar, and surface plasmon resonance of the patterned metallic structure, which is different from the work mechanism of previously reported absorbers. In addition, the influence of the structural parameters on the absorption spectra is analyzed to further confirm the origin of the five-band absorption peaks. The proposed absorber has potential applications in terahertz imaging, refractive index sensing, and material detecting.

  5. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  6. A Theoretical Understanding of Circular Polarization Memory in Random Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Julia

    Radiative transport theory describes the propagation of light in random media that absorb, scatter, and emit radiation. To describe the propagation of light, the full polarization state is quantified using the Stokes parameters. For the sake of mathematical convenience, the polarization state of light is often neglected leading to the scalar radiative transport equation for the intensity only. For scalar transport theory, there is a well-established body of literature on numerical and analytic approximations to the radiative transport equation. We extend the scalar theory to the vector radiative transport equation (vRTE). In particular, we are interested in the theoretical basis for a phenomena called circular polarization memory. Circular polarization memory is the physical phenomena whereby circular polarization retains its ellipticity and handedness when propagating in random media. This is in contrast to the propagation of linear polarization in random media, which depolarizes at a faster rate, and specular reflection of circular polarization, whereby the circular polarization handedness flips. We investigate two limits that are of known interest in the phenomena of circular polarization memory. The first limit we investigate is that of forward-peaked scattering, i.e. the limit where most scattering events occur in the forward or near-forward directions. The second limit we consider is that of strong scattering and weak absorption. In the forward-peaked scattering limit we approximate the vRTE by a system of partial differential equations motivated by the scalar Fokker-Planck approximation. We call the leading order approximation the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker Planck approximation predicts that strongly forward-peaked media exhibit circular polarization memory where the strength of the effect can be calculated from the expansion of the scattering matrix in special functions. In addition, we find in this limit that total intensity

  7. Conical Refraction Bottle Beams for Entrapment of Absorbing Droplets.

    PubMed

    Esseling, Michael; Alpmann, Christina; Schnelle, Jens; Meissner, Robert; Denz, Cornelia

    2018-03-22

    Conical refraction (CR) optical bottle beams for photophoretic trapping of airborne absorbing droplets are introduced and experimentally demonstrated. CR describes the circular split-up of unpolarised light propagating along an optical axis in a biaxial crystal. The diverging and converging cones lend themselves to the construction of optical bottle beams with flexible entry points. The interaction of single inkjet droplets with an open or partly open bottle beam is shown implementing high-speed video microscopy in a dual-view configuration. Perpendicular image planes are visualized on a single camera chip to characterize the integral three-dimensional movement dynamics of droplets. We demonstrate how a partly opened optical bottle transversely confines liquid objects. Furthermore we observe and analyse transverse oscillations of absorbing droplets as they hit the inner walls and simultaneously measure both transverse and axial velocity components.

  8. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... permitted. (2) Where an offering circular is distributed through an electronic medium, issuers may satisfy... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO AN...

  9. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... permitted. (2) Where an offering circular is distributed through an electronic medium, issuers may satisfy... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO AN...

  10. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  11. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P.

    1997-04-01

    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetrymore » has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield.« less

  12. Large birefringence and linear dichroism in TiS3 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nikos; Frisenda, Riccardo; Biele, Robert; Flores, Eduardo; Ares, Jose R; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S J; Ferrer, Isabel J; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2018-06-21

    TiS3 nanosheets have proven to be promising candidates for ultrathin optoelectronic devices due to their direct narrow band-gap and the strong light-matter interaction. In addition, the marked in-plane anisotropy of TiS3 is appealing for the fabrication of polarization sensitive optoelectronic devices. Herein, we study the optical contrast of TiS3 nanosheets of variable thickness on SiO2/Si substrates, from which we obtain the complex refractive index in the visible spectrum. We find that TiS3 exhibits very large birefringence, larger than that of well-known strong birefringent materials like TiO2 or calcite, and linear dichroism. These findings are in qualitative agreement with ab initio calculations that suggest an excitonic origin for the birefringence and linear dichroism of the material.

  13. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... instruction circular shall contain: (1) Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red... circular shall contain: (1) The approximate volume of plasma from which a sample unit of Platelets is... entering the container. (m) For Plasma, the instruction circular shall contain: (1) A warning against...

  14. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... instruction circular shall contain: (1) Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red... circular shall contain: (1) The approximate volume of plasma from which a sample unit of Platelets is... entering the container. (m) For Plasma, the instruction circular shall contain: (1) A warning against...

  15. Purification of circular DNA using benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE-cellulose.

    PubMed

    Gamper, H; Lehman, N; Piette, J; Hearst, J E

    1985-04-01

    Un-nicked circular DNA can be separated from protein, RNA, and other DNA in a simple three-step protocol consisting of exonuclease III digestion, extraction with benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE-cellulose (BND cellulose) in 1 M NaCl, and alcohol precipitation of the remaining supercoiled DNA. Exonuclease III treatment introduces single-stranded regions into contaminating linear and nicked circular DNA. This DNA, together with most RNA and protein, is adsorbed onto BND cellulose leaving form I DNA in solution. The protocol can be used to purify analytical as well as preparative amounts of supercoiled DNA. This procedure is a substitute for cesium chloride-ethidium bromide gradient ultracentrifugation and gives a comparable yield of pure form I DNA. Other classes of DNA can be isolated by changing the pretreatment step. Selective digestion of linear DNA with lambda exonuclease permits the isolation of both nicked circular and supercoiled DNA while brief heat-induced or alkali-induced denaturation leads to the recovery of rapidly reannealing DNA. In large-scale purifications, the basic protocol is usually preceded by one or more BND cellulose extractions in 1 M NaCl to remove contaminants absorbing UV or inhibiting exonuclease III.

  16. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  17. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  18. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO 2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO 2 removal was achieved with greater thanmore » 95% CO 2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO 2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.« less

  19. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved bymore » isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.« less

  20. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  1. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  2. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    DOE PAGES

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer; ...

    2018-03-30

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  3. Low temperature selective absorber research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzenberg, S. A.; Silberglitt, R.

    1982-04-01

    Research carried out since 1979 on selective absorbers is surveyed, with particular attention given to the low-temperature coatings seen as promising for flat plate and evacuated tube applications. The most thoroughly investigated absorber is black chrome, which is highly selective and is the most durable low-temperature absorber. It is believed that other materials, because of their low cost and lower content of strategic materials, may eventually supplant black chrome. Among these candidates are chemically converted black nickel; anodically oxidized nickel, zinc, and copper composites; and nickel or other low-cost multilayer coatings. In reviewing medium and high-temperature research, black chrome, multilayer coatings and black cobalt are seen as best medium-temperature candidates. For high temperatures, an Al2O3/Pt-Al203 multilayer composite or the zirconium diboride coating is preferred.

