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Sample records for absorbed doses measured

  1. Real-time measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, Sergey; Korenev, Ivan; Rumega, Stanislav; Grossman, Leon

    2004-09-01

    The real-time method and system for measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for industrial and research electron accelerators is considered in the report. The system was created on the basis of beam parameters method. The main concept of this method consists in the measurement of dissipated kinetic energy of electrons in the irradiated product, determination of number of electrons and mass of irradiated product in the same cell by following calculation of absorbed dose in the cell. The manual and automation systems for dose measurements are described. The systems are acceptable for all types of electron accelerators.

  2. Measurement of Absorbed Dose from Radionuclide Solutions Mixed Intimately with the Fbx Dosimeter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Anthony Richard

    Chemical dosimeters are used widely for accurate measurement of large radiation doses due to external beam irradiation from radioisotope sources and from particle accelerators. Their use for measurement of absorbed doses from radioactive solutions mixed in the dosimeter solution was reported as early as 1952, but the large activities needed to produce suitable absorbance values in the relatively insensitive dosimeters of that time discouraged further work. This manuscript reports the results of an investigation into the suitability of the ferrous sulfate-benzoic acid -xylenol orange (FBX) dosimeter for measurement of small absorbed doses caused by radionuclide solutions dissolved in the dosimeter solution. The FBX dosimeter exhibited a linear dose response as a function of activity for two common radiopharmaceuticals, technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate and iodine-131 sodium iodide. Conditions under which the FBX dosimeter may be used with radionuclide solutions were studied and were found to be amenable to routine use by laboratories possessing relatively unsophisticated instrumentation. It appears likely that any radionuclide could be studied using this dosimeter. Finally, potential applications and future research work are suggested, including measurement of absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals using realistic human-like phantoms to assess the risk from clinical nuclear medicine studies.

  3. Study of Fricke-gel dosimeter calibration for attaining precise measurements of the absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Liosi, Giulia Maria; Benedini, Sara; Giacobbo, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    A method has been studied for attaining, with good precision, absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose by means of the Fricke gelatin Xylenol Orange dosimetric system. With this aim, the dose response to subsequent irradiations was analyzed. In fact, the proposed modality is based on a pre-irradiation of each single dosimeter in a uniform field with a known dose, in order to extrapolate a calibration image for a subsequent non-uniform irradiation with an un-known dose to be measured. (authors)

  4. Measurement of absorbed dose during the phantom torso experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semones, E.; Gibbons, F.; Golightly, M.; Weyland, M.; Johnson, A.; Smith, G.; Shelfer, T.; Zapp, N.

    The Phantom Torso Experiment (PTE) was flown on the International Space Station (ISS) during Increment 2 (April-August 2001). The experiment was located in the US Lab module Human Research Facility (HRF) rack. The objective of the passive dosimetry portion of the experiment was to measure spatial distributions of absorbed dose in the 34, 1 inch sections of a modified RandoTM phantom. In each section of the phantom, thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were placed at various locations (depths) to provide the spatial measurement. TLDs were also located at several radiosensitive organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) and two locations on the surface (skin). Active silicon detectors were also placed at these organ locations to provide time resolved results of the absorbed dose rates. Using these detectors, it is possible to separate the trapped and galactic cosmic ray components of the absorbed dose. The TLD results of the spatial and organ dose measurements will be presented and comparisons of the TLD and silicon detector organ absorbed doses will be made.

  5. Absorbed dose measurement in low temperature samples:. comparative methods using simulated material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ruth; Harris, Anthony; Winters, Martell; Howard, Betty; Mellor, Paul; Patil, Deepak; Meiner, Jason

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing need to reliably measure absorbed dose in low temperature samples, especially in the pharmaceutical and tissue banking industries. All dosimetry systems commonly used in the irradiation industry are temperature sensitive. Radiation of low temperature samples, such as those packaged with dry ice, must therefore take these dosimeter temperature effects into consideration. This paper will suggest a method to accurately deliver an absorbed radiation dose using dosimetry techniques designed to abrogate the skewing effects of low temperature environments on existing dosimetry systems.

  6. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high‐energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, John Pichy; Amri, Iqbal Al; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue‐equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available ‘microdiamond’ detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1 mm, thickness 1×10−3mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ±0.17% (1 SD) (n=11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stopping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long‐term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro‐dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PACS number(s): 87.56.Da PMID:27074452

  7. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  8. Measurement of absorbed dose with a bone-equivalent extrapolation chamber.

    PubMed

    DeBlois, François; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2002-03-01

    A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absorbed dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain absorbed dose in bone for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC by 0.7% to approximately 2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). In conjunction with appropriate correction factors determined with Monte Carlo techniques, the uncalibrated hybrid PEEC can be used for measuring absorbed dose in bone material to within 2% for high-energy photon and electron beams.

  9. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study.

  10. Absorbed dose measurements on external surface of Kosmos-satellites with glass thermoluminescent detectors.

    PubMed

    Akatov YuA; Arkhangelsky, V V; Kovalev, E E; Spurny, F; Votochkova, I

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present absorbed dose measurements with glass thermoluminescent detectors on external surface of satellites of Kosmos-serie flying in 1983-87. Experiments were performed with thermoluminescent aluminophosphate glasses of thicknesses 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1 mm. They were exposed in sets of total thickness between 5 and 20 mm, which were protected against sunlight with thin aluminized foils. In all missions, extremely high absorbed dose values were observed in the first layers of detectors, up to the thickness of 0.2 to 0.5 gcm-2. These experimental results confirm that, during flights at 250 to 400 km, doses on the surface of the satellites are very high, due to the low energy component of the proton and electron radiation.

  11. A Comparison of Model Calculation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose for Proton Irradiation. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, N.; Semones, E.; Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.

    2003-01-01

    With the increase in the amount of time spent EVA that is necessary to complete the construction and subsequent maintenance of ISS, it will become increasingly important for ground support personnel to accurately characterize the radiation exposures incurred by EVA crewmembers. Since exposure measurements cannot be taken within the organs of interest, it is necessary to estimate these exposures by calculation. To validate the methods and tools used to develop these estimates, it is necessary to model experiments performed in a controlled environment. This work is such an effort. A human phantom was outfitted with detector equipment and then placed in American EMU and Orlan-M EVA space suits. The suited phantom was irradiated at the LLUPTF with proton beams of known energies. Absorbed dose measurements were made by the spaceflight operational dosimetrist from JSC at multiple sites in the skin, eye, brain, stomach, and small intestine locations in the phantom. These exposures are then modeled using the BRYNTRN radiation transport code developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, and the CAM (computerized anatomical male) human geometry model of Billings and Yucker. Comparisons of absorbed dose calculations with measurements show excellent agreement. This suggests that there is reason to be confident in the ability of both the transport code and the human body model to estimate proton exposure in ground-based laboratory experiments.

  12. Interferometer-Based Calorimetric Measurements of Absorbed Dose to Water in External Beam Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Martinez, Everardo

    Calorimetry is often used to establish high-energy photon absorbed dose to water (ADW) primary standards as calorimetry is a direct measurement of the energy imparted to the water by ionizing radiation. Current calorimeters use thermistors to establish national standards but there is the possibility of systematic errors in these instruments because thermistors overheat due to their low heat capacity. For this reason, there has been renewed interest in using alternative temperature measurement techniques, especially those that do not require a mechanical probe. Interferometer-based thermometry is a technique that exploits the temperature dependence of the refractive index of water and can be used as an alternative method for temperature measurement in radiation calorimetry. A distinctive advantage of the use of interferometry for radiation calorimetry is the capability of obtaining 2D or 3D temperature/dose distributions. Compared to thermistor-based measurements, the use of interferometer-based ADW measurements has been limited by the low measurement resolution. Optimized setups with higher accuracy and precision are necessary to perform measurements at clinically relevant dose rates. A calorimeter for thermistor-based ADW measurements was developed. The instrument was used to measure thermal drifts and noise were measured using the instrument in a water phantom. Residual thermal drifts were accounted for by using a three-step measurement protocol. Additionally, the instrument was used to measure ADW from a 6MV photon beam from a medical linear accelerator. A Michelson-type interferometer was built, characterized, and placed inside the calorimeter with the water phantom at the reference arm. Interferometer and phantom temperature fluctuations were minimized by means of the passive thermal control provide by the calorimeter enclosure, leading to increased fringe pattern stability. The interferometer characterization included phase shift measurements induced by

  13. MO-AB-BRA-03: Calorimetry-Based Absorbed Dose to Water Measurements Using Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Martinez, E; Malin, M; DeWerd, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interferometry-based calorimetry is a novel technique to measure radiation-induced temperature changes allowing the measurement of absorbed dose to water (ADW). There are no mechanical components in the field. This technique also has the possibility of obtaining 2D dose distributions. The goal of this investigation is to calorimetrically-measure doses between 2.5 and 5 Gy over a single projection in a photon beam using interferometry and compare the results with doses calculated using the TG-51 linac calibration. Methods: ADW was determined by measuring radiation-induced phase shifts (PSs) of light passing through water irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam. A 9×9×9more » cm{sup 3} glass phantom filled with water and placed in an arm of a Michelson interferometer was irradiated with 300, 400, 500 and 600 monitor units. The whole system was thermally insulated to achieve sufficient passive temperature control. The depth of measurement was 4.5 cm with a field size of 7×7 cm{sup 2}. The intensity of the fringe pattern was monitored with a photodiode and used to calculate the time-dependent PS curve. Data was acquired 60 s before and after the irradiation. The radiation-induced PS was calculated by taking the difference in the pre- and post-irradiation drifts extrapolated to the midpoint of the irradiation. Results were compared to computed doses. Results: Average comparison of calculated ADW values with interferometry-measured values showed an agreement to within 9.5%. k=1 uncertainties were 4.3% for calculations and 14.7% for measurements. The dominant source of uncertainty for the measurements was a temperature drift of about 30 µK/s caused by heat conduction from the interferometer’s surroundings. Conclusion: This work presented the first absolute ADW measurements using interferometry in the dose range of linac-based radiotherapy. Future work to improve measurements’ reproducibility includes the implementation of active thermal control techniques.« less

  14. A mathematical model for calculation of 90Sr absorbed dose in dental tissues: elaboration and comparison to EPR measurements.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Lyubashevskii, N M; Tolstykh, E I; Ignatiev, E A; Betenekova, T A; Nikiforov, S V

    2001-09-01

    A mathematical model for calculation of the 90Sr absorbed doses in dental tissues is presented. The results of the Monte-Carlo calculations are compared to the data obtained by EPR measurements of dental tissues. Radiometric measurements of the 90Sr concentrations. TLD and EPR dosimetry investigations were performed in animal (dog) study. The importance of the irregular 90Sr distribution in the dentine for absorbed dose formation has been shown. The dominant dose formation factors (main source-tissues) were identified for the crown dentine and enamel. The model has shown agreement with experimental data which allows to determine further directions of the human tooth model development.

  15. SU-F-T-175: Absorbed Dose Measurement Using Radiophotoluminescent Glass Dosimeter in Therapeutic Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W; National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba; Koba, Y

    Purpose: To measure the absorbed dose to water Dw in therapeutic proton beam with radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RGD), a methodology was proposed. In this methodology, the correction factor for the LET dependence of radiophotoluminescent (RPL) efficiency and the variation of mass stopping power ratio of water to RGD (SPRw, RGD) were adopted. The feasibility of proposed method was evaluated in this report. Methods: The calibration coefficient in terms of Dw for RGDs (GD-302M, Asahi Techno Glass) was obtained using 60Co beam. The SPRw, RGD was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4. The LET dependence of RPL efficiency was investigatedmore » experimentally by using a 70 MeV proton beam at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. For clinical usage, the residual range Rres was used as a quality index to determine the correction factor for RPL efficiency. The proposed method was evaluated by measuring Dw at difference depth in the 200 MeV proton beam. Results: For both modulated and non-modulated proton beam, the SPRw, RGD increases more than 3 % where Rres are less than 1 cm. RPL efficiency decreases with increasing LET and it reaches 0.6 at LET of 10 keV µm{sup −1}. Dw measured by RGD (Dw, RGD) shows good agreement with that measured by ionization chamber (Dw, IC) and the relative difference between Dw, RGD and Dw, IC are within 3 % where Rres is larger than 1 cm. Conclusion: In this work, a methodology for using RGD in proton dosimetry was proposed and the SPRw, RGD and the LET dependence of RPL efficiency in therapeutic proton beam was investigated. The results revealed that the proposed method is useful for RGD in the dosimetry of proton beams.« less

  16. Estimation of absorbed doses from paediatric cone-beam CT scans: MOSFET measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangroh; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Toncheva, Greta; Frush, Donald P; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a dose estimation tool with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. A 5-y-old paediatric anthropomorphic phantom was computed tomography (CT) scanned to create a voxelised phantom and used as an input for the abdominal cone-beam CT in a BEAMnrc/EGSnrc MC system. An X-ray tube model of the Varian On-Board Imager((R)) was built in the MC system. To validate the model, the absorbed doses at each organ location for standard-dose and low-dose modes were measured in the physical phantom with MOSFET detectors; effective doses were also calculated. In the results, the MC simulations were comparable to the MOSFET measurements. This voxelised phantom approach could produce a more accurate dose estimation than the stylised phantom method. This model can be easily applied to multi-detector CT dosimetry.

  17. Absorbed dose measurements for kV-cone beam computed tomography in image-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Kazunari; Araki, Fujio; Ohno, Takeshi; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Yuuki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we develope a novel method to directly evaluate an absorbed dose-to-water for kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Absorbed doses for the kV-CBCT systems of the Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) and the Elekta X-ray Volumetric Imager (XVI) were measured by a Farmer ionization chamber with a 60Co calibration factor. The chamber measurements were performed at the center and four peripheral points in body-type (30 cm diameter and 51 cm length) and head-type (16 cm diameter and 33 cm length) cylindrical water phantoms. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water by using a 60Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for 60Co to kV-CBCT. The irradiation for OBI and XVI was performed with pelvis and head modes for the body- and the head-type phantoms, respectively. In addition, the dose distributions in the phantom for both kV-CBCT systems were calculated with MC method and were compared with measured values. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated at the center in the water phantom and compared with measured doses at four peripheral points. The measured absorbed doses at the center in the body-type phantom were 1.96 cGy for OBI and 0.83 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 2.36-2.90 cGy for OBI and 0.83-1.06 cGy for XVI. The doses for XVI were lower up to approximately one-third of those for OBI. Similarly, the measured doses at the center in the head-type phantom were 0.48 cGy for OBI and 0.21 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 0.26-0.66 cGy for OBI and 0.16-0.30 cGy for XVI. The calculated peripheral doses agreed within 3% in the pelvis mode and within 4% in the head mode with measured doses for both kV-CBCT systems. In addition, the absorbed dose determined in this study was approximately 4% lower than that in TG-61 but the absorbed dose by both methods was in agreement within their combined

  18. Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79 ± 1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.15 ± 0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

  19. Review of reconstruction of radiation incident air kerma by measurement of absorbed dose in tooth enamel with EPR.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel has been proved to be a reliable method to determine retrospectively exposures from photon fields with minimal detectable doses of 100 mGy or lower, which is lower than achievable with cytogenetic dose reconstruction methods. For risk assessment or validating dosimetry systems for specific radiation incidents, the relevant dose from the incident has to be calculated from the total absorbed dose in enamel by subtracting additional dose contributions from the radionuclide content in teeth, natural external background radiation and medical exposures. For calculating organ doses or evaluating dosimetry systems the absorbed dose in enamel from a radiation incident has to be converted to air kerma using dose conversion factors depending on the photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure scenario. This paper outlines the approach to assess individual dose contributions to absorbed dose in enamel and calculate individual air kerma of a radiation incident from the absorbed dose in tooth enamel.

  20. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  1. On the definition of absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  2. Absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement one to three days after the administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE/-TOC.

    PubMed

    Hänscheid, Heribert; Lapa, Constantin; Buck, Andreas K; Lassmann, Michael; Werner, Rudolf A

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the accuracy of absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement of the activity concentrations in tumors and relevant organs one to three days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/TOC assuming tissue specific effective half-lives. Activity kinetics in 54 kidneys, 30 neuroendocrine tumor lesions, 25 livers, and 27 spleens were deduced from series of planar images in 29 patients. After adaptation of mono- or bi-exponential fit functions to the measured data, it was analyzed for each fit function how precise the time integral can be estimated from fixed tissue-specific half-lives and a single measurement at 24, 48, or 72 h after the administration. For the kidneys, assuming a fixed tissue-specific half-life of 50 h, the deviations of the estimate from the actual integral were median (5 % percentile, 95 % percentile): -3 °% (-15 %>; +16 °%) for measurements after 24 h, +2 %> (-9 %>; +12 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and 0 % (-2 %; +12 %) for measurements after 72 h. The corresponding values for the other tissues, assuming fixed tissue-specific half-lives of 67 h for liver and spleen and 77 h for tumors, were +2 % (-25 %; +20 %) for measurements after 24 h, +2 °% (-16 %>; +17 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and +2 %> (-11 %>; +10 %>) for measurements after 72 h. Especially for the kidneys, which often represent the dose limiting organ, but also for liver, spleen, and neuroendocrine tumors, a meaningful absorbed dose estimate is possible from a single measurement after 2, more preferably 3 days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/-TOC assuming fixed tissue specific effective half-lives. Schattauer GmbH.

  3. Considerations on the calibration of small thermoluminescent dosimeters used for measurement of beta particle absorbed doses in liquid environments.

    PubMed

    Demidecki, A J; Williams, L E; Wong, J Y; Wessels, B W; Yorke, E D; Strandh, M; Strand, S E

    1993-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out on the factors which affect the absolute calibration of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) used in beta particle absorbed dose evaluations. Four effects on light output (LO) were considered: decay of detector sensitivity with time, finite TLD volume, dose linearity, and energy dependence. Most important of these was the decay of LO with time in culture medium, muscle tissue, and gels. This permanent loss of sensitivity was as large as an order of magnitude over a 21-day interval for the nominally 20-microns-thick disc-shaped CaSO4(Dy) TLDs in gel. Associated leaching of the dosimeter crystals out of the Teflon matrix was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Large channels leading from the outside environment into the TLDs were identified using SEM images. A possibility of batch dependence of fading was indicated. The second most important effect was the apparent reduction of light output due to finite size and increased specific gravity of the dosimeter (volume effect). We estimated this term by calculations as 10% in standard "mini" rods for beta particles from 90Y, but nearly a factor of 3 for 131I beta particles in the same geometry. No significant nonlinearity of the log (light output) with log (absorbed dose) over the range 0.05-20.00 Gy was discovered. Energy dependence of the LO was found to be not detectable, within measurement errors, over the range of 0.60-6.0 MeV mean energy electrons. With careful understanding of these effects, calibration via gel phantom would appear to be an acceptable strategy for mini TLDs used in beta absorbed dose evaluations in media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Accuracy and optimal timing of activity measurements in estimating the absorbed dose of radioiodine in the treatment of Graves' disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, S.; Horowitz, J.; Traino, A. C.; Chipkin, S. R.; Hollot, C. V.; Chait, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Calculation of the therapeutic activity of radioiodine 131I for individualized dosimetry in the treatment of Graves' disease requires an accurate estimate of the thyroid absorbed radiation dose based on a tracer activity administration of 131I. Common approaches (Marinelli-Quimby formula, MIRD algorithm) use, respectively, the effective half-life of radioiodine in the thyroid and the time-integrated activity. Many physicians perform one, two, or at most three tracer dose activity measurements at various times and calculate the required therapeutic activity by ad hoc methods. In this paper, we study the accuracy of estimates of four 'target variables': time-integrated activity coefficient, time of maximum activity, maximum activity, and effective half-life in the gland. Clinical data from 41 patients who underwent 131I therapy for Graves' disease at the University Hospital in Pisa, Italy, are used for analysis. The radioiodine kinetics are described using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. The distributions of the target variables in the patient population are characterized. Using minimum root mean squared error as the criterion, optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules are determined for estimation of the target variables, and probabilistic bounds are given for the errors under the optimal times. An algorithm is developed for computing the optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules for the target variables. This algorithm is implemented in a freely available software tool. Taking into consideration 131I effective half-life in the thyroid and measurement noise, the optimal 1-point time for time-integrated activity coefficient is a measurement 1 week following the tracer dose. Additional measurements give only a slight improvement in accuracy.

  5. Simulation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose from 137 Cs Gammas Using a Si Timepix Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Empl, Anton; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The TimePix readout chip is a hybrid pixel detector with over 65k independent pixel elements. Each pixel contains its own circuitry for charge collection, counting logic, and readout. When coupled with a Silicon detector layer, the Timepix chip is capable of measuring the charge, and thus energy, deposited in the Silicon. Measurements using a NIST traceable 137Cs gamma source have been made at Johnson Space Center using such a Si Timepix detector, and this data is compared to simulations of energy deposition in the Si layer carried out using FLUKA.

  6. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  7. Ion chamber absorbed dose calibration coefficients, N{sub D,w}, measured at ADCLs: Distribution analysis and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To analyze absorbed dose calibration coefficients, N{sub D,w}, measured at accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories (ADCLs) for client ionization chambers to study (i) variability among N{sub D,w} coefficients for chambers of the same type calibrated at each ADCL to investigate ion chamber volume fluctuations and chamber manufacturing tolerances; (ii) equivalency of ion chamber calibration coefficients measured at different ADCLs by intercomparing N{sub D,w} coefficients for chambers of the same type; and (iii) the long-term stability of N{sub D,w} coefficients for different chamber types by investigating repeated chamber calibrations. Methods: Large samples of N{sub D,w} coefficients for several chamber types measuredmore » over the time period between 1998 and 2014 were obtained from the three ADCLs operating in the United States. These are analyzed using various graphical and numerical statistical tests for the four chamber types with the largest samples of calibration coefficients to investigate (i) and (ii) above. Ratios of calibration coefficients for the same chamber, typically obtained two years apart, are calculated to investigate (iii) above and chambers with standard deviations of old/new ratios less than 0.3% meet stability requirements for accurate reference dosimetry recommended in dosimetry protocols. Results: It is found that N{sub D,w} coefficients for a given chamber type compared among different ADCLs may arise from differing probability distributions potentially due to slight differences in calibration procedures and/or the transfer of the primary standard. However, average N{sub D,w} coefficients from different ADCLs for given chamber types are very close with percent differences generally less than 0.2% for Farmer-type chambers and are well within reported uncertainties. Conclusions: The close agreement among calibrations performed at different ADCLs reaffirms the Calibration Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee process of

  8. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  9. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  10. PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with TLDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Sihver, Lembit; Kartashov, Dmitry; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Tolochek, Raisa

    2013-12-01

    "Protective curtain" was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose - reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors.

  11. [Absorbed doses to critical organs from full mouth dental radiography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Yasuhiko, O; Hidegiko, Y

    1999-01-01

    A few studies were reported in China on radiological risk of dental radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the absorbed doses of patients from the full mouth radiographs, and to find out the contribution from each projection to the total absorbed dose of the organs. Absorbed doses to critical organs were measured from 14-film complete dental radiography. The organs included pituitary, optical lens, parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands, thyroid, breasts, ovary, testes and the skin in center field of each projection were studied. A-radiation analog dosimetry system (RANDO) phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters (ILD200) was used for the study. All of the exposure parameters were fixed. The total filtration was 2 mm Al equivalent. The column collaboration was 6 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. The absorbed doses of organs were measured three times in each projection of the full-mouth series (FMS) exposures. The absorbed dose of lenses in FMS (249 microGy) in present study was much less (10%) than the doses (2,630 microGy) reported in 1976. The doses absorbed of other organs in the present study were thyroid gland (125 microGy), pituitary gland (112 microGy), parotid gland (153 microGy), submandibular gland (629 microGy), sublingual gland (1,900 microGy), and breast gland (12 microGy). The doses of the ovary and testis were to small to further analysis. All of the results show that the radiation risk to patients in intraoral radiograph has been reduced significantly. In the pituitary, half of the dose is from both sides of the maxillary molar projection. For the lenses, the largest contribultions of radiation (60%) come from the ipsilateral molar and premolar projection of maxilla. In parotid gland, up to 57% of the dose is from the contralateral molar, pre-molar and canine of maxilla. It could be derived that about 90% of the absorbed doses could be avoided in FMS if the column collimator is 20 cm long and the filter is 2.0 mm thick

  12. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  13. Calibration of GafChromic EBT3 for absorbed dose measurements in 5 MeV proton beam and (60)Co γ-rays.

    PubMed

    Vadrucci, M; Esposito, G; Ronsivalle, C; Cherubini, R; Marracino, F; Montereali, R M; Picardi, L; Piccinini, M; Pimpinella, M; Vincenti, M A; De Angelis, C

    2015-08-01

    To study EBT3 GafChromic film in low-energy protons, and for comparison purposes, in a reference (60)Co beam in order to use it as a calibrated dosimetry system in the proton irradiation facility under construction within the framework of the Oncological Therapy with Protons (TOP)-Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy (IMPLART) Project at ENEA-Frascati, Italy. EBT3 film samples were irradiated at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, with a 5 MeV proton beam generated by a 7 MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator. The nominal dose rates used were 2.1 Gy/min and 40 Gy/min. The delivered dose was determined by measuring the particle fluence and the energy spectrum in air with silicon surface barrier detector monitors. A preliminary study of the EBT3 film beam quality dependence in low-energy protons was conducted by passively degrading the beam energy. EBT3 films were also irradiated at ENEA-National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology with gamma radiation produced by a (60)Co source characterized by an absorbed dose to water rate of 0.26 Gy/min as measured by a calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber. EBT3 film calibration curves were determined by means of a set of 40 film pieces irradiated to various doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 30 Gy absorbed dose to water. An EPSON Expression 11000XL color scanner in transmission mode was used for film analysis. Scanner response stability, intrafilm uniformity, and interfilm reproducibility were verified. Optical absorption spectra measurements were performed on unirradiated and irradiated EBT3 films to choose the most sensitive color channel to the dose range used. EBT3 GafChromic films show an under response up to about 33% for low-energy protons with respect to (60)Co gamma radiation, which is consistent with the linear energy transfer dependence already observed with higher energy protons, and a negligible dose-rate dependence in the 2-40 Gy/min range

  14. Estimation of organ cumulated activities and absorbed doses on intakes of several 11C labelled radiopharmaceuticals from external measurement with thermoluminescent dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Hayashi, Y; Watabe, H; Matsumoto, M; Horikawa, T; Fujiwara, T; Ito, M; Yanai, K

    1998-02-01

    We have developed a method for obtaining the cumulated activities in organs from radionuclides, which are injected into the patient in nuclear medicine procedures, by external exposure measurement with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) which are attached to the patient's body surface close to source organs to obtain information on body-surface doses. As the surface dose is connected to the cumulated activities in source organs through radiation transmission in the human body which can be estimated with the aid of a mathematical phantom, the organ cumulated activities can be obtained by the inverse transform method. The accuracy of this method was investigated by using a water phantom in which several gamma-ray volume sources of known activity were placed to simulate source organs. We then estimated by external measurements the organ cumulated activities and absorbed doses in subjects to whom the radiopharmaceuticals 11C-labelled Doxepin, 11C-labelled YM09151-2 and 11C-labelled Benzotropin were administered in clinical nuclear medicine procedures. The cumulated activities in the brain obtained with TLDs for Doxepin and YM09151-2 are 63.6 +/- 6.2 and 32.1 +/- 12.0 kBq h MBq-1 respectively, which are compared with the respective values of 33.3 +/- 9.9 and 23.9 +/- 6.2 kBq h MBq-1 with direct PET (positron emission tomography) measurements. The agreement between the two methods is within a factor of two. The effective doses of Doxepin, YM09151-2 and Benzotropin are determined as 6.92 x 10(-3), 7.08 x 10(-3) and 7.65 x 10(-3) mSv MBq-1 respectively with the TLD method. This method has great advantages, in that cumulated activities in several organs can be obtained easily with a single procedure, and the measurements of body surface doses are performed simultaneously with the nuclear medicine procedure, as TLDs are too small to interfere with other medical measurements.

  15. Uncertainty analysis of absorbed dose calculations from thermoluminescence dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Kirby, T H; Hanson, W F; Johnston, D A

    1992-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) are widely used to verify absorbed doses delivered from radiation therapy beams. Specifically, they are used by the Radiological Physics Center for mailed dosimetry for verification of therapy machine output. The effects of the random experimental uncertainties of various factors on dose calculations from TLD signals are examined, including: fading, dose response nonlinearity, and energy response corrections; reproducibility of TL signal measurements and TLD reader calibration. Individual uncertainties are combined to estimate the total uncertainty due to random fluctuations. The Radiological Physics Center's (RPC) mail out TLD system, utilizing throwaway LiF powder to monitor high-energy photon and electron beam outputs, is analyzed in detail. The technique may also be applicable to other TLD systems. It is shown that statements of +/- 2% dose uncertainty and +/- 5% action criterion for TLD dosimetry are reasonable when related to uncertainties in the dose calculations, provided the standard deviation (s.d.) of TL readings is 1.5% or better.

  16. TH-CD-201-09: High Spatial Resolution Absorbed Dose to Water Measurements Using Optical Calorimetry in Megavoltage External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Martinez, E; DeWerd, L; Radtke, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and implement a high spatial resolution calorimeter methodology to measure absorbed dose to water (ADW) using phase shifts (PSs) of light passing through a water phantom and to compare measurements with theoretical calculations. Methods: Radiation-induced temperature changes were measured using the PSs of a He-Ne laser beam passing through a (10×10×10) cm{sup 3} water phantom. PSs were measured using a Michelson interferometer and recording the time-dependent fringe patterns on a CCD camera. The phantom was positioned at the center of the radiation field. A Varian 21EX was used to deliver 500 MU from a 9 MeV beammore » using a (6×6) cm{sup 2} cone. A 127cm SSD was used and the PSs were measured at depths ranging from of 1.90cm to 2.10cm in steps of 0.05cm by taking profiles at the corresponding rows across the image. PSs were computed by taking the difference between pre- and post-irradiation image frames and then measuring the amplitude of the resulting image profiles. An amplitude-to-PS calibration curve was generated using a piezoelectric transducer to mechanically induce PSs between 0.05 and 1.50 radians in steps of 0.05 radians. The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water at 632.8nm was used to convert PSs to ADW. Measured results were compared with ADW values calculated using the linac output calibration and commissioning data. Results: Milli-radian resolution in PS measurement was achieved using the described methodology. Measured radiation-induced PSs ranged from 0.10 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01 radians at the investigated depths. After converting PSs to ADW, measured and calculated ADW values agreed within the measurement uncertainty. Conclusion: This work shows that interferometer-based calorimetry measurements are capable of achieving sub-millimeter resolution measuring 2D temperature/dose distributions, which are particularly useful for characterizing beams from modalities such as SRS, proton therapy, or microbeams.« less

  17. Radiation dosimetry in cell biology: comparison of calculated and measured absorbed dose for a range of culture vessels and clinical beam qualities.

    PubMed

    Claridge Mackonis, Elizabeth; Hammond, Lauren; Esteves, Ana I S; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2018-02-01

    Cell culture studies are frequently used to evaluate the effects of cancer treatments such as radiotherapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, nanoparticle enhancement, and to determine any synergies between the treatments. To achieve valid results, the absorbed dose of each therapy needs to be well known and controlled. In this study, we aim to determine the uncertainty associated with radiation exposure in different experimental conditions. We have performed an in-depth evaluation of the absorbed dose and dose distribution that would be delivered to a cell sample when cultivated in a number of the more popular designs of culture vessels. We focus on exposure to two beam types: a kilovoltage x-ray beam and a megavoltage photon beam, both of which are routinely used to treat cancer patients in the clinical environment. Our results identify large variations of up to 16% in the absorbed dose across multi-well culture plates, which if ignored in radiobiological experiments, have the potential to lead to erroneous conclusions.

  18. Evaluation of lens absorbed dose with Cone Beam IGRT procedures.

    PubMed

    Palomo, R; Pujades, M C; Gimeno-Olmos, J; Carmona, V; Lliso, F; Candela-Juan, C; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the absorbed dose to the eye lenses due to the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system used to accurately position the patient during head-and-neck image guided procedures. The on-board imaging (OBI) systems (v.1.5) of Clinac iX and TrueBeam (Varian) accelerators were used to evaluate the imparted dose to the eye lenses and some additional points of the head. All CBCT scans were acquired with the Standard-Dose Head protocol from Varian. Doses were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed in an anthropomorphic phantom. TLDs were calibrated at the beam quality used to reduce their energy dependence. Average dose to the lens due to the OBI systems of the Clinac iX and the TrueBeam were 0.71  ±  0.07 mGy/CBCT and 0.70  ±  0.08 mGy/CBCT, respectively. The extra absorbed dose received by the eye lenses due to one CBCT acquisition with the studied protocol is far below the 500 mGy threshold established by ICRP for cataract formation (ICRP 2011 Statement on Tissue Reactions). However, the incremental effect of several CBCT acquisitions during the whole treatment should be taken into account.

  19. The advantages of absorbed-dose calibration factors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D W

    1992-01-01

    A formalism for clinical external beam dosimetry based on use of ion chamber absorbed-dose calibration factors is outlined in the context and notation of the AAPM TG-21 protocol. It is shown that basing clinical dosimetry on absorbed-dose calibration factors ND leads to considerable simplification and reduced uncertainty in dose measurement. In keeping with a protocol which is used in Germany, a quantity kQ is defined which relates an absorbed-dose calibration factor in a beam of quality Q0 to that in a beam of quality Q. For 38 cylindrical ion chambers, two sets of values are presented for ND/NX and Ngas/ND and for kQ for photon beams with beam quality specified by the TPR20(10) ratio. One set is based on TG-21's protocol to allow the new formalism to be used while maintaining equivalence to the TG-21 protocol. To demonstrate the magnitude of the overall error in the TG-21 protocol, the other set uses corrected versions of the TG-21 equations and the more consistent physical data of the IAEA Code of Practice. Comparisons are made to procedures based on air-kerma or exposure calibration factors and it is shown that accuracy and simplicity are gained by avoiding the determination of Ngas from NX. It is also shown that the kQ approach simplifies the use of plastic phantoms in photon beams since kQ values change by less than 0.6% compared to those in water although an overall correction factor of 0.973 is needed to go from absorbed dose in water calibration factors to those in PMMA or polystyrene. Values of kQ calculated using the IAEA Code of Practice are presented but are shown to be anomalous because of the way the effective point of measurement changes for 60Co beams. In photon beams the major difference between the IAEA Code of Practice and the corrected AAPM TG-21 protocol is shown to be the Prepl correction factor. Calculated kQ curves and three parameter equations for them are presented for each wall material and are shown to represent accurately the kQ curve

  20. Abdominal Pediatric Cancer Surveillance using Serial CT: Evaluation of Organ Absorbed Dose and Effective Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Diana; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; McGahan, John P.; Stern, Robin; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used extensively in cancer diagnosis, staging, evaluation of response to treatment, and in active surveillance for cancer reoccurrence. A review of CT technology is provided, at a level of detail appropriate for a busy clinician to review. The basis of x-ray CT dosimetry is also discussed, and concepts of absorbed dose and effective dose are distinguished. Absorbed dose is a physical quantity (measured in milliGray) equal to the x-ray energy deposited in a mass of tissue, whereas effective dose utilizes an organ-specific weighting method which converts organ doses to effective dose measured in milliSieverts. The organ weighting values carry with them a measure of radiation risk, and so effective dose (in mSv) is not a physical dose metric but rather is one that conveys radiation risk. The use of CT in a cancer surveillance protocol was used as an example of a pediatric patient who had kidney cancer, with surgery and radiation therapy. The active use of CT for cancer surveillance along with diagnostic CT scans led to a total of 50 CT scans performed on this child in a 7 year period. It was estimated that the patient received an average organ dose of 431 mGy from these CT scans. By comparison, the radiation therapy was performed and delivered 50.4 Gy to the patient’s abdomen. Thus, the total dose from CT represented only 0.8% of the patients radiation dose. PMID:21362521

  1. Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billas, I.; Shipley, D.; Galer, S.; Bass, G.; Sander, T.; Fenwick, A.; Smyth, V.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the determination of the internal absorbed dose to tissue from an administered radionuclide solution relies on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations based on published nuclear decay data, such as emission probabilities and energies. In order to validate these methods with measurements, it is necessary to achieve the required traceability of the internal absorbed dose measurements of a radionuclide solution to a primary standard of absorbed dose. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable primary standard. A comparison between measurements and calculations of absorbed dose allows the validation of the internal radiation dose assessment methods. The absorbed dose from an yttrium-90 chloride (90YCl) solution was measured with an extrapolation chamber. A phantom was developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the UK’s National Measurement Institute, to position the extrapolation chamber as closely as possible to the surface of the solution. The performance of the extrapolation chamber was characterised and a full uncertainty budget for the absorbed dose determination was obtained. Absorbed dose to air in the collecting volume of the chamber was converted to absorbed dose at the centre of the radionuclide solution by applying a MC calculated correction factor. This allowed a direct comparison of the analytically calculated and experimentally determined absorbed dose of an 90YCl solution. The relative standard uncertainty in the measurement of absorbed dose at the centre of an 90YCl solution with the extrapolation chamber was found to be 1.6% (k  =  1). The calculated 90Y absorbed doses from published medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) and radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) data agreed with measurements to within 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively. This study has shown that it is feasible to use an extrapolation chamber for performing primary standard absorbed dose measurements of an unsealed radionuclide solution. Internal radiation

  2. [Absorbed dose and the effective dose of panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ayae; Okano, Tsuneichi; Gotoh, Kenichi; Yokoi, Midori; Hirukawa, Akiko; Okumura, Shinji; Koyama, Syuji

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the radiation doses absorbed by the patient during Panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography (Panoramic TMJ), Schüllers method and Orbitoramus projection. The dose of the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Orbitoramus projection and the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Schüllers method. We measured the doses received by various organs and calculated the effective doses using the guidelines of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 103. Organ absorbed doses were measured using an anthropomorphic phantom, loaded with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), located at 160 sensitive sites. The dose shows the sum value of irradiation on both the right and left sides. In addition, we set a few different exposure field sizes. The effective dose for a frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was 11 µSv, and that for the lateral view was 14 µSv. The lens of the Orbitoramus projection was 40 times higher than the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ. Although the effective dose of the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was 3 times higher than that of the small exposure field (10×10 cm on film) in Schüller's method, it was the same as that of a mid-sized exposure field. When the exposure field in the inferior 1/3 was reduced during panoramic TMJ, the effective doses could be decreased. Therefore we recommend that the size of the exposure field in Panoramic TMJ be decreased.

  3. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1-1.2·10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m.

  4. Comparison of the calculated absorbed dose using the Cadplan™ treatment planning software and Tld-100 measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom for a bronchogenic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez Castillo, J. G., E-mail: jggc59@hotmail.com; Álvarez Romero, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx; Calderón, A. Torres, E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx

    2014-11-07

    To verify the accuracy of the absorbed doses D calculated by a TPS Cadplan for a bronchogenic treatment (in an Alderson-Rando phantom) are chosen ten points with the following D's and localizations. Point 1, posterior position on the left edge with 136.4 Gy. Points: 2, 3 and 4 in the left lung with 104.9, 104.3 and 105.8 Gy, respectively; points 5 and 6 at the mediastinum with 192.4 and 173.5 Gy; points 7, 8 and 9 in the right lung with 105.8, 104.2 and 104.7 Gy, and 10 at posterior position on right edge with 143.7 Gy. IAEA type capsulesmore » with TLD 100 powder are placed, planned and irradiated. The evaluation of the absorbed dose is carried out a curve of calibration for the LiF response (nC) {sup vs} {sup DW}, to several cavity theories. The traceability for the DW is obtained with a secondary standard calibrated at the NRC (Canada). The dosimetric properties for the materials considered are determined from the Hounsfield numbers reported by the TPS. The stopping power ratios are calculated for nominal spectrum to 6 MV photons. The percent variations among the planned and determined D in all the cases they are < ± 3%.« less

  5. Intercomparison of standards of absorbed dose between the USSR and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlyand, V. A.; Bregadze, J. I.; Burns, J. E.; Dusautoy, A. R.; Sharpe, P. H. G.

    1991-05-01

    A comparison of national standards of absorbed dose was carried out between the All-Union Research Institute for Physical Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), USSR, and the National Physical Laboratotry (NPL), UK (United Kingdom). Absorbed dose to water for cobalt 60 gamma radiation was compared by means of Fricke dosimeters and ionization chambers in 1985 and 1986. The primary standards used to derive absorbed dose to water were cavity ionization chambers at NPL and a graphite calorimeter at VNIIFTRI. The ratio of absorbed dose to water, NPL to VNIIFTRI, using Fricke dosimeters was 1.008; using ionization chambers it was 1.007. This agreement is within the estimated uncertainties of the standards and measurement methods.

  6. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Silva-Sanchez, Angeles; Rivera-Montalvo, Teodoro

    2016-11-01

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is and 15.7 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 37.1 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developability assessment of clinical drug products with maximum absorbable doses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; Rose, John P; Van Gelder, Jan

    2012-05-10

    Maximum absorbable dose refers to the maximum amount of an orally administered drug that can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum absorbable dose, or D(abs), has proved to be an important parameter for quantifying the absorption potential of drug candidates. The purpose of this work is to validate the use of D(abs) in a developability assessment context, and to establish appropriate protocol and interpretation criteria for this application. Three methods for calculating D(abs) were compared by assessing how well the methods predicted the absorption limit for a set of real clinical candidates. D(abs) was calculated for these clinical candidates by means of a simple equation and two computer simulation programs, GastroPlus and an program developed at Eli Lilly and Company. Results from single dose escalation studies in Phase I clinical trials were analyzed to identify the maximum absorbable doses for these compounds. Compared to the clinical results, the equation and both simulation programs provide conservative estimates of D(abs), but in general D(abs) from the computer simulations are more accurate, which may find obvious advantage for the simulations in developability assessment. Computer simulations also revealed the complex behavior associated with absorption saturation and suggested in most cases that the D(abs) limit is not likely to be achieved in a typical clinical dose range. On the basis of the validation findings, an approach is proposed for assessing absorption potential, and best practices are discussed for the use of D(abs) estimates to inform clinical formulation development strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validating Fricke dosimetry for the measurement of absorbed dose to water for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy: a comparison between primary standards of the LCR, Brazil, and the NRC, Canada.

