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Sample records for absorbed doses distribution

  1. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  2. Theoretical study of the influence of a heterogeneous activity distribution on intratumoral absorbed dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ande; Zhao, Xia; Phillips, William T; Woolley, F Ross; Otto, Randal A; Goins, Beth; Hevezi, James M

    2005-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy of hematopoeitic cancers and micrometastases has been shown to have significant therapeutic benefit. The treatment of solid tumors with radionuclide therapy has been less successful. Previous investigations of intratumoral activity distribution and studies on intratumoral drug delivery suggest that a probable reason for the disappointing results in solid tumor treatment is nonuniform intratumoral distribution coupled with restricted intratumoral drug penetrance, thus inhibiting antineoplastic agents from reaching the tumor's center. This paper describes a nonuniform intratumoral activity distribution identified by limited radiolabeled tracer diffusion from tumor surface to tumor center. This activity was simulated using techniques that allowed the absorbed dose distributions to be estimated using different intratumoral diffusion capabilities and calculated for tumors of varying diameters. The influences of these absorbed dose distributions on solid tumor radionuclide therapy are also discussed. The absorbed dose distribution was calculated using the dose point kernel method that provided for the application of a three-dimensional (3D) convolution between a dose rate kernel function and an activity distribution function. These functions were incorporated into 3D matrices with voxels measuring 0.10 x 0.10 x 0.10 mm3. At this point fast Fourier transform (FFT) and multiplication in frequency domain followed by inverse FFT (iFFT) were used to effect this phase of the dose calculation process. The absorbed dose distribution for tumors of 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mm in diameter were studied. Using the therapeutic radionuclides of 131I, 186Re, 188Re, and 90Y, the total average dose, center dose, and surface dose for each of the different tumor diameters were reported. The absorbed dose in the nearby normal tissue was also evaluated. When the tumor diameters exceed 15 mm, a much lower tumor center dose is delivered compared with tumors between 3 and 5 mm in

  3. Monte Carlo Estimation of Absorbed Dose Distributions Obtained from Heterogeneous 106Ru Eye Plaques.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Francisco J; Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of the emitter substance in 106 Ru eye plaques is usually assumed to be homogeneous for treatment planning purposes. However, this distribution is never homogeneous, and it widely differs from plaque to plaque due to manufacturing factors. By Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, we study the absorbed dose distribution obtained from the specific CCA1364 and CCB1256 106 Ru plaques, whose actual emitter distributions were measured. The idealized, homogeneous CCA and CCB plaques are also simulated. The largest discrepancy in depth dose distribution observed between the heterogeneous and the homogeneous plaques was 7.9 and 23.7% for the CCA and CCB plaques, respectively. In terms of isodose lines, the line referring to 100% of the reference dose penetrates 0.2 and 1.8 mm deeper in the case of heterogeneous CCA and CCB plaques, respectively, with respect to the homogeneous counterpart. The observed differences in absorbed dose distributions obtained from heterogeneous and homogeneous plaques are clinically irrelevant if the plaques are used with a lateral safety margin of at least 2 mm. However, these differences may be relevant if the plaques are used in eccentric positioning.

  4. Fine-resolution voxel S values for constructing absorbed dose distributions at variable voxel size.

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Arnaud; Hobbs, Robert F; Bolch, Wesley E; Sgouros, George; Gardin, Isabelle

    2010-10-01

    This article presents a revised voxel S values (VSVs) approach for dosimetry in targeted radiotherapy, allowing dose calculation for any voxel size and shape of a given SPECT or PET dataset. This approach represents an update to the methodology presented in MIRD pamphlet no. 17. VSVs were generated in soft tissue with a fine spatial sampling using the Monte Carlo (MC) code MCNPX for particle emissions of 9 radionuclides: (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (123)I, (131)I, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (201)Tl. A specific resampling algorithm was developed to compute VSVs for desired voxel dimensions. The dose calculation was performed by convolution via a fast Hartley transform. The fine VSVs were calculated for cubic voxels of 0.5 mm for electrons and 1.0 mm for photons. Validation studies were done for (90)Y and (131)I VSV sets by comparing the revised VSV approach to direct MC simulations. The first comparison included 20 spheres with different voxel sizes (3.8-7.7 mm) and radii (4-64 voxels) and the second comparison a hepatic tumor with cubic voxels of 3.8 mm. MC simulations were done with MCNPX for both. The third comparison was performed on 2 clinical patients with the 3D-RD (3-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry) software using the EGSnrc (Electron Gamma Shower National Research Council Canada)-based MC implementation, assuming a homogeneous tissue-density distribution. For the sphere model study, the mean relative difference in the average absorbed dose was 0.20% ± 0.41% for (90)Y and -0.36% ± 0.51% for (131)I (n = 20). For the hepatic tumor, the difference in the average absorbed dose to tumor was 0.33% for (90)Y and -0.61% for (131)I and the difference in average absorbed dose to the liver was 0.25% for (90)Y and -1.35% for (131)I. The comparison with the 3D-RD software showed an average voxel-to-voxel dose ratio between 0.991 and 0.996. The calculation time was below 10 s with the VSV approach and 50 and 15 h with 3D-RD for the 2 clinical patients. This new VSV

  5. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 ExNxC, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the bodymore » distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.« less

  6. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  7. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Parnell, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day-1 have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) of U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. manufacture. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  8. Effects of body and organ size on absorbed dose: there is no standard patient. [Radiation dose distribution in patients following radionuclide administration

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of estimating the absorbed dose to organs and tissues of the human body due to the presence of a radiopharmaceutical in one or more organs is discussed. Complications are introduced by the fact that the body is not homogeneous and in many cases the organ shapes are not regular. Publications of the MIRD Committee have provided a direct means of estimating the absorbed dose (or absorbed fraction) for a number of radioisotopes. These estimates are based on Monte Carlo calculations for monoenergetic photons distributed uniformly in organs of an adult phantom. The medical physicist finds that his patientmore » does not resemble the adult phantom. In addition, the absorbed fractions for the adult are not reasonable values for the child. This paper examines how these absorbed fraction estimates apply to a nonstandard patient. (auth)« less

  9. Monte Carlo MCNP-4B-based absorbed dose distribution estimates for patient-specific dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yoriyaz, H; Stabin, M G; dos Santos, A

    2001-04-01

    This study was intended to verify the capability of the Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code to evaluate spatial dose distribution based on information gathered from CT or SPECT. A new three-dimensional (3D) dose calculation approach for internal emitter use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was developed using the Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code as the photon and electron transport engine. It was shown that the MCNP-4B computer code can be used with voxel-based anatomic and physiologic data to provide 3D dose distributions. This study showed that the MCNP-4B code can be used to develop a treatment planning system that will provide such information in a time manner, if dose reporting is suitably optimized. If each organ is divided into small regions where the average energy deposition is calculated with a typical volume of 0.4 cm(3), regional dose distributions can be provided with reasonable central processing unit times (on the order of 12-24 h on a 200-MHz personal computer or modest workstation). Further efforts to provide semiautomated region identification (segmentation) and improvement of marrow dose calculations are needed to supply a complete system for RIT. It is envisioned that all such efforts will continue to develop and that internal dose calculations may soon be brought to a similar level of accuracy, detail, and robustness as is commonly expected in external dose treatment planning. For this study we developed a code with a user-friendly interface that works on several nuclear medicine imaging platforms and provides timely patient-specific dose information to the physician and medical physicist. Future therapy with internal emitters should use a 3D dose calculation approach, which represents a significant advance over dose information provided by the standard geometric phantoms used for more than 20 y (which permit reporting of only average organ doses for certain standardized individuals)

  10. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnica-Garza, H. M.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360° arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution.

  11. Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung and secondary electrons induced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams in thick targets.

    PubMed

    Takada, Masashi; Kosako, Kazuaki; Oishi, Koji; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Kouichi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2013-03-01

    Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung photons and secondary electrons at a wide range of emission angles from 0 to 135°, were experimentally obtained using an ion chamber with a 0.6 cm(3) air volume covered with or without a build-up cap. The Bremsstrahlung photons and electrons were produced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams bombarding tungsten, copper, aluminium and carbon targets. The absorbed doses were also calculated from simulated photon and electron energy spectra by multiplying simulated response functions of the ion chambers, simulated with the MCNPX code. Calculated-to-experimental (C/E) dose ratios obtained are from 0.70 to 1.57 for high-Z targets of W and Cu, from 15 to 135° and the C/E range from 0.6 to 1.4 at 0°; however, the values of C/E for low-Z targets of Al and C are from 0.5 to 1.8 from 0 to 135°. Angular distributions at the forward angles decrease with increasing angles; on the other hand, the angular distributions at the backward angles depend on the target species. The dependences of absorbed doses on electron energy and target thickness were compared between the measured and simulated results. The attenuation profiles of absorbed doses of Bremsstrahlung beams at 0, 30 and 135° were also measured.

  12. The effect of systematic set-up deviations on the absorbed dose distribution for left-sided breast cancer treated with respiratory gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, A.; Ceberg, S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to investigate interfraction set-up uncertainties for patients treated with respiratory gating for left-sided breast cancer, 2) to investigate the effect of the inter-fraction set-up on the absorbed dose-distribution for the target and organs at risk (OARs) and 3) optimize the set-up correction strategy. By acquiring multiple set-up images the systematic set-up deviation was evaluated. The effect of the systematic set-up deviation on the absorbed dose distribution was evaluated by 1) simulation in the treatment planning system and 2) measurements with a biplanar diode array. The set-up deviations could be decreased using a no action level correction strategy. Not using the clinically implemented adaptive maximum likelihood factor for the gating patients resulted in better set-up. When the uncorrected set-up deviations were simulated the average mean absorbed dose was increased from 1.38 to 2.21 Gy for the heart, 4.17 to 8.86 Gy to the left anterior descending coronary artery and 5.80 to 7.64 Gy to the left lung. Respiratory gating can induce systematic set-up deviations which would result in increased mean absorbed dose to the OARs if not corrected for and should therefore be corrected for by an appropriate correction strategy.

  13. Ion chamber absorbed dose calibration coefficients, N{sub D,w}, measured at ADCLs: Distribution analysis and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To analyze absorbed dose calibration coefficients, N{sub D,w}, measured at accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories (ADCLs) for client ionization chambers to study (i) variability among N{sub D,w} coefficients for chambers of the same type calibrated at each ADCL to investigate ion chamber volume fluctuations and chamber manufacturing tolerances; (ii) equivalency of ion chamber calibration coefficients measured at different ADCLs by intercomparing N{sub D,w} coefficients for chambers of the same type; and (iii) the long-term stability of N{sub D,w} coefficients for different chamber types by investigating repeated chamber calibrations. Methods: Large samples of N{sub D,w} coefficients for several chamber types measuredmore » over the time period between 1998 and 2014 were obtained from the three ADCLs operating in the United States. These are analyzed using various graphical and numerical statistical tests for the four chamber types with the largest samples of calibration coefficients to investigate (i) and (ii) above. Ratios of calibration coefficients for the same chamber, typically obtained two years apart, are calculated to investigate (iii) above and chambers with standard deviations of old/new ratios less than 0.3% meet stability requirements for accurate reference dosimetry recommended in dosimetry protocols. Results: It is found that N{sub D,w} coefficients for a given chamber type compared among different ADCLs may arise from differing probability distributions potentially due to slight differences in calibration procedures and/or the transfer of the primary standard. However, average N{sub D,w} coefficients from different ADCLs for given chamber types are very close with percent differences generally less than 0.2% for Farmer-type chambers and are well within reported uncertainties. Conclusions: The close agreement among calibrations performed at different ADCLs reaffirms the Calibration Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee process of

  14. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  15. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  16. Distribution of Absorbed Dose in Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography: A Phantom Study With Radiochromic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paolo; Coppola, Teresa; Mettivier, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography (CBBCT) of the pendant breast with dedicated scanners is an experimental 3D X-ray imaging technique for breast cancer diagnosis under evaluation in comparison to conventional two-view 2-D mammography of the compressed breast. In CBBCT it is generally assumed that a more uniform distribution of the radiation dose to the breast volume can be obtained, with respect to mammography, at equal Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) levels. In fact, in CBBCT the X-ray beam rotates for 360 deg around the breast, while in each mammography view the breast is irradiated from one side only. Using a CBBCT laboratory scanner developed by our group, we have measured the distribution of the radiation dose in a hemi-ellipsoidal PMMA breast phantom of 14 cm diameter simulating the average uncompressed breast, using radiochromic films type XR-SP inserted at mid-plane in the phantom. The technique factors were 80 kVp (5.6 mm Al Half Value Layer), tube load in the range 23-100 mAs, for an air kerma at isocenter in the range 4.7-20 mGy, for a calculated MGD in the range 3.5-15 mGy for a 14 cm diameter breast of 50% glandularity. Results indicate that the dose decreases from the periphery to the center of the phantom, and that along a transverse profile, the relative dose variation Δ = ((edge-center)/center) is up to (25 ±4)% at a distance of 80 mm from the nipple. As for the relative dose variation along the phantom longitudinal axis, the maximum value at middle of the phantom measured is δ = ((nipple-chest wall)/chest wall) = -(15 ±4)%, indicating that the dose decreases from the chest wall toward the nipple. The values of the parameters Δ and δ depend also on the height of the X-ray tube focal spot with respect to the phantom vertex (nipple). Results are in rough agreement with similar previous determinations using thermoluminescence dosimeters.

  17. On the definition of absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  18. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  19. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  20. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1-1.2·10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m.

  1. Uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose from a brain receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogan, B.; Miller, L.F.; Sparks, R.B.

    Absorbed dose estimates are known to contain uncertainties. A recent literature search indicates that prior to this study no rigorous investigation of uncertainty associated with absorbed dose has been undertaken. A method of uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose calculations has been developed and implemented for the brain receptor imaging agent {sup 123}I-IPT. The two major sources of uncertainty considered were the uncertainty associated with the determination of residence time and that associated with the determination of the S values. There are many sources of uncertainty in the determination of the S values, but only the inter-patient organ mass variation wasmore » considered in this work. The absorbed dose uncertainties were determined for lung, liver, heart and brain. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the organ absorbed dose distributions for each patient and for a seven-patient population group were determined by the ``Latin Hypercube Sampling`` method. For an individual patient, the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose was found to be about 2.5 times larger than the estimated mean absorbed dose. For the seven-patient population the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose distribution was around 45% more than the estimated population mean. For example, the 95% confidence interval of the population liver dose distribution was found to be between 1.49E+0.7 Gy/MBq and 4.65E+07 Gy/MBq with a mean of 2.52E+07 Gy/MBq. This study concluded that patients in a population receiving {sup 123}I-IPT could receive absorbed doses as much as twice as large as the standard estimated absorbed dose due to these uncertainties.« less

  2. Dosimetry for nonuniform activity distributions: a method for the calculation of 3D absorbed-dose distribution without the use of voxel S-values, point kernels, or Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Traino, A C; Marcatili, S; Avigo, C; Sollini, M; Erba, P A; Mariani, G

    2013-04-01

    Nonuniform activity within the target lesions and the critical organs constitutes an important limitation for dosimetric estimates in patients treated with tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. The tumor control probability and the normal tissue complication probability are affected by the distribution of the radionuclide in the treated organ/tissue. In this paper, a straightforward method for calculating the absorbed dose at the voxel level is described. This new method takes into account a nonuniform activity distribution in the target/organ. The new method is based on the macroscopic S-values (i.e., the S-values calculated for the various organs, as defined in the MIRD approach), on the definition of the number of voxels, and on the raw-count 3D array, corrected for attenuation, scatter, and collimator resolution, in the lesion/organ considered. Starting from these parameters, the only mathematical operation required is to multiply the 3D array by a scalar value, thus avoiding all the complex operations involving the 3D arrays. A comparison with the MIRD approach, fully described in the MIRD Pamphlet No. 17, using S-values at the voxel level, showed a good agreement between the two methods for (131)I and for (90)Y. Voxel dosimetry is becoming more and more important when performing therapy with tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. The method presented here does not require calculating the S-values at the voxel level, and thus bypasses the mathematical problems linked to the convolution of 3D arrays and to the voxel size. In the paper, the results obtained with this new simplified method as well as the possibility of using it for other radionuclides commonly employed in therapy are discussed. The possibility of using the correct density value of the tissue/organs involved is also discussed.

  3. Assessment of human effective absorbed dose of 67 Ga-ECC based on biodistribution rat data.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Yousefnia, Hassan; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Afarideh, Hossien

    2015-02-01

    In a diagnostic context, determination of absorbed dose is required before the introduction of a new radiopharmaceutical to the market to obtain marketing authorization from the relevant agencies. In this work, the absorbed dose of [67 Ga]-ethylenecysteamine cysteine [(67 Ga)ECC] to human organs was determined by using distribution data for rats. For biodistribution data, the animals were sacrificed by CO2 asphyxiation at selected times after injection (0.5, 2 and 48 h, n = 3 for each time interval), then the tissue (blood, heart, lung, brain, intestine, feces, skin, stomach, kidneys, liver, muscle and bone) were removed. The absorbed dose was determined by Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) method after calculating cumulated activities in each organ. Our prediction shows that a 185-MBq injection of (67)Ga-ECC into the humans might result in an estimated absorbed dose of 0.029 mGy in the whole body. The highest absorbed doses are observed in the spleen and liver with 33.766 and 16.847 mGy, respectively. The results show that this radiopharmaceutical can be a good SPECT tracer since it can be produced easily and also the absorbed dose in each organ is less than permitted absorbed dose.

  4. [Absorbed doses to critical organs from full mouth dental radiography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Yasuhiko, O; Hidegiko, Y

    1999-01-01

    A few studies were reported in China on radiological risk of dental radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the absorbed doses of patients from the full mouth radiographs, and to find out the contribution from each projection to the total absorbed dose of the organs. Absorbed doses to critical organs were measured from 14-film complete dental radiography. The organs included pituitary, optical lens, parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands, thyroid, breasts, ovary, testes and the skin in center field of each projection were studied. A-radiation analog dosimetry system (RANDO) phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters (ILD200) was used for the study. All of the exposure parameters were fixed. The total filtration was 2 mm Al equivalent. The column collaboration was 6 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. The absorbed doses of organs were measured three times in each projection of the full-mouth series (FMS) exposures. The absorbed dose of lenses in FMS (249 microGy) in present study was much less (10%) than the doses (2,630 microGy) reported in 1976. The doses absorbed of other organs in the present study were thyroid gland (125 microGy), pituitary gland (112 microGy), parotid gland (153 microGy), submandibular gland (629 microGy), sublingual gland (1,900 microGy), and breast gland (12 microGy). The doses of the ovary and testis were to small to further analysis. All of the results show that the radiation risk to patients in intraoral radiograph has been reduced significantly. In the pituitary, half of the dose is from both sides of the maxillary molar projection. For the lenses, the largest contribultions of radiation (60%) come from the ipsilateral molar and premolar projection of maxilla. In parotid gland, up to 57% of the dose is from the contralateral molar, pre-molar and canine of maxilla. It could be derived that about 90% of the absorbed doses could be avoided in FMS if the column collimator is 20 cm long and the filter is 2.0 mm thick

  5. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Silva-Sanchez, Angeles; Rivera-Montalvo, Teodoro

    2016-11-01

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is and 15.7 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 37.1 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developability assessment of clinical drug products with maximum absorbable doses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; Rose, John P; Van Gelder, Jan

    2012-05-10

    Maximum absorbable dose refers to the maximum amount of an orally administered drug that can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum absorbable dose, or D(abs), has proved to be an important parameter for quantifying the absorption potential of drug candidates. The purpose of this work is to validate the use of D(abs) in a developability assessment context, and to establish appropriate protocol and interpretation criteria for this application. Three methods for calculating D(abs) were compared by assessing how well the methods predicted the absorption limit for a set of real clinical candidates. D(abs) was calculated for these clinical candidates by means of a simple equation and two computer simulation programs, GastroPlus and an program developed at Eli Lilly and Company. Results from single dose escalation studies in Phase I clinical trials were analyzed to identify the maximum absorbable doses for these compounds. Compared to the clinical results, the equation and both simulation programs provide conservative estimates of D(abs), but in general D(abs) from the computer simulations are more accurate, which may find obvious advantage for the simulations in developability assessment. Computer simulations also revealed the complex behavior associated with absorption saturation and suggested in most cases that the D(abs) limit is not likely to be achieved in a typical clinical dose range. On the basis of the validation findings, an approach is proposed for assessing absorption potential, and best practices are discussed for the use of D(abs) estimates to inform clinical formulation development strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of absorbed dose calculations from thermoluminescence dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Kirby, T H; Hanson, W F; Johnston, D A

    1992-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) are widely used to verify absorbed doses delivered from radiation therapy beams. Specifically, they are used by the Radiological Physics Center for mailed dosimetry for verification of therapy machine output. The effects of the random experimental uncertainties of various factors on dose calculations from TLD signals are examined, including: fading, dose response nonlinearity, and energy response corrections; reproducibility of TL signal measurements and TLD reader calibration. Individual uncertainties are combined to estimate the total uncertainty due to random fluctuations. The Radiological Physics Center's (RPC) mail out TLD system, utilizing throwaway LiF powder to monitor high-energy photon and electron beam outputs, is analyzed in detail. The technique may also be applicable to other TLD systems. It is shown that statements of +/- 2% dose uncertainty and +/- 5% action criterion for TLD dosimetry are reasonable when related to uncertainties in the dose calculations, provided the standard deviation (s.d.) of TL readings is 1.5% or better.

  8. Evaluation of lens absorbed dose with Cone Beam IGRT procedures.

    PubMed

    Palomo, R; Pujades, M C; Gimeno-Olmos, J; Carmona, V; Lliso, F; Candela-Juan, C; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the absorbed dose to the eye lenses due to the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system used to accurately position the patient during head-and-neck image guided procedures. The on-board imaging (OBI) systems (v.1.5) of Clinac iX and TrueBeam (Varian) accelerators were used to evaluate the imparted dose to the eye lenses and some additional points of the head. All CBCT scans were acquired with the Standard-Dose Head protocol from Varian. Doses were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed in an anthropomorphic phantom. TLDs were calibrated at the beam quality used to reduce their energy dependence. Average dose to the lens due to the OBI systems of the Clinac iX and the TrueBeam were 0.71  ±  0.07 mGy/CBCT and 0.70  ±  0.08 mGy/CBCT, respectively. The extra absorbed dose received by the eye lenses due to one CBCT acquisition with the studied protocol is far below the 500 mGy threshold established by ICRP for cataract formation (ICRP 2011 Statement on Tissue Reactions). However, the incremental effect of several CBCT acquisitions during the whole treatment should be taken into account.

  9. The advantages of absorbed-dose calibration factors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D W

    1992-01-01

    A formalism for clinical external beam dosimetry based on use of ion chamber absorbed-dose calibration factors is outlined in the context and notation of the AAPM TG-21 protocol. It is shown that basing clinical dosimetry on absorbed-dose calibration factors ND leads to considerable simplification and reduced uncertainty in dose measurement. In keeping with a protocol which is used in Germany, a quantity kQ is defined which relates an absorbed-dose calibration factor in a beam of quality Q0 to that in a beam of quality Q. For 38 cylindrical ion chambers, two sets of values are presented for ND/NX and Ngas/ND and for kQ for photon beams with beam quality specified by the TPR20(10) ratio. One set is based on TG-21's protocol to allow the new formalism to be used while maintaining equivalence to the TG-21 protocol. To demonstrate the magnitude of the overall error in the TG-21 protocol, the other set uses corrected versions of the TG-21 equations and the more consistent physical data of the IAEA Code of Practice. Comparisons are made to procedures based on air-kerma or exposure calibration factors and it is shown that accuracy and simplicity are gained by avoiding the determination of Ngas from NX. It is also shown that the kQ approach simplifies the use of plastic phantoms in photon beams since kQ values change by less than 0.6% compared to those in water although an overall correction factor of 0.973 is needed to go from absorbed dose in water calibration factors to those in PMMA or polystyrene. Values of kQ calculated using the IAEA Code of Practice are presented but are shown to be anomalous because of the way the effective point of measurement changes for 60Co beams. In photon beams the major difference between the IAEA Code of Practice and the corrected AAPM TG-21 protocol is shown to be the Prepl correction factor. Calculated kQ curves and three parameter equations for them are presented for each wall material and are shown to represent accurately the kQ curve

  10. Olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed in humans.

    PubMed

    Visioli, F; Galli, C; Bornet, F; Mattei, A; Patelli, R; Galli, G; Caruso, D

    2000-02-25

    Olive oil phenolic constituents have been shown, in vitro, to be endowed with potent biological activities including, but not limited to, an antioxidant action. To date, there is no information on the absorption and disposition of such compounds in humans. We report that olive oil phenolics, namely tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, are dose-dependently absorbed in humans after ingestion and that they are excreted in the urine as glucuronide conjugates. Furthermore, an increase in the dose of phenolics administered increased the proportion of conjugation with glucuronide.

  11. Study of Fricke-gel dosimeter calibration for attaining precise measurements of the absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Liosi, Giulia Maria; Benedini, Sara; Giacobbo, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    A method has been studied for attaining, with good precision, absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose by means of the Fricke gelatin Xylenol Orange dosimetric system. With this aim, the dose response to subsequent irradiations was analyzed. In fact, the proposed modality is based on a pre-irradiation of each single dosimeter in a uniform field with a known dose, in order to extrapolate a calibration image for a subsequent non-uniform irradiation with an un-known dose to be measured. (authors)

  12. Comparison of microdosimetry-based absorbed doses to control tumours and clinically obtained tumour absorbed doses in treatments with 223Ra.

    PubMed

    Minguez Gabina, Pablo; Roeske, John C; Mínguez, Ricardo; Gomez de Iturriaga, Alfonso; Rodeño, Emilia

    2018-06-20

    We performed Monte Carlo simulations in order to determine by means of microdosimetry calculations the average number of hits to the cell nucleus required to reach a tumour control probability (TCP) of 0.9, 〈n<sub>0.9</sub> 〉, for the source geometry of a nucleus embedded in a homogeneous distribution of <sup>223</sup>Ra atoms. From the results obtained and following the MIRD methodology, we determined the values of lesion absorbed doses needed to reach a TCP of 0.9, D<sub>0.9</sub>, for different values of mass density, cell radiosensitivity, nucleus radius and lesion volume. The greatest variation of those absorbed doses occurred with cell radiosensitivity and no dependence was found on mass density. The source geometry used was chosen because we aimed to compare the values of D<sub>0.9</sub> with the lesion absorbed doses obtained from image-based macrodosimetry in treatments of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with <sup>223</sup>Ra which were obtained assuming a homogeneous distribution of <sup>223</sup>Ra atoms within the lesion. In a comparison with a study including 29 lesions, results showed that even for the case of the most radiosensitive cells simulated, 45% of the lesions treated following a schedule of two cycles of 110 kBq/kg body mass would receive absorbed doses below the values of D<sub>0.9</sub> determined in this study. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  13. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for 18F-BPA PET.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuzuru; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Yasui, Naoko; Honda, Naoki; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a molecular radiation therapy approach based on the 10 B (n, α) 7 Li nuclear reaction in cancer cells. In BNCT, delivery of 10 B in the form of 4-borono-phenylalanine conjugated with fructose (BPA-fr) to the cancer cells is important. The PET tracer 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) has been used to predict the accumulation of BPA-fr before BNCT. Purpose To determine the biodistribution and dosimetric parameters in 18F-BPA PET/CT studies. Material and Methods Human biokinetic data were obtained during clinical 18F-BPA PET studies between February and June 2015 at one institution. Nine consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The internal radiation dose was calculated on the basis of radioactivity data from blood, urine, and normal tissue of the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, and other parts of the body at each time point using OLINDA/EXM1.1 program. We compared our calculations with published 18F-FDG data. Results Adult patients (3 men, 3 women; age range, 28-68 years) had significantly smaller absorbed doses than pediatric patients (3 patients; age range, 5-12 years) ( P = 0.003). The mean effective dose was 57% lower in adult patients compared with pediatric patients. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were 25% lower than those for 18F-FDG presented in International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) publication 106. Conclusion We found significant differences in organ absorbed doses for 18F-BPA against those for 18F-FDG presented in ICRP publication 106. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were smaller than those for 18F-FDG in the publication by 0.5-38% (mean difference, 25%).

  14. Measurement of absorbed dose during the phantom torso experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semones, E.; Gibbons, F.; Golightly, M.; Weyland, M.; Johnson, A.; Smith, G.; Shelfer, T.; Zapp, N.

    The Phantom Torso Experiment (PTE) was flown on the International Space Station (ISS) during Increment 2 (April-August 2001). The experiment was located in the US Lab module Human Research Facility (HRF) rack. The objective of the passive dosimetry portion of the experiment was to measure spatial distributions of absorbed dose in the 34, 1 inch sections of a modified RandoTM phantom. In each section of the phantom, thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were placed at various locations (depths) to provide the spatial measurement. TLDs were also located at several radiosensitive organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) and two locations on the surface (skin). Active silicon detectors were also placed at these organ locations to provide time resolved results of the absorbed dose rates. Using these detectors, it is possible to separate the trapped and galactic cosmic ray components of the absorbed dose. The TLD results of the spatial and organ dose measurements will be presented and comparisons of the TLD and silicon detector organ absorbed doses will be made.

  15. Technical note: estimating absorbed doses to the thyroid in CT.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter; Magill, Dennise; Spampinato, Maria V

    2011-06-01

    To describe a method for estimating absorbed doses to the thyroid in patients undergoing neck CT examinations. Thyroid doses in anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained for all 23 scanner dosimetry data sets in the ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator. Values of relative thyroid dose [R(thy)(L)], defined as the thyroid dose for a given scan length (L) divided by the corresponding thyroid dose for a whole body scan, were determined for neck CT scans. Ratios of the maximum thyroid dose to the corresponding CTDI(vol) and [D'(thy)], were obtained for two phantom diameters. The mass-equivalent water cylinder of any patient can be derived from the neck cross-sectional area and the corresponding average Hounsfield Unit, and compared to the 16.5-cm diameter water cylinder that models the ImPACT anthropomorphic phantom neck. Published values of relative doses in water cylinders of varying diameter were used to adjust thyroid doses in the anthropomorphic phantom to those of any sized patient. Relative thyroid doses R(thy)(L) increase to unity with increasing scan length and with very small difference between scanners. A 10-cm scan centered on the thyroid would result in a dose that is, nearly 90% of the thyroid dose from a whole body scan when performed using the constant radiographic techniques. At 120 kV, the average value of D'(thy) for the 16-cm diameter was 1.17 +/- 0.05 and was independent of CT vendor and year of CT scanner, and choice of x-ray tube voltage. The corresponding average value of D'(thy) in the 32-cm diameter phantom was 2.28 +/- 0.22 and showed marked variations depending on vendor, year of introduction into clinical practice as well as x-ray tube voltage. At 120 kV, a neck equivalent to a 10-cm diameter cylinder of water would have thyroid doses 36% higher than those in the ImPACT phantom, whereas a neck equivalent to a 25-cm cylinder diameter would have thyroid doses 35% lower. Patient thyroid doses can be estimated by taking into account the amount of

  16. Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human lung.

    PubMed

    Nikezic, D; Lau, B M F; Stevanovic, N; Yu, K N

    2006-01-01

    To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed on the layers containing the target cells, i.e., the basal and secretory cells. Such an approach did not consider details of the sensitive cells in the layers. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines the absorbed alpha-particle energy in non-spherical nuclei of target cells (basal and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory tract was calculated in basal- and secretory-cell nuclei, assuming conical and ellipsoidal forms for these cells. Distributions of specific energy for different combinations of alpha-particle sources, energies and targets are calculated and shown. The dose conversion coefficient for radon progeny is reduced for about 2mSv/WLM when conical and ellipsoidal cell nuclei are considered instead of the layers. While changes in the geometry of secretory-cell nuclei do not have significant effects on their absorbed dose, changes from spherical to conical basal-cell nuclei have significantly reduced their absorbed dose from approximately 4 to approximately 3mGy/WLM. This is expected because basal cells are situated close to the end of the range of 6MeV alpha particles. This also underlines the significance of better and more precise information on targets in the T-B tree. A further change in the dose conversion coefficient can be achieved if a different weighting scheme is adopted for the doses for the cells. The results demonstrate the necessity for better information on the target cells for more accurate dosimetry for radon progeny.

  17. Abdominal Pediatric Cancer Surveillance using Serial CT: Evaluation of Organ Absorbed Dose and Effective Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Diana; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; McGahan, John P.; Stern, Robin; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used extensively in cancer diagnosis, staging, evaluation of response to treatment, and in active surveillance for cancer reoccurrence. A review of CT technology is provided, at a level of detail appropriate for a busy clinician to review. The basis of x-ray CT dosimetry is also discussed, and concepts of absorbed dose and effective dose are distinguished. Absorbed dose is a physical quantity (measured in milliGray) equal to the x-ray energy deposited in a mass of tissue, whereas effective dose utilizes an organ-specific weighting method which converts organ doses to effective dose measured in milliSieverts. The organ weighting values carry with them a measure of radiation risk, and so effective dose (in mSv) is not a physical dose metric but rather is one that conveys radiation risk. The use of CT in a cancer surveillance protocol was used as an example of a pediatric patient who had kidney cancer, with surgery and radiation therapy. The active use of CT for cancer surveillance along with diagnostic CT scans led to a total of 50 CT scans performed on this child in a 7 year period. It was estimated that the patient received an average organ dose of 431 mGy from these CT scans. By comparison, the radiation therapy was performed and delivered 50.4 Gy to the patient’s abdomen. Thus, the total dose from CT represented only 0.8% of the patients radiation dose. PMID:21362521

  18. [Absorbed dose and the effective dose of panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ayae; Okano, Tsuneichi; Gotoh, Kenichi; Yokoi, Midori; Hirukawa, Akiko; Okumura, Shinji; Koyama, Syuji

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the radiation doses absorbed by the patient during Panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography (Panoramic TMJ), Schüllers method and Orbitoramus projection. The dose of the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Orbitoramus projection and the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Schüllers method. We measured the doses received by various organs and calculated the effective doses using the guidelines of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 103. Organ absorbed doses were measured using an anthropomorphic phantom, loaded with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), located at 160 sensitive sites. The dose shows the sum value of irradiation on both the right and left sides. In addition, we set a few different exposure field sizes. The effective dose for a frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was 11 µSv, and that for the lateral view was 14 µSv. The lens of the Orbitoramus projection was 40 times higher than the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ. Although the effective dose of the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was 3 times higher than that of the small exposure field (10×10 cm on film) in Schüller's method, it was the same as that of a mid-sized exposure field. When the exposure field in the inferior 1/3 was reduced during panoramic TMJ, the effective doses could be decreased. Therefore we recommend that the size of the exposure field in Panoramic TMJ be decreased.

  19. Pain and Mean Absorbed Dose to the Pubic Bone After Radiotherapy Among Gynecological Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte, E-mail: ann-charlotte.waldenstrom@oncology.gu.se; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; Olsson, Caroline

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer and occurrence of pubic bone pain among long-term survivors. Methods and Materials: In an unselected, population-based study, we identified 823 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy during 1991-2003. For comparison, we used a non-radiation-treated control population of 478 matched women from the Swedish Population Register. Pain, intensity of pain, and functional impairment due to pain in the pubic bone were assessed with a study-specific postal questionnaire. Results: We analyzed data from 650 survivors (participation rate 79%) with median follow-upmore » of 6.3 years (range, 2.3-15.0 years) along with 344 control women (participation rate, 72 %). Ten percent of the survivors were treated with radiotherapy; ninety percent with surgery plus radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was added in 81%. Complete treatment records were recovered for 538/650 survivors, with dose distribution data including dose-volume histograms over the pubic bone. Pubic bone pain was reported by 73 survivors (11%); 59/517 (11%) had been exposed to mean absorbed external beam doses <52.5 Gy to the pubic bone and 5/12 (42%) to mean absorbed external beam doses {>=}52.5 Gy. Thirty-three survivors reported pain affecting sleep, a 13-fold increased prevalence compared with control women. Forty-nine survivors reported functional impairment measured as pain walking indoors, a 10-fold increased prevalence. Conclusions: Mean absorbed external beam dose above 52.5 Gy to the pubic bone increases the occurrence of pain in the pubic bone and may affect daily life of long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer.« less

  20. Pain and mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after radiotherapy among gynecological cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; al-Abany, Massoud; Palm, Åsa; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2011-07-15

    To analyze the relationship between mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer and occurrence of pubic bone pain among long-term survivors. In an unselected, population-based study, we identified 823 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy during 1991-2003. For comparison, we used a non-radiation-treated control population of 478 matched women from the Swedish Population Register. Pain, intensity of pain, and functional impairment due to pain in the pubic bone were assessed with a study-specific postal questionnaire. We analyzed data from 650 survivors (participation rate 79%) with median follow-up of 6.3 years (range, 2.3-15.0 years) along with 344 control women (participation rate, 72 %). Ten percent of the survivors were treated with radiotherapy; ninety percent with surgery plus radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was added in 81%. Complete treatment records were recovered for 538/650 survivors, with dose distribution data including dose-volume histograms over the pubic bone. Pubic bone pain was reported by 73 survivors (11%); 59/517 (11%) had been exposed to mean absorbed external beam doses <52.5 Gy to the pubic bone and 5/12 (42%) to mean absorbed external beam doses ≥ 52.5 Gy. Thirty-three survivors reported pain affecting sleep, a 13-fold increased prevalence compared with control women. Forty-nine survivors reported functional impairment measured as pain walking indoors, a 10-fold increased prevalence. Mean absorbed external beam dose above 52.5 Gy to the pubic bone increases the occurrence of pain in the pubic bone and may affect daily life of long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Monte Carlo Assessments of Absorbed Doses to the Hands of Radiopharmaceutical Workers Due to Photon Emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan; Eckerman, Keith F; Karagiannis, Harriet

    This paper describes the characterization of radiation doses to the hands of nuclear medicine technicians resulting from the handling of radiopharmaceuticals. Radiation monitoring using ring dosimeters indicates that finger dosimeters that are used to show compliance with applicable regulations may overestimate or underestimate radiation doses to the skin depending on the nature of the particular procedure and the radionuclide being handled. To better understand the parameters governing the absorbed dose distributions, a detailed model of the hands was created and used in Monte Carlo simulations of selected nuclear medicine procedures. Simulations of realistic configurations typical for workers handling radiopharmaceuticals weremore » performedfor a range of energies of the source photons. The lack of charged-particle equilibrium necessitated full photon-electron coupled transport calculations. The results show that the dose to different regions of the fingers can differ substantially from dosimeter readings when dosimeters are located at the base of the finger. We tried to identify consistent patterns that relate the actual dose to the dosimeter readings. These patterns depend on the specific work conditions and can be used to better assess the absorbed dose to different regions of the exposed skin.« less

  2. Absorbed Dose Determination Using Experimental and Analytical Predictions of X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron beam welding in a vacuum is a technology that NASA is investigating as a joining technique for manufacture of space structures. This investigation characterizes the x-ray environment due to operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool and provides recommendations for adequate shielding for astronauts performing the in-vacuum electron beam welding. NASA, in a joint venture with the Russian Space Agency, was scheduled to perform a series of welding in space experiments on board the U.S. Space Shuttle. This series of experiments was named the international space welding experiment (ISWE). The hardware associated with the ISWE was leased to NASA by the Paton Welding Institute (PWI) in Ukraine for ground-based welding experiments in preparation for flight. Two ground tests were scheduled, using the ISWE electron beam welding tool, to characterize the radiation exposure to an astronaut during the operation of the ISWE. These radiation exposure tests used thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) shielded with material currently used by astronauts during extravehicular activities to measure the radiation dose. The TLD's were exposed to x-ray radiation generated by operation of the ISWE in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. This investigation was the first known application of TLD's to measure absorbed dose from x rays of energy less than 10 keV. The ISWE hardware was returned to Ukraine before the issue of adequate shielding for the astronauts was completely verified. Therefore, alternate experimental and analytical methods were developed to measure and predict the x-ray spectral and intensity distribution generated by ISWE electron beam impact with metal. These x-ray spectra were normalized to an equivalent ISWE exposure, then used to calculate the absorbed radiation dose to astronauts. These absorbed dose values were compared to TLD measurements obtained during actual operation of the ISWE in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. The calculated absorbed dose

  3. A mathematical model for calculation of 90Sr absorbed dose in dental tissues: elaboration and comparison to EPR measurements.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Lyubashevskii, N M; Tolstykh, E I; Ignatiev, E A; Betenekova, T A; Nikiforov, S V

    2001-09-01

    A mathematical model for calculation of the 90Sr absorbed doses in dental tissues is presented. The results of the Monte-Carlo calculations are compared to the data obtained by EPR measurements of dental tissues. Radiometric measurements of the 90Sr concentrations. TLD and EPR dosimetry investigations were performed in animal (dog) study. The importance of the irregular 90Sr distribution in the dentine for absorbed dose formation has been shown. The dominant dose formation factors (main source-tissues) were identified for the crown dentine and enamel. The model has shown agreement with experimental data which allows to determine further directions of the human tooth model development.

  4. SU-E-I-85: Absorbed Dose Estimation for a Commercially Available MicroCT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the simulated absorbed dose delivered for a typical scan from a commercially available microCT scanner in order to aid in the dose estimation. Methods: The simulations were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit (version 10) with the standard electromagnetic classes. The Quantum FX microCT scanner (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA) was modeled incorporating the energy fluence and angular distributions of generated photons, spatial dimensions of nominal source-to-object and source-to-detector distances. The energy distribution was measured using a spectrometer (X-123CdTe, Amptek Inc., Bedford, USA) with a 300 angular spread from the source for the 90 kVp X-ray beams withmore » no additional filtration. The nominal distances from the source to object consisted of three setups: 154.0 mm, 104.0 mm, and 51.96 mm. Our simulations recorded the dose absorbed in a cylindrical phantom of PMMA with a fixed length of 2 cm and varying radii (10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) using 100 million incident photons. The averaged absorbed dose in the object was then quantified for all setups. An exposure measurement of 417 mR was taken using a Radcal 9095 system utilizing 10×9–180 ion chamber with the given technique of 90 kVp, 63 μA, and 12 s. The exposure rate was also simulated with same setup to calculate the conversion factor of the beam current and the number of incident photons. Results: For a typical cone-beam scan with non-filtered 90kVp, the dose coefficients (the absorbed dose per mAs) were 2.614, 2.549 and 2.467 μGy/mAs under source to object distance of 104 mm for the object diameters of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm, respectively. Conclusion: A look-up table was developed where an investigator can estimate the delivered dose using this particular microCT given the scanning protocol (kVp and mAs) as well as the size of the scanned object.« less

  5. Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billas, I.; Shipley, D.; Galer, S.; Bass, G.; Sander, T.; Fenwick, A.; Smyth, V.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the determination of the internal absorbed dose to tissue from an administered radionuclide solution relies on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations based on published nuclear decay data, such as emission probabilities and energies. In order to validate these methods with measurements, it is necessary to achieve the required traceability of the internal absorbed dose measurements of a radionuclide solution to a primary standard of absorbed dose. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable primary standard. A comparison between measurements and calculations of absorbed dose allows the validation of the internal radiation dose assessment methods. The absorbed dose from an yttrium-90 chloride (90YCl) solution was measured with an extrapolation chamber. A phantom was developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the UK’s National Measurement Institute, to position the extrapolation chamber as closely as possible to the surface of the solution. The performance of the extrapolation chamber was characterised and a full uncertainty budget for the absorbed dose determination was obtained. Absorbed dose to air in the collecting volume of the chamber was converted to absorbed dose at the centre of the radionuclide solution by applying a MC calculated correction factor. This allowed a direct comparison of the analytically calculated and experimentally determined absorbed dose of an 90YCl solution. The relative standard uncertainty in the measurement of absorbed dose at the centre of an 90YCl solution with the extrapolation chamber was found to be 1.6% (k  =  1). The calculated 90Y absorbed doses from published medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) and radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) data agreed with measurements to within 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively. This study has shown that it is feasible to use an extrapolation chamber for performing primary standard absorbed dose measurements of an unsealed radionuclide solution. Internal radiation

  6. The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota : an extended inter-comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Batlle, J. V. I.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Beresford, N. A.

    An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of {+-}20%. Themore » variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota.« less

  7. Assessment of out-of-field absorbed dose and equivalent dose in proton fields

    SciTech Connect

    Clasie, Ben; Wroe, Andrew; Kooy, Hanne

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: In proton therapy, as in other forms of radiation therapy, scattered and secondary particles produce undesired dose outside the target volume that may increase the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer and interact with electronic devices in the treatment room. The authors implement a Monte Carlo model of this dose deposited outside passively scattered fields and compare it to measurements, determine the out-of-field equivalent dose, and estimate the change in the dose if the same target volumes were treated with an active beam scanning technique. Methods: Measurements are done with a thimble ionization chamber and the Wellhofer MatriXX detector insidemore » a Lucite phantom with field configurations based on the treatment of prostate cancer and medulloblastoma. The authors use a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation, demonstrated to agree well with measurements inside the primary field, to simulate fields delivered in the measurements. The partial contributions to the dose are separated in the simulation by particle type and origin. Results: The agreement between experiment and simulation in the out-of-field absorbed dose is within 30% at 10-20 cm from the field edge and 90% of the data agrees within 2 standard deviations. In passive scattering, the neutron contribution to the total dose dominates in the region downstream of the Bragg peak (65%-80% due to internally produced neutrons) and inside the phantom at distances more than 10-15 cm from the field edge. The equivalent doses using 10 for the neutron weighting factor at the entrance to the phantom and at 20 cm from the field edge are 2.2 and 2.6 mSv/Gy for the prostate cancer and cranial medulloblastoma fields, respectively. The equivalent dose at 15-20 cm from the field edge decreases with depth in passive scattering and increases with depth in active scanning. Therefore, active scanning has smaller out-of-field equivalent dose by factors of 30-45 in the entrance region and this factor decreases with

  8. Absorbed dose determination using experimental and analytical predictions of x-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David Lee

    1999-10-01

    Electron beam welding in a vacuum is a technology that NASA is investigating as a joining technique for manufacture of space structures. The interaction of energetic electrons with metal produces x-rays. This investigation characterizes the x-ray environment due to operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool and provides recommendations for adequate radiation shielding for astronauts performing the in-vacuum electron beam welding. NASA, in a joint venture with the Russian Space Agency, was scheduled to perform a series of welding in space experiments on board the United States Space Shuttle. This series of experiments was named the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE). The hardware associated with the ISWE was leased to NASA, by the Paton Welding Institute (PWI) in Ukraine, for ground based welding experiments in preparation for flight. Two ground tests were scheduled, using the ISWE electron beam welding tool, to characterize the radiation exposure to an astronaut during the operation of the ISWE. These radiation exposure tests used Thermoluminescence Dosimeters (TLD's) shielded with material currently used by astronauts during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) to measure the radiation dose. The TLD's were exposed to x- ray radiation generated by operation of the ISWE in- vacuum electron beam welding tool. This investigation was the first known application of TLD's to measure absorbed dose from x-rays of energy less than 10 keV. The ISWE hardware was returned to Ukraine before the issue of adequate shielding for the astronauts was completely verified. Therefore alternate experimental and analytical methods were developed to measure and predict the x-ray spectral and intensity distribution generated by ISWE electron beam impact with metal. These x-ray spectra were normalized to an equivalent ISWE exposure then used to calculate the absorbed radiation dose to astronauts. These absorbed dose values were compared to TLD measurements obtained during

  9. Intercomparison of standards of absorbed dose between the USSR and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlyand, V. A.; Bregadze, J. I.; Burns, J. E.; Dusautoy, A. R.; Sharpe, P. H. G.

    1991-05-01

    A comparison of national standards of absorbed dose was carried out between the All-Union Research Institute for Physical Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), USSR, and the National Physical Laboratotry (NPL), UK (United Kingdom). Absorbed dose to water for cobalt 60 gamma radiation was compared by means of Fricke dosimeters and ionization chambers in 1985 and 1986. The primary standards used to derive absorbed dose to water were cavity ionization chambers at NPL and a graphite calorimeter at VNIIFTRI. The ratio of absorbed dose to water, NPL to VNIIFTRI, using Fricke dosimeters was 1.008; using ionization chambers it was 1.007. This agreement is within the estimated uncertainties of the standards and measurement methods.

  10. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Trition's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV (ultraviolet) Spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAM's exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SAM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAM's on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAM's has been determined, further constraints on their composition can be made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on Voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  11. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Triton's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAMs exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SaM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAMs on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAMs has been determined, further constraints on their composition cable made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  12. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Triton's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1994-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV Spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAM's exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SAM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAM's on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAM's has been determined, further constraints on their composition can be made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on Voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  13. Real-time measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, Sergey; Korenev, Ivan; Rumega, Stanislav; Grossman, Leon

    2004-09-01

    The real-time method and system for measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for industrial and research electron accelerators is considered in the report. The system was created on the basis of beam parameters method. The main concept of this method consists in the measurement of dissipated kinetic energy of electrons in the irradiated product, determination of number of electrons and mass of irradiated product in the same cell by following calculation of absorbed dose in the cell. The manual and automation systems for dose measurements are described. The systems are acceptable for all types of electron accelerators.

  14. Absorbed radiation doses to staff after implementation of a radiopharmacy clean room.

    PubMed

    Ponto, James A

    2014-12-01

    In response to U.S. Pharmacopeia general chapter <797> standards, a clean room was constructed for our in-house radiopharmacy. Previously, most patient doses were prepared as needed just before injection. Currently, to minimize repeated entries into the clean room, most patient doses are prepared in batches; that is, early morning and noontime preparation of doses to be injected at various times throughout the morning and the afternoon, respectively. Because these patient doses may be prepared well before injection time, radioactive decay necessitates higher amounts of radioactivity to be handled for patient dose preparation. Hence, absorbed radiation doses to staff, all of whom rotate into the radiopharmacy clean room in addition to their regular patient-related activities, were retrospectively evaluated. Monthly dosimetry reports for body (chest badge) and extremities (finger ring) were retrospectively reviewed for each staff member for 12 mo before and 12 mo after implementation of the radiopharmacy clean room. Monthly data were evaluated for average and SD, and 12-mo groups were evaluated using a paired t test. Data for the second 12-mo period were also normalized to the same number of patient doses to account for an increase in procedure volume and were reevaluated. Before the radiopharmacy clean room had been implemented, average monthly absorbed radiation doses to body and extremities were 23 ± 15 mrem (0.23 ± 0.15 mSv) and 93 ± 59 mrem (0.93 ± 0.59 mSv), respectively. After the clean room had been implemented, average monthly absorbed radiation doses increased to 32 ± 16 mrem (0.32 ± 0.16 mSv) (P < 0.001) and 121 ± 89 mrem (1.21 ± 0.89 mSv) (P = 0.0015), respectively. When normalized for procedure volume, average monthly absorbed radiation doses after implementation of the clean room were still higher, at 29 ± 15 mrem (0.29 ± 0.15 mSv) (P = 0.001) and 110 ± 80 mrem (1.10 ± 0.80 mSv) (P = 0.039), respectively. After implementation of a

  15. Radon Exposure and the Definition of Low Doses-The Problem of Spatial Dose Distribution.

    PubMed

    Madas, Balázs G

    2016-07-01

    Investigating the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation is considered to be one of the most important fields in radiological protection research. Although the definition of low dose given by a dose range seems to be clear, it leaves some open questions. For example, the time frame and the target volume in which absorbed dose is measured have to be defined. While dose rate is considered in the current system of radiological protection, the same cancer risk is associated with all exposures, resulting in a given amount of energy absorbed by a single target cell or distributed among all the target cells of a given organ. However, the biological effects and so the health consequences of these extreme exposure scenarios are unlikely to be the same. Due to the heterogeneous deposition of radon progeny within the lungs, heterogeneous radiation exposure becomes a practical issue in radiological protection. While the macroscopic dose is still within the low dose range, local tissue doses on the order of Grays can be reached in the most exposed parts of the bronchial airways. It can be concluded that progress in low dose research needs not only low dose but also high dose experiments where small parts of a biological sample receive doses on the order of Grays, while the average dose over the whole sample remains low. A narrow interpretation of low dose research might exclude investigations with high relevance to radiological protection. Therefore, studies important to radiological protection should be performed in the frame of low dose research even if the applied doses do not fit in the dose range used for the definition of low doses.