  4. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  5. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  6. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  7. Chemical Synthesis of Circular Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wong, Clarence T. T.

    2012-01-01

    Circular proteins, once thought to be rare, are now commonly found in plants. Their chemical synthesis, once thought to be difficult, is now readily achievable. The enabling methodology is largely due to the advances in entropic chemical ligation to overcome the entropy barrier in coupling the N- and C-terminal ends of large peptide segments for either intermolecular ligation or intramolecular ligation in end-to-end cyclization. Key elements of an entropic chemical ligation consist of a chemoselective capture step merging the N and C termini as a covalently linked O/S-ester intermediate to permit the subsequent step of an intramolecular O/S-N acyl shift to form an amide. Many ligation methods exploit the supernucleophilicity of a thiol side chain at the N terminus for the capture reaction, which makes cysteine-rich peptides ideal candidates for the entropy-driven macrocyclization. Advances in desulfurization and modification of the thiol-containing amino acids at the ligation sites to other amino acids add extra dimensions to the entropy-driven ligation methods. This minireview describes recent advances of entropy-driven ligation to prepare circular proteins with or without a cysteinyl side chain. PMID:22700959

  8. Impact Deformation of Thin-Walled Circular Tube Filled with Aluminum Foam in Lateral Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Horikawa, Keitaro; Ogawa, Kinya; Hori, Masahiro

    In this study, the impact deformation of thin-walled circular tubes filled with aluminum foam in lateral compression was investigated using a special load cell for long time measurement and a high-speed video camera to check the displacement of specimens. It was found that the absorbed energy up to the deformation of 60% of the specimen diameter obtained from impact tests is greater than that obtained in static tests, because of strain rate dependency of aluminum foam. The loaddisplacement curve of circular tubes with aluminum foam just inserted was consistent with the sum of the curves individually obtained. In both dynamic and static tests, however, the load of the tube with the foam inserted and glued by adhesive resin became larger than the sum of the individual loads, because of the interaction between circular tubes and aluminum foam cores.

  9. Circular motion of bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    The circular motion for airship-like bodies has thus far been calculated only for a prolate ellipsoid of revolution (reference 1, p.133 and reference 2). In this paper, however, the circular motion of elongated bodies of revolution more nearly resembling airships will be investigated. The results will give the effect of rotation on the pressure distribution and thus yield some information as to the stresses set up in an airship in circular flight.

  10. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  11. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  12. Dichroism, chirality, and polarization eigenstates in Babinet nanoslot-dimer membrane metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Kremers, Christian; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed theoretical description of the optical properties of planar metamaterials comprising a metal membrane patterned with openings (microslots) arranged in closely located couples (dimers). Using the covariant coupled-dipole approach, the effective material tensors of such a metamaterial are recovered, and contributions responsible for elliptical dichroism and optical activity are identified. Polarization conversion properties of II-shaped and V-shaped dimers are determined and explained in terms of elliptically polarized eigenmodes of the metamaterial. Good agreement with direct numerical simulations is demonstrated. The results obtained are promising for the design of thin-film frequency selective polarization shapers for terahertz waves.

  13. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  14. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  15. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  16. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  17. [Study of new blended chemical absorbents to absorb CO2].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lian; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Yan, Shui-Ping; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2007-11-01

    Three kinds of blended absorbents were investigated on bench-scale experimental bench according to absorption rate and regeneration grade to select a reasonable additive concentration. The results show that, among methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine (PZ) mixtures, comparing MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4 (m : m) with MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.2 (m : m), the absorption rate is increased by about 70% at 0.2 mol x mol(-1). When regeneration lasting for 40 min, regeneration grade of blended absorbents with PZ concentration of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 is decreased to 83.06%, 77.77% and 76.67% respectively while 91.04% for PZ concentration of 0. MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4(m : m) is a suitable ratio for MDEA/PZ mixtures as absorption and regeneration properties of the blended absorbents are all improved. The aqueous blends with 10% primary amines and 2% tertiary amines could keep high CO2 absorption rate, and lower regeneration energy consumption. Adding 2% 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) to 10% diethanolamine (DEA), the blended amine solvents have an advantage in absorption and regeneration properties over other DEA/AMP mixtures. Blended solvents, which consist of a mixture of primary amines with a small amount of tertiary amines, have the highest absorption rate among the three. And mixed absorbents of secondary amines and a small amount of sterically hindered amines have the best regeneration property. To combine absorption and regeneration properties, blends with medium activator addition to tertiary amines are competitive.

  18. Interministerial Circular, 2 June 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The text of this Circular on resolving the question of Vietnamese citizens wanting to leave the country to join their families or for other humanitarian reasons is as follows: "1) Those Vietnamese citizens applying for exit visas to resettle abroad must complete all procedures established by the Ministry of Interior. The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for considering and solving applications for exit visas and for notifying the applicants of the results. It must issue exit visas and do other paperwork for those Vietnamese citizens applying for exit visas. 2) The Foreign Affairs Ministry is responsible for cooperating with immigrant-accepting countries and other relevant international organizations in solving entry procedures for those already approved by the interior ministry for leaving the country." full text

  19. Circular dichroism and UV resonance Raman study of the impact of alcohols on the Gibbs free energy landscape of an α-helical peptide†

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Kan; Asher, Sanford A

    2010-01-01

    We used CD and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the impact of alcohols on the conformational equilibria and relative Gibbs free energy landscapes along the Ramanchandran Ψ-coordinate of a mainly poly-ala peptide, AP of sequence AAAAA(AAARA)3A. 2,2,2-trifluroethanol (TFE) most stabilizes the α-helical-like conformations, followed by ethanol, methanol and pure water. The π-bulge conformation is stabilized more than the α-helix, while the 310-helix is destabilized due to the alcohol increased hydrophobicity. Turns are also stabilized by alcohols. We also found that while TFE induces more α-helices, it favors multiple, shorter helix segments. PMID:20225890

  20. Cholic acid derivatives containing both 2-naphthylcarbamate and 3,5-dinitrophenylcarbamate groups: a combined circular dichroism-molecular mechanics approach to the definition of their molecular conformation.