    PubMed

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom

    2018-04-05

    Two Fricke-based absorbed dose to water standards for HDR Ir-192 dosimetry, developed independently by the LCR in Brazil and the NRC in Canada have been compared. The agreement in the determination of the dose rate from a HDR Ir-192 source at 1 cm in a water phantom was found to be within the k  =  1 combined measurement uncertainties of the two standards: D NRC /D LCR   =  1.011, standard uncertainty  =  2.2%. The dose-based standards also agreed within the uncertainties with the manufacturer's stated dose rate value, which is traceable to a national standard of air kerma. A number of possible influence quantities were investigated, including the specific method for producing the ferrous-sulphate Fricke solution, the geometry of the holder, and the Monte Carlo code used to determine correction factors. The comparison highlighted the lack of data on the determination of G(Fe 3+ ) in this energy range and the possibilities for further development of the holders used to contain the Fricke solution. The comparison also confirmed the suitability of Fricke dosimetry for Ir-192 primary standard dose rate determinations at therapy dose levels.

  9. Validating Fricke dosimetry for the measurement of absorbed dose to water for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy: a comparison between primary standards of the LCR, Brazil, and the NRC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salata, Camila; Gazineu David, Mariano; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom

    2018-04-01

    Two Fricke-based absorbed dose to water standards for HDR Ir-192 dosimetry, developed independently by the LCR in Brazil and the NRC in Canada have been compared. The agreement in the determination of the dose rate from a HDR Ir-192 source at 1 cm in a water phantom was found to be within the k  =  1 combined measurement uncertainties of the two standards: D NRC/D LCR  =  1.011, standard uncertainty  =  2.2%. The dose-based standards also agreed within the uncertainties with the manufacturer’s stated dose rate value, which is traceable to a national standard of air kerma. A number of possible influence quantities were investigated, including the specific method for producing the ferrous-sulphate Fricke solution, the geometry of the holder, and the Monte Carlo code used to determine correction factors. The comparison highlighted the lack of data on the determination of G(Fe3+) in this energy range and the possibilities for further development of the holders used to contain the Fricke solution. The comparison also confirmed the suitability of Fricke dosimetry for Ir-192 primary standard dose rate determinations at therapy dose levels.

  10. Assessment of out-of-field absorbed dose and equivalent dose in proton fields

    SciTech Connect

    Clasie, Ben; Wroe, Andrew; Kooy, Hanne

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: In proton therapy, as in other forms of radiation therapy, scattered and secondary particles produce undesired dose outside the target volume that may increase the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer and interact with electronic devices in the treatment room. The authors implement a Monte Carlo model of this dose deposited outside passively scattered fields and compare it to measurements, determine the out-of-field equivalent dose, and estimate the change in the dose if the same target volumes were treated with an active beam scanning technique. Methods: Measurements are done with a thimble ionization chamber and the Wellhofer MatriXX detector insidemore » a Lucite phantom with field configurations based on the treatment of prostate cancer and medulloblastoma. The authors use a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation, demonstrated to agree well with measurements inside the primary field, to simulate fields delivered in the measurements. The partial contributions to the dose are separated in the simulation by particle type and origin. Results: The agreement between experiment and simulation in the out-of-field absorbed dose is within 30% at 10-20 cm from the field edge and 90% of the data agrees within 2 standard deviations. In passive scattering, the neutron contribution to the total dose dominates in the region downstream of the Bragg peak (65%-80% due to internally produced neutrons) and inside the phantom at distances more than 10-15 cm from the field edge. The equivalent doses using 10 for the neutron weighting factor at the entrance to the phantom and at 20 cm from the field edge are 2.2 and 2.6 mSv/Gy for the prostate cancer and cranial medulloblastoma fields, respectively. The equivalent dose at 15-20 cm from the field edge decreases with depth in passive scattering and increases with depth in active scanning. Therefore, active scanning has smaller out-of-field equivalent dose by factors of 30-45 in the entrance region and this factor decreases with

  11. Olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed in humans.

    PubMed

    Visioli, F; Galli, C; Bornet, F; Mattei, A; Patelli, R; Galli, G; Caruso, D

    2000-02-25

    Olive oil phenolic constituents have been shown, in vitro, to be endowed with potent biological activities including, but not limited to, an antioxidant action. To date, there is no information on the absorption and disposition of such compounds in humans. We report that olive oil phenolics, namely tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, are dose-dependently absorbed in humans after ingestion and that they are excreted in the urine as glucuronide conjugates. Furthermore, an increase in the dose of phenolics administered increased the proportion of conjugation with glucuronide.

  12. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for 18F-BPA PET.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuzuru; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Yasui, Naoko; Honda, Naoki; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a molecular radiation therapy approach based on the 10 B (n, α) 7 Li nuclear reaction in cancer cells. In BNCT, delivery of 10 B in the form of 4-borono-phenylalanine conjugated with fructose (BPA-fr) to the cancer cells is important. The PET tracer 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) has been used to predict the accumulation of BPA-fr before BNCT. Purpose To determine the biodistribution and dosimetric parameters in 18F-BPA PET/CT studies. Material and Methods Human biokinetic data were obtained during clinical 18F-BPA PET studies between February and June 2015 at one institution. Nine consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The internal radiation dose was calculated on the basis of radioactivity data from blood, urine, and normal tissue of the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, and other parts of the body at each time point using OLINDA/EXM1.1 program. We compared our calculations with published 18F-FDG data. Results Adult patients (3 men, 3 women; age range, 28-68 years) had significantly smaller absorbed doses than pediatric patients (3 patients; age range, 5-12 years) ( P = 0.003). The mean effective dose was 57% lower in adult patients compared with pediatric patients. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were 25% lower than those for 18F-FDG presented in International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) publication 106. Conclusion We found significant differences in organ absorbed doses for 18F-BPA against those for 18F-FDG presented in ICRP publication 106. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were smaller than those for 18F-FDG in the publication by 0.5-38% (mean difference, 25%).

  13. DHCAL with minimal absorber: measurements with positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, B.; Neubüser, C.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Dotti, A.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schroeder, S.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Besson, D.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Corriveau, F.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-05-01

    In special tests, the active layers of the CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype, the DHCAL, were exposed to low energy particle beams, without being interleaved by absorber plates. The thickness of each layer corresponded approximately to 0.29 radiation lengths or 0.034 nuclear interaction lengths, defined mostly by the copper and steel skins of the detector cassettes. This paper reports on measurements performed with this device in the Fermilab test beam with positrons in the energy range of 1 to 10 GeV. The measurements are compared to simulations based on GEANT4 and a standalone program to emulate the detailed response of the active elements.

  14. Technical note: estimating absorbed doses to the thyroid in CT.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter; Magill, Dennise; Spampinato, Maria V

    2011-06-01

    To describe a method for estimating absorbed doses to the thyroid in patients undergoing neck CT examinations. Thyroid doses in anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained for all 23 scanner dosimetry data sets in the ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator. Values of relative thyroid dose [R(thy)(L)], defined as the thyroid dose for a given scan length (L) divided by the corresponding thyroid dose for a whole body scan, were determined for neck CT scans. Ratios of the maximum thyroid dose to the corresponding CTDI(vol) and [D'(thy)], were obtained for two phantom diameters. The mass-equivalent water cylinder of any patient can be derived from the neck cross-sectional area and the corresponding average Hounsfield Unit, and compared to the 16.5-cm diameter water cylinder that models the ImPACT anthropomorphic phantom neck. Published values of relative doses in water cylinders of varying diameter were used to adjust thyroid doses in the anthropomorphic phantom to those of any sized patient. Relative thyroid doses R(thy)(L) increase to unity with increasing scan length and with very small difference between scanners. A 10-cm scan centered on the thyroid would result in a dose that is, nearly 90% of the thyroid dose from a whole body scan when performed using the constant radiographic techniques. At 120 kV, the average value of D'(thy) for the 16-cm diameter was 1.17 +/- 0.05 and was independent of CT vendor and year of CT scanner, and choice of x-ray tube voltage. The corresponding average value of D'(thy) in the 32-cm diameter phantom was 2.28 +/- 0.22 and showed marked variations depending on vendor, year of introduction into clinical practice as well as x-ray tube voltage. At 120 kV, a neck equivalent to a 10-cm diameter cylinder of water would have thyroid doses 36% higher than those in the ImPACT phantom, whereas a neck equivalent to a 25-cm cylinder diameter would have thyroid doses 35% lower. Patient thyroid doses can be estimated by taking into account the amount of

  15. Plasma Membrane Permeabilization by 60- and 600-ns Electric Pulses Is Determined by the Absorbed Dose

    PubMed Central

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Murphy, Michael R.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2008-01-01

    We explored how the effect of plasma membrane permeabilization by nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) depends on the physical characteristics of exposure. The resting membrane resistance (Rm) and membrane potential (MP) were measured in cultured GH3 and CHO cells by conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Intact cells were exposed to a single nsEP (60 or 600 ns duration, 0-22 kV/cm), followed by patch-clamp measurements after a 2-3 min delay. Consistent with earlier findings, nsEP caused long-lasting Rm decrease, accompanied by the loss of MP. The threshold for these effects was about 6 kV/cm for 60 ns pulses, and about 1 kV/cm for 600 ns pulses. Further analysis established that it was neither pulse duration nor the E-field amplitude per se, but the absorbed dose that determined the magnitude of the biological effect. In other words, exposure to nsEP at either pulse duration caused equal effects if the absorbed doses were equal. The threshold absorbed dose to produce plasma membrane effects in either GH3 or CHO cells at either pulse duration was found to be at or below 10 mJ/g. Despite being determined by the dose, the nsEP effect clearly is not thermal, as the maximum heating at the threshold dose is less than 0.01 °C. The use of the absorbed dose as a universal exposure metric may help to compare and quantify nsEP sensitivity of different cell types and of cells in different physiological conditions. The absorbed dose may also prove to be a more useful metric than the incident E-field in determining safety limits for high peak, lowaverage power EMF emissions. PMID:18839412

  16. Theoretical study of the influence of a heterogeneous activity distribution on intratumoral absorbed dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ande; Zhao, Xia; Phillips, William T; Woolley, F Ross; Otto, Randal A; Goins, Beth; Hevezi, James M

    2005-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy of hematopoeitic cancers and micrometastases has been shown to have significant therapeutic benefit. The treatment of solid tumors with radionuclide therapy has been less successful. Previous investigations of intratumoral activity distribution and studies on intratumoral drug delivery suggest that a probable reason for the disappointing results in solid tumor treatment is nonuniform intratumoral distribution coupled with restricted intratumoral drug penetrance, thus inhibiting antineoplastic agents from reaching the tumor's center. This paper describes a nonuniform intratumoral activity distribution identified by limited radiolabeled tracer diffusion from tumor surface to tumor center. This activity was simulated using techniques that allowed the absorbed dose distributions to be estimated using different intratumoral diffusion capabilities and calculated for tumors of varying diameters. The influences of these absorbed dose distributions on solid tumor radionuclide therapy are also discussed. The absorbed dose distribution was calculated using the dose point kernel method that provided for the application of a three-dimensional (3D) convolution between a dose rate kernel function and an activity distribution function. These functions were incorporated into 3D matrices with voxels measuring 0.10 x 0.10 x 0.10 mm3. At this point fast Fourier transform (FFT) and multiplication in frequency domain followed by inverse FFT (iFFT) were used to effect this phase of the dose calculation process. The absorbed dose distribution for tumors of 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mm in diameter were studied. Using the therapeutic radionuclides of 131I, 186Re, 188Re, and 90Y, the total average dose, center dose, and surface dose for each of the different tumor diameters were reported. The absorbed dose in the nearby normal tissue was also evaluated. When the tumor diameters exceed 15 mm, a much lower tumor center dose is delivered compared with tumors between 3 and 5 mm in

  17. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  18. Radiation absorbed dose to bladder walls from positron emitters in the bladder content.

    PubMed

    Powell, G F; Chen, C T

    1987-01-01

    A method to calculate absorbed doses at depths in the walls of a static spherical bladder from a positron emitter in the bladder content has been developed. The beta ray dose component is calculated for a spherical model by employing the solutions to the integration of Loevinger and Bochkarev point source functions over line segments and a line segment source array technique. The gamma ray dose is determined using the specific gamma ray constant. As an example, absorbed radiation doses to the bladder walls from F-18 in the bladder content are presented for static spherical bladder models having radii of 2.0 and 3.5 cm, respectively. Experiments with ultra-thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) were performed to verify the results of the calculations. Good agreement between TLD measurements and calculations was obtained.

  19. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Parnell, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day-1 have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) of U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. manufacture. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  20. Absorbed Dose Determination Using Experimental and Analytical Predictions of X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron beam welding in a vacuum is a technology that NASA is investigating as a joining technique for manufacture of space structures. This investigation characterizes the x-ray environment due to operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool and provides recommendations for adequate shielding for astronauts performing the in-vacuum electron beam welding. NASA, in a joint venture with the Russian Space Agency, was scheduled to perform a series of welding in space experiments on board the U.S. Space Shuttle. This series of experiments was named the international space welding experiment (ISWE). The hardware associated with the ISWE was leased to NASA by the Paton Welding Institute (PWI) in Ukraine for ground-based welding experiments in preparation for flight. Two ground tests were scheduled, using the ISWE electron beam welding tool, to characterize the radiation exposure to an astronaut during the operation of the ISWE. These radiation exposure tests used thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) shielded with material currently used by astronauts during extravehicular activities to measure the radiation dose. The TLD's were exposed to x-ray radiation generated by operation of the ISWE in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. This investigation was the first known application of TLD's to measure absorbed dose from x rays of energy less than 10 keV. The ISWE hardware was returned to Ukraine before the issue of adequate shielding for the astronauts was completely verified. Therefore, alternate experimental and analytical methods were developed to measure and predict the x-ray spectral and intensity distribution generated by ISWE electron beam impact with metal. These x-ray spectra were normalized to an equivalent ISWE exposure, then used to calculate the absorbed radiation dose to astronauts. These absorbed dose values were compared to TLD measurements obtained during actual operation of the ISWE in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. The calculated absorbed dose

  1. Graves' disease radioiodine-therapy: Choosing target absorbed doses for therapy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, J., E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com; Sapienza, M. T.; Coura-Filho, G. B.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The precise determination of organ mass (m{sub th}) and total number of disintegrations within the thyroid gland (A{sup ~}) are essential for thyroid absorbed-dose calculations for radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, these parameters may vary according to the method employed for their estimation, thus introducing uncertainty in the estimated thyroid absorbed dose and in any dose–response relationship derived using such estimates. In consideration of these points, thyroid absorbed doses for Graves’ disease (GD) treatment planning were calculated using different approaches to estimating the m{sub th} and the A{sup ~}. Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. Thyroid{sup 131}I uptake measurementsmore » were performed at 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 220 h postadministration of a tracer activity in order to estimate the effective half-time (T{sub eff}) of {sup 131}I in the thyroid; the thyroid cumulated activity was then estimated using the T{sub eff} thus determined or, alternatively, calculated by numeric integration of the measured time-activity data. Thyroid mass was estimated by ultrasonography (USG) and scintigraphy (SCTG). Absorbed doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. The relationships between thyroid absorbed dose and therapy response were evaluated at 3 months and 1 year after therapy. Results: The average ratio (±1 standard deviation) betweenm{sub th} estimated by SCTG and USG was 1.74 (±0.64) and that between A{sup ~} obtained by T{sub eff} and the integration of measured activity in the gland was 1.71 (±0.14). These differences affect the calculated absorbed dose. Overall, therapeutic success, corresponding to induction of durable hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, was achieved in 72% of all patients at 3 months and in 90% at 1 year. A therapeutic success rate of at least 95% was found in the group of patients receiving doses of 200 Gy (p = 0.0483) and 330 Gy (p = 0.0131) when m{sub th} was measured by either USG or SCTG

  2. Graves' disease radioiodine-therapy: Choosing target absorbed doses for therapy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, J., E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com; Sapienza, M. T.; Coura-Filho, G. B.

    Purpose: The precise determination of organ mass (m{sub th}) and total number of disintegrations within the thyroid gland (A{sup ~}) are essential for thyroid absorbed-dose calculations for radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, these parameters may vary according to the method employed for their estimation, thus introducing uncertainty in the estimated thyroid absorbed dose and in any dose–response relationship derived using such estimates. In consideration of these points, thyroid absorbed doses for Graves’ disease (GD) treatment planning were calculated using different approaches to estimating the m{sub th} and the A{sup ~}. Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. Thyroid{sup 131}I uptake measurementsmore » were performed at 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 220 h postadministration of a tracer activity in order to estimate the effective half-time (T{sub eff}) of {sup 131}I in the thyroid; the thyroid cumulated activity was then estimated using the T{sub eff} thus determined or, alternatively, calculated by numeric integration of the measured time-activity data. Thyroid mass was estimated by ultrasonography (USG) and scintigraphy (SCTG). Absorbed doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. The relationships between thyroid absorbed dose and therapy response were evaluated at 3 months and 1 year after therapy. Results: The average ratio (±1 standard deviation) betweenm{sub th} estimated by SCTG and USG was 1.74 (±0.64) and that between A{sup ~} obtained by T{sub eff} and the integration of measured activity in the gland was 1.71 (±0.14). These differences affect the calculated absorbed dose. Overall, therapeutic success, corresponding to induction of durable hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, was achieved in 72% of all patients at 3 months and in 90% at 1 year. A therapeutic success rate of at least 95% was found in the group of patients receiving doses of 200 Gy (p = 0.0483) and 330 Gy (p = 0.0131) when m{sub th} was measured by either USG or SCTG

  3. Pain and Mean Absorbed Dose to the Pubic Bone After Radiotherapy Among Gynecological Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte, E-mail: ann-charlotte.waldenstrom@oncology.gu.se; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; Olsson, Caroline

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer and occurrence of pubic bone pain among long-term survivors. Methods and Materials: In an unselected, population-based study, we identified 823 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy during 1991-2003. For comparison, we used a non-radiation-treated control population of 478 matched women from the Swedish Population Register. Pain, intensity of pain, and functional impairment due to pain in the pubic bone were assessed with a study-specific postal questionnaire. Results: We analyzed data from 650 survivors (participation rate 79%) with median follow-upmore » of 6.3 years (range, 2.3-15.0 years) along with 344 control women (participation rate, 72 %). Ten percent of the survivors were treated with radiotherapy; ninety percent with surgery plus radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was added in 81%. Complete treatment records were recovered for 538/650 survivors, with dose distribution data including dose-volume histograms over the pubic bone. Pubic bone pain was reported by 73 survivors (11%); 59/517 (11%) had been exposed to mean absorbed external beam doses <52.5 Gy to the pubic bone and 5/12 (42%) to mean absorbed external beam doses {>=}52.5 Gy. Thirty-three survivors reported pain affecting sleep, a 13-fold increased prevalence compared with control women. Forty-nine survivors reported functional impairment measured as pain walking indoors, a 10-fold increased prevalence. Conclusions: Mean absorbed external beam dose above 52.5 Gy to the pubic bone increases the occurrence of pain in the pubic bone and may affect daily life of long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer.« less

  4. Pain and mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after radiotherapy among gynecological cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; al-Abany, Massoud; Palm, Åsa; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2011-07-15

    To analyze the relationship between mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer and occurrence of pubic bone pain among long-term survivors. In an unselected, population-based study, we identified 823 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy during 1991-2003. For comparison, we used a non-radiation-treated control population of 478 matched women from the Swedish Population Register. Pain, intensity of pain, and functional impairment due to pain in the pubic bone were assessed with a study-specific postal questionnaire. We analyzed data from 650 survivors (participation rate 79%) with median follow-up of 6.3 years (range, 2.3-15.0 years) along with 344 control women (participation rate, 72 %). Ten percent of the survivors were treated with radiotherapy; ninety percent with surgery plus radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was added in 81%. Complete treatment records were recovered for 538/650 survivors, with dose distribution data including dose-volume histograms over the pubic bone. Pubic bone pain was reported by 73 survivors (11%); 59/517 (11%) had been exposed to mean absorbed external beam doses <52.5 Gy to the pubic bone and 5/12 (42%) to mean absorbed external beam doses ≥ 52.5 Gy. Thirty-three survivors reported pain affecting sleep, a 13-fold increased prevalence compared with control women. Forty-nine survivors reported functional impairment measured as pain walking indoors, a 10-fold increased prevalence. Mean absorbed external beam dose above 52.5 Gy to the pubic bone increases the occurrence of pain in the pubic bone and may affect daily life of long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of a dose-area product compared to an absorbed dose to water at a point in a 2 cm diameter field

    SciTech Connect

    Dufreneix, S.; Ostrowsky, A.; Rapp, B.

    Purpose: Graphite calorimeters with a core diameter larger than the beam can be used to establish dosimetric references in small fields. The dose-area product (DAP) measured can theoretically be linked to an absorbed dose at a point by the determination of a profile correction. This study aims at comparing the DAP-based protocol to the usual absorbed dose at a point protocol in a 2 cm diameter field for which both references exist. Methods: Two calorimeters were used, respectively, with a sensitive volume of 0.6 cm (for the absorbed dose at a point measurement) and 3 cm diameter (for the DAPmore » measurement). Profile correction was calculated from a 2D dose mapping using three detectors: a PinPoint chamber, a synthetic diamond, and EBT3 films. A specific protocol to read EBT3 films was implemented and the dose-rate and energy dependences were studied to assure a precise measurement, especially in the penumbra and out-of-field regions. Results: EBT3 films were found independent on dose rates over the range studied but showed a strong under-response (18%) at low energies. Depending on the dosimeter used for calculating the profile correction, a deviation of 0.8% (PinPoint chamber), 0.9% (diamond), or 1.9% (EBT3 films) was observed between the calibration coefficient derived from DAP measurements and the one directly established in terms of absorbed dose to water at a point. Conclusions: The DAP method can currently be linked to the classical dosimetric reference system based in an absorbed dose at a point only with a confidence interval of 95% (k = 2). None of the detectors studied can be used to determine an absorbed dose to water at a point from a DAP measurement with an uncertainty smaller than 1.2%.« less

  6. Uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose from a brain receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogan, B.; Miller, L.F.; Sparks, R.B.

    Absorbed dose estimates are known to contain uncertainties. A recent literature search indicates that prior to this study no rigorous investigation of uncertainty associated with absorbed dose has been undertaken. A method of uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose calculations has been developed and implemented for the brain receptor imaging agent {sup 123}I-IPT. The two major sources of uncertainty considered were the uncertainty associated with the determination of residence time and that associated with the determination of the S values. There are many sources of uncertainty in the determination of the S values, but only the inter-patient organ mass variation wasmore » considered in this work. The absorbed dose uncertainties were determined for lung, liver, heart and brain. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the organ absorbed dose distributions for each patient and for a seven-patient population group were determined by the ``Latin Hypercube Sampling`` method. For an individual patient, the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose was found to be about 2.5 times larger than the estimated mean absorbed dose. For the seven-patient population the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose distribution was around 45% more than the estimated population mean. For example, the 95% confidence interval of the population liver dose distribution was found to be between 1.49E+0.7 Gy/MBq and 4.65E+07 Gy/MBq with a mean of 2.52E+07 Gy/MBq. This study concluded that patients in a population receiving {sup 123}I-IPT could receive absorbed doses as much as twice as large as the standard estimated absorbed dose due to these uncertainties.« less

  7. SU-E-I-85: Absorbed Dose Estimation for a Commercially Available MicroCT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the simulated absorbed dose delivered for a typical scan from a commercially available microCT scanner in order to aid in the dose estimation. Methods: The simulations were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit (version 10) with the standard electromagnetic classes. The Quantum FX microCT scanner (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA) was modeled incorporating the energy fluence and angular distributions of generated photons, spatial dimensions of nominal source-to-object and source-to-detector distances. The energy distribution was measured using a spectrometer (X-123CdTe, Amptek Inc., Bedford, USA) with a 300 angular spread from the source for the 90 kVp X-ray beams withmore » no additional filtration. The nominal distances from the source to object consisted of three setups: 154.0 mm, 104.0 mm, and 51.96 mm. Our simulations recorded the dose absorbed in a cylindrical phantom of PMMA with a fixed length of 2 cm and varying radii (10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) using 100 million incident photons. The averaged absorbed dose in the object was then quantified for all setups. An exposure measurement of 417 mR was taken using a Radcal 9095 system utilizing 10×9–180 ion chamber with the given technique of 90 kVp, 63 μA, and 12 s. The exposure rate was also simulated with same setup to calculate the conversion factor of the beam current and the number of incident photons. Results: For a typical cone-beam scan with non-filtered 90kVp, the dose coefficients (the absorbed dose per mAs) were 2.614, 2.549 and 2.467 μGy/mAs under source to object distance of 104 mm for the object diameters of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm, respectively. Conclusion: A look-up table was developed where an investigator can estimate the delivered dose using this particular microCT given the scanning protocol (kVp and mAs) as well as the size of the scanned object.« less

  8. Absorbed dose determination using experimental and analytical predictions of x-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David Lee

    1999-10-01

    Electron beam welding in a vacuum is a technology that NASA is investigating as a joining technique for manufacture of space structures. The interaction of energetic electrons with metal produces x-rays. This investigation characterizes the x-ray environment due to operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool and provides recommendations for adequate radiation shielding for astronauts performing the in-vacuum electron beam welding. NASA, in a joint venture with the Russian Space Agency, was scheduled to perform a series of welding in space experiments on board the United States Space Shuttle. This series of experiments was named the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE). The hardware associated with the ISWE was leased to NASA, by the Paton Welding Institute (PWI) in Ukraine, for ground based welding experiments in preparation for flight. Two ground tests were scheduled, using the ISWE electron beam welding tool, to characterize the radiation exposure to an astronaut during the operation of the ISWE. These radiation exposure tests used Thermoluminescence Dosimeters (TLD's) shielded with material currently used by astronauts during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) to measure the radiation dose. The TLD's were exposed to x- ray radiation generated by operation of the ISWE in- vacuum electron beam welding tool. This investigation was the first known application of TLD's to measure absorbed dose from x-rays of energy less than 10 keV. The ISWE hardware was returned to Ukraine before the issue of adequate shielding for the astronauts was completely verified. Therefore alternate experimental and analytical methods were developed to measure and predict the x-ray spectral and intensity distribution generated by ISWE electron beam impact with metal. These x-ray spectra were normalized to an equivalent ISWE exposure then used to calculate the absorbed radiation dose to astronauts. These absorbed dose values were compared to TLD measurements obtained during

  9. Assessment of human effective absorbed dose of 67 Ga-ECC based on biodistribution rat data.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Yousefnia, Hassan; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Afarideh, Hossien

    2015-02-01

    In a diagnostic context, determination of absorbed dose is required before the introduction of a new radiopharmaceutical to the market to obtain marketing authorization from the relevant agencies. In this work, the absorbed dose of [67 Ga]-ethylenecysteamine cysteine [(67 Ga)ECC] to human organs was determined by using distribution data for rats. For biodistribution data, the animals were sacrificed by CO2 asphyxiation at selected times after injection (0.5, 2 and 48 h, n = 3 for each time interval), then the tissue (blood, heart, lung, brain, intestine, feces, skin, stomach, kidneys, liver, muscle and bone) were removed. The absorbed dose was determined by Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) method after calculating cumulated activities in each organ. Our prediction shows that a 185-MBq injection of (67)Ga-ECC into the humans might result in an estimated absorbed dose of 0.029 mGy in the whole body. The highest absorbed doses are observed in the spleen and liver with 33.766 and 16.847 mGy, respectively. The results show that this radiopharmaceutical can be a good SPECT tracer since it can be produced easily and also the absorbed dose in each organ is less than permitted absorbed dose.

  10. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to 137Cs) dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  11. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to (137)Cs dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  12. Acoustic absorbance measurements in neonates exposed to smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Beatriz Paloma Corrêa; Roque, Nayara Michelle Costa de Freitas; Gamero, Marcella Scigliano; Durante, Alessandra Spada

    2017-04-01

    To analyze acoustic absorbance using wideband tympanometry in neonates exposed to passive smoking during pregnancy. A study comprising 54 neonates in the control group (CG - unexposed) and 19 in the study group (SG - exposed) was carried out. Subjects were submitted to the wideband tympanometry test and subsequent analysis of absorbance of 17 frequencies. Low frequencies had a lower level of absorbance compared to high frequencies for both ambient and peak pressures, with no difference between the groups. No effect of passive smoking on acoustic absorbance measurements in neonates was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monte Carlo Estimation of Absorbed Dose Distributions Obtained from Heterogeneous 106Ru Eye Plaques.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Francisco J; Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of the emitter substance in 106 Ru eye plaques is usually assumed to be homogeneous for treatment planning purposes. However, this distribution is never homogeneous, and it widely differs from plaque to plaque due to manufacturing factors. By Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, we study the absorbed dose distribution obtained from the specific CCA1364 and CCB1256 106 Ru plaques, whose actual emitter distributions were measured. The idealized, homogeneous CCA and CCB plaques are also simulated. The largest discrepancy in depth dose distribution observed between the heterogeneous and the homogeneous plaques was 7.9 and 23.7% for the CCA and CCB plaques, respectively. In terms of isodose lines, the line referring to 100% of the reference dose penetrates 0.2 and 1.8 mm deeper in the case of heterogeneous CCA and CCB plaques, respectively, with respect to the homogeneous counterpart. The observed differences in absorbed dose distributions obtained from heterogeneous and homogeneous plaques are clinically irrelevant if the plaques are used with a lateral safety margin of at least 2 mm. However, these differences may be relevant if the plaques are used in eccentric positioning.

  14. Maximum dose rate is a determinant of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy of Graves' disease but the total thyroid absorbed dose is not.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Thomas; Hänscheid, Heribert; Müller, Berthold; Behrendt, Florian F; Heinzel, Alexander; Mottaghy, Felix M; Verburg, Frederik A

    2014-11-01

    The determinants of successful (131)I therapy of Graves' disease (GD) are unclear. To relate dosimetry parameters to outcome of therapy to identify significant determinants eu- and/or hypothyroidism after (131)I therapy in patients with GD. A retrospective study in which 206 Patients with GD treated in University Hospital between November 1999 and January 2011. All received (131)I therapy aiming at a total absorbed dose to the thyroid of 250 Gy based on pre-therapeutic dosimetry. Post-therapy dosimetric thyroid measurements were performed twice daily until discharge. From these measurements, thyroid (131)I half-life, the total thyroid absorbed dose, and the maximum dose rate after (131)I administration were calculated. In all, 48.5% of patients were hypothyroid and 28.6% of patients were euthyroid after (131)I therapy. In univariate analysis, nonhyperthyroid and hyperthyroid patients only differed by sex. A lower thyroid mass, a higher activity per gram thyroid tissue, a shorter effective thyroidal (131)I half-life, and a higher maximum dose rate, but not the total thyroid absorbed dose, were significantly associated with hypothyroidism. In multivariate analysis, the maximum dose rate remained the only significant determinant of hypothyroidism (P < .001). Maximum dose rates of 2.2 Gy/h and higher were associated with a 100% hypothyroidism rate. Not the total thyroid absorbed dose, but the maximum dose rate is a determinant of successfully achieving hypothyroidism in Graves' disease. Dosimetric concepts aiming at a specific total thyroid absorbed dose will therefore require reconsideration if our data are confirmed prospectively.

  15. Evaluation of variations in absorbed dose and image noise according to patient forms in X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Mayumi; Tsujii, Hideo; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki

    2005-12-20

    Excessive radiation exposure in pediatric computed tomography (CT) scanning has become a serious problem, and it is difficult to select scan parameters for the scanning of small patients such as children. We investigated differences in absorbed dose and standard deviation (SD) in Hounsfield unit (HU) caused by differences in the form of the subject using a body-type phantom with removable body parts. Using four X-ray CT scanners, measurements were made with values from 50 mAs to 300 mAs, with slices of 50 mAs, using scan protocols that were assumed to perform thorough examinations. The results showed that the mAs values and absorbed doses were almost proportional, and the absorbed doses in the phantom without body parts were about 1.1-2.2-fold higher than those of the phantom with body parts at the same points. The SD values obtained indicated that the absorbed doses in the phantom with body parts were 0.3-0.6 times those of the phantom without body parts when the mAs values used were adjusted so that both SD values were the same. The absorbed doses in various patient forms can be estimated from these results, and they will become critical data for the selection of appropriate scan protocols.

  16. Editor's choice--Use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes results in significant dose reduction during EVAR procedures.

    PubMed

    Kloeze, C; Klompenhouwer, E G; Brands, P J M; van Sambeek, M R H M; Cuypers, P W M; Teijink, J A W

    2014-03-01

    Because of the increasing number of interventional endovascular procedures with fluoroscopy and the corresponding high annual dose for interventionalists, additional dose-protecting measures are desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes in reducing scatter radiation exposure for interventionalists and supporting staff during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedure. This was a randomized control trial in which 36 EVAR procedures were randomized between execution with and without disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes (Radpad: Worldwide Innovations & Technologies, Inc., Kansas City, US, type 5511A). Dosimetric measurements were performed on the interventionalist (hand and chest) and theatre nurse (chest) with and without the use of the drapes to obtain the dose reduction and effect on the annual dose caused by the drapes. Use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes resulted in dose reductions of 49%, 55%, and 48%, respectively, measured on the hand and chest of the interventionalist and the chest of the theatre nurse. The use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes significantly reduces scatter radiation exposure for both the interventionalist and the supporting staff during EVAR procedures. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  18. Supplemental computational phantoms to estimate out-of-field absorbed dose in photon radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Tannous, Jaad; Nabha, Racile; Feghali, Joelle Ann; Ayoub, Zeina; Jalbout, Wassim; Youssef, Bassem; Taddei, Phillip J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a straightforward method of supplementing patient anatomy and estimating out-of-field absorbed dose for a cohort of pediatric radiotherapy patients with limited recorded anatomy. A cohort of nine children, aged 2-14 years, who received 3D conformal radiotherapy for low-grade localized brain tumors (LBTs), were randomly selected for this study. The extent of these patients’ computed tomography simulation image sets were cranial only. To approximate their missing anatomy, we supplemented the LBT patients’ image sets with computed tomography images of patients in a previous study with larger extents of matched sex, height, and mass and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated. Rigid fusion was performed between the LBT patients’ data and that of the supplemental computational phantoms using commercial software and in-house codes. In-field dose was calculated with a clinically commissioned treatment planning system, and out-of-field dose was estimated with a previously developed analytical model that was re-fit with parameters based on new measurements for intracranial radiotherapy. Mean doses greater than 1 Gy were found in the red bone marrow, remainder, thyroid, and skin of the patients in this study. Mean organ doses between 150 mGy and 1 Gy were observed in the breast tissue of the girls and lungs of all patients. Distant organs, i.e. prostate, bladder, uterus, and colon, received mean organ doses less than 150 mGy. The mean organ doses of the younger, smaller LBT patients (0-4 years old) were a factor of 2.4 greater than those of the older, larger patients (8-12 years old). Our findings demonstrated the feasibility of a straightforward method of applying supplemental computational phantoms and dose-calculation models to estimate absorbed dose for a set of children of various ages who received radiotherapy and for whom anatomies were largely missing in their original

  19. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  20. Study on the quality assurance of diagnostic X-ray machines and assessment of the absorbed dose to patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, G. M.; Rabie, N.; Mustafa, K. A.; Abdel-Khalik, S. S.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure and image quality in X-ray diagnostic radiology provide a clear understanding of the relationship between the radiation dose delivered to a patient and image quality in optimizing medical diagnostic radiology. Because a certain amount of radiation is unavoidably delivered to patients, this should be as low as reasonably achievable. Several X-ray diagnostic machines were used at different medical diagnostic centers in Egypt for studying the beam quality and the dose delivered to the patient. This article studies the factors affecting the beam quality, such as the kilo-volt peak (kVp), exposure time (mSc), tube current (mAs) and the absorbed dose in (μGy) for different examinations. The maximum absorbed dose measured per mAs was 594±239 and 12.5±3.7 μGy for the abdomen and the chest, respectively, while the absorbed dose at the elbow was 18±6 μGy, which was the minimum dose recorded. The compound and expanded uncertainties accompanying these measurements were 4±0.35% and 8±0.7%, respectively. The measurements were done through quality control tests as acceptance procedures.

  1. Absorbed radiation doses to staff after implementation of a radiopharmacy clean room.

    PubMed

    Ponto, James A

    2014-12-01

    In response to U.S. Pharmacopeia general chapter <797> standards, a clean room was constructed for our in-house radiopharmacy. Previously, most patient doses were prepared as needed just before injection. Currently, to minimize repeated entries into the clean room, most patient doses are prepared in batches; that is, early morning and noontime preparation of doses to be injected at various times throughout the morning and the afternoon, respectively. Because these patient doses may be prepared well before injection time, radioactive decay necessitates higher amounts of radioactivity to be handled for patient dose preparation. Hence, absorbed radiation doses to staff, all of whom rotate into the radiopharmacy clean room in addition to their regular patient-related activities, were retrospectively evaluated. Monthly dosimetry reports for body (chest badge) and extremities (finger ring) were retrospectively reviewed for each staff member for 12 mo before and 12 mo after implementation of the radiopharmacy clean room. Monthly data were evaluated for average and SD, and 12-mo groups were evaluated using a paired t test. Data for the second 12-mo period were also normalized to the same number of patient doses to account for an increase in procedure volume and were reevaluated. Before the radiopharmacy clean room had been implemented, average monthly absorbed radiation doses to body and extremities were 23 ± 15 mrem (0.23 ± 0.15 mSv) and 93 ± 59 mrem (0.93 ± 0.59 mSv), respectively. After the clean room had been implemented, average monthly absorbed radiation doses increased to 32 ± 16 mrem (0.32 ± 0.16 mSv) (P < 0.001) and 121 ± 89 mrem (1.21 ± 0.89 mSv) (P = 0.0015), respectively. When normalized for procedure volume, average monthly absorbed radiation doses after implementation of the clean room were still higher, at 29 ± 15 mrem (0.29 ± 0.15 mSv) (P = 0.001) and 110 ± 80 mrem (1.10 ± 0.80 mSv) (P = 0.039), respectively. After implementation of a

  2. Absorbed organ and effective doses from digital intra-oral and panoramic radiography applying the ICRP 103 recommendations for effective dose estimations

    PubMed Central

    Thilander-Klang, Anne; Ylhan, Betȕl; Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Ekestubbe, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: During dental radiography, the salivary and thyroid glands are at radiation risk. In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) updated the methodology for determining the effective dose, and the salivary glands were assigned tissue-specific weighting factors for the first time. The aims of this study were to determine the absorbed dose to the organs and to calculate, applying the ICRP publication 103 tissue-weighting factors, the effective doses delivered during digital intraoral and panoramic radiography. Methods: Thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements were performed on an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom. The organ-absorbed doses were measured at 30 locations, representing different radiosensitive organs in the head and neck, and the effective dose was calculated according to the ICRP recommendations. Results: The salivary glands and the oral mucosa received the highest absorbed doses from both intraoral and panoramic radiography. The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination was 15 μSv and for panoramic radiography, the effective dose was in the range of 19–75 μSv, depending on the panoramic equipment used. Conclusion: The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination is lower and that from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported. Clinicians should be aware of the higher effective dose delivered during panoramic radiography and the risk–benefit profile of this technique must be assessed for the individual patient. Advances in knowledge: The effective dose of radiation from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported and there is large variability in the delivered radiation dosage among the different types of equipment used. PMID:27452261

  3. Comparison of microdosimetry-based absorbed doses to control tumours and clinically obtained tumour absorbed doses in treatments with 223Ra.

    PubMed

    Minguez Gabina, Pablo; Roeske, John C; Mínguez, Ricardo; Gomez de Iturriaga, Alfonso; Rodeño, Emilia

    2018-06-20

    We performed Monte Carlo simulations in order to determine by means of microdosimetry calculations the average number of hits to the cell nucleus required to reach a tumour control probability (TCP) of 0.9, 〈n<sub>0.9</sub> 〉, for the source geometry of a nucleus embedded in a homogeneous distribution of <sup>223</sup>Ra atoms. From the results obtained and following the MIRD methodology, we determined the values of lesion absorbed doses needed to reach a TCP of 0.9, D<sub>0.9</sub>, for different values of mass density, cell radiosensitivity, nucleus radius and lesion volume. The greatest variation of those absorbed doses occurred with cell radiosensitivity and no dependence was found on mass density. The source geometry used was chosen because we aimed to compare the values of D<sub>0.9</sub> with the lesion absorbed doses obtained from image-based macrodosimetry in treatments of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with <sup>223</sup>Ra which were obtained assuming a homogeneous distribution of <sup>223</sup>Ra atoms within the lesion. In a comparison with a study including 29 lesions, results showed that even for the case of the most radiosensitive cells simulated, 45% of the lesions treated following a schedule of two cycles of 110 kBq/kg body mass would receive absorbed doses below the values of D<sub>0.9</sub> determined in this study. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  4. Measurements of Light Absorbing Particles on Tropical South American Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Warthon, J.; Andrade, M.; Celestian, A. J.; Hoffmann, D.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been losing mass rapidly in recent decades. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light absorbing particulates deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we present results of measurements of light absorbing particles from glaciers in Peru and Bolivia. Samples have been collected by American Climber Science Program volunteers and scientists at altitudes up to 6770 meters. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field. A new inexpensive technique, the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM) has been developed for analysis of light absorbing particles collected on filters. Results from LAHM analysis are calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). For snow samples collected at the same field location LAHM analysis and measurements from the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument are well correlated (r2 = 0.92). Co-located SP2 and LAHM filter analysis suggest that BC could be the dominant absorbing component of the light absorbing particles in some areas.

  5. Air kerma and absorbed dose standards for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in primary standards for the calibration of brachytherapy sources, with an emphasis on the currently most common photon-emitting radionuclides. The introduction discusses the need for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy in general. The following section focuses on the three main quantities, i.e. reference air kerma rate, air kerma strength and absorbed dose rate to water, which are currently used for the specification of brachytherapy photon sources and which can be realized with primary standards from first principles. An overview of different air kerma and absorbed dose standards, which have been independently developed by various national metrology institutes over the past two decades, is given in the next two sections. Other dosimetry techniques for brachytherapy will also be discussed. The review closes with an outlook on a possible transition from air kerma to absorbed dose to water-based calibrations for brachytherapy sources in the future. PMID:24814696

  6. Visible photoluminescence of color centers in LiF crystals for absorbed dose evaluation in clinical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal-Barajas, J. E.; Piccinini, M.; Vincenti, M. A.; Bonfigli, F.; Khan, R. F.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Among insulating materials, lithium fluoride (LiF) has been successfully used as ionizing radiation dosemeter for more than 60 years. Thermoluminescence (TL) has been the most commonly used reading technique to evaluate the absorbed dose. Lately, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of visible emitting color centers (CCs) has also been explored in pure and doped LiF. This work focuses on the experimental behaviour of nominally pure LiF crystals dosemeters for 6 MV x rays at low doses based on photoluminescence (PL) of radiation induced CCs. Polished LiF crystals were irradiated using 6 MV x rays produced by a clinical linear accelerator. The doses (absorbed dose to water) covered the 1-100 Gy range. Optical absorption spectra show stable formation of primary F defects up to a maximum concentration of 2×1016 cm-3, while no significant M absorption band at around 450 nm was detected. On the other hand, under Argon laser excitation at 458 nm, PL spectra of the irradiated LiF crystals clearly exhibited the characteristic F2 and F+3 visible broad emission bands. Their sum intensity is linearly proportional to the absorbed dose in the investigated range. PL integrated intensity was also measured using a conventional fluorescence optical microscope under blue lamp illumination. The relationship between the absorbed dose and the integrated F2 and F+3 PL intensities, represented by the net average pixel number in the optical fluorescence images, is also fairly linear. Even at the low point defect densities obtained at the investigated doses, these preliminary experimental results are encouraging for further investigation of CCs PL in LiF crystals for clinical dosimetry.