  16. Air kerma and absorbed dose standards for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in primary standards for the calibration of brachytherapy sources, with an emphasis on the currently most common photon-emitting radionuclides. The introduction discusses the need for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy in general. The following section focuses on the three main quantities, i.e. reference air kerma rate, air kerma strength and absorbed dose rate to water, which are currently used for the specification of brachytherapy photon sources and which can be realized with primary standards from first principles. An overview of different air kerma and absorbed dose standards, which have been independently developed by various national metrology institutes over the past two decades, is given in the next two sections. Other dosimetry techniques for brachytherapy will also be discussed. The review closes with an outlook on a possible transition from air kerma to absorbed dose to water-based calibrations for brachytherapy sources in the future. PMID:24814696

  17. Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79 ± 1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.15 ± 0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

  18. Absorbed dose measurement in low temperature samples:. comparative methods using simulated material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ruth; Harris, Anthony; Winters, Martell; Howard, Betty; Mellor, Paul; Patil, Deepak; Meiner, Jason

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing need to reliably measure absorbed dose in low temperature samples, especially in the pharmaceutical and tissue banking industries. All dosimetry systems commonly used in the irradiation industry are temperature sensitive. Radiation of low temperature samples, such as those packaged with dry ice, must therefore take these dosimeter temperature effects into consideration. This paper will suggest a method to accurately deliver an absorbed radiation dose using dosimetry techniques designed to abrogate the skewing effects of low temperature environments on existing dosimetry systems.

  19. Monte Carlo Analysis of Pion Contribution to Absorbed Dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghara, S.K.; Battnig, S.R.; Norbury, J.W.; Singleterry, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV - GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  20. Review of reconstruction of radiation incident air kerma by measurement of absorbed dose in tooth enamel with EPR.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel has been proved to be a reliable method to determine retrospectively exposures from photon fields with minimal detectable doses of 100 mGy or lower, which is lower than achievable with cytogenetic dose reconstruction methods. For risk assessment or validating dosimetry systems for specific radiation incidents, the relevant dose from the incident has to be calculated from the total absorbed dose in enamel by subtracting additional dose contributions from the radionuclide content in teeth, natural external background radiation and medical exposures. For calculating organ doses or evaluating dosimetry systems the absorbed dose in enamel from a radiation incident has to be converted to air kerma using dose conversion factors depending on the photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure scenario. This paper outlines the approach to assess individual dose contributions to absorbed dose in enamel and calculate individual air kerma of a radiation incident from the absorbed dose in tooth enamel.

  1. Plasma Membrane Permeabilization by 60- and 600-ns Electric Pulses Is Determined by the Absorbed Dose

    PubMed Central

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Murphy, Michael R.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2008-01-01

    We explored how the effect of plasma membrane permeabilization by nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) depends on the physical characteristics of exposure. The resting membrane resistance (Rm) and membrane potential (MP) were measured in cultured GH3 and CHO cells by conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Intact cells were exposed to a single nsEP (60 or 600 ns duration, 0-22 kV/cm), followed by patch-clamp measurements after a 2-3 min delay. Consistent with earlier findings, nsEP caused long-lasting Rm decrease, accompanied by the loss of MP. The threshold for these effects was about 6 kV/cm for 60 ns pulses, and about 1 kV/cm for 600 ns pulses. Further analysis established that it was neither pulse duration nor the E-field amplitude per se, but the absorbed dose that determined the magnitude of the biological effect. In other words, exposure to nsEP at either pulse duration caused equal effects if the absorbed doses were equal. The threshold absorbed dose to produce plasma membrane effects in either GH3 or CHO cells at either pulse duration was found to be at or below 10 mJ/g. Despite being determined by the dose, the nsEP effect clearly is not thermal, as the maximum heating at the threshold dose is less than 0.01 °C. The use of the absorbed dose as a universal exposure metric may help to compare and quantify nsEP sensitivity of different cell types and of cells in different physiological conditions. The absorbed dose may also prove to be a more useful metric than the incident E-field in determining safety limits for high peak, lowaverage power EMF emissions. PMID:18839412

  2. Measurement of Absorbed Dose from Radionuclide Solutions Mixed Intimately with the Fbx Dosimeter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Anthony Richard

    Chemical dosimeters are used widely for accurate measurement of large radiation doses due to external beam irradiation from radioisotope sources and from particle accelerators. Their use for measurement of absorbed doses from radioactive solutions mixed in the dosimeter solution was reported as early as 1952, but the large activities needed to produce suitable absorbance values in the relatively insensitive dosimeters of that time discouraged further work. This manuscript reports the results of an investigation into the suitability of the ferrous sulfate-benzoic acid -xylenol orange (FBX) dosimeter for measurement of small absorbed doses caused by radionuclide solutions dissolved in the dosimeter solution. The FBX dosimeter exhibited a linear dose response as a function of activity for two common radiopharmaceuticals, technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate and iodine-131 sodium iodide. Conditions under which the FBX dosimeter may be used with radionuclide solutions were studied and were found to be amenable to routine use by laboratories possessing relatively unsophisticated instrumentation. It appears likely that any radionuclide could be studied using this dosimeter. Finally, potential applications and future research work are suggested, including measurement of absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals using realistic human-like phantoms to assess the risk from clinical nuclear medicine studies.

  3. Absorbed doses of lungs from radon retained in airway lumens of mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides absorbed doses arising from radon gas in air retained in lung airway lumens. Because radon gas exposure experiments often use small animals, the calculation was performed for mice and rats. For reference, the corresponding computations were also done for humans. Assuming that radon concentration in airway lumens is the same as that in the environment, its progeny's production in and clearance from airways were simulated. Absorbed dose rates were obtained for three lung regions and the whole lung, considering that secretory and basal cells are sensitive to radiation. The results showed that absorbed dose rates for all lung regions and whole lung generally increase from mice to rats to humans. For example, the dose rates for the whole lung were 25.4 in mice, 41.7 in rats, and 59.9 pGy (Bq m⁻³)⁻¹ h⁻¹ in humans. Furthermore, these values were also compared with lung dose rates from two other types of exposures, that is, due to inhalation of radon or its progeny, which were already reported. It was confirmed that the direct inhalation of radon progeny in the natural environment, which is known as a cause of lung cancer, results in the highest dose rates for all species. Based on the present calculations, absorbed dose rates of the whole lung from radon gas were lower by a factor of about 550 (mice), 200 (rats), or 70 (humans) than those from radon progeny inhalation. The calculated dose rate values are comparatively small. Nevertheless, the present study is considered to contribute to our understanding of doses from inhalation of radon and its progeny.

  4. Absorbed dose measurements for kV-cone beam computed tomography in image-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Kazunari; Araki, Fujio; Ohno, Takeshi; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Yuuki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we develope a novel method to directly evaluate an absorbed dose-to-water for kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Absorbed doses for the kV-CBCT systems of the Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) and the Elekta X-ray Volumetric Imager (XVI) were measured by a Farmer ionization chamber with a 60Co calibration factor. The chamber measurements were performed at the center and four peripheral points in body-type (30 cm diameter and 51 cm length) and head-type (16 cm diameter and 33 cm length) cylindrical water phantoms. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water by using a 60Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for 60Co to kV-CBCT. The irradiation for OBI and XVI was performed with pelvis and head modes for the body- and the head-type phantoms, respectively. In addition, the dose distributions in the phantom for both kV-CBCT systems were calculated with MC method and were compared with measured values. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated at the center in the water phantom and compared with measured doses at four peripheral points. The measured absorbed doses at the center in the body-type phantom were 1.96 cGy for OBI and 0.83 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 2.36-2.90 cGy for OBI and 0.83-1.06 cGy for XVI. The doses for XVI were lower up to approximately one-third of those for OBI. Similarly, the measured doses at the center in the head-type phantom were 0.48 cGy for OBI and 0.21 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 0.26-0.66 cGy for OBI and 0.16-0.30 cGy for XVI. The calculated peripheral doses agreed within 3% in the pelvis mode and within 4% in the head mode with measured doses for both kV-CBCT systems. In addition, the absorbed dose determined in this study was approximately 4% lower than that in TG-61 but the absorbed dose by both methods was in agreement within their combined

  5. Scattered radiation doses absorbed by technicians at different distances from X-ray exposure: Experiments on prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsien-Wen; Liu, Ya-Ling; Chen, Tou-Rong; Chen, Chun-Lon; Chiang, Hsien-Jen; Chao, Shin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of scattered radiation doses induced by exposure to the portable X-ray, the C-arm machine, and to simulate the radiologist without a shield of lead clothing, radiation doses absorbed by medical staff at 2 m from the central exposure point. With the adoption of the Rando Phantom, several frequently X-rayed body parts were exposed to X-ray radiation, and the scattered radiation doses were measured by ionization chamber dosimeters at various angles from the patient. Assuming that the central point of the X-ray was located at the belly button, five detection points were distributed in the operation room at 1 m above the ground and 1-2 m from the central point horizontally. The radiation dose measured at point B was the lowest, and the scattered radiation dose absorbed by the prosthesis from the X-ray's vertical projection was 0.07 ±0.03 μGy, which was less than the background radiation levels. The Fluke biomedical model 660-5DE (400 cc) and 660-3DE (4 cc) ion chambers were used to detect air dose at a distance of approximately two meters from the central point. The AP projection radiation doses at point B was the lowest (0.07±0.03 μGy) and the radiation doses at point D was the highest (0.26±0.08 μGy) .Only taking the vertical projection into account, the radiation doses at point B was the lowest (0.52 μGy), and the radiation doses at point E was the highest (4 μGy).The PA projection radiation at point B was the lowest (0.36 μGy) and the radiation doses at point E was the highest(2.77 μGy), occupying 10-32% of the maximum doses. The maximum dose in five directions was nine times to the minimum dose. When the PX and the C-arm machine were used, the radiation doses at a distance of 2 m were attenuated to the background radiation level. The radiologist without a lead shield should stand at point B of patient's feet. Accordingly, teaching materials on radiation safety for radiological interns and clinical

  6. Radiation absorbed dose to bladder walls from positron emitters in the bladder content.

    PubMed

    Powell, G F; Chen, C T

    1987-01-01

    A method to calculate absorbed doses at depths in the walls of a static spherical bladder from a positron emitter in the bladder content has been developed. The beta ray dose component is calculated for a spherical model by employing the solutions to the integration of Loevinger and Bochkarev point source functions over line segments and a line segment source array technique. The gamma ray dose is determined using the specific gamma ray constant. As an example, absorbed radiation doses to the bladder walls from F-18 in the bladder content are presented for static spherical bladder models having radii of 2.0 and 3.5 cm, respectively. Experiments with ultra-thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) were performed to verify the results of the calculations. Good agreement between TLD measurements and calculations was obtained.

  7. Absorbed dose kernel and self-shielding calculations for a novel radiopaque glass microsphere for transarterial radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Church, Cody; Mawko, George; Archambault, John Paul; Lewandowski, Robert; Liu, David; Kehoe, Sharon; Boyd, Daniel; Abraham, Robert; Syme, Alasdair

    2018-02-01

    Radiopaque microspheres may provide intraprocedural and postprocedural feedback during transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Furthermore, the potential to use higher resolution x-ray imaging techniques as opposed to nuclear medicine imaging suggests that significant improvements in the accuracy and precision of radiation dosimetry calculations could be realized for this type of therapy. This study investigates the absorbed dose kernel for novel radiopaque microspheres including contributions of both short and long-lived contaminant radionuclides while concurrently quantifying the self-shielding of the glass network. Monte Carlo simulations using EGSnrc were performed to determine the dose kernels for all monoenergetic electron emissions and all beta spectra for radionuclides reported in a neutron activation study of the microspheres. Simulations were benchmarked against an accepted 90 Y dose point kernel. Self-shielding was quantified for the microspheres by simulating an isotropically emitting, uniformly distributed source, in glass and in water. The ratio of the absorbed doses was scored as a function of distance from a microsphere. The absorbed dose kernel for the microspheres was calculated for (a) two bead formulations following (b) two different durations of neutron activation, at (c) various time points following activation. Self-shielding varies with time postremoval from the reactor. At early time points, it is less pronounced due to the higher energies of the emissions. It is on the order of 0.4-2.8% at a radial distance of 5.43 mm with increased size from 10 to 50 μm in diameter during the time that the microspheres would be administered to a patient. At long time points, self-shielding is more pronounced and can reach values in excess of 20% near the end of the range of the emissions. Absorbed dose kernels for 90 Y, 90m Y, 85m Sr, 85 Sr, 87m Sr, 89 Sr, 70 Ga, 72 Ga, and 31 Si are presented and used to determine an overall kernel for the

  8. MO-AB-BRA-03: Calorimetry-Based Absorbed Dose to Water Measurements Using Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Martinez, E; Malin, M; DeWerd, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interferometry-based calorimetry is a novel technique to measure radiation-induced temperature changes allowing the measurement of absorbed dose to water (ADW). There are no mechanical components in the field. This technique also has the possibility of obtaining 2D dose distributions. The goal of this investigation is to calorimetrically-measure doses between 2.5 and 5 Gy over a single projection in a photon beam using interferometry and compare the results with doses calculated using the TG-51 linac calibration. Methods: ADW was determined by measuring radiation-induced phase shifts (PSs) of light passing through water irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam. A 9×9×9more » cm{sup 3} glass phantom filled with water and placed in an arm of a Michelson interferometer was irradiated with 300, 400, 500 and 600 monitor units. The whole system was thermally insulated to achieve sufficient passive temperature control. The depth of measurement was 4.5 cm with a field size of 7×7 cm{sup 2}. The intensity of the fringe pattern was monitored with a photodiode and used to calculate the time-dependent PS curve. Data was acquired 60 s before and after the irradiation. The radiation-induced PS was calculated by taking the difference in the pre- and post-irradiation drifts extrapolated to the midpoint of the irradiation. Results were compared to computed doses. Results: Average comparison of calculated ADW values with interferometry-measured values showed an agreement to within 9.5%. k=1 uncertainties were 4.3% for calculations and 14.7% for measurements. The dominant source of uncertainty for the measurements was a temperature drift of about 30 µK/s caused by heat conduction from the interferometer’s surroundings. Conclusion: This work presented the first absolute ADW measurements using interferometry in the dose range of linac-based radiotherapy. Future work to improve measurements’ reproducibility includes the implementation of active thermal control techniques.« less

  9. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high‐energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, John Pichy; Amri, Iqbal Al; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue‐equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available ‘microdiamond’ detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1 mm, thickness 1×10−3mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ±0.17% (1 SD) (n=11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stopping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long‐term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro‐dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PACS number(s): 87.56.Da PMID:27074452

  10. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  11. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  12. Dose distribution for dental cone beam CT and its implication for defining a dose index

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, R; Theodorakou, C; Walker, A; Bosmans, H; Jacobs, R; Horner, K; Bogaerts, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the dose distribution for a range of cone beam CT (CBCT) units, investigating different field of view sizes, central and off-axis geometries, full or partial rotations of the X-ray tube and different clinically applied beam qualities. The implications of the dose distributions on the definition and practicality of a CBCT dose index were assessed. Methods Dose measurements on CBCT devices were performed by scanning cylindrical head-size water and polymethyl methacrylate phantoms, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, a small-volume ion chamber and radiochromic films. Results It was found that the dose distribution can be asymmetrical for dental CBCT exposures throughout a homogeneous phantom, owing to an asymmetrical positioning of the isocentre and/or partial rotation of the X-ray source. Furthermore, the scatter tail along the z-axis was found to have a distinct shape, generally resulting in a strong drop (90%) in absorbed dose outside the primary beam. Conclusions There is no optimal dose index available owing to the complicated exposure geometry of CBCT and the practical aspects of quality control measurements. Practical validation of different possible dose indices is needed, as well as the definition of conversion factors to patient dose. PMID:22752320

  13. Interferometer-Based Calorimetric Measurements of Absorbed Dose to Water in External Beam Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Martinez, Everardo

    Calorimetry is often used to establish high-energy photon absorbed dose to water (ADW) primary standards as calorimetry is a direct measurement of the energy imparted to the water by ionizing radiation. Current calorimeters use thermistors to establish national standards but there is the possibility of systematic errors in these instruments because thermistors overheat due to their low heat capacity. For this reason, there has been renewed interest in using alternative temperature measurement techniques, especially those that do not require a mechanical probe. Interferometer-based thermometry is a technique that exploits the temperature dependence of the refractive index of water and can be used as an alternative method for temperature measurement in radiation calorimetry. A distinctive advantage of the use of interferometry for radiation calorimetry is the capability of obtaining 2D or 3D temperature/dose distributions. Compared to thermistor-based measurements, the use of interferometer-based ADW measurements has been limited by the low measurement resolution. Optimized setups with higher accuracy and precision are necessary to perform measurements at clinically relevant dose rates. A calorimeter for thermistor-based ADW measurements was developed. The instrument was used to measure thermal drifts and noise were measured using the instrument in a water phantom. Residual thermal drifts were accounted for by using a three-step measurement protocol. Additionally, the instrument was used to measure ADW from a 6MV photon beam from a medical linear accelerator. A Michelson-type interferometer was built, characterized, and placed inside the calorimeter with the water phantom at the reference arm. Interferometer and phantom temperature fluctuations were minimized by means of the passive thermal control provide by the calorimeter enclosure, leading to increased fringe pattern stability. The interferometer characterization included phase shift measurements induced by

  14. Measurement of absorbed dose with a bone-equivalent extrapolation chamber.

    PubMed

    DeBlois, François; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2002-03-01

    A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absorbed dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain absorbed dose in bone for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC by 0.7% to approximately 2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). In conjunction with appropriate correction factors determined with Monte Carlo techniques, the uncalibrated hybrid PEEC can be used for measuring absorbed dose in bone material to within 2% for high-energy photon and electron beams.

  15. The Effect of Diagnostic Absorbed Doses from 131I on Human Thyrocytes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Stasiołek, Mariusz; Karwowski, Bolesław; Dedecjus, Marek; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria; Merecz, Anna; Śliwka, Przemysław W; Puła, Bartosz; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-06-29

    Administration of diagnostic activities of 131I, performed in order to detect thyroid remnants after surgery and/or thyroid cancer recurrence/metastases, may lead to reduction of iodine uptake. This phenomenon is called "thyroid stunning". We estimated radiation absorbed dose-dependent changes in genetic material, in particular in sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene promoter, and NIS protein level in human thyrocytes (HT). We used unmodified HT isolated from patients subjected to thyroidectomy exposed to 131I in culture. The different 131I activities applied were calculated to result in absorbed doses of 5, 10, and 20 Gy. According to flow cytometry analysis and comet assay, 131I did not influence the HT viability in culture. Temporary increase of 8-oxo-dG concentration in HT directly after 24 h (p < 0.05) and increase in the number of AP-sites 72 h after termination of exposition to 20 Gy dose (p < 0.0001) were observed. The signs of dose-dependent DNA damage were not associated with essential changes in the NIS expression on mRNA and protein levels. Our observation constitutes a first attempt to evaluate the effect of the absorbed dose of 131I on HT. The results have not confirmed the theory that the "thyroid stunning" reduces the NIS protein synthesis.

  16. The Effect of Diagnostic Absorbed Doses from 131I on Human Thyrocytes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Stasiołek, Mariusz; Karwowski, Bolesław; Dedecjus, Marek; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria; Merecz, Anna; Śliwka, Przemysław W.; Puła, Bartosz; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background: Administration of diagnostic activities of 131I, performed in order to detect thyroid remnants after surgery and/or thyroid cancer recurrence/metastases, may lead to reduction of iodine uptake. This phenomenon is called “thyroid stunning”. We estimated radiation absorbed dose-dependent changes in genetic material, in particular in sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene promoter, and NIS protein level in human thyrocytes (HT). Materials and Methods: We used unmodified HT isolated from patients subjected to thyroidectomy exposed to 131I in culture. The different 131I activities applied were calculated to result in absorbed doses of 5, 10, and 20 Gy. Results: According to flow cytometry analysis and comet assay, 131I did not influence the HT viability in culture. Temporary increase of 8-oxo-dG concentration in HT directly after 24 h (p < 0.05) and increase in the number of AP-sites 72 h after termination of exposition to 20 Gy dose (p < 0.0001) were observed. The signs of dose-dependent DNA damage were not associated with essential changes in the NIS expression on mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions: Our observation constitutes a first attempt to evaluate the effect of the absorbed dose of 131I on HT. The results have not confirmed the theory that the “thyroid stunning” reduces the NIS protein synthesis. PMID:26132566

  17. Absorbed dose measurements on external surface of Kosmos-satellites with glass thermoluminescent detectors.

    PubMed

    Akatov YuA; Arkhangelsky, V V; Kovalev, E E; Spurny, F; Votochkova, I

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present absorbed dose measurements with glass thermoluminescent detectors on external surface of satellites of Kosmos-serie flying in 1983-87. Experiments were performed with thermoluminescent aluminophosphate glasses of thicknesses 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1 mm. They were exposed in sets of total thickness between 5 and 20 mm, which were protected against sunlight with thin aluminized foils. In all missions, extremely high absorbed dose values were observed in the first layers of detectors, up to the thickness of 0.2 to 0.5 gcm-2. These experimental results confirm that, during flights at 250 to 400 km, doses on the surface of the satellites are very high, due to the low energy component of the proton and electron radiation.

  18. Determination of spatial dose distribution in UCC treatments with LDR brachytherapy using Monte Carlo methods.

    PubMed

    Benites-Rengifo, Jorge Luis; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2018-05-19

    Using Monte Carlos methods, with the MCNP5 code, a gynecological phantom and a vaginal cylinder were modeled. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose rates in Uterine Cervical Cancer treatment through low dose rate brachytherapy was determined. A liquid water gynecology computational phantom, including a vaginal cylinder applicator made of Lucite, was designed. The applicator has a linear array of four radioactive sources of Cesium 137. Around the vaginal cylinder, 13 water spherical cells of 0.5 cm-diameter were modeled to calculate absorbed dose emulating the procedure made by the treatment planning system. The gamma-ray fluence distribution was estimated, as well as the absorbed doses resulting approximately symmetrical for cells located at upper and lower of vaginal cylinder. Obtained results allow the use of the radioactive decay law to determine dose rate for Uterine Cervical Cancer using low dose rate brachytherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  20. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  1. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  2. Absorbed dose to man from the Se-75 labeled conjugated bile salt SeHCAT: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Soundy, R G; Simpson, J D; Ross, H M; Merrick, M V

    1982-02-01

    The absorbed radiation dose that would result from the oral or intravenous administration of SeHCAT (23-[75Se]selena-25-homotaurocholate) has been calculated using the MIRD tables and formulas and data from measurements of whole-body distribution and from long-term whole-body counting in rats, mice, and man. When SeHCAT is administered to normal subjects, the gallbladder is the critical organ, receiving 12 mrad (oral dose) or 22 mrad (i.v.) per microcurie. The whole-body dose is 1 mrad/microCi, whatever the route of administration. In severe hepatic failure the liver might receive 200 mrad/microCi. The activity likely to be used in routine clinical practice is 10 microCi. Where a whole-body counter is used, an activity of 1 microCi has proved adequate. Even at an administered activity of 25 microCi, the absorbed dose is small compared with established techniques of investigating the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Graves' disease radioiodine-therapy: Choosing target absorbed doses for therapy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, J., E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com; Sapienza, M. T.; Coura-Filho, G. B.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The precise determination of organ mass (m{sub th}) and total number of disintegrations within the thyroid gland (A{sup ~}) are essential for thyroid absorbed-dose calculations for radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, these parameters may vary according to the method employed for their estimation, thus introducing uncertainty in the estimated thyroid absorbed dose and in any dose–response relationship derived using such estimates. In consideration of these points, thyroid absorbed doses for Graves’ disease (GD) treatment planning were calculated using different approaches to estimating the m{sub th} and the A{sup ~}. Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. Thyroid{sup 131}I uptake measurementsmore » were performed at 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 220 h postadministration of a tracer activity in order to estimate the effective half-time (T{sub eff}) of {sup 131}I in the thyroid; the thyroid cumulated activity was then estimated using the T{sub eff} thus determined or, alternatively, calculated by numeric integration of the measured time-activity data. Thyroid mass was estimated by ultrasonography (USG) and scintigraphy (SCTG). Absorbed doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. The relationships between thyroid absorbed dose and therapy response were evaluated at 3 months and 1 year after therapy. Results: The average ratio (±1 standard deviation) betweenm{sub th} estimated by SCTG and USG was 1.74 (±0.64) and that between A{sup ~} obtained by T{sub eff} and the integration of measured activity in the gland was 1.71 (±0.14). These differences affect the calculated absorbed dose. Overall, therapeutic success, corresponding to induction of durable hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, was achieved in 72% of all patients at 3 months and in 90% at 1 year. A therapeutic success rate of at least 95% was found in the group of patients receiving doses of 200 Gy (p = 0.0483) and 330 Gy (p = 0.0131) when m{sub th} was measured by either USG or SCTG

  4. Graves' disease radioiodine-therapy: Choosing target absorbed doses for therapy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, J., E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com; Sapienza, M. T.; Coura-Filho, G. B.

    Purpose: The precise determination of organ mass (m{sub th}) and total number of disintegrations within the thyroid gland (A{sup ~}) are essential for thyroid absorbed-dose calculations for radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, these parameters may vary according to the method employed for their estimation, thus introducing uncertainty in the estimated thyroid absorbed dose and in any dose–response relationship derived using such estimates. In consideration of these points, thyroid absorbed doses for Graves’ disease (GD) treatment planning were calculated using different approaches to estimating the m{sub th} and the A{sup ~}. Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. Thyroid{sup 131}I uptake measurementsmore » were performed at 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 220 h postadministration of a tracer activity in order to estimate the effective half-time (T{sub eff}) of {sup 131}I in the thyroid; the thyroid cumulated activity was then estimated using the T{sub eff} thus determined or, alternatively, calculated by numeric integration of the measured time-activity data. Thyroid mass was estimated by ultrasonography (USG) and scintigraphy (SCTG). Absorbed doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. The relationships between thyroid absorbed dose and therapy response were evaluated at 3 months and 1 year after therapy. Results: The average ratio (±1 standard deviation) betweenm{sub th} estimated by SCTG and USG was 1.74 (±0.64) and that between A{sup ~} obtained by T{sub eff} and the integration of measured activity in the gland was 1.71 (±0.14). These differences affect the calculated absorbed dose. Overall, therapeutic success, corresponding to induction of durable hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, was achieved in 72% of all patients at 3 months and in 90% at 1 year. A therapeutic success rate of at least 95% was found in the group of patients receiving doses of 200 Gy (p = 0.0483) and 330 Gy (p = 0.0131) when m{sub th} was measured by either USG or SCTG

  5. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study.

  6. Deterministic absorbed dose estimation in computed tomography using a discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Edward T.; Liu, Xin, E-mail: xinliu@mst.edu; Hsieh, Jiang

    Purpose: Organ dose estimation for a patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning is very important. Although Monte Carlo methods are considered gold-standard in patient dose estimation, the computation time required is formidable for routine clinical calculations. Here, the authors instigate a deterministic method for estimating an absorbed dose more efficiently. Methods: Compared with current Monte Carlo methods, a more efficient approach to estimating the absorbed dose is to solve the linear Boltzmann equation numerically. In this study, an axial CT scan was modeled with a software package, Denovo, which solved the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method. Themore » CT scanning configuration included 16 x-ray source positions, beam collimators, flat filters, and bowtie filters. The phantom was the standard 32 cm CT dose index (CTDI) phantom. Four different Denovo simulations were performed with different simulation parameters, including the number of quadrature sets and the order of Legendre polynomial expansions. A Monte Carlo simulation was also performed for benchmarking the Denovo simulations. A quantitative comparison was made of the simulation results obtained by the Denovo and the Monte Carlo methods. Results: The difference in the simulation results of the discrete ordinates method and those of the Monte Carlo methods was found to be small, with a root-mean-square difference of around 2.4%. It was found that the discrete ordinates method, with a higher order of Legendre polynomial expansions, underestimated the absorbed dose near the center of the phantom (i.e., low dose region). Simulations of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions proved to be the most efficient computation method in the authors’ study. The single-thread computation time of the deterministic simulation of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions was 21 min on a personal

  7. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, I; Brahme, A; Andreo, P; Gudowski, W; Kierkegaard, J

    1999-09-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm3. The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)+/-0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3He and 4He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15+/-0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60Co radiation.

  8. Evaluation and comparison of absorbed dose for electron beams by LiF and diamond dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosia, G. J.; Chamberlain, A. C.

    2007-09-01

    The absorbed dose response of LiF and diamond thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in 60Co γ-rays, has been determined using the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code system in mono-energetic megavoltage electron beams from 5 to 20 MeV. Evaluation of the dose responses was done against the dose responses of published works by other investigators. Dose responses of both dosimeters were compared to establish if any relation exists between them. The dosimeters were irradiated in a water phantom with the centre of their top surfaces (0.32×0.32 cm 2), placed at dmax perpendicular to the radiation beam on the central axis. For LiF TLD, dose responses ranged from 0.945±0.017 to 0.997±0.011. For the diamond TLD, the dose response ranged from 0.940±0.017 to 1.018±0.011. To correct for dose responses by both dosimeters, energy correction factors were generated from dose response results of both TLDs. For LiF TLD, these correction factors ranged from 1.003 up to 1.058 and for diamond TLD the factors ranged from 0.982 up to 1.064. The results show that diamond TLDs can be used in the place of the well-established LiF TLDs and that Monte Carlo code systems can be used in dose determinations for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  9. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Rottke, Dennis; Andersson, Jonas; Ejima, Ken-Ichiro; Sawada, Kunihiko; Schulze, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate absorbed and to calculate effective doses (EDs) in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study was conducted using examination protocols with and without lead apron shielding. A full-body male RANDO® phantom was loaded with 110 GR200A thermoluminescence dosemeter chips at 55 different sites and set up in two different CBCT systems (CS 9500®, ProMax® 3D). Two different protocols were performed: the phantom was set up (1) with and (2) without a lead apron. No statistically significant differences in organ and absorbed doses from regions outside the primary beam could be found when comparing results from exposures with and without lead apron shielding. Consequently, calculating the ED showed no significant differences between the examination protocols with and without lead apron shielding. For the ProMax® 3D with shielding, the ED was 149 µSv, and for the examination protocol without shielding 148 µSv (SD = 0.31 µSv). For the CS 9500®, the ED was 88 and 86 µSv (SD = 0.95 µSv), respectively, with and without lead apron shielding. The results revealed no statistically significant differences in the absorbed doses between examination with and without lead apron shielding, especially in organs outside the primary beam. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. On the suitability of ultrathin detectors for absorbed dose assessment in the presence of high-density heterogeneities.

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Carrasco, P; Jornet, N; Muñoz-Montplet, C; Duch, M A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of several detectors for the determination of absorbed dose in bone. Three types of ultrathin LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)-two LiF:Mg,Cu,P-based (MCP-Ns and TLD-2000F) and a (7)Li-enriched LiF:Mg,Ti-based (MTS-7s)-as well as EBT2 Gafchromic films were used to measure percentage depth-dose distributions (PDDs) in a water-equivalent phantom with a bone-equivalent heterogeneity for 6 and 18 MV and a set of field sizes ranging from 5 x 5 cm2 to 20 x 20 cm2. MCP-Ns, TLD-2000F, MTS-7s, and EBT2 have active layers of 50, 20, 50, and 30 μm, respectively. Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations (PENELOPE code) were used as the reference and helped to understand the experimental results and to evaluate the potential perturbation of the fluence in bone caused by the presence of the detectors. The energy dependence and linearity of the TLDs' response was evaluated. TLDs exhibited flat energy responses (within 2.5%) and linearity with dose (within 1.1%) within the range of interest for the selected beams. The results revealed that all considered detectors perturb the electron fluence with respect to the energy inside the bone-equivalent material. MCP-Ns and MTS-7s underestimated the absorbed dose in bone by 4%-5%. EBT2 exhibited comparable accuracy to MTS-7s and MCP-Ns. TLD-2000F was able to determine the dose within 2% accuracy. No dependence on the beam energy or field size was observed. The MC calculations showed that a[Formula: see text] thick detector can provide reliable dose estimations in bone regardless of whether it is made of LiF, water or EBT's active layer material. TLD-2000F was found to be suitable for providing reliable absorbed dose measurements in the presence of bone for high-energy x-ray beams.

  11. Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Volken, W.; Terribilini, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Zaugg, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2016-04-01

    Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within  ±0.4 s and doses  ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min-1 for conventional

  12. Red Marrow-Absorbed Dose for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Treated with 177Lu-Lilotomab Satetraxetan, a Novel Anti-CD37 Antibody-Radionuclide Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Blakkisrud, Johan; Løndalen, Ayca; Dahle, Jostein; Turner, Simon; Holte, Harald; Kolstad, Arne; Stokke, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Red marrow (RM) is often the primary organ at risk in radioimmunotherapy; irradiation of marrow may induce short- and long-term hematologic toxicity. 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan is a novel anti-CD37 antibody-radionuclide conjugate currently in phase 1/2a. Two predosing regimens have been investigated, one with 40 mg of unlabeled lilotomab antibody (arm 1) and one without (arm 2). The aim of this work was to compare RM-absorbed doses for the two arms and to correlate absorbed doses with hematologic toxicity. Eight patients with relapsed CD37+ indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma were included for RM dosimetry. Hybrid SPECT and CT images were used to estimate the activity concentration in the RM of L2-L4. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after measurement of the 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan concentration in blood samples. Adverse events were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The mean absorbed doses to RM were 0.9 mGy/MBq for arm 1 (lilotomab+) and 1.5 mGy/MBq for arm 2 (lilotomab-). There was a statistically significant difference between arms 1 and 2 (Student t test, P = 0.02). Total RM-absorbed doses ranged from 67 to 127 cGy in arm 1 and from 158 to 207 cGy in arm 2. For blood, the area under the curve was higher with lilotomab predosing than without (P = 0.001), whereas the volume of distribution and the clearance of 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan was significantly lower (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). Patients with grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia had received significantly higher radiation doses to RM than patients with grade 1/2 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.02). A surrogate, non-imaging-based, method underestimated the RM dose and did not show any correlation with toxicity. Predosing with lilotomab reduces the RM-absorbed dose for 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan patients. The decrease in RM dose could be explained by the lower volume of distribution. Hematologic toxicity was more severe for patients

  13. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to 137Cs) dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  14. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to (137)Cs dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  15. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation—an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry B.; Bahadori, Amir A.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-04-01

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues—active and total shallow marrow—within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R2 = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  16. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation--an update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry B; Bahadori, Amir A; Eckerman, Keith F; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-04-21

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues-active and total shallow marrow-within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R(2) = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  17. RESPONSE FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTING ABSORBED DOSE TO SKELETAL TISSUES FROM PHOTON IRRADIATION – AN UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Perry; Bahadori, Amir; Eckerman, Keith; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) are presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues – active and total shallow marrow – within 15 and 32 bones sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon microCT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40-year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, as well as a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In the present study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma factors for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone, and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma factors and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R2 = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites PMID:21427484

  18. Supplemental computational phantoms to estimate out-of-field absorbed dose in photon radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Tannous, Jaad; Nabha, Racile; Feghali, Joelle Ann; Ayoub, Zeina; Jalbout, Wassim; Youssef, Bassem; Taddei, Phillip J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a straightforward method of supplementing patient anatomy and estimating out-of-field absorbed dose for a cohort of pediatric radiotherapy patients with limited recorded anatomy. A cohort of nine children, aged 2-14 years, who received 3D conformal radiotherapy for low-grade localized brain tumors (LBTs), were randomly selected for this study. The extent of these patients’ computed tomography simulation image sets were cranial only. To approximate their missing anatomy, we supplemented the LBT patients’ image sets with computed tomography images of patients in a previous study with larger extents of matched sex, height, and mass and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated. Rigid fusion was performed between the LBT patients’ data and that of the supplemental computational phantoms using commercial software and in-house codes. In-field dose was calculated with a clinically commissioned treatment planning system, and out-of-field dose was estimated with a previously developed analytical model that was re-fit with parameters based on new measurements for intracranial radiotherapy. Mean doses greater than 1 Gy were found in the red bone marrow, remainder, thyroid, and skin of the patients in this study. Mean organ doses between 150 mGy and 1 Gy were observed in the breast tissue of the girls and lungs of all patients. Distant organs, i.e. prostate, bladder, uterus, and colon, received mean organ doses less than 150 mGy. The mean organ doses of the younger, smaller LBT patients (0-4 years old) were a factor of 2.4 greater than those of the older, larger patients (8-12 years old). Our findings demonstrated the feasibility of a straightforward method of applying supplemental computational phantoms and dose-calculation models to estimate absorbed dose for a set of children of various ages who received radiotherapy and for whom anatomies were largely missing in their original

  19. Absorbed dose calculations in a brachytherapy pelvic phantom using the Monte Carlo method

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Miguel L.; deAlmeida, Carlos E.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose at various points of a brachytherapy anthropomorphic phantom are presented. The phantom walls and internal structures are made of polymethylmethacrylate and its external shape was taken from a female Alderson phantom. A complete Fletcher‐Green type applicator with the uterine tandem was fixed at the bottom of the phantom reproducing a typical geometrical configuration as that attained in a gynecological brachytherapy treatment. The dose rate produced by an array of five 137Cs CDC‐J type sources placed in the applicator colpostats and the uterine tandem was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations using the code penelope at three points: point A, the rectum, and the bladder. The influence of the applicator in the dose rate was evaluated by comparing Monte Carlo simulations of the sources alone and the sources inserted in the applicator. Differences up to 56% in the dose may be observed for the two cases in the planes including the rectum and bladder. The results show a reduction of the dose of 15.6%, 14.0%, and 5.6% in the rectum, bladder, and point A respectively, when the applicator wall and shieldings are considered. PACS number(s): 87.53Jw, 87.53.Wz, 87.53.Vb, 87.66.Xa PMID:12383048

  20. Design on the wide band absorber with low density based on the particle distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dianliang; Liu, Ting; Liu, Longbin; Xu, Yonggang

    2018-04-01

    In order to widen the absorbing band, an equivalent gradient structure absorber was designed based on the particle distribution. Firstly, the electromagnetic parameter of the absorbent with uniform dispersion was tested using the vector network analyzer in 8-18 GHz. Three different equivalent materials of the spherical, square and hexagon empty shape were designed. The scattering parameters and the monostatic reflection loss (RL) of the periodic structural materials were simulated in the commercial software. Then the effective permittivity and the permeability was derived by the Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm and fitted by Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. The results showed that the simulated reflectance and transmission parameters of equivalent composites with the different shapes were very close. The derived effective permittivity and permeability of the composite with different absorbent content was also close, and the average deviation was about 0.52 + j0.15 and 0.15 + j0.01 respectively. Finally, the wide band absorbing material was designed using the genetic algorithm. The optimized RL result showed that the absorbing composites with thickness 3 mm had an excellent absorbing property (RL <-10 dB) in 8-18 GHz, the equivalent absorber density could be decreased 30.7% compared with the uniform structure.

  1. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-06: Y90 PET/CT for the Instantaneous Determination of Both Target and Non-Target Absorbed Doses Following Hepatic Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Pasciak, A; Kao, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose The process of converting Yttrium-90 (Y90) PET/CT images into 3D absorbed dose maps will be explained. The simple methods presented will allow the medical physicst to analyze Y90 PET images following radioembolization and determine the absorbed dose to tumor, normal liver parenchyma and other areas of interest, without application of Monte-Carlo radiation transport or dose-point-kernel (DPK) convolution. Methods Absorbed dose can be computed from Y90 PET/CT images based on the premise that radioembolization is a permanent implant with a constant relative activity distribution after infusion. Many Y90 PET/CT publications have used DPK convolution to obtain 3D absorbed dose maps.more » However, this method requires specialized software limiting clinical utility. The Local Deposition method, an alternative to DPK convolution, can be used to obtain absorbed dose and requires no additional computer processing. Pixel values from regions of interest drawn on Y90 PET/CT images can be converted to absorbed dose (Gy) by multiplication with a scalar constant. Results There is evidence that suggests the Local Deposition method may actually be more accurate than DPK convolution and it has been successfully used in a recent Y90 PET/CT publication. We have analytically compared dose-volume-histograms (DVH) for phantom hot-spheres to determine the difference between the DPK and Local Deposition methods, as a function of PET scanner point-spread-function for Y90. We have found that for PET/CT systems with a FWHM greater than 3.0 mm when imaging Y90, the Local Deposition Method provides a more accurate representation of DVH, regardless of target size than DPK convolution. Conclusion Using the Local Deposition Method, post-radioembolization Y90 PET/CT images can be transformed into 3D absorbed dose maps of the liver. An interventional radiologist or a Medical Physicist can perform this transformation in a clinical setting, allowing for rapid prediction of treatment efficacy

  2. Intensity and absorbed-power distribution in a cylindrical solar-pumped dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The internal intensity and absorbed-power distribution of a simplified hypothetical dye laser of cylindrical geometry is calculated. Total absorbed power is also calculated and compared with laboratory measurements of lasing-threshold energy deposition in a dye cell to determine the suitability of solar radiation as a pump source or, alternatively, what modifications, if any, are necessary to the hypothetical system for solar pumping.

  3. A Comparison of Model Calculation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose for Proton Irradiation. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, N.; Semones, E.; Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.

    2003-01-01

    With the increase in the amount of time spent EVA that is necessary to complete the construction and subsequent maintenance of ISS, it will become increasingly important for ground support personnel to accurately characterize the radiation exposures incurred by EVA crewmembers. Since exposure measurements cannot be taken within the organs of interest, it is necessary to estimate these exposures by calculation. To validate the methods and tools used to develop these estimates, it is necessary to model experiments performed in a controlled environment. This work is such an effort. A human phantom was outfitted with detector equipment and then placed in American EMU and Orlan-M EVA space suits. The suited phantom was irradiated at the LLUPTF with proton beams of known energies. Absorbed dose measurements were made by the spaceflight operational dosimetrist from JSC at multiple sites in the skin, eye, brain, stomach, and small intestine locations in the phantom. These exposures are then modeled using the BRYNTRN radiation transport code developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, and the CAM (computerized anatomical male) human geometry model of Billings and Yucker. Comparisons of absorbed dose calculations with measurements show excellent agreement. This suggests that there is reason to be confident in the ability of both the transport code and the human body model to estimate proton exposure in ground-based laboratory experiments.

  4. ESR spectroscopy for detecting gamma-irradiated dried vegetables and estimating absorbed doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2000-03-01

    In view of an increasing demand for food irradiation technology, the development of a reliable means of detection for the control of irradiated foods has become necessary. Various vegetable food materials (dried cabbage, carrot, chunggyungchae, garlic, onion, and green onion), which can be legally irradiated in Korea, were subjected to a detection study using ESR spectroscopy. Correlation coefficients ( R2) between absorbed doses (2.5-15 kGy) and their corresponding ESR signals were identified from ESR signals. Pre-established threshold values were successfully applied to the detection of 54 coded unknown samples of dried clean vegetables ( chunggyungchae, Brassica camestris var. chinensis), both non-irradiated and irradiated. The ESR signals of irradiated chunggyungchae decreased over a longer storage time, however, even after 6 months of ambient storage, these signals were still distinguishable from those of non-irradiated samples. The most successful estimates of absorbed dose (5 and 8 kGy) were obtained immediately after irradiation using a quadratic fit with average values of 4.85 and 8.65 kGy being calculated.

  5. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film.

    PubMed

    Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Kuwano, Tadao; Akagawa, Takuya; Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Akihiko; Shimono, Tetsunori; Kawaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were -32.336 and -33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range.

  6. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film

    PubMed Central

    Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Kuwano, Tadao; Akagawa, Takuya; Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Akihiko; Shimono, Tetsunori; Kawaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were −32.336 and −33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range. PMID:28144120

  7. Determination of dose distributions and parameter sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 005) examined the contributions of numerous parameters to the uncertainty distribution of doses calculated for environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow's milk and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose ofmore » infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in Calculation 001.« less

  8. Fraction of a dose absorbed estimation for structurally diverse low solubility compounds.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2011-02-28

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of the fully mechanistic gastrointestinal unified theoretical (GUT) framework for in vivo oral absorption of low solubility drugs. Solubility in biorelevant media, molecular weight, logP(oct), pK(a), Caco-2 permeability, dose and particle size were used as the input parameters. To neglect the effect of the low stomach pH on dissolution of a drug, the fraction of a dose absorbed (Fa%) of undissociable and free acids were used. In addition, Fa% of free base drugs with the high pH stomach was also included to increase the number of model drugs. In total twenty nine structurally diverse compounds were used as the model drugs. Fa% data at several doses and particle sizes in humans and dogs were collated from the literature (total 110 Fa% data). In approximately 80% cases, the prediction error was within 2 fold, suggesting that the GUT framework has practical predictability for drug discovery, but not for drug development. The GUT framework appropriately captured the dose and particle size dependency of Fa% as the particle drifting effect was taken into account. It should be noted that the present validation results cannot be applied for salt form cases and other special formulations such as solid dispersions and emulsion formulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy of a dose-area product compared to an absorbed dose to water at a point in a 2 cm diameter field

    SciTech Connect

    Dufreneix, S.; Ostrowsky, A.; Rapp, B.

    Purpose: Graphite calorimeters with a core diameter larger than the beam can be used to establish dosimetric references in small fields. The dose-area product (DAP) measured can theoretically be linked to an absorbed dose at a point by the determination of a profile correction. This study aims at comparing the DAP-based protocol to the usual absorbed dose at a point protocol in a 2 cm diameter field for which both references exist. Methods: Two calorimeters were used, respectively, with a sensitive volume of 0.6 cm (for the absorbed dose at a point measurement) and 3 cm diameter (for the DAPmore » measurement). Profile correction was calculated from a 2D dose mapping using three detectors: a PinPoint chamber, a synthetic diamond, and EBT3 films. A specific protocol to read EBT3 films was implemented and the dose-rate and energy dependences were studied to assure a precise measurement, especially in the penumbra and out-of-field regions. Results: EBT3 films were found independent on dose rates over the range studied but showed a strong under-response (18%) at low energies. Depending on the dosimeter used for calculating the profile correction, a deviation of 0.8% (PinPoint chamber), 0.9% (diamond), or 1.9% (EBT3 films) was observed between the calibration coefficient derived from DAP measurements and the one directly established in terms of absorbed dose to water at a point. Conclusions: The DAP method can currently be linked to the classical dosimetric reference system based in an absorbed dose at a point only with a confidence interval of 95% (k = 2). None of the detectors studied can be used to determine an absorbed dose to water at a point from a DAP measurement with an uncertainty smaller than 1.2%.« less

  10. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Crosbie, J. C.; Cornelius, I.; Berkvens, P.; Donzelli, M.; Clavel, A. H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.

    2016-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency’s TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called ‘current ramping’ method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials.

  11. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  12. Evaluation of variations in absorbed dose and image noise according to patient forms in X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Mayumi; Tsujii, Hideo; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki

    2005-12-20

    Excessive radiation exposure in pediatric computed tomography (CT) scanning has become a serious problem, and it is difficult to select scan parameters for the scanning of small patients such as children. We investigated differences in absorbed dose and standard deviation (SD) in Hounsfield unit (HU) caused by differences in the form of the subject using a body-type phantom with removable body parts. Using four X-ray CT scanners, measurements were made with values from 50 mAs to 300 mAs, with slices of 50 mAs, using scan protocols that were assumed to perform thorough examinations. The results showed that the mAs values and absorbed doses were almost proportional, and the absorbed doses in the phantom without body parts were about 1.1-2.2-fold higher than those of the phantom with body parts at the same points. The SD values obtained indicated that the absorbed doses in the phantom with body parts were 0.3-0.6 times those of the phantom without body parts when the mAs values used were adjusted so that both SD values were the same. The absorbed doses in various patient forms can be estimated from these results, and they will become critical data for the selection of appropriate scan protocols.

  13. Role of shielding in modulating the effects of solar particle events: Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose and DNA complex lesions in different organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Zankl, M.

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes - such as FLUKA - yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy -1 Da -1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm 2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for

  14. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-11-01

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues—active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM) and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). AM is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM50), defined as all tissues lying within the first 50 µm of the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent micro-CT imaging of a 40 year old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton (Hough et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309-46). This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites (Jokisch et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 6857-72). These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions and proton production cross sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose-response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM50 targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, AM, TM50 and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM50 DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged-particle equilibrium is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  15. RESPONSE FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTING ABSORBED DOSE TO SKELETAL TISSUES FROM NEUTRON IRRADIATION

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues - active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM), and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). Active marrow is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM50), defined as all tissues laying within the first 50 μm the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent microCT imaging of a 40-year-old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton [Hough et al PMB (2011)]. This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fractions (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites [Jokisch et al PMB (submitted)]. These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions, and proton production cross-sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM50 targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, active marrow, total shallow marrow, and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM50 DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged particle equilibrium (CPE) is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  16. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W; Eckerman, Keith F; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-11-07

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues-active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM) and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). AM is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM(50)), defined as all tissues lying within the first 50 µm of the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent micro-CT imaging of a 40 year old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton (Hough et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309-46). This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites (Jokisch et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 6857-72). These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions and proton production cross sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose-response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM(50) targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, AM, TM(50) and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM(50) DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged-particle equilibrium is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  17. Spatio-temporal distribution of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols derived from Aura-OMI Aerosol Index over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Nastos, P. T.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Kharol, S. K.; Badarinath, K. V. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Aerosol Index (AI) observations derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Dutch-Finnish Aura satellite are analyzed over Greece covering the whole period of the OMI available data, from September 2004 to August 2008. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial, seasonal and inter-annual variability of AI over Greece, detected by OMI during 2004-2008, with an evaluation of potential contributing factors, including precipitation and long-range transport (Sahara dust and European pollution). The AI data cover the whole Greek territory (34o-42oN, 20o-28oE) with a spatial resolution of 0.25o x 0.25o (13 km x 24 km at nadir). The results show significant spatial and temporal variability of the seasonal and monthly mean AI, with higher values at the southern parts and lower values over northern Greece. On the other hand, the AI values do not show significant differences between the western and eastern parts and, therefore, the longitude-averaged AI values can be utilized to reveal the strong south-to-north gradient. This gradient significantly changes from season to season being more intense in spring and summer, while it is minimized in winter. Another significant remark is the dominance of negative AI values over northern Greece in the summer months, indicating the presence of non-UV absorbing aerosols, such as sulfate and sea-salt particles. The great geographical extent of the negative AI values in the summer months is indicative of long-range transport of such aerosols. In contrast, the high positive AI values over south Greece, mainly in spring, clearly reveal the UV-absorbing nature of desert-dust particles affecting the area during Saharan dust events. Synoptically, the spatial distribution in OMI-AI values was related to the Saharan dust events mainly over southern Greece and to the trans-boundary-pollution transport, consisting mainly of sulfate particles, in northern Greece. The annual variation of spatial-averaged AI values

  18. Approximate distribution of dose among foetal organs for radioiodine uptake via placenta transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, R. K.; Saunders, M.; Palmer, A. M.; Preece, A. W.