    PubMed

    Alagona, Giuliano; Ghio, Caterina; Iuliano, Anna; Monti, Susanna; Pieraccini, Ilaria; Salvadori, Piero

    2003-04-18

    CD spectra of the chiral auxiliaries for enantioselective HPLC N-allyl-N'-methyl-3,12-bis(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxy-7-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (1), N-allyl-N'-methyl-3-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)carbamoyloxy-7,12-bis(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (2), N-allyl-N'-methyl-3,7-bis(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxy-12-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (3), and N-allyl-N'-methyl-3,7,12-tris(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (4) are presented. To determine the preferred conformations of those chiral auxiliaries, a random search based on the aromatic side-chain conformational degrees of freedom was performed and the energy was minimized using two different molecular mechanics force fields. The low energy structures presenting common features were arranged in groups and selected exploiting appropriate filters. The calculation of theoretical CD spectra according to the De Voe model has allowed a further discrimination among the conformations, specifying which of them gave calculated CD spectra in acceptable agreement with the experimental ones. Finally, taking into account the additivity of the contributions of each 2-naphthylcarbamate chromophore to the CD spectrum of the cholic acid derivatives, and, hence, choosing, for derivatives 1-3, those conformations in which the 2-naphthylcarbamate groups take a similar disposition as in 4, the preferentially assumed conformation of each compound was obtained. A molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of acetonitrile allowed the fluctuations of one of the structures, used as a test case, depending on environmental effects, to be examined.

  1. Conformational Plasticity of the Cell-Penetrating Peptide SAP As Revealed by Solid-State 19F-NMR and Circular Dichroism Spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Afonin, Sergii; Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Mykhailiuk, Pavel K; Komarov, Igor V; Ulrich, Anne S

    2017-07-13

    The cell-penetrating peptide SAP, which was designed as an amphipathic poly-l-proline helix II (PPII), was suggested to self-assemble into regular fibrils that are relevant for its internalization. Herein we have analyzed the structure of SAP in the membrane-bound state by solid-state 19 F-NMR, which revealed other structural states, in addition to the expected surface-aligned PPII. Trifluoromethyl-bicyclopentyl-glycine (CF 3 -Bpg) and two rigid isomers of trifluoromethyl-4,5-methanoprolines (CF 3 -MePro) were used as labels for 19 F-NMR analysis. The equilibria between different conformations of SAP were studied and were found to be shifted by the substituents at Pro-11. Synchrotron-CD results suggested that substituting Pro-11 by CF 3 -MePro governed the coil-to-PPII equilibrium in solution and in the presence of a lipid bilayer. Using CD and 19 F-NMR, we examined the slow kinetics of the association of SAP with membranes and the dependence of the SAP conformational dynamics on the lipid composition. The peptide did not bind to lipids in the solid ordered phase and aggregated only in the liquid ordered "raft"-like bilayers. Self-association could not be detected in solution or in the presence of liquid disordered membranes. Surface-bound amphipathic SAP in a nonaggregated state was structured as a mixture of nonideal extended conformations reflecting the equilibrium already present in solution, i.e., before binding to the membrane.

  2. Ab Initio Study of the Electric Dipole Transition Moment for the Electronic X to C Transition in Acetylene: Theoretical Predictions of the Absorption and Magnetic Circular Dichroism Intensities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Symmetric C-C Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. MCQ Intensities and Oscillator Strengths...chemical approach, but only at the SCF level , to predict an absorption oscillator strength of 0.072 for the (vertical) CE-X transition. An early...fact that the lower v’ levels agree better with experiment than the higher v’ levels suggests increasing inaccuracies in the Franck-Condon overlap with

  3. Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs) is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD) of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD) and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q) and NCaBD(E63Q) showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract PMID:22490336

  4. Acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants as revealed using circular dichroism and UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimaki, Nobuhiro; Nishiya, Ken; Miura, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu

    2016-11-01

    The acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of the mutated form of human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been investigated to clarify the relationship between mutations in SOD1 and the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ala4 → Val (A4V) and Gly93 → Ala (G93A) mutants, which are representative ALS-linked SOD1 mutants, have been found to exhibit both the denaturation and the gain of pro-oxidant activity after incubation in the apo-form at a physiological condition of 37 °C and pH 7.4 and the rebinding of Cu2+. These characteristics are similar to those previously reported for the His43 → Arg (H43R) mutant. UV-resonance Raman spectra indicated that the coordination structure of the Cu-binding site catalyzing the oxidation reaction is the same among the denatured A4V, G93A, and H43R. Since wild-type SOD1 does not exhibit the denaturation in its apo-form at 37 °C and pH 7.4, the instability of the protein structure due to mutation can be considered as a significant factor that induces the denaturation and the subsequent pro-oxidant activity.

  5. Changes in the Molar Ellipticities of HEWL Observed by Circular Dichroism and Quantitated by Time Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy Under Crystallizing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumida, John

    2002-01-01

    Fluid models for simple colloids predict that as the protein concentration is increased, crystallization should occur at some sufficiently high concentration regardless of the strength of attraction. However, empirical measurements do not fully support this assertion. Measurements of the second virial coefficient (B22) indicate that protein crystallization occurs only over a discrete range of solution parameters. Furthermore, observations of a strong correlation between protein solubility and B22, has led to an ongoing debate regarding the relationship between the two. Experimental work in our lab, using Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL), previously revealed that the rotational anisotropy of the protein under crystallizing conditions changes systematically with pH, ionic strength and temperature. These observations are now supported by recent work revealing that small changes in the molar ellipticity also occur systematically with changes in ionic strength and temperature. This work demonstrates that under crystallization conditions, the protein native state is characterized by a conformational heterogeneity that may prove fundamental to the relationship between protein crystallization and protein solubility.

  6. High-energy vacuum birefringence and dichroism in an ultrastrong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Bragin, Sergey; Keitel, Christoph H.; di Piazza, Antonino

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between real photons in vacuum is a long-standing prediction of quantum electrodynamics, which has never been observed experimentally. Upcoming 10 PW laser systems like the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) will provide laser pulses with unprecedented intensities. If combined with highly energetic gamma photons - obtainable via Compton backscattering from laser-wakefield accelerated electron beams - the QED critical field becomes accessible. In we have derived how a generally polarized probe photon beam is influenced by both vacuum birefringence and dichroism in a strong linearly polarized plane-wave laser field. We put forward an experimental scheme to measure these effects in the nontrivial high-energy regime, where the QED critical field is reached and the Euler-Heisenberg approximation, valid for low-frequency electromagnetic fields, breaks down. Our results suggest the feasibility of verifying/rejecting the QED prediction for vacuum birefringence/dichroism at the 3 σ confidence level on the time scale of a few days at several upcoming laser facilities. Now at Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

  7. Fluorescence Imaging of Two-Photon Linear Dichroism: Cholesterol Depletion Disrupts Molecular Orientation in Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, Richard K. P.; Önfelt, Björn; Neil, Mark A. A.; Davis, Daniel M.; French, Paul M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The plasma membrane of cells is an ordered environment, giving rise to anisotropic orientation and restricted motion of molecules and proteins residing in the membrane. At the same time as being an organized matrix of defined structure, the cell membrane is heterogeneous and dynamic. Here we present a method where we use fluorescence imaging of linear dichroism to measure the orientation of molecules relative to the cell membrane. By detecting linear dichroism as well as fluorescence anisotropy, the orientation parameters are separated from dynamic properties such as rotational diffusion and homo energy transfer (energy migration). The sensitivity of the technique is enhanced by using two-photon excitation for higher photo-selection compared to single photon excitation. We show here that we can accurately image lipid organization in whole cell membranes and in delicate structures such as membrane nanotubes connecting two cells. The speed of our wide-field imaging system makes it possible to image changes in orientation and anisotropy occurring on a subsecond timescale. This is demonstrated by time-lapse studies showing that cholesterol depletion rapidly disrupts the orientation of a fluorophore located within the hydrophobic region of the cell membrane but not of a surface bound probe. This is consistent with cholesterol having an important role in stabilizing and ordering the lipid tails within the plasma membrane. PMID:15520272