  7. Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human lung.

    PubMed

    Nikezic, D; Lau, B M F; Stevanovic, N; Yu, K N

    2006-01-01

    To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed on the layers containing the target cells, i.e., the basal and secretory cells. Such an approach did not consider details of the sensitive cells in the layers. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines the absorbed alpha-particle energy in non-spherical nuclei of target cells (basal and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory tract was calculated in basal- and secretory-cell nuclei, assuming conical and ellipsoidal forms for these cells. Distributions of specific energy for different combinations of alpha-particle sources, energies and targets are calculated and shown. The dose conversion coefficient for radon progeny is reduced for about 2mSv/WLM when conical and ellipsoidal cell nuclei are considered instead of the layers. While changes in the geometry of secretory-cell nuclei do not have significant effects on their absorbed dose, changes from spherical to conical basal-cell nuclei have significantly reduced their absorbed dose from approximately 4 to approximately 3mGy/WLM. This is expected because basal cells are situated close to the end of the range of 6MeV alpha particles. This also underlines the significance of better and more precise information on targets in the T-B tree. A further change in the dose conversion coefficient can be achieved if a different weighting scheme is adopted for the doses for the cells. The results demonstrate the necessity for better information on the target cells for more accurate dosimetry for radon progeny.

  8. Absorbed doses of lungs from radon retained in airway lumens of mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides absorbed doses arising from radon gas in air retained in lung airway lumens. Because radon gas exposure experiments often use small animals, the calculation was performed for mice and rats. For reference, the corresponding computations were also done for humans. Assuming that radon concentration in airway lumens is the same as that in the environment, its progeny's production in and clearance from airways were simulated. Absorbed dose rates were obtained for three lung regions and the whole lung, considering that secretory and basal cells are sensitive to radiation. The results showed that absorbed dose rates for all lung regions and whole lung generally increase from mice to rats to humans. For example, the dose rates for the whole lung were 25.4 in mice, 41.7 in rats, and 59.9 pGy (Bq m⁻³)⁻¹ h⁻¹ in humans. Furthermore, these values were also compared with lung dose rates from two other types of exposures, that is, due to inhalation of radon or its progeny, which were already reported. It was confirmed that the direct inhalation of radon progeny in the natural environment, which is known as a cause of lung cancer, results in the highest dose rates for all species. Based on the present calculations, absorbed dose rates of the whole lung from radon gas were lower by a factor of about 550 (mice), 200 (rats), or 70 (humans) than those from radon progeny inhalation. The calculated dose rate values are comparatively small. Nevertheless, the present study is considered to contribute to our understanding of doses from inhalation of radon and its progeny.

  9. Long term measurements of light absorbing particles on tropical glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; Sanchez Rodriguez, W.; Arnott, W. P.; All, J.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of six years of measurements of light absorbing particles (LAP) on glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca mountain range in Peru. Tropical glaciers are important sources of water for human consumption, agriculture, and hydroelectric power in the region. Regular measurements in the dry season show that light absorbing particle concentrations are generally low (equivalent to the absorption equivalent of 5-30 nanograms of black carbon per gram of snow) during non-El Nino years while values increase substantially during the recent El Nino. Two years of monthly measurements at two glaciers show that fresh snow LAP concentration are very low while LAP levels increase dramatically during snow-less periods.

  10. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  11. Water-absorbing capacitor system for measuring relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus using a known water-absorbent polymer as a capacitor which is operated at a dc voltage for measuring relative humidity is presented. When formed as a layer between porous electrically-conductive electrodes and operated in an RC oscillator circuit, the oscillator frequency varies inversely with the partial pressure of the moisture to be measured. In a preferred embodiment, the capacitor is formed from Nafion and is operated at a low dc voltage with a resistor as an RC circuit in an RC oscillator. At the low voltage, the leakage current is proper for oscillation over a satisfactory range. The frequency of oscillation varies in an essentially linear fashion with relative humidity which is represented by the moisture being absorbed into the Nafion. The oscillation frequency is detected by a frequency detector.

  12. Breathing gas perfluorocarbon measurements using an absorber filled with zeolites.

    PubMed

    Proquitté, H; Rüdiger, M; Wauer, R R; Schmalisch, G

    2003-11-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) has been widely used in the treatment of respiratory diseases; however, PFC content of the breathing gases remains unknown. Therefore, we developed an absorber using PFC selective zeolites for PFC measurement in gases and investigated its accuracy. To generate a breathing gas with different PFC contents a heated flask was rinsed with a constant air flow of 4 litre x min(-1) and 1, 5, 10, and 20 ml of PFC were infused over 20 min using an infusor. The absorber was placed on an electronic scale and the total PFC volume was calculated from the weight gain. Steady-state increase in weight was achieved 3.5 min after stopping the infusion. The calculated PFC volume was slightly underestimated but the measuring error did not exceed -1% for PFC less than 1 ml. The measurement error decreased with increasing PFC volume. This zeolite absorber is an accurate method to quantitatively determine PFC in breathing gases and can be used as a reference method to validate other PFC sensors.

  13. The Effect of Diagnostic Absorbed Doses from 131I on Human Thyrocytes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Stasiołek, Mariusz; Karwowski, Bolesław; Dedecjus, Marek; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria; Merecz, Anna; Śliwka, Przemysław W; Puła, Bartosz; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-06-29

    Administration of diagnostic activities of 131I, performed in order to detect thyroid remnants after surgery and/or thyroid cancer recurrence/metastases, may lead to reduction of iodine uptake. This phenomenon is called "thyroid stunning". We estimated radiation absorbed dose-dependent changes in genetic material, in particular in sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene promoter, and NIS protein level in human thyrocytes (HT). We used unmodified HT isolated from patients subjected to thyroidectomy exposed to 131I in culture. The different 131I activities applied were calculated to result in absorbed doses of 5, 10, and 20 Gy. According to flow cytometry analysis and comet assay, 131I did not influence the HT viability in culture. Temporary increase of 8-oxo-dG concentration in HT directly after 24 h (p < 0.05) and increase in the number of AP-sites 72 h after termination of exposition to 20 Gy dose (p < 0.0001) were observed. The signs of dose-dependent DNA damage were not associated with essential changes in the NIS expression on mRNA and protein levels. Our observation constitutes a first attempt to evaluate the effect of the absorbed dose of 131I on HT. The results have not confirmed the theory that the "thyroid stunning" reduces the NIS protein synthesis.

  14. The Effect of Diagnostic Absorbed Doses from 131I on Human Thyrocytes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Stasiołek, Mariusz; Karwowski, Bolesław; Dedecjus, Marek; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria; Merecz, Anna; Śliwka, Przemysław W.; Puła, Bartosz; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background: Administration of diagnostic activities of 131I, performed in order to detect thyroid remnants after surgery and/or thyroid cancer recurrence/metastases, may lead to reduction of iodine uptake. This phenomenon is called “thyroid stunning”. We estimated radiation absorbed dose-dependent changes in genetic material, in particular in sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene promoter, and NIS protein level in human thyrocytes (HT). Materials and Methods: We used unmodified HT isolated from patients subjected to thyroidectomy exposed to 131I in culture. The different 131I activities applied were calculated to result in absorbed doses of 5, 10, and 20 Gy. Results: According to flow cytometry analysis and comet assay, 131I did not influence the HT viability in culture. Temporary increase of 8-oxo-dG concentration in HT directly after 24 h (p < 0.05) and increase in the number of AP-sites 72 h after termination of exposition to 20 Gy dose (p < 0.0001) were observed. The signs of dose-dependent DNA damage were not associated with essential changes in the NIS expression on mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions: Our observation constitutes a first attempt to evaluate the effect of the absorbed dose of 131I on HT. The results have not confirmed the theory that the “thyroid stunning” reduces the NIS protein synthesis. PMID:26132566

  15. Strain Gage Measurements of Aft Nacelle Shock Absorbers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ENGINE NACELLES, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (* SHOCK ABSORBERS , STRESSES), SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES, LAUNCHING, STRAIN GAGES, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, CALIBRATION, STRAIN(MECHANICS), FAILURE, GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT.

  16. Real part of refractive index measurement approach for absorbing liquid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Ye, Junwei; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Guo, Wenping; Li, Wei

    2015-07-01

    An algorithm based on use of a reflected refractometer to measure the real part of the refractive index (RI) for an absorbing liquid is presented. The absorption of liquid will blur the division between bright and dark regions on a Fresnel reflective curve. However, the reflective ratio at some incident angles that are less than the critical angle have little sensitivity to absorbability. Unlike common methods that extract RI from reflectivity in critical angle vicinity, the presented method acquires the real RI from reflective ratio at a subcritical angle. Supported by the theoretical analysis and experimental results on a reflected refractometer, we have achieved accuracy better than 3×10(-4) RIU on ink samples with absorption coefficient around 300  cm(-1). Additional tests on Alizarin yellow GG solutions prove that the subcritical algorithm is feasible and of high accuracy.

  17. Scattered radiation doses absorbed by technicians at different distances from X-ray exposure: Experiments on prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsien-Wen; Liu, Ya-Ling; Chen, Tou-Rong; Chen, Chun-Lon; Chiang, Hsien-Jen; Chao, Shin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of scattered radiation doses induced by exposure to the portable X-ray, the C-arm machine, and to simulate the radiologist without a shield of lead clothing, radiation doses absorbed by medical staff at 2 m from the central exposure point. With the adoption of the Rando Phantom, several frequently X-rayed body parts were exposed to X-ray radiation, and the scattered radiation doses were measured by ionization chamber dosimeters at various angles from the patient. Assuming that the central point of the X-ray was located at the belly button, five detection points were distributed in the operation room at 1 m above the ground and 1-2 m from the central point horizontally. The radiation dose measured at point B was the lowest, and the scattered radiation dose absorbed by the prosthesis from the X-ray's vertical projection was 0.07 ±0.03 μGy, which was less than the background radiation levels. The Fluke biomedical model 660-5DE (400 cc) and 660-3DE (4 cc) ion chambers were used to detect air dose at a distance of approximately two meters from the central point. The AP projection radiation doses at point B was the lowest (0.07±0.03 μGy) and the radiation doses at point D was the highest (0.26±0.08 μGy) .Only taking the vertical projection into account, the radiation doses at point B was the lowest (0.52 μGy), and the radiation doses at point E was the highest (4 μGy).The PA projection radiation at point B was the lowest (0.36 μGy) and the radiation doses at point E was the highest(2.77 μGy), occupying 10-32% of the maximum doses. The maximum dose in five directions was nine times to the minimum dose. When the PX and the C-arm machine were used, the radiation doses at a distance of 2 m were attenuated to the background radiation level. The radiologist without a lead shield should stand at point B of patient's feet. Accordingly, teaching materials on radiation safety for radiological interns and clinical

  18. Measured acoustic properties of variable and low density bulk absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, M. D.; Rice, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data were taken to determine the acoustic absorbing properties of uniform low density and layered variable density samples using a bulk absober with a perforated plate facing to hold the material in place. In the layered variable density case, the bulk absorber was packed such that the lowest density layer began at the surface of the sample and progressed to higher density layers deeper inside. The samples were placed in a rectangular duct and measurements were taken using the two microphone method. The data were used to calculate specific acoustic impedances and normal incidence absorption coefficients. Results showed that for uniform density samples the absorption coefficient at low frequencies decreased with increasing density and resonances occurred in the absorption coefficient curve at lower densities. These results were confirmed by a model for uniform density bulk absorbers. Results from layered variable density samples showed that low frequency absorption was the highest when the lowest density possible was packed in the first layer near the exposed surface. The layers of increasing density within the sample had the effect of damping the resonances.

  19. Monte Carlo Assessments of Absorbed Doses to the Hands of Radiopharmaceutical Workers Due to Photon Emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan; Eckerman, Keith F; Karagiannis, Harriet

    This paper describes the characterization of radiation doses to the hands of nuclear medicine technicians resulting from the handling of radiopharmaceuticals. Radiation monitoring using ring dosimeters indicates that finger dosimeters that are used to show compliance with applicable regulations may overestimate or underestimate radiation doses to the skin depending on the nature of the particular procedure and the radionuclide being handled. To better understand the parameters governing the absorbed dose distributions, a detailed model of the hands was created and used in Monte Carlo simulations of selected nuclear medicine procedures. Simulations of realistic configurations typical for workers handling radiopharmaceuticals weremore » performedfor a range of energies of the source photons. The lack of charged-particle equilibrium necessitated full photon-electron coupled transport calculations. The results show that the dose to different regions of the fingers can differ substantially from dosimeter readings when dosimeters are located at the base of the finger. We tried to identify consistent patterns that relate the actual dose to the dosimeter readings. These patterns depend on the specific work conditions and can be used to better assess the absorbed dose to different regions of the exposed skin.« less

  20. Deterministic absorbed dose estimation in computed tomography using a discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Edward T.; Liu, Xin, E-mail: xinliu@mst.edu; Hsieh, Jiang

    Purpose: Organ dose estimation for a patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning is very important. Although Monte Carlo methods are considered gold-standard in patient dose estimation, the computation time required is formidable for routine clinical calculations. Here, the authors instigate a deterministic method for estimating an absorbed dose more efficiently. Methods: Compared with current Monte Carlo methods, a more efficient approach to estimating the absorbed dose is to solve the linear Boltzmann equation numerically. In this study, an axial CT scan was modeled with a software package, Denovo, which solved the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method. Themore » CT scanning configuration included 16 x-ray source positions, beam collimators, flat filters, and bowtie filters. The phantom was the standard 32 cm CT dose index (CTDI) phantom. Four different Denovo simulations were performed with different simulation parameters, including the number of quadrature sets and the order of Legendre polynomial expansions. A Monte Carlo simulation was also performed for benchmarking the Denovo simulations. A quantitative comparison was made of the simulation results obtained by the Denovo and the Monte Carlo methods. Results: The difference in the simulation results of the discrete ordinates method and those of the Monte Carlo methods was found to be small, with a root-mean-square difference of around 2.4%. It was found that the discrete ordinates method, with a higher order of Legendre polynomial expansions, underestimated the absorbed dose near the center of the phantom (i.e., low dose region). Simulations of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions proved to be the most efficient computation method in the authors’ study. The single-thread computation time of the deterministic simulation of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions was 21 min on a personal

  1. Image quality and absorbed dose comparison of single- and dual-source cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Okazue, Toshiya; Kawakubo, Atsushi; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2018-05-01

    Dual-source cone-beam computed tomography (DCBCT) is currently available in the Vero4DRT image-guided radiotherapy system. We evaluated the image quality and absorbed dose for DCBCT and compared the values with those for single-source CBCT (SCBCT). Image uniformity, Hounsfield unit (HU) linearity, image contrast, and spatial resolution were evaluated using a Catphan phantom. The rotation angle for acquiring SCBCT and DCBCT images is 215° and 115°, respectively. The image uniformity was calculated using measurements obtained at the center and four peripheral positions. The HUs of seven materials inserted into the phantom were measured to evaluate HU linearity and image contrast. The Catphan phantom was scanned with a conventional CT scanner to measure the reference HU for each material. The spatial resolution was calculated using high-resolution pattern modules. Image quality was analyzed using ImageJ software ver. 1.49. The absorbed dose was measured using a 0.6-cm 3 ionization chamber with a 16-cm-diameter cylindrical phantom, at the center and four peripheral positions of the phantom, and calculated using weighted cone-beam CT dose index (CBCTDI w ). Compared with that of SCBCT, the image uniformity of DCBCT was slightly reduced. A strong linear correlation existed between the measured HU for DCBCT and the reference HU, although the linear regression slope was different from that of the reference HU. DCBCT had poorer image contrast than did SCBCT, particularly with a high-contrast material. There was no significant difference between the spatial resolutions of SCBCT and DCBCT. The absorbed dose for DCBCT was higher than that for SCBCT, because in DCBCT, the two x-ray projections overlap between 45° and 70°. We found that the image quality was poorer and the absorbed dose was higher for DCBCT than for SCBCT in the Vero4DRT. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of

  2. Evaluation and comparison of absorbed dose for electron beams by LiF and diamond dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosia, G. J.; Chamberlain, A. C.

    2007-09-01

    The absorbed dose response of LiF and diamond thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in 60Co γ-rays, has been determined using the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code system in mono-energetic megavoltage electron beams from 5 to 20 MeV. Evaluation of the dose responses was done against the dose responses of published works by other investigators. Dose responses of both dosimeters were compared to establish if any relation exists between them. The dosimeters were irradiated in a water phantom with the centre of their top surfaces (0.32×0.32 cm 2), placed at dmax perpendicular to the radiation beam on the central axis. For LiF TLD, dose responses ranged from 0.945±0.017 to 0.997±0.011. For the diamond TLD, the dose response ranged from 0.940±0.017 to 1.018±0.011. To correct for dose responses by both dosimeters, energy correction factors were generated from dose response results of both TLDs. For LiF TLD, these correction factors ranged from 1.003 up to 1.058 and for diamond TLD the factors ranged from 0.982 up to 1.064. The results show that diamond TLDs can be used in the place of the well-established LiF TLDs and that Monte Carlo code systems can be used in dose determinations for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  3. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Rottke, Dennis; Andersson, Jonas; Ejima, Ken-Ichiro; Sawada, Kunihiko; Schulze, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate absorbed and to calculate effective doses (EDs) in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study was conducted using examination protocols with and without lead apron shielding. A full-body male RANDO® phantom was loaded with 110 GR200A thermoluminescence dosemeter chips at 55 different sites and set up in two different CBCT systems (CS 9500®, ProMax® 3D). Two different protocols were performed: the phantom was set up (1) with and (2) without a lead apron. No statistically significant differences in organ and absorbed doses from regions outside the primary beam could be found when comparing results from exposures with and without lead apron shielding. Consequently, calculating the ED showed no significant differences between the examination protocols with and without lead apron shielding. For the ProMax® 3D with shielding, the ED was 149 µSv, and for the examination protocol without shielding 148 µSv (SD = 0.31 µSv). For the CS 9500®, the ED was 88 and 86 µSv (SD = 0.95 µSv), respectively, with and without lead apron shielding. The results revealed no statistically significant differences in the absorbed doses between examination with and without lead apron shielding, especially in organs outside the primary beam. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Changes in deviation of absorbed dose to water among users by chamber calibration shift.

    PubMed

    Katayose, Tetsurou; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Igari, Mitsunobu; Chang, Weishan; Hashimoto, Shimpei; Morioka, Mie

    2017-07-01

    The JSMP01 dosimetry protocol had adopted the provisional 60 Co calibration coefficient [Formula: see text], namely, the product of exposure calibration coefficient N C and conversion coefficient k D,X . After that, the absorbed dose to water D w  standard was established, and the JSMP12 protocol adopted the [Formula: see text] calibration. In this study, the influence of the calibration shift on the measurement of D w among users was analyzed. The intercomparison of the D w using an ionization chamber was annually performed by visiting related hospitals. Intercomparison results before and after the calibration shift were analyzed, the deviation of D w among users was re-evaluated, and the cause of deviation was estimated. As a result, the stability of LINAC, calibration of the thermometer and barometer, and collection method of ion recombination were confirmed. The statistical significance of standard deviation of D w was not observed, but that of difference of D w among users was observed between N C and [Formula: see text] calibration. Uncertainty due to chamber-to-chamber variation was reduced by the calibration shift, consequently reducing the uncertainty among users regarding D w . The result also pointed out uncertainty might be reduced by accurate and detailed instructions on the setup of an ionization chamber.

  5. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  6. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  7. Absorbed dose to man from the Se-75 labeled conjugated bile salt SeHCAT: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Soundy, R G; Simpson, J D; Ross, H M; Merrick, M V

    1982-02-01

    The absorbed radiation dose that would result from the oral or intravenous administration of SeHCAT (23-[75Se]selena-25-homotaurocholate) has been calculated using the MIRD tables and formulas and data from measurements of whole-body distribution and from long-term whole-body counting in rats, mice, and man. When SeHCAT is administered to normal subjects, the gallbladder is the critical organ, receiving 12 mrad (oral dose) or 22 mrad (i.v.) per microcurie. The whole-body dose is 1 mrad/microCi, whatever the route of administration. In severe hepatic failure the liver might receive 200 mrad/microCi. The activity likely to be used in routine clinical practice is 10 microCi. Where a whole-body counter is used, an activity of 1 microCi has proved adequate. Even at an administered activity of 25 microCi, the absorbed dose is small compared with established techniques of investigating the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Fine-resolution voxel S values for constructing absorbed dose distributions at variable voxel size.

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Arnaud; Hobbs, Robert F; Bolch, Wesley E; Sgouros, George; Gardin, Isabelle

    2010-10-01

    This article presents a revised voxel S values (VSVs) approach for dosimetry in targeted radiotherapy, allowing dose calculation for any voxel size and shape of a given SPECT or PET dataset. This approach represents an update to the methodology presented in MIRD pamphlet no. 17. VSVs were generated in soft tissue with a fine spatial sampling using the Monte Carlo (MC) code MCNPX for particle emissions of 9 radionuclides: (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (123)I, (131)I, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (201)Tl. A specific resampling algorithm was developed to compute VSVs for desired voxel dimensions. The dose calculation was performed by convolution via a fast Hartley transform. The fine VSVs were calculated for cubic voxels of 0.5 mm for electrons and 1.0 mm for photons. Validation studies were done for (90)Y and (131)I VSV sets by comparing the revised VSV approach to direct MC simulations. The first comparison included 20 spheres with different voxel sizes (3.8-7.7 mm) and radii (4-64 voxels) and the second comparison a hepatic tumor with cubic voxels of 3.8 mm. MC simulations were done with MCNPX for both. The third comparison was performed on 2 clinical patients with the 3D-RD (3-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry) software using the EGSnrc (Electron Gamma Shower National Research Council Canada)-based MC implementation, assuming a homogeneous tissue-density distribution. For the sphere model study, the mean relative difference in the average absorbed dose was 0.20% ± 0.41% for (90)Y and -0.36% ± 0.51% for (131)I (n = 20). For the hepatic tumor, the difference in the average absorbed dose to tumor was 0.33% for (90)Y and -0.61% for (131)I and the difference in average absorbed dose to the liver was 0.25% for (90)Y and -1.35% for (131)I. The comparison with the 3D-RD software showed an average voxel-to-voxel dose ratio between 0.991 and 0.996. The calculation time was below 10 s with the VSV approach and 50 and 15 h with 3D-RD for the 2 clinical patients. This new VSV

  9. Estimation of absorbed dose in clinical radiotherapy linear accelerator beams: Effect of ion chamber calibration and long-term stability

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, Johnson Pichy; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2013-01-01

    The measured dose in water at reference point in phantom is a primary parameter for planning the treatment monitor units (MU); both in conventional and intensity modulated/image guided treatments. Traceability of dose accuracy therefore still depends mainly on the calibration factor of the ion chamber/dosimeter provided by the accredited Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of laboratories. The data related to Nd,water calibrations, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) postal dose validation, inter-comparison of different dosimeter/electrometers, and validity of Nd,water calibrations obtained from different calibration laboratories were analyzed to find out the extent of accuracy achievable. Nd,w factors in Gray/Coulomb calibrated at IBA, GmBH, Germany showed a mean variation of about 0.2% increase per year in three Farmer chambers, in three subsequent calibrations. Another ion chamber calibrated in different accredited laboratory (PTW, Germany) showed consistent Nd,w for 9 years period. The Strontium-90 beta check source response indicated long-term stability of the ion chambers within 1% for three chambers. Results of IAEA postal TL “dose intercomparison” for three photon beams, 6 MV (two) and 15 MV (one), agreed well within our reported doses, with mean deviation of 0.03% (SD 0.87%) (n = 9). All the chamber/electrometer calibrated by a single SSDL realized absorbed doses in water within 0.13% standard deviations. However, about 1-2% differences in absorbed dose estimates observed when dosimeters calibrated from different calibration laboratories are compared in solid phantoms. Our data therefore imply that the dosimetry level maintained for clinical use of linear accelerator photon beams are within recommended levels of accuracy, and uncertainties are within reported values. PMID:24672156

  10. On the suitability of ultrathin detectors for absorbed dose assessment in the presence of high-density heterogeneities.

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Carrasco, P; Jornet, N; Muñoz-Montplet, C; Duch, M A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of several detectors for the determination of absorbed dose in bone. Three types of ultrathin LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)-two LiF:Mg,Cu,P-based (MCP-Ns and TLD-2000F) and a (7)Li-enriched LiF:Mg,Ti-based (MTS-7s)-as well as EBT2 Gafchromic films were used to measure percentage depth-dose distributions (PDDs) in a water-equivalent phantom with a bone-equivalent heterogeneity for 6 and 18 MV and a set of field sizes ranging from 5 x 5 cm2 to 20 x 20 cm2. MCP-Ns, TLD-2000F, MTS-7s, and EBT2 have active layers of 50, 20, 50, and 30 μm, respectively. Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations (PENELOPE code) were used as the reference and helped to understand the experimental results and to evaluate the potential perturbation of the fluence in bone caused by the presence of the detectors. The energy dependence and linearity of the TLDs' response was evaluated. TLDs exhibited flat energy responses (within 2.5%) and linearity with dose (within 1.1%) within the range of interest for the selected beams. The results revealed that all considered detectors perturb the electron fluence with respect to the energy inside the bone-equivalent material. MCP-Ns and MTS-7s underestimated the absorbed dose in bone by 4%-5%. EBT2 exhibited comparable accuracy to MTS-7s and MCP-Ns. TLD-2000F was able to determine the dose within 2% accuracy. No dependence on the beam energy or field size was observed. The MC calculations showed that a[Formula: see text] thick detector can provide reliable dose estimations in bone regardless of whether it is made of LiF, water or EBT's active layer material. TLD-2000F was found to be suitable for providing reliable absorbed dose measurements in the presence of bone for high-energy x-ray beams.

  11. The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota : an extended inter-comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Batlle, J. V. I.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Beresford, N. A.

    An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of {+-}20%. Themore » variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota.« less

  12. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  13. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  14. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  15. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation—an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry B.; Bahadori, Amir A.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-04-01

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues—active and total shallow marrow—within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R2 = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  16. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation--an update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry B; Bahadori, Amir A; Eckerman, Keith F; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-04-21

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues-active and total shallow marrow-within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R(2) = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  17. RESPONSE FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTING ABSORBED DOSE TO SKELETAL TISSUES FROM PHOTON IRRADIATION – AN UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Perry; Bahadori, Amir; Eckerman, Keith; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) are presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues – active and total shallow marrow – within 15 and 32 bones sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon microCT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40-year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, as well as a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In the present study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma factors for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone, and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma factors and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R2 = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites PMID:21427484

  18. Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung and secondary electrons induced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams in thick targets.

    PubMed

    Takada, Masashi; Kosako, Kazuaki; Oishi, Koji; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Kouichi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2013-03-01

    Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung photons and secondary electrons at a wide range of emission angles from 0 to 135°, were experimentally obtained using an ion chamber with a 0.6 cm(3) air volume covered with or without a build-up cap. The Bremsstrahlung photons and electrons were produced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams bombarding tungsten, copper, aluminium and carbon targets. The absorbed doses were also calculated from simulated photon and electron energy spectra by multiplying simulated response functions of the ion chambers, simulated with the MCNPX code. Calculated-to-experimental (C/E) dose ratios obtained are from 0.70 to 1.57 for high-Z targets of W and Cu, from 15 to 135° and the C/E range from 0.6 to 1.4 at 0°; however, the values of C/E for low-Z targets of Al and C are from 0.5 to 1.8 from 0 to 135°. Angular distributions at the forward angles decrease with increasing angles; on the other hand, the angular distributions at the backward angles depend on the target species. The dependences of absorbed doses on electron energy and target thickness were compared between the measured and simulated results. The attenuation profiles of absorbed doses of Bremsstrahlung beams at 0, 30 and 135° were also measured.

  19. Absorbed dose calculations in a brachytherapy pelvic phantom using the Monte Carlo method

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Miguel L.; deAlmeida, Carlos E.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose at various points of a brachytherapy anthropomorphic phantom are presented. The phantom walls and internal structures are made of polymethylmethacrylate and its external shape was taken from a female Alderson phantom. A complete Fletcher‐Green type applicator with the uterine tandem was fixed at the bottom of the phantom reproducing a typical geometrical configuration as that attained in a gynecological brachytherapy treatment. The dose rate produced by an array of five 137Cs CDC‐J type sources placed in the applicator colpostats and the uterine tandem was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations using the code penelope at three points: point A, the rectum, and the bladder. The influence of the applicator in the dose rate was evaluated by comparing Monte Carlo simulations of the sources alone and the sources inserted in the applicator. Differences up to 56% in the dose may be observed for the two cases in the planes including the rectum and bladder. The results show a reduction of the dose of 15.6%, 14.0%, and 5.6% in the rectum, bladder, and point A respectively, when the applicator wall and shieldings are considered. PACS number(s): 87.53Jw, 87.53.Wz, 87.53.Vb, 87.66.Xa PMID:12383048

  20. ESR spectroscopy for detecting gamma-irradiated dried vegetables and estimating absorbed doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2000-03-01

    In view of an increasing demand for food irradiation technology, the development of a reliable means of detection for the control of irradiated foods has become necessary. Various vegetable food materials (dried cabbage, carrot, chunggyungchae, garlic, onion, and green onion), which can be legally irradiated in Korea, were subjected to a detection study using ESR spectroscopy. Correlation coefficients ( R2) between absorbed doses (2.5-15 kGy) and their corresponding ESR signals were identified from ESR signals. Pre-established threshold values were successfully applied to the detection of 54 coded unknown samples of dried clean vegetables ( chunggyungchae, Brassica camestris var. chinensis), both non-irradiated and irradiated. The ESR signals of irradiated chunggyungchae decreased over a longer storage time, however, even after 6 months of ambient storage, these signals were still distinguishable from those of non-irradiated samples. The most successful estimates of absorbed dose (5 and 8 kGy) were obtained immediately after irradiation using a quadratic fit with average values of 4.85 and 8.65 kGy being calculated.

  1. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film.

    PubMed

    Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Kuwano, Tadao; Akagawa, Takuya; Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Akihiko; Shimono, Tetsunori; Kawaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were -32.336 and -33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range.

  2. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film

    PubMed Central

    Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Kuwano, Tadao; Akagawa, Takuya; Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Akihiko; Shimono, Tetsunori; Kawaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were −32.336 and −33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range. PMID:28144120

  3. Red Marrow-Absorbed Dose for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Treated with 177Lu-Lilotomab Satetraxetan, a Novel Anti-CD37 Antibody-Radionuclide Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Blakkisrud, Johan; Løndalen, Ayca; Dahle, Jostein; Turner, Simon; Holte, Harald; Kolstad, Arne; Stokke, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Red marrow (RM) is often the primary organ at risk in radioimmunotherapy; irradiation of marrow may induce short- and long-term hematologic toxicity. 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan is a novel anti-CD37 antibody-radionuclide conjugate currently in phase 1/2a. Two predosing regimens have been investigated, one with 40 mg of unlabeled lilotomab antibody (arm 1) and one without (arm 2). The aim of this work was to compare RM-absorbed doses for the two arms and to correlate absorbed doses with hematologic toxicity. Eight patients with relapsed CD37+ indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma were included for RM dosimetry. Hybrid SPECT and CT images were used to estimate the activity concentration in the RM of L2-L4. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after measurement of the 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan concentration in blood samples. Adverse events were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The mean absorbed doses to RM were 0.9 mGy/MBq for arm 1 (lilotomab+) and 1.5 mGy/MBq for arm 2 (lilotomab-). There was a statistically significant difference between arms 1 and 2 (Student t test, P = 0.02). Total RM-absorbed doses ranged from 67 to 127 cGy in arm 1 and from 158 to 207 cGy in arm 2. For blood, the area under the curve was higher with lilotomab predosing than without (P = 0.001), whereas the volume of distribution and the clearance of 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan was significantly lower (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). Patients with grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia had received significantly higher radiation doses to RM than patients with grade 1/2 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.02). A surrogate, non-imaging-based, method underestimated the RM dose and did not show any correlation with toxicity. Predosing with lilotomab reduces the RM-absorbed dose for 177 Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan patients. The decrease in RM dose could be explained by the lower volume of distribution. Hematologic toxicity was more severe for patients

  4. Fraction of a dose absorbed estimation for structurally diverse low solubility compounds.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2011-02-28

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of the fully mechanistic gastrointestinal unified theoretical (GUT) framework for in vivo oral absorption of low solubility drugs. Solubility in biorelevant media, molecular weight, logP(oct), pK(a), Caco-2 permeability, dose and particle size were used as the input parameters. To neglect the effect of the low stomach pH on dissolution of a drug, the fraction of a dose absorbed (Fa%) of undissociable and free acids were used. In addition, Fa% of free base drugs with the high pH stomach was also included to increase the number of model drugs. In total twenty nine structurally diverse compounds were used as the model drugs. Fa% data at several doses and particle sizes in humans and dogs were collated from the literature (total 110 Fa% data). In approximately 80% cases, the prediction error was within 2 fold, suggesting that the GUT framework has practical predictability for drug discovery, but not for drug development. The GUT framework appropriately captured the dose and particle size dependency of Fa% as the particle drifting effect was taken into account. It should be noted that the present validation results cannot be applied for salt form cases and other special formulations such as solid dispersions and emulsion formulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of body and organ size on absorbed dose: there is no standard patient. [Radiation dose distribution in patients following radionuclide administration

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of estimating the absorbed dose to organs and tissues of the human body due to the presence of a radiopharmaceutical in one or more organs is discussed. Complications are introduced by the fact that the body is not homogeneous and in many cases the organ shapes are not regular. Publications of the MIRD Committee have provided a direct means of estimating the absorbed dose (or absorbed fraction) for a number of radioisotopes. These estimates are based on Monte Carlo calculations for monoenergetic photons distributed uniformly in organs of an adult phantom. The medical physicist finds that his patientmore » does not resemble the adult phantom. In addition, the absorbed fractions for the adult are not reasonable values for the child. This paper examines how these absorbed fraction estimates apply to a nonstandard patient. (auth)« less

  6. Antioxidative activity of lactobacilli measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity.

    PubMed

    Saide, J A O; Gilliland, S E

    2005-04-01

    The reducing ability and antioxidative activity of some species of Lactobacillus were compared under in vitro conditions. Cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were grown at 37 degrees C in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth supplemented with 0.5% 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate reducing activity. Reduced TTC was extracted from the cultures with acetone, and the intensity of the red color measured colorimetrically at 485 nm was an indication of reducing activity. The lactobacilli varied significantly in relative ability to reduce TTC when grown in MRS broth for 15 h. The relative amounts of growth as indicated by pH values at 18 h appeared to influence the amount of reduction. Antioxidative activity was evaluated by the ability of the whole cells or the cell-free extracts from cultures to protect a protein from being attacked by free radicals. These analyses were performed using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. All cultures tested exhibited some degree of antioxidative activity. Among the treatments, the cell-free extracts from cells grown in MRS broth exhibited significantly higher values than did whole cells. There was no apparent relationship between the reducing and antioxidative activities of the cultures evaluated. The results from this study show that these cultures can provide a source of dietary antioxidants. Furthermore, selection of cultures that produce antioxidants as starters could provide yet another health or nutritional benefit from cultured or culture-containing dairy products.

  7. Light Absorbing Particle (LAP) Measurements in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Anderson, B.; Diskin, G.; Sachse, G.; Kok, G.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the capabilities and design of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2), and reviews its role on the Sage III Ozone Loss Validation Experiment (SOLVE II) field campaign during 2003. On SOLVE II the SP-2 was carried into the Arctic onboard a DC-8 aircraft, in order to determine the size distribution of light-absorbing and non light-absorbing particles in the stratosphere. Graphs and tables relate some of the results from SOLVE II.

  8. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Crosbie, J. C.; Cornelius, I.; Berkvens, P.; Donzelli, M.; Clavel, A. H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.

    2016-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency’s TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called ‘current ramping’ method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials.

  9. The effect of systematic set-up deviations on the absorbed dose distribution for left-sided breast cancer treated with respiratory gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, A.; Ceberg, S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to investigate interfraction set-up uncertainties for patients treated with respiratory gating for left-sided breast cancer, 2) to investigate the effect of the inter-fraction set-up on the absorbed dose-distribution for the target and organs at risk (OARs) and 3) optimize the set-up correction strategy. By acquiring multiple set-up images the systematic set-up deviation was evaluated. The effect of the systematic set-up deviation on the absorbed dose distribution was evaluated by 1) simulation in the treatment planning system and 2) measurements with a biplanar diode array. The set-up deviations could be decreased using a no action level correction strategy. Not using the clinically implemented adaptive maximum likelihood factor for the gating patients resulted in better set-up. When the uncorrected set-up deviations were simulated the average mean absorbed dose was increased from 1.38 to 2.21 Gy for the heart, 4.17 to 8.86 Gy to the left anterior descending coronary artery and 5.80 to 7.64 Gy to the left lung. Respiratory gating can induce systematic set-up deviations which would result in increased mean absorbed dose to the OARs if not corrected for and should therefore be corrected for by an appropriate correction strategy.

  10. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  11. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-11-01

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues—active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM) and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). AM is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM50), defined as all tissues lying within the first 50 µm of the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent micro-CT imaging of a 40 year old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton (Hough et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309-46). This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites (Jokisch et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 6857-72). These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions and proton production cross sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose-response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM50 targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, AM, TM50 and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM50 DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged-particle equilibrium is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  12. RESPONSE FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTING ABSORBED DOSE TO SKELETAL TISSUES FROM NEUTRON IRRADIATION

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues - active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM), and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). Active marrow is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM50), defined as all tissues laying within the first 50 μm the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent microCT imaging of a 40-year-old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton [Hough et al PMB (2011)]. This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fractions (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites [Jokisch et al PMB (submitted)]. These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions, and proton production cross-sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM50 targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, active marrow, total shallow marrow, and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM50 DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged particle equilibrium (CPE) is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  13. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W; Eckerman, Keith F; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-11-07

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues-active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM) and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). AM is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM(50)), defined as all tissues lying within the first 50 µm of the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent micro-CT imaging of a 40 year old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton (Hough et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309-46). This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites (Jokisch et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 6857-72). These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions and proton production cross sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose-response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM(50) targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, AM, TM(50) and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM(50) DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged-particle equilibrium is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  14. Influence of exposure and geometric parameters on absorbed doses associated with common neuro-interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Javad; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Jong, Wei Loong; Thorpe, Nathan; Cutajar, Dean; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of routine exposure parameters on patient's dose during neuro-interventional radiology procedures. We scrutinized the routine radiological exposure parameters during 58 clinical neuro-interventional procedures such as, exposure direction, magnification, frame rate, and distance between image receptor to patient's body and evaluate their effects on patient's dose using an anthropomorphic phantom. Radiation dose received by the occipital region, ears and eyes of the phantom were measured using MOSkin detectors. DSA imaging technique is a major contributor to patient's dose (80.9%) even though they are used sparingly (5.3% of total frame number). The occipital region of the brain received high dose largely from the frontal tube constantly placed under couch (73.7% of the total KAP). When rotating the frontal tube away from under the couch, the radiation dose to the occipital reduced by 40%. The use of magnification modes could increase radiation dose by 94%. Changing the image receptor to the phantom surface distance from 10 to 40cm doubled the radiation dose received by the patient's skin at the occipital region. Our findings provided important insights into the contribution of selected fluoroscopic exposure parameters and their impact on patient's dose during neuro-interventional radiology procedures. This study showed that the DSA imaging technique contributed to the highest patient's dose and judicial use of exposure parameters might assist interventional radiologists in effective skin and eye lens dose reduction for patients undergoing neuro-interventional procedures. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR {sup 192}Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjaern, Haakan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a {sup 60}Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al.[Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a {sup 137}Cs beam than in a {sup 60}Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around {sup 192}Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam.more » Methods: LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users'{sup 192}Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Results: Measured absorbed doses to water around the {sup 192}Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the

  16. Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR (192)Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response.

    PubMed

    Carlsson Tedgren, Asa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjarn, Hakan; Olsson, Sara; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2012-02-01

    Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a (60)Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al. [Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a (137)Cs beam than in a (60)Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around (192)Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam. LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users' (192)Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Measured absorbed doses to water around the (192)Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the results using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs and the EPR lithium formate

  17. The Molecular Effect of Diagnostic Absorbed Doses from 131I on Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Stasiołek, Mariusz; Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Śliwka, Przemysław W; Puła, Bartosz; Karwowski, Bolesław; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Dedecjus, Marek; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2017-06-15

    Diagnostic whole-body scan is a standard procedure in patients with thyroid cancer prior to the application of a therapeutic dose of 131 I. Unfortunately, administration of the radioisotope in a diagnostic dose may decrease further radioiodine uptake-the phenomenon called "thyroid stunning". We estimated radiation absorbed dose-dependent changes in genetic material, in particular in the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene promoter, and the NIS protein level in a K1 cell line derived from the metastasis of a human papillary thyroid carcinoma exposed to 131 I in culture. The different activities applied were calculated to result in absorbed doses of 5, 10 and 20 Gy. Radioiodine did not affect the expression of the NIS gene at the mRNA level, however, we observed significant changes in the NIS protein level in K1 cells. The decrease of the NIS protein level observed in the cells subjected to the lowest absorbed dose was paralleled by a significant increase in 8-oxo-dG concentrations ( p < 0.01) and followed by late activation of the DNA repair pathways. Our findings suggest that the impact of 131 I radiation on thyroid cells, in the range compared to doses absorbed during diagnostic procedures, is not linear and depends on various factors including the cellular components of thyroid pathology.