    2001-11-01

    Absorbed radiation doses to internal foetal organs were calculated according to the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) technique in this study. Anthropomorphic phantoms of the pregnant female as in MIRDOSE3 enabled estimation of absorbed dose to the whole foetus at two stages of gestation. Some foetal organ self-doses could have been estimated by invoking simple spherical models for thyroid, liver, etc, but we investigated the use of the MIRDOSE3 new-born phantom as a surrogate for the stage 3 foetus, scaled to be compatible with total foetal body mean absorbed dose/cumulated activity. We illustrate the method for obtaining approximate dose distribution in the foetus near term following intake of 1 MBq of 123I, 124I, 125I or 131I as sodium iodide by the mother using in vivo biodistribution data examples from a good model of placenta transfer. Doses to the foetal thyroid of up to 1.85 Gy MBq-1 were predicted from the 131I uptake data. Activity in the foetal thyroid was the largest contributor to absorbed dose in the foetal body, brain, heart and thymus. Average total doses to the whole foetus ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 mGy MBq-1 for stages 1 and 3 of pregnancy using the MIRDOSE3 program, and were considerably higher than those predicted from the maternal contributions alone. Doses to the foetal thymus and stomach were similar, around 2-3 mGy MBq-1. Some foetal organ doses from the radioiodides were ten times higher than to the corresponding organs of the mother, and up to 100 times higher to the thyroid. The fraction of activity uptakes in foetal organs were distributed similarly to the maternal ones.

  19. Maximum dose rate is a determinant of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy of Graves' disease but the total thyroid absorbed dose is not.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Thomas; Hänscheid, Heribert; Müller, Berthold; Behrendt, Florian F; Heinzel, Alexander; Mottaghy, Felix M; Verburg, Frederik A

    2014-11-01

    The determinants of successful (131)I therapy of Graves' disease (GD) are unclear. To relate dosimetry parameters to outcome of therapy to identify significant determinants eu- and/or hypothyroidism after (131)I therapy in patients with GD. A retrospective study in which 206 Patients with GD treated in University Hospital between November 1999 and January 2011. All received (131)I therapy aiming at a total absorbed dose to the thyroid of 250 Gy based on pre-therapeutic dosimetry. Post-therapy dosimetric thyroid measurements were performed twice daily until discharge. From these measurements, thyroid (131)I half-life, the total thyroid absorbed dose, and the maximum dose rate after (131)I administration were calculated. In all, 48.5% of patients were hypothyroid and 28.6% of patients were euthyroid after (131)I therapy. In univariate analysis, nonhyperthyroid and hyperthyroid patients only differed by sex. A lower thyroid mass, a higher activity per gram thyroid tissue, a shorter effective thyroidal (131)I half-life, and a higher maximum dose rate, but not the total thyroid absorbed dose, were significantly associated with hypothyroidism. In multivariate analysis, the maximum dose rate remained the only significant determinant of hypothyroidism (P < .001). Maximum dose rates of 2.2 Gy/h and higher were associated with a 100% hypothyroidism rate. Not the total thyroid absorbed dose, but the maximum dose rate is a determinant of successfully achieving hypothyroidism in Graves' disease. Dosimetric concepts aiming at a specific total thyroid absorbed dose will therefore require reconsideration if our data are confirmed prospectively.

  20. The Molecular Effect of Diagnostic Absorbed Doses from 131I on Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Stasiołek, Mariusz; Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Śliwka, Przemysław W; Puła, Bartosz; Karwowski, Bolesław; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Dedecjus, Marek; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2017-06-15

    Diagnostic whole-body scan is a standard procedure in patients with thyroid cancer prior to the application of a therapeutic dose of 131 I. Unfortunately, administration of the radioisotope in a diagnostic dose may decrease further radioiodine uptake-the phenomenon called "thyroid stunning". We estimated radiation absorbed dose-dependent changes in genetic material, in particular in the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene promoter, and the NIS protein level in a K1 cell line derived from the metastasis of a human papillary thyroid carcinoma exposed to 131 I in culture. The different activities applied were calculated to result in absorbed doses of 5, 10 and 20 Gy. Radioiodine did not affect the expression of the NIS gene at the mRNA level, however, we observed significant changes in the NIS protein level in K1 cells. The decrease of the NIS protein level observed in the cells subjected to the lowest absorbed dose was paralleled by a significant increase in 8-oxo-dG concentrations ( p < 0.01) and followed by late activation of the DNA repair pathways. Our findings suggest that the impact of 131 I radiation on thyroid cells, in the range compared to doses absorbed during diagnostic procedures, is not linear and depends on various factors including the cellular components of thyroid pathology.

  1. Radiation dosimetry in cell biology: comparison of calculated and measured absorbed dose for a range of culture vessels and clinical beam qualities.

    PubMed

    Claridge Mackonis, Elizabeth; Hammond, Lauren; Esteves, Ana I S; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2018-02-01

    Cell culture studies are frequently used to evaluate the effects of cancer treatments such as radiotherapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, nanoparticle enhancement, and to determine any synergies between the treatments. To achieve valid results, the absorbed dose of each therapy needs to be well known and controlled. In this study, we aim to determine the uncertainty associated with radiation exposure in different experimental conditions. We have performed an in-depth evaluation of the absorbed dose and dose distribution that would be delivered to a cell sample when cultivated in a number of the more popular designs of culture vessels. We focus on exposure to two beam types: a kilovoltage x-ray beam and a megavoltage photon beam, both of which are routinely used to treat cancer patients in the clinical environment. Our results identify large variations of up to 16% in the absorbed dose across multi-well culture plates, which if ignored in radiobiological experiments, have the potential to lead to erroneous conclusions.

  2. Response Funtions for Computing Absorbed Dose to Skeletal Tissues from Photon Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, Keith F; Bolch, W E; Zankl, M

    2007-01-01

    The calculation of absorbed dose in skeletal tissues at radiogenic risk has been a difficult problem because the relevant structures cannot be represented in conventional geometric terms nor can they be visualised in the tomographic image data used to define the computational models of the human body. The active marrow, the tissue of concern in leukaemia induction, is present within the spongiosa regions of trabecular bone, whereas the osteoprogenitor cells at risk for bone cancer induction are considered to be within the soft tissues adjacent to the mineral surfaces. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends averaging the absorbedmore » energy over the active marrow within the spongiosa and over the soft tissues within 10 mm of the mineral surface for leukaemia and bone cancer induction, respectively. In its forthcoming recommendation, it is expected that the latter guidance will be changed to include soft tissues within 50 mm of the mineral surfaces. To address the computational problems, the skeleton of the proposed ICRP reference computational phantom has been subdivided to identify those voxels associated with cortical shell, spongiosa and the medullary cavity of the long bones. It is further proposed that the Monte Carlo calculations with these phantoms compute the energy deposition in the skeletal target tissues as the product of the particle fluence in the skeletal subdivisions and applicable fluence-to-dose response functions. This paper outlines the development of such response functions for photons.« less

  3. Boundary Electron and Beta Dosimetry-Quantification of the Effects of Dissimilar Media on Absorbed Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Josane C.

    1991-02-01

    This work quantifies the changes effected in electron absorbed dose to a soft-tissue equivalent medium when part of this medium is replaced by a material that is not soft -tissue equivalent. That is, heterogeneous dosimetry is addressed. Radionuclides which emit beta particles are the electron sources of primary interest. They are used in brachytherapy and in nuclear medicine: for example, beta -ray applicators made with strontium-90 are employed in certain ophthalmic treatments and iodine-131 is used to test thyroid function. More recent medical procedures under development and which involve beta radionuclides include radioimmunotherapy and radiation synovectomy; the first is a cancer modality and the second deals with the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the possibility of skin surface contamination exists whenever there is handling of radioactive material. Determination of absorbed doses in the examples of the preceding paragraph requires considering boundaries of interfaces. Whilst the Monte Carlo method can be applied to boundary calculations, for routine work such as in clinical situations, or in other circumstances where doses need to be determined quickly, analytical dosimetry would be invaluable. Unfortunately, few analytical methods for boundary beta dosimetry exist. Furthermore, the accuracy of results from both Monte Carlo and analytical methods has to be assessed. Although restricted to one radionuclide, phosphorus -32, the experimental data obtained in this work serve several purposes, one of which is to provide standards against which calculated results can be tested. The experimental data also contribute to the relatively sparse set of published boundary dosimetry data. At the same time, they may be useful in developing analytical boundary dosimetry methodology. The first application of the experimental data is demonstrated. Results from two Monte Carlo codes and two analytical methods, which were developed elsewhere, are compared

  4. SU-F-I-53: Coded Aperture Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging of the Breast: A Monte Carlo Evaluation of Absorbed Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R; Lakshmanan, M; Fong, G

    Purpose: Coherent scatter based imaging has shown improved contrast and molecular specificity over conventional digital mammography however the biological risks have not been quantified due to a lack of accurate information on absorbed dose. This study intends to characterize the dose distribution and average glandular dose from coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of the breast. The dose deposited in the breast from this new diagnostic imaging modality has not yet been quantitatively evaluated. Here, various digitized anthropomorphic phantoms are tested in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the absorbed dose distribution and average glandular dose using clinically feasible scanmore » protocols. Methods: Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation software is used to replicate the coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system. Energy sensitive, photon counting detectors are used to characterize the x-ray beam spectra for various imaging protocols. This input spectra is cross-validated with the results from XSPECT, a commercially available application that yields x-ray tube specific spectra for the operating parameters employed. XSPECT is also used to determine the appropriate number of photons emitted per mAs of tube current at a given kVp tube potential. With the implementation of the XCAT digital anthropomorphic breast phantom library, a variety of breast sizes with differing anatomical structure are evaluated. Simulations were performed with and without compression of the breast for dose comparison. Results: Through the Monte Carlo evaluation of a diverse population of breast types imaged under real-world scan conditions, a clinically relevant average glandular dose for this new imaging modality is extrapolated. Conclusion: With access to the physical coherent scatter imaging system used in the simulation, the results of this Monte Carlo study may be used to directly influence the future development of the modality to keep breast

  5. Editor's choice--Use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes results in significant dose reduction during EVAR procedures.

    PubMed

    Kloeze, C; Klompenhouwer, E G; Brands, P J M; van Sambeek, M R H M; Cuypers, P W M; Teijink, J A W

    2014-03-01

    Because of the increasing number of interventional endovascular procedures with fluoroscopy and the corresponding high annual dose for interventionalists, additional dose-protecting measures are desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes in reducing scatter radiation exposure for interventionalists and supporting staff during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedure. This was a randomized control trial in which 36 EVAR procedures were randomized between execution with and without disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes (Radpad: Worldwide Innovations & Technologies, Inc., Kansas City, US, type 5511A). Dosimetric measurements were performed on the interventionalist (hand and chest) and theatre nurse (chest) with and without the use of the drapes to obtain the dose reduction and effect on the annual dose caused by the drapes. Use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes resulted in dose reductions of 49%, 55%, and 48%, respectively, measured on the hand and chest of the interventionalist and the chest of the theatre nurse. The use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes significantly reduces scatter radiation exposure for both the interventionalist and the supporting staff during EVAR procedures. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual-energy computed tomography of the head: a phantom study assessing axial dose distribution, eye lens dose, and image noise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Kawashima, Hiroki; Hamaguchi, Takashi; Takata, Tadanori; Kobayashi, Masanao; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Koshida, Kichiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a calibration method for small dosimeters to measure absorbed doses during dual- source dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and to compare the axial dose distribution, eye lens dose, and image noise level between DE and standard, single-energy (SE) head CT angiography. Three DE (100/Sn140 kVp 80/Sn140 kVp, and 140/80 kVp) and one SE (120 kVp) acquisitions were performed using a second-generation dual-source CT device and a female head phantom, with an equivalent volumetric CT dose index. The axial absorbed dose distribution at the orbital level and the absorbed doses for the eye lens were measured using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters. CT attenuation numbers were obtained in the DE composite images and the SE images of the phantom at the orbital level. The doses absorbed at the orbital level and in the eye lens were lower and standard deviations for the CT attenuation numbers were slightly higher in the DE acquisitions than those in the SE acquisition. The anterior surface dose was especially higher in the SE acquisition than that in the DE acquisitions. Thus, DE head CT angiography can be performed with a radiation dose lower than that required for a standard SE head CT angiography, with a slight increase in the image noise level. The 100/Sn140 kVp acquisition revealed the most balanced axial dose distribution. In addition, our proposed method was effective for calibrating small dosimeters to measure absorbed doses in DECT.

  7. Absorbed dose evaluation of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides: impact of input decay spectra on dose point kernels and S-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falzone, Nadia; Lee, Boon Q.; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Stuchbery, Andrew E.; Kibédi, Tibor; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model BrIccEmis on dose point kernels (DPKs - radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and S-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely 67Ga, 80mBr, 89Zr, 90Nb, 99mTc, 111In, 117mSn, 119Sb, 123I, 124I, 125I, 135La, 195mPt and 201Tl. Radiation spectra were based on the nuclear decay data from the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) RADTABS program and the BrIccEmis code, assuming both an isolated-atom and condensed-phase approach. DPKs were simulated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) code using event-by-event electron and photon transport. S-values for concentric spherical cells of various sizes were derived from these DPKs using appropriate geometric reduction factors. The number of Auger and Coster-Kronig (CK) electrons and x-ray photons released per nuclear decay (yield) from MIRD-RADTABS were consistently higher than those calculated using BrIccEmis. DPKs for the electron spectra from BrIccEmis were considerably different from MIRD-RADTABS in the first few hundred nanometres from a point source where most of the Auger electrons are stopped. S-values were, however, not significantly impacted as the differences in DPKs in the sub-micrometre dimension were quickly diminished in larger dimensions. Overestimation in the total AE energy output by MIRD-RADTABS leads to higher predicted energy deposition by AE emitting radionuclides, especially in the immediate vicinity of the decaying radionuclides. This should be taken into account when MIRD-RADTABS data are used to simulate biological damage at nanoscale dimensions.

  8. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-03: Four-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using Plastic Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M; Kozuka, T; Oguchi, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop the detector for the four-dimensional dose distribution measurement. Methods: We made the prototype detector for four-dimensional dose distribution measurement using a cylindrical plastic scintillator (5 cm diameter) and a conical reflection grass. The plastic scintillator is used as a phantom. When the plastic scintillator is irradiated, the scintillation light was emitted according to absorbed dose distribution. The conical reflection grass was arranged to surround the plastic scintillator, which project to downstream the projection images of the scintillation light. Then, the projection image was reflected to 45 degree direction by flat reflection grass, and was recorded by camcorder.more » By reconstructing the three-dimensional dose distribution from the projection image recorded in each frame, we could obtain the four-dimensional dose distribution. First, we tested the characteristic according to the amount of emitted light. Then we compared of the light profile and the dose profile calculated with the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results: The dose dependency of the amount of light showed linearity. The pixel detecting smaller amount of light had high sensitivity than the pixel detecting larger amount of light. However the difference of the sensitivity could be corrected from the amount of light detected in each pixel. Both of the depth light profile through the conical reflection grass and the depth dose profile showed the same attenuation in the region deeper than peak depth. In lateral direction, the difference of the both profiles was shown at outside field and penumbra region. We consider that the difference is occurred due to the scatter of the scintillation light in the plastic scintillator block. Conclusion: It was possible to obtain the amount of light corresponding to the absorbed dose distribution from the prototype detector. Four-dimensional dose distributions can be reconstructed with high accuracy by the

  9. Proton depth dose distribution: 3-D calculation of dose distributions from solar flare irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, Dennis D.

    1990-11-01

    Relative depth dose distribution to the head from 3 typical solar flare proton events were calculated for 3 different exposure geometries: (1) single directional radiation incident upon a fixed head; (2) single directional radiation incident upon head rotating axially (2-D rotation); and (3) omnidirectional radiation incident upon head (3-D rotation). Isodose distributions in the transverse plane intersecting isocenter are presented for each of the 3 solar flare events in all 3 exposure geometries. In all 3 calculation configurations the maximum predicted dose occurred on the surface of the head. The dose at the isocenter of the head relative to the surface dose for the 2-D and 3-D rotation geometries ranged from 2 to 19 percent, increasing with increasing energy of the event. The calculations suggest the superficially located organs (lens of the eye and skin) are at greatest risk for the proton events studied here.

  10. Preclinical Study of 68Ga-DOTATOC: Biodistribution Assessment in Syrian Rats and Evaluation of Absorbed Dose in Human Organs.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mojdeh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Ramazani, Ali; Jalilian, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Gallium-68 DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -Octreotide ( 68 Ga-DOTATOC) has been applied by several European centers for the treatment of a variety of human malignancies. Nevertheless, definitive dosimetric data are yet unavailable. According to the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, researchers are investigating the safety and efficacy of this radiotracer to meet Food and Drug Administration requirements. The aim of this study was to introduce the optimized procedure for 68 Ga-DOTATOC preparation, using a novel germanium-68 ( 68 Ge)/ 68 Ga generator in Iran and evaluate the absorbed doses in numerous organs with high accuracy. The optimized conditions for preparing the radiolabeled complex were determined via several experiments by changing the ligand concentration, pH, temperature and incubation time. Radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed, using high-performance liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. The absorbed dose of human organs was evaluated, based on biodistribution studies on Syrian rats via Radiation Absorbed Dose Assessment Resource Method. 68 Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C at least two hours after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreatic and adrenal tissues (12.83 %ID/g and 0.91 %ID/g, respectively). Dose estimations in human organs showed that the pancreas, kidneys and adrenal glands received the maximum absorbed doses (0.105, 0.074 and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively). Also, the effective absorbed dose was estimated at 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68 Ga-DOTATOC. The obtained results showed that 68 Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as an effective agent for clinical PET imaging in Iran.

  11. Preclinical Study of 68Ga-DOTATOC: Biodistribution Assessment in Syrian Rats and Evaluation of Absorbed Dose in Human Organs

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Mojdeh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Ramazani, Ali; Jalilian, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Gallium-68 DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-Octreotide (68Ga-DOTATOC) has been applied by several European centers for the treatment of a variety of human malignancies. Nevertheless, definitive dosimetric data are yet unavailable. According to the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, researchers are investigating the safety and efficacy of this radiotracer to meet Food and Drug Administration requirements. The aim of this study was to introduce the optimized procedure for 68Ga-DOTATOC preparation, using a novel germanium-68 (68Ge)/68Ga generator in Iran and evaluate the absorbed doses in numerous organs with high accuracy. Methods: The optimized conditions for preparing the radiolabeled complex were determined via several experiments by changing the ligand concentration, pH, temperature and incubation time. Radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed, using high-performance liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. The absorbed dose of human organs was evaluated, based on biodistribution studies on Syrian rats via Radiation Absorbed Dose Assessment Resource Method. Results: 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C at least two hours after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreatic and adrenal tissues (12.83 %ID/g and 0.91 %ID/g, respectively). Dose estimations in human organs showed that the pancreas, kidneys and adrenal glands received the maximum absorbed doses (0.105, 0.074 and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively). Also, the effective absorbed dose was estimated at 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68Ga-DOTATOC. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as an effective agent for clinical PET imaging in Iran. PMID:27904870

  12. Calculation of dose distribution above contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Junya; Tenzou, Hideki; Manabe, Seiya; Iwakura, Yukiko

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altitude and the distribution of the ambient dose rate in the air over soil decontamination area by using PHITS simulation code. The geometry configuration was 1000 m ×1000 m area and 1m in soil depth and 100m in altitude from the ground to simulate the area of residences or a school grounds. The contaminated region is supposed to be uniformly contaminated by Cs-137 γ radiation sources. The air dose distribution and space resolution was evaluated for flux of the gamma rays at each altitude, 1, 5, 10, and 20m. The effect of decontamination was calculated by defining sharpness S. S was the ratio of an average flux and a flux at the center of denomination area in each altitude. The suitable flight altitude of the drone is found to be less than 15m above a residence and 31m above a school grounds to confirm the decontamination effect. The calculation results can be a help to determine a flight planning of a drone to minimize the clash risk.

  13. Accuracy and optimal timing of activity measurements in estimating the absorbed dose of radioiodine in the treatment of Graves' disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, S.; Horowitz, J.; Traino, A. C.; Chipkin, S. R.; Hollot, C. V.; Chait, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Calculation of the therapeutic activity of radioiodine 131I for individualized dosimetry in the treatment of Graves' disease requires an accurate estimate of the thyroid absorbed radiation dose based on a tracer activity administration of 131I. Common approaches (Marinelli-Quimby formula, MIRD algorithm) use, respectively, the effective half-life of radioiodine in the thyroid and the time-integrated activity. Many physicians perform one, two, or at most three tracer dose activity measurements at various times and calculate the required therapeutic activity by ad hoc methods. In this paper, we study the accuracy of estimates of four 'target variables': time-integrated activity coefficient, time of maximum activity, maximum activity, and effective half-life in the gland. Clinical data from 41 patients who underwent 131I therapy for Graves' disease at the University Hospital in Pisa, Italy, are used for analysis. The radioiodine kinetics are described using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. The distributions of the target variables in the patient population are characterized. Using minimum root mean squared error as the criterion, optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules are determined for estimation of the target variables, and probabilistic bounds are given for the errors under the optimal times. An algorithm is developed for computing the optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules for the target variables. This algorithm is implemented in a freely available software tool. Taking into consideration 131I effective half-life in the thyroid and measurement noise, the optimal 1-point time for time-integrated activity coefficient is a measurement 1 week following the tracer dose. Additional measurements give only a slight improvement in accuracy.

  14. Study on the quality assurance of diagnostic X-ray machines and assessment of the absorbed dose to patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, G. M.; Rabie, N.; Mustafa, K. A.; Abdel-Khalik, S. S.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure and image quality in X-ray diagnostic radiology provide a clear understanding of the relationship between the radiation dose delivered to a patient and image quality in optimizing medical diagnostic radiology. Because a certain amount of radiation is unavoidably delivered to patients, this should be as low as reasonably achievable. Several X-ray diagnostic machines were used at different medical diagnostic centers in Egypt for studying the beam quality and the dose delivered to the patient. This article studies the factors affecting the beam quality, such as the kilo-volt peak (kVp), exposure time (mSc), tube current (mAs) and the absorbed dose in (μGy) for different examinations. The maximum absorbed dose measured per mAs was 594±239 and 12.5±3.7 μGy for the abdomen and the chest, respectively, while the absorbed dose at the elbow was 18±6 μGy, which was the minimum dose recorded. The compound and expanded uncertainties accompanying these measurements were 4±0.35% and 8±0.7%, respectively. The measurements were done through quality control tests as acceptance procedures.

  15. Absorbed radiation dose in adults from iodine-131 and iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate and technetium-99m DTPA renography

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, O.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematic model for evaluation of absorbed dose in radionuclide renography has been developed and programmed for automatic calculation in the computer. Input data to the model are readily available from the results of the renography and, hence, the method described is suitable for individual dose determinations in adults. Apart from the situation with very considerable outflow obstructions (/sup 131/I)OIH single probe renography involves a 15-20 times smaller dose to radiation sensitive organs than (/sup 123/I)OIH gamma camera renography. Further, the latter examination results in a 2-10 times smaller dose than (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA gamma camera renography under normal outflow conditions.more » Absorbed renal dose is large, approximately 70 mGy, in the three renographies in the borderline case with total outflow obstructions. For comparison, i.v. pyelography, which is the x-ray examination often used instead of radionuclide renography, involves an absorbed dose to ovaries 10-1000 times larger than in radionuclide renography« less

  16. Changes in deviation of absorbed dose to water among users by chamber calibration shift.

    PubMed

    Katayose, Tetsurou; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Igari, Mitsunobu; Chang, Weishan; Hashimoto, Shimpei; Morioka, Mie

    2017-07-01

    The JSMP01 dosimetry protocol had adopted the provisional 60 Co calibration coefficient [Formula: see text], namely, the product of exposure calibration coefficient N C and conversion coefficient k D,X . After that, the absorbed dose to water D w  standard was established, and the JSMP12 protocol adopted the [Formula: see text] calibration. In this study, the influence of the calibration shift on the measurement of D w among users was analyzed. The intercomparison of the D w using an ionization chamber was annually performed by visiting related hospitals. Intercomparison results before and after the calibration shift were analyzed, the deviation of D w among users was re-evaluated, and the cause of deviation was estimated. As a result, the stability of LINAC, calibration of the thermometer and barometer, and collection method of ion recombination were confirmed. The statistical significance of standard deviation of D w was not observed, but that of difference of D w among users was observed between N C and [Formula: see text] calibration. Uncertainty due to chamber-to-chamber variation was reduced by the calibration shift, consequently reducing the uncertainty among users regarding D w . The result also pointed out uncertainty might be reduced by accurate and detailed instructions on the setup of an ionization chamber.

  17. Absorbed organ and effective doses from digital intra-oral and panoramic radiography applying the ICRP 103 recommendations for effective dose estimations

    PubMed Central

    Thilander-Klang, Anne; Ylhan, Betȕl; Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Ekestubbe, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: During dental radiography, the salivary and thyroid glands are at radiation risk. In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) updated the methodology for determining the effective dose, and the salivary glands were assigned tissue-specific weighting factors for the first time. The aims of this study were to determine the absorbed dose to the organs and to calculate, applying the ICRP publication 103 tissue-weighting factors, the effective doses delivered during digital intraoral and panoramic radiography. Methods: Thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements were performed on an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom. The organ-absorbed doses were measured at 30 locations, representing different radiosensitive organs in the head and neck, and the effective dose was calculated according to the ICRP recommendations. Results: The salivary glands and the oral mucosa received the highest absorbed doses from both intraoral and panoramic radiography. The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination was 15 μSv and for panoramic radiography, the effective dose was in the range of 19–75 μSv, depending on the panoramic equipment used. Conclusion: The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination is lower and that from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported. Clinicians should be aware of the higher effective dose delivered during panoramic radiography and the risk–benefit profile of this technique must be assessed for the individual patient. Advances in knowledge: The effective dose of radiation from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported and there is large variability in the delivered radiation dosage among the different types of equipment used. PMID:27452261

  18. Visible photoluminescence of color centers in LiF crystals for absorbed dose evaluation in clinical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal-Barajas, J. E.; Piccinini, M.; Vincenti, M. A.; Bonfigli, F.; Khan, R. F.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Among insulating materials, lithium fluoride (LiF) has been successfully used as ionizing radiation dosemeter for more than 60 years. Thermoluminescence (TL) has been the most commonly used reading technique to evaluate the absorbed dose. Lately, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of visible emitting color centers (CCs) has also been explored in pure and doped LiF. This work focuses on the experimental behaviour of nominally pure LiF crystals dosemeters for 6 MV x rays at low doses based on photoluminescence (PL) of radiation induced CCs. Polished LiF crystals were irradiated using 6 MV x rays produced by a clinical linear accelerator. The doses (absorbed dose to water) covered the 1-100 Gy range. Optical absorption spectra show stable formation of primary F defects up to a maximum concentration of 2×1016 cm-3, while no significant M absorption band at around 450 nm was detected. On the other hand, under Argon laser excitation at 458 nm, PL spectra of the irradiated LiF crystals clearly exhibited the characteristic F2 and F+3 visible broad emission bands. Their sum intensity is linearly proportional to the absorbed dose in the investigated range. PL integrated intensity was also measured using a conventional fluorescence optical microscope under blue lamp illumination. The relationship between the absorbed dose and the integrated F2 and F+3 PL intensities, represented by the net average pixel number in the optical fluorescence images, is also fairly linear. Even at the low point defect densities obtained at the investigated doses, these preliminary experimental results are encouraging for further investigation of CCs PL in LiF crystals for clinical dosimetry.

  19. Estimation of absorbed doses from paediatric cone-beam CT scans: MOSFET measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangroh; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Toncheva, Greta; Frush, Donald P; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a dose estimation tool with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. A 5-y-old paediatric anthropomorphic phantom was computed tomography (CT) scanned to create a voxelised phantom and used as an input for the abdominal cone-beam CT in a BEAMnrc/EGSnrc MC system. An X-ray tube model of the Varian On-Board Imager((R)) was built in the MC system. To validate the model, the absorbed doses at each organ location for standard-dose and low-dose modes were measured in the physical phantom with MOSFET detectors; effective doses were also calculated. In the results, the MC simulations were comparable to the MOSFET measurements. This voxelised phantom approach could produce a more accurate dose estimation than the stylised phantom method. This model can be easily applied to multi-detector CT dosimetry.

  20. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 μGy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after

  1. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout.

  2. Estimated human absorbed dose of a new (153)Sm bone seeking agent based on biodistribution data in mice: Comparison with (153)Sm-EDTMP.

    PubMed

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh

    2015-11-01

    The main goal in radiotherapy is to deliver the absorbed dose within the target organs in highest possible amount, while the absorbed dose of the other organs, especially the critical organs, should be kept as low as possible. In this work, the absorbed dose to human organs for a new (153)Sm bone-seeking agent was investigated. (153)Sm-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid ((153)Sm-BPAMD) complex was successfully prepared. The biodistribution of the complex was investigated in male Syrian mice up to 48 h post injection. The human absorbed dose of the complex was estimated based on the biodistribution data of the mice by radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The target to non-target absorbed dose ratios for (153)Sm-BPAMD were compared with these ratios for (153)Sm-EDTMP. The highest absorbed dose for (153)Sm-BPAMD was observed in bone surface with 5.828 mGy/MBq. The dose ratios of the bone surface to the red marrow and to the total body for (153)Sm-BPAMD were 5.3 and 20.0, respectively, while these ratios for (153)Sm-EDTMP were 4.4 and 18.3, respectively. This means, for a given dose to the bone surface as the target organ, the red marrow (as the main critical organ) and the total body would receive lesser absorbed dose in the case of (153)Sm-BPAMD. Generally, the human absorbed dose estimation of (153)Sm-BPAMD indicated that all other tissues approximately received insignificant absorbed dose in comparison with bone surface and therefore can be regarded as a new potential agent for bone pain palliation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rottke, D; Grossekettler, L; Sawada, K; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the absorbed doses in a full anthropomorphic body phantom from two different panoramic radiography devices, performing protocols with and without applying a lead apron. Methods: A RANDO® full body phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Stamford, CT) was equipped with 110 thermoluminescent dosemeters at 55 different sites and set up in two different panoramic radiography devices [SCANORA® three-dimensional (3D) (SOREDEX, Tuusula, Finland) and ProMax® 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland)] and exposed. Two different protocols were performed in the two devices. The first protocol was performed without any lead shielding, whereas the phantom was equipped with a standard adult lead apron for the second protocol. Results: A two-tailed paired samples t-test for the SCANORA 3D revealed that there is no difference between the protocol using lead apron shielding (m = 87.99, s = 102.98) and the protocol without shielding (m = 87.34, s = 107.49), t(54) = −0.313, p > 0.05. The same test for the ProMax 3D showed that there is also no difference between the protocol using shielding (m = 106.48, s = 117.38) and the protocol without shielding (m = 107.75, s = 114,36), t(54) = 0.938, p > 0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of this study showed no statistically significant differences between a panoramic radiography with or without the use of lead apron shielding. PMID:24174012

  4. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Rottke, D; Grossekettler, L; Sawada, K; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the absorbed doses in a full anthropomorphic body phantom from two different panoramic radiography devices, performing protocols with and without applying a lead apron. A RANDO(®) full body phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Stamford, CT) was equipped with 110 thermoluminescent dosemeters at 55 different sites and set up in two different panoramic radiography devices [SCANORA(®) three-dimensional (3D) (SOREDEX, Tuusula, Finland) and ProMax(®) 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland)] and exposed. Two different protocols were performed in the two devices. The first protocol was performed without any lead shielding, whereas the phantom was equipped with a standard adult lead apron for the second protocol. A two-tailed paired samples t-test for the SCANORA 3D revealed that there is no difference between the protocol using lead apron shielding (m = 87.99, s = 102.98) and the protocol without shielding (m = 87.34, s = 107.49), t(54) = -0.313, p > 0.05. The same test for the ProMax 3D showed that there is also no difference between the protocol using shielding (m = 106.48, s = 117.38) and the protocol without shielding (m = 107.75, s = 114,36), t(54) = 0.938, p > 0.05. In conclusion, the results of this study showed no statistically significant differences between a panoramic radiography with or without the use of lead apron shielding.

  5. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Rottke, D; Grossekettler, L; Sawada, K; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the absorbed doses in a full anthropomorphic body phantom from two different panoramic radiography devices, performing protocols with and without applying a lead apron. A RANDO® full body phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Stamford, CT) was equipped with 110 thermoluminescent dosemeters at 55 different sites and set up in two different panoramic radiography devices [SCANORA® three-dimensional (3D) (SOREDEX, Tuusula, Finland) and ProMax® 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland)] and exposed. Two different protocols were performed in the two devices. The first protocol was performed without any lead shielding, whereas the phantom was equipped with a standard adult lead apron for the second protocol. A two-tailed paired samples t-test for the SCANORA 3D revealed that there is no difference between the protocol using lead apron shielding (m = 87.99, s = 102.98) and the protocol without shielding (m = 87.34, s = 107.49), t(54) = −0.313, p > 0.05. The same test for the ProMax 3D showed that there is also no difference between the protocol using shielding (m = 106.48, s = 117.38) and the protocol without shielding (m = 107.75, s = 114,36), t(54) = 0.938, p > 0.05. In conclusion, the results of this study showed no statistically significant differences between a panoramic radiography with or without the use of lead apron shielding.

  6. SU-F-T-175: Absorbed Dose Measurement Using Radiophotoluminescent Glass Dosimeter in Therapeutic Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W; National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba; Koba, Y

    Purpose: To measure the absorbed dose to water Dw in therapeutic proton beam with radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RGD), a methodology was proposed. In this methodology, the correction factor for the LET dependence of radiophotoluminescent (RPL) efficiency and the variation of mass stopping power ratio of water to RGD (SPRw, RGD) were adopted. The feasibility of proposed method was evaluated in this report. Methods: The calibration coefficient in terms of Dw for RGDs (GD-302M, Asahi Techno Glass) was obtained using 60Co beam. The SPRw, RGD was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4. The LET dependence of RPL efficiency was investigatedmore » experimentally by using a 70 MeV proton beam at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. For clinical usage, the residual range Rres was used as a quality index to determine the correction factor for RPL efficiency. The proposed method was evaluated by measuring Dw at difference depth in the 200 MeV proton beam. Results: For both modulated and non-modulated proton beam, the SPRw, RGD increases more than 3 % where Rres are less than 1 cm. RPL efficiency decreases with increasing LET and it reaches 0.6 at LET of 10 keV µm{sup −1}. Dw measured by RGD (Dw, RGD) shows good agreement with that measured by ionization chamber (Dw, IC) and the relative difference between Dw, RGD and Dw, IC are within 3 % where Rres is larger than 1 cm. Conclusion: In this work, a methodology for using RGD in proton dosimetry was proposed and the SPRw, RGD and the LET dependence of RPL efficiency in therapeutic proton beam was investigated. The results revealed that the proposed method is useful for RGD in the dosimetry of proton beams.« less

  7. Spatial distribution of the RF power absorbed in a helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksenko, O. V.; Miroshnichenko, V. I.; Mordik, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    The spatial distributions of the RF power absorbed by plasma electrons in an ion source operating in the helicon mode (ω ci < ω < ω ce < ω pe ) are studied numerically by using a simplified model of an RF plasma source in an external uniform magnetic field. The parameters of the source used in numerical simulations are determined by the necessity of the simultaneous excitation of two types of waves, helicons and Trivelpiece-Gould modes, for which the corresponding transparency diagrams are used. The numerical simulations are carried out for two values of the working gas (helium) pressure and two values of the discharge chamber length under the assumption that symmetric modes are excited. The parameters of the source correspond to those of the injector of the nuclear scanning microprobe operating at the Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It is assumed that the mechanism of RF power absorption is based on the acceleration of plasma electrons in the field of a Trivelpiece-Gould mode, which is interrupted by pair collisions of plasma electrons with neutral atoms and ions of the working gas. The simulation results show that the total absorbed RF power at a fixed plasma density depends in a resonant manner on the magnetic field. The resonance is found to become smoother with increasing working gas pressure. The distributions of the absorbed RF power in the discharge chamber are presented. The achievable density of the extracted current is estimated using the Bohm criterion.

  8. [The use of polymer gel dosimetry to measure dose distribution around metallic implants].

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Tomomasa; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Monzen, Hajime; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-10-01

    A semi-solid polymer dosimetry system using agar was developed to measure the dose distribution close to metallic implants. Dosimetry of heterogeneous fields where electron density markedly varies is often problematic. This prompted us to develop a polymer gel dosimetry technique using agar to measure the dose distribution near substance boundaries. Varying the concentration of an oxygen scavenger (tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) showed the absorbed dose and transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance signal to be linear between 3 and 12 Gy. Although a change in the dosimeter due to oxidization was observed in room air after 24 hours, no such effects were observed in the first 4 hours. The dose distribution around the metal implants was measured using agar dosimetry. The metals tested were a lead rod, a titanium hip joint, and a metallic stent. A maximum 30% dose increase was observed near the lead rod, but only a 3% increase in the absorbed dose was noted near the surface of the titanium hip joint and metallic stent. Semi-solid polymer dosimetry using agar thus appears to be a useful method for dosimetry around metallic substances.

  9. Calculation of Absorbed Dose in Target Tissue and Equivalent Dose in Sensitive Tissues of Patients Treated by BNCT Using MCNP4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.

  10. Validation of a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining the absorbed and effective radiation doses in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Manninen, A-L; Kotiaho, A; Nikkinen, J; Nieminen, M T

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining absorbed and effective doses (EDs) in the dose and energy range used in diagnostic radiology. Energy dependence, dose linearity and repeatability of the dosemeter were examined. The absorbed doses (ADs) were compared at anterior-posterior projection and the EDs were determined at posterior-anterior, anterior-posterior and lateral projections of thoracic imaging using an anthropomorphic phantom. The radiation exposures were made using digital radiography systems. This study revealed that the MOSFET system with high sensitivity bias supply set-up is sufficiently accurate for AD and ED determination. The dosemeter is recommended to be calibrated for energies <60 and >80 kVp. The entrance skin dose level should be at least 5 mGy to minimise the deviation of the individual dosemeter dose. For ED determination, dosemeters should be implanted perpendicular to the surface of the phantom to prevent the angular dependence error. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Role of shielding in modulating the effects of solar particle events: Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose and DNA complex lesions in different organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes--such as FLUKA--yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy-1 Da-1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for the

  12. (⁹⁹m)Tc-MAA overestimates the absorbed dose to the lungs in radioembolization: a quantitative evaluation in patients treated with ¹⁶⁶Ho-microspheres.

    PubMed

    Elschot, Mattijs; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Lam, Marnix G E H; Smits, Maarten L J; Prince, Jip F; Viergever, Max A; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; de Jong, Hugo W A M

    2014-10-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is a rare but serious complication of radioembolic therapy of liver tumours. Estimation of the mean absorbed dose to the lungs based on pretreatment diagnostic (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) imaging should prevent this, with administered activities adjusted accordingly. The accuracy of (99m)Tc-MAA-based lung absorbed dose estimates was evaluated and compared to absorbed dose estimates based on pretreatment diagnostic (166)Ho-microsphere imaging and to the actual lung absorbed doses after (166)Ho radioembolization. This prospective clinical study included 14 patients with chemorefractory, unresectable liver metastases treated with (166)Ho radioembolization. (99m)Tc-MAA-based and (166)Ho-microsphere-based estimation of lung absorbed doses was performed on pretreatment diagnostic planar scintigraphic and SPECT/CT images. The clinical analysis was preceded by an anthropomorphic torso phantom study with simulated lung shunt fractions of 0 to 30 % to determine the accuracy of the image-based lung absorbed dose estimates after (166)Ho radioembolization. In the phantom study, (166)Ho SPECT/CT-based lung absorbed dose estimates were more accurate (absolute error range 0.1 to -4.4 Gy) than (166)Ho planar scintigraphy-based lung absorbed dose estimates (absolute error range 9.5 to 12.1 Gy). Clinically, the actual median lung absorbed dose was 0.02 Gy (range 0.0 to 0.7 Gy) based on posttreatment (166)Ho-microsphere SPECT/CT imaging. Lung absorbed doses estimated on the basis of pretreatment diagnostic (166)Ho-microsphere SPECT/CT imaging (median 0.02 Gy, range 0.0 to 0.4 Gy) were significantly better predictors of the actual lung absorbed doses than doses estimated on the basis of (166)Ho-microsphere planar scintigraphy (median 10.4 Gy, range 4.0 to 17.3 Gy; p < 0.001), (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT/CT imaging (median 2.5 Gy, range 1.2 to 12.3 Gy; p < 0.001), and (99m)Tc-MAA planar scintigraphy (median 5.5 Gy, range 2.3 to 18.2 Gy; p < 0

  13. Extravasation of radiopharmaceuticals - a study of its frequency and estimation of absorbed doses in diagnosis and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, S.E.; Grafstroem, G.; Kontestabile, E.

    In all injection procedures exists a risk for extravasation. For radiopharmaceuticals, the absorbed dose at the injection site can be high because of high activity concentrations. In radionuclide therapy (RNT), this can cause deterministic effects such as tissue necrosis. To estimate the risk for extravasation, we studied various injection techniques at two nuclear medicine clinics. The frequency and magnitude of extravasations was studied in randomly selected patients. Clinic A used peripheral venous cathethers (PVC), and clinic B used direct injections with injection needles (IN). At clinic A 203 patients were investigated and at clinic B 90. All of these patientsmore » were injected with either 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MAA, 99mTc-MDP or pertechnetate. Both arms were imaged with a scintillation camera as soon as possible after the injection. In the case of an extravasation, the retention time at the injection site was determined with multiple imaging, together with volume estimates. The results for PVC injected patients showed one complete extravasation. We also found that in 8% of these patients the remaining activity at the injection site was up to 2%. For the IN injected patients there was none with complete extravasation. However, in 33% of these patients the remaining activity was up to 18%. The locally absorbed doses in these diagnostically investigated patients were estimated with the MIRD formalism to be up to 0.1 Sv (10 rem). Transforming these results to the RNT, the absorbed doses can be up to 1000 times higher. In addition to the calculated absorbed doses, radionuclides localizing to the cell nucleus could enhance the effects.« less

  14. Mean Absorbed Dose to the Anal-Sphincter Region and Fecal Leakage among Irradiated Prostate Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Alsadius, David, E-mail: david.alsadius@oncology.gu.se; Hedelin, Maria; Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To supplement previous findings that the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to the anal sphincter or lower rectum affects the occurrence of fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors. We also wanted to determine whether anatomically defining the anal-sphincter region as the organ at risk could increase the degree of evidence underlying clinical guidelines for restriction doses to eliminate this excess risk. Methods and Materials: We identified 985 men irradiated for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, we assessed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms among these men using a study-specific questionnaire. We restrict the analysis to the 414 men whomore » had been treated with external beam radiation therapy only (no brachytherapy) to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions to the prostate or postoperative prostatic region. On reconstructed original radiation therapy dose plans, we delineated the anal-sphincter region as an organ at risk. Results: We found that the prevalence of long-term fecal leakage at least once per month was strongly correlated with the mean dose to the anal-sphincter region. Examining different dose intervals, we found a large increase at 40 Gy; {>=}40 Gy compared with <40 Gy gave a prevalence ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.6). Conclusions: This long-term study shows that mean absorbed dose to the anal-sphincter region is associated with the occurrence of long-term fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors; delineating the anal-sphincter region separately from the rectum and applying a restriction of a mean dose <40 Gy will, according to our data, reduce the risk considerably.« less

  15. Estimation of absorbed dose in clinical radiotherapy linear accelerator beams: Effect of ion chamber calibration and long-term stability

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, Johnson Pichy; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2013-01-01

    The measured dose in water at reference point in phantom is a primary parameter for planning the treatment monitor units (MU); both in conventional and intensity modulated/image guided treatments. Traceability of dose accuracy therefore still depends mainly on the calibration factor of the ion chamber/dosimeter provided by the accredited Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of laboratories. The data related to Nd,water calibrations, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) postal dose validation, inter-comparison of different dosimeter/electrometers, and validity of Nd,water calibrations obtained from different calibration laboratories were analyzed to find out the extent of accuracy achievable. Nd,w factors in Gray/Coulomb calibrated at IBA, GmBH, Germany showed a mean variation of about 0.2% increase per year in three Farmer chambers, in three subsequent calibrations. Another ion chamber calibrated in different accredited laboratory (PTW, Germany) showed consistent Nd,w for 9 years period. The Strontium-90 beta check source response indicated long-term stability of the ion chambers within 1% for three chambers. Results of IAEA postal TL “dose intercomparison” for three photon beams, 6 MV (two) and 15 MV (one), agreed well within our reported doses, with mean deviation of 0.03% (SD 0.87%) (n = 9). All the chamber/electrometer calibrated by a single SSDL realized absorbed doses in water within 0.13% standard deviations. However, about 1-2% differences in absorbed dose estimates observed when dosimeters calibrated from different calibration laboratories are compared in solid phantoms. Our data therefore imply that the dosimetry level maintained for clinical use of linear accelerator photon beams are within recommended levels of accuracy, and uncertainties are within reported values. PMID:24672156

  16. Reconstruction of Absorbed Doses to Fibroglandular Tissue of the Breast of Women undergoing Mammography (1960 to the Present)

    PubMed Central

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Kwon, Deukwoo; Linet, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of potential benefits versus harms from mammographic examinations as described in the controversial breast cancer screening recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Task Force included limited consideration of absorbed dose to the fibroglandular tissue of the breast (glandular tissue dose), the tissue at risk for breast cancer. Epidemiological studies on cancer risks associated with diagnostic radiological examinations often lack accurate information on glandular tissue dose, and there is a clear need for better estimates of these doses. Our objective was to develop a quantitative summary of glandular tissue doses from mammography by considering sources of variation over time in key parameters including imaging protocols, x-ray target materials, voltage, filtration, incident air kerma, compressed breast thickness, and breast composition. We estimated the minimum, maximum, and mean values for glandular tissue dose for populations of exposed women within 5-year periods from 1960 to the present, with the minimum to maximum range likely including 90% to 95% of the entirety of the dose range from mammography in North America and Europe. Glandular tissue dose from a single view in mammography is presently about 2 mGy, about one-sixth the dose in the 1960s. The ratio of our estimates of maximum to minimum glandular tissue doses for average-size breasts was about 100 in the 1960s compared to a ratio of about 5 in recent years. Findings from our analysis provide quantitative information on glandular tissue doses from mammographic examinations which can be used in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. PMID:21988547

  17. Considerations on the calibration of small thermoluminescent dosimeters used for measurement of beta particle absorbed doses in liquid environments.

    PubMed

    Demidecki, A J; Williams, L E; Wong, J Y; Wessels, B W; Yorke, E D; Strandh, M; Strand, S E

    1993-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out on the factors which affect the absolute calibration of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) used in beta particle absorbed dose evaluations. Four effects on light output (LO) were considered: decay of detector sensitivity with time, finite TLD volume, dose linearity, and energy dependence. Most important of these was the decay of LO with time in culture medium, muscle tissue, and gels. This permanent loss of sensitivity was as large as an order of magnitude over a 21-day interval for the nominally 20-microns-thick disc-shaped CaSO4(Dy) TLDs in gel. Associated leaching of the dosimeter crystals out of the Teflon matrix was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Large channels leading from the outside environment into the TLDs were identified using SEM images. A possibility of batch dependence of fading was indicated. The second most important effect was the apparent reduction of light output due to finite size and increased specific gravity of the dosimeter (volume effect). We estimated this term by calculations as 10% in standard "mini" rods for beta particles from 90Y, but nearly a factor of 3 for 131I beta particles in the same geometry. No significant nonlinearity of the log (light output) with log (absorbed dose) over the range 0.05-20.00 Gy was discovered. Energy dependence of the LO was found to be not detectable, within measurement errors, over the range of 0.60-6.0 MeV mean energy electrons. With careful understanding of these effects, calibration via gel phantom would appear to be an acceptable strategy for mini TLDs used in beta absorbed dose evaluations in media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. A methodological approach to a realistic evaluation of skin absorbed doses during manipulation of radioactive sources by means of GAMOS Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italiano, Antonio; Amato, Ernesto; Auditore, Lucrezia; Baldari, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    The accurate evaluation of the radiation burden associated with radiation absorbed doses to the skin of the extremities during the manipulation of radioactive sources is a critical issue in operational radiological protection, deserving the most accurate calculation approaches available. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation transport and interaction is the gold standard for the calculation of dose distributions in complex geometries and in presence of extended spectra of multi-radiation sources. We propose the use of Monte Carlo simulations in GAMOS, in order to accurately estimate the dose to the extremities during manipulation of radioactive sources. We report the results of these simulations for 90Y, 131I, 18F and 111In nuclides in water solutions enclosed in glass or plastic receptacles, such as vials or syringes. Skin equivalent doses at 70 μm of depth and dose-depth profiles are reported for different configurations, highlighting the importance of adopting a realistic geometrical configuration in order to get accurate dosimetric estimations. Due to the easiness of implementation of GAMOS simulations, case-specific geometries and nuclides can be adopted and results can be obtained in less than about ten minutes of computation time with a common workstation.

  19. Absorbed dose to water based dosimetry versus air kerma based dosimetry for high-energy photon beams: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Palmans, Hugo; Nafaa, Laila; De, Jans Jo; Gillis, Sofie; Hoornaert, Marie-Thérèse; Martens, Chantal; Piessens, Marleen; Thierens, Hubert; Van der Plaetsen, Ann; Vynckier, Stefaan

    2002-02-07

    In recent years, a change has been proposed from air kerma based reference dosimetry to absorbed dose based reference dosimetry for all radiotherapy beams of ionizing radiation. In this paper, a dosimetry study is presented in which absorbed dose based dosimetry using recently developed formalisms was compared with air kerma based dosimetry using older formalisms. Three ionization chambers of each of three different types were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water and air kerma and sent to five hospitals. There, reference dosimetry with all the chambers was performed in a total of eight high-energy clinical photon beams. The selected chamber types were the NE2571, the PTW-30004 and the Wellhöfer-FC65G (previously Wellhöfer-IC70). Having a graphite wall, they exhibit a stable volume and the presence of an aluminium electrode ensures the robustness of these chambers. The data were analysed with the most important recommendations for clinical dosimetry: IAEA TRS-398, AAPM TG-51, IAEA TRS-277, NCS report-2 (presently recommended in Belgium) and AAPM TG-21. The necessary conversion factors were taken from those protocols, or calculated using the data in the different protocols if data for a chamber type are lacking. Polarity corrections were within 0.1% for all chambers in all beams. Recombination corrections were consistent with theoretical predictions, did not vary within a chamber type and only slightly between different chamber types. The maximum chamber-to-chamber variations of the dose obtained with the different formalisms within the same chamber type were between 0.2% and 0.6% for the NE2571, between 0.2% and 0.6% for the PTW-30004 and 0.1% and 0.3% for the Wellhöfer-FC65G for the different beams. The absorbed dose results for the NE2571 and Wellhöfer-FC65G chambers were in good agreement for all beams and all formalisms. The PTW-30004 chambers gave a small but systematically higher result compared to the result for the NE2571 chambers (on the

  20. Optimized Dose Distribution of Gammamed Plus Vaginal Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Supe, Sanjay S.; Bijina, T.K.; Varatharaj, C.