  8. Imaging fluorescence detected linear dichroism of plant cell walls in laser scanning confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Gábor; Pomozi, István; Zsiros, Ottó; Páy, Anikó; Horváth, Gábor V; Garab, Gyozo

    2008-03-01

    Anisotropy carries important information on the molecular organization of biological samples. Its determination requires a combination of microscopy and polarization spectroscopy tools. The authors constructed differential polarization (DP) attachments to a laser scanning microscope in order to determine physical quantities related to the anisotropic distribution of molecules in microscopic samples; here the authors focus on fluorescence-detected linear dichroism (FDLD). By modulating the linear polarization of the laser beam between two orthogonally polarized states and by using a demodulation circuit, the authors determine the associated transmitted and fluorescence intensity-difference signals, which serve the basis for LD (linear dichroism) and FDLD, respectively. The authors demonstrate on sections of Convallaria majalis root tissue stained with Acridin Orange that while (nonconfocal) LD images remain smeared and weak, FDLD images recorded in confocal mode reveal strong anisotropy of the cell wall. FDLD imaging is suitable for mapping the anisotropic distribution of transition dipoles in 3 dimensions. A mathematical model is proposed to account for the fiber-laminate ultrastructure of the cell wall and for the intercalation of the dye molecules in complex, highly anisotropic architecture. Copyright 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  9. Confocal fluorescence detected linear dichroism imaging of isolated human amyloid fibrils. Role of supercoiling.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Gábor; Pomozi, István; Jánosa, Dávid Péter; Makovitzky, Josef; Garab, Gyozo

    2011-05-01

    Amyloids are highly organized insoluble protein aggregates that are associated with a large variety of degenerative diseases. In this work, we investigated the anisotropic architecture of isolated human amyloid samples stained with Congo Red. This was performed by fluorescence detected linear dichroism (FDLD) imaging in a laser scanning confocal microscope that was equipped with a differential polarization attachment using high frequency modulation of the polarization state of the laser beam and a demodulation circuit. Two- and three-dimensional FDLD images of amyloids provided information on the orientation of the electric transition dipoles of the intercalated Congo Red molecules with unprecedented precision and spatial resolution. We show that, in accordance with linear dichroism imaging (Jin et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:15294, 2003), amyloids exhibit strong anisotropy with preferential orientation of the dye molecules along the fibrils; estimations on the orientation angle, of around 45°, are given using a model calculation which takes into account the helical organization of the filaments and fibrils. Our data also show that FDLD images display large inhomogeneities, high local values with alternating signs and, in some regions, well identifiable µm-sized periodicities. These features of the anisotropic architecture are accounted for by supercoiling of helically organized amyloid fibrils. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  10. Vitrified chiral-nematic liquid crystalline films for selective reflection and circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Katsis, D.; Chen, P.H.M.; Mastrangelo, J.C.

    Nematic and left-handed chiral-nematic liquid crystals comprising methoxybiphenylbenzoate and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine pendants to a cyclohexane core were synthesized and characterized. Although pristine samples were found to be polycrystalline, thermal quenching following heating to and annealing at elevated temperatures permitted the molecular orders characteristic of liquid crystalline mesomorphism to be frozen in the glassy state. Left at room temperature for 6 months, the vitrified liquid crystalline films showed no evidence of recrystallization. An orientational order parameter of 0.65 was determined with linear dichroism of a vitrified nematic film doped with Exalite 428 at a mole fraction of 0.0025. Birefringence dispersion of amore » blank vitrified nematic film was determined using a phase-difference method complemented by Abbe refractometry. A series of vitrified chiral-nematic films were prepared to demonstrate selective reflection and circular polarization with a spectral region tunable from blue to the infrared region by varying the chemical composition. The experimentally measured circular polarization spectra were found to agree with the Good-Karali theory in which all four system parameters were determined a priori: optical birefringence, average refractive index, selective reflection wavelength, and film thickness.« less

  11. A solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence spectrophotometer: Development and application.

    PubMed

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Takamoto, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    A new solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) instrument (CPL-200CD) was successfully developed for measuring true CPL spectra for optically anisotropic samples on the basis of the Stokes-Mueller matrix approach. Electric components newly installed in the CPL-200CD include a pulse motor-driven sample rotation holder and a 100 kHz lock-in amplifier to achieve the linearly polarized luminescence measurement, which is essential for obtaining the true CPL signal for optically anisotropic samples. An acquisition approach devised for solid-state CPL analysis reduces the measurement times for a data set by ca. 98% compared with the time required in our previous method. As a result, the developed approach is very effective for samples susceptible to light-induced degradation. The theory and implementation of the method are described, and examples of its application to a CPL sample with macroscopic anisotropies are provided. An important advantage of the developed instrument is its ability to obtain molecular information for both excited and ground states because circular dichroism measurements can be performed by switching the monochromatic light to white light without rearrangement of the sample.

  12. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Inorganic Materials: Encapsulating Guest Lanthanide Oxides in Chiral Silica Hosts.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masumi; Liu, Xin-Ling; Tsunega, Seiji; Nakajima, Erika; Abe, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Takuya; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Jin, Ren-Hua

    2018-05-02

    Recently, circularly polarized luminescence (CPL)-active systems have become a very hot and interesting subject in chirality- and optics-related areas. The CPL-active systems are usually available by two approaches: covalently combining a luminescent centre to chiral motif or associating the guest of luminescent probe to a chiral host. However, all the chiral components in CPL materials were organic, although the luminescent components were alternatively organics or inorganics. Herein, the first totally inorganic CPL-active system by "luminescent guest-chiral host" strategy is proposed. Luminescent sub-10 nm lanthanide oxides (Eu 2 O 3 or Tb 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles (guests) were encapsulated into chiral non-helical SiO 2 nanofibres (host) through calcination of chiral SiO 2 hybrid nanofibres, trapping Eu 3+ (or Tb 3+ ). These lanthanide oxides display circular dichroism (CD) optical activity in the ultraviolet wavelength and CPL signals around at 615 nm for Eu 3+ and 545 nm for Tb 3+ . This work has implications for inorganic-based CPL-active systems by incorporation of various luminescent guests within chiral inorganic hosts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Microstrip Antenna Generates Circularly Polarized Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.