  18. Response Funtions for Computing Absorbed Dose to Skeletal Tissues from Photon Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, Keith F; Bolch, W E; Zankl, M

    2007-01-01

    The calculation of absorbed dose in skeletal tissues at radiogenic risk has been a difficult problem because the relevant structures cannot be represented in conventional geometric terms nor can they be visualised in the tomographic image data used to define the computational models of the human body. The active marrow, the tissue of concern in leukaemia induction, is present within the spongiosa regions of trabecular bone, whereas the osteoprogenitor cells at risk for bone cancer induction are considered to be within the soft tissues adjacent to the mineral surfaces. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends averaging the absorbedmore » energy over the active marrow within the spongiosa and over the soft tissues within 10 mm of the mineral surface for leukaemia and bone cancer induction, respectively. In its forthcoming recommendation, it is expected that the latter guidance will be changed to include soft tissues within 50 mm of the mineral surfaces. To address the computational problems, the skeleton of the proposed ICRP reference computational phantom has been subdivided to identify those voxels associated with cortical shell, spongiosa and the medullary cavity of the long bones. It is further proposed that the Monte Carlo calculations with these phantoms compute the energy deposition in the skeletal target tissues as the product of the particle fluence in the skeletal subdivisions and applicable fluence-to-dose response functions. This paper outlines the development of such response functions for photons.« less

  19. Monte Carlo Analysis of Pion Contribution to Absorbed Dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghara, S.K.; Battnig, S.R.; Norbury, J.W.; Singleterry, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV - GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  20. Boundary Electron and Beta Dosimetry-Quantification of the Effects of Dissimilar Media on Absorbed Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Josane C.

    1991-02-01

    This work quantifies the changes effected in electron absorbed dose to a soft-tissue equivalent medium when part of this medium is replaced by a material that is not soft -tissue equivalent. That is, heterogeneous dosimetry is addressed. Radionuclides which emit beta particles are the electron sources of primary interest. They are used in brachytherapy and in nuclear medicine: for example, beta -ray applicators made with strontium-90 are employed in certain ophthalmic treatments and iodine-131 is used to test thyroid function. More recent medical procedures under development and which involve beta radionuclides include radioimmunotherapy and radiation synovectomy; the first is a cancer modality and the second deals with the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the possibility of skin surface contamination exists whenever there is handling of radioactive material. Determination of absorbed doses in the examples of the preceding paragraph requires considering boundaries of interfaces. Whilst the Monte Carlo method can be applied to boundary calculations, for routine work such as in clinical situations, or in other circumstances where doses need to be determined quickly, analytical dosimetry would be invaluable. Unfortunately, few analytical methods for boundary beta dosimetry exist. Furthermore, the accuracy of results from both Monte Carlo and analytical methods has to be assessed. Although restricted to one radionuclide, phosphorus -32, the experimental data obtained in this work serve several purposes, one of which is to provide standards against which calculated results can be tested. The experimental data also contribute to the relatively sparse set of published boundary dosimetry data. At the same time, they may be useful in developing analytical boundary dosimetry methodology. The first application of the experimental data is demonstrated. Results from two Monte Carlo codes and two analytical methods, which were developed elsewhere, are compared

  1. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 ExNxC, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the bodymore » distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.« less

  2. Preclinical Study of 68Ga-DOTATOC: Biodistribution Assessment in Syrian Rats and Evaluation of Absorbed Dose in Human Organs.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mojdeh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Ramazani, Ali; Jalilian, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Gallium-68 DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -Octreotide ( 68 Ga-DOTATOC) has been applied by several European centers for the treatment of a variety of human malignancies. Nevertheless, definitive dosimetric data are yet unavailable. According to the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, researchers are investigating the safety and efficacy of this radiotracer to meet Food and Drug Administration requirements. The aim of this study was to introduce the optimized procedure for 68 Ga-DOTATOC preparation, using a novel germanium-68 ( 68 Ge)/ 68 Ga generator in Iran and evaluate the absorbed doses in numerous organs with high accuracy. The optimized conditions for preparing the radiolabeled complex were determined via several experiments by changing the ligand concentration, pH, temperature and incubation time. Radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed, using high-performance liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. The absorbed dose of human organs was evaluated, based on biodistribution studies on Syrian rats via Radiation Absorbed Dose Assessment Resource Method. 68 Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C at least two hours after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreatic and adrenal tissues (12.83 %ID/g and 0.91 %ID/g, respectively). Dose estimations in human organs showed that the pancreas, kidneys and adrenal glands received the maximum absorbed doses (0.105, 0.074 and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively). Also, the effective absorbed dose was estimated at 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68 Ga-DOTATOC. The obtained results showed that 68 Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as an effective agent for clinical PET imaging in Iran.

  3. Preclinical Study of 68Ga-DOTATOC: Biodistribution Assessment in Syrian Rats and Evaluation of Absorbed Dose in Human Organs

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Mojdeh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Ramazani, Ali; Jalilian, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Gallium-68 DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-Octreotide (68Ga-DOTATOC) has been applied by several European centers for the treatment of a variety of human malignancies. Nevertheless, definitive dosimetric data are yet unavailable. According to the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, researchers are investigating the safety and efficacy of this radiotracer to meet Food and Drug Administration requirements. The aim of this study was to introduce the optimized procedure for 68Ga-DOTATOC preparation, using a novel germanium-68 (68Ge)/68Ga generator in Iran and evaluate the absorbed doses in numerous organs with high accuracy. Methods: The optimized conditions for preparing the radiolabeled complex were determined via several experiments by changing the ligand concentration, pH, temperature and incubation time. Radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed, using high-performance liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. The absorbed dose of human organs was evaluated, based on biodistribution studies on Syrian rats via Radiation Absorbed Dose Assessment Resource Method. Results: 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C at least two hours after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreatic and adrenal tissues (12.83 %ID/g and 0.91 %ID/g, respectively). Dose estimations in human organs showed that the pancreas, kidneys and adrenal glands received the maximum absorbed doses (0.105, 0.074 and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively). Also, the effective absorbed dose was estimated at 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68Ga-DOTATOC. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as an effective agent for clinical PET imaging in Iran. PMID:27904870

  4. Primary DNA damage assessed with the comet assay and comparison to the absorbed dose of diagnostic X-rays in children.

    PubMed

    Milkovic, Durdica; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Ranogajec-Komor, Mária; Miljanic, Saveta; Gajski, Goran; Knezevic, Zeljka; Beck, Natko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children prior to and following airway X-ray examinations of the chest using the alkaline comet assay and to compare data with the measured absorbed dose. Twenty children with pulmonary diseases, between the ages of 5 and 14 years, are assessed. Absorbed dose measurements are conducted for posterior-anterior projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest, and back. Doses are measured using thermoluminescent and radiophotoluminescent dosimetry systems. Differences between tail lengths, tail intensity, and tail moments as well as for the long-tailed nuclei before and after exposures are statistically significant and are dependent on the individual. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the comet assay as a measure of X-ray damage to lymphocytes in a clinical setting. Doses measured with both dosimeters show satisfactory agreement (0.01 mSv) and are suitable for dosimetric measurements in X-ray diagnostics.

  5. [Determination of absorbed dose to water for high energy photon and electron beams--comparison of different dosimetry protocols].

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Golam Abu; Schütte, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    The determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams is performed in Germany according to the dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (1997). At an international level, the main protocols used are the AAPM dosimetry protocol TG-51 (1999) and the IAEA Code of Practice TRS-398 (2000). The present paper systematically compares these three dosimetry protocols, and identifies similarities and differences. The investigations were performed using 4 and 10 MV photon beams, as well as 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams. Two cylindrical and two plane-parallel type chambers were used for measurements. In general, the discrepancies among the three protocols were 1.0% for photon beams and 1.6% for electron beams. Comparative measurements in the context of measurement technical control (MTK) with TLD showed a deviation of less than 1.3% between the measurements obtained according to protocols DIN 6800-2 and MTK (exceptions: 4 MV photons with 2.9% and 6 MeV electrons with 2.4%). While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, measurements of electron beams were performed using both cylindrical and plane-parallel chambers (the latter used after a cross-calibration to a cylindrical chamber, as required by the respective dosimetry protocols). Notably, unlike recommended in the corresponding protocols, we found out that cylindrical chambers can be used also for energies from 6 to 10 MeV.

  6. Absorbed dose in AgBr in direct film for photon energies ( < 150 keV): relation to optical density. Theoretical calculation and experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Helmrot, E; Alm Carlsson, G

    1996-01-01

    In the radiological process it is necessary to develop tools so as to explore how X-rays can be used in the most effective way. Evaluation of models to derive measures of image quality and risk-related parameters is one possibility of getting such a tool. Modelling the image receptor, an important part of the imaging chain, is then required. The aim of this work was to find convenient and accurate ways of describing the blackening of direct dental films by X-rays. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the relation between optical density and photon interactions in the silver bromide in X-ray films has been investigated by many authors. The first attempts used simple quantum theories with no consideration of underlying physical interaction processes. The theories were gradually made more realistic by the introduction of dosimetric concepts and cavity theory. A review of cavity theories for calculating the mean absorbed dose in the AgBr grains of the film emulsion is given in this work. The cavity theories of GREENING (15) and SPIERS-CHARLTON (37) were selected for calculating the mean absorbed dose in the AgBr grains relative to the air collision kerma (Kc,air) of the incident photons of Ultra-speed and Ektaspeed (intraoral) films using up-to-date values of interaction coefficients. GREENING'S theory is a multi-grain theory and the results depend on the relative amounts of silver bromide and gelatine in the emulsion layer. In the single grain theory of SPIERS-CHARLTON, the shape and size of the silver bromide grain are important. Calculations of absorbed dose in the silver bromide were compared with measurements of optical densities in Ultra-speed and Ektaspeed films for a broad range (25-145 kV) of X-ray energy. The calculated absorbed dose values were appropriately averaged over the complete photon energy spectrum, which was determined experimentally using a Compton spectrometer. For the whole range of tube potentials used, the measured optical densities of the

  7. Absorbed radiation dose in adults from iodine-131 and iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate and technetium-99m DTPA renography

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, O.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematic model for evaluation of absorbed dose in radionuclide renography has been developed and programmed for automatic calculation in the computer. Input data to the model are readily available from the results of the renography and, hence, the method described is suitable for individual dose determinations in adults. Apart from the situation with very considerable outflow obstructions (/sup 131/I)OIH single probe renography involves a 15-20 times smaller dose to radiation sensitive organs than (/sup 123/I)OIH gamma camera renography. Further, the latter examination results in a 2-10 times smaller dose than (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA gamma camera renography under normal outflow conditions.more » Absorbed renal dose is large, approximately 70 mGy, in the three renographies in the borderline case with total outflow obstructions. For comparison, i.v. pyelography, which is the x-ray examination often used instead of radionuclide renography, involves an absorbed dose to ovaries 10-1000 times larger than in radionuclide renography« less

  8. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  9. Design and measuring of a tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber for terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Liu, Shui Jie; Xu, Bang Li; Wang, Jie; Huang, Hua Qing

    2018-04-01

    A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber is designed and experimentally produced in THz band. The hybrid metamaterial absorber contains two dielectric layers: SU-8 and VO2 layers. An absorption peak reaching to 83.5% is achieved at 1.04 THz. The hybrid metamaterial absorber exhibits high absorption when the incident angle reaches to 45°. Measured results indicate that the absorption amplitude and peak frequency of the hybrid metamaterial absorber is tunable in experiments. It is due to the insulator-to-metal phase transition is achieved when the measured temperature reaches to 68 °C. Moreover, the hybrid metamaterial absorber reveals high figure of merit (FOM) value when the measured temperature reaches to 68 °C.

  10. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  11. Prediction of Therapy Tumor-Absorbed Dose Estimates in I-131 Radioimmunotherapy Using Tracer Data Via a Mixed-Model Fit to Time Activity

    PubMed Central

    Koral, Kenneth F.; Avram, Anca M.; Kaminski, Mark S.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For individualized treatment planning in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), correlations must be established between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered absorbed doses. The focus of this work was to investigate this correlation for tumors. Methods The study analyzed 57 tumors in 19 follicular lymphoma patients treated with I-131 tositumomab and imaged with SPECT/CT multiple times after tracer and therapy administrations. Instead of the typical least-squares fit to a single tumor's measured time-activity data, estimation was accomplished via a biexponential mixed model in which the curves from multiple subjects were jointly estimated. The tumor-absorbed dose estimates were determined by patient-specific Monte Carlo calculation. Results The mixed model gave realistic tumor time-activity fits that showed the expected uptake and clearance phases even with noisy data or missing time points. Correlation between tracer and therapy tumor-residence times (r=0.98; p<0.0001) and correlation between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered mean tumor-absorbed doses (r=0.86; p<0.0001) were very high. The predicted and delivered absorbed doses were within±25% (or within±75 cGy) for 80% of tumors. Conclusions The mixed-model approach is feasible for fitting tumor time-activity data in RIT treatment planning when individual least-squares fitting is not possible due to inadequate sampling points. The good correlation between predicted and delivered tumor doses demonstrates the potential of using a pretherapy tracer study for tumor dosimetry-based treatment planning in RIT. PMID:22947086

  12. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 μGy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after

  13. Calculated and TLD-based absorbed dose estimates for I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody in a human neuroblastoma xenograft nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ugur, O; Scott, A M; Kostakoglu, L; Hui, T E; Masterson, M E; Febo, R; Sgouros, G; Rosa, E; Mehta, B M; Fisher, D R

    1995-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of the therapeutic potential of radiolabeled antibodies is commonly performed in a xenografted nude mouse model. To assess therapeutic efficacy it is important to estimate the absorbed dose to the tumor and normal tissues of the nude mouse. The current study was designed to accurately measure radiation does to human neuroblastoma xenografts and normal organs in nude mice treated with I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against disialoganglioside GD2 antigen. Absorbed dose estimates were obtained using two different approaches: (1) measurement with teflon-imbedded CaSO4:Dy mini-thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and (2) calculations using mouse S-factors. The calculated total dose to tumor one week after i.v. injection of the 50 microCi I-131-3F8 MoAb was 604 cGy. The corresponding decay corrected and not corrected TLD measurements were 109 +/- 9 and 48.7 +/- 3.4 cGy respectively. The calculated to TLD-derived dose ratios for tumor ranged from 6.1 at 24 h to 5.5 at 1 week. The light output fading rate was found to depend upon the tissue type within which the TLDs were implanted. The decay rate in tumor, muscle, subcutaneous tissue and in vitro, were 9.5, 5.0, 3.7 and 0.67% per day, respectively. We have demonstrated that the type of tissue in which the TLD was implanted strongly influenced the in vivo decay of light output. Even with decay correction, a significant discrepancy was observed between MIRD-based calculated and CaSO4:Dy mini-TLD measured absorbed doses. Batch dependence, pH of the tumor or other variables associated with TLDs which are not as yet well known may account for this discrepancy.

  14. Efficacy of a Radiation Absorbing Shield in Reducing Dose to the Interventionalist During Peripheral Endovascular Procedures: A Single Centre Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Power, S.; Mirza, M.; Thakorlal, A.

    PurposeThis prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures.Materials and MethodsA commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used tomore » measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated.ResultsTLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142).ConclusionInitial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator’s body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.« less

  15. Efficacy of a radiation absorbing shield in reducing dose to the interventionalist during peripheral endovascular procedures: a single centre pilot study.

    PubMed

    Power, S; Mirza, M; Thakorlal, A; Ganai, B; Gavagan, L D; Given, M F; Lee, M J

    2015-06-01

    This prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures. A commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used to measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated. TLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). Initial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator's body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.

  16. Determination of absorbed dose to water from a miniature kilovoltage x-ray source using a parallel-plate ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Peter G. F.; Popovic, Marija; Seuntjens, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Electronic brachytherapy sources are widely accepted as alternatives to radionuclide-based systems. Yet, formal dosimetry standards for these devices to independently complement the dose protocol provided by the manufacturer are lacking. This article presents a formalism for calculating and independently verifying the absorbed dose to water from a kV x-ray source (The INTRABEAM System) measured in a water phantom with an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air-kerma. This formalism uses a Monte Carlo (MC) calculated chamber conversion factor, CQ , to convert air-kerma in a reference beam to absorbed dose to water in the measurement beam. In this work CQ was determined for a PTW 34013 parallel-plate ionization chamber. Our results show that CQ was sensitive to the chamber plate separation tolerance, with differences of up to 15%. CQ was also found to have a depth dependence which varied with chamber plate separation (0 to 10% variation for the smallest and largest cavity height, over 3 to 30 mm depth). However for all chamber dimensions investigated, CQ was found to be significantly larger than the manufacturer reported value, suggesting that the manufacturer recommended method of dose calculation could be underestimating the dose to water.

  17. Design and measure of a tunable double-band metamaterial absorber in the THz spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiming, Han

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate and measure a hybrid double-band tunable metamaterial absorber in the terahertz region. The measured metamaterial absorber contains of a hybrid dielectric layer structure: a SU-8 layer and a VO2 layer. Near perfect double-band absorption performances are achieved by optimizing the SU-8 layer thickness at room temperature 25 °C. Measured results show that the phase transition can be observed when the measured temperature reaches 68 °C. Further measured results indicate that the resonance frequency and absorption amplitude of the proposed metamaterial absorber are tunable through increasing the measured temperature, while structural parameters unchanged. The proposed hybrid metamaterial absorber shows many advantages, such as frequency agility, absorption amplitude tunable, and simple fabrication.

  18. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout.

  19. Estimated human absorbed dose of a new (153)Sm bone seeking agent based on biodistribution data in mice: Comparison with (153)Sm-EDTMP.

    PubMed

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh

    2015-11-01

    The main goal in radiotherapy is to deliver the absorbed dose within the target organs in highest possible amount, while the absorbed dose of the other organs, especially the critical organs, should be kept as low as possible. In this work, the absorbed dose to human organs for a new (153)Sm bone-seeking agent was investigated. (153)Sm-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid ((153)Sm-BPAMD) complex was successfully prepared. The biodistribution of the complex was investigated in male Syrian mice up to 48 h post injection. The human absorbed dose of the complex was estimated based on the biodistribution data of the mice by radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The target to non-target absorbed dose ratios for (153)Sm-BPAMD were compared with these ratios for (153)Sm-EDTMP. The highest absorbed dose for (153)Sm-BPAMD was observed in bone surface with 5.828 mGy/MBq. The dose ratios of the bone surface to the red marrow and to the total body for (153)Sm-BPAMD were 5.3 and 20.0, respectively, while these ratios for (153)Sm-EDTMP were 4.4 and 18.3, respectively. This means, for a given dose to the bone surface as the target organ, the red marrow (as the main critical organ) and the total body would receive lesser absorbed dose in the case of (153)Sm-BPAMD. Generally, the human absorbed dose estimation of (153)Sm-BPAMD indicated that all other tissues approximately received insignificant absorbed dose in comparison with bone surface and therefore can be regarded as a new potential agent for bone pain palliation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing absorbed dose to eye lenses in head CT examinations: the effect of bismuth shielding.

    PubMed

    Ciarmatori, Alberto; Nocetti, L; Mistretta, G; Zambelli, G; Costi, T

    2016-06-01

    The eye lens is considered to be among the most radiosensitive human tissues. Brain CT scans may unnecessarily expose it to radiation even if the area of clinical interest is far from the eyes. The aim of this study is to implement a bismuth eye lens shielding system for Head-CT acquisitions in these cases. The study is focused on the assessment of the dosimetric characteristics of the shielding system as well as on its effect on image quality. The shielding system was tested in two set-ups which differ for distance ("contact" and "4 cm" Set up respectively). Scans were performed on a CTDI phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom. A reference set up without shielding system was acquired to establish a baseline. Image quality was assessed by signal (not HU converted), noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) evaluation. The overall dose reduction was evaluated by measuring the CTDIvol while the eye lens dose reduction was assessed by placing thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on an anthropomorphic phantom. The image quality analysis exhibits the presence of an artefact that mildly increases the CT number up to 3 cm below the shielding system. Below the artefact, the difference of the Signal and the CNR are negligible between the three different set-ups. Regarding the CTDI, the analysis demonstrates a decrease by almost 12 % (in the "contact" set-up) and 9 % (in the "4 cm" set-up). TLD measurements exhibit an eye lens dose reduction by 28.5 ± 5 and 21.1 ± 5 % respectively at the "contact" and the "4 cm" distance. No relevant artefact was found and image quality was not affected by the shielding system. Significant dose reductions were measured. These features make the shielding set-up useful for clinical implementation in both studied positions.

  1. Measuring neuronal avalanches in disordered systems with absorbing states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi-Schappo, M.; Tragtenberg, M. H. R.

    2018-04-01

    Power-law-shaped avalanche-size distributions are widely used to probe for critical behavior in many different systems, particularly in neural networks. The definition of avalanche is ambiguous. Usually, theoretical avalanches are defined as the activity between a stimulus and the relaxation to an inactive absorbing state. On the other hand, experimental neuronal avalanches are defined by the activity between consecutive silent states. We claim that the latter definition may be extended to some theoretical models to characterize their power-law avalanches and critical behavior. We study a system in which the separation of driving and relaxation time scales emerges from its structure. We apply both definitions of avalanche to our model. Both yield power-law-distributed avalanches that scale with system size in the critical point as expected. Nevertheless, we find restricted power-law-distributed avalanches outside of the critical region within the experimental procedure, which is not expected by the standard theoretical definition. We remark that these results are dependent on the model details.

  2. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rottke, D; Grossekettler, L; Sawada, K; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the absorbed doses in a full anthropomorphic body phantom from two different panoramic radiography devices, performing protocols with and without applying a lead apron. Methods: A RANDO® full body phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Stamford, CT) was equipped with 110 thermoluminescent dosemeters at 55 different sites and set up in two different panoramic radiography devices [SCANORA® three-dimensional (3D) (SOREDEX, Tuusula, Finland) and ProMax® 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland)] and exposed. Two different protocols were performed in the two devices. The first protocol was performed without any lead shielding, whereas the phantom was equipped with a standard adult lead apron for the second protocol. Results: A two-tailed paired samples t-test for the SCANORA 3D revealed that there is no difference between the protocol using lead apron shielding (m = 87.99, s = 102.98) and the protocol without shielding (m = 87.34, s = 107.49), t(54) = −0.313, p > 0.05. The same test for the ProMax 3D showed that there is also no difference between the protocol using shielding (m = 106.48, s = 117.38) and the protocol without shielding (m = 107.75, s = 114,36), t(54) = 0.938, p > 0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of this study showed no statistically significant differences between a panoramic radiography with or without the use of lead apron shielding. PMID:24174012

  3. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Rottke, D; Grossekettler, L; Sawada, K; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the absorbed doses in a full anthropomorphic body phantom from two different panoramic radiography devices, performing protocols with and without applying a lead apron. A RANDO(®) full body phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Stamford, CT) was equipped with 110 thermoluminescent dosemeters at 55 different sites and set up in two different panoramic radiography devices [SCANORA(®) three-dimensional (3D) (SOREDEX, Tuusula, Finland) and ProMax(®) 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland)] and exposed. Two different protocols were performed in the two devices. The first protocol was performed without any lead shielding, whereas the phantom was equipped with a standard adult lead apron for the second protocol. A two-tailed paired samples t-test for the SCANORA 3D revealed that there is no difference between the protocol using lead apron shielding (m = 87.99, s = 102.98) and the protocol without shielding (m = 87.34, s = 107.49), t(54) = -0.313, p > 0.05. The same test for the ProMax 3D showed that there is also no difference between the protocol using shielding (m = 106.48, s = 117.38) and the protocol without shielding (m = 107.75, s = 114,36), t(54) = 0.938, p > 0.05. In conclusion, the results of this study showed no statistically significant differences between a panoramic radiography with or without the use of lead apron shielding.

  4. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Rottke, D; Grossekettler, L; Sawada, K; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the absorbed doses in a full anthropomorphic body phantom from two different panoramic radiography devices, performing protocols with and without applying a lead apron. A RANDO® full body phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Stamford, CT) was equipped with 110 thermoluminescent dosemeters at 55 different sites and set up in two different panoramic radiography devices [SCANORA® three-dimensional (3D) (SOREDEX, Tuusula, Finland) and ProMax® 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland)] and exposed. Two different protocols were performed in the two devices. The first protocol was performed without any lead shielding, whereas the phantom was equipped with a standard adult lead apron for the second protocol. A two-tailed paired samples t-test for the SCANORA 3D revealed that there is no difference between the protocol using lead apron shielding (m = 87.99, s = 102.98) and the protocol without shielding (m = 87.34, s = 107.49), t(54) = −0.313, p > 0.05. The same test for the ProMax 3D showed that there is also no difference between the protocol using shielding (m = 106.48, s = 117.38) and the protocol without shielding (m = 107.75, s = 114,36), t(54) = 0.938, p > 0.05. In conclusion, the results of this study showed no statistically significant differences between a panoramic radiography with or without the use of lead apron shielding.

  5. Absorbed dose kernel and self-shielding calculations for a novel radiopaque glass microsphere for transarterial radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Church, Cody; Mawko, George; Archambault, John Paul; Lewandowski, Robert; Liu, David; Kehoe, Sharon; Boyd, Daniel; Abraham, Robert; Syme, Alasdair

    2018-02-01

    Radiopaque microspheres may provide intraprocedural and postprocedural feedback during transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Furthermore, the potential to use higher resolution x-ray imaging techniques as opposed to nuclear medicine imaging suggests that significant improvements in the accuracy and precision of radiation dosimetry calculations could be realized for this type of therapy. This study investigates the absorbed dose kernel for novel radiopaque microspheres including contributions of both short and long-lived contaminant radionuclides while concurrently quantifying the self-shielding of the glass network. Monte Carlo simulations using EGSnrc were performed to determine the dose kernels for all monoenergetic electron emissions and all beta spectra for radionuclides reported in a neutron activation study of the microspheres. Simulations were benchmarked against an accepted 90 Y dose point kernel. Self-shielding was quantified for the microspheres by simulating an isotropically emitting, uniformly distributed source, in glass and in water. The ratio of the absorbed doses was scored as a function of distance from a microsphere. The absorbed dose kernel for the microspheres was calculated for (a) two bead formulations following (b) two different durations of neutron activation, at (c) various time points following activation. Self-shielding varies with time postremoval from the reactor. At early time points, it is less pronounced due to the higher energies of the emissions. It is on the order of 0.4-2.8% at a radial distance of 5.43 mm with increased size from 10 to 50 μm in diameter during the time that the microspheres would be administered to a patient. At long time points, self-shielding is more pronounced and can reach values in excess of 20% near the end of the range of the emissions. Absorbed dose kernels for 90 Y, 90m Y, 85m Sr, 85 Sr, 87m Sr, 89 Sr, 70 Ga, 72 Ga, and 31 Si are presented and used to determine an overall kernel for the

  6. Calculation of Absorbed Dose in Target Tissue and Equivalent Dose in Sensitive Tissues of Patients Treated by BNCT Using MCNP4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.

  7. Validation of a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining the absorbed and effective radiation doses in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Manninen, A-L; Kotiaho, A; Nikkinen, J; Nieminen, M T

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining absorbed and effective doses (EDs) in the dose and energy range used in diagnostic radiology. Energy dependence, dose linearity and repeatability of the dosemeter were examined. The absorbed doses (ADs) were compared at anterior-posterior projection and the EDs were determined at posterior-anterior, anterior-posterior and lateral projections of thoracic imaging using an anthropomorphic phantom. The radiation exposures were made using digital radiography systems. This study revealed that the MOSFET system with high sensitivity bias supply set-up is sufficiently accurate for AD and ED determination. The dosemeter is recommended to be calibrated for energies <60 and >80 kVp. The entrance skin dose level should be at least 5 mGy to minimise the deviation of the individual dosemeter dose. For ED determination, dosemeters should be implanted perpendicular to the surface of the phantom to prevent the angular dependence error. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Surface dose measurement for helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Snir, Jonatan A; Mosalaei, Homeira; Jordan, Kevin; Yartsev, Slav

    2011-06-01

    To compare the surface dose measurements made by different dosimeters for the helical tomotherapy (HT) plan in the case of the target close to the surface. Surface dose measurements in different points for the HT plan to deliver 2 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) at 5 mm below the surface of the cylindrical phantom were performed by radiochromic films, single use metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters, silicon IVD QED diode, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. The measured doses by all dosimeters were within 12 +/- 8% difference of each other. Radiochromic films, EBT, and EBT2, provide high spatial resolution, although it is difficult to get accurate measurements of dose. Both the OSL and QED measured similar dose to that of the MOSFET detectors. The QED dosimeter is promising as a reusable on-line wireless dosimeter, while the OSL dosimeters are easier to use, require minimum setup time and are very precise.

  9. Organ dose measurement using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detector (OSLD) during CT examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Muhammad; Alothmany, Nazeeh; Abdulrahman Kinsara, Abdulraheem

    2017-10-01

    This study provides detailed information regarding the imaging doses to patient radiosensitive organs from a kilovoltage computed tomography (CT) scan procedure using OSLD. The study reports discrepancies between the measured dose and the calculated dose from the ImPACT scan, as well as a comparison with the dose from a chest X-ray radiography procedure. OSLDs were inserted in several organs, including the brain, eyes, thyroid, lung, heart, spinal cord, breast, spleen, stomach, liver and ovaries, of the RANDO phantom. Standard clinical scanning protocols were used for each individual site, including the brain, thyroid, lung, breast, stomach, liver and ovaries. The measured absorbed doses were then compared with the simulated dose obtained from the ImPACT scan. Additionally, the equivalent doses for each organ were calculated and compared with the dose from a chest X-ray radiography procedure. Absorbed organ doses measured by OSLD in the RANDO phantom of up to 17 mGy depend on the organ scanned and the scanning protocols used. A maximum 9.82% difference was observed between the target organ dose measured by OSLD and the results from the ImPACT scan. The maximum equivalent organ dose measured during this experiment was equal to 99.899 times the equivalent dose from a chest X-ray radiography procedure. The discrepancies between the measured dose with the OSLD and the calculated dose from the ImPACT scan were within 10%. This report recommends the use of OSLD for measuring the absorbed organ dose during CT examination.

  10. Using RADFET for the real-time measurement of gamma radiation dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjelković, Marko S.; Ristić, Goran S.; Jakšić, Aleksandar B.

    2015-02-01

    RADFETs (RADiation sensitive Field Effect Transistors) are integrating ionizing radiation dosimeters operating on the principle of conversion of radiation-induced threshold voltage shift into absorbed dose. However, one of the major drawbacks of RADFETs is the inability to provide the information on the dose rate in real-time using the conventional absorbed dose measurement technique. The real-time monitoring of dose rate and absorbed dose can be achieved with the current mode dosimeters such as PN and PIN diodes/photodiodes, but these dosimeters have some limitations as absorbed dose meters and hence they are often not a suitable replacement for RADFETs. In that sense, this paper investigates the possibility of using the RADFET as a real-time dose rate meter so that it could be applied for simultaneous online measurement of the dose rate and absorbed dose. A RADFET sample, manufactured by Tyndall National Institute, Cork, Ireland, was tested as a dose rate meter under gamma irradiation from a Co-60 source. The RADFET was configured as a PN junction, such that the drain, gate and source terminals were grounded, while the radiation-induced current was measured at the bulk terminal, whereby the bulk was successively biased with 0 , 10 , 20  and 30 V. In zero-bias mode the radiation-induced current was unstable, but in the biased mode the current response was stable for the investigated dose rates from 0.65  to 32.1 Gy h-1 and up to the total absorbed dose of 25 Gy. The current increased with the dose rate in accordance with the power law, whereas the sensitivity of the current read-out was linear with respect to the applied bias voltage. Comparison with previously analyzed PIN photodiodes has shown that the investigated RADFET is competitive with PIN photodiodes as a gamma radiation dose rate meter and therefore has the potential to be employed for the real-time monitoring of the dose rate and absorbed dose.

  11. (⁹⁹m)Tc-MAA overestimates the absorbed dose to the lungs in radioembolization: a quantitative evaluation in patients treated with ¹⁶⁶Ho-microspheres.

    PubMed

    Elschot, Mattijs; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Lam, Marnix G E H; Smits, Maarten L J; Prince, Jip F; Viergever, Max A; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; de Jong, Hugo W A M

    2014-10-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is a rare but serious complication of radioembolic therapy of liver tumours. Estimation of the mean absorbed dose to the lungs based on pretreatment diagnostic (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) imaging should prevent this, with administered activities adjusted accordingly. The accuracy of (99m)Tc-MAA-based lung absorbed dose estimates was evaluated and compared to absorbed dose estimates based on pretreatment diagnostic (166)Ho-microsphere imaging and to the actual lung absorbed doses after (166)Ho radioembolization. This prospective clinical study included 14 patients with chemorefractory, unresectable liver metastases treated with (166)Ho radioembolization. (99m)Tc-MAA-based and (166)Ho-microsphere-based estimation of lung absorbed doses was performed on pretreatment diagnostic planar scintigraphic and SPECT/CT images. The clinical analysis was preceded by an anthropomorphic torso phantom study with simulated lung shunt fractions of 0 to 30 % to determine the accuracy of the image-based lung absorbed dose estimates after (166)Ho radioembolization. In the phantom study, (166)Ho SPECT/CT-based lung absorbed dose estimates were more accurate (absolute error range 0.1 to -4.4 Gy) than (166)Ho planar scintigraphy-based lung absorbed dose estimates (absolute error range 9.5 to 12.1 Gy). Clinically, the actual median lung absorbed dose was 0.02 Gy (range 0.0 to 0.7 Gy) based on posttreatment (166)Ho-microsphere SPECT/CT imaging. Lung absorbed doses estimated on the basis of pretreatment diagnostic (166)Ho-microsphere SPECT/CT imaging (median 0.02 Gy, range 0.0 to 0.4 Gy) were significantly better predictors of the actual lung absorbed doses than doses estimated on the basis of (166)Ho-microsphere planar scintigraphy (median 10.4 Gy, range 4.0 to 17.3 Gy; p < 0.001), (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT/CT imaging (median 2.5 Gy, range 1.2 to 12.3 Gy; p < 0.001), and (99m)Tc-MAA planar scintigraphy (median 5.5 Gy, range 2.3 to 18.2 Gy; p < 0

  12. Extravasation of radiopharmaceuticals - a study of its frequency and estimation of absorbed doses in diagnosis and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, S.E.; Grafstroem, G.; Kontestabile, E.

    In all injection procedures exists a risk for extravasation. For radiopharmaceuticals, the absorbed dose at the injection site can be high because of high activity concentrations. In radionuclide therapy (RNT), this can cause deterministic effects such as tissue necrosis. To estimate the risk for extravasation, we studied various injection techniques at two nuclear medicine clinics. The frequency and magnitude of extravasations was studied in randomly selected patients. Clinic A used peripheral venous cathethers (PVC), and clinic B used direct injections with injection needles (IN). At clinic A 203 patients were investigated and at clinic B 90. All of these patientsmore » were injected with either 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MAA, 99mTc-MDP or pertechnetate. Both arms were imaged with a scintillation camera as soon as possible after the injection. In the case of an extravasation, the retention time at the injection site was determined with multiple imaging, together with volume estimates. The results for PVC injected patients showed one complete extravasation. We also found that in 8% of these patients the remaining activity at the injection site was up to 2%. For the IN injected patients there was none with complete extravasation. However, in 33% of these patients the remaining activity was up to 18%. The locally absorbed doses in these diagnostically investigated patients were estimated with the MIRD formalism to be up to 0.1 Sv (10 rem). Transforming these results to the RNT, the absorbed doses can be up to 1000 times higher. In addition to the calculated absorbed doses, radionuclides localizing to the cell nucleus could enhance the effects.« less

  13. Fine structure of the absorbed dose rate monitored in Zagreb, Croatia, in the period 1985-2011.

    PubMed

    Babić, D; Senčar, J; Petrinec, B; Marović, G; Bituh, T; Skoko, B

    2013-04-01

    We report on the fine structure of the absorbed dose rate D which was measured and recorded on a daily basis at the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb, Croatia, throughout the period 1985-2011. After the Chernobyl accident, D increased steeply by a factor of 3.5, but this is the only prominent feature in the D versus time (t) curve. In the absence of accidental conditions, the D(t) is flat and amounts to 30-35 pGy/s. Despite the apparent plainness of D(t), its Fourier transform reveals several periodic modulations hidden in the noise. Some of the corresponding periods (6 and 12 months) can be related to seasonal atmospheric changes but this is not the case with the other periods identified (9.3, 13.7, 15.7, 20, 31, and 39 months). These are found to agree well with literature data on periodicities in solar activity, which implies that they are most probably linked to variations in the atmospheric production of (7)Be by cosmic rays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around an 192Ir brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Lucas, P Avilés; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Lourenço, V; Vermesse, D; Cutarella, D

    2014-01-01

    The absorbed dose to water is the fundamental reference quantity for brachytherapy treatment planning systems and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have been recognized as the most validated detectors for measurement of such a dosimetric descriptor. The detector response in a wide energy spectrum as that of an (192)Ir brachytherapy source as well as the specific measurement medium which surrounds the TLD need to be accounted for when estimating the absorbed dose. This paper develops a methodology based on highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to directly estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around a high dose rate (192)Ir brachytherapy source. Different experimental designs in liquid water and air were constructed to study the response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs when irradiated in several standard photon beams of the LNE-LNHB (French national metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation). Measurement strategies and Monte Carlo techniques were developed to calibrate the LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors in the energy interval characteristic of that found when TLDs are immersed in water around an (192)Ir source. Finally, an experimental system was designed to irradiate TLDs at different angles between 1 and 11 cm away from an (192)Ir source in liquid water. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to correct measured results to provide estimates of the absorbed dose to water in water around the (192)Ir source. The dose response dependence of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs with the linear energy transfer of secondary electrons followed the same variations as those of published results. The calibration strategy which used TLDs in air exposed to a standard N-250 ISO x-ray beam and TLDs in water irradiated with a standard (137)Cs beam provided an estimated mean uncertainty of 2.8% (k = 1) in the TLD calibration coefficient for irradiations by the (192)Ir source in water. The 3D TLD measurements performed in liquid water were obtained with a maximum uncertainty of 11% (k = 1) found at 1 cm

  15. Mean Absorbed Dose to the Anal-Sphincter Region and Fecal Leakage among Irradiated Prostate Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Alsadius, David, E-mail: david.alsadius@oncology.gu.se; Hedelin, Maria; Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To supplement previous findings that the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to the anal sphincter or lower rectum affects the occurrence of fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors. We also wanted to determine whether anatomically defining the anal-sphincter region as the organ at risk could increase the degree of evidence underlying clinical guidelines for restriction doses to eliminate this excess risk. Methods and Materials: We identified 985 men irradiated for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, we assessed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms among these men using a study-specific questionnaire. We restrict the analysis to the 414 men whomore » had been treated with external beam radiation therapy only (no brachytherapy) to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions to the prostate or postoperative prostatic region. On reconstructed original radiation therapy dose plans, we delineated the anal-sphincter region as an organ at risk. Results: We found that the prevalence of long-term fecal leakage at least once per month was strongly correlated with the mean dose to the anal-sphincter region. Examining different dose intervals, we found a large increase at 40 Gy; {>=}40 Gy compared with <40 Gy gave a prevalence ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.6). Conclusions: This long-term study shows that mean absorbed dose to the anal-sphincter region is associated with the occurrence of long-term fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors; delineating the anal-sphincter region separately from the rectum and applying a restriction of a mean dose <40 Gy will, according to our data, reduce the risk considerably.« less

  16. Density measurement in air with saturable absorbing seed gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baganoff, D.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches which have the potential to make density measurements in a compressible flow, where one or more laser beams are used as probes, were investigated. Saturation in sulfur hexafluoride iodine and a crossed beam technique where one beam acts as a saturating beam and the other is at low intensity and acts as a probe beam are considered. It is shown that a balance between an increase in fluorescence intensity with increasing pressure from line broadening and the normal decrease in intensity with increasing pressure from quenching can be used to develop a linear relation between fluorescence intensity and number density and lead to a new density measurement scheme. The method is used to obtain a density image of the cross section of an iodine seeded underexpanded supersonic jet of nitrogen, by illuminating the cross section by a sheet of laser light.

  17. Density measurement in air with a saturable absorbing seed gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baganoff, D.

    1981-01-01

    Resonantly enhanced scattering from the iodine molecule is studied experimentally for the purpose of developing a scheme for the measurement of density in a gas dynamic flow. A study of the spectrum of iodine, the collection of saturation data in iodine, and the development of a mathematical model for correlating saturation effects were pursued for a mixture of 0.3 torr iodine in nitrogen and for mixture pressures up to one atmosphere. For the desired pressure range, saturation effects in iodine were found to be too small to be useful in allowing density measurements to be made. The effects of quenching can be reduced by detuning the exciting laser wavelength from the absorption line center of the iodine line used (resonant Raman scattering). The signal was found to be nearly independent of pressure, for pressures up to one atmosphere, when the excitation beam was detuned 6 GHz from line center for an isolated line in iodine. The signal amplitude was found to be nearly equal to the amplitude for fluorescence at atmospheric pressure, which indicates a density measurement scheme is possible.

  18. Dose measurement based on threshold shift in MOSFET arrays in commercial SRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, L. Z.; Swift, G.

    2002-01-01

    A new method using an array of MOS transistors isdescribed for measuring dose absorbed from ionizingradiation. Using the array of MOSFETs in a SRAM, a direct measurement of the number of MOS cells which change as a function of applied bias on the SRAM. Since the input and output of a SRAM used as a dosimeter is completely digital, the measurement of dose is easily accessible by a remote processing system.