    2009-04-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy dose to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the management of postoperative endometrial cancer or cervical cancer. The dose distributions of HDR vaginal cylinders must be evaluated carefully, so that clinical experiences with LDR techniques can be used in guiding optimal use of HDR techniques. The aim of thismore » study was to optimize dose distribution for Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders. Placement of dose optimization points was evaluated for its effect on optimized dose distributions. Two different dose optimization point models were used in this study, namely non-apex (dose optimization points only on periphery of cylinder) and apex (dose optimization points on periphery and along the curvature including the apex points). Thirteen dwell positions were used for the HDR dosimetry to obtain a 6-cm active length. Thus 13 optimization points were available at the periphery of the cylinder. The coordinates of the points along the curvature depended on the cylinder diameters and were chosen for each cylinder so that four points were distributed evenly in the curvature portion of the cylinder. Diameter of vaginal cylinders varied from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. Iterative optimization routine was utilized for all optimizations. The effects of various optimization routines (iterative, geometric, equal times) was studied for the 3.0-cm diameter vaginal cylinder. The effect of source travel step size on the optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders was also evaluated. All optimizations in this study were carried for dose of 6 Gy at dose optimization points. For both non-apex and apex models of vaginal cylinders, doses for apex point and

  1. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the breast using radiochromic film in a dedicated CT mammotomography system employing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Dominic J; Brady, Samuel L; Jackson, D'Vone C; Toncheva, Greta I; Anderson, Colin E; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Tornai, Martin P

    2011-06-01

    A dual modality SPECT-CT prototype system dedicated to uncompressed breast imaging (mammotomography) has been developed. The computed tomography subsystem incorporates an ultrathick K-edge filtration technique producing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray cone beam that optimizes the dose efficiency of the system for lesion imaging in an uncompressed breast. Here, the absorbed dose in various geometric phantoms and in an uncompressed and pendant cadaveric breast using a normal tomographic cone beam imaging protocol is characterized using both thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and ionization chamber-calibrated radiochromic film. Initially, two geometric phantoms and an anthropomorphic breast phantom are filled in turn with oil and water to simulate the dose to objects that mimic various breast shapes having effective density bounds of 100% fatty and glandular breast compositions, respectively. Ultimately, an excised human cadaver breast is tomographically scanned using the normal tomographic imaging protocol, and the dose to the breast tissue is evaluated and compared to the earlier phantom-based measurements. Measured trends in dose distribution across all breast geometric and anthropomorphic phantom volumes indicate lower doses in the medial breast and more proximal to the chest wall, with consequently higher doses near the lateral peripheries and nipple regions. Measured doses to the oil-filled phantoms are consistently lower across all volume shapes due to the reduced mass energy-absorption coefficient of oil relative to water. The mean measured dose to the breast cadaver, composed of adipose and glandular tissues, was measured to be 4.2 mGy compared to a mean whole-breast dose of 3.8 and 4.5 mGy for the oil- and water-filled anthropomorphic breast phantoms, respectively. Assuming rotational symmetry due to the tomographic acquisition exposures, these results characterize the 3D dose distributions in an uncompressed human breast tissue volume for this

  2. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the breast using radiochromic film in a dedicated CT mammotomography system employing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Dominic J.; Brady, Samuel L.; Jackson, D’Vone C.; Toncheva, Greta I.; Anderson, Colin E.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A dual modality SPECT-CT prototype system dedicated to uncompressed breast imaging (mammotomography) has been developed. The computed tomography subsystem incorporates an ultrathick K-edge filtration technique producing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray cone beam that optimizes the dose efficiency of the system for lesion imaging in an uncompressed breast. Here, the absorbed dose in various geometric phantoms and in an uncompressed and pendant cadaveric breast using a normal tomographic cone beam imaging protocol is characterized using both thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and ionization chamber-calibrated radiochromic film. Methods: Initially, two geometric phantoms and an anthropomorphic breast phantom are filled in turn with oil and water to simulate the dose to objects that mimic various breast shapes having effective density bounds of 100% fatty and glandular breast compositions, respectively. Ultimately, an excised human cadaver breast is tomographically scanned using the normal tomographic imaging protocol, and the dose to the breast tissue is evaluated and compared to the earlier phantom-based measurements. Results: Measured trends in dose distribution across all breast geometric and anthropomorphic phantom volumes indicate lower doses in the medial breast and more proximal to the chest wall, with consequently higher doses near the lateral peripheries and nipple regions. Measured doses to the oil-filled phantoms are consistently lower across all volume shapes due to the reduced mass energy-absorption coefficient of oil relative to water. The mean measured dose to the breast cadaver, composed of adipose and glandular tissues, was measured to be 4.2 mGy compared to a mean whole-breast dose of 3.8 and 4.5 mGy for the oil- and water-filled anthropomorphic breast phantoms, respectively. Conclusions: Assuming rotational symmetry due to the tomographic acquisition exposures, these results characterize the 3D dose distributions in an uncompressed

  3. Investigating the dose distribution in the uncompressed breast with a dedicated CT mammotomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotty, Dominic J.; Brady, Samuel L.; Jackson, D'Vone C.; Toncheva, Greta I.; Anderson, Colin E.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2010-04-01

    A dual modality SPECT-CT prototype dedicated to uncompressed breast imaging (mammotomography) has been developed. The CT subsystem incorporates an ultra-thick K-edge filtration technique producing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray cone beam to optimize the dose efficiency for uncompressed breast tomography. We characterize the absorbed dose to the breast under normal tomographic cone beam image acquisition protocols using both TLD measurements and ionization chamber-calibrated radiochromic film. Geometric and anthropomorphic breast phantoms are filled with 1000mL of water and oil to simulate different breast compositions and varying object shapes having density bounds of 100% glandular and fatty breast compositions, respectively. Doses to the water filled geometric and anthropomorphic breast phantoms for a tomographic scan range from 1.3-7.3mGy and 1.7-6.3mGy, respectively, with a mean whole-breast dose of 4.5mGy for the water-filled anthropomorphic phantom. Measured dose distribution trends indicate lower doses in the center of the breast phantoms towards the chest wall along with higher doses near the peripheries and nipple regions. Measured doses to the oil-filled phantoms are consistently lower across all volume shapes (mean dose, 3.8mGy for the anthropomorphic breast). Results agree with Monte Carlo dose estimates generated for uncompressed breast imaging and illustrate the advantages of using the novel K-edge filtered beam to minimize absorbed dose to the breast during fully-3D imaging.

  4. Image quality and absorbed dose comparison of single- and dual-source cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Okazue, Toshiya; Kawakubo, Atsushi; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2018-05-01

    Dual-source cone-beam computed tomography (DCBCT) is currently available in the Vero4DRT image-guided radiotherapy system. We evaluated the image quality and absorbed dose for DCBCT and compared the values with those for single-source CBCT (SCBCT). Image uniformity, Hounsfield unit (HU) linearity, image contrast, and spatial resolution were evaluated using a Catphan phantom. The rotation angle for acquiring SCBCT and DCBCT images is 215° and 115°, respectively. The image uniformity was calculated using measurements obtained at the center and four peripheral positions. The HUs of seven materials inserted into the phantom were measured to evaluate HU linearity and image contrast. The Catphan phantom was scanned with a conventional CT scanner to measure the reference HU for each material. The spatial resolution was calculated using high-resolution pattern modules. Image quality was analyzed using ImageJ software ver. 1.49. The absorbed dose was measured using a 0.6-cm 3 ionization chamber with a 16-cm-diameter cylindrical phantom, at the center and four peripheral positions of the phantom, and calculated using weighted cone-beam CT dose index (CBCTDI w ). Compared with that of SCBCT, the image uniformity of DCBCT was slightly reduced. A strong linear correlation existed between the measured HU for DCBCT and the reference HU, although the linear regression slope was different from that of the reference HU. DCBCT had poorer image contrast than did SCBCT, particularly with a high-contrast material. There was no significant difference between the spatial resolutions of SCBCT and DCBCT. The absorbed dose for DCBCT was higher than that for SCBCT, because in DCBCT, the two x-ray projections overlap between 45° and 70°. We found that the image quality was poorer and the absorbed dose was higher for DCBCT than for SCBCT in the Vero4DRT. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of

  5. Influence of exposure and geometric parameters on absorbed doses associated with common neuro-interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Javad; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Jong, Wei Loong; Thorpe, Nathan; Cutajar, Dean; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of routine exposure parameters on patient's dose during neuro-interventional radiology procedures. We scrutinized the routine radiological exposure parameters during 58 clinical neuro-interventional procedures such as, exposure direction, magnification, frame rate, and distance between image receptor to patient's body and evaluate their effects on patient's dose using an anthropomorphic phantom. Radiation dose received by the occipital region, ears and eyes of the phantom were measured using MOSkin detectors. DSA imaging technique is a major contributor to patient's dose (80.9%) even though they are used sparingly (5.3% of total frame number). The occipital region of the brain received high dose largely from the frontal tube constantly placed under couch (73.7% of the total KAP). When rotating the frontal tube away from under the couch, the radiation dose to the occipital reduced by 40%. The use of magnification modes could increase radiation dose by 94%. Changing the image receptor to the phantom surface distance from 10 to 40cm doubled the radiation dose received by the patient's skin at the occipital region. Our findings provided important insights into the contribution of selected fluoroscopic exposure parameters and their impact on patient's dose during neuro-interventional radiology procedures. This study showed that the DSA imaging technique contributed to the highest patient's dose and judicial use of exposure parameters might assist interventional radiologists in effective skin and eye lens dose reduction for patients undergoing neuro-interventional procedures. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  6. High-energy neutron depth-dose distribution experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferenci, M S; Hertel, N E

    2003-01-01

    A unique set of high-energy neutron depth-dose benchmark experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center/Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE/WNR) complex. The experiments consisted of filtered neutron beams with energies up to 800 MeV impinging on a 30 x 30 x 30 cm3 liquid, tissue-equivalent phantom. The absorbed dose was measured in the phantom at various depths with tissue-equivalent ion chambers. This experiment is intended to serve as a benchmark experiment for the testing of high-energy radiation transport codes for the international radiation protection community.

  7. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  8. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  9. A test of the IAEA code of practice for absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Arnold; Tiefenboeck, Wilhelm; Witzani, Josef; Strachotinsky, Christian

    1990-12-01

    The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) code of practice TRS 277 gives recommendations for absorbed dose determination in high energy photon and electron beams based on the use of ionization chambers calibrated in terms of exposure of air kerma. The scope of the work was to test the code for cobalt 60 gamma radiation and for several radiation qualities at four different types of electron accelerators and to compare the ionization chamber dosimetry with ferrous sulphate dosimetry. The results show agreement between the two methods within about one per cent for all the investigated qualities. In addition the response of the TLD capsules of the IAEA/WHO TL dosimetry service was determined.

  10. Measurement of argon neutral velocity distribution functions near an absorbing boundary in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Zachary; Thompson, Derek; Good, Timothy; Scime, Earl

    2016-10-01

    Neutral particle distributions are critical to the study of plasma boundary interactions, where ion-neutral collisions, e.g. via charge exchange, may modify energetic particle populations impacting the boundary surface. Neutral particle behavior at absorbing boundaries thus underlies a number of important plasma physics issues, such as wall loading in fusion devices and anomalous erosion in Hall thruster channels. Neutral velocity distribution functions (NVDFs) are measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Our LIF scheme excites the 1s4 non-metastable state of neutral argon with 667.913 nm photons. The subsequent decay emission at 750.590 nm is recorded synchronously with injection laser frequency. Measurements are performed near a grounded boundary immersed in a cylindrical helicon plasma, with the boundary plate oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field. NVDFs are recorded in multiple velocity dimensions and in a three-dimensional volume, enabling point-to-point comparisons with NVDF predictions from particle-in-cell models as well as comparisons with ion velocity distribution function measurements obtained in the same regions through Ar-II LIF. This work is supported by US National Science Foundation Grant Number PHYS-1360278.

  11. MCNP simulation of radiation doses distributions in a water phantoms simulating interventional radiology patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenjun; Mah, Eugene; Huda, Walter; Selby, Bayne; Yao, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dose distributions in water cylinders simulating patients undergoing Interventional Radiological examinations. Method: The irradiation geometry consisted of an x-ray source, dose-area-product chamber, and image intensifier as currently used in Interventional Radiology. Water cylinders of diameters ranging between 17 and 30 cm were used to simulate patients weighing between 20 and 90 kg. X-ray spectra data with peak x-ray tube voltages ranging from 60 to 120 kV were generated using XCOMP3R. Radiation dose distributions inside the water cylinder (Dw) were obtained using MCNP5. The depth dose distribution along the x-ray beam central axis was normalized to free-in-air air kerma (AK) that is incident on the phantom. Scattered radiation within the water cylinders but outside the directly irradiated region was normalized to the dose at the edge of the radiation field. The total absorbed energy to the directly irradiated volume (Ep) and indirectly irradiated volume (Es) were also determined and investigated as a function of x-ray tube voltage and phantom size. Results: At 80 kV, the average Dw/AK near the x-ray entrance point was 1.3. The ratio of Dw near the entrance point to Dw near the exit point increased from ~ 26 for the 17 cm water cylinder to ~ 290 for the 30 cm water cylinder. At 80 kV, the relative dose for a 17 cm water cylinder fell to 0.1% at 49 cm away from the central ray of the x-ray beam. For a 30 cm water cylinder, the relative dose fell to 0.1% at 53 cm away from the central ray of the x-ray beam. At a fixed x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV, increasing the water cylinder diameter from 17 to 30 cm increased the Es/(Ep+Es) ratio by about 50%. At a fixed water cylinder diameter of 24 cm, increasing the tube voltage from 60 kV to 120 kV increased the Es/(Ep+Es) ratio by about 12%. The absorbed energy from scattered radiation was between 20-30% of the total energy absorbed by the water cylinder, and was affected more by patient size

  12. SU-F-19A-10: Recalculation and Reporting Clinical HDR 192-Ir Head and Neck Dose Distributions Using Model Based Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson Tedgren, A; Persson, M; Nilsson, J

    Purpose: To retrospectively re-calculate dose distributions for selected head and neck cancer patients, earlier treated with HDR 192Ir brachytherapy, using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and compare results to distributions from the planning system derived using TG43 formalism. To study differences between dose to medium (as obtained with the MC code) and dose to water in medium as obtained through (1) ratios of stopping powers and (2) ratios of mass energy absorption coefficients between water and medium. Methods: The MC code Algebra was used to calculate dose distributions according to earlier actual treatment plans using anonymized plan data and CT imagesmore » in DICOM format. Ratios of stopping power and mass energy absorption coefficients for water with various media obtained from 192-Ir spectra were used in toggling between dose to water and dose to media. Results: Differences between initial planned TG43 dose distributions and the doses to media calculated by MC are insignificant in the target volume. Differences are moderate (within 4–5 % at distances of 3–4 cm) but increase with distance and are most notable in bone and at the patient surface. Differences between dose to water and dose to medium are within 1-2% when using mass energy absorption coefficients to toggle between the two quantities but increase to above 10% for bone using stopping power ratios. Conclusion: MC predicts target doses for head and neck cancer patients in close agreement with TG43. MC yields improved dose estimations outside the target where a larger fraction of dose is from scattered photons. It is important with awareness and a clear reporting of absorbed dose values in using model based algorithms. Differences in bone media can exceed 10% depending on how dose to water in medium is defined.« less

  13. Development of modern approach to absorbed dose assessment in radionuclide therapy, based on Monte Carlo method simulation of patient scintigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, Y. V.; Klimanov, V. A.; Narkevich, B. Ya

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems of modern radionuclide therapy (RNT) is control of the absorbed dose in pathological volume. This research presents new approach based on estimation of radiopharmaceutical (RP) accumulated activity value in tumor volume, based on planar scintigraphic images of the patient and calculated radiation transport using Monte Carlo method, including absorption and scattering in biological tissues of the patient, and elements of gamma camera itself. In our research, to obtain the data, we performed modeling scintigraphy of the vial with administered to the patient activity of RP in gamma camera, the vial was placed at the certain distance from the collimator, and the similar study was performed in identical geometry, with the same values of activity of radiopharmaceuticals in the pathological target in the body of the patient. For correct calculation results, adapted Fisher-Snyder human phantom was simulated in MCNP program. In the context of our technique, calculations were performed for different sizes of pathological targets and various tumors deeps inside patient’s body, using radiopharmaceuticals based on a mixed β-γ-radiating (131I, 177Lu), and clear β- emitting (89Sr, 90Y) therapeutic radionuclides. Presented method can be used for adequate implementing in clinical practice estimation of absorbed doses in the regions of interest on the basis of planar scintigraphy of the patient with sufficient accuracy.

  14. Dose Distribution in Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography: An Experimental Phantom Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paolo; Lauria, Adele; Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Villani, Natalia

    2010-02-01

    We measured the spatial distribution of absorbed dose in a 14 cm diameter PMMA half-ellipsoid phantom simulating the uncompressed breast, using an X-ray cone-beam breast computed tomography apparatus, assembled for laboratory tests. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were placed inside the phantom in six positions, both axially and at the phantom periphery. To study the dose distribution inside the PMMA phantom two experimental setups were adopted with effective energies in the range 28.7-44.4 keV. Different values of effective energies were obtained by combining different configurations of added Cu filtration (0.05 mm or 0.2 mm) and tube voltages (from 50 kVp to 80 kVp). Dose values obtained by TLDs in different positions inside the PMMA are reported. To evaluate the dose distribution in the breast shaped volume, the values measured were normalized to the one obtained in the inner position inside the phantom. Measurements with a low energy setup show a gradual increment of dose going from the "chest wall" to the "nipple" (63% more at the "nipple" compared to the central position). Likewise, a gradual increment is observed going from the breast axis toward the periphery (82% more at the "skin" compared to the central position). A more uniform distribution of dose inside the PMMA was obtained with a high energy setup (the maximum variation was 33% at 35.5 keV effective energy in the radial direction). The most uniform distribution is obtained at 44.4 keV. The results of this study show how the dose is distributed: it varies as a function of effective energy of the incident X-ray beam and as a function of the position inside the volume (axial or peripheral position).

  15. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model.

    PubMed

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit

    2017-02-01

    To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD 2 ) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD 2 verification with pair t -test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D 90% , 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D 2cc , and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD 2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p -values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  16. MONTE CARLO STUDY OF THE CARDIAC ABSORBED DOSE DURING X-RAY EXAMINATION OF AN ADULT PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Kadri, O; Manai, K; Alfuraih, A

    2016-12-01

    The computational voxel phantom 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)' was implemented into the Monte Carlo transport toolkit Geant4. The voxel model, adjusted to the Reference Korean Man, is 171 cm in height and 68 kg in weight and composed of ∼30 million voxels whose size is 1.981 × 1.981 × 2.0854 mm 3 The Geant4 code is then utilised to compute the dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) expressed in absorbed dose per air kerma free in air for >30 tissues and organs, including almost all organs required in the new recommendation of the ICRP 103, due to a broad parallel beam of monoenergetic photons impinging in antero-postero direction with energy ranging from 10 to 150 keV. The computed DCCs of different organs are found to be in good agreement with data published using other simulation codes. Also, the influence of patient size on DCC values was investigated for a representative body size of the adult Korean patient population. The study was performed using five different sizes covering the range of 0.8-1.2 magnification order of the original HDRK-Man. It focussed on the computation of DCC for the human heart. Moreover, the provided DCCs were used to present an analytical parameterisation for the calculation of the cardiac absorbed dose for any arbitrary X-ray spectrum and for those patient sizes. Thus, the present work can be considered as an enhancement of the continuous studies performed by medical physicist as part of quality control tests and radiation protection dosimetry. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement one to three days after the administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE/-TOC.

    PubMed

    Hänscheid, Heribert; Lapa, Constantin; Buck, Andreas K; Lassmann, Michael; Werner, Rudolf A

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the accuracy of absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement of the activity concentrations in tumors and relevant organs one to three days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/TOC assuming tissue specific effective half-lives. Activity kinetics in 54 kidneys, 30 neuroendocrine tumor lesions, 25 livers, and 27 spleens were deduced from series of planar images in 29 patients. After adaptation of mono- or bi-exponential fit functions to the measured data, it was analyzed for each fit function how precise the time integral can be estimated from fixed tissue-specific half-lives and a single measurement at 24, 48, or 72 h after the administration. For the kidneys, assuming a fixed tissue-specific half-life of 50 h, the deviations of the estimate from the actual integral were median (5 % percentile, 95 % percentile): -3 °% (-15 %>; +16 °%) for measurements after 24 h, +2 %> (-9 %>; +12 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and 0 % (-2 %; +12 %) for measurements after 72 h. The corresponding values for the other tissues, assuming fixed tissue-specific half-lives of 67 h for liver and spleen and 77 h for tumors, were +2 % (-25 %; +20 %) for measurements after 24 h, +2 °% (-16 %>; +17 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and +2 %> (-11 %>; +10 %>) for measurements after 72 h. Especially for the kidneys, which often represent the dose limiting organ, but also for liver, spleen, and neuroendocrine tumors, a meaningful absorbed dose estimate is possible from a single measurement after 2, more preferably 3 days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/-TOC assuming fixed tissue specific effective half-lives. Schattauer GmbH.

  18. Monte Carlo dose distribution calculation at nuclear level for Auger-emitting radionuclide energies.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Romanets, Y; Paulo, A; Vaz, P

    2018-05-01

    The distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in tumor cells represents a fundamental aspect for a successful molecular targeted radiotherapy. It was largely demonstrated at microscopic level that only a fraction of cells in tumoral tissues incorporate the radiolabel. In addition, the distribution of the radionuclides at sub-cellular level, namely inside each nucleus, should also be investigated for accurate dosimetry estimation. The most used method to perform cellular dosimetry is the MIRD one, where S-values are able to estimate cellular absorbed doses for several electron energies, nucleus diameters, and considering homogeneous source distributions. However the radionuclide distribution inside nuclei can be also highly non-homogeneous. The aim of this study is to show in what extent a non-accurate cellular dosimetry could lead to misinterpretations of surviving cell fraction vs dose relationship; in this context, a dosimetric case study with 99m Tc is also presented. The state-of-art MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulation was used in order to model cell structures both in MIRD geometry (MG) and MIRD modified geometries (MMG), where also entire mitotic chromosome volumes were considered (each structure was modeled as liquid water material). In order to simulate a wide energy range of Auger emitting radionuclides, four mono energetic electron emissions were considered, namely 213eV, 6keV, 11keV and 20keV. A dosimetric calculation for 99m Tc undergoing inhomogeneous nuclear internalization was also performed. After a successful validation step between MIRD and our computed S-values for three Auger-emitting radionuclides ( 99m Tc, 125 I and 64 Cu), absorbed dose results showed that the standard MG could differ from the MMG from one to three orders of magnitude. These results were also confirmed by considering the 99m Tc spectrum emission (Auger and internal conversion electrons). Moreover, considering an inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution, the average electron energy that

  19. Reducing absorbed dose to eye lenses in head CT examinations: the effect of bismuth shielding.

    PubMed

    Ciarmatori, Alberto; Nocetti, L; Mistretta, G; Zambelli, G; Costi, T

    2016-06-01

    The eye lens is considered to be among the most radiosensitive human tissues. Brain CT scans may unnecessarily expose it to radiation even if the area of clinical interest is far from the eyes. The aim of this study is to implement a bismuth eye lens shielding system for Head-CT acquisitions in these cases. The study is focused on the assessment of the dosimetric characteristics of the shielding system as well as on its effect on image quality. The shielding system was tested in two set-ups which differ for distance ("contact" and "4 cm" Set up respectively). Scans were performed on a CTDI phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom. A reference set up without shielding system was acquired to establish a baseline. Image quality was assessed by signal (not HU converted), noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) evaluation. The overall dose reduction was evaluated by measuring the CTDIvol while the eye lens dose reduction was assessed by placing thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on an anthropomorphic phantom. The image quality analysis exhibits the presence of an artefact that mildly increases the CT number up to 3 cm below the shielding system. Below the artefact, the difference of the Signal and the CNR are negligible between the three different set-ups. Regarding the CTDI, the analysis demonstrates a decrease by almost 12 % (in the "contact" set-up) and 9 % (in the "4 cm" set-up). TLD measurements exhibit an eye lens dose reduction by 28.5 ± 5 and 21.1 ± 5 % respectively at the "contact" and the "4 cm" distance. No relevant artefact was found and image quality was not affected by the shielding system. Significant dose reductions were measured. These features make the shielding set-up useful for clinical implementation in both studied positions.

  20. Detector photon response and absorbed dose and their applications to rapid triage techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Shannon Prentice

    As radiation specialists, one of our primary objectives in the Navy is protecting people and the environment from the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Focusing on radiological dispersal devices (RDD) will provide increased personnel protection as well as optimize emergency response assets for the general public. An attack involving an RDD has been of particular concern because it is intended to spread contamination over a wide area and cause massive panic within the general population. A rapid method of triage will be necessary to segregate the unexposed and slightly exposed from those needing immediate medical treatment. Because of the aerosol dispersal of the radioactive material, inhalation of the radioactive material may be the primary exposure route. The primary radionuclides likely to be used in a RDD attack are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Sr-90 and Am-241. Through the use of a MAX phantom along with a few Simulink MATLAB programs, a good anthropomorphic phantom was created for use in MCNPX simulations that would provide organ doses from internally deposited radionuclides. Ludlum model 44-9 and 44-2 detectors were used to verify the simulated dose from the MCNPX code. Based on the results, acute dose rate limits were developed for emergency response personnel that would assist in patient triage.

  1. [An investigation of ionizing radiation dose in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W F; Tang, S H; Tan, Q; Liu, Y M

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate radioactive source term dose monitoring and estimation results in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore and the possible ionizing radiation dose received by its workers. Methods: Ionizing radiation monitoring data of the posts in the control area and supervised area of workplace were collected, and the annual average effective dose directly estimated or estimated using formulas was evaluated and analyzed. Results: In the control area and supervised area of the workplace for this rare earth ore, α surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 0.35 Bq/cm 2 and a minimum value of 0.01 Bq/cm 2 ; β radioactive surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 18.8 Bq/cm 2 and a minimum value of 0.22 Bq/cm 2 . In 14 monitoring points in the workplace, the maximum value of the annual average effective dose of occupational exposure was 1.641 mSv/a, which did not exceed the authorized limit for workers (5 mSv/a) , but exceeded the authorized limit for general personnel (0.25 mSv/a) . The radionuclide specific activity of ionic mixed rare earth oxides was determined to be 0.9. Conclusion: The annual average effective dose of occupational exposure in this enterprise does not exceed the authorized limit for workers, but it exceeds the authorized limit for general personnel. We should pay attention to the focus of the radiation process, especially for public works radiation.

  2. SU-F-J-56: The Connection Between Cherenkov Light Emission and Radiation Absorbed Dose in Proton Irradiated Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Darafsheh, A; Kassaee, A; Finlay, J

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy is of great importance. Cherenkov light follows the photon and electron energy deposition in water phantom. The purpose of this study is to investigate the connection between Cherenkov light generation and radiation absorbed dose in a water phantom irradiated with proton beams. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation was performed by employing FLUKA Monte Carlo code to stochastically simulate radiation transport, ionizing radiation dose deposition, and Cherenkov radiation in water phantoms. The simulations were performed for proton beams with energies in the range 50–600 MeV to cover a wide range of proton energies. Results: The mechanismmore » of Cherenkov light production depends on the initial energy of protons. For proton energy with 50–400 MeV energy that is below the threshold (∼483 MeV in water) for Cherenkov light production directly from incident protons, Cherenkov light is produced mainly from the secondary electrons liberated as a result of columbic interactions with the incident protons. For proton beams with energy above 500 MeV, in the initial depth that incident protons have higher energy than the Cherenkov light production threshold, the light has higher intensity. As the slowing down process results in lower energy protons in larger depths in the water phantom, there is a knee point in the Cherenkov light curve vs. depth due to switching the Cherenkov light production mechanism from primary protons to secondary electrons. At the end of the depth dose curve the Cherenkov light intensity does not follow the dose peak because of the lack of high energy protons to produce Cherenkov light either directly or through secondary electrons. Conclusion: In contrast to photon and electron beams, Cherenkov light generation induced by proton beams does not follow the proton energy deposition specially close to the end of the proton range near the Bragg peak.« less

  3. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  4. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Allah Verdi, M; Nikoofar, A

    2006-09-07

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  5. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev butmore » at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.« less

  6. A new method for determining dose rate distribution from radioimmuno-therapy using radiochromic media

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.; Dillehay, L.E.; Shao, Y.

    The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate a new, simple, inexpensive method for directly measuring the radiation dose and its spatial distribution generated from explanted tissues of animals previously injected with radiolabeled immunoconjugates or other agents. This technique uses the newly developed radiochromic dye medium (Gafchromic[trademark]) which responds reproducibly for therapeutic dose exposures, has high spatial resolution, does not require film processing, and is relatively insensitive to ambient light. The authors have evaluated the dose distribution from LS174T tumors and selected normal tissues in nude mice previously injected with [sup 90]Y labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies. Individual tissuesmore » from sacrificed animals are halved and the flat section of the tissue is placed onto the dosimetry media and then frozen. The dosimetry medium is exposed to beta and Bremsstrahlung radiation originating from the frozen tissues. The relative darkening of the dosimetry medium depends on the dose deposited in the film. The dosimetry medium is scanned with a commercial flatbed scanner and the image intensity is digitally stored and quantitatively analyzed. Isodose curves are generated and compared to the actual tissue outline. The absorbed dose distribution due to [sup 90]Y exposure show only slight gradients in the interior of the tissue, with a markedly decreasing dose near the edges of the tissue. In addition, the isodose curves follow the tissue outline except in regions having radii of curvature smaller than the range of the beta-particle (R90 = 5 mm). These results suggest that the shape of the tumor, and its curvature, are important in determining the minimum dose delivered to the tumor by radiation from [sup 90]Y monoclonal antibodies, and hence in evaluating the tumor response to the radiation. 28 refs., 8 figs.« less

  7. Geometrical gradients in the distribution of temperature and absorbed ultraviolet radiation in ocular tissues.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H

    2002-01-01

    The geographical variations in the incidence of age-related ocular changes such as presbyopia and cataracts and diseases such as pterygium and droplet keratopathies have led to theories pointing to sunlight, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and ambient temperature as potential etiological factors. Some epidemiological evidence also points to an association of age-related macular degeneration to sunlight exposure. The actual distribution of sunlight exposure and the determination of temperature variations of different tissues within the anterior segment of the eye are difficult to assess. Of greatest importance are the geometrical factors that influence selective UVR exposures to different segments of the lens, cornea and retina. Studies show that the temperature of the lens and cornea varies by several degrees depending upon climate, and that the incidence of nuclear cataract incidence is greater in areas of higher ambient temperature (i.e., in the tropics). Likewise, sunlight exposure to local areas of the cornea, lens and retina varies greatly in different environments. However, epidemiological studies of the influence of environmental UVR in the development of cataract, pterygium, droplet keratopathies and age-related macular degeneration have produced surprisingly inconsistent findings. The lack of consistent results is seen to be due largely to either incomplete or erroneous estimates of outdoor UV exposure dose. Geometrical factors dominate the determination of UVR exposure of the eye. The degree of lid opening limits ocular exposure to rays entering at angles near the horizon. Clouds redistribute overhead UVR to the horizon sky. Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect little UVR. The result is that highest UVR exposure occurs during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley (lower ambient temperature) with

  8. Measurement of LET distribution and dose equivalent on board the space shuttle STS-65.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Doke, T; Kikuchi, J; Takeuchi, R; Hasebe, N; Ogura, K; Nagaoka, S; Kato, M; Badhwar, G D

    1996-11-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and others are conventional detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Using the RRMD detector, the first attempt of real-time monitoring of space radiation has been achieved successfully for a continuous period of 251.3 h, giving the temporal variations of LET distribution, particle count rates, and rates of absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The RRMD results indicate that a clear enhancement of the number of trapped particles is seen at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent, while some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower geomagnetic cutoff regions for galactic cosmic ray particles (GCRs). Therefore, the main contribution to dose equivalent is seen to be due to GCRs in this low altitude mission (300 km). Also, the dose equivalent rates obtained by TLDs and CR-39 ranged from 146.9 to 165.2 microSv/day and the average quality factors from 1.45 to 1.57 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Space-lab at this highly protected orbit for space radiation with a small inclination (28.5 degrees) and a low altitude (300 km). The LET distributions obtained by two different detectors, RRMD and CR-39, are in good agreement in the region of 15-200 keV/mm and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 keV/mm and LET > 200 keV/mm can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks.

  9. Measurement of LET distribution and dose equivalent on board the space shuttle STS-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Takeuchi, R.; Hasebe, N.; Ogura, K.; Nagaoka, S.; Kato, M.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and others are conventional detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Using the RRMD detector, the first attempt of real-time monitoring of space radiation has been achieved successfully for a continuous period of 251.3 h, giving the temporal variations of LET distribution, particle count rates, and rates of absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The RRMD results indicate that a clear enhancement of the number of trapped particles is seen at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent, while some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower geomagnetic cutoff regions for galactic cosmic ray particles (GCRs). Therefore, the main contribution to dose equivalent is seen to be due to GCRs in this low altitude mission (300 km). Also, the dose equivalent rates obtained by TLDs and CR-39 ranged from 146.9 to 165.2 microSv/day and the average quality factors from 1.45 to 1.57 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Space-lab at this highly protected orbit for space radiation with a small inclination (28.5 degrees) and a low altitude (300 km). The LET distributions obtained by two different detectors, RRMD and CR-39, are in good agreement in the region of 15-200 keV/mm and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 keV/mm and LET > 200 keV/mm can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks.

  10. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE AND AMPHIBIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet Radiation Dose and Amphibian Distributions in National Parks. Diamond, S. A., Detenbeck, N. E., USEPA, Duluth, MN, USA, Bradford, D. F., USEPA, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Trenham, P. C., University of California, Davis, CA., USA, Adams, M. J., Corn, P. S., Hossack, B., USGS,...

  11. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte, E-mail: ann-charlotte.waldenstrom@oncology.gu.se; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; Olsson, Caroline

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one inmore » three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.« less

  12. Fine structure of the absorbed dose rate monitored in Zagreb, Croatia, in the period 1985-2011.

    PubMed

    Babić, D; Senčar, J; Petrinec, B; Marović, G; Bituh, T; Skoko, B

    2013-04-01

    We report on the fine structure of the absorbed dose rate D which was measured and recorded on a daily basis at the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb, Croatia, throughout the period 1985-2011. After the Chernobyl accident, D increased steeply by a factor of 3.5, but this is the only prominent feature in the D versus time (t) curve. In the absence of accidental conditions, the D(t) is flat and amounts to 30-35 pGy/s. Despite the apparent plainness of D(t), its Fourier transform reveals several periodic modulations hidden in the noise. Some of the corresponding periods (6 and 12 months) can be related to seasonal atmospheric changes but this is not the case with the other periods identified (9.3, 13.7, 15.7, 20, 31, and 39 months). These are found to agree well with literature data on periodicities in solar activity, which implies that they are most probably linked to variations in the atmospheric production of (7)Be by cosmic rays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of absorbed dose in irradiated sugar-containing plant material (peony roots) by an ESR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of irradiated plant materials and sugar content was investigated by spectral analysis using peony roots. A weak background signal near g=2.005 was observed in the roots. After a 10 kGy irradiation, the ESR line broadened and the intensity increased, and the spectral characteristics were similar to a typical spectrum of irradiated food containing crystalline sugars. The free radical concentration was nearly stable 30 days after irradiation. The spectrum of peony root 30 days after irradiation was simulated using the summation of the intensities of six assumed components: radical signals derived from (a) sucrose, (b) glucose, (c) fructose, (d) cellulose, (e) the background signal near g=2.005 and (f) unidentified component. The simulated spectra using the six components were in agreement with the observed sample spectra. The intensity of sucrose radical signal in irradiated samples increased proportionally up to 20 kGy. In addition, the intensity of sucrose radical signals was strongly correlated with the sucrose contents of the samples. The results showed that the radiation sensitivity of sucrose in peony roots was influenced little by other plant constituents. There was also a good correlation between the total area of the spectra and the sucrose content, because the sucrose content was higher than that of other sugars in the samples. In peony roots, estimation of the absorbed dose from the ESR signal intensity may be possible by a calibration method based on the sucrose content.

  14. [Determination of absorbed dose to water for high energy photon and electron beams--comparison of different dosimetry protocols].

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Golam Abu; Schütte, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    The determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams is performed in Germany according to the dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (1997). At an international level, the main protocols used are the AAPM dosimetry protocol TG-51 (1999) and the IAEA Code of Practice TRS-398 (2000). The present paper systematically compares these three dosimetry protocols, and identifies similarities and differences. The investigations were performed using 4 and 10 MV photon beams, as well as 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams. Two cylindrical and two plane-parallel type chambers were used for measurements. In general, the discrepancies among the three protocols were 1.0% for photon beams and 1.6% for electron beams. Comparative measurements in the context of measurement technical control (MTK) with TLD showed a deviation of less than 1.3% between the measurements obtained according to protocols DIN 6800-2 and MTK (exceptions: 4 MV photons with 2.9% and 6 MeV electrons with 2.4%). While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, measurements of electron beams were performed using both cylindrical and plane-parallel chambers (the latter used after a cross-calibration to a cylindrical chamber, as required by the respective dosimetry protocols). Notably, unlike recommended in the corresponding protocols, we found out that cylindrical chambers can be used also for energies from 6 to 10 MeV.

  15. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: A Framework for the Analytic Calculation of Patient-Specific Dose Distribution Due to CBCT Scan for IGRT

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, H; Jeon, H; Nam, J

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an analytic framework to estimate patients’ absorbed dose distribution owing to daily cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Methods: To compute total absorbed dose distribution, we separated the framework into primary and scattered dose calculations. Using the source parameters such as voltage, current, and bowtie filtration, for the primary dose calculation, we simulated the forward projection from the source to each voxel of an imaging object including some inhomogeneous inserts. Then we calculated the primary absorbed dose at each voxel based on the absorption probability deduced from the HU values and Beer’s law.more » In sequence, all voxels constructing the phantom were regarded as secondary sources to radiate scattered photons for scattered dose calculation. Details of forward projection were identical to that of the previous step. The secondary source intensities were given by using scatter-to- primary ratios provided by NIST. In addition, we compared the analytically calculated dose distribution with their Monte Carlo simulation results. Results: The suggested framework for absorbed dose estimation successfully provided the primary and secondary dose distributions of the phantom. Moreover, our analytic dose calculations and Monte Carlo calculations were well agreed each other even near the inhomogeneous inserts. Conclusion: This work indicated that our framework can be an effective monitor to estimate a patient’s exposure owing to cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Therefore, we expected that the patient’s over-exposure during IGRT might be prevented by our framework.« less

  16. Lithium formate EPR dosimetry for verifications of planned dose distributions prior to intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, H; Lund, E; Olsson, S

    2008-09-07

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry for measurement of dose distributions in phantoms prior to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Lithium formate monohydrate tablets were carefully prepared, and blind tests were performed in clinically relevant situations in order to determine the precision and accuracy of the method. Further experiments confirmed that within the accuracy of the current method, the dosimeter response was independent of beam energies and dose rates used for IMRT treatments. The method was applied to IMRT treatment plans, and the dose determinations were compared to ionization chamber measurements. The experiments showed that absorbed doses above 3 Gy could be measured with an uncertainty of less than 2.5% of the dose (coverage factor kappa = 1.96). Measurement time was about 15 min using a well-calibrated dosimeter batch. The conclusion drawn from the investigation was that lithium formate EPR dosimetry is a promising new tool for absorbed dose measurements in external beam radiation therapy, especially for doses above 3 Gy.

  17. Lithium formate EPR dosimetry for verifications of planned dose distributions prior to intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, H.; Lund, E.; Olsson, S.

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry for measurement of dose distributions in phantoms prior to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Lithium formate monohydrate tablets were carefully prepared, and blind tests were performed in clinically relevant situations in order to determine the precision and accuracy of the method. Further experiments confirmed that within the accuracy of the current method, the dosimeter response was independent of beam energies and dose rates used for IMRT treatments. The method was applied to IMRT treatment plans, and the dose determinations were compared to ionization chamber measurements. The experiments showed that absorbed doses above 3 Gy could be measured with an uncertainty of less than 2.5% of the dose (coverage factor k = 1.96). Measurement time was about 15 min using a well-calibrated dosimeter batch. The conclusion drawn from the investigation was that lithium formate EPR dosimetry is a promising new tool for absorbed dose measurements in external beam radiation therapy, especially for doses above 3 Gy.

  18. Case control study to assess the possibility of decrease the risk of osteoradionecrosis in relation to the dose of radiation absorbed by the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Fabrizio; Bucalo, Concetta; Saggese, Vito; Monai, Dario; Porcaro, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Summary Aims the assessment of the limit dose for the organs at risk in external radiotherapy is a fundamental step to guarantee an optimal risk-benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to assess, through contouring the single dental cavities, the absorbed radiation dose on irradiated alveolar bones during the treatment of cervico-facial tumours, so as to test the correlation between the absorbed dose of radiation at alveolar level and the level of individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis. Materials and methods we selected 45 out of 89 patients on the basis of different exclusion criteria. Nine of these patients showed evidence of osteoradionecrosis. The patients were treated either with 3D conformational radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), there after alveolar bones were contoured using computed axial tomography (CAT scans) carried out following oncological and dental treatment. The dose-volume histograms (DVH) were obtained on the basis of such data, which included those relating to the dental cavities in addition to those inherent to the tumours and the organs at risk. Results all patients, irrespective of type of treatment, received an average of 60 to 70 grays in 30/35 sittings. The patients treated with IMRT showed higher variation in absorbed radiation dose than those treated with 3D-CRT. The alveolar encirclement allowed the assessment of the absorbed radiation dose, and consequently it also allowed to assess the individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis in patients with head and neck tumours who underwent radiography treatment. Conclusions the study of DVH allows the assessment of limit dose and the detection of the areas at greater risk for osteoradionecrosis before dental surgery. PMID:23285316

  19. Determination of dose distributions and parameter sensitivity. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project; dose code recovery activities; Calculation 005

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 005) examined the contributions of numerous parameters to the uncertainty distribution of doses calculated for environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose ofmore » infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in Calculation 001.« less

  20. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposedmore » lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate

  1. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Trofimov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor

  2. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A; Trofimov, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor control probability

  3. Environmental dose rate distribution along the Romanian Black Sea shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Margineanu, Romul M.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Bercea, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The radiometric investigation of the natural radioactivity dose rate distribution along the most important Romanian Black Sea tourist resorts showed values between 34 and 54 nSv/h, lower than the 59 nSv/h, the average background reported for the entire Romanian territory. At the same time we have noticed that the experimental dose rates monotonously increase northward, reaching a maximum in the vicinity of Vadu and Corbu beaches, both on the southern part of the Chituc sandbank. Concurrent gamma ray spectrometric measurements, performed at the Slanic-Prahova Low-Background Radiation Laboratory for sand samples collected from the same location, have shown that the natural radionuclides have a major contribution to background radiation while anthropogenic Cs-137 plays, 26 years after Chernobyl catastrophe, a negligible role. The experimental values of activity concentrations of all radionuclides present in sand samples were used to calculate the corresponding values of dose rates to which, by adding the contribution of cosmic rays, we have obtained values coincident, within experimental uncertainties, with the experimental ones. At the same time, on Chituc sandbank, a transverse profile of dose rate distribution revealed the presence of some local maxima, two to thee times higher then the average ones. Subsequent gamma ray spectrometry showed an increased content of natural radionuclides, most probably due to a local accumulation of heavy minerals, a common occurrence in the vicinity of river deltas, in our case the Danube Delta. In such a way, the monitoring of local dose rate distribution could be very useful not only in attesting the environmental quality of various resorts and beaches, but also, in signaling the presence of heavy minerals, with beneficent economic consequences.

  4. A method for depth-dose distribution measurements in tissue irradiated by a proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, G.; Birattari, C.; Bartolo, D. de

    1994-12-31

    The use of protons and heavy ions for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant disease has aroused a growing interest in the last decade. The notable advantage of heavy charged particles over photons in external beam radiotherapy lies in the possibility of irradiating a small localized region within the body, keeping a low value for the entrance dose. Owing to this high disuniformity of energy deposition, an essential requirement for treatment planning is a precise evaluation of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose. The proposed method for depth-dose distribution measurements utilizes a chemical dosimeter (ferrous sulphate solution plus sulfuric acidmore » and eventually xylenol orange) incorporated in a gelatine, whose role is the maintenance of spatial information. Ionizing radiation causes a variation in some parameters of the system such as the proton relaxation rates in the solution (measurable by NMR analysis) or the optical absorption of the gel in the visible spectrum (measurable by spectrophotometry).« less

  5. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  6. Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR {sup 192}Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjaern, Haakan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a {sup 60}Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al.[Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a {sup 137}Cs beam than in a {sup 60}Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around {sup 192}Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam.more » Methods: LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users'{sup 192}Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Results: Measured absorbed doses to water around the {sup 192}Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the

  7. Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR (192)Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response.

    PubMed

    Carlsson Tedgren, Asa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjarn, Hakan; Olsson, Sara; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2012-02-01

    Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a (60)Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al. [Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a (137)Cs beam than in a (60)Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around (192)Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam. LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users' (192)Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Measured absorbed doses to water around the (192)Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the results using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs and the EPR lithium formate

  8. WE-FG-BRA-10: Radiodosimetry of a Novel Alpha Particle Therapy Targeted to Uveal Melanoma: Absorbed Dose to Organs in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tichacek, Christopher J.; Tafreshi, Narges K.; Budzevich, Mikalai M.