    1986-01-01

    Circular microstrip antenna excited with higher order transverse magnetic (TM) modes generates circularly polarized, conical radiation patterns. Found both theoretically and experimentally that peak direction of radiation pattern is varied within wide angular range by combination of mode selection and loading substrate with materials of different dielectric constants.

  14. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration [Docket No. FTA-2011-0054] Title VI... complying with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The purpose of this Circular is to provide.... Department of Transportation's Title VI regulations (49 CFR part 21). FTA is updating its Title VI Circular...

  15. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration [Docket No. FTA-2011-0054] Title VI... Web site, guidance in the form of a Circular to assist grantees in complying with Title VI of the... Title VI regulations (49 CFR part 21). DATES: Effective Date: The effective date of the Circular is...

  16. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  17. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  18. PT-symmetric laser absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2010-09-15

    In a recent work, Y. D. Chong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010)] proposed the idea of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) as the time-reversed counterpart of a laser, in which a purely incoming radiation pattern is completely absorbed by a lossy medium. The optical medium that realizes CPA is obtained by reversing the gain with absorption, and thus it generally differs from the lasing medium. Here it is shown that a laser with an optical medium that satisfies the parity-time (PT) symmetry condition {epsilon}(-r)={epsilon}*(r) for the dielectric constant behaves simultaneously as a laser oscillator (i.e., it canmore » emit outgoing coherent waves) and as a CPA (i.e., it can fully absorb incoming coherent waves with appropriate amplitudes and phases). Such a device can thus be referred to as a PT-symmetric CPA laser. The general amplification or absorption features of the PT CPA laser below lasing threshold driven by two fields are determined.« less

  19. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  20. Circular RNAs: diversity of form and function.

    PubMed

    Lasda, Erika; Parker, Roy

    2014-12-01

    It is now clear that there is a diversity of circular RNAs in biological systems. Circular RNAs can be produced by the direct ligation of 5' and 3' ends of linear RNAs, as intermediates in RNA processing reactions, or by "backsplicing," wherein a downstream 5' splice site (splice donor) is joined to an upstream 3' splice site (splice acceptor). Circular RNAs have unique properties including the potential for rolling circle amplification of RNA, the ability to rearrange the order of genomic information, protection from exonucleases, and constraints on RNA folding. Circular RNAs can function as templates for viroid and viral replication, as intermediates in RNA processing reactions, as regulators of transcription in cis, as snoRNAs, and as miRNA sponges. Herein, we review the breadth of circular RNAs, their biogenesis and metabolism, and their known and anticipated functions. © 2014 Lasda and Parker; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Circular RNAs: diversity of form and function

    PubMed Central

    Lasda, Erika

    2014-01-01

    It is now clear that there is a diversity of circular RNAs in biological systems. Circular RNAs can be produced by the direct ligation of 5′ and 3′ ends of linear RNAs, as intermediates in RNA processing reactions, or by “backsplicing,” wherein a downstream 5′ splice site (splice donor) is joined to an upstream 3′ splice site (splice acceptor). Circular RNAs have unique properties including the potential for rolling circle amplification of RNA, the ability to rearrange the order of genomic information, protection from exonucleases, and constraints on RNA folding. Circular RNAs can function as templates for viroid and viral replication, as intermediates in RNA processing reactions, as regulators of transcription in cis, as snoRNAs, and as miRNA sponges. Herein, we review the breadth of circular RNAs, their biogenesis and metabolism, and their known and anticipated functions. PMID:25404635

  2. Unusual Circularly Polarized and Aggregation-Induced Near-Infrared Phosphorescence of Helical Platinum(II) Complexes with Tetradentate Salen Ligands.

    PubMed

    Song, Jintong; Wang, Man; Zhou, Xiangge; Xiang, Haifeng

    2018-05-17

    A series of chiral and helical Pt II -Salen complexes with 1,1'-binaphthyl linkers were synthesized and characterized. Owing to the restriction of intramolecular motions of central 1,1'-binaphthyls, the complexes exhibit unusual near-infrared aggregation-induced phosphorescence (AIP). The (R)/(S) enantiopure complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, circular dichroism spectra, time-dependent density functional theory calculations, and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The present work explores the use of tetradentate ligands that can be easily prepared from commercially available enantiopure compounds, and the subsequent preparation of stable CPL-active square planar Pt II complexes with AIP effect that may have interest in many applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  4. Circular on family planning, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." full text

  5. Smart Sensing Methodology for Object Identification Using Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Coordination-Driven Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yuki; Nakano, Yuka; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Yuasa, Junpei

    2018-05-21

    This work demonstrates a potential use of circularly polarized luminescence for object identification methodology in a sensor application. Towards this aim, we have developed new luminescence probes using pyrene derivatives as sensor luminophores. The probes [(R,R)- and (S,S)-Im2Py] contain two chiral imidazole moieties at 1,6-positions through ethynyl spacers (the angle between the spacers is close to 180°). The probe molecules spontaneously self-assemble into chiral stacks (P or M helicity) upon coordination to metal ions with tetrahedral coordination preference (e.g., Zn2+). The chiral probes display neither circular dichroism (CD) nor circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) in the absence of metal ions. However, [(R,R)- and (S,S)-Im2Py] begins to exhibit intense chiroptical activity (CD and CPL) upon self-assembly with Zn2+ ions. The unique chiroptical properties of [(R,R)- and (S,S)-Im2Py] with chemical stimuli-responsibility are capable of demonstrating the new sensing methodology using the CPL signal as detection output, enabling us to discriminate between a signal from the target analyte and that from non-target species. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  7. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  8. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  9. Birefringence and dichroism of poly(vinyl-alcohol) foils containing phthalazinium ylids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogojanu, Alina; Dascalu, Carmen Felicia; Zelinschi, Beatrice Carmen; Caprosu, Maria; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2011-10-01

    Pure and colored with phthalazinium ylids poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA) foils were stretched under gentile heating. The birefringence of the thin foils was determined with a Babinet compensator standardized for yellow radiation of a Sodium lamp. The determined birefringence of the colored PVA foils is higher than that of the pure PVA foils. This fact indicates that the phthalazinium ylids facilitate the increase in the anisotropy of the stretched foils. The visible absorption electronic band of phthalazinium ylids was used to estimate the dichroic ratio and the degree of order of the ylid molecules in the stretched PVA foils. An increase in dichroism and birefringence with the degree of stretching has been evidenced for uncolored and colored PVA foils.

  10. Electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsgaard, M. F. V.; Chen, Z.; Lin, C. D.; Toshima, N.

    1995-02-01

    Electron capture cross sections from circular Rydberg states as a function of the angle cphi between the ion velocity and the angular momentum of the circular orbital have been reported recently by Hansen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1522 (1993)]. We show that the observed cphi dependence can be explained in terms of the propensity rule that governs the dependence of electron capture cross sections on the magnetic quantum numbers of the initial excited states. We also carried out close-coupling calculations to show that electron capture from the circular H(3d,4f,5g) states by protons at the same scaled velocity has nearly the same cphi dependence.