  19. Measuring dose from radiotherapy treatments in the vicinity of a cardiac pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Peet, Samuel C; Wilks, Rachael; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the dose absorbed by tissues surrounding artificial cardiac pacemakers during external beam radiotherapy procedures. The usefulness of out-of-field reference data, treatment planning systems, and skin dose measurements to estimate the dose in the vicinity of a pacemaker was also examined. Measurements were performed by installing a pacemaker onto an anthropomorphic phantom, and using radiochromic film and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters to measure the dose in the vicinity of the device during the delivery of square fields and clinical treatment plans. It was found that the dose delivered in the vicinity of the cardiac device was unevenly distributed both laterally and anteroposteriorly. As the device was moved distally from the square field, the dose dropped exponentially, in line with out-of-field reference data in the literature. Treatment planning systems were found to substantially underestimate the dose for volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical tomotherapy, and 3D conformal treatments. The skin dose was observed to be either greater or lesser than the dose received at the depth of the device, depending on the treatment site, and so care should be if skin dose measurements are to be used to estimate the dose to a pacemaker. Square field reference data may be used as an upper estimate of absorbed dose per monitor unit in the vicinity of a cardiac device for complex treatments involving multiple gantry angles. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconstruction of Absorbed Doses to Fibroglandular Tissue of the Breast of Women undergoing Mammography (1960 to the Present)

    PubMed Central

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Kwon, Deukwoo; Linet, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of potential benefits versus harms from mammographic examinations as described in the controversial breast cancer screening recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Task Force included limited consideration of absorbed dose to the fibroglandular tissue of the breast (glandular tissue dose), the tissue at risk for breast cancer. Epidemiological studies on cancer risks associated with diagnostic radiological examinations often lack accurate information on glandular tissue dose, and there is a clear need for better estimates of these doses. Our objective was to develop a quantitative summary of glandular tissue doses from mammography by considering sources of variation over time in key parameters including imaging protocols, x-ray target materials, voltage, filtration, incident air kerma, compressed breast thickness, and breast composition. We estimated the minimum, maximum, and mean values for glandular tissue dose for populations of exposed women within 5-year periods from 1960 to the present, with the minimum to maximum range likely including 90% to 95% of the entirety of the dose range from mammography in North America and Europe. Glandular tissue dose from a single view in mammography is presently about 2 mGy, about one-sixth the dose in the 1960s. The ratio of our estimates of maximum to minimum glandular tissue doses for average-size breasts was about 100 in the 1960s compared to a ratio of about 5 in recent years. Findings from our analysis provide quantitative information on glandular tissue doses from mammographic examinations which can be used in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. PMID:21988547

  1. Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for the NPL high-energy photon calibration service.

    PubMed

    Nutbrown, R F; Duane, S; Shipley, D R; Thomas, R A S

    2002-02-07

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy photon calibration service using 4-19 MV x-rays and 60Co gamma-radiation for secondary standard dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose to water. The primary standard used for this service is a graphite calorimeter and so absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined prior to the launch of this service in 1988. Since then, it has been found that the differences in inherent filtration between the NPL LINAC and typical clinical machines are large enough to affect absorbed dose calibrations and, since 1992, calibrations have been performed in heavily filtered qualities. The conversion factors for heavily filtered qualities were determined by interpolation and extrapolation of lightly filtered results as a function of tissue phantom ratio 20,10 (TPR20,10). This paper aims to evaluate these factors for all mega-voltage photon energies provided by the NPL LINAC for both lightly and heavily filtered qualities and for 60Co y-radiation in two ways. The first method involves the use of the photon fluence-scaling theorem. This states that if two blocks of different material are irradiated by the same photon beam, and if all dimensions are scaled in the inverse ratio of the electron densities of the two media, then, assuming that all photon interactions occur by Compton scatter the photon attenuation and scatter factors at corresponding scaled points of measurement in the phantom will be identical. The second method involves making in-phantom measurements of chamber response at a constant target-chamber distance. Monte Carlo techniques are then used to determine the corresponding dose to the medium in order to determine the chamber calibration factor directly. Values of the ratio of absorbed dose calibration factors in water and in graphite determined in these two ways agree with each other to within 0.2% (1sigma uncertainty). The best fit

  2. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the breast using radiochromic film in a dedicated CT mammotomography system employing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Dominic J; Brady, Samuel L; Jackson, D'Vone C; Toncheva, Greta I; Anderson, Colin E; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Tornai, Martin P

    2011-06-01

    A dual modality SPECT-CT prototype system dedicated to uncompressed breast imaging (mammotomography) has been developed. The computed tomography subsystem incorporates an ultrathick K-edge filtration technique producing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray cone beam that optimizes the dose efficiency of the system for lesion imaging in an uncompressed breast. Here, the absorbed dose in various geometric phantoms and in an uncompressed and pendant cadaveric breast using a normal tomographic cone beam imaging protocol is characterized using both thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and ionization chamber-calibrated radiochromic film. Initially, two geometric phantoms and an anthropomorphic breast phantom are filled in turn with oil and water to simulate the dose to objects that mimic various breast shapes having effective density bounds of 100% fatty and glandular breast compositions, respectively. Ultimately, an excised human cadaver breast is tomographically scanned using the normal tomographic imaging protocol, and the dose to the breast tissue is evaluated and compared to the earlier phantom-based measurements. Measured trends in dose distribution across all breast geometric and anthropomorphic phantom volumes indicate lower doses in the medial breast and more proximal to the chest wall, with consequently higher doses near the lateral peripheries and nipple regions. Measured doses to the oil-filled phantoms are consistently lower across all volume shapes due to the reduced mass energy-absorption coefficient of oil relative to water. The mean measured dose to the breast cadaver, composed of adipose and glandular tissues, was measured to be 4.2 mGy compared to a mean whole-breast dose of 3.8 and 4.5 mGy for the oil- and water-filled anthropomorphic breast phantoms, respectively. Assuming rotational symmetry due to the tomographic acquisition exposures, these results characterize the 3D dose distributions in an uncompressed human breast tissue volume for this

  3. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the breast using radiochromic film in a dedicated CT mammotomography system employing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Dominic J.; Brady, Samuel L.; Jackson, D’Vone C.; Toncheva, Greta I.; Anderson, Colin E.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A dual modality SPECT-CT prototype system dedicated to uncompressed breast imaging (mammotomography) has been developed. The computed tomography subsystem incorporates an ultrathick K-edge filtration technique producing a quasi-monochromatic x-ray cone beam that optimizes the dose efficiency of the system for lesion imaging in an uncompressed breast. Here, the absorbed dose in various geometric phantoms and in an uncompressed and pendant cadaveric breast using a normal tomographic cone beam imaging protocol is characterized using both thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and ionization chamber-calibrated radiochromic film. Methods: Initially, two geometric phantoms and an anthropomorphic breast phantom are filled in turn with oil and water to simulate the dose to objects that mimic various breast shapes having effective density bounds of 100% fatty and glandular breast compositions, respectively. Ultimately, an excised human cadaver breast is tomographically scanned using the normal tomographic imaging protocol, and the dose to the breast tissue is evaluated and compared to the earlier phantom-based measurements. Results: Measured trends in dose distribution across all breast geometric and anthropomorphic phantom volumes indicate lower doses in the medial breast and more proximal to the chest wall, with consequently higher doses near the lateral peripheries and nipple regions. Measured doses to the oil-filled phantoms are consistently lower across all volume shapes due to the reduced mass energy-absorption coefficient of oil relative to water. The mean measured dose to the breast cadaver, composed of adipose and glandular tissues, was measured to be 4.2 mGy compared to a mean whole-breast dose of 3.8 and 4.5 mGy for the oil- and water-filled anthropomorphic breast phantoms, respectively. Conclusions: Assuming rotational symmetry due to the tomographic acquisition exposures, these results characterize the 3D dose distributions in an uncompressed

  4. Absorbed dose to water based dosimetry versus air kerma based dosimetry for high-energy photon beams: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Palmans, Hugo; Nafaa, Laila; De, Jans Jo; Gillis, Sofie; Hoornaert, Marie-Thérèse; Martens, Chantal; Piessens, Marleen; Thierens, Hubert; Van der Plaetsen, Ann; Vynckier, Stefaan

    2002-02-07

    In recent years, a change has been proposed from air kerma based reference dosimetry to absorbed dose based reference dosimetry for all radiotherapy beams of ionizing radiation. In this paper, a dosimetry study is presented in which absorbed dose based dosimetry using recently developed formalisms was compared with air kerma based dosimetry using older formalisms. Three ionization chambers of each of three different types were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water and air kerma and sent to five hospitals. There, reference dosimetry with all the chambers was performed in a total of eight high-energy clinical photon beams. The selected chamber types were the NE2571, the PTW-30004 and the Wellhöfer-FC65G (previously Wellhöfer-IC70). Having a graphite wall, they exhibit a stable volume and the presence of an aluminium electrode ensures the robustness of these chambers. The data were analysed with the most important recommendations for clinical dosimetry: IAEA TRS-398, AAPM TG-51, IAEA TRS-277, NCS report-2 (presently recommended in Belgium) and AAPM TG-21. The necessary conversion factors were taken from those protocols, or calculated using the data in the different protocols if data for a chamber type are lacking. Polarity corrections were within 0.1% for all chambers in all beams. Recombination corrections were consistent with theoretical predictions, did not vary within a chamber type and only slightly between different chamber types. The maximum chamber-to-chamber variations of the dose obtained with the different formalisms within the same chamber type were between 0.2% and 0.6% for the NE2571, between 0.2% and 0.6% for the PTW-30004 and 0.1% and 0.3% for the Wellhöfer-FC65G for the different beams. The absorbed dose results for the NE2571 and Wellhöfer-FC65G chambers were in good agreement for all beams and all formalisms. The PTW-30004 chambers gave a small but systematically higher result compared to the result for the NE2571 chambers (on the

  5. Analysis and measurement of electromagnetic scattering by pyramidal and wedge absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, B. T.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1986-01-01

    By modifying the reflection coefficients in the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction a solution that approximates the scattering from a dielectric wedge is found. This solution agrees closely with the exact solution of Rawlins which is only valid for a few minor cases. This modification is then applied to the corner diffraction coefficient and combined with an equivalent current and geometrical optics solutions to model scattering from pyramid and wedge absorbers. Measured results from 12 inch pyramid absorbers from 2 to 18 GHz are compared to calculations assuming the returns add incoherently and assuming the returns add coherently. The measured results tend to be between the two curves. Measured results from the 8 inch wedge absorber are also compared to calculations with the return being dominated by the wedge diffraction. The procedures for measuring and specifying absorber performance are discussed and calibration equations are derived to calculate a reflection coefficient or a reflectivity using a reference sphere. Shaping changes to the present absorber designs are introduced to improve performance based on both high and low frequency analysis. Some prototypes were built and tested.

  6. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Michael J; Brink, Ingo; Joe, Alexius Y; Von Mallek, Dirk; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger; Krause, Thomas M

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15+/-9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256+/-80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses.

  7. SU-F-19A-02: Comparison of Absorbed Dose to Water Standards for HDR Ir-192 Brachytherapy Between the LCR, Brazil and NRC, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Salata, C; David, M; Almeida, C de

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiological Science Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Methods: The two institutions have separately developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are important differences between the two standards, including: preparation and read-out of the Fricke solution, irradiation geometry of the Fricke holder in relation to the Ir-192 source, and determination of the G-value to be used at Ir-192 energies. All measurements for both standards were made directly at the NRC laboratory (i.e.,more » no transfer instrument was used) using a single Ir-192 source (microSelectron v2). In addition, the NRC group has established a self-consistent method to determine the G-value for Ir-192, based on an interpolation between G-values obtained at Co-60 and 250kVp X-rays, and this measurement was repeated using the LCR Fricke solution to investigate possible systematic uncertainties. Results: G-values for Co-60 and 250 kVp x-rays, obtained using the LCR Fricke system, agreed with the NRC values within 0.5 % and 1 % respectively, indicating that the general assumption of universal G-values is appropriate in this case. The standard uncertainty in the determination of G for Ir-192 is estimated to be 0.6 %. For the comparison of absorbed dose measurements at the reference point for Ir-192 (1 cm depth in water, perpendicular to the seed long-axis), the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR) was found to be 1.011 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 %, k=1. Conclusion: The agreement in the absorbed dose to water values for the LCR and NRC systems is very encouraging. Combined with the lower uncertainty in this approach compared to the present air-kerma approach, these results reaffirm the use of Fricke solution as a potential primary standard for HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy.« less

  8. Monte Carlo MCNP-4B-based absorbed dose distribution estimates for patient-specific dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yoriyaz, H; Stabin, M G; dos Santos, A

    2001-04-01

    This study was intended to verify the capability of the Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code to evaluate spatial dose distribution based on information gathered from CT or SPECT. A new three-dimensional (3D) dose calculation approach for internal emitter use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was developed using the Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code as the photon and electron transport engine. It was shown that the MCNP-4B computer code can be used with voxel-based anatomic and physiologic data to provide 3D dose distributions. This study showed that the MCNP-4B code can be used to develop a treatment planning system that will provide such information in a time manner, if dose reporting is suitably optimized. If each organ is divided into small regions where the average energy deposition is calculated with a typical volume of 0.4 cm(3), regional dose distributions can be provided with reasonable central processing unit times (on the order of 12-24 h on a 200-MHz personal computer or modest workstation). Further efforts to provide semiautomated region identification (segmentation) and improvement of marrow dose calculations are needed to supply a complete system for RIT. It is envisioned that all such efforts will continue to develop and that internal dose calculations may soon be brought to a similar level of accuracy, detail, and robustness as is commonly expected in external dose treatment planning. For this study we developed a code with a user-friendly interface that works on several nuclear medicine imaging platforms and provides timely patient-specific dose information to the physician and medical physicist. Future therapy with internal emitters should use a 3D dose calculation approach, which represents a significant advance over dose information provided by the standard geometric phantoms used for more than 20 y (which permit reporting of only average organ doses for certain standardized individuals)

  9. Errors in the absorbed and the administered 131I therapeutic dose in patients with Graves' disease. A suggested more precise technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangchun; Huang, Jincheng; Wang, Yuehui; Xie, Sipei; He, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative error (RE) in the thyroid absorbed dose (TD) of iodine-131 ( 131 I) in patients with Graves' disease comparing the simplified Quimby-Marinelli-Hine formula method (sQMHF) and the Standard Operational Procedures for dosimetry (SOPD) recommended by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. This study included 45 patients with Graves' disease 12 men and 33 women; age 44.1±12.8 years. Thyroid mass (TM) was measured using ultrasound. Uptake of 131 I (RAIU) was tested at 2, 4-6, 24, 48-72, and 96-168h after its administration and the half-life (T 1/2eff ) and resident time (RT) of 131 I were computed. According to the sQMHF, a prescribed TD of 75Gy required 3.7MBq/g of 131 I, correction based on the RAIU 24h and T 1/2eff . Subsequently, the therapeutic TD was computed according to the SOPD and the RE was recorded. The data were analyzed using t-tests. The TM, RAIU 24h , therapeutic TD, and RE were 36.5±23.9g, 0.54±0.14, 89.4±9.4Gy, and -0.01±0.02, respectively. There was a significant difference (t-value 9.84, P<0.01) between the prescribed and therapeutic TD because the sQMHF ignores the absorbed dose deposited in the thyroid during the first 24h, which is included in the SOPD. In addition, the RE was significantly smaller than the variable coefficient (VC) of the therapeutic TD (t=-39.6, P<0.01). When the activity of 131 I was calculated using the simplified Q-M-H formula, the therapeutic absorbed thyroid dose was significantly higher than what was expected for the prescribed dose. Precision of the individualized therapeutic absorbed dose could be improved by computing the activity of 131 I using the standard operational procedures for dosimetry of the EANM.

  10. Prediction of Normal Organ Absorbed Doses for [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 Using [44Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 Pharmacokinetics in Patients With Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khawar, Ambreen; Eppard, Elisabeth; Sinnes, Jean Phlippe; Roesch, Frank; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kürpig, Stefan; Meisenheimer, Michael; Gaertner, Florian C; Essler, Markus; Bundschuh, Ralph A

    2018-04-23

    In vivo pharmacokinetic analysis of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 was used to determine the normal organ-absorbed doses that may result from therapeutic activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and to predict the maximum permissible activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma. Pharmacokinetics of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 was evaluated in 5 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma using dynamic PET/CT, followed by 3 static PET/CT acquisitions and blood sample collection over 19.5 hours, as well as urine sample collection at 2 time points. Total activity measured in source organs by PET imaging, as well as counts per milliliter measured in blood and urine samples, was decay corrected back to the time of injection using the half-life of Sc. Afterward, forward decay correction using the half-life of Lu was performed, extrapolating the pharmacokinetics of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 to that of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617. Source organs residence times and organ-absorbed doses for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 were calculated using OLINDA/EXM software. Bone marrow self-dose was determined with indirect blood-based method, and urinary bladder contents residence time was estimated by trapezoidal approximation. The maximum permissible activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 was calculated for each patient considering external beam radiotherapy toxicity limits for radiation absorbed doses to kidneys, bone marrow, salivary glands, and whole body. The predicted mean organ-absorbed doses were highest in the kidneys (0.44 mSv/MBq), followed by the salivary glands (0.23 mSv/MBq). The maximum permissible activity was highly variable among patients; limited by whole body-absorbed dose (1 patient), marrow-absorbed dose (1 patient), and kidney-absorbed dose (3 patients). [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 PET/CT imaging is feasible and allows theoretical extrapolation of the pharmacokinetics of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 to that of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617, with the intent of predicting normal organ-absorbed doses and maximum

  11. A test of the IAEA code of practice for absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Arnold; Tiefenboeck, Wilhelm; Witzani, Josef; Strachotinsky, Christian

    1990-12-01

    The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) code of practice TRS 277 gives recommendations for absorbed dose determination in high energy photon and electron beams based on the use of ionization chambers calibrated in terms of exposure of air kerma. The scope of the work was to test the code for cobalt 60 gamma radiation and for several radiation qualities at four different types of electron accelerators and to compare the ionization chamber dosimetry with ferrous sulphate dosimetry. The results show agreement between the two methods within about one per cent for all the investigated qualities. In addition the response of the TLD capsules of the IAEA/WHO TL dosimetry service was determined.

  12. The use of ionisation chambers for dose rate measurements at industrial irradiation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, J. P.; Sharpe, P. H. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    2002-03-01

    The use of ionisation chambers to measure dose rate at industrial irradiation plants has been studied as part of a wider project on real time dosimetry. The characteristics required of such a chamber are discussed. These include the ability to withstand operation at high cumulative doses (up to 5 MGy) and dose rates of up to about 150 kGy h -1. Other desirable features are water equivalence and immunity to environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure and humidity. A number of chambers have been assessed experimentally and a suitable chamber selected. The dosimetric characteristics of the chosen chamber have been assessed by comparison with absorbed dose measurements made using chemical dosimeters.

  13. Small total dose measurement system for SDS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Satoh, Yohei; Tachihara, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) uses monitors on board satellites to measure and record in-flight data on ionization effects in space. A compact, total dose measurement system for the small satellite (SDS-1) was developed based on the previous system for measuring total ionizing dose effects. Especially, the sensor for SDS-1 is quite smaller than the sensor for SOHLA-1, which is presented in the last year. The sensor is 8 mm wide×3 mm high×19 mm long and weighs approximately 4 g with 500 mm its wire harness. Eight pin LCC RADFET and temperature sensor are arranged on it. Seven sensors are arranged on some components inside the SDS-1. One of the sensors is arranged on a printed board in advanced microprocessing in-ORBIT experiment equipment (AMI). The AMI demonstrate 320 MIPS microprocessor and DC-DC converter for space. The absorbed dose at the points where the sensors are arranged was evaluated before flight and will be compared with resulting flight data.

  14. A simple laser-based device for simultaneous microbial culture and absorbance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrevaya, X. C.; Cortón, E.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we present a device specifically designed to study microbial growth with several applications related to environmental microbiology and other areas of research as astrobiology. The Automated Measuring and Cultivation device (AMC-d) enables semi-continuous absorbance measurements directly during cultivation. It can measure simultaneously up to 16 samples. Growth curves using low and fast growing microorganism were plotted, including Escherichia coli and Haloferax volcanii, a halophilic archaeon.

  15. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  16. Simultaneous measurement of liquid absorbance and refractive index using a compact optofluidic probe.

    PubMed

    Malak, Maurine; Marty, Frédéric; Bourouina, Tarik; Angelescu, Dan

    2013-07-21

    We present a novel optical technique for simultaneously measuring the absorbance and the refractive index of a thin film using an infrared optofluidic probe. Experiments were carried on two different liquids and the results agree with the bibliographical data. The ultimate goal is to achieve a multi-functional micro-optical device for analytical applications.

  17. Determining the Absorbance Spectra of Photochromic Materials From Measured Spectrophotometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1998-01-01

    If a two-state photochromic material is optically bleached, the absorbance spectrum data measured by a spectrophotometer is in general comprised of components from both the ground state and the upper state. Under general conditions, it may be difficult to extract the actual upper state spectrum from the spectrum of the bleached material. A simple algorithm is presented here for the recovery of the pure absorbance spectra of the upper state of a material such as bacteriorhodopsin, given single wavelength bleaching illumination, steady-state conditions, and accurate knowledge of phototransition rates and thermal decay rates.

  18. SU-F-207-05: Excess Heat Corrections in a Prototype Calorimeter for Direct Realization of CT Absorbed Dose to Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Mayer, H; Tosh, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To reconcile air kerma and calorimetry measurements in a prototype calorimeter for obtaining absorbed dose in diagnostic CT beams. While corrections for thermal artifacts are routine and generally small in calorimetry of radiotherapy beams, large differences in relative stopping powers of calorimeter materials at the lower energies typical of CT beams greatly magnify their effects. Work-to-date on the problem attempts to reconcile laboratory measurements with modeling output from Monte Carlo and finite-element analysis of heat transfer. Methods: Small thermistor beads were embedded in a polystyrene (PS) core element of 1 cm diameter, which was inserted into a cylindrical HDPEmore » phantom of 30 cm diameter and subjected to radiation in a diagnostic CT x-ray imaging system. Resistance changes in the thermistors due to radiation heating were monitored via lock-in amplifier. Multiple 3-second exposures were recorded at 8 different dose-rates from the CT system, and least-squares fits to experimental data were compared to an expected thermal response obtained by finite-element analysis incorporating source terms based on semi-empirical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation. Results: Experimental waveforms exhibited large thermal artifacts with fast time constants, associated with excess heat in wires and glass, and smaller steps attributable to radiation heating of the core material. Preliminary finite-element analysis follows the transient component of the signal qualitatively, but predicts a slower decay of temperature spikes. This was supplemented by non-linear least-squares fits incorporating semi-empirical formulae for heat transfer, which were used to obtain dose-to-PS in reasonable agreement with the output of Monte Carlo calculations that converts air kerma to absorbed dose. Conclusion: Discrepancies between the finite-element analysis and our experimental data testify to the very significant heat transfer correction required for absorbed dose

  19. Development of modern approach to absorbed dose assessment in radionuclide therapy, based on Monte Carlo method simulation of patient scintigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, Y. V.; Klimanov, V. A.; Narkevich, B. Ya

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems of modern radionuclide therapy (RNT) is control of the absorbed dose in pathological volume. This research presents new approach based on estimation of radiopharmaceutical (RP) accumulated activity value in tumor volume, based on planar scintigraphic images of the patient and calculated radiation transport using Monte Carlo method, including absorption and scattering in biological tissues of the patient, and elements of gamma camera itself. In our research, to obtain the data, we performed modeling scintigraphy of the vial with administered to the patient activity of RP in gamma camera, the vial was placed at the certain distance from the collimator, and the similar study was performed in identical geometry, with the same values of activity of radiopharmaceuticals in the pathological target in the body of the patient. For correct calculation results, adapted Fisher-Snyder human phantom was simulated in MCNP program. In the context of our technique, calculations were performed for different sizes of pathological targets and various tumors deeps inside patient’s body, using radiopharmaceuticals based on a mixed β-γ-radiating (131I, 177Lu), and clear β- emitting (89Sr, 90Y) therapeutic radionuclides. Presented method can be used for adequate implementing in clinical practice estimation of absorbed doses in the regions of interest on the basis of planar scintigraphy of the patient with sufficient accuracy.

  20. Measuring pacemaker dose: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Studenski, Matthew T; Xiao, Ying; Harrison, Amy S

    2012-01-01

    Recently in our clinic, we have seen an increased number of patients presenting with pacemakers and defibrillators. Precautions are taken to develop a treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the pacemaker because of the adverse effects of radiation on the electronics. Here we analyze different dosimeters to determine which is the most accurate in measuring pacemaker or defibrillator dose while at the same time not requiring a significant investment in time to maintain an efficient workflow in the clinic. The dosimeters analyzed here were ion chambers, diodes, metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. A simple phantom was used to quantify the angular and energy dependence of each dosimeter. Next, 8 patients plans were delivered to a Rando phantom with all the dosimeters located where the pacemaker would be, and the measurements were compared with the predicted dose. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image was obtained to determine the dosimeter response in the kilovoltage energy range. In terms of the angular and energy dependence of the dosimeters, the ion chamber and diode were the most stable. For the clinical cases, all the dosimeters match relatively well with the predicted dose, although the ideal dosimeter to use is case dependent. The dosimeters, especially the MOSFETS, tend to be less accurate for the plans, with many lateral beams. Because of their efficiency, we recommend using a MOSFET or a diode to measure the dose. If a discrepancy is observed between the measured and expected dose (especially when the pacemaker to field edge is <10 cm), we recommend analyzing the treatment plan to see whether there are many lateral beams. Follow-up with another dosimeter rather than repeating multiple times with the same type of dosimeter. All dosimeters should be placed after the CBCT has been acquired. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by

  1. Measuring pacemaker dose: A clinical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Studenski, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.studenski@jeffersonhospital.org; Xiao Ying; Harrison, Amy S.

    2012-07-01

    Recently in our clinic, we have seen an increased number of patients presenting with pacemakers and defibrillators. Precautions are taken to develop a treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the pacemaker because of the adverse effects of radiation on the electronics. Here we analyze different dosimeters to determine which is the most accurate in measuring pacemaker or defibrillator dose while at the same time not requiring a significant investment in time to maintain an efficient workflow in the clinic. The dosimeters analyzed here were ion chambers, diodes, metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. Amore » simple phantom was used to quantify the angular and energy dependence of each dosimeter. Next, 8 patients plans were delivered to a Rando phantom with all the dosimeters located where the pacemaker would be, and the measurements were compared with the predicted dose. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image was obtained to determine the dosimeter response in the kilovoltage energy range. In terms of the angular and energy dependence of the dosimeters, the ion chamber and diode were the most stable. For the clinical cases, all the dosimeters match relatively well with the predicted dose, although the ideal dosimeter to use is case dependent. The dosimeters, especially the MOSFETS, tend to be less accurate for the plans, with many lateral beams. Because of their efficiency, we recommend using a MOSFET or a diode to measure the dose. If a discrepancy is observed between the measured and expected dose (especially when the pacemaker to field edge is <10 cm), we recommend analyzing the treatment plan to see whether there are many lateral beams. Follow-up with another dosimeter rather than repeating multiple times with the same type of dosimeter. All dosimeters should be placed after the CBCT has been acquired.« less

  2. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnica-Garza, H. M.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360° arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution.

  3. KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the VNIIFTRI, Russia and the BIPM in 60Co γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Berlyand, V.; Berlyand, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Russia and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co gamma radiation in 2009. The results show that the VNIIFTRI and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water are in agreement, yielding a mean ratio of 0.9976 for the calibration coefficients of the transfer chambers, the difference from unity being within the combined standard uncertainty (0.0043) for this result. This result is consistent with the earlier 2001 comparison result of 0.9967 (43). The updated degrees of equivalence for the VNIIFTRI are compared with those of the other national metrology institutes as presented in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. Ultrahigh precision nonlinear reflectivity measurement system for saturable absorber mirrors with self-referenced fluence characterization.

    PubMed

    Orsila, Lasse; Härkönen, Antti; Hyyti, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

  5. MONTE CARLO STUDY OF THE CARDIAC ABSORBED DOSE DURING X-RAY EXAMINATION OF AN ADULT PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Kadri, O; Manai, K; Alfuraih, A

    2016-12-01

    The computational voxel phantom 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)' was implemented into the Monte Carlo transport toolkit Geant4. The voxel model, adjusted to the Reference Korean Man, is 171 cm in height and 68 kg in weight and composed of ∼30 million voxels whose size is 1.981 × 1.981 × 2.0854 mm 3 The Geant4 code is then utilised to compute the dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) expressed in absorbed dose per air kerma free in air for >30 tissues and organs, including almost all organs required in the new recommendation of the ICRP 103, due to a broad parallel beam of monoenergetic photons impinging in antero-postero direction with energy ranging from 10 to 150 keV. The computed DCCs of different organs are found to be in good agreement with data published using other simulation codes. Also, the influence of patient size on DCC values was investigated for a representative body size of the adult Korean patient population. The study was performed using five different sizes covering the range of 0.8-1.2 magnification order of the original HDRK-Man. It focussed on the computation of DCC for the human heart. Moreover, the provided DCCs were used to present an analytical parameterisation for the calculation of the cardiac absorbed dose for any arbitrary X-ray spectrum and for those patient sizes. Thus, the present work can be considered as an enhancement of the continuous studies performed by medical physicist as part of quality control tests and radiation protection dosimetry. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cross-species prediction of human survival probabilities for accelerated anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA) regimens and the potential for vaccine and antibiotic dose sparing.

    PubMed

    Stark, G V; Sivko, G S; VanRaden, M; Schiffer, J; Taylor, K L; Hewitt, J A; Quinn, C P; Nuzum, E O

    2016-12-12

    Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax) was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) indication in adults 18-65years of age. The schedule is three doses administered subcutaneous (SC) at 2-week intervals (0, 2, and 4weeks), in conjunction with a 60-day course of antimicrobials. The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) developed an animal model to support assessment of a shortened antimicrobial PEP duration following Bacillus anthracis exposure. A nonhuman primate (NHP) study was completed to evaluate the efficacy of a two dose anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA) schedule (0, 2weeks) aerosol challenged with high levels of B. anthracis spores at week4- the time point at which humans would receive the third vaccination of the approved PEP schedule. Here we use logistic regression models to combine the survival data from the NHP study along with serum anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing activity (TNA) and anti-PA IgG measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data to perform a cross-species analysis to estimate survival probabilities in vaccinated human populations at this time interval (week4 of the PEP schedule). The bridging analysis demonstrated that high levels of NHP protection also yield high predicted probability of human survival just 2weeks after the second dose of vaccine with the full or half antigen dose regimen. The absolute difference in probability of human survival between the full and half antigen dose was estimated to be at most approximately 20%, indicating that more investigation of the half-antigen dose for vaccine dose sparing strategies may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detector photon response and absorbed dose and their applications to rapid triage techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Shannon Prentice

    As radiation specialists, one of our primary objectives in the Navy is protecting people and the environment from the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Focusing on radiological dispersal devices (RDD) will provide increased personnel protection as well as optimize emergency response assets for the general public. An attack involving an RDD has been of particular concern because it is intended to spread contamination over a wide area and cause massive panic within the general population. A rapid method of triage will be necessary to segregate the unexposed and slightly exposed from those needing immediate medical treatment. Because of the aerosol dispersal of the radioactive material, inhalation of the radioactive material may be the primary exposure route. The primary radionuclides likely to be used in a RDD attack are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Sr-90 and Am-241. Through the use of a MAX phantom along with a few Simulink MATLAB programs, a good anthropomorphic phantom was created for use in MCNPX simulations that would provide organ doses from internally deposited radionuclides. Ludlum model 44-9 and 44-2 detectors were used to verify the simulated dose from the MCNPX code. Based on the results, acute dose rate limits were developed for emergency response personnel that would assist in patient triage.

  8. Comparison of the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51 absorbed dose to water protocols in the dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiful Huq, M.; Andreo, Pedro; Song, Haijun

    2001-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA TRS-398) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM TG-51) have published new protocols for the calibration of radiotherapy beams. These protocols are based on the use of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water in a standards laboratory's reference quality beam. This paper compares the recommendations of the two protocols in two ways: (i) by analysing in detail the differences in the basic data included in the two protocols for photon and electron beam dosimetry and (ii) by performing measurements in clinical photon and electron beams and determining the absorbed dose to water following the recommendations of the two protocols. Measurements were made with two Farmer-type ionization chambers and three plane-parallel ionization chamber types in 6, 18 and 25 MV photon beams and 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 MeV electron beams. The Farmer-type chambers used were NE 2571 and PTW 30001, and the plane-parallel chambers were a Scanditronix-Wellhöfer NACP and Roos, and a PTW Markus chamber. For photon beams, the measured ratios TG-51/TRS-398 of absorbed dose to water Dw ranged between 0.997 and 1.001, with a mean value of 0.999. The ratios for the beam quality correction factors kQ were found to agree to within about +/-0.2% despite significant differences in the method of beam quality specification for photon beams and in the basic data entering into kQ. For electron beams, dose measurements were made using direct ND,w calibrations of cylindrical and plane-parallel chambers in a 60Co gamma-ray beam, as well as cross-calibrations of plane-parallel chambers in a high-energy electron beam. For the direct ND,w calibrations the ratios TG-51/TRS-398 of absorbed dose to water Dw were found to lie between 0.994 and 1.018 depending upon the chamber and electron beam energy used, with mean values of 0.996, 1.006, and 1.017, respectively, for the cylindrical, well-guarded and not well-guarded plane

  9. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, I; Brahme, A; Andreo, P; Gudowski, W; Kierkegaard, J

    1999-09-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm3. The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)+/-0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3He and 4He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15+/-0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60Co radiation.

  10. [An investigation of ionizing radiation dose in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W F; Tang, S H; Tan, Q; Liu, Y M

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate radioactive source term dose monitoring and estimation results in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore and the possible ionizing radiation dose received by its workers. Methods: Ionizing radiation monitoring data of the posts in the control area and supervised area of workplace were collected, and the annual average effective dose directly estimated or estimated using formulas was evaluated and analyzed. Results: In the control area and supervised area of the workplace for this rare earth ore, α surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 0.35 Bq/cm 2 and a minimum value of 0.01 Bq/cm 2 ; β radioactive surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 18.8 Bq/cm 2 and a minimum value of 0.22 Bq/cm 2 . In 14 monitoring points in the workplace, the maximum value of the annual average effective dose of occupational exposure was 1.641 mSv/a, which did not exceed the authorized limit for workers (5 mSv/a) , but exceeded the authorized limit for general personnel (0.25 mSv/a) . The radionuclide specific activity of ionic mixed rare earth oxides was determined to be 0.9. Conclusion: The annual average effective dose of occupational exposure in this enterprise does not exceed the authorized limit for workers, but it exceeds the authorized limit for general personnel. We should pay attention to the focus of the radiation process, especially for public works radiation.

  11. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Atomic Calculations and Laboratory Measurements Relevant to X-ray Warm Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Tim; Bautista, M.; Palmeri, P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the atomic calculations and the measurements from the laboratory that are relevant to our understanding of X-Ray Warm Absorbers. Included is a brief discussion of the theoretical and the experimental tools. Also included is a discussion of the challenges, and calculations relevant to dielectronic recombination, photoionization cross sections, and collisional ionization. A review of the models is included, and the sequence that the models were applied.

  13. Role of near ultraviolet wavelength measurements in the detection and retrieval of absorbing aerosols from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Fujito, Toshiyuki; Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol remote sensing by ultraviolet (UV) wavelength is established by a Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) mounted on the long-life satellite Nimbus-7 and continues to make observations using Ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) located on the Aura satellite. For example, TOMS demonstrated that UV radiation (0.331 and 0.360 μm) could easily detect absorbing particles such as mineral dust or smoke aerosols. TOMS-AI (absorbing aerosol index) has been used to identify the absorbing aerosols from space. For an upcoming mission, JAXA/GCOM-C will have the polarization sensor SGLI boarded in December 2017. The SGLI has multi (19)-channels including near UV (0.380 μm) and violet (0.412 μm) wavelengths. This work intends to examine the role of near UV data in the detection of absorbing aerosols similar to TOMS-AI played. In practice, the measurements by GLI mounted on the short Japanese mission JAXA/ADEOS-2, whose data archive period was just 8 months from April to October in 2003, are available for simulation of SGLI data because ADEOS-2/GLI installed near UV and violet channels. First of all, the ratio of data at 0.412 μm to that at 0.380 μm is examined as an indicator to detect absorbing aerosols on a global scale during ADEOS-2 era. It is noted that our research group has developed an efficient algorithm for aerosol retrieval in hazy episodes (dense concentrations of atmospheric aerosols). It can be said that at least this work is an attempt to grasp the biomass burning plumes from the satellite.

  14. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: New Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Absorbed Dose to Water in Diagnostic KV X-Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, F; Ohno, T

    Purpose: To develop new ionization chamber dosimetry of absorbed dose to water in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using a beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for Co-60 to kV x-ray and an ionization conversion factor for a water-substitute plastic phantom. Methods: kQ was calculated for aluminum half value-layers (Al-HVLs) of 1.5 mm to 8 mm which were generated by kV x-ray beams of 50 to 120 kVp. Twenty-two energy spectra for ten effective energies (Eeff) were calculated by a SpecCalc program. Depth doses in water were calculated at 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields. Output factorsmore » were also obtained from the dose ratio for a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field. kQ was obtained for a PTW30013 Former ion chamber. In addition, an ionization conversion factor of the PWDT phantom to water was calculated. All calculations were performed with EGSnrc/cavity code and egs-chamber codes. Results: The x-ray beam energies for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs ranged in Eeff of 25.7 to 54.3 keV. kQ for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs were 0.831 to 0.897, at 1 and 2 cm depths for a 10 × 10 cm2 field. Similarly, output factors for 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields were 0.937 to 1.033 for 25.7 keV and 0.857 to 1.168 for 54.3 keV. The depth dose in a PWDT phantom decreased up to 5% compared to that in water at depth of ten percent of maximum dose for 1.5 mm Al-HVL. The ionization ratios of water/PWDT phantoms for the PTW30013 chamber were 1.012 to 1.007 for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs at 1 cm depth. Conclusion: It became possible to directly measure the absorbed dose to water with the ionization chamber in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using kQ and the PWDT phantom.« less

  15. Evaluation of a lithium formate EPR dosimetry system for dose measurements around {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Antonovic, Laura; Gustafsson, Haakan; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2009-06-15

    A dosimetry system using lithium formate monohydrate (HCO{sub 2}Li{center_dot}H{sub 2}O) as detector material and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for readout has been used to measure absorbed dose distributions around clinical {sup 192}Ir sources. Cylindrical tablets with diameter of 4.5 mm, height of 4.8 mm, and density of 1.26 g/cm{sup 3} were manufactured. Homogeneity test and calibration of the dosimeters were performed in a 6 MV photon beam. {sup 192}Ir irradiations were performed in a PMMA phantom using two different source models, the GammaMed Plus HDR and the microSelectron PDR-v1 model. Measured absorbed doses to water in the PMMA phantommore » were converted to the corresponding absorbed doses to water in water phantoms of dimensions used by the treatment planning systems (TPSs) using correction factors explicitly derived for this experiment. Experimentally determined absorbed doses agreed with the absorbed doses to water calculated by the TPS to within {+-}2.9%. Relative standard uncertainties in the experimentally determined absorbed doses were estimated to be within the range of 1.7%-1.3% depending on the radial distance from the source, the type of source (HDR or PDR), and the particular absorbed doses used. This work shows that a lithium formate dosimetry system is well suited for measurements of absorbed dose to water around clinical HDR and PDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Being less energy dependent than the commonly used thermoluminescent lithium fluoride (LiF) dosimeters, lithium formate monohydrate dosimeters are well suited to measure absorbed doses in situations where the energy dependence cannot easily be accounted for such as in multiple-source irradiations to verify treatment plans. Their wide dynamic range and linear dose response over the dose interval of 0.2-1000 Gy make them suitable for measurements on sources of the strengths used in clinical applications. The dosimeter size needs, however, to be reduced for application

  16. SU-F-J-56: The Connection Between Cherenkov Light Emission and Radiation Absorbed Dose in Proton Irradiated Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Darafsheh, A; Kassaee, A; Finlay, J

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy is of great importance. Cherenkov light follows the photon and electron energy deposition in water phantom. The purpose of this study is to investigate the connection between Cherenkov light generation and radiation absorbed dose in a water phantom irradiated with proton beams. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation was performed by employing FLUKA Monte Carlo code to stochastically simulate radiation transport, ionizing radiation dose deposition, and Cherenkov radiation in water phantoms. The simulations were performed for proton beams with energies in the range 50–600 MeV to cover a wide range of proton energies. Results: The mechanismmore » of Cherenkov light production depends on the initial energy of protons. For proton energy with 50–400 MeV energy that is below the threshold (∼483 MeV in water) for Cherenkov light production directly from incident protons, Cherenkov light is produced mainly from the secondary electrons liberated as a result of columbic interactions with the incident protons. For proton beams with energy above 500 MeV, in the initial depth that incident protons have higher energy than the Cherenkov light production threshold, the light has higher intensity. As the slowing down process results in lower energy protons in larger depths in the water phantom, there is a knee point in the Cherenkov light curve vs. depth due to switching the Cherenkov light production mechanism from primary protons to secondary electrons. At the end of the depth dose curve the Cherenkov light intensity does not follow the dose peak because of the lack of high energy protons to produce Cherenkov light either directly or through secondary electrons. Conclusion: In contrast to photon and electron beams, Cherenkov light generation induced by proton beams does not follow the proton energy deposition specially close to the end of the proton range near the Bragg peak.« less

  17. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  18. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Allah Verdi, M; Nikoofar, A

    2006-09-07

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  19. Update on the Code Intercomparison and Benchmark for Muon Fluence and Absorbed Dose Induced by an 18 GeV Electron Beam After Massive Iron Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, A.

    In 1974, Nelson, Kase and Svensson published an experimental investigation on muon shielding around SLAC high-energy electron accelerators [1]. They measured muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by 14 and 18 GeV electron beams hitting a copper/water beamdump and attenuated in a thick steel shielding. In their paper, they compared the results with the theoretical models available at that time. In order to compare their experimental results with present model calculations, we use the modern transport Monte Carlo codes MARS15, FLUKA2011 and GEANT4 to model the experimental setup and run simulations. The results are then compared between the codes, andmore » with the SLAC data.« less

  20. Measurements of evaporated perfluorocarbon during partial liquid ventilation by a zeolite absorber.

    PubMed

    Proquitté, Hans; Rüdiger, Mario; Wauer, Roland R; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    During partial liquid ventilation (PLV) the knowledge of the quantity of exhaled perfluorocarbon (PFC) allows a continuous substitution of the PFC loss to achieve a constant PFC level in the lungs. The aim of our in vitro study was to determine the PFC loss in the mixed expired gas by an absorber and to investigate the effect of the evaporated PFC on ventilatory measurements. To simulate the PFC loss during PLV, a heated flask was rinsed with a constant airflow of 4 L min(-1) and PFC was infused by different speeds (5, 10, 20 mL h(-1)). An absorber filled with PFC selective zeolites was connected with the flask to measure the PFC in the gas. The evaporated PFC volume and the PFC concentration were determined from the weight gain of the absorber measured by an electronic scale. The PFC-dependent volume error of the CO2SMO plus neonatal pneumotachograph was measured by manual movements of a syringe with volumes of 10 and 28 mL with a rate of 30 min(-1). Under steady state conditions there was a strong correlation (r2 = 0.999) between the infusion speed of PFC and the calculated PFC flow rate. The PFC flow rate was slightly underestimated by 4.3% (p < 0.01). However, this bias was independent from PFC infusion rate. The evaporated PFC volume was precisely measured with errors < 1%. The volume error of the CO2SMO-Plus pneumotachograph increased with increasing PFC content for both tidal volumes (p < 0.01). However for PFC flow rates up to 20 mL/h the error of the measured tidal volumes was < 5%. PFC selective zeolites can be used to quantify accurately the evaporated PFC volume during PLV. With increasing PFC concentrations in the exhaled air the measurement errors of ventilatory parameters have to be taken into account.