    Purpose: The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is expressed in 94% of uveal melanomas and is described as an ideal target for this untreatable disease. MC1RL is a high affinity MC1R specific peptidomimetic ligand that can serve as a scaffold for therapeutic conjugates such as alpha particle emitting isotopes. The purpose of this study was to assess normal tissue distribution and risk as a result of using the DOTA chelator conjugated to MC1RL to deliver {sup 225}Ac: MC1RL-DOTA-{sup 225}Ac. Methods: 17 non-tumor bearing BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with the novel MC1RL-DOTA-{sup 225}Ac radiopharmaceutical with an average initial administered activity of 2.5more » µCi. After the injection, three groups of animals (6, 6, and 5 per group) were euthanized at 24, 48, and 96 hour time points. A total of 11 organs of interest were harvested at each time point including kidneys and liver. Since the emitted alpha particles from {sup 225}Ac and its daughter products are not easy to detect directly, the isomeric gamma spectra were measured instead in the tissue samples using a modified Atomlab™ Gamma Counter (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc) and converted using factors for gamma ray abundance per alpha decay. Dosimetry was performed using measured radioactivity distribution in organs and the generalized internal dosimetry schema of MIRD pamphlet #21. Results: Our calculations have shown that the maximum absorbed dose was delivered to the liver with a total of 47 cGy per 96 hour period. The average dose per kidney was calculated to be 21 cGy. Heart, brain, lung, spleen, skin doses ranged from 0.01 to 1 cGy over the same time period. All animals gained weight over the 110 day decay period and no organ damage was observed by pathology. Conclusion: Based on our results, the risk of using the MC1RL-DOTA-{sup 225}Ac compound is relatively small in terms of deterministic radiation effects. Funding Support: NIH/NCI P50CA168536-03 Skin SPORE; NIH/NCI Phase I SBIR Contract #HHSN

  9. Absorbed dose in AgBr in direct film for photon energies ( < 150 keV): relation to optical density. Theoretical calculation and experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Helmrot, E; Alm Carlsson, G

    1996-01-01

    In the radiological process it is necessary to develop tools so as to explore how X-rays can be used in the most effective way. Evaluation of models to derive measures of image quality and risk-related parameters is one possibility of getting such a tool. Modelling the image receptor, an important part of the imaging chain, is then required. The aim of this work was to find convenient and accurate ways of describing the blackening of direct dental films by X-rays. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the relation between optical density and photon interactions in the silver bromide in X-ray films has been investigated by many authors. The first attempts used simple quantum theories with no consideration of underlying physical interaction processes. The theories were gradually made more realistic by the introduction of dosimetric concepts and cavity theory. A review of cavity theories for calculating the mean absorbed dose in the AgBr grains of the film emulsion is given in this work. The cavity theories of GREENING (15) and SPIERS-CHARLTON (37) were selected for calculating the mean absorbed dose in the AgBr grains relative to the air collision kerma (Kc,air) of the incident photons of Ultra-speed and Ektaspeed (intraoral) films using up-to-date values of interaction coefficients. GREENING'S theory is a multi-grain theory and the results depend on the relative amounts of silver bromide and gelatine in the emulsion layer. In the single grain theory of SPIERS-CHARLTON, the shape and size of the silver bromide grain are important. Calculations of absorbed dose in the silver bromide were compared with measurements of optical densities in Ultra-speed and Ektaspeed films for a broad range (25-145 kV) of X-ray energy. The calculated absorbed dose values were appropriately averaged over the complete photon energy spectrum, which was determined experimentally using a Compton spectrometer. For the whole range of tube potentials used, the measured optical densities of the

  10. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210).more » As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.« less

  11. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  12. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, S; Reinertsen, K V; Knutstad, K; Olsen, D R; Fosså, S D

    2011-06-09

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm3) receiving respectively <30 Gy and ≥30 Gy were calculated (Vol<30 and Vol≥30) and analyzed. No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ=0.003), with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving<30 Gy in Controls was almost 2.5 times greater than the comparable figure in Cases. We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  13. Prediction of Therapy Tumor-Absorbed Dose Estimates in I-131 Radioimmunotherapy Using Tracer Data Via a Mixed-Model Fit to Time Activity

    PubMed Central

    Koral, Kenneth F.; Avram, Anca M.; Kaminski, Mark S.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For individualized treatment planning in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), correlations must be established between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered absorbed doses. The focus of this work was to investigate this correlation for tumors. Methods The study analyzed 57 tumors in 19 follicular lymphoma patients treated with I-131 tositumomab and imaged with SPECT/CT multiple times after tracer and therapy administrations. Instead of the typical least-squares fit to a single tumor's measured time-activity data, estimation was accomplished via a biexponential mixed model in which the curves from multiple subjects were jointly estimated. The tumor-absorbed dose estimates were determined by patient-specific Monte Carlo calculation. Results The mixed model gave realistic tumor time-activity fits that showed the expected uptake and clearance phases even with noisy data or missing time points. Correlation between tracer and therapy tumor-residence times (r=0.98; p<0.0001) and correlation between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered mean tumor-absorbed doses (r=0.86; p<0.0001) were very high. The predicted and delivered absorbed doses were within±25% (or within±75 cGy) for 80% of tumors. Conclusions The mixed-model approach is feasible for fitting tumor time-activity data in RIT treatment planning when individual least-squares fitting is not possible due to inadequate sampling points. The good correlation between predicted and delivered tumor doses demonstrates the potential of using a pretherapy tracer study for tumor dosimetry-based treatment planning in RIT. PMID:22947086

  14. Direct intratumoral infusion of liposome encapsulated rhenium radionuclides for cancer therapy: Effects of nonuniform intratumoral dose distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li, Shihong; Goins, Beth; Otto, Randal A.; Bao, Ande

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Focused radiation therapy by direct intratumoral infusion of lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried beta-emitting radionuclides has shown promising results in animal model studies; however, little is known about the impact the intratumoral liposomal radionuclide distribution may have on tumor control. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the effects the intratumoral absorbed dose distributions from this cancer therapy modality have on tumor control and treatment planning by combining dosimetric and radiobiological modeling with in vivo imaging data. Methods:99mTc-encapsulated liposomes were intratumorally infused with a single injection location to human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude rats. High resolution in vivo planar imaging was performed at various time points for quantifying intratumoral retention following infusion. The intratumoral liposomal radioactivity distribution was obtained from 1 mm resolution pinhole collimator SPECT imaging coregistered with CT imaging of excised tumors at 20 h postinfusion. Coregistered images were used for intratumoral dosimetric and radiobiological modeling at a voxel level following extrapolation to the therapeutic analogs, 186Re∕188Re liposomes. Effective uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) were used to assess therapy effectiveness and possible methods of improving upon tumor control with this radiation therapy modality. Results: Dosimetric analysis showed that average tumor absorbed doses of 8.6 Gy∕MBq (318.2 Gy∕mCi) and 5.7 Gy∕MBq (209.1 Gy∕mCi) could be delivered with this protocol of radiation delivery for 186Re∕188Re liposomes, respectively, and 37–92 MBq (1–2.5 mCi)∕g tumor administered activity; however, large intratumoral absorbed dose heterogeneity, as seen in dose-volume histograms, resulted in insignificant values of EUD and TCP for achieving tumor control. It is indicated that the use of liposomes encapsulating radionuclides

  15. Direct intratumoral infusion of liposome encapsulated rhenium radionuclides for cancer therapy: Effects of nonuniform intratumoral dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Goins, Beth

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Focused radiation therapy by direct intratumoral infusion of lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried beta-emitting radionuclides has shown promising results in animal model studies; however, little is known about the impact the intratumoral liposomal radionuclide distribution may have on tumor control. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the effects the intratumoral absorbed dose distributions from this cancer therapy modality have on tumor control and treatment planning by combining dosimetric and radiobiological modeling with in vivo imaging data. Methods: {sup 99m}Tc-encapsulated liposomes were intratumorally infused with a single injection location to human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts inmore » nude rats. High resolution in vivo planar imaging was performed at various time points for quantifying intratumoral retention following infusion. The intratumoral liposomal radioactivity distribution was obtained from 1 mm resolution pinhole collimator SPECT imaging coregistered with CT imaging of excised tumors at 20 h postinfusion. Coregistered images were used for intratumoral dosimetric and radiobiological modeling at a voxel level following extrapolation to the therapeutic analogs, {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes. Effective uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) were used to assess therapy effectiveness and possible methods of improving upon tumor control with this radiation therapy modality. Results: Dosimetric analysis showed that average tumor absorbed doses of 8.6 Gy/MBq (318.2 Gy/mCi) and 5.7 Gy/MBq (209.1 Gy/mCi) could be delivered with this protocol of radiation delivery for {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively, and 37-92 MBq (1-2.5 mCi)/g tumor administered activity; however, large intratumoral absorbed dose heterogeneity, as seen in dose-volume histograms, resulted in insignificant values of EUD and TCP for achieving tumor control. It is indicated that the use of liposomes

  16. Measurement of dose distribution in the spherical phantom onboard the ISS-KIBO module -MATROSHKA-R in KIBO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hajime; Kurano, Mieko; Uchihori, Yukio; Nikolaev, Igor; Ambrozova, Iva; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kartsev, Ivan; Tolochek, Raisa; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav

    The measurement of dose equivalent and effective dose during manned space missions on the International Space Station (ISS) is important for evaluating the risk to astronaut health and safety when exposed to space radiation. The dosimetric quantities are constantly changing and strongly depend on the level of solar activity and the various spacecraft- and orbit-dependent parameters such as the shielding distribution in the ISS module, location of the spacecraft within its orbit relative to the Earth, the attitude (orientation) and altitude. Consequently, the continuous monitoring of dosimetric quantities is required to record and evaluate the personal radiation dose for crew members during spaceflight. The dose distributions in the phantom body and on its surface give crucial information to estimate the dose equivalent in the human body and effective dose in manned space mission. We have measured the absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates using passive dosimeters installed in the spherical phantom in Japanese Experiment Module (“KIBO”) of the ISS in the framework of Matroshka-R space experiment. The exposure duration was 114 days from May 21 to September 12, 2012. The phantom consists of tissue-equivalent material covered with a poncho jacket with 32 pockets on its surface and 20 container rods inside of the phantom. The phantom diameter is 35 cm and the mass is 32 kg. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of luminescent detectors of Al _{2}O _{3};C OSL and CaSO _{4}:Dy TLD and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. As one of preliminary results, the dose distribution on the phantom surface measured with OSL detectors installed in the jacket pockets is found to be ranging from 340 muGy/day to 260 muGy/day. In this talk, we will present the detail dose distributions, and variations of LET spectra and quality factor obtained outside and inside of the spherical phantom installed in the ISS-KIBO.

  17. 125I eye plaque dose distribution including penumbra characteristics.

    PubMed

    de la Zerda, A; Chiu-Tsao, S T; Lin, J; Boulay, L L; Kanna, I; Kim, J H; Tsao, H S

    1996-03-01

    The two main purposes of this work are (1) to determine the penumbra characteristics for 125I eye plaque and the relative influence of the plaque and eye-air interface on the dose distribution, and (2) to initiate development of a treatment planning algorithm for clinical dose calculations. Dose was measured in a newly designed solid water eye phantom for an 125I (6711) seed at the center of a 20 mm COMS eye plaque using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) "cubes" and "minichips" inside and outside the eye, in the longitudinal and transverse central planes. TLD cubes were used in most locations, except for short distances from the seed and in the penumbra region. In the presence of both the plaque and the eye-air interface, the dose along the central axis was found to be reduced by 10% at 1 cm and up to 20% at 2.5 cm, relative to the bulk homogeneous phantom case. In addition, the overall dose reduction was greater for larger off-axis coordinates at a given depth. The penumbra characteristics due to the lip collimation were quantified, particularly the dependence of penumbra center and width on depth. Only small differences were observed between the profiles in the transverse and longitudinal planes. In the bulk geometry (without the eye-air interface), the dose reduction due to the presence of the plaque alone was found to be 7% at a depth of 2.5 cm. The additional reduction of 13% observed, with the presence of eye-air interface (20% combined), can be attributed to the lack of backscattering from the air in front of the eye. The dose-reduction effect due to the anterior air interface alone became unnoticeable at a depth of 1.1 cm (1.5 cm from the eye-air interface). An analytic fit to measured data was developed for clinical dose calculations for a centrally loaded seed. The central axis values of the dose rates multiplied by distance squared, Dr2, were fitted with a double exponential function of depth. The off-axis profile of Dr2, at a given depth, was

  18. Laser interferometry for the determination of thickness distributions of low absorbing films and their spatial and thickness resolutions.

    PubMed

    Mishima, T; Kao, K C

    1982-03-15

    New laser interferometry has been developed, based on the principle that a 2-D fringe pattern can be produced by interference of spatially coherent light beams. To avoid the effect of reflection from the back surface of the substrate, the Brewster angle of incidence is adopted; to suppress the effect of diffraction, a lens or a lens system is used. This laser interferometry is an efficient nondestructive technique for the determination of thickness distributions or uniformities of low absorbing films on transparent substrates over a large area without involving laborious computations. The limitation of spatial resolution, thickness resolution, and visibility of fringes is fully analyzed.

  19. Calculations of dose distributions using a neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, R.; Martin, E.; Gschwind, R.; Makovicka, L.; Contassot-Vivier, S.; Bahi, J.

    2005-03-01

    The main goal of external beam radiotherapy is the treatment of tumours, while sparing, as much as possible, surrounding healthy tissues. In order to master and optimize the dose distribution within the patient, dosimetric planning has to be carried out. Thus, for determining the most accurate dose distribution during treatment planning, a compromise must be found between the precision and the speed of calculation. Current techniques, using analytic methods, models and databases, are rapid but lack precision. Enhanced precision can be achieved by using calculation codes based, for example, on Monte Carlo methods. However, in spite of all efforts to optimize speed (methods and computer improvements), Monte Carlo based methods remain painfully slow. A newer way to handle all of these problems is to use a new approach in dosimetric calculation by employing neural networks. Neural networks (Wu and Zhu 2000 Phys. Med. Biol. 45 913-22) provide the advantages of those various approaches while avoiding their main inconveniences, i.e., time-consumption calculations. This permits us to obtain quick and accurate results during clinical treatment planning. Currently, results obtained for a single depth-dose calculation using a Monte Carlo based code (such as BEAM (Rogers et al 2003 NRCC Report PIRS-0509(A) rev G)) require hours of computing. By contrast, the practical use of neural networks (Mathieu et al 2003 Proceedings Journées Scientifiques Francophones, SFRP) provides almost instant results and quite low errors (less than 2%) for a two-dimensional dosimetric map.

  20. Calculations of dose distributions using a neural network model.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, R; Martin, E; Gschwind, R; Makovicka, L; Contassot-Vivier, S; Bahi, J

    2005-03-07

    The main goal of external beam radiotherapy is the treatment of tumours, while sparing, as much as possible, surrounding healthy tissues. In order to master and optimize the dose distribution within the patient, dosimetric planning has to be carried out. Thus, for determining the most accurate dose distribution during treatment planning, a compromise must be found between the precision and the speed of calculation. Current techniques, using analytic methods, models and databases, are rapid but lack precision. Enhanced precision can be achieved by using calculation codes based, for example, on Monte Carlo methods. However, in spite of all efforts to optimize speed (methods and computer improvements), Monte Carlo based methods remain painfully slow. A newer way to handle all of these problems is to use a new approach in dosimetric calculation by employing neural networks. Neural networks (Wu and Zhu 2000 Phys. Med. Biol. 45 913-22) provide the advantages of those various approaches while avoiding their main inconveniences, i.e., time-consumption calculations. This permits us to obtain quick and accurate results during clinical treatment planning. Currently, results obtained for a single depth-dose calculation using a Monte Carlo based code (such as BEAM (Rogers et al 2003 NRCC Report PIRS-0509(A) rev G)) require hours of computing. By contrast, the practical use of neural networks (Mathieu et al 2003 Proceedings Journees Scientifiques Francophones, SFRP) provides almost instant results and quite low errors (less than 2%) for a two-dimensional dosimetric map.

  1. Estimated human absorbed dose of ¹⁷⁷Lu-BPAMD based on mice data: Comparison with ¹⁷⁷Lu-EDTMP.

    PubMed

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the absorbed dose of human organs for (177)Lu-BPAMD was evaluated based on biodistribution studies into the Syrian mice by RADAR method and was compared with (177)Lu-EDTMP as the only clinically used Lu-177 bone-seeking agent. The highest absorbed dose for both (177)Lu-BPAMD and (177)Lu-EDTMP is observed on the bone surface with 8.007 and 4.802 mSv/MBq. Generally, (177)Lu-BPAMD has considerable characteristics compared with (177)Lu-EDTMP and can be considered as a promising agent for the bone pain palliation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection and quantification of 223Ra uptake in bone metastases of patients with castration resistant prostate carcinoma, with the aim of determining the absorbed dose in the metastases.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, P; Gómez de Iturriaga, A; Fernández, I L; Rodeño, E

    To obtain the necessary acquisition and calibration parameters in order to evaluate the possibility of detecting and quantifying 223 Ra uptake in bone metastases of patients treated for castration resistant prostate carcinoma. Furthermore, in the cases in which the activity can be quantified, to determine the absorbed dose. Acquisitions from a Petri dish filled with 223 Ra were performed in the gamma camera. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to study the partial volume effect. Formulae to obtain the detection and quantification limits of 223 Ra uptake were applied to planar images of two patients 7 days post-administration of 55kBq/kg of 223 Ra. In order to locate the lesions in advance, whole-body scans and SPECT/CT images were acquired after injecting 99m Tc-HDP. The optimal energy window was found to be at 82keV with a medium-energy collimator MEGP. Of the lesions found in the patients, only those that had been detected in both the AP and PA projections could be quantified. These lesions were those which had shown a higher 99m Tc-HDP uptake. The estimated values of absorbed doses ranged between 0.7Gy and 7.8Gy. Of the lesions that can be detected, it is not possible to quantify the activity uptake in some of them, which means that the absorbed dose cannot be determined either. This does not mean that the absorbed dose in these lesions can be regarded as negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of absorbed-dose-to-water units for Co-60 and high-energy x-rays between PTB and LNE-LNHB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaunay, F.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Gouriou, J.; Illemann, J.; Krauss, A.; Le Roy, M.; Ostrowsky, A.; Sommier, L.; Vermesse, D.

    2012-10-01

    During the Euramet project JRP7 ‘External Beam Cancer Therapy’, PTB and LNE-LNHB used primary standards to determine the absorbed dose to water under IMRT conditions (in small fields). PTB used a water calorimeter to determine the absorbed-dose-to-water references in 6 MV and 10 MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm × 10 cm and 3 cm × 3 cm while LNE-LNHB used graphite calorimeters in 6 MV and 12 MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm × 10 cm, 4 cm × 4 cm and 2 cm × 2 cm. The purpose of this study is to compare PTB and LNE-LNHB new absorbed-dose-to-water references. LNE-LNHB sent an Exradin A1SL ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to the PTB for calibration in 60Co and in linac beams and PTB sent a PTW 31010 ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to LNE-LNHB for calibration in 60Co and in linac beams. Calculated Sw,air will be used as beam quality specifier for the ionization chamber comparison at different field sizes. The standard uncertainties (k = 1) of PTB and LNE-LNHB calibration coefficients lie respectively between 0.25% (60Co) and 0.40% (linac) and between 0.29% and 0.46%. PTB and LNE-LNHB absorbed-dose-to-water references developed for this project, based respectively on water calorimetry and on graphite calorimetry, agree within 1.5 standard deviations for field size of 10 cm × 10 cm down to 2 cm × 2 cm and for beams of 6 MV to 10 MV.

  4. KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the ENEA-INMRI (Italy) and the BIPM for 60Co γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Burns, D. T.; Guerra, A. S.; Laitano, R. F.; Pimpinella, M.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy (ENEA-INMRI), and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co gamma radiation under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for three transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the ENEA and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9999 (0.0044). The present 2007 result replaces the earlier ENEA value in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence between the ENEA and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix for the ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) that have published results in this ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. Determination of absorbed dose to water from a miniature kilovoltage x-ray source using a parallel-plate ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Peter G. F.; Popovic, Marija; Seuntjens, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Electronic brachytherapy sources are widely accepted as alternatives to radionuclide-based systems. Yet, formal dosimetry standards for these devices to independently complement the dose protocol provided by the manufacturer are lacking. This article presents a formalism for calculating and independently verifying the absorbed dose to water from a kV x-ray source (The INTRABEAM System) measured in a water phantom with an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air-kerma. This formalism uses a Monte Carlo (MC) calculated chamber conversion factor, CQ , to convert air-kerma in a reference beam to absorbed dose to water in the measurement beam. In this work CQ was determined for a PTW 34013 parallel-plate ionization chamber. Our results show that CQ was sensitive to the chamber plate separation tolerance, with differences of up to 15%. CQ was also found to have a depth dependence which varied with chamber plate separation (0 to 10% variation for the smallest and largest cavity height, over 3 to 30 mm depth). However for all chamber dimensions investigated, CQ was found to be significantly larger than the manufacturer reported value, suggesting that the manufacturer recommended method of dose calculation could be underestimating the dose to water.

  6. Whole-body biodistribution and estimation of radiation-absorbed doses of the dopamine D1 receptor radioligand 11C-NNC 112 in humans.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Fujita, Masahiro; Musachio, John L; Hong, Jinsoo; Ghose, Subroto; Sangare, Janet; Nathan, Pradeep J; Pike, Victor W; Innis, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    The present study estimated radiation-absorbed doses of the dopamine D(1) receptor radioligand [(11)C]((+)-8-chloro-5-(7-benzofuranyl)-7-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine) (NNC 112) in humans, based on dynamic whole-body PET in healthy subjects. Whole-body PET was performed on 7 subjects after injection of 710 +/- 85 MBq of (11)C-NNC 112. Fourteen frames were acquired for a total of 120 min in 7 segments of the body. Regions of interest were drawn on compressed planar images of source organs that could be identified. Radiation dose estimates were calculated from organ residence times using the OLINDA 1.0 program. The organs with the highest radiation-absorbed doses were the gallbladder, liver, lungs, kidneys, and urinary bladder wall. Biexponential fitting of mean bladder activity demonstrated that 15% of activity was excreted via the urine. With a 2.4-h voiding interval, the effective dose was 5.7 microSv/MBq (21.1 mrem/mCi). (11)C-NNC 112 displays a favorable radiation dose profile in humans and would allow multiple PET examinations per year to be performed on the same subject.

  7. Fourier spectra of resonant nuclear forward scattering: lineshape dependence on absorber thickness distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykov, A. I.; Nomura, K.; Wang, J.

    2013-08-01

    We report on recent developments in the analysis of nuclear forward scattering (NFS) using the Fourier transformation of measured time spectra. In the frequency domain, it is shown that the lineshape is generally described by the convolution of two intensity factors. One of them is Lorentzian related to free decay. We derived the expressions for the second factor related to the Frenkel exciton polariton formed in Mössbauer media. For stray particles of a powder spread over a 2D surface the particle size distribution can be derived from Mössbauer thickness distribution. The thickness-related lineshape is deconvolved through sharpening the Fourier NFS spectra. The lineshapes in these sharpened spectra are theoretically expressed via the parameters of the particle size distributions. Through fitting the lineshapes with our theoretical expressions the particle size distribution parameters were determined.

  8. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate distribution, which then can be used as input for

  9. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: Inmore » order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  10. Calculated and TLD-based absorbed dose estimates for I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody in a human neuroblastoma xenograft nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ugur, O; Scott, A M; Kostakoglu, L; Hui, T E; Masterson, M E; Febo, R; Sgouros, G; Rosa, E; Mehta, B M; Fisher, D R

    1995-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of the therapeutic potential of radiolabeled antibodies is commonly performed in a xenografted nude mouse model. To assess therapeutic efficacy it is important to estimate the absorbed dose to the tumor and normal tissues of the nude mouse. The current study was designed to accurately measure radiation does to human neuroblastoma xenografts and normal organs in nude mice treated with I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against disialoganglioside GD2 antigen. Absorbed dose estimates were obtained using two different approaches: (1) measurement with teflon-imbedded CaSO4:Dy mini-thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and (2) calculations using mouse S-factors. The calculated total dose to tumor one week after i.v. injection of the 50 microCi I-131-3F8 MoAb was 604 cGy. The corresponding decay corrected and not corrected TLD measurements were 109 +/- 9 and 48.7 +/- 3.4 cGy respectively. The calculated to TLD-derived dose ratios for tumor ranged from 6.1 at 24 h to 5.5 at 1 week. The light output fading rate was found to depend upon the tissue type within which the TLDs were implanted. The decay rate in tumor, muscle, subcutaneous tissue and in vitro, were 9.5, 5.0, 3.7 and 0.67% per day, respectively. We have demonstrated that the type of tissue in which the TLD was implanted strongly influenced the in vivo decay of light output. Even with decay correction, a significant discrepancy was observed between MIRD-based calculated and CaSO4:Dy mini-TLD measured absorbed doses. Batch dependence, pH of the tumor or other variables associated with TLDs which are not as yet well known may account for this discrepancy.

  11. Efficacy of a Radiation Absorbing Shield in Reducing Dose to the Interventionalist During Peripheral Endovascular Procedures: A Single Centre Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Power, S.; Mirza, M.; Thakorlal, A.

    PurposeThis prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures.Materials and MethodsA commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used tomore » measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated.ResultsTLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142).ConclusionInitial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator’s body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.« less

  12. Efficacy of a radiation absorbing shield in reducing dose to the interventionalist during peripheral endovascular procedures: a single centre pilot study.

    PubMed

    Power, S; Mirza, M; Thakorlal, A; Ganai, B; Gavagan, L D; Given, M F; Lee, M J

    2015-06-01

    This prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures. A commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used to measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated. TLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). Initial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator's body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.

  13. Generation of uniformly distributed dose points for anatomy-based three-dimensional dose optimization methods in brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Lahanas, M; Baltas, D; Giannouli, S; Milickovic, N; Zamboglou, N

    2000-05-01

    We have studied the accuracy of statistical parameters of dose distributions in brachytherapy using actual clinical implants. These include the mean, minimum and maximum dose values and the variance of the dose distribution inside the PTV (planning target volume), and on the surface of the PTV. These properties have been studied as a function of the number of uniformly distributed sampling points. These parameters, or the variants of these parameters, are used directly or indirectly in optimization procedures or for a description of the dose distribution. The accurate determination of these parameters depends on the sampling point distribution from which they have been obtained. Some optimization methods ignore catheters and critical structures surrounded by the PTV or alternatively consider as surface dose points only those on the contour lines of the PTV. D(min) and D(max) are extreme dose values which are either on the PTV surface or within the PTV. They must be avoided for specification and optimization purposes in brachytherapy. Using D(mean) and the variance of D which we have shown to be stable parameters, achieves a more reliable description of the dose distribution on the PTV surface and within the PTV volume than does D(min) and D(max). Generation of dose points on the real surface of the PTV is obligatory and the consideration of catheter volumes results in a realistic description of anatomical dose distributions.

  14. Primary and secondary particle contributions to the depth dose distribution in a phantom shielded from solar flare and Van Allen protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, R. T.; Claiborne, H. C.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Calculations have been made using the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC to estimate the absorbed dose and dose equivalent distributions in astronauts inside space vehicles bombarded by solar flare and Van Allen protons. A spherical shell shield of specific radius and thickness with a 30-cm-diam. tissue ball at the geometric center was used to simulate the spacecraft-astronaut configuration. The absorbed dose and the dose equivalent from primary protons, secondary protons, heavy nuclei, charged pions, muons, photons, and positrons and electrons are given as a function of depth in the tissue phantom. Results are given for solar flare protons with a characteristic rigidity of 100 MV and for Van Allen protons in a 240-nautical-mile circular orbit at 30 degree inclination angle incident on both 20-g/sq cm-thick aluminum and polyethylene spherical shell shields.

  15. Primary DNA damage assessed with the comet assay and comparison to the absorbed dose of diagnostic X-rays in children.

    PubMed

    Milkovic, Durdica; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Ranogajec-Komor, Mária; Miljanic, Saveta; Gajski, Goran; Knezevic, Zeljka; Beck, Natko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children prior to and following airway X-ray examinations of the chest using the alkaline comet assay and to compare data with the measured absorbed dose. Twenty children with pulmonary diseases, between the ages of 5 and 14 years, are assessed. Absorbed dose measurements are conducted for posterior-anterior projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest, and back. Doses are measured using thermoluminescent and radiophotoluminescent dosimetry systems. Differences between tail lengths, tail intensity, and tail moments as well as for the long-tailed nuclei before and after exposures are statistically significant and are dependent on the individual. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the comet assay as a measure of X-ray damage to lymphocytes in a clinical setting. Doses measured with both dosimeters show satisfactory agreement (0.01 mSv) and are suitable for dosimetric measurements in X-ray diagnostics.

  16. Modified Back Contact Interface of CZTSe Thin Film Solar Cells: Elimination of Double Layer Distribution in Absorber Layer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojing; Yao, Liyong; Bi, Jinlian; Gao, Shoushuai; Gao, Qing; Jeng, Ming‐Jer; Sun, Guozhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; He, Qing; Sun, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Double layer distribution exists in Cu2SnZnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films prepared by selenizing the metallic precursors, which will degrade the back contact of Mo substrate to absorber layer and thus suppressing the performance of solar cell. In this work, the double‐layer distribution of CZTSe film is eliminated entirely and the formation of MoSe2 interfacial layer is inhibited successfully. CZTSe film is prepared by selenizing the precursor deposited by electrodeposition method under Se and SnSex mixed atmosphere. It is found that the insufficient reaction between ZnSe and Cu‐Sn‐Se phases in the bottom of the film is the reason why the double layer distribution of CZTSe film is formed. By increasing Sn content in the metallic precursor, thus making up the loss of Sn because of the decomposition of CZTSe and facilitate the diffusion of liquid Cu2Se, the double layer distribution is eliminated entirely. The crystallization of the formed thin film is dense and the grains go through the entire film without voids. And there is no obvious MoSe2 layer formed between CZTSe and Mo. As a consequence, the series resistance of the solar cell reduces significantly to 0.14 Ω cm2 and a CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 7.2% is fabricated. PMID:29610727

  17. Modified Back Contact Interface of CZTSe Thin Film Solar Cells: Elimination of Double Layer Distribution in Absorber Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaojing; Yao, Liyong; Zhang, Yi; Ao, Jianping; Bi, Jinlian; Gao, Shoushuai; Gao, Qing; Jeng, Ming-Jer; Sun, Guozhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; He, Qing; Sun, Yun

    2018-02-01

    Double layer distribution exists in Cu 2 SnZnSe 4 (CZTSe) thin films prepared by selenizing the metallic precursors, which will degrade the back contact of Mo substrate to absorber layer and thus suppressing the performance of solar cell. In this work, the double-layer distribution of CZTSe film is eliminated entirely and the formation of MoSe 2 interfacial layer is inhibited successfully. CZTSe film is prepared by selenizing the precursor deposited by electrodeposition method under Se and SnSe x mixed atmosphere. It is found that the insufficient reaction between ZnSe and Cu-Sn-Se phases in the bottom of the film is the reason why the double layer distribution of CZTSe film is formed. By increasing Sn content in the metallic precursor, thus making up the loss of Sn because of the decomposition of CZTSe and facilitate the diffusion of liquid Cu 2 Se, the double layer distribution is eliminated entirely. The crystallization of the formed thin film is dense and the grains go through the entire film without voids. And there is no obvious MoSe 2 layer formed between CZTSe and Mo. As a consequence, the series resistance of the solar cell reduces significantly to 0.14 Ω cm 2 and a CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 7.2% is fabricated.

  18. Efficient and robust method for simultaneous reconstruction of the temperature distribution and radiative properties in absorbing, emitting, and scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chun-Yang; Qi, Hong; Huang, Xing; Ruan, Li-Ming; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-11-01

    A rapid computational method called generalized sourced multi-flux method (GSMFM) was developed to simulate outgoing radiative intensities in arbitrary directions at the boundary surfaces of absorbing, emitting, and scattering media which were served as input for the inverse analysis. A hybrid least-square QR decomposition-stochastic particle swarm optimization (LSQR-SPSO) algorithm based on the forward GSMFM solution was developed to simultaneously reconstruct multi-dimensional temperature distribution and absorption and scattering coefficients of the cylindrical participating media. The retrieval results for axisymmetric temperature distribution and non-axisymmetric temperature distribution indicated that the temperature distribution and scattering and absorption coefficients could be retrieved accurately using the LSQR-SPSO algorithm even with noisy data. Moreover, the influences of extinction coefficient and scattering albedo on the accuracy of the estimation were investigated, and the results suggested that the reconstruction accuracy decreased with the increase of extinction coefficient and the scattering albedo. Finally, a non-contact measurement platform of flame temperature field based on the light field imaging was set up to validate the reconstruction model experimentally.

  19. Size distribution of absorbing and fluorescing DOM in Beaufort Sea, Canada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Guéguen, Céline

    2017-03-01

    The molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is considered as an important factor affecting the bioavailability of organic matter and associated chemical species. Colored DOM (CDOM) MW distribution was determined, for the first time, in the Beaufort Sea (Canada Basin) by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with online diode array ultra violet-visible photometer and offline fluorescence detectors. The apparent MW ranged from 1.07 to 1.45 kDa, congruent with previous studies using high performance size exclusion chromatography and tangential flow filtration. Interestingly, a minimum in MW was associated with the Pacific Summer Waters (PSW), while higher MW was associated with the Pacific Winter Waters (PWW). The Arctic Intermediate Waters (AIW) did not show any significant change in MW and fluorescence intensities distribution between stations, suggesting homogeneous DOM composition in deep waters. Three fluorescence components including two humic-like components and one protein-like component were PARAFAC-validated. With the increase of MW, protein-like fluorescence component became more dominant while the majority remained as marine/microbially derived humic-like components. Overall, it is concluded that water mass origin influenced DOM MW distribution in the Arctic Ocean.

  20. An optimized computational method for determining the beta dose distribution using a multiple-element thermoluminescent dosimeter system.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Levine, S H; Catchen, G L

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes an optimization method for determining the beta dose distribution in tissue, and it describes the associated testing and verification. The method uses electron transport theory and optimization techniques to analyze the responses of a three-element thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. Specifically, the method determines the effective beta energy distribution incident on the dosimeter system, and thus the system performs as a beta spectrometer. Electron transport theory provides the mathematical model for performing the optimization calculation. In this calculation, parameters are determined that produce calculated doses for each of the chip/absorber components in the three-element TLD system. The resulting optimized parameters describe an effective incident beta distribution. This method can be used to determine the beta dose specifically at 7 mg X cm-2 or at any depth of interest. The doses at 7 mg X cm-2 in tissue determined by this method are compared to those experimentally determined using an extrapolation chamber. For a great variety of pure beta sources having different incident beta energy distributions, good agreement is found. The results are also compared to those produced by a commonly used empirical algorithm. Although the optimization method produces somewhat better results, the advantage of the optimization method is that its performance is not sensitive to the specific method of calibration.

  1. TH-CD-201-09: High Spatial Resolution Absorbed Dose to Water Measurements Using Optical Calorimetry in Megavoltage External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Martinez, E; DeWerd, L; Radtke, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and implement a high spatial resolution calorimeter methodology to measure absorbed dose to water (ADW) using phase shifts (PSs) of light passing through a water phantom and to compare measurements with theoretical calculations. Methods: Radiation-induced temperature changes were measured using the PSs of a He-Ne laser beam passing through a (10×10×10) cm{sup 3} water phantom. PSs were measured using a Michelson interferometer and recording the time-dependent fringe patterns on a CCD camera. The phantom was positioned at the center of the radiation field. A Varian 21EX was used to deliver 500 MU from a 9 MeV beammore » using a (6×6) cm{sup 2} cone. A 127cm SSD was used and the PSs were measured at depths ranging from of 1.90cm to 2.10cm in steps of 0.05cm by taking profiles at the corresponding rows across the image. PSs were computed by taking the difference between pre- and post-irradiation image frames and then measuring the amplitude of the resulting image profiles. An amplitude-to-PS calibration curve was generated using a piezoelectric transducer to mechanically induce PSs between 0.05 and 1.50 radians in steps of 0.05 radians. The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water at 632.8nm was used to convert PSs to ADW. Measured results were compared with ADW values calculated using the linac output calibration and commissioning data. Results: Milli-radian resolution in PS measurement was achieved using the described methodology. Measured radiation-induced PSs ranged from 0.10 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01 radians at the investigated depths. After converting PSs to ADW, measured and calculated ADW values agreed within the measurement uncertainty. Conclusion: This work shows that interferometer-based calorimetry measurements are capable of achieving sub-millimeter resolution measuring 2D temperature/dose distributions, which are particularly useful for characterizing beams from modalities such as SRS, proton therapy, or microbeams.« less

  2. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays-leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  3. Using LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around an 192Ir brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Lucas, P Avilés; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Lourenço, V; Vermesse, D; Cutarella, D

    2014-01-01

    The absorbed dose to water is the fundamental reference quantity for brachytherapy treatment planning systems and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have been recognized as the most validated detectors for measurement of such a dosimetric descriptor. The detector response in a wide energy spectrum as that of an (192)Ir brachytherapy source as well as the specific measurement medium which surrounds the TLD need to be accounted for when estimating the absorbed dose. This paper develops a methodology based on highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to directly estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around a high dose rate (192)Ir brachytherapy source. Different experimental designs in liquid water and air were constructed to study the response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs when irradiated in several standard photon beams of the LNE-LNHB (French national metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation). Measurement strategies and Monte Carlo techniques were developed to calibrate the LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors in the energy interval characteristic of that found when TLDs are immersed in water around an (192)Ir source. Finally, an experimental system was designed to irradiate TLDs at different angles between 1 and 11 cm away from an (192)Ir source in liquid water. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to correct measured results to provide estimates of the absorbed dose to water in water around the (192)Ir source. The dose response dependence of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs with the linear energy transfer of secondary electrons followed the same variations as those of published results. The calibration strategy which used TLDs in air exposed to a standard N-250 ISO x-ray beam and TLDs in water irradiated with a standard (137)Cs beam provided an estimated mean uncertainty of 2.8% (k = 1) in the TLD calibration coefficient for irradiations by the (192)Ir source in water. The 3D TLD measurements performed in liquid water were obtained with a maximum uncertainty of 11% (k = 1) found at 1 cm

  4. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Michael J; Brink, Ingo; Joe, Alexius Y; Von Mallek, Dirk; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger; Krause, Thomas M

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15+/-9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256+/-80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses.

  5. Errors in the absorbed and the administered 131I therapeutic dose in patients with Graves' disease. A suggested more precise technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangchun; Huang, Jincheng; Wang, Yuehui; Xie, Sipei; He, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative error (RE) in the thyroid absorbed dose (TD) of iodine-131 ( 131 I) in patients with Graves' disease comparing the simplified Quimby-Marinelli-Hine formula method (sQMHF) and the Standard Operational Procedures for dosimetry (SOPD) recommended by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. This study included 45 patients with Graves' disease 12 men and 33 women; age 44.1±12.8 years. Thyroid mass (TM) was measured using ultrasound. Uptake of 131 I (RAIU) was tested at 2, 4-6, 24, 48-72, and 96-168h after its administration and the half-life (T 1/2eff ) and resident time (RT) of 131 I were computed. According to the sQMHF, a prescribed TD of 75Gy required 3.7MBq/g of 131 I, correction based on the RAIU 24h and T 1/2eff . Subsequently, the therapeutic TD was computed according to the SOPD and the RE was recorded. The data were analyzed using t-tests. The TM, RAIU 24h , therapeutic TD, and RE were 36.5±23.9g, 0.54±0.14, 89.4±9.4Gy, and -0.01±0.02, respectively. There was a significant difference (t-value 9.84, P<0.01) between the prescribed and therapeutic TD because the sQMHF ignores the absorbed dose deposited in the thyroid during the first 24h, which is included in the SOPD. In addition, the RE was significantly smaller than the variable coefficient (VC) of the therapeutic TD (t=-39.6, P<0.01). When the activity of 131 I was calculated using the simplified Q-M-H formula, the therapeutic absorbed thyroid dose was significantly higher than what was expected for the prescribed dose. Precision of the individualized therapeutic absorbed dose could be improved by computing the activity of 131 I using the standard operational procedures for dosimetry of the EANM.

  6. Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for the NPL high-energy photon calibration service.

    PubMed

    Nutbrown, R F; Duane, S; Shipley, D R; Thomas, R A S

    2002-02-07

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy photon calibration service using 4-19 MV x-rays and 60Co gamma-radiation for secondary standard dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose to water. The primary standard used for this service is a graphite calorimeter and so absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined prior to the launch of this service in 1988. Since then, it has been found that the differences in inherent filtration between the NPL LINAC and typical clinical machines are large enough to affect absorbed dose calibrations and, since 1992, calibrations have been performed in heavily filtered qualities. The conversion factors for heavily filtered qualities were determined by interpolation and extrapolation of lightly filtered results as a function of tissue phantom ratio 20,10 (TPR20,10). This paper aims to evaluate these factors for all mega-voltage photon energies provided by the NPL LINAC for both lightly and heavily filtered qualities and for 60Co y-radiation in two ways. The first method involves the use of the photon fluence-scaling theorem. This states that if two blocks of different material are irradiated by the same photon beam, and if all dimensions are scaled in the inverse ratio of the electron densities of the two media, then, assuming that all photon interactions occur by Compton scatter the photon attenuation and scatter factors at corresponding scaled points of measurement in the phantom will be identical. The second method involves making in-phantom measurements of chamber response at a constant target-chamber distance. Monte Carlo techniques are then used to determine the corresponding dose to the medium in order to determine the chamber calibration factor directly. Values of the ratio of absorbed dose calibration factors in water and in graphite determined in these two ways agree with each other to within 0.2% (1sigma uncertainty). The best fit

  7. Non-uniform dose distributions in cranial radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward T.

    Radiation treatments are often delivered to patients with brain metastases. For those patients who receive radiation to the entire brain, there is a risk of long-term neuro-cognitive side effects, which may be due to damage to the hippocampus. In clinical MRI and CT scans it can be difficult to identify the hippocampus, but once identified it can be partially spared from radiation dose. Using deformable image registration we demonstrate a semi-automatic technique for obtaining an estimated location of this structure in a clinical MRI or CT scan. Deformable image registration is a useful tool in other areas such as adaptive radiotherapy, where the radiation oncology team monitors patients during the course of treatment and adjusts the radiation treatments if necessary when the patient anatomy changes. Deformable image registration is used in this setting, but there is a considerable level of uncertainty. This work represents one of many possible approaches at investigating the nature of these uncertainties utilizing consistency metrics. We will show that metrics such as the inverse consistency error correlate with actual registration uncertainties. Specifically relating to brain metastases, this work investigates where in the brain metastases are likely to form, and how the primary cancer site is related. We will show that the cerebellum is at high risk for metastases and that non-uniform dose distributions may be advantageous when delivering prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission.

  8. SU-F-T-159: Monte Carlo Simulation Studies of Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution for Polymer Gel Dosimeter and Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter in a Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M; Kim, G; Jung, H

    Purpose: The purpose of this simulation study is to evaluate the proton detectability of gel dosimeters, and estimate the three-dimensional dose distribution of protons in the radiochromic gel and polymer gel dosimeter compared with the dose distribution in water. Methods: The commercial composition ratios of normoxic polymer gel and LCV micelle radiochromic gel were included in this simulation study. The densities of polymer and radiochromic gel were 1.024 and 1.005 g/cm3, respectively. The 50, 80 and 140 MeV proton beam energies were selected. The dose distributions of protons in the polymer and radiochromic gel were simulated using Monte Carlo radiationmore » transport code (MCNPX 2.7.0, Los Alamos Laboratory). The water equivalent depth profiles and the dose distributions of two gel dosimeters were compared for the water. Results: In case of irradiating 50, 80 and 140 MeV proton beam to water phantom, the reference Bragg-peak depths are represented at 2.22, 5.18 and 13.98 cm, respectively. The difference in the water equivalent depth is represented to about 0.17 and 0.37 cm in the radiochromic gel and polymer gel dosimeter, respectively. The proton absorbed doses in the radiochromic gel dosimeter are calculated to 2.41, 3.92 and 6.90 Gy with increment of incident proton energies. In the polymer gel dosimeter, the absorbed doses are calculated to 2.37, 3.85 and 6.78 Gy with increment of incident proton energies. The relative absorbed dose in radiochromic gel (about 0.47 %) is similar to that of water than the relative absorbed dose of polymer gel (about 2.26 %). In evaluating the proton dose distribution, we found that the dose distribution of both gel dosimeters matched that of water in most cases. Conclusion: As the dosimetry device, the radiochromic gel dosimeter has the potential particle detectability and is feasible to use for quality assurance of proton beam therapy beam.« less

  9. The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A.G.; Kamp, L.W.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R.N.; Fanale, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Incorporation of Uranium: II. Distribution of Uranium Absorbed through the Lungs and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Walinder, G.; Fries, B.; Billaudelle, U.

    1967-01-01

    In experiments on mice, rabbits, and piglets the distribution of uranium was studied at different times after exposure. Uranium was administered by inhalation (mice) and through the skin (rabbits and piglets). These investigations show that the uptakes of uranium in different organs of the three species are highly dependent on the amounts administered. There seems to be a saturation effect in the spleen and bone tissue whenever the uranium concentration in the blood exceeds a certain level. The effect in the kidney is completely different. If, in a series of animals, the quantity of uranium is continuously increased, the uptakes by the kidneys increase more rapidly than the quantities administered. This observation seems to be consistent with the toxic effects of uranium on the capillary system in the renal cortex. Polyphloretin phosphate, a compound which reduces permeability, was investigated with respect to its effect on the uptake of uranium deposited in skin wounds in rabbits and piglets. It significantly reduced the absorption of uranium, even from depots in deep wounds. The findings are discussed with reference to the routine screening of persons exposed to uranium at AB Atomenergi. Images PMID:6073090

  11. SU-F-19A-02: Comparison of Absorbed Dose to Water Standards for HDR Ir-192 Brachytherapy Between the LCR, Brazil and NRC, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Salata, C; David, M; Almeida, C de

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiological Science Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Methods: The two institutions have separately developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are important differences between the two standards, including: preparation and read-out of the Fricke solution, irradiation geometry of the Fricke holder in relation to the Ir-192 source, and determination of the G-value to be used at Ir-192 energies. All measurements for both standards were made directly at the NRC laboratory (i.e.,more » no transfer instrument was used) using a single Ir-192 source (microSelectron v2). In addition, the NRC group has established a self-consistent method to determine the G-value for Ir-192, based on an interpolation between G-values obtained at Co-60 and 250kVp X-rays, and this measurement was repeated using the LCR Fricke solution to investigate possible systematic uncertainties. Results: G-values for Co-60 and 250 kVp x-rays, obtained using the LCR Fricke system, agreed with the NRC values within 0.5 % and 1 % respectively, indicating that the general assumption of universal G-values is appropriate in this case. The standard uncertainty in the determination of G for Ir-192 is estimated to be 0.6 %. For the comparison of absorbed dose measurements at the reference point for Ir-192 (1 cm depth in water, perpendicular to the seed long-axis), the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR) was found to be 1.011 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 %, k=1. Conclusion: The agreement in the absorbed dose to water values for the LCR and NRC systems is very encouraging. Combined with the lower uncertainty in this approach compared to the present air-kerma approach, these results reaffirm the use of Fricke solution as a potential primary standard for HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy.« less

  12. Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-10-01

    We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define “weakly absorbing” as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study revealsmore » that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49±0.02) and effective density (1.68±0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the

  13. Development of an objective dose distribution analysis method for OSL dating and pilot studies for planetary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepper, Kenneth Errol

    Scope and method of study. Part I: In its simplest expression a luminescence age is the natural absorbed radiation dose (De) divided by the in-situ dose rate. The experimental techniques of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating have evolved to the point were hundreds of Des, and therefore depositional ages can be quickly and conveniently determined for a single sediment sample. The first major objective of this research was to develop an objective analysis method for analyzing dose distribution data and selecting an age-representative dose (Dp). The analytical method was developed based on dose data sets collected from 3 eolian and 3 fluvial sediment samples from Central Oklahoma. Findings and conclusions. Part I: An objective method of presenting the dose distribution data, and a mathematically rigorous means of determining the Dp, as well as a statistically meaningful definition of the uncertainty in Dp have been proposed. The concept of experimental error deconvolution was introduced. In addition a set of distribution shape parameters to facilitate comparison among samples have been defined. These analytical techniques hold the potential to greatly enhance the accuracy and utility of OSL dating for young fluvial sediments. Scope and method of study. Part II: The second major objective of this research was to propose the application of luminescence dating to sediments on Mars. A set of fundamental luminescence dating properties was evaluated for a martian surface materials analog and a polar deposit contextual analog. Findings and conclusions. Part II: The luminescence signals measured from the analogs were found to have a wide dynamic dose response range with no unusual or prohibitive short-term instabilities and were readily reset by exposure to sunlight. These properties form a stable base for continued investigations toward the development of luminescence dating instruments and procedures for Mars.

  14. A feasibility study on the use of phantoms with statistical lung masses for determining the uncertainty in the dose absorbed by the lung from broad beams of incident photons and neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Khankook, Atiyeh Ebrahimi; Hakimabad, Hashem Miri

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Computational models of the human body have gradually become crucial in the evaluation of doses absorbed by organs. However, individuals may differ considerably in terms of organ size and shape. In this study, the authors sought to determine the energy-dependent standard deviations due to lung size of the dose absorbed by the lung during external photon and neutron beam exposures. One hundred lungs with different masses were prepared and located in an adult male International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantom. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle code version 5 (MCNP5). Variation in the lung mass caused great uncertainty: ~90% for low-energy broad parallel photon beams. However, for high-energy photons, the lung-absorbed dose dependency on the anatomical variation was reduced to <1%. In addition, the results obtained indicated that the discrepancy in the lung-absorbed dose varied from 0.6% to 8% for neutron beam exposure. Consequently, the relationship between absorbed dose and organ volume was found to be significant for low-energy photon sources, whereas for higher energy photon sources the organ-absorbed dose was independent of the organ volume. In the case of neutron beam exposure, the maximum discrepancy (of 8%) occurred in the energy range between 0.1 and 5 MeV. PMID:28077627

  15. A feasibility study on the use of phantoms with statistical lung masses for determining the uncertainty in the dose absorbed by the lung from broad beams of incident photons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Khankook, Atiyeh Ebrahimi; Hakimabad, Hashem Miri; Motavalli, Laleh Rafat

    2017-05-01

    Computational models of the human body have gradually become crucial in the evaluation of doses absorbed by organs. However, individuals may differ considerably in terms of organ size and shape. In this study, the authors sought to determine the energy-dependent standard deviations due to lung size of the dose absorbed by the lung during external photon and neutron beam exposures. One hundred lungs with different masses were prepared and located in an adult male International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantom. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle code version 5 (MCNP5). Variation in the lung mass caused great uncertainty: ~90% for low-energy broad parallel photon beams. However, for high-energy photons, the lung-absorbed dose dependency on the anatomical variation was reduced to <1%. In addition, the results obtained indicated that the discrepancy in the lung-absorbed dose varied from 0.6% to 8% for neutron beam exposure. Consequently, the relationship between absorbed dose and organ volume was found to be significant for low-energy photon sources, whereas for higher energy photon sources the organ-absorbed dose was independent of the organ volume. In the case of neutron beam exposure, the maximum discrepancy (of 8%) occurred in the energy range between 0.1 and 5 MeV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  16. SU-F-207-05: Excess Heat Corrections in a Prototype Calorimeter for Direct Realization of CT Absorbed Dose to Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Mayer, H; Tosh, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To reconcile air kerma and calorimetry measurements in a prototype calorimeter for obtaining absorbed dose in diagnostic CT beams. While corrections for thermal artifacts are routine and generally small in calorimetry of radiotherapy beams, large differences in relative stopping powers of calorimeter materials at the lower energies typical of CT beams greatly magnify their effects. Work-to-date on the problem attempts to reconcile laboratory measurements with modeling output from Monte Carlo and finite-element analysis of heat transfer. Methods: Small thermistor beads were embedded in a polystyrene (PS) core element of 1 cm diameter, which was inserted into a cylindrical HDPEmore » phantom of 30 cm diameter and subjected to radiation in a diagnostic CT x-ray imaging system. Resistance changes in the thermistors due to radiation heating were monitored via lock-in amplifier. Multiple 3-second exposures were recorded at 8 different dose-rates from the CT system, and least-squares fits to experimental data were compared to an expected thermal response obtained by finite-element analysis incorporating source terms based on semi-empirical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation. Results: Experimental waveforms exhibited large thermal artifacts with fast time constants, associated with excess heat in wires and glass, and smaller steps attributable to radiation heating of the core material. Preliminary finite-element analysis follows the transient component of the signal qualitatively, but predicts a slower decay of temperature spikes. This was supplemented by non-linear least-squares fits incorporating semi-empirical formulae for heat transfer, which were used to obtain dose-to-PS in reasonable agreement with the output of Monte Carlo calculations that converts air kerma to absorbed dose. Conclusion: Discrepancies between the finite-element analysis and our experimental data testify to the very significant heat transfer correction required for absorbed dose

  17. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MR finding of radiation-induced hepatic injury: relationship to absorbed dose and time course after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Daisuke; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Ishigami, Kousei; Kakihara, Daisuke; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate if Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI could identify liver tissue damage caused by radiation exposure in patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy. We enrolled 11 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI during or after radiotherapy in which the radiation field included the liver. External beam radiotherapy was delivered through multiple fields using a 10-MV linear accelerator. The hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were qualitatively evaluated for the presence of a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in the irradiated area in the liver. Next, signal intensity (SI) ratio of the irradiated area to the non-irradiated liver parenchyma was also calculated. The absorbed dose of the irradiated area in the liver was standardized using equivalent dose in 2Gy fraction (EQD2) and biological effective dose (BED). The results of qualitative analysis were compared with EQD2 or BED, and linear regression analysis was performed between EQD2 or BED and SI ratio. Twenty-two irradiated areas were evaluated. Qualitative analysis revealed a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in 14 areas and no decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in eight areas. The thresholds of EQD2 and BED causing a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA were considered to be 24 to 29Gy and 29 to 35Gy, respectively. Quantitatively, SI ratio decreased as EQD2 or BED increased (r=0.89, p<0.001), and the inverse relationship between signal enhancement and the absorbed dose in the irradiated area was obtained. One area with EQD2 of 50Gy and BED of 60Gy showed a slightly decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA on the 40th day but a clearly decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA on the 123rd day from initiation of radiotherapy. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI described RLI as a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA matching the irradiated area. The occurrence of this finding was significantly correlated with the absorbed dose of the irradiated area in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Calculation of out-of-field dose distribution in carbon-ion radiotherapy by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Namba, Masao

    2012-08-01

    Recent radiotherapy technologies including carbon-ion radiotherapy can improve the dose concentration in the target volume, thereby not only reducing side effects in organs at risk but also the secondary cancer risk within or near the irradiation field. However, secondary cancer risk in the low-dose region is considered to be non-negligible, especially for younger patients. To achieve a dose estimation of the whole body of each patient receiving carbon-ion radiotherapy, which is essential for risk assessment and epidemiological studies, Monte Carlo simulation plays an important role because the treatment planning system can provide dose distribution only in∕near the irradiation field and the measured data are limited. However, validation of Monte Carlo simulations is necessary. The primary purpose of this study was to establish a calculation method using the Monte Carlo code to estimate the dose and quality factor in the body and to validate the proposed method by comparison with experimental data. Furthermore, we show the distributions of dose equivalent in a phantom and identify the partial contribution of each radiation type. We proposed a calculation method based on a Monte Carlo simulation using the PHITS code to estimate absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and dose-averaged quality factor by using the Q(L)-L relationship based on the ICRP 60 recommendation. The values obtained by this method in modeling the passive beam line at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba were compared with our previously measured data. It was shown that our calculation model can estimate the measured value within a factor of 2, which included not only the uncertainty of this calculation method but also those regarding the assumptions of the geometrical modeling and the PHITS code. Also, we showed the differences in the doses and the partial contributions of each radiation type between passive and active carbon-ion beams using this calculation method. These results indicated that

  19. KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the VNIIFTRI, Russia and the BIPM in 60Co γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Berlyand, V.; Berlyand, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Russia and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co gamma radiation in 2009. The results show that the VNIIFTRI and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water are in agreement, yielding a mean ratio of 0.9976 for the calibration coefficients of the transfer chambers, the difference from unity being within the combined standard uncertainty (0.0043) for this result. This result is consistent with the earlier 2001 comparison result of 0.9967 (43). The updated degrees of equivalence for the VNIIFTRI are compared with those of the other national metrology institutes as presented in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. Absorbed dose assessment of 177Lu-zoledronate and 177Lu-EDTMP for human based on biodistribution data in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, several bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals including various bisphosphonate ligands and β-emitting radionuclides have been developed for bone pain palliation. Recently, 177Lu was successfully labeled with zoledronic acid (177Lu-ZLD) as a new generation potential bisphosphonate and demonstrated significant accumulation in bone tissue. In this work, the absorbed dose to each organ of human for 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (177Lu-EDTMP;as the only clinically bone pain palliation agent) was investigated based on biodistribution data in rats by medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) method. 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-EDTMP were prepared in high radiochemical purity (>99%, instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC)) at the optimized condition. The biodistribution of the complexes demonstrated fast blood clearance and major accumulation in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for both 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-EDTMP is observed in trabecular bone surface with 12.173 and 10.019 mSv/MBq, respectively. The results showed that 177Lu-ZLD has better characteristics compared to 177Lu-EDTMP and can be a good candidate for bone pain palliation. PMID:26170557

  1. Comparison of the calculated absorbed dose using the Cadplan™ treatment planning software and Tld-100 measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom for a bronchogenic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez Castillo, J. G., E-mail: jggc59@hotmail.com; Álvarez Romero, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx; Calderón, A. Torres, E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx

    2014-11-07

    To verify the accuracy of the absorbed doses D calculated by a TPS Cadplan for a bronchogenic treatment (in an Alderson-Rando phantom) are chosen ten points with the following D's and localizations. Point 1, posterior position on the left edge with 136.4 Gy. Points: 2, 3 and 4 in the left lung with 104.9, 104.3 and 105.8 Gy, respectively; points 5 and 6 at the mediastinum with 192.4 and 173.5 Gy; points 7, 8 and 9 in the right lung with 105.8, 104.2 and 104.7 Gy, and 10 at posterior position on right edge with 143.7 Gy. IAEA type capsulesmore » with TLD 100 powder are placed, planned and irradiated. The evaluation of the absorbed dose is carried out a curve of calibration for the LiF response (nC) {sup vs} {sup DW}, to several cavity theories. The traceability for the DW is obtained with a secondary standard calibrated at the NRC (Canada). The dosimetric properties for the materials considered are determined from the Hounsfield numbers reported by the TPS. The stopping power ratios are calculated for nominal spectrum to 6 MV photons. The percent variations among the planned and determined D in all the cases they are < ± 3%.« less

  2. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  4. Development and comparison of computational models for estimation of absorbed organ radiation dose in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from uptake of iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N E; Johnson, T E; Capello, K; Pinder, J E

    2014-12-01

    This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from (131)I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional organs with anatomically relevant size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O. mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with estimated activity concentrations, to approximate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (μGy) to selected organs after several half-lives of (131)I. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for source organs (less than 30% difference between estimated doses), and whole body DCFs for each model (∼3 × 10(-3) μGy d(-1) per Bq kg(-1)) were comparable to DCFs listed in ICRP 108 for (131)I. The main benefit provided by the computational models developed here is the ability to accurately determine organ dose. A conservative mass-ratio approach may provide reasonable results for sufficiently large organs, but is only applicable to individual source organs. Although CSUTROUT is the more anatomically realistic phantom, it required much more resource dedication to develop and is less flexible than the stylized phantom for similar results. There may be instances where a detailed phantom such as CSUTROUT is appropriate, but generally the stylized phantom appears to be the best choice for an ideal balance between accuracy and resource requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-species prediction of human survival probabilities for accelerated anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA) regimens and the potential for vaccine and antibiotic dose sparing.