  11. Spin-Induced Polarizations and Nonreciprocal Directional Dichroism of the Room-Temperature Multiferroic BiFeO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Fishman, Randy Scott; Lee, Jun Hee; Bordacs, Sandor; ...

    2015-09-14

    A microscopic model for the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO 3 that includes two Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and single-ion anisotropy along the ferroelectric polarization predicts both the zero-field spectroscopic modes as well as their splitting and evolution in a magnetic field. Due to simultaneously broken time-reversal and spatial-inversion symmetries, the absorption of light changes as the magnetic field or the direction of light propagation is reversed. We discuss three physical mechanisms that may contribute to this absorption asymmetry known as directional dichroism: the spin current, magnetostriction, and single-ion anisotropy. We conclude that the directional dichroism in BiFeO 3 is dominated by the spin-currentmore » polarization and is insensitive to the magnetostriction and easy-axis anisotropy. With three independent spin-current parameters, our model accurately describes the directional dichroism observed for magnetic field along [1, -1, 0]. Since some modes are almost transparent to light traveling in one direction but opaque for light traveling in the opposite direction, BiFeO 3 can be used as a room-temperature optical diode at certain frequencies in the GHz to THz range. This work demonstrates that an analysis of the directional dichroism spectra based on an effective spin model supplemented by first-principles calculations can produce a quantitative microscopic theory of the magnetoelectric couplings in multiferroic materials.« less

  12. Large Circular Basin Flooded and then Cratered

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    As NASA Mariner 10 passed by Mercury on its second encounter with the planet on Sept. 21, 1974, this picture of a large circular 350 kilometer, 220 mile diameter basin was obtained near the morning terminator.

  13. Asymptotic theory of circular polarization memory.

    PubMed

    Dark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2017-09-01

    We establish a quantitative theory of circular polarization memory, which is the unexpected persistence of the incident circular polarization state in a strongly scattering medium. Using an asymptotic analysis of the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) in the limit of strong scattering, we find that circular polarization memory must occur in a boundary layer near the portion of the boundary on which polarized light is incident. The boundary layer solution satisfies a one-dimensional conservative scattering VRTE. Through a spectral analysis of this boundary layer problem, we introduce the dominant mode, which is the slowest-decaying mode in the boundary layer. To observe circular polarization memory for a particular set of optical parameters, we find that this dominant mode must pass three tests: (1) this dominant mode is given by the largest, discrete eigenvalue of a reduced problem that corresponds to Fourier mode k=0 in the azimuthal angle, and depends only on Stokes parameters U and V; (2) the polarization state of this dominant mode is largely circular polarized so that |V|≫|U|; and (3) the circular polarization of this dominant mode is maintained for all directions so that V is sign-definite. By applying these three tests to numerical calculations for monodisperse distributions of Mie scatterers, we determine the values of the size and relative refractive index when circular polarization memory occurs. In addition, we identify a reduced, scalar-like problem that provides an accurate approximation for the dominant mode when circular polarization memory occurs.

  14. Broadband Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna and Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    300152 1 of 14 BROADBAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED PATCH ANTENNA AND METHOD STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may...present invention provides a method and apparatus for a broadband circularly polarized patch antenna . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] A...patch antenna , also referred to as a microstrip antenna , is a type of radio antenna with a low profile that can be mounted on a flat surface. The

  15. Circular polarimetry of fifteen interesting objects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, J. C.; Wolstencroft, R. D.; Swedlund, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a search are presented for circular polarization of visible light in 15 objects, including two eclipsing binaries, six magnetic Ap stars, three planetary nebulae, Hubble's Nebula, M87, Sirius, and the Orion A region. On the whole, the results were null, down to typical upper limits for q of 0.01 per cent. A complete description of the used photoelastic polarimeter is given, with special attention to the incidental linear-circular conversion.

  16. Circular Data Images for Directional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morpet, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Directional data includes vectors, points on a unit sphere, axis orientation, angular direction, and circular or periodic data. The theoretical statistics for circular data (random points on a unit circle) or spherical data (random points on a unit sphere) are a recent development. An overview of existing graphical methods for the display of directional data is given. Cross-over occurs when periodic data are measured on a scale for the measurement of linear variables. For example, if angle is represented by a linear color gradient changing uniformly from dark blue at -180 degrees to bright red at +180 degrees, the color image will be discontinuous at +180 degrees and -180 degrees, which are the same location. The resultant color would depend on the direction of approach to the cross-over point. A new graphical method for imaging directional data is described, which affords high resolution without color discontinuity from "cross-over". It is called the circular data image. The circular data image uses a circular color scale in which colors repeat periodically. Some examples of the circular data image include direction of earth winds on a global scale, rocket motor internal flow, earth global magnetic field direction, and rocket motor nozzle vector direction vs. time.

  17. Circular codes revisited: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D L; Giannerini, S; Rosa, R

    2011-04-21

    In 1996 Arquès and Michel [1996. A complementary circular code in the protein coding genes. J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58] discovered the existence of a common circular code in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes. Since then, circular code theory has provoked great interest and underwent a rapid development. In this paper we discuss some theoretical issues related to the synchronization properties of coding sequences and circular codes with particular emphasis on the problem of retrieval and maintenance of the reading frame. Motivated by the theoretical discussion, we adopt a rigorous statistical approach in order to try to answer different questions. First, we investigate the covering capability of the whole class of 216 self-complementary, C(3) maximal codes with respect to a large set of coding sequences. The results indicate that, on average, the code proposed by Arquès and Michel has the best covering capability but, still, there exists a great variability among sequences. Second, we focus on such code and explore the role played by the proportion of the bases by means of a hierarchy of permutation tests. The results show the existence of a sort of optimization mechanism such that coding sequences are tailored as to maximize or minimize the coverage of circular codes on specific reading frames. Such optimization clearly relates the function of circular codes with reading frame synchronization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy-Absorbing Beam Member

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An energy-absorbing (EA) beam member and having a cell core structure is positioned in an aircraft fuselage proximate to the floor of the aircraft. The cell core structure has a length oriented along a width of the fuselage, a width oriented along a length of the fuselage, and a depth extending away from the floor. The cell core structure also includes cell walls that collectively define a repeating conusoidal pattern of alternating respective larger and smaller first and second radii along the length of the cell core structure. The cell walls slope away from a direction of flight of the aircraft at a calibrated lean angle. An EA beam member may include the cell core structure and first and second plates along the length of the cell core structure on opposite edges of the cell material.