  1. Impedance Measurement of a Gamma-Ray TES Calorimeter with a Bulk Sn Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Akamatsu, H.; Ishisaki, Y.; Hoshino, A.

    2009-12-16

    We performed complex impedance measurements with a Ti/Au-based gamma-ray TES calorimeter with a bulk Sn absorber. Excellent energy resolution of 38.4{+-}0.9eV at 60 keV was observed. The impedance of the calorimeter can be well explained by a two-body thermal model. We investigated the behavior of the parameters of the calorimeter during the superconducting-to-normal transition. We confirmed that C and G{sub a} are in good agreement with the predicted values. We performed a noise analysis and found several excess noise components, as well as internal thermal fluctuation noise (ITFN) term due to the thermal conductance between the Sn absorber and themore » Ti/Au TES. Dominanting the noise is an excess noise having a similar frequency dependence to the phonon noise and the ITFN noise.« less

  2. Measurements of the light-absorbing material inside cloud droplets and its effect on cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twohy, C. H.; Clarke, A. D.; Warren, Stephen G.; Radke, L. F.; Charleson, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the measurements of light-absorbing aerosol particles made previously have been in non-cloudy air and therefore provide no insight into aerosol effects on cloud properties. Here, researchers describe an experiment designed to measure light absorption exclusively due to substances inside cloud droplets, compare the results to related light absorption measurements, and evaluate possible effects on the albedo of clouds. The results of this study validate those of Twomey and Cocks and show that the measured levels of light-absorbing material are negligible for the radiative properties of realistic clouds. For the measured clouds, which appear to have been moderately polluted, the amount of elemental carbon (EC) present was insufficient to affect albedo. Much higher contaminant levels or much larger droplets than those measured would be necessary to significantly alter the radiative properties. The effect of the concentrations of EC actually measured on the albedo of snow, however, would be much more pronounced since, in contrast to clouds, snowpacks are usually optically semi-infinite and have large particle sizes.

  3. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev butmore » at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.« less

  4. Measurements of light-absorbing particles on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2015-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light-absorbing particles deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light-absorbing particles sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, 240 snow samples were collected from 15 mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the 3 years and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same year. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particles on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective black carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the LAHM analysis and the SP2 refractory black carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light-absorbing particles in the more polluted regions were likely BC. The 3 years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  5. Measurements of light absorbing particulates on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2014-10-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in air temperature, increases in light absorbing particulates deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light absorbing particulates sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, two hundred and forty snow samples were collected from fifteen mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the three expeditions and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same expedition. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particulates on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective Black Carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the filter analysis and the SP2 refractory Black Carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light absorbing particulates in the more polluted areas were likely BC. The three years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  6. Absorbed dose evaluation of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides: impact of input decay spectra on dose point kernels and S-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falzone, Nadia; Lee, Boon Q.; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Stuchbery, Andrew E.; Kibédi, Tibor; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model BrIccEmis on dose point kernels (DPKs - radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and S-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely 67Ga, 80mBr, 89Zr, 90Nb, 99mTc, 111In, 117mSn, 119Sb, 123I, 124I, 125I, 135La, 195mPt and 201Tl. Radiation spectra were based on the nuclear decay data from the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) RADTABS program and the BrIccEmis code, assuming both an isolated-atom and condensed-phase approach. DPKs were simulated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) code using event-by-event electron and photon transport. S-values for concentric spherical cells of various sizes were derived from these DPKs using appropriate geometric reduction factors. The number of Auger and Coster-Kronig (CK) electrons and x-ray photons released per nuclear decay (yield) from MIRD-RADTABS were consistently higher than those calculated using BrIccEmis. DPKs for the electron spectra from BrIccEmis were considerably different from MIRD-RADTABS in the first few hundred nanometres from a point source where most of the Auger electrons are stopped. S-values were, however, not significantly impacted as the differences in DPKs in the sub-micrometre dimension were quickly diminished in larger dimensions. Overestimation in the total AE energy output by MIRD-RADTABS leads to higher predicted energy deposition by AE emitting radionuclides, especially in the immediate vicinity of the decaying radionuclides. This should be taken into account when MIRD-RADTABS data are used to simulate biological damage at nanoscale dimensions.

  7. SU-E-T-204: Comparison of Absorbed-Dose to Water in High-Energy Photon Beams Based On Addendum AAPM TG-51, IAEA TRS-398, and JSMP 12

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, N; Kita, A; Yoshioka, C

    Purpose: Several clinical reference dosimetry protocols for absorbed-dose to water have recently been published: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) published an Addendum to the AAPM’s TG-51 (Addendum TG-51) in April 2014, and the Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) published the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 (JSMP12), a clinical reference dosimetry protocol, in September 2012. This investigation compared and evaluated the absorbed-dose to water of high-energy photon beams according to Addendum TG-51, International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Report Series No. 398 (TRS-398), and JSMP12. Methods: Differences in the respective beam quality conversion factors with Addendum TG-51,more » TRS-398, and JSMP12 were analyzed and the absorbed-dose to water using 6- and 10-MV photon beams was measured according to the protocols recommended in Addendum TG-51, TRS-398, and JSMP12. The measurements were conducted using two Farmer-type ionization chambers, Exradin A12 and PTW 30013. Results: The beam quality conversion factors for both the 6- and 10-MV photon beams with Addendum TG-51 were within 0.6%, in agreement with the beam quality conversion factors with TRS-398 and JSMP12. The Exradin A12 provided an absorbed-dose to water ratio from 1.003 to 1.006 with TRS-398 / Addendum TG-51 and from 1.004 to 1.005 with JSMP 12 / Addendum TG-51, whereas the PTW 30013 provided a ratio of 1.001 with TRS-398 / Addendum TG-51 and a range from 0.997 to 0.999 with JSMP 12 / Addendum TG-51. Conclusion: Despite differences in the beam quality conversion factor, no major differences were seen in the absorbed-dose to water with Addendum TG-51, TRS-398, and JSMP12. However, Addendum TG-51 provides the most recent data for beam quality conversion factors based on Monte Carlo simulation and greater detail for the measurement protocol. Therefore, the absorbed-dose to water measured with Addendum TG-51 is an estimate with less uncertainty.« less

  8. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-06: Y90 PET/CT for the Instantaneous Determination of Both Target and Non-Target Absorbed Doses Following Hepatic Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Pasciak, A; Kao, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose The process of converting Yttrium-90 (Y90) PET/CT images into 3D absorbed dose maps will be explained. The simple methods presented will allow the medical physicst to analyze Y90 PET images following radioembolization and determine the absorbed dose to tumor, normal liver parenchyma and other areas of interest, without application of Monte-Carlo radiation transport or dose-point-kernel (DPK) convolution. Methods Absorbed dose can be computed from Y90 PET/CT images based on the premise that radioembolization is a permanent implant with a constant relative activity distribution after infusion. Many Y90 PET/CT publications have used DPK convolution to obtain 3D absorbed dose maps.more » However, this method requires specialized software limiting clinical utility. The Local Deposition method, an alternative to DPK convolution, can be used to obtain absorbed dose and requires no additional computer processing. Pixel values from regions of interest drawn on Y90 PET/CT images can be converted to absorbed dose (Gy) by multiplication with a scalar constant. Results There is evidence that suggests the Local Deposition method may actually be more accurate than DPK convolution and it has been successfully used in a recent Y90 PET/CT publication. We have analytically compared dose-volume-histograms (DVH) for phantom hot-spheres to determine the difference between the DPK and Local Deposition methods, as a function of PET scanner point-spread-function for Y90. We have found that for PET/CT systems with a FWHM greater than 3.0 mm when imaging Y90, the Local Deposition Method provides a more accurate representation of DVH, regardless of target size than DPK convolution. Conclusion Using the Local Deposition Method, post-radioembolization Y90 PET/CT images can be transformed into 3D absorbed dose maps of the liver. An interventional radiologist or a Medical Physicist can perform this transformation in a clinical setting, allowing for rapid prediction of treatment efficacy

  9. Laser measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. [airborne oil spill monitoring application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Kincaid, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He-Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

  10. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, P. K., E-mail: premkdubey@gmail.com; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta

    2014-05-15

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occursmore » at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.« less

  11. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  12. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte, E-mail: ann-charlotte.waldenstrom@oncology.gu.se; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; Olsson, Caroline

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one inmore » three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.« less

  13. Temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves in air. [radiometric measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, J. B.; Nerem, R. M.; Dann, J. B.; Culp, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A radiometric method for the measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gases has been applied in the study of shock tube generated flows. This method involves making two absolute intensity measurements at identical wavelengths, but for two different pathlengths in the same gas sample. Experimental results are presented for reflected shock waves in air at conditions corresponding to incident shock velocities from 7 to 10 km/s and an initial driven tube pressure of 1 torr. These results indicate that, with this technique, temperature measurements with an accuracy of + or - 5 percent can be carried out. The results also suggest certain facility related problems.

  14. [The use of polymer gel dosimetry to measure dose distribution around metallic implants].

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Tomomasa; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Monzen, Hajime; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-10-01

    A semi-solid polymer dosimetry system using agar was developed to measure the dose distribution close to metallic implants. Dosimetry of heterogeneous fields where electron density markedly varies is often problematic. This prompted us to develop a polymer gel dosimetry technique using agar to measure the dose distribution near substance boundaries. Varying the concentration of an oxygen scavenger (tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) showed the absorbed dose and transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance signal to be linear between 3 and 12 Gy. Although a change in the dosimeter due to oxidization was observed in room air after 24 hours, no such effects were observed in the first 4 hours. The dose distribution around the metal implants was measured using agar dosimetry. The metals tested were a lead rod, a titanium hip joint, and a metallic stent. A maximum 30% dose increase was observed near the lead rod, but only a 3% increase in the absorbed dose was noted near the surface of the titanium hip joint and metallic stent. Semi-solid polymer dosimetry using agar thus appears to be a useful method for dosimetry around metallic substances.

  15. Evaluation of absorbed dose in irradiated sugar-containing plant material (peony roots) by an ESR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of irradiated plant materials and sugar content was investigated by spectral analysis using peony roots. A weak background signal near g=2.005 was observed in the roots. After a 10 kGy irradiation, the ESR line broadened and the intensity increased, and the spectral characteristics were similar to a typical spectrum of irradiated food containing crystalline sugars. The free radical concentration was nearly stable 30 days after irradiation. The spectrum of peony root 30 days after irradiation was simulated using the summation of the intensities of six assumed components: radical signals derived from (a) sucrose, (b) glucose, (c) fructose, (d) cellulose, (e) the background signal near g=2.005 and (f) unidentified component. The simulated spectra using the six components were in agreement with the observed sample spectra. The intensity of sucrose radical signal in irradiated samples increased proportionally up to 20 kGy. In addition, the intensity of sucrose radical signals was strongly correlated with the sucrose contents of the samples. The results showed that the radiation sensitivity of sucrose in peony roots was influenced little by other plant constituents. There was also a good correlation between the total area of the spectra and the sucrose content, because the sucrose content was higher than that of other sugars in the samples. In peony roots, estimation of the absorbed dose from the ESR signal intensity may be possible by a calibration method based on the sucrose content.

  16. Case control study to assess the possibility of decrease the risk of osteoradionecrosis in relation to the dose of radiation absorbed by the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Fabrizio; Bucalo, Concetta; Saggese, Vito; Monai, Dario; Porcaro, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Summary Aims the assessment of the limit dose for the organs at risk in external radiotherapy is a fundamental step to guarantee an optimal risk-benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to assess, through contouring the single dental cavities, the absorbed radiation dose on irradiated alveolar bones during the treatment of cervico-facial tumours, so as to test the correlation between the absorbed dose of radiation at alveolar level and the level of individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis. Materials and methods we selected 45 out of 89 patients on the basis of different exclusion criteria. Nine of these patients showed evidence of osteoradionecrosis. The patients were treated either with 3D conformational radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), there after alveolar bones were contoured using computed axial tomography (CAT scans) carried out following oncological and dental treatment. The dose-volume histograms (DVH) were obtained on the basis of such data, which included those relating to the dental cavities in addition to those inherent to the tumours and the organs at risk. Results all patients, irrespective of type of treatment, received an average of 60 to 70 grays in 30/35 sittings. The patients treated with IMRT showed higher variation in absorbed radiation dose than those treated with 3D-CRT. The alveolar encirclement allowed the assessment of the absorbed radiation dose, and consequently it also allowed to assess the individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis in patients with head and neck tumours who underwent radiography treatment. Conclusions the study of DVH allows the assessment of limit dose and the detection of the areas at greater risk for osteoradionecrosis before dental surgery. PMID:23285316

  17. Radiation force on absorbing targets and power measurements of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zuwen; Zhu, Zhemin; Ye, Shigong; Jiang, Wenhua; Zhu, Houqing; Yu, Jinshen

    2010-10-01

    Based on the analytic expressions for the radiated field of a circular concave piston given by Hasegawa et al., an integral for calculation of the radiation force on a plane absorbing target in a spherically focused field is derived. A general relation between acoustic power P and normal radiation force F n is obtained under the condition of kr ≫ 1. Numerical computation is carried out by using the symbolic computation program for practically focused sources and absorbing circular targets. The results show that, for a given source, there is a range of target positions where the radiation force is independent of the target’s position under the assumption that the contribution of the acoustic field behind the target to the radiation force can be neglected. The experiments are carried out and confirm that there is a range of target positions where the measured radiation force is basically independent of the target’s position even at high acoustic power (up to 700 W). It is believed that when the radiation force method is used to measure the acoustic power radiated from a focused source, the size of the target must be selected in such a way that no observable sound can be found in the region behind the target.

  18. Application of stereo x-ray photogrammetry (SRM) in the determination of absorbed dose values during intracavitary radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    van Kleffens, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1979-04-01

    The method of stereo x-ray photogrammetry is described, using a stereo x-ray comparator, as well as some clinical applications. The x-ray equipment consists of two x-ray tubes and a pneumatically driven cassette changer, developed to reduce effects of patient or organ motion between stero radiographs. The accuracy of the set-up is demonstated with measurements on a geometrical model and on a gelatine phantom containing radium needles. The clinical use is reported in determining dose rates to points of the intestinal wall during intracavitary radiotherapy of gynecological cancer. In a number of cases the stereo measurements have resulted in a changemore » in the application time or in the charge or position of the applicator, possibly preventing later complications, as a result of a high dose. Future applications for implant dosimetry (/sup 192/Ir, /sup 125/I) are suggested.« less

  19. Calibration of Safecast dose rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Cervone, Guido; Hultquist, Carolynne

    2018-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calibrate contributed Safecast dose rate measurements acquired between 2011 and 2016 in the Fukushima prefecture of Japan. The Safecast data are calibrated using observations acquired by the U.S. Department of Energy at the time of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi power plant nuclear accident. The methodology performs a series of interpolations between the U.S. government and contributed datasets at specific temporal windows and at corresponding spatial locations. The coefficients found for all the different temporal windows are aggregated and interpolated using quadratic regressions to generate a time dependent calibration function. Normal background radiation, decay rates, and missing values are taken into account during the analysis. Results show that the standard Safecast static transformation function overestimates the official measurements because it fails to capture the presence of two different Cesium isotopes and their changing magnitudes with time. A model is created to predict the ratio of the isotopes from the time of the accident through 2020. The proposed time dependent calibration takes into account this Cesium isotopes ratio, and it is shown to reduce the error between U.S. government and contributed data. The proposed calibration is needed through 2020, after which date the errors introduced by ignoring the presence of different isotopes will become negligible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Robust sensor for turbidity measurement from light scattering and absorbing liquids.

    PubMed

    Kontturi, Ville; Turunen, Petri; Uozumi, Jun; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2009-12-01

    Internationally standardized turbidity measurements for probing solid particles in liquid are problematic in the case of simultaneous light scattering and absorption. A method and a sensor to determine the turbidity in the presence of light absorption are presented. The developed sensor makes use of the total internal reflection of a laser beam at the liquid-prism interface, and the turbidity is assessed using the concept of laser speckle pattern. Using average filtering in speckle data analyzing the observed dynamic speckle pattern, which is due to light scattering from particles and the static speckle due to stray light of the sensor, can be separated from each other. Good correlation between the standard deviation of dynamic speckle and turbidity value for nonabsorbing and for absorbing liquids was observed. The sensor is suggested, for instance, for the measurement of ill-behaved as well as small-volume turbid liquids in both medicine and process industry.

  1. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-03: Four-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using Plastic Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M; Kozuka, T; Oguchi, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop the detector for the four-dimensional dose distribution measurement. Methods: We made the prototype detector for four-dimensional dose distribution measurement using a cylindrical plastic scintillator (5 cm diameter) and a conical reflection grass. The plastic scintillator is used as a phantom. When the plastic scintillator is irradiated, the scintillation light was emitted according to absorbed dose distribution. The conical reflection grass was arranged to surround the plastic scintillator, which project to downstream the projection images of the scintillation light. Then, the projection image was reflected to 45 degree direction by flat reflection grass, and was recorded by camcorder.more » By reconstructing the three-dimensional dose distribution from the projection image recorded in each frame, we could obtain the four-dimensional dose distribution. First, we tested the characteristic according to the amount of emitted light. Then we compared of the light profile and the dose profile calculated with the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results: The dose dependency of the amount of light showed linearity. The pixel detecting smaller amount of light had high sensitivity than the pixel detecting larger amount of light. However the difference of the sensitivity could be corrected from the amount of light detected in each pixel. Both of the depth light profile through the conical reflection grass and the depth dose profile showed the same attenuation in the region deeper than peak depth. In lateral direction, the difference of the both profiles was shown at outside field and penumbra region. We consider that the difference is occurred due to the scatter of the scintillation light in the plastic scintillator block. Conclusion: It was possible to obtain the amount of light corresponding to the absorbed dose distribution from the prototype detector. Four-dimensional dose distributions can be reconstructed with high accuracy by the

  2. Measurement-based estimates of direct radiative effects of absorbing aerosols above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2015-07-01

    The elevated layers of absorbing smoke aerosols from western African (e.g., Gabon and Congo) biomass burning activities have been frequently observed above low-level stratocumulus clouds off the African coast, which presents an excellent natural laboratory for studying the effects of aerosols above clouds (AAC) on regional energy balance in tropical and subtropical environments. Using spatially and temporally collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System data sets, the top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol direct shortwave radiative effects (ARE) of absorbing aerosols above low-level water clouds in the southeast Atlantic Ocean was examined in this study. The regional averaged instantaneous ARE has been estimated to be 36.7 ± 20.5 Wm-2 (regional mean ± standard deviation) along with a mean positive OMI Aerosol Index at 1.3 in August 2006 based on multisensors measurements. The highest magnitude of instantaneous ARE can even reach 138.2 Wm-2. We assess that the 660 nm cloud optical depth (COD) values of 8-12 is the critical value above (below) which aerosol absorption (scattering) effect dominates and further produces positive (negative) ARE values. The results further show that ARE values are more sensitive to aerosols above lower COD values than cases for higher COD values. This is among the first studies to provide quantitative estimates of shortwave ARE due to AAC events from an observational perspective.

  3. Photophoretic trapping of absorbing particles in air and measurement of their single-particle Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C; Coleman, Mark

    2012-02-27

    A new method is demonstrated for optically trapping micron-sized absorbing particles in air and obtaining their single-particle Raman spectra. A 488-nm Gaussian beam from an Argon ion laser is transformed by conical lenses (axicons) and other optics into two counter-propagating hollow beams, which are then focused tightly to form hollow conical beams near the trapping region. The combination of the two coaxial conical beams, with focal points shifted relative to each other along the axis of the beams, generates a low-light-intensity biconical region totally enclosed by the high-intensity light at the surface of the bicone, which is a type of bottle beam. Particles within this region are trapped by the photophoretic forces that push particles toward the low-intensity center of this region. Raman spectra from individual trapped particles made from carbon nanotubes are measured. This trapping technique could lead to the development of an on-line real-time single-particle Raman spectrometer for characterization of absorbing aerosol particles.

  4. Distribution of Absorbed Dose in Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography: A Phantom Study With Radiochromic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paolo; Coppola, Teresa; Mettivier, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography (CBBCT) of the pendant breast with dedicated scanners is an experimental 3D X-ray imaging technique for breast cancer diagnosis under evaluation in comparison to conventional two-view 2-D mammography of the compressed breast. In CBBCT it is generally assumed that a more uniform distribution of the radiation dose to the breast volume can be obtained, with respect to mammography, at equal Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) levels. In fact, in CBBCT the X-ray beam rotates for 360 deg around the breast, while in each mammography view the breast is irradiated from one side only. Using a CBBCT laboratory scanner developed by our group, we have measured the distribution of the radiation dose in a hemi-ellipsoidal PMMA breast phantom of 14 cm diameter simulating the average uncompressed breast, using radiochromic films type XR-SP inserted at mid-plane in the phantom. The technique factors were 80 kVp (5.6 mm Al Half Value Layer), tube load in the range 23-100 mAs, for an air kerma at isocenter in the range 4.7-20 mGy, for a calculated MGD in the range 3.5-15 mGy for a 14 cm diameter breast of 50% glandularity. Results indicate that the dose decreases from the periphery to the center of the phantom, and that along a transverse profile, the relative dose variation Δ = ((edge-center)/center) is up to (25 ±4)% at a distance of 80 mm from the nipple. As for the relative dose variation along the phantom longitudinal axis, the maximum value at middle of the phantom measured is δ = ((nipple-chest wall)/chest wall) = -(15 ±4)%, indicating that the dose decreases from the chest wall toward the nipple. The values of the parameters Δ and δ depend also on the height of the X-ray tube focal spot with respect to the phantom vertex (nipple). Results are in rough agreement with similar previous determinations using thermoluminescence dosimeters.

  5. Radiation measurements and doses at SST altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.

    1972-01-01

    Radiation components and dose equivalents due to galactic and solar cosmic rays in the high atmosphere, especially at SST altitudes, are presented. The dose equivalent rate for the flight personnel flying 500 hours per year in cruise altitudes of 60,000-65,000 feet (18-19.5 km) in high magnetic latitudes is about 0.75-1.0 rem per year averaged over the solar cycle, or about 15-20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate.

  6. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    PubMed

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  7. Effects of consecutive wideband tympanometry trials on energy absorbance measures of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Burdiek, Laina M; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as wideband tympanometry (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on EA. Data were collected in 29 young adults with normal hearing and middle ear status. Before and after 8 successive WBTymp runs, EA was also measured at ambient pressure. Subsequently, two 226-Hz tympanometry tests were performed. EA systematically changed over the WBTymp trials in a frequency-specific manner: increase for low frequencies (below 1.5 kHz) and decrease for high frequencies (around 2 kHz and 5 to 6 kHz). The changes, although small, were significant. Much larger EA changes were measured at ambient pressure. The test-retest difference of 226-Hz tympanogram measures was much smaller than previously reported. Consecutive tympanometry testing alters EA measures of the middle ear. This phenomenon could be mainly attributed to change in stiffness at the eardrum, called tympanometric preconditioning. This also has effects on baseline WBTymp outcomes. This effect should be taken into account as a procedural variable in both research and clinical applications of WAI measurements.

  8. An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index from soil around repository facility at Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adziz, M. I. Abdul; Khoo, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    The process of natural decay of radionuclides that emit gamma rays can infect humans and other living things. In this study, soil samples were taken at various locations which have been identified around the Long Term Storage Facility (LTSF) in Bukit Kledang, Perak. In addition, the respective dose rates in the sampling sites were measured at 5cm and 1m above the ground using a survey meter with Geiger Muller (GM) detector. Soil samples were taken using a hand Auger and then brought back to the laboratory for sample prepreparation process. The measuring of radioactivity concentration in soil samples were carried out using gamma spectrometer counting system equipped with HPGe detector. The obtained results show, the radioactivity concentration ranged from 11.98 - 29.93 Bq/kg for Radium-226 (226Ra), 20.97 - 41.45 Bq/kg for Thorium-232 (232Th) and 5.73 - 59.41 Bq/kg for Potassium-40 (40K), with mean values of 20.83 ± 5.88 Bq/kg, 32.87 ± 5.88 Bq/kg and 21.50 ± 2.79 Bq/kg, respectively. To assess the radiological hazards of natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the rate of absorption dose (D), the annual effective dose and external hazard index (Hex) was calculated and compared to the world average values.

  9. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210).more » As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.« less

  10. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  11. Laser measurement of the spectral extinction coefficients of fluorescent, highly absorbing liquids. [crude petroleum oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual method is developed to deduce rapidly the spectral extinction coefficient of fluorescent, highly absorbing liquids, such as crude or refined petroleum oils. The technique offers the advantage of only requiring one laser wavelength and a single experimental assembly and execution for any specific fluorescent liquid. The liquid is inserted into an extremely thin wedge-shaped cavity for stimulation by a laser from one side and flurescence measurement on the other side by a monochromator system. For each arbitrarily selected extinction wavelength, the wedge is driven slowly to increasing thicknesses until the fluorescence extinguishes. The fluorescence as a function of wedge thickness permits a determination of the extinction coefficient using an included theoretical model. When the monochromator is set to the laser emission wavelength, the extinction coefficient is determined using the usual on-wavelength signal extinction procedure.

  12. APMP supplementary comparison report of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (BIPM KCDB: APMP.RI(I)-S2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.; Kadni, T. B.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, B. C.; Yi, C.-Y.; Pungkun, V.; Chu, C.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (APMP.RI(I)-S2) was performed with five national metrology institutes in 2013 and 2014. Two commercial thin window ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. Two of the NMIs measured the calibration coefficients of the chambers in reference fields produced from Pm-147, Kr-85 and Sr-90/Y-90, while the other three measured those only in Sr-90/Y-90 beta-particle field. The degree of equivalence for the participants was determined and this comparison verifies the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. In addition, most of the results of this comparison are consistent with another international comparison (EUROMET.RI(I)-S2) reported before this work. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) photonic microbioreactors based on segmented waveguides for local absorbance measurement.

    PubMed

    Demming, Stefanie; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Aliasghar Zadeh, Sobehir; Edlich, Astrid; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Radespiel, Rolf; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Llobera, Andreu

    2011-02-01

    We present the development of microbioreactors (MBRs) based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) segmented waveguides (SWG) for local absorbance measurements. Two different MBRs were studied, either using symmetric or asymmetric SWG (being defined as MBR-S and MBR-A, respectively). Their optical and fluidic performances were numerically analyzed, showing robustness from an optical point of view and distinct fluid flow profile. The optical characterization was done in two steps. Initially, the experimental limit of detection (LOD) and the sensitivity were determined for two different analytes (fluorescein and methylorange). With both systems, a similar limit of detection for both analytes was obtained, being in the micromolar level. Their sensitivities were 20.2±0.3 (×10⁻³) A.U./μM and 5.5±0.2 (×10⁻³) A.U./μM for fluorescein and methylorange, respectively. Once validated its applicability for local absorbance measurements, a continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was done to test the viability of the proposed systems for photonic MBRs. Concretely, the cell growth was locally monitored inside the MBR during 33 h. Spectral analysis showed that the determination of the culture parameters were wavelength dependant, with a growth rate of 0.39±0.02 h⁻¹ and a doubling time of 1.65±0.09 h at an optimal wavelength of 469.9±0.3 nm. Besides the easy and monolithic integration of the SWG into poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems, the results presented here are very promising for the application in any disposable photonic lab-on-a-chip systems used for online analysis or photonic MBRs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Variability of measurements of sweat sodium using the regional absorbent-patch method.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Christine E; Ross, Megan L; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    There is interest in including recommendations for the replacement of the sodium lost in sweat in individualized hydration plans for athletes. Although the regional absorbent-patch method provides a practical approach to measuring sweat sodium losses in field conditions, there is a need to understand the variability of estimates associated with this technique. Sweat samples were collected from the forearms, chest, scapula, and thigh of 12 cyclists during 2 standardized cycling time trials in the heat and 2 in temperate conditions. Single measure analysis of sodium concentration was conducted immediately by ion-selective electrodes (ISE). A subset of 30 samples was frozen for reanalysis of sodium concentration using ISE, flame photometry (FP), and conductivity (SC). Sweat samples collected in hot conditions produced higher sweat sodium concentrations than those from the temperate environment (P = .0032). A significant difference (P = .0048) in estimates of sweat sodium concentration was evident when calculated from the forearm average (mean ± 95% CL; 64 ± 12 mmol/L) compared with using a 4-site equation (70 ± 12 mmol/L). There was a high correlation between the values produced using different analytical techniques (r2 = .95), but mean values were different between treatments (frozen FP, frozen SC > immediate ISE > frozen ISE; P < .0001). Whole-body sweat sodium concentration estimates differed depending on the number of sites included in the calculation. Environmental testing conditions should be considered in the interpretation of results. The impact of sample freezing and subsequent analytical technique was small but statistically significant. Nevertheless, when undertaken using a standardized protocol, the regional absorbent-patch method appears to be a relatively robust field test.

  15. Measurement and effects of MOSKIN detectors on skin dose during high energy radiotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Alnawaf, Hani; Butson, Martin; Yu, Peter K N

    2012-09-01

    During in vivo dosimetry for megavoltage X-ray beams, detectors such as diodes, Thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD's) and MOSFET devices are placed on the patient's skin. This of course will affect the skin dose delivered during that fraction of the treatment. Whilst the overall impact on increasing skin dose would be minimal, little has been quantified concerning the level of increase in absorbed dose, in vivo dosimeters produce when placed in the beams path. To this extent, measurements have been made and analysis performed on dose changes caused by MOSKIN, MOSFET, skin dose detectors. Maximum increases in skin dose were measured as 15 % for 6 MV X-rays and 10 % for 10 MV X-rays at the active crystal of the MOSKIN device which is the thickest part of the detector. This is compared to 32 and 26 % for a standard 1 mm thick LiF TLD at 10 × 10 cm(2) field size for 6 and 10 MV X-rays respectively. Radiochromic film, EBT2 has been shown to provide a high resolution 2 dimensional map of skin dose from these detectors and measures the effects of in vivo dosimeters used for radiotherapy dose assessment.

  16. On the Use of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter for Surface Dose Measurement during Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Fasihah Hanum; Ung, Ngie Min; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Jong, Wei Loong; Ath, Vannyat; Phua, Vincent Chee Ee; Heng, Siew Ping; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the suitability of using the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) in measuring surface dose during radiotherapy. The water equivalent depth (WED) of the OSLD was first determined by comparing the surface dose measured using the OSLD with the percentage depth dose at the buildup region measured using a Markus ionization chamber. Surface doses were measured on a solid water phantom using the OSLD and compared against the Markus ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT3 film measurements. The effect of incident beam angles on surface dose was also studied. The OSLD was subsequently used to measure surface dose during tangential breast radiotherapy treatments in a phantom study and in the clinical measurement of 10 patients. Surface dose to the treated breast or chest wall, and on the contralateral breast were measured. The WED of the OSLD was found to be at 0.4 mm. For surface dose measurement on a solid water phantom, the Markus ionization chamber measured 15.95% for 6 MV photon beam and 12.64% for 10 MV photon beam followed by EBT3 film (23.79% and 17.14%) and OSLD (37.77% and 25.38%). Surface dose increased with the increase of the incident beam angle. For phantom and patient breast surface dose measurement, the response of the OSLD was higher than EBT3 film. The in-vivo measurements were also compared with the treatment planning system predicted dose. The OSLD measured higher dose values compared to dose at the surface (Hp(0.0)) by a factor of 2.37 for 6 MV and 2.01 for 10 MV photon beams, respectively. The measurement of absorbed dose at the skin depth of 0.4 mm by the OSLD can still be a useful tool to assess radiation effects on the skin dermis layer. This knowledge can be used to prevent and manage potential acute skin reaction and late skin toxicity from radiotherapy treatments. PMID:26052690

  17. Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, M.; Stammes, P.; Aben, E. A. A.

    2007-01-01

    Reflectance spectra from 280-1750 nm of typical desert dust aerosol (DDA) and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) scenes over oceans are presented, measured by the space-borne spectrometer Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). DDA and BBA are both UV-absorbing aerosols, but their effect on the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance is different due to differences in the way mineral aerosols and smoke reflect and absorb radiation. Mineral aerosols are typically large, inert particles, found in warm, dry continental air. Smoke particles, on the other hand, are usually small particles, although often clustered, chemically very active and highly variable in composition. Moreover, BBA are hygroscopic and over oceans BBA were invariably found in cloudy scenes. TOA reflectance spectra of typical DDA and BBA scenes were analyzed, using radiative transfer simulations, and compared. The DDA spectrum was successfully simulated using a layer with a bimodal size distribution of mineral aerosols in a clear sky. The spectrum of the BBA scene, however, was determined by the interaction between cloud droplets and smoke particles, as is shown by simulations with a model of separate aerosol and cloud layers and models with internally and externally mixed aerosol/cloud layers. The occurrence of clouds in smoke scenes when sufficient water vapor is present usually prevents the detection of optical properties of these aerosol plumes using space-borne sensors. However, the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI), a UV color index, is not sensitive to scattering aerosols and clouds and can be used to detect these otherwise obscured aerosol plumes over clouds. The amount of absorption of radiation can be expressed using the absorption optical thickness. The absorption optical thickness in the DDA case was 0.42 (340 nm) and 0.14 (550 nm) for an aerosol layer of optical thickness 1.74 (550 nm). In the BBA case the absorption optical thickness was 0.18 (340 nm) and 0

  18. Estimated human absorbed dose of ¹⁷⁷Lu-BPAMD based on mice data: Comparison with ¹⁷⁷Lu-EDTMP.

    PubMed

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the absorbed dose of human organs for (177)Lu-BPAMD was evaluated based on biodistribution studies into the Syrian mice by RADAR method and was compared with (177)Lu-EDTMP as the only clinically used Lu-177 bone-seeking agent. The highest absorbed dose for both (177)Lu-BPAMD and (177)Lu-EDTMP is observed on the bone surface with 8.007 and 4.802 mSv/MBq. Generally, (177)Lu-BPAMD has considerable characteristics compared with (177)Lu-EDTMP and can be considered as a promising agent for the bone pain palliation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and quantification of 223Ra uptake in bone metastases of patients with castration resistant prostate carcinoma, with the aim of determining the absorbed dose in the metastases.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, P; Gómez de Iturriaga, A; Fernández, I L; Rodeño, E

    To obtain the necessary acquisition and calibration parameters in order to evaluate the possibility of detecting and quantifying 223 Ra uptake in bone metastases of patients treated for castration resistant prostate carcinoma. Furthermore, in the cases in which the activity can be quantified, to determine the absorbed dose. Acquisitions from a Petri dish filled with 223 Ra were performed in the gamma camera. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to study the partial volume effect. Formulae to obtain the detection and quantification limits of 223 Ra uptake were applied to planar images of two patients 7 days post-administration of 55kBq/kg of 223 Ra. In order to locate the lesions in advance, whole-body scans and SPECT/CT images were acquired after injecting 99m Tc-HDP. The optimal energy window was found to be at 82keV with a medium-energy collimator MEGP. Of the lesions found in the patients, only those that had been detected in both the AP and PA projections could be quantified. These lesions were those which had shown a higher 99m Tc-HDP uptake. The estimated values of absorbed doses ranged between 0.7Gy and 7.8Gy. Of the lesions that can be detected, it is not possible to quantify the activity uptake in some of them, which means that the absorbed dose cannot be determined either. This does not mean that the absorbed dose in these lesions can be regarded as negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of absorbed-dose-to-water units for Co-60 and high-energy x-rays between PTB and LNE-LNHB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaunay, F.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Gouriou, J.; Illemann, J.; Krauss, A.; Le Roy, M.; Ostrowsky, A.; Sommier, L.; Vermesse, D.

    2012-10-01

    During the Euramet project JRP7 ‘External Beam Cancer Therapy’, PTB and LNE-LNHB used primary standards to determine the absorbed dose to water under IMRT conditions (in small fields). PTB used a water calorimeter to determine the absorbed-dose-to-water references in 6 MV and 10 MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm × 10 cm and 3 cm × 3 cm while LNE-LNHB used graphite calorimeters in 6 MV and 12 MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm × 10 cm, 4 cm × 4 cm and 2 cm × 2 cm. The purpose of this study is to compare PTB and LNE-LNHB new absorbed-dose-to-water references. LNE-LNHB sent an Exradin A1SL ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to the PTB for calibration in 60Co and in linac beams and PTB sent a PTW 31010 ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to LNE-LNHB for calibration in 60Co and in linac beams. Calculated Sw,air will be used as beam quality specifier for the ionization chamber comparison at different field sizes. The standard uncertainties (k = 1) of PTB and LNE-LNHB calibration coefficients lie respectively between 0.25% (60Co) and 0.40% (linac) and between 0.29% and 0.46%. PTB and LNE-LNHB absorbed-dose-to-water references developed for this project, based respectively on water calorimetry and on graphite calorimetry, agree within 1.5 standard deviations for field size of 10 cm × 10 cm down to 2 cm × 2 cm and for beams of 6 MV to 10 MV.

  1. SU-F-I-53: Coded Aperture Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging of the Breast: A Monte Carlo Evaluation of Absorbed Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R; Lakshmanan, M; Fong, G

    Purpose: Coherent scatter based imaging has shown improved contrast and molecular specificity over conventional digital mammography however the biological risks have not been quantified due to a lack of accurate information on absorbed dose. This study intends to characterize the dose distribution and average glandular dose from coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of the breast. The dose deposited in the breast from this new diagnostic imaging modality has not yet been quantitatively evaluated. Here, various digitized anthropomorphic phantoms are tested in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the absorbed dose distribution and average glandular dose using clinically feasible scanmore » protocols. Methods: Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation software is used to replicate the coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system. Energy sensitive, photon counting detectors are used to characterize the x-ray beam spectra for various imaging protocols. This input spectra is cross-validated with the results from XSPECT, a commercially available application that yields x-ray tube specific spectra for the operating parameters employed. XSPECT is also used to determine the appropriate number of photons emitted per mAs of tube current at a given kVp tube potential. With the implementation of the XCAT digital anthropomorphic breast phantom library, a variety of breast sizes with differing anatomical structure are evaluated. Simulations were performed with and without compression of the breast for dose comparison. Results: Through the Monte Carlo evaluation of a diverse population of breast types imaged under real-world scan conditions, a clinically relevant average glandular dose for this new imaging modality is extrapolated. Conclusion: With access to the physical coherent scatter imaging system used in the simulation, the results of this Monte Carlo study may be used to directly influence the future development of the modality to keep breast

  2. Role of shielding in modulating the effects of solar particle events: Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose and DNA complex lesions in different organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Zankl, M.

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes - such as FLUKA - yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy -1 Da -1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm 2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for

  3. Measurement of argon neutral velocity distribution functions near an absorbing boundary in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Zachary; Thompson, Derek; Good, Timothy; Scime, Earl

    2016-10-01

    Neutral particle distributions are critical to the study of plasma boundary interactions, where ion-neutral collisions, e.g. via charge exchange, may modify energetic particle populations impacting the boundary surface. Neutral particle behavior at absorbing boundaries thus underlies a number of important plasma physics issues, such as wall loading in fusion devices and anomalous erosion in Hall thruster channels. Neutral velocity distribution functions (NVDFs) are measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Our LIF scheme excites the 1s4 non-metastable state of neutral argon with 667.913 nm photons. The subsequent decay emission at 750.590 nm is recorded synchronously with injection laser frequency. Measurements are performed near a grounded boundary immersed in a cylindrical helicon plasma, with the boundary plate oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field. NVDFs are recorded in multiple velocity dimensions and in a three-dimensional volume, enabling point-to-point comparisons with NVDF predictions from particle-in-cell models as well as comparisons with ion velocity distribution function measurements obtained in the same regions through Ar-II LIF. This work is supported by US National Science Foundation Grant Number PHYS-1360278.

  4. Method for preparing dosimeter for measuring skin dose

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Donald E.; Parker, DeRay; Boren, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with neutron-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  5. Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Donald E.; Parker, DeRay; Boren, Paul R.

    1981-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the ENEA-INMRI (Italy) and the BIPM for 60Co γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Burns, D. T.; Guerra, A. S.; Laitano, R. F.; Pimpinella, M.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy (ENEA-INMRI), and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co gamma radiation under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for three transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the ENEA and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9999 (0.0044). The present 2007 result replaces the earlier ENEA value in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence between the ENEA and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix for the ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) that have published results in this ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the VSL, Netherlands and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; de Prez, L. A.; Jansen, B. J.; Pooter, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 20 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water for three radiation qualities of the medical accelerator facilities of the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom). After establishing Draft B, the VSL discovered an error in the calculation of the correction factor for excess-heat linked to the VSL glass vessel used in the measurements at the NPL. The comparison results for the revised standard, reported as ratios of the VSL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9959 (54) at 6 MV, 0.9958 (64) at 10 MV and 0.9991 (75) at 25 MV. This result is part of the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Whole-body biodistribution and estimation of radiation-absorbed doses of the dopamine D1 receptor radioligand 11C-NNC 112 in humans.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Fujita, Masahiro; Musachio, John L; Hong, Jinsoo; Ghose, Subroto; Sangare, Janet; Nathan, Pradeep J; Pike, Victor W; Innis, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    The present study estimated radiation-absorbed doses of the dopamine D(1) receptor radioligand [(11)C]((+)-8-chloro-5-(7-benzofuranyl)-7-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine) (NNC 112) in humans, based on dynamic whole-body PET in healthy subjects. Whole-body PET was performed on 7 subjects after injection of 710 +/- 85 MBq of (11)C-NNC 112. Fourteen frames were acquired for a total of 120 min in 7 segments of the body. Regions of interest were drawn on compressed planar images of source organs that could be identified. Radiation dose estimates were calculated from organ residence times using the OLINDA 1.0 program. The organs with the highest radiation-absorbed doses were the gallbladder, liver, lungs, kidneys, and urinary bladder wall. Biexponential fitting of mean bladder activity demonstrated that 15% of activity was excreted via the urine. With a 2.4-h voiding interval, the effective dose was 5.7 microSv/MBq (21.1 mrem/mCi). (11)C-NNC 112 displays a favorable radiation dose profile in humans and would allow multiple PET examinations per year to be performed on the same subject.