    PubMed

    Stark, G V; Sivko, G S; VanRaden, M; Schiffer, J; Taylor, K L; Hewitt, J A; Quinn, C P; Nuzum, E O

    2016-12-12

    Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax) was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) indication in adults 18-65years of age. The schedule is three doses administered subcutaneous (SC) at 2-week intervals (0, 2, and 4weeks), in conjunction with a 60-day course of antimicrobials. The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) developed an animal model to support assessment of a shortened antimicrobial PEP duration following Bacillus anthracis exposure. A nonhuman primate (NHP) study was completed to evaluate the efficacy of a two dose anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA) schedule (0, 2weeks) aerosol challenged with high levels of B. anthracis spores at week4- the time point at which humans would receive the third vaccination of the approved PEP schedule. Here we use logistic regression models to combine the survival data from the NHP study along with serum anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing activity (TNA) and anti-PA IgG measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data to perform a cross-species analysis to estimate survival probabilities in vaccinated human populations at this time interval (week4 of the PEP schedule). The bridging analysis demonstrated that high levels of NHP protection also yield high predicted probability of human survival just 2weeks after the second dose of vaccine with the full or half antigen dose regimen. The absolute difference in probability of human survival between the full and half antigen dose was estimated to be at most approximately 20%, indicating that more investigation of the half-antigen dose for vaccine dose sparing strategies may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of small field dosimetry on the biological models used in evaluating IMRT dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, Gene A.

    The primary goal in radiation oncology is to deliver lethal radiation doses to tumors, while minimizing dose to normal tissue. IMRT has the capability to increase the dose to the targets and decrease the dose to normal tissue, increasing local control, decrease toxicity and allow for effective dose escalation. This advanced technology does present complex dose distributions that are not easily verified. Furthermore, the dose inhomogeneity caused by non-uniform dose distributions seen in IMRT treatments has caused the development of biological models attempting to characterize the dose-volume effect in the response of organized tissues to radiation. Dosimetry of small fields can be quite challenging when measuring dose distributions for high-energy X-ray beams used in IMRT. The proper modeling of these small field distributions is essential in reproducing accurate dose for IMRT. This evaluation was conducted to quantify the effects of small field dosimetry on IMRT plan dose distributions and the effects on four biological model parameters. The four biological models evaluated were: (1) the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD), (2) the Tumor Control Probability (TCP), (3) the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and (4) the Probability of uncomplicated Tumor Control (P+). These models are used to estimate local control, survival, complications and uncomplicated tumor control. This investigation compares three distinct small field dose algorithms. Dose algorithms were created using film, small ion chamber, and a combination of ion chamber measurements and small field fitting parameters. Due to the nature of uncertainties in small field dosimetry and the dependence of biological models on dose volume information, this examination quantifies the effects of small field dosimetry techniques on radiobiological models and recommends pathways to reduce the errors in using these models to evaluate IMRT dose distributions. This study demonstrates the importance

  7. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: New Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Absorbed Dose to Water in Diagnostic KV X-Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, F; Ohno, T

    Purpose: To develop new ionization chamber dosimetry of absorbed dose to water in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using a beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for Co-60 to kV x-ray and an ionization conversion factor for a water-substitute plastic phantom. Methods: kQ was calculated for aluminum half value-layers (Al-HVLs) of 1.5 mm to 8 mm which were generated by kV x-ray beams of 50 to 120 kVp. Twenty-two energy spectra for ten effective energies (Eeff) were calculated by a SpecCalc program. Depth doses in water were calculated at 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields. Output factorsmore » were also obtained from the dose ratio for a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field. kQ was obtained for a PTW30013 Former ion chamber. In addition, an ionization conversion factor of the PWDT phantom to water was calculated. All calculations were performed with EGSnrc/cavity code and egs-chamber codes. Results: The x-ray beam energies for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs ranged in Eeff of 25.7 to 54.3 keV. kQ for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs were 0.831 to 0.897, at 1 and 2 cm depths for a 10 × 10 cm2 field. Similarly, output factors for 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields were 0.937 to 1.033 for 25.7 keV and 0.857 to 1.168 for 54.3 keV. The depth dose in a PWDT phantom decreased up to 5% compared to that in water at depth of ten percent of maximum dose for 1.5 mm Al-HVL. The ionization ratios of water/PWDT phantoms for the PTW30013 chamber were 1.012 to 1.007 for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs at 1 cm depth. Conclusion: It became possible to directly measure the absorbed dose to water with the ionization chamber in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using kQ and the PWDT phantom.« less

  8. Gating window dependency on scanned carbon-ion beam dose distribution and imaging dose for thoracoabdominal treatment.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinichiro; Karube, Masataka; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    2017-06-01

    To explore the trade-off between dose assessment and imaging dose in respiratory gating with radiographic fluoroscopic imaging, we evaluated the relationship between dose assessment and fluoroscopic imaging dose in various gating windows, retrospectively. Four-dimensional (4D) CT images acquired for 10 patients with lung and liver tumours were used for 4D treatment planning for scanned carbon ion beam. Imaging dose from two oblique directions was calculated by the number of images multiplied by the air kerma per image. Necessary beam-on time was calculated from the treatment log file. Accumulated dose distribution was calculated. The gating window was defined as tumour position not respiratory phase and changed from 0-100% duty cycle on 4DCT. These metrics were individually evaluated for every case. For lung cases, sufficient dose conformation was achieved in respective gating windows [D 95 -clinical target volume (CTV) > 99%]. V 20 -lung values for 50%- and 30%-duty cycles were 2.5% and 6.0% of that for 100%-duty cycle. Maximum doses (cord/oesophagus) for 30%-duty cycle decreased 6.8%/7.4% to those for 100%-duty cycle. For liver cases, V 10 -liver values for 50%- and 30%-duty cycles were 9.4% and 12.8% of those for 100%-duty cycle, respectively. Maximum doses (cord/oesophagus) for 50%- and 30%-duty cycles also decreased 17.2%/19.3% and 24.6%/29.8% to those for 100%-duty cycle, respectively. Total imaging doses increased 43.5% and 115.8% for 50%- and 30%-duty cycles to that for the 100%-duty cycle. When normal tissue doses are below the tolerance level, the gating window should be expanded to minimize imaging dose and treatment time. Advances in knowledge: The skin dose from imaging might not be counterbalanced to the OAR dose; however, imaging dose is a particularly important factor.

  9. Application of stereo x-ray photogrammetry (SRM) in the determination of absorbed dose values during intracavitary radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    van Kleffens, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1979-04-01

    The method of stereo x-ray photogrammetry is described, using a stereo x-ray comparator, as well as some clinical applications. The x-ray equipment consists of two x-ray tubes and a pneumatically driven cassette changer, developed to reduce effects of patient or organ motion between stero radiographs. The accuracy of the set-up is demonstated with measurements on a geometrical model and on a gelatine phantom containing radium needles. The clinical use is reported in determining dose rates to points of the intestinal wall during intracavitary radiotherapy of gynecological cancer. In a number of cases the stereo measurements have resulted in a changemore » in the application time or in the charge or position of the applicator, possibly preventing later complications, as a result of a high dose. Future applications for implant dosimetry (/sup 192/Ir, /sup 125/I) are suggested.« less

  10. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-04-04

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors.

  11. PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with TLDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Sihver, Lembit; Kartashov, Dmitry; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Tolochek, Raisa

    2013-12-01

    "Protective curtain" was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose - reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors.

  12. An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index from soil around repository facility at Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adziz, M. I. Abdul; Khoo, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    The process of natural decay of radionuclides that emit gamma rays can infect humans and other living things. In this study, soil samples were taken at various locations which have been identified around the Long Term Storage Facility (LTSF) in Bukit Kledang, Perak. In addition, the respective dose rates in the sampling sites were measured at 5cm and 1m above the ground using a survey meter with Geiger Muller (GM) detector. Soil samples were taken using a hand Auger and then brought back to the laboratory for sample prepreparation process. The measuring of radioactivity concentration in soil samples were carried out using gamma spectrometer counting system equipped with HPGe detector. The obtained results show, the radioactivity concentration ranged from 11.98 - 29.93 Bq/kg for Radium-226 (226Ra), 20.97 - 41.45 Bq/kg for Thorium-232 (232Th) and 5.73 - 59.41 Bq/kg for Potassium-40 (40K), with mean values of 20.83 ± 5.88 Bq/kg, 32.87 ± 5.88 Bq/kg and 21.50 ± 2.79 Bq/kg, respectively. To assess the radiological hazards of natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the rate of absorption dose (D), the annual effective dose and external hazard index (Hex) was calculated and compared to the world average values.

  13. Comparison of the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51 absorbed dose to water protocols in the dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiful Huq, M.; Andreo, Pedro; Song, Haijun

    2001-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA TRS-398) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM TG-51) have published new protocols for the calibration of radiotherapy beams. These protocols are based on the use of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water in a standards laboratory's reference quality beam. This paper compares the recommendations of the two protocols in two ways: (i) by analysing in detail the differences in the basic data included in the two protocols for photon and electron beam dosimetry and (ii) by performing measurements in clinical photon and electron beams and determining the absorbed dose to water following the recommendations of the two protocols. Measurements were made with two Farmer-type ionization chambers and three plane-parallel ionization chamber types in 6, 18 and 25 MV photon beams and 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 MeV electron beams. The Farmer-type chambers used were NE 2571 and PTW 30001, and the plane-parallel chambers were a Scanditronix-Wellhöfer NACP and Roos, and a PTW Markus chamber. For photon beams, the measured ratios TG-51/TRS-398 of absorbed dose to water Dw ranged between 0.997 and 1.001, with a mean value of 0.999. The ratios for the beam quality correction factors kQ were found to agree to within about +/-0.2% despite significant differences in the method of beam quality specification for photon beams and in the basic data entering into kQ. For electron beams, dose measurements were made using direct ND,w calibrations of cylindrical and plane-parallel chambers in a 60Co gamma-ray beam, as well as cross-calibrations of plane-parallel chambers in a high-energy electron beam. For the direct ND,w calibrations the ratios TG-51/TRS-398 of absorbed dose to water Dw were found to lie between 0.994 and 1.018 depending upon the chamber and electron beam energy used, with mean values of 0.996, 1.006, and 1.017, respectively, for the cylindrical, well-guarded and not well-guarded plane

  14. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    PubMed

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monte Carlo estimation of radiation dose in organs of female and male adult phantoms due to FDG-F18 absorbed in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Silva, Rogério M. V.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of dose conversion factors (S values) for the radionuclide fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) absorbed in the lungs during a positron emission tomography (PET) procedure was calculated using the Monte Carlo method (MCNPX version 2.7.0). For the obtained dose conversion factors of interest, it was considered a uniform absorption of radiopharmaceutical by the lung of a healthy adult human. The spectrum of fluorine was introduced in the input data file for the simulation. The simulation took place in two adult phantoms of both sexes, based on polygon mesh surfaces called FASH and MASH with anatomy and posture according to ICRP 89. The S values for the 22 internal organs/tissues, chosen from ICRP No. 110, for the FASH and MASH phantoms were compared with the results obtained from a MIRD V phantoms called ADAM and EVA used by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD). We observed variation of more than 100% in S values due to structural anatomical differences in the internal organs of the MASH and FASH phantoms compared to the mathematical phantom.

  16. Update on the Code Intercomparison and Benchmark for Muon Fluence and Absorbed Dose Induced by an 18 GeV Electron Beam After Massive Iron Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, A.

    In 1974, Nelson, Kase and Svensson published an experimental investigation on muon shielding around SLAC high-energy electron accelerators [1]. They measured muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by 14 and 18 GeV electron beams hitting a copper/water beamdump and attenuated in a thick steel shielding. In their paper, they compared the results with the theoretical models available at that time. In order to compare their experimental results with present model calculations, we use the modern transport Monte Carlo codes MARS15, FLUKA2011 and GEANT4 to model the experimental setup and run simulations. The results are then compared between the codes, andmore » with the SLAC data.« less

  17. Calibration of GafChromic EBT3 for absorbed dose measurements in 5 MeV proton beam and (60)Co γ-rays.

    PubMed

    Vadrucci, M; Esposito, G; Ronsivalle, C; Cherubini, R; Marracino, F; Montereali, R M; Picardi, L; Piccinini, M; Pimpinella, M; Vincenti, M A; De Angelis, C

    2015-08-01

    To study EBT3 GafChromic film in low-energy protons, and for comparison purposes, in a reference (60)Co beam in order to use it as a calibrated dosimetry system in the proton irradiation facility under construction within the framework of the Oncological Therapy with Protons (TOP)-Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy (IMPLART) Project at ENEA-Frascati, Italy. EBT3 film samples were irradiated at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, with a 5 MeV proton beam generated by a 7 MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator. The nominal dose rates used were 2.1 Gy/min and 40 Gy/min. The delivered dose was determined by measuring the particle fluence and the energy spectrum in air with silicon surface barrier detector monitors. A preliminary study of the EBT3 film beam quality dependence in low-energy protons was conducted by passively degrading the beam energy. EBT3 films were also irradiated at ENEA-National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology with gamma radiation produced by a (60)Co source characterized by an absorbed dose to water rate of 0.26 Gy/min as measured by a calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber. EBT3 film calibration curves were determined by means of a set of 40 film pieces irradiated to various doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 30 Gy absorbed dose to water. An EPSON Expression 11000XL color scanner in transmission mode was used for film analysis. Scanner response stability, intrafilm uniformity, and interfilm reproducibility were verified. Optical absorption spectra measurements were performed on unirradiated and irradiated EBT3 films to choose the most sensitive color channel to the dose range used. EBT3 GafChromic films show an under response up to about 33% for low-energy protons with respect to (60)Co gamma radiation, which is consistent with the linear energy transfer dependence already observed with higher energy protons, and a negligible dose-rate dependence in the 2-40 Gy/min range

  18. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blood, urine, feces and bile, as well as carcasses, were collected through 168 hours after dosing. Samples were analyzed for total radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting, and carcasses were analyzed by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Results [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity was rapidly and extensively absorbed and extensively distributed to most tissues for both routes of administration in both species. In rats, tissues with the highest radioactivity Cmax values included bile, abdominal fat, reproductive fat, subcutaneous fat, and liver, but radioactivity was also detected in tissues associated with IFI, including lung, brain and eye. In monkeys, the highest Cmax values were in bile, urine, uveal tract, bone marrow, abdominal fat, liver, and kidney cortex. Liver and kidney were the tissues with highest radioactivity, but as in the rat, radioactivity was also detected in lung, brain and eye tissues. In pigmented rats, radiocarbon was densely distributed into pigmented tissue and more slowly cleared than from other tissues. Mean recovery of radioactivity in rats was approximately 95–100%. In bile duct-intact rats, >90% of radioactivity was recovered in feces. In cannulated rats, biliary excretion of radioactivity was the major route of elimination and accounted for 88.8% of the dose, whereas urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity was minor and accounted for 2.56% and 5.42% of the dose, respectively. In monkeys, the overall recovery of radioactivity

  19. WE-A-17A-12: The Influence of Eye Plaque Design On Dose Distributions and Dose- Volume Histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, P; Molloy, JA; Rivard, MJ

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of slot design of the model EP917 plaque on dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Methods: The dimensions and orientation of the slots in EP917 plaques were measured. In the MCNP5 radiation simulation geometry, dose distributions on orthogonal planes and DVHs for a tumor and sclera were generated for comparisons. 27 slot designs and 13 plaques were evaluated and compared with the published literature and the Plaque Simulator clinical treatment planning system. Results: The dosimetric effect of the gold backing composition and mass density was < 3%. Slot depth, width, and length changed the centralmore » axis (CAX) dose distributions by < 1% per 0.1 mm in design variation. Seed shifts in the slot towards the eye and shifts of the {sup 125} I-coated Ag rod within the capsule had the greatest impact on CAX dose distribution, increasing by 14%, 9%, 4%, and 2.5% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm, respectively, from the inner sclera. Along the CAX, dose from the full plaque geometry using the measured slot design was 3.4% ± 2.3% higher than the manufacturer-provided geometry. D{sub 10} for the simulated tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera for the measured plaque was also higher, but 9%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. In comparison to the measured plaque design, a theoretical plaque having narrow and deep slots delivered 30%, 37%, and 62% lower D{sub 10} doses to the tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera, respectively. CAX doses at −1, 0, 1, and 2 mm were also lower by a factor of 2.6, 1.4, 1.23, and 1.13, respectively. Conclusion: The study identified substantial sensitivity of the EP917 plaque dose distributions to slot design. However, it did not identify substantial dosimetric variations based on radionuclide choice ({sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, or {sup 131}Cs). COMS plaques provided lower scleral doses with similar tumor dose coverage.« less

  20. Influence of dose calculation algorithms on the predicted dose distribution and NTCP values for NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tine B; Wieslander, Elinore; Fogliata, Antonella; Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2011-05-01

    To investigate differences in calculated doses and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values between different dose algorithms. Six dose algorithms from four different treatment planning systems were investigated: Eclipse AAA, Oncentra MasterPlan Collapsed Cone and Pencil Beam, Pinnacle Collapsed Cone and XiO Multigrid Superposition, and Fast Fourier Transform Convolution. Twenty NSCLC patients treated in the period 2001-2006 at the same accelerator were included and the accelerator used for treatments were modeled in the different systems. The treatment plans were recalculated with the same number of monitor units and beam arrangements across the dose algorithms. Dose volume histograms of the GTV, PTV, combined lungs (excluding the GTV), and heart were exported and evaluated. NTCP values for heart and lungs were calculated using the relative seriality model and the LKB model, respectively. Furthermore, NTCP for the lungs were calculated from two different model parameter sets. Calculations and evaluations were performed both including and excluding density corrections. There are found statistical significant differences between the calculated dose to heart, lung, and targets across the algorithms. Mean lung dose and V20 are not very sensitive to change between the investigated dose calculation algorithms. However, the different dose levels for the PTV averaged over the patient population are varying up to 11%. The predicted NTCP values for pneumonitis vary between 0.20 and 0.24 or 0.35 and 0.48 across the investigated dose algorithms depending on the chosen model parameter set. The influence of the use of density correction in the dose calculation on the predicted NTCP values depends on the specific dose calculation algorithm and the model parameter set. For fixed values of these, the changes in NTCP can be up to 45%. Calculated NTCP values for pneumonitis are more sensitive to the choice of algorithm than mean lung dose and V20 which are also commonly

  1. Prediction of Normal Organ Absorbed Doses for [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 Using [44Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 Pharmacokinetics in Patients With Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khawar, Ambreen; Eppard, Elisabeth; Sinnes, Jean Phlippe; Roesch, Frank; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kürpig, Stefan; Meisenheimer, Michael; Gaertner, Florian C; Essler, Markus; Bundschuh, Ralph A

    2018-04-23

    In vivo pharmacokinetic analysis of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 was used to determine the normal organ-absorbed doses that may result from therapeutic activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and to predict the maximum permissible activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma. Pharmacokinetics of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 was evaluated in 5 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma using dynamic PET/CT, followed by 3 static PET/CT acquisitions and blood sample collection over 19.5 hours, as well as urine sample collection at 2 time points. Total activity measured in source organs by PET imaging, as well as counts per milliliter measured in blood and urine samples, was decay corrected back to the time of injection using the half-life of Sc. Afterward, forward decay correction using the half-life of Lu was performed, extrapolating the pharmacokinetics of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 to that of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617. Source organs residence times and organ-absorbed doses for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 were calculated using OLINDA/EXM software. Bone marrow self-dose was determined with indirect blood-based method, and urinary bladder contents residence time was estimated by trapezoidal approximation. The maximum permissible activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 was calculated for each patient considering external beam radiotherapy toxicity limits for radiation absorbed doses to kidneys, bone marrow, salivary glands, and whole body. The predicted mean organ-absorbed doses were highest in the kidneys (0.44 mSv/MBq), followed by the salivary glands (0.23 mSv/MBq). The maximum permissible activity was highly variable among patients; limited by whole body-absorbed dose (1 patient), marrow-absorbed dose (1 patient), and kidney-absorbed dose (3 patients). [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 PET/CT imaging is feasible and allows theoretical extrapolation of the pharmacokinetics of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 to that of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617, with the intent of predicting normal organ-absorbed doses and maximum

  2. Fluence-to-Absorbed Dose Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection of Embryo and Foetus Against External Exposure to Muons from 20MeV to 50GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients aremore » yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap.« less

  3. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Atkins, H.

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consistedmore » of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.« less

  4. Spatial distributions of dose enhancement around a gold nanoparticle at several depths of proton Bragg peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jihun; Sutherland, Kenneth; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Shirato, Hiroki; Date, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been recognized as a promising candidate for a radiation sensitizer. A proton beam incident on a GNP can produce secondary electrons, resulting in an enhancement of the dose around the GNP. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of dose enhancement around the GNP, especially in the direction along the incident proton. The purpose of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of dose enhancement by taking the incident direction into account. Two steps of calculation were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. First, the energy spectra of 100 and 195 MeV protons colliding with a GNP were calculated at the Bragg peak and three other depths around the peak in liquid water. Second, the GNP was bombarded by protons with the obtained energy spectra. Radial dose distributions were computed along the incident beam direction. The spatial distributions of the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and subtracted dose (Dsub) were then evaluated. The spatial DEF distributions showed hot spots in the distal radial region from the proton beam axis. The spatial Dsub distribution isotropically spread out around the GNP. Low energy protons caused higher and wider dose enhancement. The macroscopic dose enhancement in clinical applications was also evaluated. The results suggest that the consideration of the spatial distribution of GNPs in treatment planning will maximize the potential of GNPs.

  5. Solar particle dose rate buildup and distribution in critical body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1993-01-01

    Human body organs have varying degrees of radiosensitivity as evidenced by radioepidemiologic tables. The major critical organs for both the male and female that have been identified include the lung, thyroid, stomach, and breast (female). Using computerized anatomical models of the 50th percentile United States Air Force male and female, we present the self-shielding effects of these various body organs and how the shielding effects change as the location (dose point) in the body varies. Several major solar proton events from previous solar cycles and several events from the current 22nd solar cycle have been analyzed. The solar particle event rise time, peak intensity, and decay time vary considerably from event to event. Absorbed dose and dose equivalent rate calculations and organ risk assessment data are presented for each critical body organ. These data are compared with the current NASA astronaut dose limits as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  6. Estimation of organ cumulated activities and absorbed doses on intakes of several 11C labelled radiopharmaceuticals from external measurement with thermoluminescent dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Hayashi, Y; Watabe, H; Matsumoto, M; Horikawa, T; Fujiwara, T; Ito, M; Yanai, K

    1998-02-01

    We have developed a method for obtaining the cumulated activities in organs from radionuclides, which are injected into the patient in nuclear medicine procedures, by external exposure measurement with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) which are attached to the patient's body surface close to source organs to obtain information on body-surface doses. As the surface dose is connected to the cumulated activities in source organs through radiation transmission in the human body which can be estimated with the aid of a mathematical phantom, the organ cumulated activities can be obtained by the inverse transform method. The accuracy of this method was investigated by using a water phantom in which several gamma-ray volume sources of known activity were placed to simulate source organs. We then estimated by external measurements the organ cumulated activities and absorbed doses in subjects to whom the radiopharmaceuticals 11C-labelled Doxepin, 11C-labelled YM09151-2 and 11C-labelled Benzotropin were administered in clinical nuclear medicine procedures. The cumulated activities in the brain obtained with TLDs for Doxepin and YM09151-2 are 63.6 +/- 6.2 and 32.1 +/- 12.0 kBq h MBq-1 respectively, which are compared with the respective values of 33.3 +/- 9.9 and 23.9 +/- 6.2 kBq h MBq-1 with direct PET (positron emission tomography) measurements. The agreement between the two methods is within a factor of two. The effective doses of Doxepin, YM09151-2 and Benzotropin are determined as 6.92 x 10(-3), 7.08 x 10(-3) and 7.65 x 10(-3) mSv MBq-1 respectively with the TLD method. This method has great advantages, in that cumulated activities in several organs can be obtained easily with a single procedure, and the measurements of body surface doses are performed simultaneously with the nuclear medicine procedure, as TLDs are too small to interfere with other medical measurements.

  7. Neutron emission and dose distribution from natural carbon irradiated with a 12 MeV amu-1 12C5+ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Maitreyee; Sarkar, P K; Sanami, T; Takada, M; Shibata, T

    2016-09-01

    Measured neutron energy distribution emitted from a thick stopping target of natural carbon at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° from nuclear reactions caused by 12 MeV amu -1 incident 12 C 5+ ions were converted to energy differential and total neutron absorbed dose as well as ambient dose equivalent H * (10) using the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients provided by the ICRP. Theoretical estimates were obtained using the Monte Carlo nuclear reaction model code PACE and a few existing empirical formulations for comparison. Results from the PACE code showed an underestimation of the high-energy part of energy differential dose distributions at forward angles whereas the empirical formulation by Clapier and Zaidins (1983 Nucl. Instrum. Methods 217 489-94) approximated the energy integrated angular distribution of H * (10) satisfactorily. Using the measured data, the neutron doses received by some vital human organs were estimated for anterior-posterior exposure. The estimated energy-averaged quality factors were found to vary for different organs from about 7 to about 13. Emitted neutrons having energies above 20 MeV were found to contribute about 20% of the total dose at 0° while at 90° the contribution was reduced to about 2%.

  8. Extrapolation of the dna fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation to predict effects at low doses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.; Peterson, L. E.

    2001-01-01

    The patterns of DSBs induced in the genome are different for sparsely and densely ionizing radiations: In the former case, the patterns are well described by a random-breakage model; in the latter, a more sophisticated tool is needed. We used a Monte Carlo algorithm with a random-walk geometry of chromatin, and a track structure defined by the radial distribution of energy deposition from an incident ion, to fit the PFGE data for fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation. These fits determined the unknown parameters of the model, enabling the extrapolation of data for high-dose irradiation to the low doses that are relevant for NASA space radiation research. The randomly-located-clusters formalism was used to speed the simulations. It was shown that only one adjustable parameter, Q, the track efficiency parameter, was necessary to predict DNA fragment sizes for wide ranges of doses. This parameter was determined for a variety of radiations and LETs and was used to predict the DSB patterns at the HPRT locus of the human X chromosome after low-dose irradiation. It was found that high-LET radiation would be more likely than low-LET radiation to induce additional DSBs within the HPRT gene if this gene already contained one DSB.

  9. Seasonal influenza vaccine dose distribution in 157 countries (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Palache, Abraham; Oriol-Mathieu, Valerie; Abelin, Atika; Music, Tamara

    2014-11-12

    Globally there are an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness every year, resulting in 250,000-500,000 deaths. At the World Health Assembly in 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to increase influenza vaccine coverage rates (VCR) for high-risk groups, particularly focusing on at least 75% of the elderly by 2010. But systematic worldwide data have not been available to assist public health authorities to monitor vaccine uptake and review progress toward vaccination coverage targets. In 2008, the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations Influenza Vaccine Supply task force (IFPMA IVS) developed a survey methodology to assess global influenza vaccine dose distribution. The current survey results represent 2011 data and demonstrate the evolution of the absolute number distributed between 2004 and 2011 inclusive, and the evolution in the per capita doses distributed in 2008-2011. Global distribution of IFPMA IVS member doses increased approximately 86.9% between 2004 and 2011, but only approximately 12.1% between 2008 and 2011. The WHO's regions in Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), Southeast Asian (SEARO) and Africa (AFRO) together account for about 47% of the global population, but only 3.7% of all IFPMA IVS doses distributed. While distributed doses have globally increased, they have decreased in EURO and EMRO since 2009. Dose distribution can provide a reasonable proxy of vaccine utilization. Based on the dose distribution, we conclude that seasonal influenza VCR in many countries remains well below the WHA's VCR targets and below the recommendations of the Council of the European Union in EURO. Inter- and intra-regional disparities in dose distribution trends call into question the impact of current vaccine recommendations at achieving coverage targets. Additional policy measures, particularly those that influence patients adherence to vaccination programs, such as reimbursement, healthcare provider knowledge

  10. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods:more » The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for

  11. Analysis of localised dose distribution in human body by Monte Carlo code system for photon irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, S; Odano, N; Nariyama, N; Saito, K

    2004-01-01

    In usual personal dosimetry, whole body irradiation is assumed. However, the opportunity of partial irradiation is increasing and the tendencies of protection quantities caused under those irradiation conditions are different. The code system has been developed and effective dose and organ absorbed doses have been calculated in the case of horizontal narrow photon beam irradiated from various directions at three representative body sections, 40, 50 and 60 cm originating from the top of the head. This work covers 24 beam directions, each 15 degrees angle ranging from 0 degrees to 345 degrees, three energy levels, 45 keV, 90 keV and 1.25 MeV, and three beam diameters of 1, 2 and 4 cm. These results show that the beam injected from diagonally front or other specific direction causes peak dose in the case of partial irradiation.

  12. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori, E-mail: sumida@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV,more » spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.« less

  13. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the VSL, Netherlands and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; de Prez, L. A.; Jansen, B. J.; Pooter, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 20 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water for three radiation qualities of the medical accelerator facilities of the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom). After establishing Draft B, the VSL discovered an error in the calculation of the correction factor for excess-heat linked to the VSL glass vessel used in the measurements at the NPL. The comparison results for the revised standard, reported as ratios of the VSL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9959 (54) at 6 MV, 0.9958 (64) at 10 MV and 0.9991 (75) at 25 MV. This result is part of the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. APMP supplementary comparison report of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (BIPM KCDB: APMP.RI(I)-S2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.; Kadni, T. B.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, B. C.; Yi, C.-Y.; Pungkun, V.; Chu, C.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (APMP.RI(I)-S2) was performed with five national metrology institutes in 2013 and 2014. Two commercial thin window ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. Two of the NMIs measured the calibration coefficients of the chambers in reference fields produced from Pm-147, Kr-85 and Sr-90/Y-90, while the other three measured those only in Sr-90/Y-90 beta-particle field. The degree of equivalence for the participants was determined and this comparison verifies the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. In addition, most of the results of this comparison are consistent with another international comparison (EUROMET.RI(I)-S2) reported before this work. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of the SIM 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water comparison SIM.RI(I)-K4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. K.; Shortt, K. R.; Saravi, M.; Meghzifene, A.; Tovar, V. M.; Barbosa, R. A.; da Silva, C. N.; Carrizales, L.; Seltzer, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Transfer chambers were used to compare the standards for 60Co absorbed dose to water maintained by seven laboratories. Six of the laboratories were members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) regional metrology organization while the seventh was the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) laboratory in Vienna. The National Research Council (NRC) acted as the pilot laboratory for the comparison. Because of the participation of laboratories holding primary standards, the comparison results could be linked to the key comparison reference value maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The results for all laboratories were within the expanded uncertainty (two standard deviations) of the reference value. The estimated relative standard uncertainty on the comparison between any pair of laboratories ranged from 0.6% to 1.4%. The largest discrepancy between any two laboratories was 1.3%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  16. Implementation of a dose gradient method into optimization of dose distribution in prostate cancer 3D-CRT plans

    PubMed Central

    Giżyńska, Marta K.; Kukołowicz, Paweł F.; Kordowski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this work is to present a method of beam weight and wedge angle optimization for patients with prostate cancer. Background 3D-CRT is usually realized with forward planning based on a trial and error method. Several authors have published a few methods of beam weight optimization applicable to the 3D-CRT. Still, none on these methods is in common use. Materials and methods Optimization is based on the assumption that the best plan is achieved if dose gradient at ICRU point is equal to zero. Our optimization algorithm requires beam quality index, depth of maximum dose, profiles of wedged fields and maximum dose to femoral heads. The method was tested for 10 patients with prostate cancer, treated with the 3-field technique. Optimized plans were compared with plans prepared by 12 experienced planners. Dose standard deviation in target volume, and minimum and maximum doses were analyzed. Results The quality of plans obtained with the proposed optimization algorithms was comparable to that prepared by experienced planners. Mean difference in target dose standard deviation was 0.1% in favor of the plans prepared by planners for optimization of beam weights and wedge angles. Introducing a correction factor for patient body outline for dose gradient at ICRU point improved dose distribution homogeneity. On average, a 0.1% lower standard deviation was achieved with the optimization algorithm. No significant difference in mean dose–volume histogram for the rectum was observed. Conclusions Optimization shortens very much time planning. The average planning time was 5 min and less than a minute for forward and computer optimization, respectively. PMID:25337411

  17. Probability Distribution of Dose and Dose-Rate Effectiveness Factor for use in Estimating Risks of Solid Cancers From Exposure to Low-Let Radiation.

    PubMed

    Kocher, David C; Apostoaei, A Iulian; Hoffman, F Owen; Trabalka, John R

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis to develop a subjective state-of-knowledge probability distribution of a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor for use in estimating risks of solid cancers from exposure to low linear energy transfer radiation (photons or electrons) whenever linear dose responses from acute and chronic exposure are assumed. A dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor represents an assumption that the risk of a solid cancer per Gy at low acute doses or low dose rates of low linear energy transfer radiation, RL, differs from the risk per Gy at higher acute doses, RH; RL is estimated as RH divided by a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor, where RH is estimated from analyses of dose responses in Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. A probability distribution to represent uncertainty in a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor for solid cancers was developed from analyses of epidemiologic data on risks of incidence or mortality from all solid cancers as a group or all cancers excluding leukemias, including (1) analyses of possible nonlinearities in dose responses in atomic-bomb survivors, which give estimates of a low-dose effectiveness factor, and (2) comparisons of risks in radiation workers or members of the public from chronic exposure to low linear energy transfer radiation at low dose rates with risks in atomic-bomb survivors, which give estimates of a dose-rate effectiveness factor. Probability distributions of uncertain low-dose effectiveness factors and dose-rate effectiveness factors for solid cancer incidence and mortality were combined using assumptions about the relative weight that should be assigned to each estimate to represent its relevance to estimation of a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor. The probability distribution of a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor for solid cancers developed in this study has a median (50th percentile) and 90% subjective confidence interval of 1.3 (0.47, 3.6). The harmonic mean is 1.1, which

  18. Measurement of the secondary neutron dose distribution from the LET spectrum of recoils using the CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector in 10 MV X-ray medical radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Kodaira, Satoshi; Sawaguchi, Fumiya; Abe, Yasuyuki; Obara, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masae; Kawashima, Hajime; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kurano, Mieko; Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Masaru; Kitamura, Nozomi; Sato, Tomoharu

    2015-04-01

    We measured the recoil charged particles from secondary neutrons produced by the photonuclear reaction in a water phantom from a 10-MV photon beam from medical linacs. The absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were evaluated from the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum of recoils using the CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) based on well-established methods in the field of space radiation dosimetry. The contributions and spatial distributions of these in the phantom on nominal photon exposures were verified as the secondary neutron dose and neutron dose equivalent. The neutron dose equivalent normalized to the photon-absorbed dose was 0.261 mSv/100 MU at source to chamber distance 90 cm. The dose equivalent at the surface gave the highest value, and was attenuated to less than 10% at 5 cm from the surface. The dose contribution of the high LET component of ⩾100 keV/μm increased with the depth in water, resulting in an increase of the quality factor. The CR-39 PNTD is a powerful tool that can be used to systematically measure secondary neutron dose distributions in a water phantom from an in-field to out-of-field high-intensity photon beam.

  19. Verification of Dose Distribution in Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Stage I Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Irie, Daisuke; Saitoh, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junsaito@gunma-u.ac.jp; Shirai, Katsuyuki

    Purpose: To evaluate robustness of dose distribution of carbon-ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to identify factors affecting the dose distribution by simulated dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Eighty irradiation fields for delivery of C-ion RT were analyzed in 20 patients with stage I NSCLC. Computed tomography images were obtained twice before treatment initiation. Simulated dose distribution was reconstructed on computed tomography for confirmation under the same settings as actual treatment with respiratory gating and bony structure matching. Dose-volume histogram parameters, such as %D95 (percentage of D95 relative to the prescribed dose), were calculated.more » Patients with any field for which the %D95 of gross tumor volume (GTV) was below 90% were classified as unacceptable for treatment, and the optimal target margin for such cases was examined. Results: Five patients with a total of 8 fields (10% of total number of fields analyzed) were classified as unacceptable according to %D95 of GTV, although most patients showed no remarkable change in the dose-volume histogram parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor displacement and change in water-equivalent pathlength were significant predictive factors of unacceptable cases (P<.001 and P=.002, respectively). The main cause of degradation of the dose distribution was tumor displacement in 7 of the 8 unacceptable fields. A 6-mm planning target volume margin ensured a GTV %D95 of >90%, except in 1 extremely unacceptable field. Conclusions: According to this simulation analysis of C-ion RT for stage I NSCLC, a few fields were reported as unacceptable and required resetting of body position and reconfirmation. In addition, tumor displacement and change in water-equivalent pathlength (bone shift and/or chest wall thickness) were identified as factors influencing the robustness of dose distribution. Such uncertainties should be

  20. Quantifying the Combined Effect of Radiation Therapy and Hyperthermia in Terms of Equivalent Dose Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, H. Petra, E-mail: H.P.Kok@amc.uva.nl; Crezee, Johannes; Franken, Nicolaas A.P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to quantify the therapeutic effect of radiosensitization by hyperthermia; to this end, a numerical method was proposed to convert radiation therapy dose distributions with hyperthermia to equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia. Methods and Materials: Clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were created for 15 prostate cancer cases. To simulate a clinically relevant heterogeneous temperature distribution, hyperthermia treatment planning was performed for heating with the AMC-8 system. The temperature-dependent parameters α (Gy{sup −1}) and β (Gy{sup −2}) of the linear–quadratic model for prostate cancer were estimated from the literature. No thermal enhancement was assumed for normalmore » tissue. The intensity modulated radiation therapy plans and temperature distributions were exported to our in-house-developed radiation therapy treatment planning system, APlan, and equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia were calculated voxel by voxel using the linear–quadratic model. Results: The planned average tumor temperatures T90, T50, and T10 in the planning target volume were 40.5°C, 41.6°C, and 42.4°C, respectively. The planned minimum, mean, and maximum radiation therapy doses were 62.9 Gy, 76.0 Gy, and 81.0 Gy, respectively. Adding hyperthermia yielded an equivalent dose distribution with an extended 95% isodose level. The equivalent minimum, mean, and maximum doses reflecting the radiosensitization by hyperthermia were 70.3 Gy, 86.3 Gy, and 93.6 Gy, respectively, for a linear increase of α with temperature. This can be considered similar to a dose escalation with a substantial increase in tumor control probability for high-risk prostate carcinoma. Conclusion: A model to quantify the effect of combined radiation therapy and hyperthermia in terms of equivalent dose distributions was presented. This model is particularly instructive to estimate the potential effects of interaction from

  1. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  2. SU-E-T-113: Dose Distribution Using Respiratory Signals and Machine Parameters During Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Imae, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique capable of acquiring projection images during treatment. Treatment plans for lung tumors using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) are calculated with planning computed tomography (CT) images only exhale phase. Purpose of this study is to evaluate dose distribution by reconstructing from only the data such as respiratory signals and machine parameters acquired during treatment. Methods: Phantom and three patients with lung tumor underwent CT scans for treatment planning. They were treated by VMAT while acquiring projection images to derive their respiratory signals and machine parameters including positions ofmore » multi leaf collimators, dose rates and integrated monitor units. The respiratory signals were divided into 4 and 10 phases and machine parameters were correlated with the divided respiratory signals based on the gantry angle. Dose distributions of each respiratory phase were calculated from plans which were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and the machine parameters during treatment. The doses at isocenter, maximum point and the centroid of target were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Dose distributions during treatment were calculated using the machine parameters and the respiratory signals detected from projection images. Maximum dose difference between plan and in treatment distribution was −1.8±0.4% at centroid of target and dose differences of evaluated points between 4 and 10 phases were no significant. Conclusion: The present method successfully evaluated dose distribution using respiratory signals and machine parameters during treatment. This method is feasible to verify the actual dose for moving target.« less

  3. Comparison of 3D ion velocity distribution measurements and models in the vicinity of an absorbing boundary oriented obliquely to a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriquez, Miguel F.; Thompson, Derek S.; Kenily, Shane; Khaziev, Rinat; Good, Timothy N.; McIlvain, Julianne; Siddiqui, M. Umair; Curreli, Davide; Scime, Earl E.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding particle distributions in plasma boundary regions is critical to predicting plasma-surface interactions. Ions in the presheath exhibit complex behavior because of collisions and due to the presence of boundary-localized electric fields. Complete understanding of particle dynamics is necessary for understanding the critical problems of tokamak wall loading and Hall thruster channel wall erosion. We report measurements of 3D argon ion velocity distribution functions (IVDFs) in the vicinity of an absorbing boundary oriented obliquely to a background magnetic field. Measurements were obtained via argon ion laser induced fluorescence throughout a spatial volume upstream of the boundary. These distribution functions reveal kinetic details that provide a point-to-point check on particle-in-cell and 1D3V Boltzmann simulations. We present the results of this comparison and discuss some implications for plasma boundary interaction physics.

  4. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  5. SU-E-T-753: Three-Dimensional Dose Distributions of Incident Proton Particle in the Polymer Gel Dosimeter and the Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter: A Simulation Study with MCNP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M; Kim, G; Ji, Y

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the three-dimensional dose distributions in the polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter, and to identify the detectability of both gel dosimeters by comparing with the water phantom in case of irradiating the proton particles. Methods: The normoxic polymer gel and the LCV micelle radiochromic gel were used in this study. The densities of polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter were 1.024 and 1.005 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. The dose distributions of protons in the polymer and radiochromic gel were simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX, Los Alamos National Laboratory). Themore » shape of phantom irradiated by proton particles was a hexahedron with the dimension of 12.4 × 12.4 × 15.0 cm{sup 3}. The energies of proton beam were 50, 80, and 140 MeV energies were directed to top of the surface of phantom. The cross-sectional view of proton dose distribution in both gel dosimeters was estimated with the water phantom and evaluated by the gamma evaluation method. In addition, the absorbed dose(Gy) was also calculated for evaluating the proton detectability. Results: The evaluation results show that dose distributions in both gel dosimeters at intermediated section and Bragg-peak region are similar with that of the water phantom. At entrance section, however, inconsistencies of dose distribution are represented, compared with water. The relative absorbed doses in radiochromic and polymer gel dosimeter were represented to be 0.47 % and 2.26 % difference, respectively. These results show that the radiochromic gel dosimeter was better matched than the water phantom in the absorbed dose evaluation. Conclusion: The polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter show similar characteristics in dose distributions for the proton beams at intermediate section and Bragg-peak region. Moreover the calculated absorbed dose in both gel dosimeters represents similar tendency by comparing with that in water

  6. Impact of Mobile Dose-Tracking Technology on Medication Distribution at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Kelm, Matthew; Campbell, Udobi

    2016-05-01

    Medication dose-tracking technologies have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce costs associated with re-dispensing doses reported as missing. Data describing this technology and its impact on the medication use process are limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of dose-tracking technology on pharmacy workload and drug expense at an academic, acute care medical center. Dose-tracking technology was implemented in June 2014. Pre-implementation data were collected from February to April 2014. Post-implementation data were collected from July to September 2014. The primary endpoint was the percent of re-dispensed oral syringe and compounded sterile product (CSP) doses within the pre- and post-implementation periods per 1,000 discharges. Secondary endpoints included pharmaceutical expense generated from re-dispensing doses, labor costs, and staff satisfaction with the medication distribution process. We observed an average 6% decrease in re-dispensing of oral syringe and CSP doses from pre- to post-implementation (15,440 vs 14,547 doses; p = .047). However, when values were adjusted per 1,000 discharges, this trend did not reach statistical significance (p = .074). Pharmaceutical expense generated from re-dispensing doses was significantly reduced from pre- to post-implementation ($834,830 vs $746,466 [savings of $88,364]; p = .047). We estimated that $2,563 worth of technician labor was avoided in re-dispensing missing doses. We also saw significant improvement in staff perception of technology assisting in reducing missing doses (p = .0003), as well as improvement in effectiveness of resolving or minimizing missing doses (p = .01). The use of mobile dose-tracking technology demonstrated meaningful reductions in both the number of doses re-dispensed and cost of pharmaceuticals dispensed.

  7. Modeling late rectal toxicities based on a parameterized representation of the 3D dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike

    2011-04-01

    Many models exist for predicting toxicities based on dose-volume histograms (DVHs) or dose-surface histograms (DSHs). This approach has several drawbacks as firstly the reduction of the dose distribution to a histogram results in the loss of spatial information and secondly the bins of the histograms are highly correlated with each other. Furthermore, some of the complex nonlinear models proposed in the past lack a direct physical interpretation and the ability to predict probabilities rather than binary outcomes. We propose a parameterized representation of the 3D distribution of the dose to the rectal wall which explicitly includes geometrical information in the form of the eccentricity of the dose distribution as well as its lateral and longitudinal extent. We use a nonlinear kernel-based probabilistic model to predict late rectal toxicity based on the parameterized dose distribution and assessed its predictive power using data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISCTRN 47772397). The endpoints under consideration were rectal bleeding, loose stools, and a global toxicity score. We extract simple rules identifying 3D dose patterns related to a specifically low risk of complication. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on parameterized representations of geometrical and volumetric measures resulted in areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.66, 0.63 and 0.67 for predicting rectal bleeding, loose stools and global toxicity, respectively. In comparison, NTCP models based on standard DVHs performed worse and resulted in AUCs of 0.59 for all three endpoints. In conclusion, we have presented low-dimensional, interpretable and nonlinear NTCP models based on the parameterized representation of the dose to the rectal wall. These models had a higher predictive power than models based on standard DVHs and their low dimensionality allowed for the identification of 3D dose patterns related to a low risk of complication.

  8. SU-E-T-609: Perturbation Effects of Pedicle Screws On Radiotherapy Dose Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Deroma, R; Borzov, E; Nevelsky, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy in conjunction with surgical implant fixation is a common combined treatment in case of bone metastases. However, metal implants generally used in orthopedic implants perturb radiation dose distributions. Carbon-Fiber Reinforced (CFR) PEEK material has been recently introduced for production of intramedullary screws and plates. Gold powder can be added to the CFR-PEEK material in order to enhance visibility of the screws during intraoperative imaging procedures. In this work, we investigated the perturbation effects of the pedicle screws made of CFR-PEEK, CFR-PEEK with added gold powder (CFR-PEEK-AU) and Titanium (Ti) on radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC)more » simulations were performed using the EGSnrc code package for 6MV beams with 10×10 fields at SSD=100cm. By means of MC simulations, dose distributions around titanium, CFR- PEEK and CFR-PEEK-AU screws (manufactured by Carbo-Fix Orthopedics LTD, Israel) placed in a water phantom were calculated. The screw axis was either parallel or perpendicular to the beam axis. Dose perturbation (relative to dose in homogeneous water phantom) was assessed. Results: Maximum overdose due to backscatter was 10% for the Ti screws, 5% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and effectively zero for the CFR-PEEK screws. Maximum underdose due to attenuation was 25% for the Ti screws, 15% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and 5% for the CFR-PEEK screws. Conclusion: Titanium screws introduce the largest distortion on the radiation dose distribution. The gold powder added to the CFR-PEEK material improves visibility at the cost of increased dose perturbation. CFR-PEEK screws caused minimal alteration on the dose distribution. This can decrease possible over and underdose of adjacent tissue and thus favorably influence treatment efficiency. The use of such implants has potential clinical advantage in the treatment of neoplastic bone disease.« less

  9. Spectral transmission and short-wave absorbing pigments in the fish lens--I. Phylogenetic distribution and identity.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, A; Douglas, R H; Truscott, R J

    1993-02-01

    Fish lens transmission was found to vary depending on the type and concentration of short-wave absorbing compounds present within the lens. Pigments extracted from lenses of ten species were identified as mycosporine-like amino acids (mainly palythine, palythene and asterina-330, lambda maxs around 320-360 nm) which are also thought to be present in the majority of the 120 species examined here. A novel mycosporine-like pigment with lambda max 385 nm was isolated from the lens of the flying fish, Exocoetus obtusirostris, while lenses of several closely related tropical freshwater species were found to have high concentrations of the tryptophan catabolite 3-hydroxykynurenine (lambda max 370 nm). The type of lens pigment a species possesses and its concentration depends upon both the animal's phylogenetic group and its "optical niche".