  19. Modeling the Absorbing Aerosol Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Joyce; Zhang, Sophia

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to model the absorbing aerosol index and improve the biomass carbon inventories by optimizing the difference between TOMS aerosol index (AI) and modeled AI with an inverse model. Two absorbing aerosol types are considered, including biomass carbon and mineral dust. A priori biomass carbon source was generated by Liousse et al [1996]. Mineral dust emission is parameterized according to surface wind and soil moisture using the method developed by Ginoux [2000]. In this initial study, the coupled CCM1 and GRANTOUR model was used to determine the aerosol spatial and temporal distribution. With modeled aerosol concentrations and optical properties, we calculate the radiance at the top of the atmosphere at 340 nm and 380 nm with a radiative transfer model. The contrast of radiance at these two wavelengths will be used to calculate AI. Then we compare the modeled AI with TOMS AI. This paper reports our initial modeling for AI and its comparison with TOMS Nimbus 7 AI. For our follow-on project we will model the global AI with aerosol spatial and temporal distribution recomputed from the IMPACT model and DAO GEOS-1 meteorology fields. Then we will build an inverse model, which applies a Bayesian inverse technique to optimize the agreement of between model and observational data. The inverse model will tune the biomass burning source strength to reduce the difference between modelled AI and TOMS AI. Further simulations with a posteriori biomass carbon sources from the inverse model will be carried out. Results will be compared to available observations such as surface concentration and aerosol optical depth.

  20. Multilayer graphene-based metasurfaces: robust design method for extremely broadband, wide-angle, and polarization-insensitive terahertz absorbers.

    PubMed

    Rahmanzadeh, Mahdi; Rajabalipanah, Hamid; Abdolali, Ali

    2018-02-01

    In this study, by using an equivalent circuit method, a polarization-insensitive terahertz (THz) absorber based on multilayer graphene-based metasurfaces (MGBMs) is systematically designed, providing an extremely broad absorption bandwidth (BW). The proposed absorber is a compact, three-layer structure, comprising square-, cross-, and circular-shaped graphene metasurfaces embedded between three separator dielectrics. The equivalent-conductivity method serves as a parameter retrieval technique to characterize the graphene metasurfaces as the components of the proposed circuit model. Good agreement is observed between the full-wave simulations and the equivalent-circuit predictions. The optimum MGBM absorber exhibits >90% absorbance in an extremely broad frequency band of 0.55-3.12 THz (BW=140%). The results indicate a significant BW enhancement compared with both the previous metal- and graphene-based THz absorbers, highlighting the capability of the designed MGBM absorber. To clarify the physical mechanism of absorption, the surface current and the electric-field distributions, as well as the power loss density of each graphene metasurface, are monitored and discussed. The MGBM functionality is evaluated under a wide range of incident wave angles to prove that the proposed absorber is omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive. These superior performances guarantee the applicability of the MGBM structure as an ultra-broadband absorber for various THz applications.

  1. 5 CFR 1310.3 - Availability of circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of circulars. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.3 Availability of circulars. Copies of individual circulars are available at OMB's Internet home page; you may...

  2. Tunable acoustic absorbers with periodical micro-perforations having varying pore shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuwei; Liu, Xuewei; Gong, Junqing; Tang, Yufan; Xin, Fengxian; Huang, Lixi; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-11-01

    Circular pores with sub-millimeter diameters have been widely used to construct micro-perforated panels (MPPs), the acoustical performance of which can be predicted well using the Maa theory (MAA D.-Y., J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 104 (1998) 2861). We present a tunable MPP absorber with periodically arranged cylindrical pores, with their cross-sectional shapes systematically altered around the circle while maintaining their cross-sectional areas unchanged. Numerical analyses based on the viscous-thermal coupled acoustical equations are utilized to investigate the tunable acoustic performance of the proposed absorbers and to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms. We demonstrate that pore morphology significantly affects the sound absorbption of MPPs by modifying the velocity field (and hence viscous dissipation) in the pores. Pore shapes featured as meso-scale circular pores accompanied with micro-scale bulges along the boundaries can lead to perfect sound absorption at relatively low frequencies. This work not only enriches the classical Maa theory on MPPs having circular perforations, but it also opens a new avenue for designing subwavelength acoustic metamaterials of superior sound absorption in target frequency ranges.

  3. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  4. Radiative flux from a planar multiple point source within a cylindrical enclosure reaching a coaxial circular plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryka, Stanislaw

    2007-04-01

    A general formula and some special integral formulas were presented for calculating radiative fluxes incident on a circular plane from a planar multiple point source within a coaxial cylindrical enclosure perpendicular to the source. These formula were obtained for radiation propagating in a homogeneous isotropic medium assuming that the lateral surface of the enclosure completely absorbs the incident radiation. Exemplary results were computed numerically and illustrated with three-dimensional surface plots. The formulas presented are suitable for determining fluxes of radiation reaching planar circular detectors, collectors or other planar circular elements from systems of laser diodes, light emitting diodes and fiber lamps within cylindrical enclosures, as well as small biological emitters (bacteria, fungi, yeast, etc.) distributed on planar bases of open nontransparent cylindrical containers.

  5. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    SciTech Connect

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition.more » Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.« less

  6. The cluster galaxy circular velocity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, V.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Mayer, L.; Reed, D.; Quinn, T.; Governato, F.

    2004-06-01

    We present galaxy circular velocity functions (GCVFs) for 34 low-redshift (z<~ 0.15) clusters identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), for 15 clusters drawn from dark matter simulations of hierarchical structure growth in a ΛCDM cosmology, and for ~22 000 SDSS field galaxies. We find that the simulations successfully reproduce the shape, amplitude and scatter in the observed distribution of cluster galaxy circular velocities. The power-law slope of the observed cluster GCVF is ~-2.4, independent of cluster velocity dispersion. The average slope of the simulated GCVFs is somewhat steeper, although formally consistent given the errors. We find that the effects of baryons on galaxy rotation curves is to flatten the simulated cluster GCVF into better agreement with observations. The cumulative GCVFs of the simulated clusters are very similar across a wide range of cluster masses, provided individual subhalo circular velocities are scaled by the circular velocities of the parent cluster. The scatter is consistent with that measured in the cumulative, scaled observed cluster GCVF. Finally, the observed field GCVF deviates significantly from a power law, being flatter than the cluster GCVF at circular velocities less than 200 km s-1.

  7. Circular motion geometry using minimal data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guang; Quan, Long; Tsui, Hung-Tat

    2004-06-01

    Circular motion or single axis motion is widely used in computer vision and graphics for 3D model acquisition. This paper describes a new and simple method for recovering the geometry of uncalibrated circular motion from a minimal set of only two points in four images. This problem has been previously solved using nonminimal data either by computing the fundamental matrix and trifocal tensor in three images or by fitting conics to tracked points in five or more images. It is first established that two sets of tracked points in different images under circular motion for two distinct space points are related by a homography. Then, we compute a plane homography from a minimal two points in four images. After that, we show that the unique pair of complex conjugate eigenvectors of this homography are the image of the circular points of the parallel planes of the circular motion. Subsequently, all other motion and structure parameters are computed from this homography in a straighforward manner. The experiments on real image sequences demonstrate the simplicity, accuracy, and robustness of the new method.