  9. Estimating thyroid dose in pediatric CT exams from surface dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Senan, Rani; Mueller, Deborah L.; Hatab, Mustapha R.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of estimating pediatric thyroid doses from CT using surface neck doses. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters were used to measure the neck surface dose of 25 children ranging in ages between one and three years old. The neck circumference for each child was measured. The relationship between obtained surface doses and thyroid dose was studied using acrylic phantoms of various sizes and with holes of different depths. The ratios of hole-to-surface doses were used to convert patients' surface dose to thyroid dose. ImPACT software was utilized to calculate thyroid dose after applying the appropriate age correction factors. A paired t-test was performed to compare thyroid doses from our approach and ImPACT. The ratio of thyroid to surface dose was found to be 1.1. Thyroid doses ranged from 20 to 80 mGy. Comparison showed no statistical significance (p = 0.18). In addition, the average of surface dose variation along the z-axis in helical scans was studied and found to range between 5% (in 10 cm diameter phantom/24 mm collimation/pitch 1.0) and 8% (in 16 cm diameter phantom/12 mm collimation/pitch 0.7). We conclude that surface dose is an acceptable predictor for pediatric thyroid dose from CT. The uncertainty due to surface dose variability may be reduced if narrower collimation is used with a pitch factor close to 1.0. Also, the results did not show any effect of thyroid depth on the measured dose.

  10. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth andmore » fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.« less

  11. Refractive index measurements in absorbing media with white light spectral interferometry.

    PubMed

    Arosa, Yago; Lago, Elena López; de la Fuente, Raúl

    2018-03-19

    White light spectral interferometry is applied to measure the refractive index in absorbing liquids in the spectral range of 400-1000 nm. We analyze the influence of absorption on the visibility of interferometric fringes and, accordingly, on the measurement of the refractive index. Further, we show that the refractive index in the absorption band can be retrieved by a two-step process. The procedure requires the use of two samples of different thickness, the thicker one to retrieve the refractive index in the transparent region and the thinnest to obtain the data in the absorption region. First, the refractive index values are retrieved with good accuracy in the transparent region of the material for 1-mm-thick samples. Second, these refractive index values serve also to precisely calculate the thickness of a thinner sample (~150 µm) since the accuracy of the methods depends strongly on the thickness of the sample. Finally, the refractive index is recovered for the entire spectral range.

  12. WE-FG-BRA-10: Radiodosimetry of a Novel Alpha Particle Therapy Targeted to Uveal Melanoma: Absorbed Dose to Organs in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tichacek, Christopher J.; Tafreshi, Narges K.; Budzevich, Mikalai M.

    Purpose: The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is expressed in 94% of uveal melanomas and is described as an ideal target for this untreatable disease. MC1RL is a high affinity MC1R specific peptidomimetic ligand that can serve as a scaffold for therapeutic conjugates such as alpha particle emitting isotopes. The purpose of this study was to assess normal tissue distribution and risk as a result of using the DOTA chelator conjugated to MC1RL to deliver {sup 225}Ac: MC1RL-DOTA-{sup 225}Ac. Methods: 17 non-tumor bearing BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with the novel MC1RL-DOTA-{sup 225}Ac radiopharmaceutical with an average initial administered activity of 2.5more » µCi. After the injection, three groups of animals (6, 6, and 5 per group) were euthanized at 24, 48, and 96 hour time points. A total of 11 organs of interest were harvested at each time point including kidneys and liver. Since the emitted alpha particles from {sup 225}Ac and its daughter products are not easy to detect directly, the isomeric gamma spectra were measured instead in the tissue samples using a modified Atomlab™ Gamma Counter (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc) and converted using factors for gamma ray abundance per alpha decay. Dosimetry was performed using measured radioactivity distribution in organs and the generalized internal dosimetry schema of MIRD pamphlet #21. Results: Our calculations have shown that the maximum absorbed dose was delivered to the liver with a total of 47 cGy per 96 hour period. The average dose per kidney was calculated to be 21 cGy. Heart, brain, lung, spleen, skin doses ranged from 0.01 to 1 cGy over the same time period. All animals gained weight over the 110 day decay period and no organ damage was observed by pathology. Conclusion: Based on our results, the risk of using the MC1RL-DOTA-{sup 225}Ac compound is relatively small in terms of deterministic radiation effects. Funding Support: NIH/NCI P50CA168536-03 Skin SPORE; NIH/NCI Phase I SBIR Contract #HHSN

  13. Impacts of light-absorbing impurities on snow and their quantification with bidirectional reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Zubko, Nataliya; Hakala, Teemu; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing impurities on snow and define their contribution to the climate change, we have conducted a series of dedicated bidirectional reflectance measurements. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt have been deposited on the snow in the controlled way. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these targets and untouched snow have been measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's field goniospectrometer FIGIFIGO, see, e.g., [1, 2] and references therein. It has been found that the contaminants darken the snow, and modify its appearance mostly as expected, with clear directional signal and modest spectral signal. A remarkable feature is the fact that any absorbing contaminant on snow enhances the metamorphosis under strong sunlight [3, 4]. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appears darker than the pure snow in all viewing directions, but the heated soot particles start sinking down deeply into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remains darkest, but at larger zenith angles the surface of the soot-contaminated snow changes back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for on ground observer the darkening by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir looking satellite sees the darkest points, now underestimating the albedo. After more time, also the nadir view brightens, and the remaining impurities may be biased towards more shadowed locations or less absorbing orientations by natural selection. This suggests that at noon the albedo should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates more sinking than melting, albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting is dominating. Thus to estimate the effects caused by black carbon (BC) deposited on snow on climate changes may one need to take into account possible rapid diffusion of the BC inside the snow from its surface. When the snow melt

  14. In vivo skin dose measurement in breast conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Noghreiyan, Atefeh Vejdani; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Jamali, Farideh; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Accurate skin dose assessment is necessary during breast radiotherapy to assure that the skin dose is below the tolerance level and is sufficient to prevent tumour recurrence. The aim of the current study is to measure the skin dose and to evaluate the geometrical/anatomical parameters that affect it. Forty patients were simulated by TIGRT treatment planning system and treated with two tangential fields of 6 MV photon beam. Wedge filters were used to homogenise dose distribution for 11 patients. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) and the effects of beam incident angle, thickness of irradiated region, and beam entry separation on the skin dose were analysed. Average skin dose in treatment course of 50 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV) was 36.65 Gy. The corresponding dose values for patients who were treated with and without wedge filter were 35.65 and 37.20 Gy, respectively. It was determined that the beam angle affected the average skin dose while the thickness of the irradiated region and the beam entry separation did not affect dose. Since the skin dose measured in this study was lower than the amount required to prevent tumour recurrence, application of bolus material in part of the treatment course is suggested for post-mastectomy advanced breast radiotherapy. It is more important when wedge filters are applied to homogenize dose distribution.

  15. [BeO-OSL detectors for dose measurements in cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Andreeff, M; Sommer, D; Freudenberg, R; Reichelt, U; Henniger, J; Kotzerke, J

    2009-01-01

    The absorbed dose is an important parameter in experiments involving irradiation of cells in vitro with unsealed radionuclides. Typically, this is estimated with a model calculation, although the results thus obtained cannot be verified. Generally used real-time measurement methods are not applicable in this setting. A new detector material with in vitro suitability is the subject of this work. Optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters based on beryllium oxide (BeO) were used for dose measurement in cell cultures exposed to unsealed radionuclides. Their qualitative properties (e. g. energy-dependent count rate sensitivity, fading, contamination by radioactive liquids) were determined and compared to the results of a Monte Carlo simulation (using AMOS software). OSL dosimeters were tested in common cell culture setups with a known geometry. Dose reproducibility of the OSL dosimeters was +/-1.5%. Fading at room temperature was 0.07% per day. Dose loss (optically-stimulated deletion) under ambient lighting conditions was 0.5% per minute. The Monte Carlo simulation for the relative sensitivity at different beta energies provided corresponding results to those obtained with the OSL dosimeters. Dose profile measurements using a 6 well plate and 14 ml PP tube showed that the geometry of the cell culture vessel has a marked influence on dose distribution with 188Re. A new dosimeter system was calibrated with beta-emitters of different energy. It turned out as suitable for measuring dose in liquids. The dose profile measurements obtained are suitably precise to be used as a check against theoretical dose calculations.

  16. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  17. Surface dose measurements for highly oblique electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ostwald, P M; Kron, T

    1996-08-01

    Clinical applications of electrons may involve oblique incidence of beams, and although dose variations for angles up to 60 degrees from normal incidence are well documented, no results are available for highly oblique beams. Surface dose measurements in highly oblique beams were made using parallel-plate ion chambers and both standard LiF:Mg, Ti and carbon-loaded LiF Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD). Obliquity factors (OBF) or surface dose at an oblique angle divided by the surface dose at perpendicular incidence, were obtained for electron energies between 4 and 20 MeV. Measurements were performed on a flat solid water phantom without a collimator at 100 cm SSD. Comparisons were also made to collimated beams. The OBFs of surface doses plotted against the angle of incidence increased to a maximum dose followed by a rapid dropoff in dose. The increase in OBF was more rapid for higher energies. The maximum OBF occurred at larger angles for higher-energy beams and ranged from 73 degrees for 4 MeV to 84 degrees for 20 MeV. At the dose maximum, OBFs were between 130% and 160% of direct beam doses, yielding surface doses of up to 150% of Dmax for the 20 MeV beam. At 2 mm depth the dose ratio was found to increase initially with angle and then decrease as Dmax moved closer to the surface. A higher maximum dose was measured at 2 mm depth than at the surface. A comparison of ion chamber types showed that a chamber with a small electrode spacing and large guard ring is required for oblique dose measurement. A semiempirical equation was used to model the dose increase at the surface with different energy electron beams.

  18. Measured Wavelength-Dependent Absorption Enhancement of Internally Mixed Black Carbon with Absorbing and Nonabsorbing Materials.

    PubMed

    You, Rian; Radney, James G; Zachariah, Michael R; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2016-08-02

    Optical absorption spectra of laboratory generated aerosols consisting of black carbon (BC) internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials (ammonium sulfate, AS, and sodium chloride, NaCl) and BC with a weakly absorbing brown carbon surrogate derived from humic acid (HA) were measured across the visible to near-IR (550 to 840 nm). Spectra were measured in situ using a photoacoustic spectrometer and step-scanning a supercontinuum laser source with a tunable wavelength and bandwidth filter. BC had a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) of 7.89 ± 0.25 m(2) g(-1) at λ = 550 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 1.03 ± 0.09 (2σ). For internally mixed BC, the ratio of BC mass to the total mass of the mixture was chosen as 0.13 to mimic particles observed in the terrestrial atmosphere. The manner in which BC mixed with each material was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AS/BC and HA/BC particles were fully internally mixed, and the BC was both internally and externally mixed for NaCl/BC particles. The AS/BC, NaCl/BC, and HA/BC particles had AAEs of 1.43 ± 0.05, 1.34 ± 0.06, and 1.91 ± 0.05, respectively. The observed absorption enhancement of mixed BC relative to the pure BC was wavelength dependent for AS/BC and decreased from 1.5 at λ = 550 nm with increasing wavelength while the NaCl/BC enhancement was essentially wavelength independent. For HA/BC, the enhancement ranged from 2 to 3 and was strongly wavelength dependent. Removal of the HA absorption contribution to enhancement revealed that the enhancement was ≈1.5 and independent of wavelength.

  19. X-ray surface dose measurements using TLD extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Kron, T; Elliot, A; Wong, T; Showell, G; Clubb, B; Metcalfe, P

    1993-01-01

    Surface dose measurements in therapeutic x-ray beams are of importance in determining the dose to the skin of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Measurements were performed in the 6-MV beam of a medical linear accelerator with LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) using a solid water phantom. TLD chips (surface area 3.17 x 3.17 cm2) of three different thicknesses (0.230, 0.099, and 0.038 g/cm2) were used to extrapolate dose readings to an infinitesimally thin layer of LiF. This surface dose was measured for field sizes ranging from 1 x 1 cm2 to 40 x 40 cm2. The surface dose relative to maximum dose was found to be 10.0% for a field size of 5 x 5 cm2, 16.3% for 10 x 10 cm2, and 26.9% for 20 x 20 cm2. Using a 6-mm Perspex block tray in the beam increased the surface dose in these fields to 10.7%, 17.7%, and 34.2% respectively. Due to the small size of the TLD chips, TLD extrapolation is applicable also for intracavity and exit dose determinations. The technique used for in vivo dosimetry could provide clinicians information about the build up of dose up to 1-mm depth in addition to an extrapolated surface dose measurement.

  20. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays-leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  1. In vivo urethral dose measurements: a method to verify high dose rate prostate treatments.

    PubMed

    Brezovich, I A; Duan, J; Pareek, P N; Fiveash, J; Ezekiel, M

    2000-10-01

    Radiation doses delivered in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy are susceptible to many inaccuracies and errors, including imaging, planning and delivery. Consequently, the dose delivered to the patient may deviate substantially from the treatment plan. We investigated the feasibility of using TLD measurements in the urethra to estimate the discrepancy in treatments for prostate cancer. The dose response of the 1 mm diam, 6 mm long LiF rods that we used for the in vivo measurements was calibrated with the 192Ir HDR source, as well as a 60Co teletherapy unit. A train of 20 rods contained in a sterile plastic tube was inserted into the urethral (Foley) catheter for the duration of a treatment fraction, and the measured doses were compared to the treatment plan. Initial results from a total of seven treatments in four patients show good agreement between theory and experiment. Analysis of any one treatment showed agreement within 11.7% +/- 6.2% for the highest dose encountered in the central prostatic urethra, and within 10.4% +/- 4.4% for the mean dose. Taking the average over all seven treatments shows agreement within 1.7% for the maximum urethral dose, and within 1.5% for the mean urethral dose. Based on these initial findings it seems that planned prostate doses can be accurately reproduced in the clinic.

  2. RaD-X: Complementary measurements of dose rates at aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Forkert, Tomas; Wirtz, Michael; Scheibinger, Markus; Hübel, Robert; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-09-01

    The RaD-X stratospheric balloon flight organized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was launched from Fort Sumner on 25 September 2015 and carried several instruments to measure the radiation field in the upper atmosphere at the average vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV. The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) in cooperation with Lufthansa German Airlines supported this campaign with an independent measuring flight at the altitudes of civil aviation on a round trip from Germany to Japan. The goal was to measure dose rates under similar space weather conditions over an area on the Northern Hemisphere opposite to the RaD-X flight. Dose rates were measured in the target areas, i.e., around vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV, at two flight altitudes for about 1 h at each position with acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the flights shows that measuring data were acquired under stable and moderate space weather conditions with a virtually undisturbed magnetosphere. The measured rates of absorbed dose in silicon and ambient dose equivalent complement the data recorded during the balloon flight. The combined measurements provide a set of experimental data suitable for validating and improving numerical models for the calculation of radiation exposure at aviation altitudes.

  3. Determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams-comparison of the standards DIN 6800-2 (1997), IAEA TRS 398 (2000) and DIN 6800-2 (2006)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Golam Abu; Schuette, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    For the determination of the absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams the IAEA code of practice TRS-398 (2000) is applied internationally. In Germany, the German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (1997) is used. Recently, the DIN standard has been revised and published as Draft National Standard DIN 6800-2 (2006). It has adopted widely the methodology and dosimetric data of the code of practice. This paper compares these three dosimetry protocols systematically and identifies similarities as well as differences. The investigation was done with 6 and 18 MV photon as well as 5 to 21 MeV electron beams. While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, measurements of electron beams were performed using cylindrical as well as plane-parallel chambers. The discrepancies in the determination of absorbed dose to water between the three protocols were 0.4% for photon beams and 1.5% for electron beams. Comparative measurements showed a deviation of less than 0.5% between our measurements following protocol DIN 6800-2 (2006) and TLD inter-comparison procedure in an external audit. PMID:21217912

  4. Determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams-comparison of the standards DIN 6800-2 (1997), IAEA TRS 398 (2000) and DIN 6800-2 (2006).

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Golam Abu; Schuette, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    For the determination of the absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams the IAEA code of practice TRS-398 (2000) is applied internationally. In Germany, the German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (1997) is used. Recently, the DIN standard has been revised and published as Draft National Standard DIN 6800-2 (2006). It has adopted widely the methodology and dosimetric data of the code of practice. This paper compares these three dosimetry protocols systematically and identifies similarities as well as differences. The investigation was done with 6 and 18 MV photon as well as 5 to 21 MeV electron beams. While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, measurements of electron beams were performed using cylindrical as well as plane-parallel chambers. The discrepancies in the determination of absorbed dose to water between the three protocols were 0.4% for photon beams and 1.5% for electron beams. Comparative measurements showed a deviation of less than 0.5% between our measurements following protocol DIN 6800-2 (2006) and TLD inter-comparison procedure in an external audit.

  5. High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Poder, Joel; Smith, Ryan L; Shelton, Nikki; Whitaker, May; Butler, Duncan; Haworth, Annette

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR 192 Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single 192 Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the 192 Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for 192 Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.

  6. Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose

    SciTech Connect

    Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm[sup 3] dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimatedmore » doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  7. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Atkins, H.

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consistedmore » of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.« less

  8. Stored-fluorography mode reduces radiation dose during cardiac catheterization measured with OSLD dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Chien-Yi; Chen, Zhih-Cherng; Tang, Kuo-Ting; Liu, Wei-Chung; Lin, Chun-Chih; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2015-12-01

    Coronary angiogram is an imperative tool for diagnosis of coronary artery diseases, in which cine-angiography is a commonly used method. Although the angiography proceeds under radiation, the potential risk of radiation exposure for both the patients and the operators was seldom noticed. In this study, the absorbed radiation dose in stored-fluorography mode was compared with that in cine-angiography mode by using optically simulated luminescent dosimeters to realize their effects on radiation dose. Patients received coronary angiogram via radial artery approach were randomized into the stored-fluorography group (N=30) or the cine-angiography group (N=30). The excluded criteria were: 1. women at pregnancy or on breast feeding, 2. chronic kidney diseases with glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min. During the coronary angiogram, absorbed dose of the patients and the operator radiation exposure was measured with optically simulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD). The absorbed dose of the patients in the stored-fluorography group (3.13±0.25 mGy) was apparently lower than that in the cine-angiography group (65.57±5.37 mGy; P<0.001). For the operator, a statistical difference (P<0.001) was also found between the stored-fluorography group (0.09163 μGy) and the cine-angiography (0.6519μGy). Compared with traditional cine-angiography mode, the stored-fluorography mode can apparently reduce radiation exposure of the patients and the operator in coronary angiogram.

  9. Sensitivity of multiangle photo-polarimetry to absorbing aerosol vertical layering and properties: Quantifying measurement uncertainties for ACE requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Davis, A. B.; Natraj, V.; Diner, D. J.; Tanelli, S.; Martonchik, J. V.; JPl Team

    2011-12-01

    The impact of tropospheric aerosols on climate can vary greatly based upon relatively small variations in aerosol properties, such as composition, shape and size distributions, as well as vertical layering. Multi-angle polarimetric measurements have been advocated in recent years as an additional tool to better understand and retrieve the aerosol properties needed for improved predictions of aerosol radiative forcing on climate. The central concern of this work is the assessment of the effects of absorbing aerosol properties under measurement uncertainties achievable for future generation multi-angle, polarimetric imaging instruments under ACE mission requirements. As guidelines, the on-orbit performance of MISR for multi-angle intensity measurements and the reported polarization sensitivities of a MSPI prototype were adopted. In particular, we will focus on sensitivities to absorbing aerosol layering and observation-constrained refractive indices (resulting in various single scattering albedos (SSA)) of both spherical and non-spherical absorbing aerosol types. We conducted modeling experiments to determine how the measured Stokes vector elements are affected in UV-NIR range by the vertical distribution, mixing and layering of smoke and dust aerosols, and aerosol SSA under the assumption of a black and polarizing ocean surfaces. We use a vector successive-orders-of-scattering (SOS) and VLIDORT transfer codes that show excellent agreement. Based on our sensitivity studies we will demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of wavelength selection in UV-NIR range to access absorbing aerosol properties. Polarized UV channels do not show particular advantage for absorbing aerosol property characterization due to dominating molecular signal. Polarimetric SSA sensitivity is small, however needed to be considered in the future polarimetric retrievals under ACE-defined uncertainty.

  10. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Lisjak, I; Vekić, B; Poje, M; Planinić, J

    2008-02-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 microSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 microSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 microSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 microSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  11. Role of shielding in modulating the effects of solar particle events: Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose and DNA complex lesions in different organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes--such as FLUKA--yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy-1 Da-1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for the

  12. On the origin of the visible light responsible for proton dose measurement using plastic optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Taleei, Reza; Kassaee, Alireza; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally and by means of Monte Carlo simulations investigated the origin of the visible signal responsible for proton therapy dose measurement using bare plastic optical fibers. Experimentally, the fiber optic probe, embedded in tissue-mimicking plastics, was irradiated with a proton beam produced by a proton therapy cyclotron and the luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrograph to analyze the emission spectrum of the fiber tip. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA Monte Carlo code to stochastically simulate radiation transport, ionizing radiation dose deposition, and optical emission of Čerenkov radiation. The spectroscopic study of proton-irradiated plastic fibers showed a continuous spectrum with shape different from that of Čerenkov radiation. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed that the amount of the generated Čerenkov light does not follow the radiation absorbed dose in a medium. Our results show that the origin of the optical signal responsible for the proton dose measurement using bare optical fibers is not Čerenkov radiation. Our results point toward a connection between the scintillation of the plastic material of the fiber and the origin of the signal responsible for dose measurement.

  13. A feasibility study on the use of phantoms with statistical lung masses for determining the uncertainty in the dose absorbed by the lung from broad beams of incident photons and neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Khankook, Atiyeh Ebrahimi; Hakimabad, Hashem Miri

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Computational models of the human body have gradually become crucial in the evaluation of doses absorbed by organs. However, individuals may differ considerably in terms of organ size and shape. In this study, the authors sought to determine the energy-dependent standard deviations due to lung size of the dose absorbed by the lung during external photon and neutron beam exposures. One hundred lungs with different masses were prepared and located in an adult male International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantom. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle code version 5 (MCNP5). Variation in the lung mass caused great uncertainty: ~90% for low-energy broad parallel photon beams. However, for high-energy photons, the lung-absorbed dose dependency on the anatomical variation was reduced to <1%. In addition, the results obtained indicated that the discrepancy in the lung-absorbed dose varied from 0.6% to 8% for neutron beam exposure. Consequently, the relationship between absorbed dose and organ volume was found to be significant for low-energy photon sources, whereas for higher energy photon sources the organ-absorbed dose was independent of the organ volume. In the case of neutron beam exposure, the maximum discrepancy (of 8%) occurred in the energy range between 0.1 and 5 MeV. PMID:28077627

  14. A feasibility study on the use of phantoms with statistical lung masses for determining the uncertainty in the dose absorbed by the lung from broad beams of incident photons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Khankook, Atiyeh Ebrahimi; Hakimabad, Hashem Miri; Motavalli, Laleh Rafat

    2017-05-01

    Computational models of the human body have gradually become crucial in the evaluation of doses absorbed by organs. However, individuals may differ considerably in terms of organ size and shape. In this study, the authors sought to determine the energy-dependent standard deviations due to lung size of the dose absorbed by the lung during external photon and neutron beam exposures. One hundred lungs with different masses were prepared and located in an adult male International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantom. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle code version 5 (MCNP5). Variation in the lung mass caused great uncertainty: ~90% for low-energy broad parallel photon beams. However, for high-energy photons, the lung-absorbed dose dependency on the anatomical variation was reduced to <1%. In addition, the results obtained indicated that the discrepancy in the lung-absorbed dose varied from 0.6% to 8% for neutron beam exposure. Consequently, the relationship between absorbed dose and organ volume was found to be significant for low-energy photon sources, whereas for higher energy photon sources the organ-absorbed dose was independent of the organ volume. In the case of neutron beam exposure, the maximum discrepancy (of 8%) occurred in the energy range between 0.1 and 5 MeV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  15. A methodological approach to a realistic evaluation of skin absorbed doses during manipulation of radioactive sources by means of GAMOS Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italiano, Antonio; Amato, Ernesto; Auditore, Lucrezia; Baldari, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    The accurate evaluation of the radiation burden associated with radiation absorbed doses to the skin of the extremities during the manipulation of radioactive sources is a critical issue in operational radiological protection, deserving the most accurate calculation approaches available. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation transport and interaction is the gold standard for the calculation of dose distributions in complex geometries and in presence of extended spectra of multi-radiation sources. We propose the use of Monte Carlo simulations in GAMOS, in order to accurately estimate the dose to the extremities during manipulation of radioactive sources. We report the results of these simulations for 90Y, 131I, 18F and 111In nuclides in water solutions enclosed in glass or plastic receptacles, such as vials or syringes. Skin equivalent doses at 70 μm of depth and dose-depth profiles are reported for different configurations, highlighting the importance of adopting a realistic geometrical configuration in order to get accurate dosimetric estimations. Due to the easiness of implementation of GAMOS simulations, case-specific geometries and nuclides can be adopted and results can be obtained in less than about ten minutes of computation time with a common workstation.

  16. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MR finding of radiation-induced hepatic injury: relationship to absorbed dose and time course after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Daisuke; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Ishigami, Kousei; Kakihara, Daisuke; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate if Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI could identify liver tissue damage caused by radiation exposure in patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy. We enrolled 11 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI during or after radiotherapy in which the radiation field included the liver. External beam radiotherapy was delivered through multiple fields using a 10-MV linear accelerator. The hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were qualitatively evaluated for the presence of a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in the irradiated area in the liver. Next, signal intensity (SI) ratio of the irradiated area to the non-irradiated liver parenchyma was also calculated. The absorbed dose of the irradiated area in the liver was standardized using equivalent dose in 2Gy fraction (EQD2) and biological effective dose (BED). The results of qualitative analysis were compared with EQD2 or BED, and linear regression analysis was performed between EQD2 or BED and SI ratio. Twenty-two irradiated areas were evaluated. Qualitative analysis revealed a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in 14 areas and no decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in eight areas. The thresholds of EQD2 and BED causing a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA were considered to be 24 to 29Gy and 29 to 35Gy, respectively. Quantitatively, SI ratio decreased as EQD2 or BED increased (r=0.89, p<0.001), and the inverse relationship between signal enhancement and the absorbed dose in the irradiated area was obtained. One area with EQD2 of 50Gy and BED of 60Gy showed a slightly decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA on the 40th day but a clearly decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA on the 123rd day from initiation of radiotherapy. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI described RLI as a decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA matching the irradiated area. The occurrence of this finding was significantly correlated with the absorbed dose of the irradiated area in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. INTERNAL RADIATION DOSE MEASUREMENTS IN LIVE EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. PART II

    SciTech Connect

    Nold, M.M.; Hayes, R.L.; Comar, C.L.

    1960-12-01

    Silver phosphate glass dosimeter rods were implanted in various portions of the digestive tract and the radiation dose was measured after ingestion of a known amount of Y/sup 90/. It was found that a state of diarrhea reduced the average radiation dose by a factor of from 2 to 4. In the constipated animal the dose was increased by a factor of from 3 to 7. Investigation was made to determine the role of various processes governing the radiation dose delivered to gastrointestinal mucosa. The total dose to a particular site along the intestinal tract was obtained by determination ofmore » the time integral of the radioactive concentration. Serial sacrifices were made at specific times after administration of the radioactivity. Calculations in this manner agreed exceptionally well with the doses that were measured by the glass dosimeter method. It is estimated that 4 and 17 - c of Y/sup 90/ for the dog and goat, respectively, will deliver a 300mrad dose to the critical organ, the lower large intestine. The twelve-fold average difference in dose between the diarrhea and constipation groups of dogs emphasizes the importance of the physical state of bowel passages upon the dose delivered to the critical organ. (auth)« less

  18. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  19. Absorbed dose assessment of 177Lu-zoledronate and 177Lu-EDTMP for human based on biodistribution data in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, several bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals including various bisphosphonate ligands and β-emitting radionuclides have been developed for bone pain palliation. Recently, 177Lu was successfully labeled with zoledronic acid (177Lu-ZLD) as a new generation potential bisphosphonate and demonstrated significant accumulation in bone tissue. In this work, the absorbed dose to each organ of human for 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (177Lu-EDTMP;as the only clinically bone pain palliation agent) was investigated based on biodistribution data in rats by medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) method. 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-EDTMP were prepared in high radiochemical purity (>99%, instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC)) at the optimized condition. The biodistribution of the complexes demonstrated fast blood clearance and major accumulation in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for both 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-EDTMP is observed in trabecular bone surface with 12.173 and 10.019 mSv/MBq, respectively. The results showed that 177Lu-ZLD has better characteristics compared to 177Lu-EDTMP and can be a good candidate for bone pain palliation. PMID:26170557

  20. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  2. Development and comparison of computational models for estimation of absorbed organ radiation dose in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from uptake of iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N E; Johnson, T E; Capello, K; Pinder, J E

    2014-12-01

    This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from (131)I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional organs with anatomically relevant size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O. mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with estimated activity concentrations, to approximate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (μGy) to selected organs after several half-lives of (131)I. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for source organs (less than 30% difference between estimated doses), and whole body DCFs for each model (∼3 × 10(-3) μGy d(-1) per Bq kg(-1)) were comparable to DCFs listed in ICRP 108 for (131)I. The main benefit provided by the computational models developed here is the ability to accurately determine organ dose. A conservative mass-ratio approach may provide reasonable results for sufficiently large organs, but is only applicable to individual source organs. Although CSUTROUT is the more anatomically realistic phantom, it required much more resource dedication to develop and is less flexible than the stylized phantom for similar results. There may be instances where a detailed phantom such as CSUTROUT is appropriate, but generally the stylized phantom appears to be the best choice for an ideal balance between accuracy and resource requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurements of environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in three mountainous locations in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghorabie, Fayez H.H.

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes measurements of external gamma radiation dose rate from terrestrial gamma-rays 1 m above the ground in three different mountainous locations in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These locations are At-Taif city, Al-Hada village, and Ash-Shafa village. CaSO{sub 4}:Dy (TLD-900) thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for the detection of terrestrial gamma radiation at 40 different places in the three locations. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate measured ranged between 14 and 279 nGy h{sup -1} for the time interval from June 2001 to June 2002. The measured dose rate varied with the seasonmore » of the year. The average gamma radiation dose rates were 468, 541, and 781 {mu}Gy y{sup -1} for At-Taif city, Al-Hada village, and Ash-Shafa village, respectively. The corresponding average absorbed doses to the population of the three locations were 328, 379, and 547 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, respectively. The quality factor of 0.7 Sv Gy{sup -1} was applied in the calculations of the absorbed dose to humans.« less

  4. MEASUREMENT OF THE ABSORBED RADIATION DOSE ON THE THIRD SOVIET SATELLITE SPACESHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, I.A.; Pisarenko, N.F.; Shavrin, P.I.

    1963-05-01

    The data obtained from two scintillation counters and one gas-discharge counter aboard the third Soviet satellite were reported. The main result is the conclusion that there is practically no danger in space flight at heights less than 350 km over a considerable period of time, in the absence of solar flares. A comparison of the data obtained on the second and third satellite permit practical inferences on radiation danger at greater heights as well. (C.E.S.)

  5. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  6. Intracardiac light catheter for rapid scanning transmural absorbance spectroscopy of perfused myocardium: measurement of myoglobin oxygenation and mitochondria redox state.

    PubMed

    Femnou, Armel N; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Covian, Raul; Giles, Abigail V; Kay, Matthew W; Balaban, Robert S

    2017-12-01

    Absorbance spectroscopy of intrinsic cardiac chromophores provides nondestructive assessment of cytosolic oxygenation and mitochondria redox state. Isolated perfused heart spectroscopy is usually conducted by collecting reflected light from the heart surface, which represents a combination of surface scattering events and light that traversed portions of the myocardium. Reflectance spectroscopy with complex surface scattering effects in the beating heart leads to difficulty in quantitating chromophore absorbance. In this study, surface scattering was minimized and transmural path length optimized by placing a light source within the left ventricular chamber while monitoring transmurally transmitted light at the epicardial surface. The custom-designed intrachamber light catheter was a flexible coaxial cable (2.42-Fr) terminated with an encapsulated side-firing LED of 1.8 × 0.8 mm, altogether similar in size to a Millar pressure catheter. The LED catheter had minimal impact on aortic flow and heart rate in Langendorff perfusion and did not impact stability of the left ventricule of the working heart. Changes in transmural absorbance spectra were deconvoluted using a library of chromophore reference spectra to quantify the relative contribution of specific chromophores to the changes in measured absorbance. This broad-band spectral deconvolution approach eliminated errors that may result from simple dual-wavelength absorbance intensity. The myoglobin oxygenation level was only 82.2 ± 3.0%, whereas cytochrome c and cytochrome a + a 3 were 13.3 ± 1.4% and 12.6 ± 2.2% reduced, respectively, in the Langendorff-perfused heart. The intracardiac illumination strategy permits transmural optical absorbance spectroscopy in perfused hearts, which provides a noninvasive real-time monitor of cytosolic oxygenation and mitochondria redox state. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, a novel nondestructive real-time approach for monitoring intrinsic indicators of cardiac

  7. All-fiber wavelength-tunable picosecond nonlinear reflectivity measurement setup for characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viskontas, K.; Rusteika, N.

    2016-09-01

    Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is the key component for many passively mode-locked ultrafast laser sources. Particular set of nonlinear parameters is required to achieve self-starting mode-locking or avoid undesirable q-switch mode-locking for the ultra-short pulse laser. In this paper, we introduce a novel all-fiber wavelength-tunable picosecond pulse duration setup for the measurement of nonlinear properties of saturable absorber mirrors at around 1 μm center wavelength. The main advantage of an all-fiber configuration is the simplicity of measuring the fiber-integrated or fiber-pigtailed saturable absorbers. A tunable picosecond fiber laser enables to investigate the nonlinear parameters at different wavelengths in ultrafast regime. To verify the capability of the setup, nonlinear parameters for different SESAMs with low and high modulation depth were measured. In the operating wavelength range 1020-1074 nm, <1% absolute nonlinear reflectivity accuracy was demonstrated. Achieved fluence range was from 100 nJ/cm2 to 2 mJ/cm2 with corresponding intensity from 10 kW/cm2 to 300 MW/cm2.

  8. Ionizing radiation fluxes and dose measurements during the Kosmos 1887 satellite flight.

    PubMed

    Charvat, J; Spurny, F; Kopecka, B; Votockova, I

    1990-01-01

    The results of dosimetric experiments performed during the flight of Kosmos 1887 biosatellite are presented. Two kinds of measurements were performed on the external surface of the satellite. First, the fluences and spectra of low energy charged particles were established. It was found that most of the particles registered by means of solid state nuclear track detectors are helium nuclei. Tracks of oxygen nuclei and some heavier charged particles were also observed. Thermoluminescent detectors were used to establish absorbed doses in open space on the satellite's surface and behind thin shielding. It was found that these doses were rather high; nevertheless, their decrease with shielding thickness is very rapid. Dosimetric and other consequences of the results obtained are analyzed and discussed.

  9. In vivo TLD dose measurements in catheter-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Adlienė, Diana; Jakštas, Karolis; Urbonavičius, Benas Gabrielis

    2015-07-01

    Routine in vivo dosimetry is well established in external beam radiotherapy; however, it is restricted mainly to detection of gross errors in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy due to complicated measurements in the field of steep dose gradients in the vicinity of radioactive source and high uncertainties. The results of in vivo dose measurements using TLD 100 mini rods and TLD 'pin worms' in catheter-based HDR brachytherapy are provided in this paper alongside with their comparison with corresponding dose values obtained using calculation algorithm of the treatment planning system. Possibility to perform independent verification of treatment delivery in HDR brachytherapy using TLDs is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Validation of calculation algorithms for organ doses in CT by measurements on a 5 year old paediatric phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabin, Jérémie; Mencarelli, Alessandra; McMillan, Dayton; Romanyukha, Anna; Struelens, Lara; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-06-01

    Many organ dose calculation tools for computed tomography (CT) scans rely on the assumptions: (1) organ doses estimated for one CT scanner can be converted into organ doses for another CT scanner using the ratio of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) between two CT scanners; and (2) helical scans can be approximated as the summation of axial slices covering the same scan range. The current study aims to validate experimentally these two assumptions. We performed organ dose measurements in a 5 year-old physical anthropomorphic phantom for five different CT scanners from four manufacturers. Absorbed doses to 22 organs were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters for head-to-torso scans. We then compared the measured organ doses with the values calculated from the National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT (NCICT) computer program, developed at the National Cancer Institute. Whereas the measured organ doses showed significant variability (coefficient of variation (CoV) up to 53% at 80 kV) across different scanner models, the CoV of organ doses normalised to CTDIvol substantially decreased (12% CoV on average at 80 kV). For most organs, the difference between measured and simulated organ doses was within  ±20% except for the bone marrow, breasts and ovaries. The discrepancies were further explained by additional Monte Carlo calculations of organ doses using a voxel phantom developed from CT images of the physical phantom. The results demonstrate that organ doses calculated for one CT scanner can be used to assess organ doses from other CT scanners with 20% uncertainty (k  =  1), for the scan settings considered in the study.

  11. Measurements of the dose due to cosmic rays in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuković, B.; Lisjak, I.; Radolić, V.; Vekić, B.; Planinić, J.

    2006-06-01

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured with the Alpha Guard radon detector. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed by the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 μSv and the average dose rate was 2.7 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24 h flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h.

  12. Verification of eye lens dose in IMRT by MOSFET measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuetao; Li, Guangjun; Zhao, Jianling; Song, Ying; Xiao, Jianghong; Bai, Sen

    2018-04-17

    The eye lens is recognized as one of the most radiosensitive structures in the human body. The widespread use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) complicates dose verification and necessitates high standards of dose computation. The purpose of this work was to assess the computed dose accuracy of eye lens through measurements using a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system. Sixteen clinical IMRT plans of head and neck patients were copied to an anthropomorphic head phantom. Measurements were performed using the MOSFET dosimetry system based on the head phantom. Two MOSFET detectors were imbedded in the eyes of the head phantom as the left and the right lens, covered by approximately 5-mm-thick paraffin wax. The measurement results were compared with the calculated values with a dose grid size of 1 mm. Sixteen IMRT plans were delivered, and 32 measured lens doses were obtained for analysis. The MOSFET dosimetry system can be used to verify the lens dose, and our measurements showed that the treatment planning system used in our clinic can provide adequate dose assessment in eye lenses. The average discrepancy between measurement and calculation was 6.7 ± 3.4%, and the largest discrepancy was 14.3%, which met the acceptability criterion set by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 53 for external beam calculation for multileaf collimator-shaped fields in buildup regions. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Monte Carlo estimation of radiation dose in organs of female and male adult phantoms due to FDG-F18 absorbed in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Silva, Rogério M. V.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of dose conversion factors (S values) for the radionuclide fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) absorbed in the lungs during a positron emission tomography (PET) procedure was calculated using the Monte Carlo method (MCNPX version 2.7.0). For the obtained dose conversion factors of interest, it was considered a uniform absorption of radiopharmaceutical by the lung of a healthy adult human. The spectrum of fluorine was introduced in the input data file for the simulation. The simulation took place in two adult phantoms of both sexes, based on polygon mesh surfaces called FASH and MASH with anatomy and posture according to ICRP 89. The S values for the 22 internal organs/tissues, chosen from ICRP No. 110, for the FASH and MASH phantoms were compared with the results obtained from a MIRD V phantoms called ADAM and EVA used by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD). We observed variation of more than 100% in S values due to structural anatomical differences in the internal organs of the MASH and FASH phantoms compared to the mathematical phantom.

  14. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements

    PubMed Central

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L.; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing. PMID:26960787

  15. Dose measurement in heterogeneous phantoms with an extrapolation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deblois, Francois

    A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water(TM) and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absolute dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x-rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The air gaps used were between 2 and 3 mm and the sensitive air volume of the extrapolation chamber was remotely controlled through the motion of the motorized piston with a precision of +/-0.0025 mm. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain dose data for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC from 0.7 to ˜2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water(TM) PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). The collecting electrode material in comparison with the polarizing electrode material has a larger effect on the electrode correction factor; the thickness of thin

  16. In-flight measured and predicted ambient dose equivalent and latitude differences on effective dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Saez Vergara, J C; Romero Gutiérrez, A M; Rodriguez Jiménez, R; Dominguez-Mompell Román, R

    2004-01-01

    The results from 2 years (2001-2002) of experimental measurements of in-board radiation doses received at IBERIA commercial flights are presented. The routes studied cover the most significant destinations and provide a good estimate of the route doses as required by the new Spanish regulations on air crew radiation protection. Details on the experimental procedures and calibration methods are given. The experimental measurements from the different instruments (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter and the combination of a high pressure ion chamber and a high-energy neutron compensated rem-counter) and their comparison with the predictions from some route-dose codes (CARI-6, EPCARD 3.2) are discussed. In contrast with the already published data, which are mainly focused on North latitudes over parallel 50, many of the data presented in this work have been obtained for routes from Spain to Central and South America.

  17. A method for depth-dose distribution measurements in tissue irradiated by a proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, G.; Birattari, C.; Bartolo, D. de

    1994-12-31

    The use of protons and heavy ions for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant disease has aroused a growing interest in the last decade. The notable advantage of heavy charged particles over photons in external beam radiotherapy lies in the possibility of irradiating a small localized region within the body, keeping a low value for the entrance dose. Owing to this high disuniformity of energy deposition, an essential requirement for treatment planning is a precise evaluation of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose. The proposed method for depth-dose distribution measurements utilizes a chemical dosimeter (ferrous sulphate solution plus sulfuric acidmore » and eventually xylenol orange) incorporated in a gelatine, whose role is the maintenance of spatial information. Ionizing radiation causes a variation in some parameters of the system such as the proton relaxation rates in the solution (measurable by NMR analysis) or the optical absorption of the gel in the visible spectrum (measurable by spectrophotometry).« less

  18. Measurement of LET distribution and dose equivalent on board the space shuttle STS-65.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Doke, T; Kikuchi, J; Takeuchi, R; Hasebe, N; Ogura, K; Nagaoka, S; Kato, M; Badhwar, G D

    1996-11-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and others are conventional detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Using the RRMD detector, the first attempt of real-time monitoring of space radiation has been achieved successfully for a continuous period of 251.3 h, giving the temporal variations of LET distribution, particle count rates, and rates of absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The RRMD results indicate that a clear enhancement of the number of trapped particles is seen at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent, while some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower geomagnetic cutoff regions for galactic cosmic ray particles (GCRs). Therefore, the main contribution to dose equivalent is seen to be due to GCRs in this low altitude mission (300 km). Also, the dose equivalent rates obtained by TLDs and CR-39 ranged from 146.9 to 165.2 microSv/day and the average quality factors from 1.45 to 1.57 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Space-lab at this highly protected orbit for space radiation with a small inclination (28.5 degrees) and a low altitude (300 km). The LET distributions obtained by two different detectors, RRMD and CR-39, are in good agreement in the region of 15-200 keV/mm and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 keV/mm and LET > 200 keV/mm can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks.