  10. SU-E-T-204: Comparison of Absorbed-Dose to Water in High-Energy Photon Beams Based On Addendum AAPM TG-51, IAEA TRS-398, and JSMP 12

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, N; Kita, A; Yoshioka, C

    Purpose: Several clinical reference dosimetry protocols for absorbed-dose to water have recently been published: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) published an Addendum to the AAPM’s TG-51 (Addendum TG-51) in April 2014, and the Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) published the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 (JSMP12), a clinical reference dosimetry protocol, in September 2012. This investigation compared and evaluated the absorbed-dose to water of high-energy photon beams according to Addendum TG-51, International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Report Series No. 398 (TRS-398), and JSMP12. Methods: Differences in the respective beam quality conversion factors with Addendum TG-51,more » TRS-398, and JSMP12 were analyzed and the absorbed-dose to water using 6- and 10-MV photon beams was measured according to the protocols recommended in Addendum TG-51, TRS-398, and JSMP12. The measurements were conducted using two Farmer-type ionization chambers, Exradin A12 and PTW 30013. Results: The beam quality conversion factors for both the 6- and 10-MV photon beams with Addendum TG-51 were within 0.6%, in agreement with the beam quality conversion factors with TRS-398 and JSMP12. The Exradin A12 provided an absorbed-dose to water ratio from 1.003 to 1.006 with TRS-398 / Addendum TG-51 and from 1.004 to 1.005 with JSMP 12 / Addendum TG-51, whereas the PTW 30013 provided a ratio of 1.001 with TRS-398 / Addendum TG-51 and a range from 0.997 to 0.999 with JSMP 12 / Addendum TG-51. Conclusion: Despite differences in the beam quality conversion factor, no major differences were seen in the absorbed-dose to water with Addendum TG-51, TRS-398, and JSMP12. However, Addendum TG-51 provides the most recent data for beam quality conversion factors based on Monte Carlo simulation and greater detail for the measurement protocol. Therefore, the absorbed-dose to water measured with Addendum TG-51 is an estimate with less uncertainty.« less

  11. Cost comparison of unit dose and traditional drug distribution in a long-term-care facility.

    PubMed

    Lepinski, P W; Thielke, T S; Collins, D M; Hanson, A

    1986-11-01

    Unit dose and traditional drug distribution systems were compared in a 352-bed long-term-care facility by analyzing nursing time, medication-error rate, medication costs, and waste. Time spent by nurses in preparing, administering, charting, and other tasks associated with medications was measured with a stop-watch on four different nursing units during six-week periods before and after the nursing home began using unit dose drug distribution. Medication-error rate before and after implementation of the unit dose system was determined by patient profile audits and medication inventories. Medication costs consisted of patient billing costs (acquisition cost plus fee) and cost of medications destroyed. The unit dose system required a projected 1507.2 hours less nursing time per year. Mean medication-error rates were 8.53% and 0.97% for the traditional and unit dose systems, respectively. Potential annual savings because of decreased medication waste with the unit dose system were $2238.72. The net increase in cost for the unit dose system was estimated at $615.05 per year, or approximately $1.75 per patient. The unit dose system appears safer and more time-efficient than the traditional system, although its costs are higher.

  12. SU-F-J-133: Adaptive Radiation Therapy with a Four-Dimensional Dose Calculation Algorithm That Optimizes Dose Distribution Considering Breathing Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, I; Algan, O; Ahmad, S

    Purpose: To model patient motion and produce four-dimensional (4D) optimized dose distributions that consider motion-artifacts in the dose calculation during the treatment planning process. Methods: An algorithm for dose calculation is developed where patient motion is considered in dose calculation at the stage of the treatment planning. First, optimal dose distributions are calculated for the stationary target volume where the dose distributions are optimized considering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Second, a convolution-kernel is produced from the best-fitting curve which matches the motion trajectory of the patient. Third, the motion kernel is deconvolved with the initial dose distribution optimized for themore » stationary target to produce a dose distribution that is optimized in four-dimensions. This algorithm is tested with measured doses using a mobile phantom that moves with controlled motion patterns. Results: A motion-optimized dose distribution is obtained from the initial dose distribution of the stationary target by deconvolution with the motion-kernel of the mobile target. This motion-optimized dose distribution is equivalent to that optimized for the stationary target using IMRT. The motion-optimized and measured dose distributions are tested with the gamma index with a passing rate of >95% considering 3% dose-difference and 3mm distance-to-agreement. If the dose delivery per beam takes place over several respiratory cycles, then the spread-out of the dose distributions is only dependent on the motion amplitude and not affected by motion frequency and phase. This algorithm is limited to motion amplitudes that are smaller than the length of the target along the direction of motion. Conclusion: An algorithm is developed to optimize dose in 4D. Besides IMRT that provides optimal dose coverage for a stationary target, it extends dose optimization to 4D considering target motion. This algorithm provides alternative to motion

  13. Performance of dose calculation algorithms from three generations in lung SBRT: comparison with full Monte Carlo‐based dose distributions

    PubMed Central

    Kapanen, Mika K.; Hyödynmaa, Simo J.; Wigren, Tuija K.; Pitkänen, Maunu A.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of dose calculation is a key challenge in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of the lung. We have benchmarked three photon beam dose calculation algorithms — pencil beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Acuros XB (AXB) — implemented in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), Varian Eclipse. Dose distributions from full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were regarded as a reference. In the first stage, for four patients with central lung tumors, treatment plans using 3D conformal radiotherapy (CRT) technique applying 6 MV photon beams were made using the AXB algorithm, with planning criteria according to the Nordic SBRT study group. The plans were recalculated (with same number of monitor units (MUs) and identical field settings) using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc MC codes. The MC‐calculated dose distributions were compared to corresponding AXB‐calculated dose distributions to assess the accuracy of the AXB algorithm, to which then other TPS algorithms were compared. In the second stage, treatment plans were made for ten patients with 3D CRT technique using both the PBC algorithm and the AAA. The plans were recalculated (with same number of MUs and identical field settings) with the AXB algorithm, then compared to original plans. Throughout the study, the comparisons were made as a function of the size of the planning target volume (PTV), using various dose‐volume histogram (DVH) and other parameters to quantitatively assess the plan quality. In the first stage also, 3D gamma analyses with threshold criteria 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm were applied. The AXB‐calculated dose distributions showed relatively high level of agreement in the light of 3D gamma analysis and DVH comparison against the full MC simulation, especially with large PTVs, but, with smaller PTVs, larger discrepancies were found. Gamma agreement index (GAI) values between 95.5% and 99.6% for all the plans with the threshold criteria 3%/3 mm were

  14. Use of computer code for dose distribution studies in A 60CO industrial irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña-Villalpando, G.; Sloan, D. P.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a benchmark comparison between calculated and experimental absorbed dose values tor a typical product, in a 60Co industrial irradiator, located at ININ, México. The irradiator is a two levels, two layers system with overlapping product configuration with activity around 300kCi. Experimental values were obtanied from routine dosimetry, using red acrylic pellets. Typical product was Petri dishes packages, apparent density 0.13 g/cm3; that product was chosen because uniform size, large quantity and low density. Minimum dose was fixed in 15 kGy. Calculated values were obtained from QAD-CGGP code. This code uses a point kernel technique, build-up factors fitting was done by geometrical progression and combinatorial geometry is used for system description. Main modifications for the code were related with source sumilation, using punctual sources instead of pencils and an energy and anisotropic emission spectrums were included. Results were, for maximum dose, calculated value (18.2 kGy) was 8% higher than experimental average value (16.8 kGy); for minimum dose, calculated value (13.8 kGy) was 3% higher than experimental average value (14.3 kGy).

  15. A mathematical deconvolution formulation for superficial dose distribution measurement by Cerenkov light dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Brost, Eric Edward; Watanabe, Yoichi

    2018-06-01

    Cerenkov photons are created by high-energy radiation beams used for radiation therapy. In this study, we developed a Cerenkov light dosimetry technique to obtain a two-dimensional dose distribution in a superficial region of medium from the images of Cerenkov photons by using a deconvolution method. An integral equation was derived to represent the Cerenkov photon image acquired by a camera for a given incident high-energy photon beam by using convolution kernels. Subsequently, an equation relating the planar dose at a depth to a Cerenkov photon image using the well-known relationship between the incident beam fluence and the dose distribution in a medium was obtained. The final equation contained a convolution kernel called the Cerenkov dose scatter function (CDSF). The CDSF function was obtained by deconvolving the Cerenkov scatter function (CSF) with the dose scatter function (DSF). The GAMOS (Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations) Monte Carlo particle simulation software was used to obtain the CSF and DSF. The dose distribution was calculated from the Cerenkov photon intensity data using an iterative deconvolution method with the CDSF. The theoretical formulation was experimentally evaluated by using an optical phantom irradiated by high-energy photon beams. The intensity of the deconvolved Cerenkov photon image showed linear dependence on the dose rate and the photon beam energy. The relative intensity showed a field size dependence similar to the beam output factor. Deconvolved Cerenkov images showed improvement in dose profiles compared with the raw image data. In particular, the deconvolution significantly improved the agreement in the high dose gradient region, such as in the penumbra. Deconvolution with a single iteration was found to provide the most accurate solution of the dose. Two-dimensional dose distributions of the deconvolved Cerenkov images agreed well with the reference distributions for both square fields and a

  16. A method for analyzing absorbed power distribution in the hand and arm substructures when operating vibrating tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jennie H.; Dong, Ren G.; Rakheja, Subhash; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

    2008-04-01

    In this study it was hypothesized that the vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of human hand-arm system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. As the first step to test this hypothesis, the major objective of this study is to develop a method for analyzing the vibration power flow and the distribution of vibration power absorptions in the major substructures (fingers, palm-hand-wrist, forearm and upper arm, and shoulder) of the system exposed to hand-transmitted vibration. A five-degrees-of-freedom model of the system incorporating finger- as well as palm-side driving points was applied for the analysis. The mechanical impedance data measured at the two driving points under four different hand actions involving 50 N grip-only, 15 N grip and 35 N push, 30 N grip and 45 N push, and 50 N grip and 50 N push, were used to identify the model parameters. The vibration power absorption distributed in the substructures were evaluated using vibration spectra measured on many tools. The frequency weightings of the distributed vibration power absorptions were derived and compared with the weighting defined in ISO 5349-1 (2001). This study found that vibration power absorption is primarily distributed in the arm and shoulder when operating low-frequency tools such as rammers, while a high concentration of vibration power absorption in the fingers and hand is observed when operating high-frequency tools, such as grinders. The vibration power absorption distributed in palm-wrist and arm is well correlated with the ISO-weighted acceleration, while the finger vibration power absorption is highly correlated with unweighted acceleration. The finger vibration power absorption-based frequency weighting suggested that exposure to vibration in the frequency range of 16-500 Hz could pose higher risks of developing finger disorders. The results support the use of the frequency weighting specified in the current

  17. Estimation of the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks number by considering cell cycle and absorbed dose per cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Ryosuke; Matsuya, Yusuke; Yoshii, Yuji; Date, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Abstract DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are thought to be the main cause of cell death after irradiation. In this study, we estimated the probability distribution of the number of DSBs per cell nucleus by considering the DNA amount in a cell nucleus (which depends on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the energy imparted to the cell nucleus by X-ray irradiation. The probability estimation of DSB induction was made following these procedures: (i) making use of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line as the target example, the amounts of DNA per nucleus in the logarithmic and the plateau phases of the growth curve were measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) dyeing; (ii) the probability distribution of the DSB number per cell nucleus for each phase after irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 200 kVp X-rays was measured by means of γ-H2AX immunofluorescent staining; (iii) the distribution of the cell-specific energy deposition via secondary electrons produced by the incident X-rays was calculated by WLTrack (in-house Monte Carlo code); (iv) according to a mathematical model for estimating the DSB number per nucleus, we deduced the induction probability density of DSBs based on the measured DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the calculated dose per nucleus. The model exhibited DSB induction probabilities in good agreement with the experimental results for the two phases, suggesting that the DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the local energy deposition are essential for estimating the DSB induction probability after X-ray exposure. PMID:29800455

  18. Estimation of the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks number by considering cell cycle and absorbed dose per cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryosuke; Matsuya, Yusuke; Yoshii, Yuji; Date, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are thought to be the main cause of cell death after irradiation. In this study, we estimated the probability distribution of the number of DSBs per cell nucleus by considering the DNA amount in a cell nucleus (which depends on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the energy imparted to the cell nucleus by X-ray irradiation. The probability estimation of DSB induction was made following these procedures: (i) making use of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line as the target example, the amounts of DNA per nucleus in the logarithmic and the plateau phases of the growth curve were measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) dyeing; (ii) the probability distribution of the DSB number per cell nucleus for each phase after irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 200 kVp X-rays was measured by means of γ-H2AX immunofluorescent staining; (iii) the distribution of the cell-specific energy deposition via secondary electrons produced by the incident X-rays was calculated by WLTrack (in-house Monte Carlo code); (iv) according to a mathematical model for estimating the DSB number per nucleus, we deduced the induction probability density of DSBs based on the measured DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the calculated dose per nucleus. The model exhibited DSB induction probabilities in good agreement with the experimental results for the two phases, suggesting that the DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the local energy deposition are essential for estimating the DSB induction probability after X-ray exposure.

  19. A revision of the gamma-evaluation concept for the comparison of dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Bakai, Annemarie; Alber, Markus; Nüsslin, Fridtjof

    2003-11-07

    A method for the quantitative four-dimensional (4D) evaluation of discrete dose data based on gradient-dependent local acceptance thresholds is presented. The method takes into account the local dose gradients of a reference distribution for critical appraisal of misalignment and collimation errors. These contribute to the maximum tolerable dose error at each evaluation point to which the local dose differences between comparison and reference data are compared. As shown, the presented concept is analogous to the gamma-concept of Low et al (1998a Med. Phys. 25 656-61) if extended to (3+1) dimensions. The pointwise dose comparisons of the reformulated concept are easier to perform and speed up the evaluation process considerably, especially for fine-grid evaluations of 3D dose distributions. The occurrences of false negative indications due to the discrete nature of the data are reduced with the method. The presented method was applied to film-measured, clinical data and compared with gamma-evaluations. 4D and 3D evaluations were performed. Comparisons prove that 4D evaluations have to be given priority, especially if complex treatment situations are verified, e.g., non-coplanar beam configurations.

  20. Intra-tumor distribution of PEGylated liposome upon repeated injection: No possession by prior dose.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Abu Lila, Amr S; Nishio, Miho; Tanaka, Masao; Ando, Hidenori; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-12-28

    Liposomes have proven to be a viable means for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors. However, significant variability has been detected in their intra-tumor accumulation and distribution, resulting in compromised therapeutic outcomes. We recently examined the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of weekly sequentially administered oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposomes. In that study, the first and second doses of l-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes were distributed diversely and broadly within tumor tissues, resulting in a potent anti-tumor efficacy. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying such a diverse and broad liposome distribution. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of dosage interval on the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of "empty" PEGylated liposomes. Intra-tumor distribution of sequentially administered "empty" PEGylated liposomes was altered in a dosing interval-dependent manner. In addition, the intra-tumor distribution pattern was closely related to the chronological alteration of tumor blood flow as well as vascular permeability in the growing tumor tissue. These results suggest that the sequential administrations of PEGylated liposomes in well-spaced intervals might allow the distribution to different areas and enhance the total bulk accumulation within tumor tissue, resulting in better therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated payload. This study may provide useful information for a better design of therapeutic regimens involving multiple administrations of nanocarrier drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal

    2014-08-15

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dosemore » differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT.« less

  2. Low doses of six toxicants change plant size distribution in dense populations of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Belz, Regina G; Patama, Marjo; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2018-08-01

    Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects. We tested the response of Lactuca sativa in complete dose-response experiments to six different toxicants at doses that did not decrease population mean and beyond. The tested toxicants were IAA, parthenin, HHCB, 4-tert-octylphenol, glyphosate, and pelargonic acid. Each experiment consisted of 14,400-16,800 seedlings, 12-14 concentrations, 24 replicates per concentration and 50 germinated seeds per replicate. We analyzed the commonness of selective low-dose effects and explored if toxic effects and hormetic stimulation among fast- and slow-growing individuals occurred at the same concentrations as they occur at the population level. Irrespective of the observed response pattern and toxicant, selective low-dose effects were found. Toxin effects among fast-growing individuals usually started at higher doses compared to the population mean, while the opposite was found among slow-growing individuals. Very low toxin exposures tended to homogenize plant populations due to selective effects, while higher, but still hormetic doses tended to heterogenize plant populations. Although the extent of observed size segregation varied with the specific toxin tested, we conclude that a dose-dependent alteration in size distribution of a plant population may generally apply for many toxin exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dose distribution verification for GYN brachytherapy using EBT Gafchromic film and TG-43 calculation.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Somayeh; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Jabbary Arfaee, Ali; Jaberi, Ramin; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Rabi Mahdavi, Seied; Rajab Bolookat, Eftekhar; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-01-01

    Verification of dose distributions for gynecological (GYN) brachytherapy implants using EBT Gafchromic film. One major challenge in brachytherapy is to verify the accuracy of dose distributions calculated by a treatment planning system. A new phantom was designed and fabricated using 90 slabs of 18 cm × 16 cm × 0.2 cm Perspex to accommodate a tandem and Ovoid assembly, which is normally used for GYN brachytherapy treatment. This phantom design allows the use of EBT Gafchromic films for dosimetric verification of GYN implants with a cobalt-60 HDR system or a LDR Cs-137 system. Gafchromic films were exposed using a plan that was designed to deliver 1.5 Gy of dose to 0.5 cm distance from the lateral surface of ovoids from a pair of ovoid assembly that was used for treatment vaginal cuff. For a quantitative analysis of the results for both LDR and HDR systems, the measured dose values at several points of interests were compared with the calculated data from a commercially available treatment planning system. This planning system was utilizing the TG-43 formalism and parameters for calculation of dose distributions around a brachytherapy implant. The results of these investigations indicated that the differences between the calculated and measured data at different points were ranging from 2.4% to 3.8% for the LDR Cs-137 and HDR Co-60 systems, respectively. The EBT Gafchromic films combined with the newly designed phantom could be utilized for verification of the dose distributions around different GYN implants treated with either LDR or HDR brachytherapy procedures.

  4. Characterisation of mega-voltage electron pencil beam dose distributions: viability of a measurement-based approach.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M P; Ebert, M A

    2008-03-01

    The concept of electron pencil-beam dose distributions is central to pencil-beam algorithms used in electron beam radiotherapy treatment planning. The Hogstrom algorithm, which is a common algorithm for electron treatment planning, models large electron field dose distributions by the superposition of a series of pencil beam dose distributions. This means that the accurate characterisation of an electron pencil beam is essential for the accuracy of the dose algorithm. The aim of this study was to evaluate a measurement based approach for obtaining electron pencil-beam dose distributions. The primary incentive for the study was the accurate calculation of dose distributions for narrow fields as traditional electron algorithms are generally inaccurate for such geometries. Kodak X-Omat radiographic film was used in a solid water phantom to measure the dose distribution of circular 12 MeV beams from a Varian 21EX linear accelerator. Measurements were made for beams of diameter, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mm. A blocked-field technique was used to subtract photon contamination in the beam. The "error function" derived from Fermi-Eyges Multiple Coulomb Scattering (MCS) theory for corresponding square fields was used to fit resulting dose distributions so that extrapolation down to a pencil beam distribution could be made. The Monte Carlo codes, BEAM and EGSnrc were used to simulate the experimental arrangement. The 8 mm beam dose distribution was also measured with TLD-100 microcubes. Agreement between film, TLD and Monte Carlo simulation results were found to be consistent with the spatial resolution used. The study has shown that it is possible to extrapolate narrow electron beam dose distributions down to a pencil beam dose distribution using the error function. However, due to experimental uncertainties and measurement difficulties, Monte Carlo is recommended as the method of choice for characterising electron pencil-beam dose distributions.

  5. Can a commercial gel dosimetry system be used to verify stereotactic spinal radiotherapy treatment dose distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairn, T.; Asena, A.; Crowe, S. B.; Livingstone, A.; Papworth, D.; Smith, S.; Sutherland, B.; Sylvander, S.; Franich, R. D.; Trapp, J. V.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the use of the TruView xylenol-orange-based gel and VISTA optical CT scanner (both by Modus Medical Inc, London, Canada), for use in verifying the accuracy of planned dose distributions for hypo-fractionated (stereotactic) vertebral treatments. Gel measurements were carried out using three stereotactic vertebral treatments and compared with planned doses calculated using the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) as well as with film measurements made using Gafchromic EBT3 film (Ashland Inc, Covington, USA), to investigate the accuracy of the gel system. The gel was calibrated with reference to a moderate-dose gradient region in one of the gel samples. Generally, the gel measurements were able to approximate the close agreement between the doses calculated by the treatment planning system and the doses measured using film (which agreed with each other within 2%), despite lower resolution and bit depth. Poorer agreement was observed when the dose delivered to the gel exceeded the range of doses delivered in the calibration region. This commercial gel dosimetry system may be used to verify hypo-fractionated treatments of vertebral targets, although separate gel calibration measurements are recommended.

  6. Dosimetric verification of stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dose distributions using Gafchromic EBT3.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Davide; Fumagalli, Maria L; Marchetti, Marcello; Fariselli, Laura; De Martin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of using the new Gafchromic EBT3 film in a high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy quality assurance procedure. Owing to the reduced dimensions of the involved lesions, the feasibility of scanning plan verification films on the scanner plate area with the best uniformity rather than using a correction mask was evaluated. For this purpose, signal values dispersion and reproducibility of film scans were investigated. Uniformity was then quantified in the selected area and was found to be within 1.5% for doses up to 8 Gy. A high-dose threshold level for analyses using this procedure was established evaluating the sensitivity of the irradiated films. Sensitivity was found to be of the order of centiGray for doses up to 6.2 Gy and decreasing for higher doses. The obtained results were used to implement a procedure comparing dose distributions delivered with a CyberKnife system to planned ones. The procedure was validated through single beam irradiation on a Gafchromic film. The agreement between dose distributions was then evaluated for 13 patients (brain lesions, 5 Gy/die prescription isodose ~80%) using gamma analysis. Results obtained using Gamma test criteria of 5%/1 mm show a pass rate of 94.3%. Gamma frequency parameters calculation for EBT3 films showed to strongly depend on subtraction of unexposed film pixel values from irradiated ones. In the framework of the described dosimetric procedure, EBT3 films proved to be effective in the verification of high doses delivered to lesions with complex shapes and adjacent to organs at risk. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dosimetric verification of stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dose distributions using Gafchromic EBT3

    SciTech Connect

    Cusumano, Davide, E-mail: davide.cusumano@unimi.it; Fumagalli, Maria L.; Marchetti, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    Aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of using the new Gafchromic EBT3 film in a high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy quality assurance procedure. Owing to the reduced dimensions of the involved lesions, the feasibility of scanning plan verification films on the scanner plate area with the best uniformity rather than using a correction mask was evaluated. For this purpose, signal values dispersion and reproducibility of film scans were investigated. Uniformity was then quantified in the selected area and was found to be within 1.5% for doses up to 8 Gy. A high-dose threshold level for analyses usingmore » this procedure was established evaluating the sensitivity of the irradiated films. Sensitivity was found to be of the order of centiGray for doses up to 6.2 Gy and decreasing for higher doses. The obtained results were used to implement a procedure comparing dose distributions delivered with a CyberKnife system to planned ones. The procedure was validated through single beam irradiation on a Gafchromic film. The agreement between dose distributions was then evaluated for 13 patients (brain lesions, 5 Gy/die prescription isodose ~80%) using gamma analysis. Results obtained using Gamma test criteria of 5%/1 mm show a pass rate of 94.3%. Gamma frequency parameters calculation for EBT3 films showed to strongly depend on subtraction of unexposed film pixel values from irradiated ones. In the framework of the described dosimetric procedure, EBT3 films proved to be effective in the verification of high doses delivered to lesions with complex shapes and adjacent to organs at risk.« less

  8. Real-time monitoring the distribution of antibody-photo-absorber conjugates during photoimmunotherapy in vivo(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qinggong; Lin, Jonathan; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Liu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Chen, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Photo-immunotherapy (PIT) is an emerging low-side-effect cancer therapy based on monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated with a near-infrared (NIR) phthalocyanine dye IRDye700DX (IR700 is not only fluorescent which can be used as an imaging agent, but also phototoxic) that induces rapid cell death after exposure to NIR light. PIT induces highly-selective cancer cell death while leaving most of tumor blood vessels unharmed, leading to an effect termed super-enhanced permeability and retention (SUPR), which significantly improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer drug. Currently, the therapeutic effects of PIT were monitored using IR700 fluorescent signal based on macroscopic fluorescence reflectance imager, which lacks the resolution and depth information to reveal the intra-tumor heterogeneity of mAb-IR700 distribution. We developed a minimally-invasive two-channel fluorescence fiber imaging system by combining the traditional fluorescence imaging microscope with two imaging fiber bundles ( 0.85 mm) to monitor mAb-IR700 distribution and therapeutic effects during PIT at different intra-tumor locations (e.g. tumor periphery vs. tumor rim) in situ and in real time simutaneously, thereby enabling evaluation of the therapeutic effects in vivo and optimization of treatment regimens accordingly. Experiments were carried out on ten mice. The average fluorescence intensity recovery after PIT in tumor rim is 91.50% while 100.63% in tumor periphery. Significantly higher fluorescence redistribution (P=0.0371) in tumor periphery than tumor rim after PIT treatment were observed. In order to verify the results, two-photon microscopy combining with micro-prism was also used to record the mAb-IR700 distribution at different depth locations of the tumor during PIT.

  9. Dosimetric and Clinical Analysis of Spatial Distribution of the Radiation Dose in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma

    SciTech Connect

    Massager, Nicolas, E-mail: nmassage@ulb.ac.be; Neurosurgery-Department, Hospital Erasme, Brussels; Lonneville, Sarah

    2011-11-15

    Objectives: We investigated variations in the distribution of radiation dose inside (dose inhomogeneity) and outside (dose falloff) the target volume during Gamma Knife (GK) irradiation of vestibular schwannoma (VS). We analyzed the relationship between some parameters of dose distribution and the clinical and radiological outcome of patients. Methods and Materials: Data from dose plans of 203 patients treated for a vestibular schwannoma by GK C using same prescription dose (12 Gy at the 50% isodose) were collected. Four different dosimetric indexes were defined and calculated retrospectively in all plannings on the basis of dose-volume histograms: Paddick conformity index (PI), gradientmore » index (GI), homogeneity index (HI), and unit isocenter (UI). The different measures related to distribution of the radiation dose were compared with hearing and tumor outcome of 203 patients with clinical and radiological follow-up of minimum 2 years. Results: Mean, median, SD, and ranges of the four indexes of dose distribution analyzed were calculated; large variations were found between dose plans. We found a high correlation between the target volume and PI, GI, and UI. No significant association was found between the indexes of dose distribution calculated in this study and tumor control, tumor volume shrinkage, hearing worsening, loss of functional hearing, or complete hearing loss at last follow-up. Conclusions: Parameters of distribution of the radiation dose during GK radiosurgery for VS can be highly variable between dose plans. The tumor and hearing outcome of patients treated is not significantly related to these global indexes of dose distribution inside and around target volume. In GK radiosurgery for VS, the outcome seems more to be influenced by local radiation dose delivered to specific structures or volumes than by global dose gradients.« less

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of the impact of a hip prosthesis on the dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffard, Edwige; Gschwind, Régine; Makovicka, Libor; David, Céline

    2006-09-01

    Because of the ageing of the population, an increasing number of patients with hip prostheses are undergoing pelvic irradiation. Treatment planning systems (TPS) currently available are not always able to accurately predict the dose distribution around such implants. In fact, only Monte Carlo simulation has the ability to precisely calculate the impact of a hip prosthesis during radiotherapeutic treatment. Monte Carlo phantoms were developed to evaluate the dose perturbations during pelvic irradiation. A first model, constructed with the DOSXYZnrc usercode, was elaborated to determine the dose increase at the tissue-metal interface as well as the impact of the material coating the prosthesis. Next, CT-based phantoms were prepared, using the usercode CTCreate, to estimate the influence of the geometry and the composition of such implants on the beam attenuation. Thanks to a program that we developed, the study was carried out with CT-based phantoms containing a hip prosthesis without metal artefacts. Therefore, anthropomorphic phantoms allowed better definition of both patient anatomy and the hip prosthesis in order to better reproduce the clinical conditions of pelvic irradiation. The Monte Carlo results revealed the impact of certain coatings such as PMMA on dose enhancement at the tissue-metal interface. Monte Carlo calculations in CT-based phantoms highlighted the marked influence of the implant's composition, its geometry as well as its position within the beam on dose distribution.

  11. Impact of Internal Metallic Ports in Temporary Tissue Expanders on Postmastectomy Radiation Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Susie A.; Ogunleye, Tomiwa; Dhabbaan, Anees

    Purpose: Temporary tissue expanders (TTE) with an internal magnetic metal port (IMP) have been increasingly used for breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy patients who receive radiation therapy (XRT). We evaluated XRT plans of patients with IMP to determine its effect on XRT dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Original treatment plans with CT simulation scans of 24 consecutive patients who received XRT (ORI), planned without heterogeneity corrections, to a reconstructed breast containing an IMP were used. Two additional treatment plans were then generated: one treatment plan with the IMP assigned the electron density of the rare earth magnet, nickel plated neodymium-iron-boron (HET),more » and a second treatment plan with the IMP assigned a CT value of 1 to simulate a homogeneous breast without an IMP (BRS). All plans were prescribed 50 Gy to the reconstructed breast (CTV). Results: CTV coverage by 50 Gy was significantly lower in the HET (mean 87.7% CTV) than in either the ORI (mean 99.7% CTV, P<.001) or BRS plans (mean 95.0% CTV, P<.001). The effect of the port was more pronounced on CT slices containing the IMP with prescription dose coverage of the CTV being less in the HET than in either ORI (mean difference 33.6%, P<.01) or BRS plans (mean difference 30.1%, P<.001). HET had a less homogeneous and conformal dose distribution than BRS or ORI. Conclusion: IMPs increase dose heterogeneity and reduce dose to the breast CTV through attenuation of the beam. For optimal XRT treatment, heterogeneity corrections should be used in XRT planning for patients with TTE with IMP, as the IMP impacts dose distribution.« less

  12. Monte Carlo N Particle code - Dose distribution of clinical electron beams in inhomogeneous phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Nedaie, H. A.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Allahverdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Electron dose distributions calculated using the currently available analytical methods can be associated with large uncertainties. The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for dose calculation in electron beams. Most of the clinical electron beam simulation studies have been performed using non- MCNP [Monte Carlo N Particle] codes. Given the differences between Monte Carlo codes, this work aims to evaluate the accuracy of MCNP4C-simulated electron dose distributions in a homogenous phantom and around inhomogeneities. Different types of phantoms ranging in complexity were used; namely, a homogeneous water phantom and phantoms made of polymethyl methacrylate slabs containing different-sized, low- and high-density inserts of heterogeneous materials. Electron beams with 8 and 15 MeV nominal energy generated by an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator were investigated. Measurements were performed for a 10 cm × 10 cm applicator at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. Individual parts of the beam-defining system were introduced into the simulation one at a time in order to show their effect on depth doses. In contrast to the first scattering foil, the secondary scattering foil, X and Y jaws and applicator provide up to 5% of the dose. A 2%/2 mm agreement between MCNP and measurements was found in the homogenous phantom, and in the presence of heterogeneities in the range of 1-3%, being generally within 2% of the measurements for both energies in a "complex" phantom. A full-component simulation is necessary in order to obtain a realistic model of the beam. The MCNP4C results agree well with the measured electron dose distributions. PMID:23533162

  13. Fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for neutron beams from 0.001 eV to 100 GeV calculated for a set of pregnant female and fetus models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2008-03-01

    Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.

  14. Determination of the threshold dose distribution in photodynamic action from in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Clara Maria Gonçalves; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2016-09-01

    The concept of threshold in photodynamic action on cells or microorganisms is well observed in experiments but not fully explored on in vitro experiments. The intercomparison between light and used photosensitizer among many experiments is also poorly evaluated. In this report, we present an analytical model that allows extracting from the survival rate experiments the data of the threshold dose distribution, ie, the distribution of energies and photosensitizer concentration necessary to produce death of cells. Then, we use this model to investigate photodynamic therapy (PDT) data previously published in literature. The concept of threshold dose distribution instead of "single value of threshold" is a rich concept for the comparison of photodynamic action in different situations, allowing analyses of its efficiency as well as determination of optimized conditions for PDT. We observed that, in general, as it becomes more difficult to kill a population, the distribution tends to broaden, which means it presents a large spectrum of threshold values within the same cell type population. From the distribution parameters (center peak and full width), we also observed a clear distinction among cell types regarding their response to PDT that can be quantified. Comparing data obtained from the same cell line and used photosensitizer (PS), where the only distinct condition was the light source's wavelength, we found that the differences on the distribution parameters were comparable to the differences on the PS absorption. At last, we observed evidence that the threshold dose distribution matches the curve of apoptotic activity for some PSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dosimetric effects of Onyx embolization on Gamma Knife arteriovenous malformation dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, David J; Nordström, Håkan; Lundin, Anders; Xu, Zhiyuan; Sheehan, Jason P

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) subsequent to embolization suffer from elevated local failure rates and differences in adverse radiation effects. Onyx is a common embolic material for AVMs. Onyx is formulated with tantalum, a high atomic number (Z = 73) element that has been investigated as a source of dosimetric uncertainty contributing to the less favorable clinical results. However, prior studies have not modeled the complicated anatomical and beam geometries characteristic of GKRS. This study investigated the magnitude of dose perturbation that can occur due to Onyx embolization using clinically realistic anatomical and Gamma Knife beam models. METHODS Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) was used to segment the AVM nidus and areas of Onyx from postcontrast stereotactic MRI for 7 patients treated with GKRS postembolization. The resulting contours, skull surface, and clinically selected dose distributions were exported from LGP in DICOM-RT (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine-radiotherapy) format. Isocenter locations and dwell times were recorded from the LGP database. Contours were converted into 3D mesh representations using commercial and in-house mesh-editing software. The resulting data were imported into a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine (Pegasos, Elekta Instruments AB) with a beam geometry for the Gamma Knife Perfexion. The MC-predicted dose distributions were calculated with Onyx assigned manufacturer-reported physical constants (MC-Onyx), and then compared with corresponding distributions in which Onyx was reassigned constants for water (MC-water). Differences in dose metrics were determined, including minimum, maximum, and mean dose to the AVM nidus; selectivity index; and target coverage. Combined differences in dose magnitude and distance to agreement were calculated as 3D Gamma analysis passing rates using tolerance criteria of 0.5%/0.5 mm, 1.0%/1.0 mm, and 3.0%/3.0 mm

  16. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, H; Hashemi, B; Mahdavi, S R; Hejazi, P

    2015-03-01

    Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC) method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs) and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs) estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal and external radiotherapy practices.

  17. Three dimensional dose distribution comparison of simple and complex acquisition trajectories in dedicated breast CT

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jainil P.; Mann, Steve D.; McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A novel breast CT system capable of arbitrary 3D trajectories has been developed to address cone beam sampling insufficiency as well as to image further into the patient’s chest wall. The purpose of this study was to characterize any trajectory-related differences in 3D x-ray dose distribution in a pendant target when imaged with different orbits. Methods: Two acquisition trajectories were evaluated: circular azimuthal (no-tilt) and sinusoidal (saddle) orbit with ±15° tilts around a pendant breast, using Monte Carlo simulations as well as physical measurements. Simulations were performed with tungsten (W) filtration of a W-anode source; the simulated source flux was normalized to the measured exposure of a W-anode source. A water-filled cylindrical phantom was divided into 1 cm3 voxels, and the cumulative energy deposited was tracked in each voxel. Energy deposited per voxel was converted to dose, yielding the 3D distributed dose volumes. Additionally, three cylindrical phantoms of different diameters (10, 12.5, and 15 cm) and an anthropomorphic breast phantom, initially filled with water (mimicking pure fibroglandular tissue) and then with a 75% methanol-25% water mixture (mimicking 50–50 fibroglandular-adipose tissues), were used to simulate the pendant breast geometry and scanned on the physical system. Ionization chamber calibrated radiochromic film was used to determine the dose delivered in a 2D plane through the center of the volume for a fully 3D CT scan using the different orbits. Results: Measured experimental results for the same exposure indicated that the mean dose measured throughout the central slice for different diameters ranged from 3.93 to 5.28 mGy, with the lowest average dose measured on the largest cylinder with water mimicking a homogeneously fibroglandular breast. These results align well with the cylinder phantom Monte Carlo studies which also showed a marginal difference in dose delivered by a saddle trajectory in the

  18. MCNP simulation of the dose distribution in liver cancer treatment for BNC therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Zoran; Markovic, Vladimir; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Urosevic, Vlade

    2014-10-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ( BNCT) is based on selective uptake of boron in tumour tissue compared to the surrounding normal tissue. Infusion of compounds with boron is followed by irradiation with neutrons. Neutron capture on 10B, which gives rise to an alpha particle and recoiled 7Li ion, enables the therapeutic dose to be delivered to tumour tissue while healthy tissue can be spared. Here, therapeutic abilities of BNCT were studied for possible treatment of liver cancer using thermal and epithermal neutron beam. For neutron transport MCNP software was used and doses in organs of interest in ORNL phantom were evaluated. Phantom organs were filled with voxels in order to obtain depth-dose distributions in them. The result suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for liver cancer treatment.

  19. Determination of the depth dose distribution of proton beam using PRESAGE TM dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Das, I. J.; Zhao, Q.; Thomas, A.; Adamovics, J.; Oldman, M.

    2010-11-01

    PRESAGETM dosimeter dosimeter has been proved useful for 3D dosimetry in conventional photon therapy and IMRT [1-5]. Our objective is to examine the use of PRESAGETM dosimeter for verification of depth dose distribution in proton beam therapy. Three PRESAGETM samples were irradiated with a 79 MeV un-modulated proton beam. Percent depth dose profile measured from the PRESAGETM dosimeter is compared with data obtained in a water phantom using a parallel plate Advanced Markus chamber. The Bragg-peak position determined from the PRESAGETM is within 2 mm compared to measurements in water. PRESAGETM shows a highly linear response to proton dose. However, PRESAGETM also reveals an underdosage around the Bragg peak position due to LET effects. Depth scaling factor and quenching correction factor need further investigation. Our initial result shows that PRESAGETM has promising dosimetric characteristics that could be suitable for proton beam dosimetry.

  20. Photon beam dose distributions for patients with implanted temporary tissue expanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asena, A.; Kairn, T.; Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temporary tissue expanders (TTEs) on the dose distributions of photon beams in breast cancer radiotherapy treatments. EBT2 radiochromic film and ion chamber measurements were taken to quantify the attenuation and backscatter effects of the inhomogeneity. Results illustrate that the internal magnetic port present in a tissue expander causes a dose reduction of approximately 25% in photon tangent fields immediately downstream of the implant. It was also shown that the silicone elastomer shell of the tissue expander reduced the dose to the target volume by as much as 8%. This work demonstrates the importance for an accurately modelled high-density implant in the treatment planning system for post-mastectomy breast cancer patients.

  1. Dose distributions in phantoms irradiated in thermal columns of two different nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, G; Agosteo, S; Altieri, S; Bortolussi, S; Carrara, M; Gay, S; Nava, E; Petrovich, C; Rosi, G; Valente, M

    2007-01-01

    In-phantom dosimetry studies have been carried out at the thermal columns of a thermal- and a fast-nuclear reactor for investigating: (a) the spatial distribution of the gamma dose and the thermal neutron fluence and (b) the accuracy at which the boron concentration should be estimated in an explanted organ of a boron neutron capture therapy patient. The phantom was a cylinder (11 cm in diameter and 12 cm in height) of tissue-equivalent gel. Dose images were acquired with gel dosemeters across the axial section of the phantom. The thermal neutron fluence rate was measured with activation foils in a few positions of this phantom. Dose and fluence rate profiles were also calculated with Monte Carlo simulations. The trend of these profiles do not show significant differences for the thermal columns considered in this work.

  2. SU-E-T-425: Spherical Dose Distributions for Radiosurgery Using a Standardized MLC Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, R; Brezovich, I; Wu, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate a standardized MLC treatment plan to generate small spherical dose distributions. Methods: The static virtual cone plan comprised six table positions with clockwise and counterclockwise arcs having collimator angles 45 and 135 degrees, respectively, at each position. The central two leaves of a 2.5 mm leaf width MLC were set to a constant gap. Control points were weighted proportional to the sine of the gantry angle. Plans were created for the 10 MV flattening-filter-free beam of a TrueBeam STx (Varian Medical Systems) with gaps of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mm and were delivered to a phantommore » containing radiochromic film. Dose was calculated using the Eclipse AAA (Varian Medical Systems). A dynamic plan in which the table and gantry moved simultaneously with 1.5 mm gap was also created and delivered using the TrueBeam developer mode. Results: The full-width-half-max (FWHM) varied with leaf gap, ranging from 5.2 to 6.2 mm. Calculated FWHM was smaller than measured by 0.7 mm for the 1 mm gap and ≤ 0.4 mm for the larger gaps. The measured-to-calculated dose ratio was 0.93, 0.96, 1.01, and 0.99 for 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm gaps, respectively. The dynamic results were the same as the static. The position deviations between the phantom target position and the center of the dose distribution were < 0.4 mm. Conclusion: The virtual cone can deliver spherical dose distributions suitable for radio surgery of small targets such as the trigeminal nerve. The Eclipse AAA accurately calculates the expected dose, particularly for leaf gap ≥ 1.5 mm. The measured dose distribution is slightly larger than the calculation, which is likely due to systematic leaf position error, isocenter variation due to gantry sag and table eccentricity, and inaccuracy in MLC leaf end modeling.« less

  3. The influence of patient positioning uncertainties in proton radiotherapy on proton range and dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Liebl, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.liebl@medaustron.at; Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy allows radiation treatment delivery with high dose gradients. The nature of such dose distributions increases the influence of patient positioning uncertainties on their fidelity when compared to photon radiotherapy. The present work quantitatively analyzes the influence of setup uncertainties on proton range and dose distributions. Methods: Thirty-eight clinical passive scattering treatment fields for small lesions in the head were studied. Dose distributions for shifted and rotated patient positions were Monte Carlo-simulated. Proton range uncertainties at the 50%- and 90%-dose falloff position were calculated considering 18 arbitrary combinations of maximal patient position shifts and rotations for two patientmore » positioning methods. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs), equivalent uniform doses (EUDs), and tumor control probabilities (TCPs) were studied for organs at risk (OARs) and target volumes of eight patients. Results: The authors identified a median 1σ proton range uncertainty at the 50%-dose falloff of 2.8 mm for anatomy-based patient positioning and 1.6 mm for fiducial-based patient positioning as well as 7.2 and 5.8 mm for the 90%-dose falloff position, respectively. These range uncertainties were correlated to heterogeneity indices (HIs) calculated for each treatment field (38% < R{sup 2} < 50%). A NTCP increase of more than 10% (absolute) was observed for less than 2.9% (anatomy-based positioning) and 1.2% (fiducial-based positioning) of the studied OARs and patient shifts. For target volumes TCP decreases by more than 10% (absolute) occurred in less than 2.2% of the considered treatment scenarios for anatomy-based patient positioning and were nonexistent for fiducial-based patient positioning. EUD changes for target volumes were up to 35% (anatomy-based positioning) and 16% (fiducial-based positioning). Conclusions: The influence of patient positioning uncertainties on proton range in therapy of small

  4. The influence of patient positioning uncertainties in proton radiotherapy on proton range and dose distributions

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Jakob; Paganetti, Harald; Zhu, Mingyao; Winey, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy allows radiation treatment delivery with high dose gradients. The nature of such dose distributions increases the influence of patient positioning uncertainties on their fidelity when compared to photon radiotherapy. The present work quantitatively analyzes the influence of setup uncertainties on proton range and dose distributions. Methods: Thirty-eight clinical passive scattering treatment fields for small lesions in the head were studied. Dose distributions for shifted and rotated patient positions were Monte Carlo-simulated. Proton range uncertainties at the 50%- and 90%-dose falloff position were calculated considering 18 arbitrary combinations of maximal patient position shifts and rotations for two patient positioning methods. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs), equivalent uniform doses (EUDs), and tumor control probabilities (TCPs) were studied for organs at risk (OARs) and target volumes of eight patients. Results: The authors identified a median 1σ proton range uncertainty at the 50%-dose falloff of 2.8 mm for anatomy-based patient positioning and 1.6 mm for fiducial-based patient positioning as well as 7.2 and 5.8 mm for the 90%-dose falloff position, respectively. These range uncertainties were correlated to heterogeneity indices (HIs) calculated for each treatment field (38% < R2 < 50%). A NTCP increase of more than 10% (absolute) was observed for less than 2.9% (anatomy-based positioning) and 1.2% (fiducial-based positioning) of the studied OARs and patient shifts. For target volumes TCP decreases by more than 10% (absolute) occurred in less than 2.2% of the considered treatment scenarios for anatomy-based patient positioning and were nonexistent for fiducial-based patient positioning. EUD changes for target volumes were up to 35% (anatomy-based positioning) and 16% (fiducial-based positioning). Conclusions: The influence of patient positioning uncertainties on proton range in therapy of small lesions in the

  5. Statistical distributions of ultra-low dose CT sinograms and their fundamental limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Zhang, Ruoqiao; Alessio, Adam M.; Fu, Lin; De Man, Bruno; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2017-03-01

    Low dose CT imaging is typically constrained to be diagnostic. However, there are applications for even lowerdose CT imaging, including image registration across multi-frame CT images and attenuation correction for PET/CT imaging. We define this as the ultra-low-dose (ULD) CT regime where the exposure level is a factor of 10 lower than current low-dose CT technique levels. In the ULD regime it is possible to use statistically-principled image reconstruction methods that make full use of the raw data information. Since most statistical based iterative reconstruction methods are based on the assumption of that post-log noise distribution is close to Poisson or Gaussian, our goal is to understand the statistical distribution of ULD CT data with different non-positivity correction methods, and to understand when iterative reconstruction methods may be effective in producing images that are useful for image registration or attenuation correction in PET/CT imaging. We first used phantom measurement and calibrated simulation to reveal how the noise distribution deviate from normal assumption under the ULD CT flux environment. In summary, our results indicate that there are three general regimes: (1) Diagnostic CT, where post-log data are well modeled by normal distribution. (2) Lowdose CT, where normal distribution remains a reasonable approximation and statistically-principled (post-log) methods that assume a normal distribution have an advantage. (3) An ULD regime that is photon-starved and the quadratic approximation is no longer effective. For instance, a total integral density of 4.8 (ideal pi for 24 cm of water) for 120kVp, 0.5mAs of radiation source is the maximum pi value where a definitive maximum likelihood value could be found. This leads to fundamental limits in the estimation of ULD CT data when using a standard data processing stream

  6. A method to determine the planar dose distributions in patient undergone radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilla, S.; Viola, P.; Augelli, B. G.; D'Onofrio, G.; Grimaldi, L.; Craus, M.; Digesù, C.; Deodato, F.; Macchia, G.; Morganti, A. G.; Fidanzio, A.; Azario, L.; Piermattei, A.

    2008-06-01

    -array portal detector. The results showed that the dose variations due to the change of the patient's morphology reached 15% and such discrepancies were displayed on the digitally reconstructed radiography of the patient. The dose discrepancies were confirmed by the hybrid plan obtained by the treatment planning system. The good results here reported show that once it is possible to have the portal dose distributions even for other gantry angles, these tests could be introduced in the clinical protocol to have major support to decide when to repeat the patient's CT scan and to re-plan the new IMRT dose calculation.

  7. Analysis of dose-LET distribution in the human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Tsuda, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Niita, K

    2003-01-01

    For the purposes of radiological protection, it is important to analyse profiles of the particle field inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons, since they can produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities. Therefore Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate dose distributions in terms of the linear energy transfer of ionising particles (dose-LET distribution) using a newly developed particle transport code (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS) for incidences of neutrons, protons and pions with energies from 100 MeV to 200 GeV. Based on these calculations, it was found that more than 80% and 90% of the total deposition energies are attributed to ionisation by particles with LET below 10 keV microm(-1) for the irradiations of neutrons and the charged particles, respectively.

  8. Design of shared unit-dose drug distribution network using multi-level particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linjie; Monteiro, Thibaud; Wang, Tao; Marcon, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Unit-dose drug distribution systems provide optimal choices in terms of medication security and efficiency for organizing the drug-use process in large hospitals. As small hospitals have to share such automatic systems for economic reasons, the structure of their logistic organization becomes a very sensitive issue. In the research reported here, we develop a generalized multi-level optimization method - multi-level particle swarm optimization (MLPSO) - to design a shared unit-dose drug distribution network. Structurally, the problem studied can be considered as a type of capacitated location-routing problem (CLRP) with new constraints related to specific production planning. This kind of problem implies that a multi-level optimization should be performed in order to minimize logistic operating costs. Our results show that with the proposed algorithm, a more suitable modeling framework, as well as computational time savings and better optimization performance are obtained than that reported in the literature on this subject.

  9. Validating Fricke dosimetry for the measurement of absorbed dose to water for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy: a comparison between primary standards of the LCR, Brazil, and the NRC, Canada.

    PubMed

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom

    2018-04-05

    Two Fricke-based absorbed dose to water standards for HDR Ir-192 dosimetry, developed independently by the LCR in Brazil and the NRC in Canada have been compared. The agreement in the determination of the dose rate from a HDR Ir-192 source at 1 cm in a water phantom was found to be within the k  =  1 combined measurement uncertainties of the two standards: D NRC /D LCR   =  1.011, standard uncertainty  =  2.2%. The dose-based standards also agreed within the uncertainties with the manufacturer's stated dose rate value, which is traceable to a national standard of air kerma. A number of possible influence quantities were investigated, including the specific method for producing the ferrous-sulphate Fricke solution, the geometry of the holder, and the Monte Carlo code used to determine correction factors. The comparison highlighted the lack of data on the determination of G(Fe 3+ ) in this energy range and the possibilities for further development of the holders used to contain the Fricke solution. The comparison also confirmed the suitability of Fricke dosimetry for Ir-192 primary standard dose rate determinations at therapy dose levels.

  10. Validating Fricke dosimetry for the measurement of absorbed dose to water for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy: a comparison between primary standards of the LCR, Brazil, and the NRC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salata, Camila; Gazineu David, Mariano; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom

    2018-04-01

    Two Fricke-based absorbed dose to water standards for HDR Ir-192 dosimetry, developed independently by the LCR in Brazil and the NRC in Canada have been compared. The agreement in the determination of the dose rate from a HDR Ir-192 source at 1 cm in a water phantom was found to be within the k  =  1 combined measurement uncertainties of the two standards: D NRC/D LCR  =  1.011, standard uncertainty  =  2.2%. The dose-based standards also agreed within the uncertainties with the manufacturer’s stated dose rate value, which is traceable to a national standard of air kerma. A number of possible influence quantities were investigated, including the specific method for producing the ferrous-sulphate Fricke solution, the geometry of the holder, and the Monte Carlo code used to determine correction factors. The comparison highlighted the lack of data on the determination of G(Fe3+) in this energy range and the possibilities for further development of the holders used to contain the Fricke solution. The comparison also confirmed the suitability of Fricke dosimetry for Ir-192 primary standard dose rate determinations at therapy dose levels.