  8. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  9. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  10. Laser fabrication of perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeikis, V.; Faniayeu, I.

    2018-01-01

    We describe design and characterization of electromagnetic metasurfaces consisting of sub-wavelength layers of artificially structured 3D metallic elements arranged into two-dimensional arrays. Such metasurfaces allow novel ways to control propagation, absorption, emission, and polarization state of electromagnetic waves, but their practical realization using traditional planar micro-/nano-fabrication techniques is extremely difficult at infra- red frequencies, where unit cell size must be reduced to few micrometers. We have addressed this challenge by using femtosecond direct laser write (DLW) technique as a high-resolution patterning tool for the fabrication of dielectric templates, followed by a simple metallization process. Functional metasurfaces consisting of metallic helices and vertical split-ring resonators that can be used as perfect absorbers and polarization converters at infra- red frequencies were obtained and characterized experimentally and theoretically. In the future they may find applications in narrow-band infra-red detectors and emitters, spectral filters, and combined into multi-functional, multi-layered structures.

  11. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  12. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  13. Electronic states of emodin and its conjugate base. Synchrotron linear dichroism spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Son Chi; Vilster Hansen, Bjarke Knud; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2008-09-01

    The electronic transitions of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, E) and its conjugate base (3-oxido-6-methyl-1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, Ecb) were investigated by UV-Vis linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy on molecular samples aligned in stretched poly(vinylalcohol). The experiments in the UV region were performed with synchrotron radiation, thereby obtaining significantly improved signal to noise ratio compared with traditional technology. The LD spectra provided information on the polarization directions of the observed transitions, thereby leading to resolution of otherwise overlapping, differently polarized transitions. The investigation was supported by PCM-TD-DFT calculations; a mixed discrete/continuum solvation model was applied in the case of the strongly solvated Ecb anion. The calculations led to excellent agreement with the observed transitions, resulting in the assignment of at least seven excited electronic states in the region 15,000-50,000 cm -1 for each species. A recent assignment of the absorption spectrum of E to a superposition of contributions from 9,10- and 1,10-anthraquinoid tautomeric forms was not supported by the results of the present investigation.

  14. Characterization of CaMn2O4 By X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, Johnathon; Bhatkar, Harshawardhan; Arenholz, Elke; White, Ben; Neumeier, John; Idzerda, Yves

    2008-05-01

    Perovskite manganite such as LaxCa(1-x)MnO3 (LCMO) have recently drawn attention for their useful electronic and magnetic properties such as Colossal Magnetoresistance. It has been shown that under stress, LCMO thin films show changes in La and Ca concentrations near the interface. One potential impurity under La depleted conditions is antiferromagnetic CaMn2O4. In order to better understand the range of properties available within LCMO systems, it is important to be able to identify and characterize CaMn2O4 within LCMO thin films. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are well suited to this task due to their element specificity, sensitivity, and ability to characterize the measure the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic systems. XAS and XMLD were measured on high quality single crystals of CaMn2O4. These spectra are distinguished from CaMnO3 and demonstrate antiferromagnetic structure.

  15. Absorption dichroism of monolayer 1T‧-MoTe2 in visible range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gang Hee; Keum, Dong Hoon; Zhao, Jiong; Shin, Bong Gyu; Song, Seunghyun; Bae, Jung Jun; Lee, Jubok; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Hyun; Moon, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-09-01

    Among various transition metal dichalcogenides, MoTe2 has drawn attention due to its capability of robust phase engineering between semiconducting (2H) and semi-metallic distorted octahedral (1T‧) phase. In particular, 1T‧-MoTe2 has been predicted to have intriguing physics such as quantum spin Hall insulator, large magnetoresistance, and superconductivity. Recent progress showed weak antilocalization behavior in 1T‧-MoTe2 which is the one of representative characteristics in topological insulator. Here, we grow centimeter-scale monolayer 1T‧-MoTe2 on SiO2/Si substrate via chemical vapordeposition and demonstrate dichroism in visible range. Ribbon-like 1T‧-MoTe2 flakes were initially nucleated randomly on SiO2 substrate and at a later stage merged to form a continuous monolayer film over the entire substrate. Each flake revealed one dimensional Mo-Mo dimerization feature and anisotropic absorption behavior in visible range (400-600 nm). This allowed us to detect the grain boundary due to stark contrast difference among flakes in different orientations.

  16. Theory of Kerr and Faraday rotations and linear dichroism in Topological Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2015-08-03

    We consider the electromagnetic response of a topological Weyl semimetal (TWS) with a pair of Weyl nodes in the bulk and corresponding Fermi arcs in the surface Brillouin zone. We compute the frequency-dependent complex conductivities σαβ(ω) and also take into account the modification of Maxwell equations by the topological θ-term to obtain the Kerr and Faraday rotations in a variety of geometries. For TWS films thinner than the wavelength, the Kerr and Faraday rotations, determined by the separation between Weyl nodes, are significantly larger than in topological insulators. In thicker films, the Kerr and Faraday angles can be enhanced by choice of film thickness and substrate refractive index. We show that, for radiation incident on a surface with Fermi arcs, there is no Kerr or Faraday rotation but the electric field develops a longitudinal component inside the TWS, and there is linear dichroism signal. Our results have implications for probing the TWS phase in various experimental systems.

  17. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to ‘see what we expect' (through descending loops), to ‘expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ. PMID:28139642

  18. Circular economy and waste to energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, E. C.; Ragazzi, M.; Torretta, V.; Castagna, G.; Adami, L.; Cioca, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Waste management in European Union has long being regulated by the 4Rs principle, i.e. reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, with landfill disposal as the last option. This vision recently led the European Union (especially since 2015) to the introduction of virtuous goals based on the rejection of linear economy in favour of circular economy strongly founded on materials recovery. In this scenario, landfill disposal option will disappear, while energy recovery may appear controversial when not applied to biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The present work aims to analyse the effects that circular economy principles introduced in the European Union context will have on the thermochemical waste treatment plants design. Results demonstrate that indirect combustion (gasification + combustion) along with integrated vitrification of the non-combustible fraction of treated waste will have a more relevant role in the field of waste treatment than in the past, thanks to the compliance of this option with the principles of circular economy.

  19. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-31

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to 'see what we expect' (through descending loops), to 'expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ.

  20. Circular Bacteriocins: Biosynthesis and Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Brede, Dag A.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2014-01-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides. PMID:25172850