  11. Three-dimensional cluster formation and structure in heterogeneous dose distribution of intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ming; Wei, Jie; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Yuan, Yading; Lo, Yeh-Chi; Peñagarícano, José A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate three-dimensional cluster structure and its correlation to clinical endpoint in heterogeneous dose distributions from intensity modulated radiation therapy. Twenty-five clinical plans from twenty-one head and neck (HN) patients were used for a phenomenological study of the cluster structure formed from the dose distributions of organs at risks (OARs) close to the planning target volumes (PTVs). Initially, OAR clusters were searched to examine the pattern consistence among ten HN patients and five clinically similar plans from another HN patient. Second, clusters of the esophagus from another ten HN patients were scrutinized to correlate their sizes to radiobiological parameters. Finally, an extensive Monte Carlo (MC) procedure was implemented to gain deeper insights into the behavioral properties of the cluster formation. Clinical studies showed that OAR clusters had drastic differences despite similar PTV coverage among different patients, and the radiobiological parameters failed to positively correlate with the cluster sizes. MC study demonstrated the inverse relationship between the cluster size and the cluster connectivity, and the nonlinear changes in cluster size with dose thresholds. In addition, the clusters were insensitive to the shape of OARs. The results demonstrated that the cluster size could serve as an insightful index of normal tissue damage. The clinical outcome of the same dose-volume might be potentially different. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MCNPX simulation of proton dose distribution in homogeneous and CT phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Tung, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Chao, T. C.

    2014-02-01

    A dose simulation system was constructed based on the MCNPX Monte Carlo package to simulate proton dose distribution in homogeneous and CT phantoms. Conversion from Hounsfield unit of a patient CT image set to material information necessary for Monte Carlo simulation is based on Schneider's approach. In order to validate this simulation system, inter-comparison of depth dose distributions among those obtained from the MCNPX, GEANT4 and FLUKA codes for a 160 MeV monoenergetic proton beam incident normally on the surface of a homogeneous water phantom was performed. For dose validation within the CT phantom, direct comparison with measurement is infeasible. Instead, this study took the approach to indirectly compare the 50% ranges (R50%) along the central axis by our system to the NIST CSDA ranges for beams with 160 and 115 MeV energies. Comparison result within the homogeneous phantom shows good agreement. Differences of simulated R50% among the three codes are less than 1 mm. For results within the CT phantom, the MCNPX simulated water equivalent Req,50% are compatible with the CSDA water equivalent ranges from the NIST database with differences of 0.7 and 4.1 mm for 160 and 115 MeV beams, respectively.

  13. Panel Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MECHEL, F. P.

    2001-11-01

    A plane wave is incident on a simply supported elastic plate covering a back volume; the arrangement is surrounded by a hard baffle wall. The plate may be porous with a flow friction resistance; the back volume may be filled either with air or with a porous material. The back volume may be bulk reacting (i.e., with sound propagation parallel to the plate) or locally reacting. Since this arrangement is of some importance in room acoustics, Cremer in his book about room acoustics [1] has presented an approximate analysis. However, Cremer's analysis uses a number of assumptions which make his solution, in his own estimate, unsuited for low frequencies, where, on the other hand, the arrangement mainly is applied. This paper presents a sound field description which uses modal analysis. It is applicable not only in the far field, but also near the absorber. Further, approximate solutions are derived, based on simplifying assumptions like Cremer has used. The modal analysis solution is of interest not only as a reference for approximations but also for practical applications, because the aspect of computing time becomes more and more unimportant (the 3D-plots presented below for the sound field were evaluated with modal analysis in about 6 s).

  14. Study of the impact of artificial articulations on the dose distribution under medical irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffard, E.; Gschwind, R.; Makovicka, L.; Martin, E.; Meunier, C.; David, C.

    2005-02-01

    Perturbations due to the presence of high density heterogeneities in the body are not correctly taken into account in the Treatment Planning Systems currently available for external radiotherapy. For this reason, the accuracy of the dose distribution calculations has to be improved by using Monte Carlo simulations. In a previous study, we established a theoretical model by using the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc [I. Kawrakow, D.W.O. Rogers, The EGSnrc code system: MC simulation of electron and photon transport. Technical Report PIRS-701, NRCC, Ottawa, Canada, 2000] in order to obtain the dose distributions around simple heterogeneities. These simulations were then validated by experimental results obtained with thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionisation chamber. The influence of samples composed of hip prostheses materials (titanium alloy and steel) and a substitute of bone were notably studied. A more complex model was then developed with the Monte Carlo code BEAMnrc [D.W.O. Rogers, C.M. MA, G.X. Ding, B. Walters, D. Sheikh-Bagheri, G.G. Zhang, BEAMnrc Users Manual. NRC Report PPIRS 509(a) rev F, 2001] in order to take into account the hip prosthesis geometry. The simulation results were compared to experimental measurements performed in a water phantom, in the case of a standard treatment of a pelvic cancer for one of the beams passing through the implant. These results have shown the great influence of the prostheses on the dose distribution.

  15. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk. Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities inmore » a calendar year; therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed.« less

  16. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanfordmore » facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed.« less

  17. Dose distribution and mapping with 3D imaging presentation in intraoral and panoramic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Yung-Hui; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2011-10-01

    In current medical imaging applications, high quality images not only provide more diagnostic value for anatomic delineation but also offer functional information for treatment direction. However, this approach would potentially subscribe higher radiation dose in dental radiographies, which has been putatively associated with low-birth-weight during pregnancy, which affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis or thereby directly affects the reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to apply the high resolution 3-D image mapping technique to evaluate radiation doses from the following aspects: (1) verifying operating parameters of dental X-ray units, (2) measuring the leakage radiations and (3) mapping dose with 3-D radiographic imaging to evaluate dose distribution in head and neck regions. From the study results, we found that (1) leakage radiation from X-ray units was about 21.31±15.24 mR/h (<100 mR/h), (2) error of actual tube voltage for 60 kVp setting was from 0.2% to 6.5%, with an average of 2.5% (<7%) and (3) the error of exposure time for a 0.5-1.5 s setting was within 0.7-8.5%, with an average of 7.3% (<10%) error as well. Our 3-D dose mapping demonstrated that dose values were relatively lower in soft tissues and higher in bone surfaces compared with other investigations. Multiple causes could contribute to these variations, including irradiation geometry, image equipment and type of technique applied, etc. From the results, we also observed that larger accumulated doses were presented in certain critical organs, such as salivary gland, thyroid gland and bone marrow. Potential biological affects associated with these findings warrant further investigation.

  18. SU-F-J-59: Assessment of Dose Response Distribution in Individual Human Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, D; Chen, S; Krauss, D

    Purpose: To fulfill precision radiotherapy via adaptive dose painting by number, voxel-by-voxel dose response or radio-sensitivity in individual human tumor needs to be determined in early treatment to guide treatment adaptation. In this study, multiple FDG PET images obtained pre- and weekly during the treatment course were utilized to determine the distribution/spectrum of dose response parameters in individual human tumors. Methods: FDG PET/CT images of 18 HN cancer patients were used in the study. Spatial parametric image of tumor metabolic ratio (dSUV) was created following voxel by voxel deformable image registration. Each voxel value in dSUV was a function ofmore » pre-treatment baseline SUV and treatment delivered dose, and used as a surrogate of tumor survival fraction (SF). Regression fitting with break points was performed using the LQ-model with tumor proliferation for the control and failure group of tumors separately. The distribution and spectrum of radiation sensitivity and growth in individual tumors were determined and evaluated. Results: Spectrum of tumor dose-sensitivity and proliferation in the controlled group was broad with α in tumor survival LQ-model from 0.17 to 0.8. It was proportional to the baseline SUV. Tlag was about 21∼25 days, and Tpot about 0.56∼1.67 days respectively. Commonly tumor voxels with high radio-sensitivity or larger α had small Tlag and Tpot. For the failure group, the radio-sensitivity α was low within 0.05 to 0.3, but did not show clear Tlag. In addition, tumor voxel radio-sensitivity could be estimated during the early treatment weeks. Conclusion: Dose response distribution with respect to radio-sensitivity and growth in individual human tumor can be determined using FDG PET imaging based tumor metabolic ratio measured in early treatment course. The discover is critical and provides a potential quantitative objective to implement tumor specific precision radiotherapy via adaptive dose painting by number.« less

  19. Attrition and changes in size distribution of lime sorbents during fluidization in a circulating fluidized bed absorber. Double quarterly report, January 1--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Kwun; Keener, T.C.; Cook, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    The experimental data of lime sorbent attrition obtained from attriton tests in a circulating fluidized bed absorber (CFBA) are represented. The results are interpreted as both the weight-based attrition rate and size-based attrition rate. The weight-based attrition rate constants are obtained from a modified second-order attrition model, incorporating a minimum fluidization weight, W{sub min}, and excess velocity. Furthermore, this minimum fluidization weight, or W{sub min} was found to be a function of both particle size and velocity. A plot of the natural log of the overall weight-based attrition rate constants (ln K{sub a}) for Lime 1 (903 MMD) at superficialmore » gas velocities of 2 m/s, 2.35 m/s, and 2.69 m/s and for Lime 2 (1764 MMD) at superficial gas velocities of 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s and 5 m/s versus the energy term, 1/(U-U{sub mf}){sup 2}, yielded a linear relationship. And, a regression coefficient of 0.9386 for the linear regression confirms that K{sub a} may be expressed in Arrhenius form. In addition, an unsteady state population model is represented to predict the changes in size distribution of bed materials during fluidization. The unsteady state population model was verified experimentally and the solid size distribution predicted by the model agreed well with the corresponding experimental size distributions. The model may be applicable for the batch and continuous operations of fluidized beds in which the solids size reduction is predominantly resulted from attritions and elutriations. Such significance of the mechanical attrition and elutriation is frequently seen in a fast fluidized bed as well as in a circulating fluidized bed.« less

  20. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fitmore » to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  1. The use of tetrahedral mesh geometries in Monte Carlo simulation of applicator based brachytherapy dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva Fonseca, Gabriel; Landry, Guillaume; White, Shane; D'Amours, Michel; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Beaulieu, Luc; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Accounting for brachytherapy applicator attenuation is part of the recommendations from the recent report of AAPM Task Group 186. To do so, model based dose calculation algorithms require accurate modelling of the applicator geometry. This can be non-trivial in the case of irregularly shaped applicators such as the Fletcher Williamson gynaecological applicator or balloon applicators with possibly irregular shapes employed in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) performed using electronic brachytherapy sources (EBS). While many of these applicators can be modelled using constructive solid geometry (CSG), the latter may be difficult and time-consuming. Alternatively, these complex geometries can be modelled using tessellated geometries such as tetrahedral meshes (mesh geometries (MG)). Recent versions of Monte Carlo (MC) codes Geant4 and MCNP6 allow for the use of MG. The goal of this work was to model a series of applicators relevant to brachytherapy using MG. Applicators designed for 192Ir sources and 50 kV EBS were studied; a shielded vaginal applicator, a shielded Fletcher Williamson applicator and an APBI balloon applicator. All applicators were modelled in Geant4 and MCNP6 using MG and CSG for dose calculations. CSG derived dose distributions were considered as reference and used to validate MG models by comparing dose distribution ratios. In general agreement within 1% for the dose calculations was observed for all applicators between MG and CSG and between codes when considering volumes inside the 25% isodose surface. When compared to CSG, MG required longer computation times by a factor of at least 2 for MC simulations using the same code. MCNP6 calculation times were more than ten times shorter than Geant4 in some cases. In conclusion we presented methods allowing for high fidelity modelling with results equivalent to CSG. To the best of our knowledge MG offers the most accurate representation of an irregular APBI balloon applicator.

  2. USE OF PBPK MODELS FOR ASSESSING ABSORBED DOSE AND CHE INHIBITION FROM AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiological pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling framework has been established to assess cumulative risk of dose and injury of infants and children to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides from aggregate sources and routes. Exposure inputs were drawn from all reasonable sources, pr...

  3. Impact of the differential fluence distribution of brachytherapy sources on the spectroscopic dose-rate constant

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, Martha J.; Bartol, Laura J.; DeWerd, Larry A., E-mail: mmalin@wisc.edu, E-mail: ladewerd@wisc.edu

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate why dose-rate constants for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds computed using the spectroscopic technique, Λ{sub spec}, differ from those computed with standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. A potential cause of these discrepancies is the spectroscopic technique’s use of approximations of the true fluence distribution leaving the source, φ{sub full}. In particular, the fluence distribution used in the spectroscopic technique, φ{sub spec}, approximates the spatial, angular, and energy distributions of φ{sub full}. This work quantified the extent to which each of these approximations affects the accuracy of Λ{sub spec}. Additionally, this study investigated how the simplified water-onlymore » model used in the spectroscopic technique impacts the accuracy of Λ{sub spec}. Methods: Dose-rate constants as described in the AAPM TG-43U1 report, Λ{sub full}, were computed with MC simulations using the full source geometry for each of 14 different {sup 125}I and 6 different {sup 103}Pd source models. In addition, the spectrum emitted along the perpendicular bisector of each source was simulated in vacuum using the full source model and used to compute Λ{sub spec}. Λ{sub spec} was compared to Λ{sub full} to verify the discrepancy reported by Rodriguez and Rogers. Using MC simulations, a phase space of the fluence leaving the encapsulation of each full source model was created. The spatial and angular distributions of φ{sub full} were extracted from the phase spaces and were qualitatively compared to those used by φ{sub spec}. Additionally, each phase space was modified to reflect one of the approximated distributions (spatial, angular, or energy) used by φ{sub spec}. The dose-rate constant resulting from using approximated distribution i, Λ{sub approx,i}, was computed using the modified phase space and compared to Λ{sub full}. For each source, this process was repeated for each approximation in order to determine which approximations

  4. Contact radiotherapy using a 50 kV X-ray system: Evaluation of relative dose distribution with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and comparison with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, Olivier; Hachem, Sabet; Franchisseur, Eric; Marcié, Serge; Gérard, Jean-Pierre; Bordy, Jean-Marc

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a dosimetric study concerning the system named "Papillon 50" used in the department of radiotherapy of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, France. The machine provides a 50 kVp X-ray beam, currently used to treat rectal cancers. The system can be mounted with various applicators of different diameters or shapes. These applicators can be fixed over the main rod tube of the unit in order to deliver the prescribed absorbed dose into the tumor with an optimal distribution. We have analyzed depth dose curves and dose profiles for the naked tube and for a set of three applicators. Dose measurements were made with an ionization chamber (PTW type 23342) and Gafchromic films (EBT2). We have also compared the measurements with simulations performed using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Simulations were performed with a detailed geometrical description of the experimental setup and with enough statistics. Results of simulations are made in accordance with experimental measurements and provide an accurate evaluation of the dose delivered. The depths of the 50% isodose in water for the various applicators are 4.0, 6.0, 6.6 and 7.1 mm. The Monte Carlo PENELOPE simulations are in accordance with the measurements for a 50 kV X-ray system. Simulations are able to confirm the measurements provided by Gafchromic films or ionization chambers. Results also demonstrate that Monte Carlo simulations could be helpful to validate the future applicators designed for other localizations such as breast or skin cancers. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations could be a reliable alternative for a rapid evaluation of the dose delivered by such a system that uses multiple designs of applicators.

  5. Estimation of ambient dose equivalent distribution in the 18F-FDG administration room using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Shuji; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Himuro, Kazuhiko; Awamoto, Shinichi; Tsutsui, Yuji; Nakamura, Yasuhiko

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we estimated the ambient dose equivalent rate (hereafter "dose rate") in the fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) administration room in our hospital using Monte Carlo simulations, and examined the appropriate medical-personnel locations and a shielding method to reduce the dose rate during FDG injection using a lead glass shield. The line source was assumed to be the FDG feed tube and the patient a cube source. The dose rate distribution was calculated with a composite source that combines the line and cube sources. The dose rate distribution was also calculated when a lead glass shield was placed in the rear section of the lead-acrylic shield. The dose rate behind the automatic administration device decreased by 87 % with respect to that behind the lead-acrylic shield. Upon positioning a 2.8-cm-thick lead glass shield, the dose rate behind the lead-acrylic shield decreased by 67 %.

  6. Low LET proton microbeam to understand high-LET RBE by shaping spatial dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greubel, Christoph; Ilicic, Katarina; Rösch, Thomas; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Moser, Marcus; Girst, Stefanie; Walsh, Dietrich W. M.; Schmid, Thomas E.; Dollinger, Günther

    2017-08-01

    High LET radiation, like heavy ions, are known to have a higher biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to low LET radiation, like X- or γ -rays. Theories and models attribute these higher effectiveness mostly to their extremely inhomogeneous dose deposition, which is concentrated in only a few micron sized spots. At the ion microprobe SNAKE, low LET 20 MeV protons (LET in water of 2.6 keV/μm) can be applied to cells either randomly distributed or focused to submicron spots, approximating heavy ion dose deposition. Thus, the transition between low and high LET energy deposition is experimentally accessible and the effect of different spatial dose distributions can be analysed. Here, we report on the technical setup to cultivate and irradiate 104 cells with submicron spots of low LET protons to measure cell survival in unstained cells. In addition we have taken special care to characterise the beam spot of the 20 MeV proton microbeam with fluorescent nuclear track detectors.

  7. Comparison of measured and Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, R.; Olivares, M.; DeBlois, F.; Podgorsak, E. B.; Kawrakow, I.; Seuntjens, J.

    2003-08-01

    Calculations of dose distributions in heterogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams, carried out using the fast voxel Monte Carlo (MC) system XVMC and the conventional MC code EGSnrc, were compared with measurements. Irradiations were performed using the 9 MeV and 15 MeV beams from a Varian Clinac-18 accelerator with a 10 × 10 cm2 applicator and an SSD of 100 cm. Depth doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques (TLD 700) in phantoms consisting of slabs of Solid WaterTM (SW) and bone and slabs of SW and lung tissue-equivalent materials. Lateral profiles in water were measured using an electron diode at different depths behind one and two immersed aluminium rods. The accelerator was modelled using the EGS4/BEAM system and optimized phase-space files were used as input to the EGSnrc and the XVMC calculations. Also, for the XVMC, an experiment-based beam model was used. All measurements were corrected by the EGSnrc-calculated stopping power ratios. Overall, there is excellent agreement between the corrected experimental and the two MC dose distributions. Small remaining discrepancies may be due to the non-equivalence between physical and simulated tissue-equivalent materials and to detector fluence perturbation effect correction factors that were calculated for the 9 MeV beam at selected depths in the heterogeneous phantoms.

  8. Comparison of measured and Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams.

    PubMed

    Doucet, R; Olivares, M; DeBlois, F; Podgorsak, E B; Kawrakow, I; Seuntjens, J

    2003-08-07

    Calculations of dose distributions in heterogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams, carried out using the fast voxel Monte Carlo (MC) system XVMC and the conventional MC code EGSnrc, were compared with measurements. Irradiations were performed using the 9 MeV and 15 MeV beams from a Varian Clinac-18 accelerator with a 10 x 10 cm2 applicator and an SSD of 100 cm. Depth doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques (TLD 700) in phantoms consisting of slabs of Solid Water (SW) and bone and slabs of SW and lung tissue-equivalent materials. Lateral profiles in water were measured using an electron diode at different depths behind one and two immersed aluminium rods. The accelerator was modelled using the EGS4/BEAM system and optimized phase-space files were used as input to the EGSnrc and the XVMC calculations. Also, for the XVMC, an experiment-based beam model was used. All measurements were corrected by the EGSnrc-calculated stopping power ratios. Overall, there is excellent agreement between the corrected experimental and the two MC dose distributions. Small remaining discrepancies may be due to the non-equivalence between physical and simulated tissue-equivalent materials and to detector fluence perturbation effect correction factors that were calculated for the 9 MeV beam at selected depths in the heterogeneous phantoms.

  9. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  10. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  11. Generation and dose distribution measurement of flash x-ray in KALI-5000 system

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Rakhee; Roy, Amitava; Mitra, S.

    2008-10-15

    Flash x-ray generation studies have been carried out in KALI-5000 Pulse power system. The intense relativistic electron beam has been bombarded on a tantalum target at anode to produce flash x-ray via bremsstrahlung conversion. The typical electron beam parameter was 360 kV, 18 kA, and 100 ns, with a few hundreds of A/cm{sup 2} current density. The x-ray dose has been measured with calcium sulfate:dysposium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) thermoluminescent dosimeter and the axial dose distribution has been characterized. It has been observed that the on axis dose falls of with distance {approx}1/x{sup n}, where n varies from 1.8 to 1.85. Amore » maximum on axis dose of 46 mrad has been measured at 1 m distance from the source. A plastic scintillator with optical fiber coupled to a photomultiplier tube has been developed to measure the x-ray pulse width. The typical x-ray pulse width varied from 50 to 80 ns.« less

  12. Determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams-comparison of the standards DIN 6800-2 (1997), IAEA TRS 398 (2000) and DIN 6800-2 (2006)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Golam Abu; Schuette, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    For the determination of the absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams the IAEA code of practice TRS-398 (2000) is applied internationally. In Germany, the German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (1997) is used. Recently, the DIN standard has been revised and published as Draft National Standard DIN 6800-2 (2006). It has adopted widely the methodology and dosimetric data of the code of practice. This paper compares these three dosimetry protocols systematically and identifies similarities as well as differences. The investigation was done with 6 and 18 MV photon as well as 5 to 21 MeV electron beams. While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, measurements of electron beams were performed using cylindrical as well as plane-parallel chambers. The discrepancies in the determination of absorbed dose to water between the three protocols were 0.4% for photon beams and 1.5% for electron beams. Comparative measurements showed a deviation of less than 0.5% between our measurements following protocol DIN 6800-2 (2006) and TLD inter-comparison procedure in an external audit. PMID:21217912

  13. Determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams-comparison of the standards DIN 6800-2 (1997), IAEA TRS 398 (2000) and DIN 6800-2 (2006).

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Golam Abu; Schuette, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    For the determination of the absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams the IAEA code of practice TRS-398 (2000) is applied internationally. In Germany, the German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (1997) is used. Recently, the DIN standard has been revised and published as Draft National Standard DIN 6800-2 (2006). It has adopted widely the methodology and dosimetric data of the code of practice. This paper compares these three dosimetry protocols systematically and identifies similarities as well as differences. The investigation was done with 6 and 18 MV photon as well as 5 to 21 MeV electron beams. While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, measurements of electron beams were performed using cylindrical as well as plane-parallel chambers. The discrepancies in the determination of absorbed dose to water between the three protocols were 0.4% for photon beams and 1.5% for electron beams. Comparative measurements showed a deviation of less than 0.5% between our measurements following protocol DIN 6800-2 (2006) and TLD inter-comparison procedure in an external audit.

  14. Three-dimensional radiotherapy of head and neck and esophageal carcinomas: a monoisocentric treatment technique to achieve improved dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Nath, R

    2001-02-20

    The specific aim of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is to deliver adequate therapeutic radiation dose to the target volume while concomitantly keeping the dose to surrounding and intervening normal tissues to a minimum. The objective of this study is to examine dose distributions produced by various radiotherapy techniques used in managing head and neck tumors when the upper part of the esophagus is also involved. Treatment planning was performed with a three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning system. Computerized tomographic (CT) scans used by this system to generate isodose distributions and dose-volume histograms were obtained directly from the CT scanner, which is connected via ethernet cabling to the 3-D planning system. These are useful clinical tools for evaluating the dose distribution to the treatment volume, clinical target volume, gross tumor volume, and certain critical organs. Using 6 and 18 MV photon beams, different configurations of standard treatment techniques for head and neck and esophageal carcinoma were studied and the resulting dose distributions were analyzed. Film validation dosimetry in solid-water phantom was performed to assess the magnitude of dose inhomogeneity at the field junction. Real-time dose measurements on patients using diode dosimetry were made and compared with computed dose values. With regard to minimizing radiation dose to surrounding structures (i.e., lung, spinal cord, etc.), the monoisocentric technique gave the best isodose distributions in terms of dose uniformity. The mini-mantle anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP/PA) technique produced grossly non-uniform dose distribution with excessive hot spots. The dose measured on the patient during the treatment agrees to within +/- 5 % with the computed dose. The protocols presented in this work for simulation, immobilization and treatment planning of patients with head and neck and esophageal tumors provide the optimum dose distributions in the target

  15. Temporal variation of dose rate distribution around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station using unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Orita, Tadashi; Torii, Tatsuo

    2016-12-01

    Aerial radiological survey using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was applied to measurement surface contamination around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS). An unmanned helicopter monitoring system (UHMS) was developed to survey the environmental effect of radioactive cesium scattered as a result of the FDNPS accident. The UHMS was used to monitor the area surrounding the FDNPS six times from 2012 to 2015. Quantitative changes in the radioactivity distribution trend were revealed from the results of these monitoring runs. With this information, we found that the actual reduction of dose rate was faster than the one calculated with radiocesium physical half-life. It is indicated that the attenuation effect of radiation by radiocesium penetration in soil is dominant as for reason of reduction of dose rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Doke, T; Kikuchi, J; Sakaguchi, T; Takeuchi, R; Takashima, T; Kobayashi, M; Terasawa, K; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, A; Kyan, A; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Ogura, K; Nagaoka, S; Kato, M; Nakano, T; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

    1997-12-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5% (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15% (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II "Detector Unit" at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET

  17. Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Sakaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Takashima, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Terasawa, K.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, A.; hide

    1997-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5% (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15% (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II "Detector Unit" at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET

  18. Biological effects of α-radiation exposure by (241)Am in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are determined both by dose rate and (241)Am distribution.

    PubMed

    Biermans, Geert; Horemans, Nele; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Saenen, Eline; Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2015-11-01

    Human activity has led to an increasing amount of radionuclides in the environment and subsequently to an increased risk of exposure of the biosphere to ionising radiation. Due to their high linear energy transfer, α-emitters form a threat to biota when absorbed or integrated in living tissue. Among these, (241)Am is of major concern due to high affinity for organic matter and high specific activity. This study examines the dose-dependent biological effects of α-radiation delivered by (241)Am at the morphological, physiological and molecular level in 14-day old seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana after hydroponic exposure for 4 or 7 days. Our results show that (241)Am has high transfer to the roots but low translocation to the shoots. In the roots, we observed a transcriptional response of reactive oxygen species scavenging and DNA repair pathways. At the physiological and morphological level this resulted in a response which evolved from redox balance control and stable biomass at low dose rates to growth reduction, reduced transfer and redox balance decline at higher dose rates. This situation was also reflected in the shoots where, despite the absence of a transcriptional response, the control of photosynthesis performance and redox balance declined with increasing dose rate. The data further suggest that the effects in both organs were initiated in the roots, where the highest dose rates occurred, ultimately affecting photosynthesis performance and carbon assimilation. Though further detailed study of nutrient balance and (241)Am localisation is necessary, it is clear that radionuclide uptake and distribution is a major parameter in the global exposure effects on plant performance and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Practical dose point-based methods to characterize dose distribution in a stationary elliptical body phantom for a cone-beam C-arm CT system

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jang-Hwan, E-mail: jhchoi21@stanford.edu; Constantin, Dragos; Ganguly, Arundhuti

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: To propose new dose point measurement-based metrics to characterize the dose distributions and the mean dose from a single partial rotation of an automatic exposure control-enabled, C-arm-based, wide cone angle computed tomography system over a stationary, large, body-shaped phantom. Methods: A small 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber (IC) was used to measure the radiation dose in an elliptical body-shaped phantom made of tissue-equivalent material. The IC was placed at 23 well-distributed holes in the central and peripheral regions of the phantom and dose was recorded for six acquisition protocols with different combinations of minimum kVp (109 and 125 kVp)more » and z-collimator aperture (full: 22.2 cm; medium: 14.0 cm; small: 8.4 cm). Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to generate complete 2D dose distributions in the central plane (z = 0). The MC model was validated at the 23 dose points against IC experimental data. The planar dose distributions were then estimated using subsets of the point dose measurements using two proposed methods: (1) the proximity-based weighting method (method 1) and (2) the dose point surface fitting method (method 2). Twenty-eight different dose point distributions with six different point number cases (4, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 23 dose points) were evaluated to determine the optimal number of dose points and their placement in the phantom. The performances of the methods were determined by comparing their results with those of the validated MC simulations. The performances of the methods in the presence of measurement uncertainties were evaluated. Results: The 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases had differences below 2%, ranging from 1.0% to 1.7% for both methods, which is a performance comparable to that of the methods with a relatively large number of points, i.e., the 14- and 23-point cases. However, with the 4-point case, the performances of the two methods decreased sharply. Among the 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases, the 7-point

  20. Calculation and Prediction of the Effect of Respiratory Motion on Whole Breast Radiation Therapy Dose Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Junsheng; Roeske, John C.; Chmura, Steve J.

    2009-07-01

    The standard treatment technique used for whole-breast irradiation can result in undesirable dose distributions in the treatment site, leading to skin reaction/fibrosis and pulmonary and cardiac toxicities. Hence, the technique has evolved from conventional wedged technique (CWT) to segment intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIMRT) and beamlet IMRT (IMRT). However, these newer techniques feature more highly modulated dose distributions that may be affected by respiration. The purpose of this work was to conduct a simple study of the clinical impact of respiratory motion on breast radiotherapy dose distributions for the three treatment planning techniques. The ultimate goal was to determine which patientsmore » would benefit most from the use of motion management. Eight patients with early-stage breast cancer underwent a free-breathing (FB) computed tomography (CT) simulation, with medial and lateral markers placed on the skin. Two additional CT scans were obtained at the end of inspiration (EI) and the end of expiration (EE). The FB-CT scan was used to develop treatment plans using each technique. Each plan was then applied to EI and EE-CT scans. Compared with the FB CT scan, the medial markers moved up to 1.8 cm in the anterior-superior direction at the end of inspiration (EI-scan), and on average 8 mm. The CWT and SIMRT techniques were not 'sensitive' to respiratory motion, because the % clinical target volume (CTV) receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V{sub 95%}) remained constant for both techniques. For patients that had large respiratory motion indicated by marker movement >0.6 cm, differences in coverage of the CTV at the V100% between FB and EI for beamlet IMRT plans were on the order of >10% and up to 18%. A linear model was developed to relate the dosimetric coverage difference introduced by respiration with the motion information. With this model, the dosimetric coverage difference introduced by respiratory motion could be evaluated during

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of depth-dose distributions in TLD-100 under 90Sr-90Y irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M; Gamboa-deBuen, I; Brandan, M E

    1997-04-01

    In this work the depth-dose distribution in TLD-100 dosimeters under beta irradiation from a 90Sr-90Y source was investigated using the Monte Carlo method. Comparisons between the simulated data and experimental results showed that the depth-dose distribution is strongly affected by the different components of both the source and dosimeter holders due to the large number of electron scattering events.

  2. Entrance surface dose distribution and organ dose assessment for cone-beam computed tomography using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations with voxel phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M.; Di Maria, S.; Vieira, S.; Vaz, P.

    2017-11-01

    Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) enables high-resolution volumetric scanning of the bone and soft tissue anatomy under investigation at the treatment accelerator. This technique is extensively used in Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) for pre-treatment verification of patient position and target volume localization. When employed daily and several times per patient, CBCT imaging may lead to high cumulative imaging doses to the healthy tissues surrounding the exposed organs. This work aims at (1) evaluating the dose distribution during a CBCT scan and (2) calculating the organ doses involved in this image guiding procedure for clinically available scanning protocols. Both Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and measurements were performed. To model and simulate the kV imaging system mounted on a linear accelerator (Edge™, Varian Medical Systems) the state-of-the-art MC radiation transport program MCNPX 2.7.0 was used. In order to validate the simulation results, measurements of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) were performed, using standard PMMA head and body phantoms, with 150 mm length and a standard pencil ionizing chamber (IC) 100 mm long. Measurements for head and pelvis scanning protocols, usually adopted in clinical environment were acquired, using two acquisition modes (full-fan and half fan). To calculate the organ doses, the implemented MC model of the CBCT scanner together with a male voxel phantom ("Golem") was used. The good agreement between the MCNPX simulations and the CTDIw measurements (differences up to 17%) presented in this work reveals that the CBCT MC model was successfully validated, taking into account the several uncertainties. The adequacy of the computational model to map dose distributions during a CBCT scan is discussed in order to identify ways to reduce the total CBCT imaging dose. The organ dose assessment highlights the need to evaluate the therapeutic and the CBCT imaging doses, in a more balanced approach, and the

  3. Four-dimensional layer-stacking carbon-ion beam dose distribution by use of a lung numeric phantom.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinichiro; Kumagai, Motoki; Miki, Kentaro

    2015-07-01

    To extend layer-stacking irradiation to accommodate intrafractional organ motion, we evaluated the carbon-ion layer-stacking dose distribution using a numeric lung phantom. We designed several types of range compensators. The planning target volume was calculated from the respective respiratory phases for consideration of intrafractional beam range variation. The accumulated dose distribution was calculated by registering of the dose distributions at respective phases to that at the reference phase. We evaluated the dose distribution based on the following six parameters: motion displacement, direction, gating window, respiratory cycle, range-shifter change time, and prescribed dose. All parameters affected the dose conformation to the moving target. By shortening of the gating window, dose metrics for superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) motions were decreased from a D95 of 94 %, Dmax of 108 %, and homogeneity index (HI) of 23 % at T00-T90, to a D95 of 93 %, Dmax of 102 %, and HI of 20 % at T40-T60. In contrast, all dose metrics except the HI were independent of respiratory cycle. All dose metrics in SI motion were almost the same in respective motion displacement, with a D95 of 94 %, Dmax of 108 %, Dmin of 89 %, and HI of 23 % for the ungated phase, and D95 of 93 %, Dmax of 102 %, Dmin of 85 %, and HI of 20 % for the gated phase. The dose conformation to a moving target was improved by the gating strategy and by an increase in the prescribed dose. A combination of these approaches is a practical means of adding them to existing treatment protocols without modifications.

  4. Sci-Sat AM: Radiation Dosimetry and Practical Therapy Solutions - 06: Investigation of an absorbed dose to water formalism for a miniature low-energy x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Peter; Seuntjens, Jan

    Purpose: We present a formalism for calculating the absorbed dose to water from a miniature x-ray source (The INTRABEAM system, Carl Zeiss), using a parallel-plate ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air-kerma. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to derive a chamber conversion factor (C{sub Q}) from reference air-kerma to dose to water for the INTRABEAM. C{sub Q} was investigated as a function of depth in water, and compared with the manufacturer’s reported value. The effect of chamber air cavity dimension tolerance was also investigated. Methods: Air-kerma (A{sub k}) from a reference beam was calculated using the EGSnrc user code cavity.more » Using egs-chamber, a model of a PTW 34013 parallel-plate ionization chamber was created according to manufacturer specifications. The dose to the chamber air cavity (D{sub gas}) was simulated both in-air (with reference beam) and in-water (with INTRABEAM source). Dose to a small water voxel (D{sub w}) was also calculated. C{sub Q} was derived from these quantities. Results: C{sub Q} was found to vary by up to 15% (1.30 vs 1.11) between chamber dimension extremes. The agreement between chamber C{sub Q} was found to improve with increasing depth in water. However, in all cases investigated, C{sub Q} was larger than the manufacturer reported value of 1.054. Conclusions: Our results show that cavity dimension tolerance has a significant effect on C{sub Q}, with differences as large as 15%. In all cases considered, C{sub Q} was found to be larger than the reported value of 1.054. This suggests that the recommended calculation underestimates the dose to water.« less

  5. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K9 of the absorbed dose to water standards of the PTB, Germany and the BIPM in medium-energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. T.; Kessler, C.; Büermann, L.; Ketelhut, S.

    2018-01-01

    A key comparison has been made between the absorbed dose to water standards of the PTB, Germany and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in general agreement at the level of the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 9 to 11 parts in 103. The results are combined with those of a EURAMET comparison and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Tuning Aerosol Particle Size Distribution of Metered Dose Inhalers Using Cosolvents and Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Imran Y.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of these studies was to understand the influence of cosolvent and surfactant contributions to particle size distributions emitted from solution metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) based on the propellant HFA 227. Methods. Two sets of formulations were prepared: (a) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing cosolvent (5–15% w/w ethanol) with constant surfactant (pluronic) concentration and (b) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing surfactant (0–5.45% w/w pluronic) with constant cosolvent concentration. Particle size distributions emitted from these pMDIs were analyzed using aerodynamic characterization (inertial impaction) and laser diffraction methods. Results. Both cosolvent and surfactant concentrations were positively correlated with median particle sizes; that is, drug particle size increased with increasing ethanol and pluronic concentrations. However, evaluation of particle size distributions showed that cosolvent caused reduction in the fine particle mode magnitude while the surfactant caused a shift in the mode position. These findings highlight the different mechanisms by which these components influence droplet formation and demonstrate the ability to utilize the different effects in formulations of pMDI-HFA 227 for independently modulating particle sizes in the respirable region. Conclusion. Potentially, the formulation design window generated using these excipients in combination could be used to match the particle size output of reformulated products to preexisting pMDI products. PMID:23984381

  7. Synthetic microRNA cassette dosing: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Chiu, Ming; Xie, Zhiliang; Chiu, Michael; Liu, Zhongfa; Chen, Ping; Liu, Shujun; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Garzon, Ramiro; Croce, Carlo M; Marcucci, Guido; Chan, Kenneth K

    2012-06-04

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are deregulated in cancer and leukemia. Restoring aberrantly downregulated tumor suppressor miRs or antagonizing overexpressed oncogenic miRs in malignant cells by synthetic RNA oligonucleotides represents a potentially novel therapeutic approach in cancer and leukemia. However, given the complex networking and concurrent deregulation of miRs in malignant cells, an effective approach may require concurrent targeting of multiple miRs. Cassette dosing involves simultaneous administration of a mixture of oligonucleotides from the same or different structural classes. However, information on cassette dosing pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioactivity of synthetic miRs is lacking. In this study, three synthetic 2'-methoxyphosphorothioate-miRs (2'-MeOPSmiR16-1, 2'-MeOPSmiR29b and 2'-MeOPSantagomiR155) were administered iv to C57BL/6 mice as a mixture, each at 7.5 mg/kg. Analysis of concentrations of individual miR in plasma and major organ tissues (bone marrow, spleen, liver, brain, heart, kidney and lung) was performed. The mRNA and protein levels of miR's biotargets were monitored sequentially after dosing up to 24 h. Our results demonstrated that these synthetic miRs retain their different individual pharmacokinetic properties and all display three-compartmental pharmacokinetics. 2'-MeOPSmiR16-1 has the longest plasma gamma half-life of 2508 min and lowest total body clearance of 0.0054 L/min·kg, whereas 2'-MeOPSmiR29b has the shortest gamma half-life of 510.6 min and highest total body clearance of 0.042 L/min·kg. The tissue concentrations of all three 2'-MeOPS-modified miR(s)/antagomiR were measurable from 5 min to at least 24 h after dosing, indicating that these concurrently delivered oligonucleotides can reach organ tissues. Importantly, there were biological activities of the concurrently administered miRs which persisted, as shown by the downregulation of specific targets in tested tissues, albeit with variations. Brain was one of

  8. Stereotactic, Single-Dose Irradiation of Lung Tumors: A Comparison of Absolute Dose and Dose Distribution Between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo Algorithms Based on Actual Patient CT Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huixiao; Lohr, Frank; Fritz, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation based on pencil beam (PB) algorithms has its shortcomings predicting dose in tissue heterogeneities. The aim of this study was to compare dose distributions of clinically applied non-intensity-modulated radiotherapy 15-MV plans for stereotactic body radiotherapy between voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) calculation and PB calculation for lung lesions. Methods and Materials: To validate XVMC, one treatment plan was verified in an inhomogeneous thorax phantom with EDR2 film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). Both measured and calculated (PB and XVMC) dose distributions were compared regarding profiles and isodoses. Then, 35 lung plans originally created for clinical treatment by PB calculationmore » with the Eclipse planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were recalculated by XVMC (investigational implementation in PrecisePLAN [Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden]). Clinically relevant dose-volume parameters for target and lung tissue were compared and analyzed statistically. Results: The XVMC calculation agreed well with film measurements (<1% difference in lateral profile), whereas the deviation between PB calculation and film measurements was up to +15%. On analysis of 35 clinical cases, the mean dose, minimal dose and coverage dose value for 95% volume of gross tumor volume were 1.14 {+-} 1.72 Gy, 1.68 {+-} 1.47 Gy, and 1.24 {+-} 1.04 Gy lower by XVMC compared with PB, respectively (prescription dose, 30 Gy). The volume covered by the 9 Gy isodose of lung was 2.73% {+-} 3.12% higher when calculated by XVMC compared with PB. The largest differences were observed for small lesions circumferentially encompassed by lung tissue. Conclusions: Pencil beam dose calculation overestimates dose to the tumor and underestimates lung volumes exposed to a given dose consistently for 15-MV photons. The degree of difference between XVMC and PB is tumor size and location dependent. Therefore XVMC calculation is helpful to further optimize treatment

  9. Distributed optical fibre temperature measurements in a low dose rate radiation environment based on Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustov, A.; Gussarov, A.; Wuilpart, M.; Fotiadi, A. A.; Liokumovich, L. B.; Kotov, O. I.; Zolotovskiy, I. O.; Tomashuk, A. L.; Deschoutheete, T.; Mégret, P.

    2012-04-01

    On-line monitoring of environmental conditions in nuclear facilities is becoming a more and more important problem. Standard electronic sensors are not the ideal solution due to radiation sensitivity and difficulties in installation of multiple sensors. In contrast, radiation-hard optical fibres can sustain very high radiation doses and also naturally offer multi-point or distributed monitoring of external perturbations. Multiple local electro-mechanical sensors can be replaced by just one measuring fibre. At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world 1. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components can threaten plant safety and also plant life. Among those elements, cables are vital components of I&C systems in NPPs. To ensure their safe operation and predict remaining life, environmental monitoring is necessary. In particular, temperature and radiation dose are considered to be the two most important parameters. The aim of this paper is to assess experimentally the feasibility of optical fibre temperature measurements in a low doserate radiation environment, using a commercially available reflectometer based on Rayleigh backscattering. Four different fibres were installed in the Sub-Pile Room of the BR2 Material testing nuclear reactor in Mol, Belgium. This place is man-accessible during the reactor shut-down, allowing easy fibre installation. When the reactor operates, the dose-rates in the room are in a range 0.005-5 Gy/h with temperatures of 40-60 °C, depending on the location. Such a surrounding is not much different to some "hot" environments in NPPs, where I&C cables are located.

  10. Design and implementation of a film dosimetry audit tool for comparison of planned and delivered dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Antony L.; Lee, Chris; Ratcliffe, Ailsa J.; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A novel phantom is presented for ‘full system’ dosimetric audit comparing planned and delivered dose distributions in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy, using clinical treatment applicators. The brachytherapy applicator dosimetry test object consists of a near full-scatter water tank with applicator and film supports constructed of Solid Water, accommodating any typical cervix applicator. Film dosimeters are precisely held in four orthogonal planes bisecting the intrauterine tube, sampling dose distributions in the high risk clinical target volume, points A and B, bladder, rectum and sigmoid. The applicator position is fixed prior to CT scanning and through treatment planning and irradiation. The CT data is acquired with the applicator in a near clinical orientation to include applicator reconstruction in the system test. Gamma analysis is used to compare treatment planning system exported RTDose grid with measured multi-channel film dose maps. Results from two pilot audits are presented, using Ir-192 and Co-60 HDR sources, with a mean gamma passing rate of 98.6% using criteria of 3% local normalization and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). The mean DTA between prescribed dose and measured film dose at point A was 1.2 mm. The phantom was funded by IPEM and will be used for a UK national brachytherapy dosimetry audit.

  11. The dose distribution of low dose rate Cs-137 in intracavitary brachytherapy: comparison of Monte Carlo simulation, treatment planning calculation and polymer gel measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, M.; Love, P. A.; Verhaegen, F.; Nalder, C.; Bidmead, A. M.; Leach, M.; Webb, S.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the dose distribution delivered by low dose rate Cs-137 brachytherapy sources was investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques and polymer gel dosimetry. The results obtained were compared with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The 20 mm and the 30 mm diameter Selectron vaginal applicator set (Nucletron) were used for this study. A homogeneous and a heterogeneous—with an air cavity—polymer gel phantom was used to measure the dose distribution from these sources. The same geometrical set-up was used for the MC calculations. Beyond the applicator tip, differences in dose as large as 20% were found between the MC and TPS. This is attributed to the presence of stainless steel in the applicator and source set, which are not considered by the TPS calculations. Beyond the air cavity, differences in dose of around 5% were noted, due to the TPS assuming a homogeneous water medium. The polymer gel results were in good agreement with the MC calculations for all the cases investigated.

  12. Design and implementation of a film dosimetry audit tool for comparison of planned and delivered dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony L; Lee, Chris; Ratcliffe, Ailsa J; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2013-10-07

    A novel phantom is presented for 'full system' dosimetric audit comparing planned and delivered dose distributions in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy, using clinical treatment applicators. The brachytherapy applicator dosimetry test object consists of a near full-scatter water tank with applicator and film supports constructed of Solid Water, accommodating any typical cervix applicator. Film dosimeters are precisely held in four orthogonal planes bisecting the intrauterine tube, sampling dose distributions in the high risk clinical target volume, points A and B, bladder, rectum and sigmoid. The applicator position is fixed prior to CT scanning and through treatment planning and irradiation. The CT data is acquired with the applicator in a near clinical orientation to include applicator reconstruction in the system test. Gamma analysis is used to compare treatment planning system exported RTDose grid with measured multi-channel film dose maps. Results from two pilot audits are presented, using Ir-192 and Co-60 HDR sources, with a mean gamma passing rate of 98.6% using criteria of 3% local normalization and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). The mean DTA between prescribed dose and measured film dose at point A was 1.2 mm. The phantom was funded by IPEM and will be used for a UK national brachytherapy dosimetry audit.

  13. Detector-specific correction factors in radiosurgery beams and their impact on dose distribution calculations.

    PubMed

    García-Garduño, Olivia A; Rodríguez-Ávila, Manuel A; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M

    2018-01-01

    Silicon-diode-based detectors are commonly used for the dosimetry of small radiotherapy beams due to their relatively small volumes and high sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, silicon-diode-based detectors tend to over-respond in small fields because of their high density relative to water. For that reason, detector-specific beam correction factors ([Formula: see text]) have been recommended not only to correct the total scatter factors but also to correct the tissue maximum and off-axis ratios. However, the application of [Formula: see text] to in-depth and off-axis locations has not been studied. The goal of this work is to address the impact of the correction factors on the calculated dose distribution in static non-conventional photon beams (specifically, in stereotactic radiosurgery with circular collimators). To achieve this goal, the total scatter factors, tissue maximum, and off-axis ratios were measured with a stereotactic field diode for 4.0-, 10.0-, and 20.0-mm circular collimators. The irradiation was performed with a Novalis® linear accelerator using a 6-MV photon beam. The detector-specific correction factors were calculated and applied to the experimental dosimetry data for in-depth and off-axis locations. The corrected and uncorrected dosimetry data were used to commission a treatment planning system for radiosurgery planning. Various plans were calculated with simulated lesions using the uncorrected and corrected dosimetry. The resulting dose calculations were compared using the gamma index test with several criteria. The results of this work presented important conclusions for the use of detector-specific beam correction factors ([Formula: see text] in a treatment planning system. The use of [Formula: see text] for total scatter factors has an important impact on monitor unit calculation. On the contrary, the use of [Formula: see text] for tissue-maximum and off-axis ratios has not an important impact on the dose distribution

  14. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose‐weighted correction method for LET effects

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth‐dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high‐bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L‐shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth‐dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth‐output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose‐weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L‐shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors. PACS number: 87.56.‐v

  16. Dose perturbations due to in vivo dosimetry with diodes.

    PubMed

    Alecu, R; Feldmeier, J J; Alecu, M

    1997-03-01

    In vivo dosimetry performed with semiconductor detectors is a reliable method for patient dose control. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perturbations introduced in the patient's absorbed dose distribution by three types of commercially available diodes (Isorad, Sun Nuclear Corp.; model 114200, 114300 and 114400) from the same company and to present possible solutions for minimizing this side-effect.

  17. Development of a novel low-radiation-absorbent lok-bar to reduce X-ray scattering and absorption in RapidArc® treatment planning and dose delivery.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Hajime; Kubo, Kazuki; Tamura, Mikoto; Hayakawa, Masaru; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2017-05-01

    We developed a novel low-radiation-absorbent lok-bar (HM-bar) that is used to secure the immobilizers to the couch. The aim of this study was to investigate the X-ray scattering and absorption properties of the HM-bar in computed tomography (CT) simulation and radiotherapy dose delivery using the Varian Exact™ lok-bar (VL-bar) as a benchmark. CT images were obtained with or without lok-bar, and then each image was visually evaluated for artifacts. The attenuation rates for each lok-bar were measured using a farmer-type ionization chamber (PTW30013) and the I'mRT phantom (IBA Dosimetry GmbH). Measurement points were between gantry angles of 110 and 180°. The treatment apparatus was a NovalisTx (Brainlab AG); X-ray energies were set at 6 MV and 10 MV. In the presence of each lok-bar, the radiation dose was measured in accordance with 10 volumetric modulated arc therapy-stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT) plans for lung cancer. Artifacts were seldom observed in the CT scans of the HM-bar. The attenuation rate of each lok-bar was higher when the X-ray energy was set at 6 MV than at 10 MV. The highest attenuation rate in the VL-bar was observed at a gantry angle of 112°; the rates were 22.4% at 6 MV and 19.3% at 10 MV. Similarly, the highest attenuation rate for the HM-bar was also observed at a gantry angle of 112°; the rates were 12.2% and 10.1% at 6 MV and 10 MV, respectively. When the VL-bar was evaluated, the isocenter dose of the VMAT-SBRT plans was attenuated by 2.6% as a maximum case. In the case of the HM-bar, the maximum attenuation was 1.4%. In the measurements of each VMAT-SBRT plan, the difference of the dose attenuation rate between the VL-bar and HM-bar was approximately 1%. The HM-bar could be used to minimize the occurrence of artifacts and provide good images in CT scans regarding radiotherapy planning and dose calculation. It can be used for patient therapy at hospitals to provide accurate dose delivery because of its low X

  18. Accumulation of radiation defects and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles with silicon dioxide additions under action of high absorbed doses and high temperature in air and inert atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, A.; Supe, A.; Kizane, G.; Knitter, R.; Baumane, L.

    2012-10-01

    One of the technological problems of a fusion reactor is the change in composition and structure of ceramic breeders (Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles) during long-term operation. In this study changes in the composition and microstructure of Li4SiO4 pebbles with 2.5 wt% silicon dioxide additions, fabricated by a melt-spraying process, were investigated after fast electron irradiation (E = 5 MeV, dose rate up to 88 MGy h-1) with high absorbed dose from 1.3 to 10.6 GGy at high temperature (543-573 K) in air and argon atmosphere. Three types of pebbles with different diameters and grain s