  19. Measurement of LET distribution and dose equivalent on board the space shuttle STS-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Takeuchi, R.; Hasebe, N.; Ogura, K.; Nagaoka, S.; Kato, M.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and others are conventional detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Using the RRMD detector, the first attempt of real-time monitoring of space radiation has been achieved successfully for a continuous period of 251.3 h, giving the temporal variations of LET distribution, particle count rates, and rates of absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The RRMD results indicate that a clear enhancement of the number of trapped particles is seen at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent, while some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower geomagnetic cutoff regions for galactic cosmic ray particles (GCRs). Therefore, the main contribution to dose equivalent is seen to be due to GCRs in this low altitude mission (300 km). Also, the dose equivalent rates obtained by TLDs and CR-39 ranged from 146.9 to 165.2 microSv/day and the average quality factors from 1.45 to 1.57 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Space-lab at this highly protected orbit for space radiation with a small inclination (28.5 degrees) and a low altitude (300 km). The LET distributions obtained by two different detectors, RRMD and CR-39, are in good agreement in the region of 15-200 keV/mm and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 keV/mm and LET > 200 keV/mm can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks.

  20. Evaluating a novel application of optical fibre evanescent field absorbance: rapid measurement of red colour in winegrape homogenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lye, Peter G.; Bradbury, Ronald; Lamb, David W.

    Silica optical fibres were used to measure colour (mg anthocyanin/g fresh berry weight) in samples of red wine grape homogenates via optical Fibre Evanescent Field Absorbance (FEFA). Colour measurements from 126 samples of grape homogenate were compared against the standard industry spectrophotometric reference method that involves chemical extraction and subsequent optical absorption measurements of clarified samples at 520 nm. FEFA absorbance on homogenates at 520 nm (FEFA520h) was correlated with the industry reference method measurements of colour (R2 = 0.46, n = 126). Using a simple regression equation colour could be predicted with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.21 mg/g, with a range of 0.6 to 2.2 mg anthocyanin/g and a standard deviation of 0.33 mg/g. With a Ratio of Performance Deviation (RPD) of 1.6, the technique when utilizing only a single detection wavelength, is not robust enough to apply in a diagnostic sense, however the results do demonstrate the potential of the FEFA method as a fast and low-cost assay of colour in homogenized samples.

  1. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    2010-01-01

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  2. Fluence-to-Absorbed Dose Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection of Embryo and Foetus Against External Exposure to Muons from 20MeV to 50GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients aremore » yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap.« less

  3. Unit of Measurement Used and Parent Medication Dosing Errors

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Benard P.; Ugboaja, Donna C.; Sanchez, Dayana C.; Paul, Ian M.; Moreira, Hannah A.; Rodriguez, Luis; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adopting the milliliter as the preferred unit of measurement has been suggested as a strategy to improve the clarity of medication instructions; teaspoon and tablespoon units may inadvertently endorse nonstandard kitchen spoon use. We examined the association between unit used and parent medication errors and whether nonstandard instruments mediate this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a larger study of provider communication and medication errors. English- or Spanish-speaking parents (n = 287) whose children were prescribed liquid medications in 2 emergency departments were enrolled. Medication error defined as: error in knowledge of prescribed dose, error in observed dose measurement (compared to intended or prescribed dose); >20% deviation threshold for error. Multiple logistic regression performed adjusting for parent age, language, country, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults); child age, chronic disease; site. RESULTS: Medication errors were common: 39.4% of parents made an error in measurement of the intended dose, 41.1% made an error in the prescribed dose. Furthermore, 16.7% used a nonstandard instrument. Compared with parents who used milliliter-only, parents who used teaspoon or tablespoon units had twice the odds of making an error with the intended (42.5% vs 27.6%, P = .02; adjusted odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–4.4) and prescribed (45.1% vs 31.4%, P = .04; adjusted odds ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–3.5) dose; associations greater for parents with low health literacy and non–English speakers. Nonstandard instrument use partially mediated teaspoon and tablespoon–associated measurement errors. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support a milliliter-only standard to reduce medication errors. PMID:25022742

  4. Unit of measurement used and parent medication dosing errors.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Shonna; Dreyer, Benard P; Ugboaja, Donna C; Sanchez, Dayana C; Paul, Ian M; Moreira, Hannah A; Rodriguez, Luis; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-08-01

    Adopting the milliliter as the preferred unit of measurement has been suggested as a strategy to improve the clarity of medication instructions; teaspoon and tablespoon units may inadvertently endorse nonstandard kitchen spoon use. We examined the association between unit used and parent medication errors and whether nonstandard instruments mediate this relationship. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a larger study of provider communication and medication errors. English- or Spanish-speaking parents (n = 287) whose children were prescribed liquid medications in 2 emergency departments were enrolled. Medication error defined as: error in knowledge of prescribed dose, error in observed dose measurement (compared to intended or prescribed dose); >20% deviation threshold for error. Multiple logistic regression performed adjusting for parent age, language, country, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults); child age, chronic disease; site. Medication errors were common: 39.4% of parents made an error in measurement of the intended dose, 41.1% made an error in the prescribed dose. Furthermore, 16.7% used a nonstandard instrument. Compared with parents who used milliliter-only, parents who used teaspoon or tablespoon units had twice the odds of making an error with the intended (42.5% vs 27.6%, P = .02; adjusted odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.4) and prescribed (45.1% vs 31.4%, P = .04; adjusted odds ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.5) dose; associations greater for parents with low health literacy and non-English speakers. Nonstandard instrument use partially mediated teaspoon and tablespoon-associated measurement errors. Findings support a milliliter-only standard to reduce medication errors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. INADEQUACY OF THORON DOSE CALCULATIONS FROM THORON PROGENY MEASUREMENT ALONE.

    PubMed

    Lane-Smith, D; Wong, F K

    2016-10-01

    To determine the dose received by thoron ( 220 Rn) domestically, conventional methods measure the activity concentration of thoron progeny only (namely the 212 Pb atoms) and calculate the dose by using a set of conversion factors. This may be due to the measurement of progeny being simpler since it is longer lived and will be evenly spread throughout the room, whereas the thoron gas, with its short half-life, will exist only near the source and hence will not be of major concern for the majority of the room. However, concrete walls are a source of thoron, and spending prolonged amounts of time near them may lead to greatly increased radiation exposure, the degree of which is not revealed through progeny activity alone. The present paper compares the energy received from the ionising radiation of both thoron gas and thoron progeny near its source. Converting the energy dose to radiation dose is not within the scope of this paper. The results suggest a difference of an order of magnitude higher when taking into account the dose received by thoron gas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tritium internal dose estimation from measurements with liquid scintillators.

    PubMed

    Pántya, A; Dálnoki, Á; Imre, A R; Zagyvai, P; Pázmándi, T

    2018-07-01

    Tritium may exist in several chemical and physical forms in workplaces, common occurrences are in vapor or liquid form (as tritiated water) and in organic form (e.g. thymidine) which can get into the body by inhalation or by ingestion. For internal dose assessment it is usually assumed that urine samples for tritium analysis are obtained after the tritium concentration inside the body has reached equilibrium following intake. Comparison was carried out for two types of vials, two efficiency calculation methods and two available liquid scintillation devices to highlight the errors of the measurements. The results were used for dose estimation with MONDAL-3 software. It has been shown that concerning the accuracy of the final internal dose assessment, the uncertainties of the assumptions used in the dose assessment (for example the date and route of intake, the physical and chemical form) can be more influential than the errors of the measured data. Therefore, the improvement of the experimental accuracy alone is not the proper way to improve the accuracy of the internal dose estimation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing uncertainties associated with filter-based optical measurements of light absorbing carbon particles with chemical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, J. E.; Leck, C.

    2011-08-01

    The presented filter-based optical method for determination of soot (light absorbing carbon or Black Carbon, BC) can be implemented in the field under primitive conditions and at low cost. This enables researchers with small economical means to perform monitoring at remote locations, especially in the Asia where it is much needed. One concern when applying filter-based optical measurements of BC is that they suffer from systematic errors due to the light scattering of non-absorbing particles co-deposited on the filter, such as inorganic salts and mineral dust. In addition to an optical correction of the non-absorbing material this study provides a protocol for correction of light scattering based on the chemical quantification of the material, which is a novelty. A newly designed photometer was implemented to measure light transmission on particle accumulating filters, which includes an additional sensor recording backscattered light. The choice of polycarbonate membrane filters avoided high chemical blank values and reduced errors associated with length of the light path through the filter. Two protocols for corrections were applied to aerosol samples collected at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during episodes with either continentally influenced air from the Indian/Arabian subcontinents (winter season) or pristine air from the Southern Indian Ocean (summer monsoon). The two ways of correction (optical and chemical) lowered the particle light absorption of BC by 63 to 61 %, respectively, for data from the Arabian Sea sourced group, resulting in median BC absorption coefficients of 4.2 and 3.5 Mm-1. Corresponding values for the South Indian Ocean data were 69 and 97 % (0.38 and 0.02 Mm-1). A comparison with other studies in the area indicated an overestimation of their BC levels, by up to two orders of magnitude. This raises the necessity for chemical correction protocols on optical filter-based determinations of BC, before even the sign on the

  8. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Liu, Tianyu; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the

  9. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Liu, Tianyu; Shi, Jim Q; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Xu, X George; Liu, Bob

    2014-09-01

    To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8%-25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2±3.3 and 16.5±2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the fix-mA doses with local mA values; (2

  10. Minimum Detectable Dose as a Measure of Bioassay Programme Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper suggests that minimum detectable dose (MDD) be used to describe the capability of bioassay programs for which intakes are expected to be rare. This allows expression of the capability in units that correspond directly to primary dose limits. The concept uses the well-established analytical statistic minimum detectable amount (MDA) as the starting point and assumes MDA detection at a prescribed time post intake. The resulting dose can then be used as an indication of the adequacy or capability of the program for demonstrating compliance with the performance criteria. MDDs can be readily tabulated or plotted to demonstrate themore » effectiveness of different types of monitoring programs. The inclusion of cost factors for bioassay measurements can allow optimisation.« less

  11. Minimum detectable dose as a measure of bioassay programme capability.

    PubMed

    Carbaugh, E H

    2003-01-01

    This paper suggests that minimum detectable dose (MDD) be used to describe the capability of bioassay programmes for which intakes are expected to be rare. This allows expression of the capability in units that correspond directly to primary dose limits. The concept uses the well established analytical statistic minimum detectable amount (MDA) as the starting point, and assumes MDA detection at a prescribed time post-intake. The resulting dose can then be used as an indication of the adequacy or capability of the programme for demonstrating compliance with the performance criteria. MDDs can be readily tabulated or plotted to demonstrate the effectiveness of different types of monitoring programmes. The inclusion of cost factors for bioassay measurements can allow optimisation.

  12. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin dosesmore » were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply

  13. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehhon, N.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Ang, W. C.; Musa, Y.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIair) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDIair increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDIair values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDIair value (13.585 mGy). The p-value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner.

  14. Development of a novel low-radiation-absorbent lok-bar to reduce X-ray scattering and absorption in RapidArc® treatment planning and dose delivery.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Hajime; Kubo, Kazuki; Tamura, Mikoto; Hayakawa, Masaru; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2017-05-01

    We developed a novel low-radiation-absorbent lok-bar (HM-bar) that is used to secure the immobilizers to the couch. The aim of this study was to investigate the X-ray scattering and absorption properties of the HM-bar in computed tomography (CT) simulation and radiotherapy dose delivery using the Varian Exact™ lok-bar (VL-bar) as a benchmark. CT images were obtained with or without lok-bar, and then each image was visually evaluated for artifacts. The attenuation rates for each lok-bar were measured using a farmer-type ionization chamber (PTW30013) and the I'mRT phantom (IBA Dosimetry GmbH). Measurement points were between gantry angles of 110 and 180°. The treatment apparatus was a NovalisTx (Brainlab AG); X-ray energies were set at 6 MV and 10 MV. In the presence of each lok-bar, the radiation dose was measured in accordance with 10 volumetric modulated arc therapy-stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT) plans for lung cancer. Artifacts were seldom observed in the CT scans of the HM-bar. The attenuation rate of each lok-bar was higher when the X-ray energy was set at 6 MV than at 10 MV. The highest attenuation rate in the VL-bar was observed at a gantry angle of 112°; the rates were 22.4% at 6 MV and 19.3% at 10 MV. Similarly, the highest attenuation rate for the HM-bar was also observed at a gantry angle of 112°; the rates were 12.2% and 10.1% at 6 MV and 10 MV, respectively. When the VL-bar was evaluated, the isocenter dose of the VMAT-SBRT plans was attenuated by 2.6% as a maximum case. In the case of the HM-bar, the maximum attenuation was 1.4%. In the measurements of each VMAT-SBRT plan, the difference of the dose attenuation rate between the VL-bar and HM-bar was approximately 1%. The HM-bar could be used to minimize the occurrence of artifacts and provide good images in CT scans regarding radiotherapy planning and dose calculation. It can be used for patient therapy at hospitals to provide accurate dose delivery because of its low X

  15. On the possibility of 'real-time' Monte Carlo calculations for the estimation of absorbed dose in radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T K; Vessella, R L

    1989-07-01

    Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are made difficult because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry, precluding straightforward application of the MIRD formalism. The MABDOS software addresses this shortcoming by interactive placement of a spherical perturbation into the Standard Man geometry for each tumor focus. S tables are calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport for each organ system (including tumor) that localizes activity. Performance benchmarks are reported that measure the time required to simulate 60,000 photons for each penetrating radiation in the spectrum of 99mTc and 131I using the kidney as source organ. Results indicate that calculation times are probably prohibitive on current microcomputer platforms. Mini and supercomputers offer a realistic platform for MABDOS patient dosimetry estimates.

  16. Experimental evaluation of a MOSFET dosimeter for proton dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishio, Teiji; Miyagishi, Tomoko; Hirano, Eriko; Hotta, Kenji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2006-12-07

    The metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter has been widely studied for use as a dosimeter for patient dose verification. The major advantage of this detector is its size, which acts as a point dosimeter, and also its ease of use. The commercially available TN502RD MOSFET dosimeter manufactured by Thomson and Nielsen has never been used for proton dosimetry. Therefore we used the MOSFET dosimeter for the first time in proton dose measurements. In this study, the MOSFET dosimeter was irradiated with 190 MeV therapeutic proton beams. We experimentally evaluated dose reproducibility, linearity, fading effect, beam intensity dependence and angular dependence for the proton beam. Furthermore, the Bragg curve and spread-out Bragg peak were also measured and the linear-energy transfer (LET) dependence of the MOSFET response was investigated. Many characteristics of the MOSFET response for proton beams were the same as those for photon beams reported in previous papers. However, the angular MOSFET responses at 45, 90, 135, 225, 270 and 315 degrees for proton beams were over-responses of about 15%, and moreover the MOSFET response depended strongly on the LET of the proton beam. This study showed that the angular dependence and LET dependence of the MOSFET response must be considered very carefully for quantitative proton dose evaluations.

  17. Dermatologic radiotherapy and thyroid cancer. Dose measurements and risk quantification.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, H; Gorson, R O; Lassen, M

    1983-05-01

    Thyroid doses for various dermatologic radiation techniques were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization rate meters in an Alderson-Rando anthropomorphic phantom. The effects of changes in radiation quality and of the use or nonuse of treatment cones and thyroid shields were evaluated in detail. The results indicate that the potential risk of radiogenic thyroid cancer is very small when proper radiation protection measures are used. The probability of radiogenic thyroid cancer developing and the potential mortality risk were assessed quantitatively for each measurement. The quantification of radiation risks allows comparisons with risks of other therapeutic modalities and the common hazards of daily life.

  18. Quantitation of absorbed or deposited materials on a substrate that measures energy deposition

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick G.; Bakajin, Olgica; Vogel, John S.; Bench, Graham

    2005-01-18

    This invention provides a system and method for measuring an energy differential that correlates to quantitative measurement of an amount mass of an applied localized material. Such a system and method remains compatible with other methods of analysis, such as, for example, quantitating the elemental or isotopic content, identifying the material, or using the material in biochemical analysis.

  19. Heating Rate of Light Absorbing Aerosols: Time-Resolved Measurements, the Role of Clouds, and Source Identification.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Luca; Močnik, Griša; Cogliati, Sergio; Gregorič, Asta; Colombo, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2018-03-20

    Light absorbing aerosols (LAA) absorb sunlight and heat the atmosphere. This work presents a novel methodology to experimentally quantify the heating rate (HR) induced by LAA into an atmospheric layer. Multiwavelength aerosol absorption measurements were coupled with spectral measurements of the direct, diffuse and surface reflected radiation to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of HR apportioned in the context of LAA species (black carbon, BC; brown carbon, BrC; dust), sources (fossil fuel, FF; biomass burning, BB), and as a function of cloudiness. One year of continuous and time-resolved measurements (5 min) of HR were performed in the Po Valley. We experimentally determined (1) the seasonal behavior of HR (winter 1.83 ± 0.02 K day -1 ; summer 1.04 ± 0.01 K day -1 ); (2) the daily cycle of HR (asymmetric, with higher values in the morning than in the afternoon); (3) the HR in different sky conditions (from 1.75 ± 0.03 K day -1 in clear sky to 0.43 ± 0.01 K day -1 in complete overcast); (4) the apportionment to different sources: HR FF (0.74 ± 0.01 K day -1 ) and HR BB (0.46 ± 0.01 K day -1 ); and (4) the HR of BrC (HR BrC : 0.15 ± 0.01 K day -1 , 12.5 ± 0.6% of the total) and that of BC (HR BC : 1.05 ± 0.02 K day -1 ; 87.5 ± 0.6% of the total).

  20. Dose Measurements in a 20-J Repetitive Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, S.; Babaee, H.; Esmaeli, A.; Nasiri, A.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this article, the results of X-ray dose measurements executed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in experiments with a very small (20 J) repetitive plasma focus device named SORENA-1 are presented and analyzed. The working gas in these experiments was Argon. Also, pinch formation in experiments with this device has been observed. This device has been designed and constructed in Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Research School of Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute of Iran. From these results, it is concluded that we can do experiments with this device using Ar as working gas all over the working days of year, and a good symmetry for measured dose around the device has been seen.

  1. Advantages of measuring the Q Stokes parameter in addition to the total radiance I in the detection of absorbing aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamnes, Snorre; Fan, Yongzhen; Chen, Nan; Li, Wei; Tanikawa, Tomonori; Lin, Zhenyi; Liu, Xu; Burton, Sharon; Omar, Ali; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Cairns, Brian; Stamnes, Knut

    2018-05-01

    A simple but novel study was conducted to investigate whether an imager-type spectroradiometer instrument like MODIS, currently flying on board the Aqua and Terra satellites, or MERIS, which flew on board Envisat, could detect absorbing aerosols if they could measure the Q Stokes parameter in addition to the total radiance I, that is if they could also measure the linear polarization of the light. Accurate radiative transfer calculations were used to train a fast neural network forward model, which together with a simple statistical optimal estimation scheme was used to retrieve three aerosol parameters: aerosol optical depth at 869 nm, optical depth fraction of fine mode (absorbing) aerosols at 869 nm, and aerosol vertical location. The aerosols were assumed to be bimodal, each with a lognormal size distribution, located either between 0 and 2 km or between 2 and 4 km in the Earth's atmosphere. From simulated data with 3% random Gaussian measurement noise added for each Stokes parameter, it was found that by itself the total radiance I at the nine MODIS VIS channels was generally insufficient to accurately retrieve all three aerosol parameters (˜ 15% to 37% successful), but that together with the Q Stokes component it was possible to retrieve values of aerosol optical depth at 869 nm to ± 0.03, single-scattering albedo at 869 nm to ± 0.04, and vertical location in ˜ 65% of the cases. This proof-of-concept retrieval algorithm uses neural networks to overcome the computational burdens of using vector radiative transfer to accurately simulate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) total and polarized radiances, enabling optimal estimation techniques to exploit information from multiple channels. Therefore such an algorithm could, in concept, be readily implemented for operational retrieval of aerosol and ocean products from moderate or hyperspectral spectroradiometers.

  2. Measurement of dose distribution in the spherical phantom onboard the ISS-KIBO module -MATROSHKA-R in KIBO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hajime; Kurano, Mieko; Uchihori, Yukio; Nikolaev, Igor; Ambrozova, Iva; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kartsev, Ivan; Tolochek, Raisa; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav

    The measurement of dose equivalent and effective dose during manned space missions on the International Space Station (ISS) is important for evaluating the risk to astronaut health and safety when exposed to space radiation. The dosimetric quantities are constantly changing and strongly depend on the level of solar activity and the various spacecraft- and orbit-dependent parameters such as the shielding distribution in the ISS module, location of the spacecraft within its orbit relative to the Earth, the attitude (orientation) and altitude. Consequently, the continuous monitoring of dosimetric quantities is required to record and evaluate the personal radiation dose for crew members during spaceflight. The dose distributions in the phantom body and on its surface give crucial information to estimate the dose equivalent in the human body and effective dose in manned space mission. We have measured the absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates using passive dosimeters installed in the spherical phantom in Japanese Experiment Module (“KIBO”) of the ISS in the framework of Matroshka-R space experiment. The exposure duration was 114 days from May 21 to September 12, 2012. The phantom consists of tissue-equivalent material covered with a poncho jacket with 32 pockets on its surface and 20 container rods inside of the phantom. The phantom diameter is 35 cm and the mass is 32 kg. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of luminescent detectors of Al _{2}O _{3};C OSL and CaSO _{4}:Dy TLD and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. As one of preliminary results, the dose distribution on the phantom surface measured with OSL detectors installed in the jacket pockets is found to be ranging from 340 muGy/day to 260 muGy/day. In this talk, we will present the detail dose distributions, and variations of LET spectra and quality factor obtained outside and inside of the spherical phantom installed in the ISS-KIBO.

  3. Measurement of wavelength-dependent extinction to distinguish between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portscht, R.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of spectral transmission factors in smoky optical transmission paths reveal a difference between wavelength exponents of the extinction cross section of high absorption capacity and those of low absorption capacity. A theoretical explanation of this behavior is presented. In certain cases, it is possible to obtain data on the absorption index of aerosol particles in the optical path by measuring the spectral decadic extinction coefficient at, at least, two wavelengths. In this manner it is possible, for instance, to distinguish smoke containing soot from water vapor.

  4. Factors that introduce intrasubject variability into ear-canal absorbance measurements.

    PubMed

    Voss, Susan E; Stenfelt, Stefan; Neely, Stephen T; Rosowski, John J

    2013-07-01

    Wideband immittance measures can be useful in analyzing acoustic sound flow through the ear and also have diagnostic potential for the identification of conductive hearing loss as well as causes of conductive hearing loss. To interpret individual measurements, the variability in test–retest data must be described and quantified. Contributors to variability in ear-canal absorbance–based measurements are described in this article. These include assumptions related to methodologies and issues related to the probe fit within the ear and potential acoustic leaks. Evidence suggests that variations in ear-canal cross-sectional area or measurement location are small relative to variability within a population. Data are shown to suggest that the determination of the Thévenin equivalent of the ER-10C probe introduces minimal variability and is independent of the foam ear tip itself. It is suggested that acoustic leaks in the coupling of the ear tip to the ear canal lead to substantial variations and that this issue needs further work in terms of potential criteria to identify an acoustic leak. In addition, test–retest data from the literature are reviewed.

  5. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of the SIM 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water comparison SIM.RI(I)-K4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. K.; Shortt, K. R.; Saravi, M.; Meghzifene, A.; Tovar, V. M.; Barbosa, R. A.; da Silva, C. N.; Carrizales, L.; Seltzer, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Transfer chambers were used to compare the standards for 60Co absorbed dose to water maintained by seven laboratories. Six of the laboratories were members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) regional metrology organization while the seventh was the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) laboratory in Vienna. The National Research Council (NRC) acted as the pilot laboratory for the comparison. Because of the participation of laboratories holding primary standards, the comparison results could be linked to the key comparison reference value maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The results for all laboratories were within the expanded uncertainty (two standard deviations) of the reference value. The estimated relative standard uncertainty on the comparison between any pair of laboratories ranged from 0.6% to 1.4%. The largest discrepancy between any two laboratories was 1.3%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate distribution, which then can be used as input for

  7. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: Inmore » order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  8. Measuring intestinal fluid transport in vitro: Gravimetric method versus non-absorbable marker.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Genz, Janet; Grosell, Martin; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-04-01

    The gut sac is a long-standing, widely used in vitro preparation for studying solute and water transport, and calculation of these fluxes requires an accurate assessment of volume. This is commonly determined gravimetrically by measuring the change in mass over time. While convenient this likely under-estimates actual net water flux (Jv) due to tissue edema. We evaluated whether the popular in vivo volume marker [(14)C]-PEG 4000, offers a more representative measure of Jvin vitro. We directly compared these two methods in five teleost species (toadfish, flounder, rainbow trout, killifish and tilapia). Net fluid absorption by the toadfish intestine based on PEG was significantly higher, by almost 4-fold, compared to gravimetric measurements, compatible with the latter under-estimating Jv. Despite this, PEG proved inconsistent for all of the other species frequently resulting in calculation of net secretion, in contrast to absorption seen gravimetrically. Such poor parallelism could not be explained by the absorption of [(14)C]-PEG (typically <1%). We identified a number of factors impacting the effectiveness of PEG. One was adsorption to the surface of sample tubes. While it was possible to circumvent this using unlabelled PEG 4000, this had a deleterious effect on PEG-based Jv. We also found sequestration of PEG within the intestinal mucus. In conclusion, the short-comings associated with the accurate representation of Jv by gut sac preparations are not overcome by [(14)C]-PEG. The gravimetric method therefore remains the most reliable measure of Jv and we urge caution in the use of PEG as a volume marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-Wavelength Measurement of Soot Optical Properties: Influence of Non-Absorbing Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Andrew; Renbaum-Wollf, Lindsay; Forestieri, Sara; Lambe, Andrew; Cappa, Christopher; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. Important in quantifying the direct radiative impacts of soot in climate models, and specifically of black carbon (BC), is the assumed BC refractive index and shape-dependent interaction of light with BC particles. The latter assumption carries significant uncertainty because BC particles are fractal-like, being agglomerates of smaller (20-40 nm) spherules, yet many optical models such as Mie theory in particular, typically assume a spherical particle morphology. It remains unclear under what conditions this is an acceptable assumption. To investigate the ability of various optical models to reproduce observed BC optical properties, we obtained measurements of light absorption, scattering and extinction coefficients and thus single scattering albedo (SSA) of size-resolved soot particles. Measurements were made on denuded soot particles produced using both methane and ethylene as fuels. In addition, these soot particles were coated with dioctyl sebacate or sulfuric acid and the enhancement in the apparent mass absorption coefficient determined. Extinction and absorption were measured using a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS) at 405 nm and 532 nm. Scattering and extinction were measured using a CAPS PMssa single scattering albedo monitor (Aerodyne) at 630 nm. Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA, Cambustion), mobility size with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI) and soot concentration with a CPC (Brechtel). The results will be interpreted in light of both Mie theory which assumes spherical and uniform particles and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (RDG) theory, which assumes that the absorption properties of soot are dictated by the individual spherules. For denuded soot, effective refractive indices will be determined.

  10. Effects of Different Containers on Radioactivity Measurements using a Dose Calibrator with Special Reference to 111In and 123I.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy characteristic x-rays emitted by 111 In and 123 I sources are easily absorbed by the containers of the sources, affecting radioactivity measurements using a dose calibrator. We examined the effects of different containers on the estimated activities. The radioactivities of 111 In, 123 I, 201 Tl, and 99m Tc were measured in containers frequently employed in clinical practice in Japan. The 111 In measurements were performed in the vials A and B of the 111 In-pentetreotide preparation kit and in the plastic syringe. The activities of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and 201 Tl chloride were measured in the prefilled glass syringes and plastic syringes. The milking vial, vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe were used to assay 99m Tc. For 111 In and 123 I, measurements were performed with and without a copper filter. The filter was inserted into the well of the dose calibrator to absorb low-energy x-rays. The relative estimate was defined as the ratio of the activity estimated with the dose calibrator to the standard activity. The estimated activities varied greatly depending on the container when 111 In and 123 I sources were assayed without the copper filter. The relative estimates of 111 In were 0.908, 1.072, and 1.373 in the vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe, respectively. The relative estimates of 123 I were 1.052 and 1.352 in the glass syringe and plastic syringe, respectively. Use of the copper filter eliminated the container-dependence in 111 In and 123 I measurements. Container-dependence was demonstrated in neither 201 Tl nor 99m Tc measurements. The activities of 111 In and 123 I estimated with a dose calibrator differ greatly among the containers. Accurate estimation may be attained using the container-specific correction factor or using the copper filter.

  11. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system.

    PubMed

    Apathy, I; Deme, S; Feher, I; Akatov, Y A; Reitz, G; Arkhanguelski, V V

    2002-10-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 microGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of a heated graphite scrubber as a means of reducing interferences in UV-absorbance measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Andersen, Peter C.; Williford, Craig J.; Ennis, Christine A.; Birks, John W.

    2017-06-01

    A new solid-phase scrubber for use in conventional ozone (O3) photometers was investigated as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species and water vapor. It was found that when heated to 100-130 °C, a tubular graphite scrubber efficiently removed up to 500 ppb ozone and ozone monitors using the heated graphite scrubber were found to be less susceptible to interferences from water vapor, mercury vapor, and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to conventional metal oxide scrubbers. Ambient measurements from a graphite scrubber-equipped photometer and a co-located Federal equivalent method (FEM) ozone analyzer showed excellent agreement over 38 days of measurements and indicated no loss in the scrubber's ability to remove ozone when operated at 130 °C. The use of a heated graphite scrubber was found to reduce the interference from mercury vapor to ≤ 3 % of that obtained using a packed-bed Hopcalite scrubber. For a series of substituted aromatic compounds (ranging in volatility and absorption cross section at 253.7 nm), the graphite scrubber was observed to consistently exhibit reduced levels of interference, typically by factors of 2.5 to 20 less than with Hopcalite. Conventional solid-phase scrubbers also exhibited complex VOC adsorption and desorption characteristics that were dependent upon the relative humidity (RH), volatility of the VOC, and the available surface area of the scrubber. This complex behavior involving humidity is avoided by use of a heated graphite scrubber. These results suggest that heated graphite scrubbers could be substituted in most ozone photometers as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species found in the atmosphere. This could be particularly important in ozone monitoring for compliance with the United States (U.S.) Clean Air Act or for use in VOC-rich environments such as in smog chambers and monitoring indoor air quality.

  13. Skin dose measurement by using ultra-thin TLDs.

    PubMed

    Lin, J P; Chu, T C; Lin, S Y; Liu, M T

    2001-09-01

    The treatment schedule for radiation therapy is often interrupted because of complicated skin reactions. Quantitative information relating beam parameters and skin reactions will be helpful. Measurements were performed for 6-15 MV photons and 6-21 MeV electrons with ultra thin TLD films (GR-200F, surface area 0.5 x 0.5cm2, nominal thickness 5 mg cm(-2)). The skin doses for various field sizes, ranging from 10 x 10 to 40 x 40 cm2, and various incident angles of beam from 0 degrees to 80 degrees were measured. The ratios of skin dose to maximum dose in phantom for 10 x 10 cm2 are 16.10+/-0.68%, 14.03+/-1.04% and 10.59+/-0.64% for 6, 10 and 15 MV, respectively. Such ratios increase with a larger field size. For electrons the ratios are 72.59+/-1.72%, 78.52+/-2.99%, 78.89+/-2.86%, 86.08+/-2.62%. 87.75+/-1.94% and 86.33+/-3.09% for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 MeV, respectively. They also increase with a larger size. The oblique factors also increase with larger incident angle.

  14. Thermoluminescence measurements of neutron dose around a medical linac.

    PubMed

    Barquero, R; Méndez, R; Iñiguez, M P; Vega, H R; Voytchev, M

    2002-01-01

    The photoncutron ambient dose around a 18 MV medical electron lineal accelerator has been measured with LiF:Mg,Ti chips of 3 x 3 x 1 mm inside moderating spheres. During the measurements a water phantom was irradiated in a field of 40 x 40 cm2. Two methods have been considered for comparison. In the first, a TLD-600/TLD-700 pair at the centre of a 25 cm diameter paraffine sphere was used, with the system behaving as a rem meter. In the second method, TLD-600/TLD-700 pairs, bare and at the centre of 7.6, 12.7, 20.3, 25.4, and 30.5 cm diameter polyethylene Bonner spheres were used to obtain the neutron spectrum. This was unfolded using the BUNKIUT code with the SPUNIT algorithm and the UTA4 and ARKI response functions. The neutron dose was followed by multiplying the unfolded neutron spectrum by the ambient dose equivalent to neutron fluence conversion factors. Both methods result in 0.5 mSv x Gy(-1) m away from the isocentre.

  15. Measurement and comparison of skin dose using OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Essam H.; Hammad, Lina F.; Al-Mohammed, Huda I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Total body irradiation is a protocol used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients prior to bone marrow transplant. It is involved in the treatment of the whole body using a large radiation field with extended source-skin distance. Therefore measuring and monitoring the skin dose during the treatment is important. Two kinds of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (OneDose MOSFET and mobile MOSEFT) dosimeter are used during the treatment delivery to measure the skin dose to specific points and compare it with the target prescribed dose. The objective of this study was to compare the variation of skin dose in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using OneDose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET, and then compare both results with the target prescribed dose. Material/Methods The measurements involved 32 patient’s (16 males, 16 females), aged between 14–30 years, with an average age of 22.41 years. One-Dose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 10 different anatomical sites on every patient. Results The results showed there was no variation between skin dose measured with OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET in all patients. Furthermore, the results showed for every anatomical site selected there was no significant difference in the dose delivered using either OneDose MOSFET detector or Mobile MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. Conclusions The study concludes that One-Dose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET both give a direct read-out immediately after the treatment; therefore both detectors are suitable options when measuring skin dose for total body irradiation treatment. PMID:21709641

  16. Measurement and comparison of skin dose using OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Essam H; Hammad, Lina F; Al-Mohammed, Huda I

    2011-07-01

    Total body irradiation is a protocol used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients prior to bone marrow transplant. It is involved in the treatment of the whole body using a large radiation field with extended source-skin distance. Therefore measuring and monitoring the skin dose during the treatment is important. Two kinds of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (OneDose MOSFET and mobile MOSEFT) dosimeter are used during the treatment delivery to measure the skin dose to specific points and compare it with the target prescribed dose. The objective of this study was to compare the variation of skin dose in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using OneDose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET, and then compare both results with the target prescribed dose. The measurements involved 32 patient's (16 males, 16 females), aged between 14-30 years, with an average age of 22.41 years. One-Dose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 10 different anatomical sites on every patient. The results showed there was no variation between skin dose measured with OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET in all patients. Furthermore, the results showed for every anatomical site selected there was no significant difference in the dose delivered using either OneDose MOSFET detector or Mobile MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. The study concludes that One-Dose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET both give a direct read-out immediately after the treatment; therefore both detectors are suitable options when measuring skin dose for total body irradiation treatment.

  17. Eye lens dosimetry in interventional cardiology: results of staff dose measurements and link to patient dose levels.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M; Aleksandric, S; Arandjic, D; Ostojic, M

    2013-01-01

    Workers involved in interventional cardiology procedures receive high eye lens dose if protection is not used. Currently, there is no suitable method for routine use for the measurement of eye dose. Since most angiography machines are equipped with suitable patient dosemeters, deriving factors linking staff eye doses to the patient doses can be helpful. In this study the patient kerma-area product, cumulative dose at an interventional reference point and eye dose in terms of Hp(3) of the cardiologists, nurses and radiographers for interventional cardiology procedures have been measured. Correlations between the patient dose and the staff eye dose were obtained. The mean eye dose was 121 µSv for the first operator, 33 µSv for the second operator/nurse and 12 µSv for radiographer. Normalised eye lens doses per unit kerma-area product were 0.94 µSv Gy⁻¹ cm⁻² for the first operator, 0.33 µSv Gy⁻¹ cm⁻² for the second operator/nurse and 0.16 µSv Gy⁻¹ cm⁻² for radiographers. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a weak but significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the eye dose and the kerma-area product for all three staff categories. These values are based on a local practice and may provide useful reference for other studies for validation and for wider utilisation in assessing the eye dose using patient dose values.

  18. Measurement and Simulation of Thermal Conductivity of Hafnium-Aluminum Thermal Neutron Absorber Material

    DOE PAGES

    Guillen, Donna Post; Harris, William H.

    2016-05-11

    A metal matrix composite (MMC) material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) intermetallic particles in an aluminum matrix has been identified as a promising material for fast-flux irradiation testing applications. This material can filter thermal neutrons while simultaneously providing high rates of conductive cooling for experiment capsules. Our purpose is to investigate effects of Hf-Al material composition and neutron irradiation on thermophysical properties, which were measured before and after irradiation. When performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the irradiated specimens, a large exotherm corresponding to material annealment was observed. Thus, a test procedure was developed to perform DSC and laser flashmore » analysis (LFA) to obtain the specific heat and thermal diffusivity of pre- and post-annealment specimens. This paper presents the thermal properties for three states of the MMC material: (1) unirradiated, (2) as-irradiated, and (3) irradiated and annealed. Microstructure-property relationships were obtained for the thermal conductivity. These relationships are useful for designing components from this material to operate in irradiation environments. Furthermore, the ability of this material to effectively conduct heat as a function of temperature, volume fraction Al 3Hf, radiation damage and annealing is assessed using the MOOSE suite of computational tools.« less

  19. [A new method for quantitative measurement of the cadmium absorbed by chick embryos].

    PubMed

    Gottofrey, J

    1984-01-01

    We attempted to determine the quantity of cadmium incorporated in hens eggs after immersion in cadmium solutions, and the cadmium concentration measured in embryos. We discussed equipment allowing simultaneous treatment of up to 42 samples, and called it " digestor ". It consisted of two gas-heated sand baths, two stands for cooling down solutions and an evacuation system for toxic vapours. Our method was based on wet mineralisation. It consisted of desintegrating experimental chick embryos in a HNO3/H2O2 mixed solution. After heating and evaporating, the quantity of cadmium in the remnant was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The reliability of such a technique was tested by studying as controls controls 17 days-old chick embryos injected with a known quantity of Cd(NO3). It showed no loss of cadmium. We also compared our procedure with a dry ashing method. The latter showed unacceptable losses and insufficient precision for the problems we wanted to investigate. Our method gave us much more precise results. The equipment we developed has functioned wholly satisfactorily and allowed us to investigate for instance cadmium distribution and concentration in embryonic organs of 17 days-old chicks. It could also be useful for researches concerning other biological samples analyzed for different heavy metals.

  20. Clinical application of a OneDose MOSFET for skin dose measurements during internal mammary chain irradiation with high dose rate brachytherapy in carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Sharma, Pramod K; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M; Mahantshetty, Umesh M; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, Deepak D; Shrivastava, Shyam K

    2006-07-21

    In our earlier study, we experimentally evaluated the characteristics of a newly designed metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) OneDose in-vivo dosimetry system for Ir-192 (380 keV) energy and the results were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We have now extended the same study to the clinical application of this MOSFET as an in-vivo dosimetry system. The MOSFET was used during high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation for a carcinoma of the breast. The aim of this study was to measure the skin dose during IMC irradiation with a MOSFET and a TLD and compare it with the calculated dose with a treatment planning system (TPS). The skin dose was measured for ten patients. All the patients' treatment was planned on a PLATO treatment planning system. TLD measurements were performed to compare the accuracy of the measured results from the MOSFET. The mean doses measured with the MOSFET and the TLD were identical (0.5392 Gy, 15.85% of the prescribed dose). The mean dose was overestimated by the TPS and was 0.5923 Gy (17.42% of the prescribed dose). The TPS overestimated the skin dose by 9% as verified by the MOSFET and TLD. The MOSFET provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for HDRBT. Immediate readout after irradiation, small size, permanent storage of dose and ease of use make the MOSFET a viable alternative for TLDs.

  1. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  2. A new optical method coupling light polarization and Vis-NIR spectroscopy to improve the measured absorbance signal's quality of soil samples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Visible - Near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) is now commonly used to measure different physical and chemical parameters of soils, including carbon content. However, prediction model accuracy is insufficient for Vis-NIRS to replace routine laboratory analysis. One of the biggest issues this technique is facing up to is light scattering due to soil particles. It causes departure in the assumed linear relationship between the Absorbance spectrum and the concentration of the chemicals of interest as stated by Beer-Lambert's Law, which underpins the calibration models. Therefore it becomes essential to improve the metrological quality of the measured signal in order to optimize calibration as light/matter interactions are at the basis of the resulting linear modeling. Optics can help to mitigate scattering effect on the signal. We put forward a new optical setup coupling linearly polarized light with a Vis-NIR spectrometer to free the measured spectra from multi-scattering effect. The corrected measured spectrum was then used to compute an Absorbance spectrum of the sample, using Dahm's Equation in the frame of the Representative Layer Theory. This method has been previously tested and validated on liquid (milk+ dye) and powdered (sand + dye) samples showing scattering (and absorbing) properties. The obtained Absorbance was a very good approximation of the Beer-Lambert's law absorbance. Here, we tested the method on a set of 54 soil samples to predict Soil Organic Carbon content. In order to assess the signal quality improvement by this method, we built and compared calibration models using Partial Least Square (PLS) algorithm. The prediction model built from new Absorbance spectrum outperformed the model built with the classical Absorbance traditionally obtained with Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance. This study is a good illustration of the high influence of signal quality on prediction model's performances.

  3. Depth dose measurements with the Liulin-5 experiment inside the spherical phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkova, J.; Koleva, R.; Maltchev, St.; Bankov, N.; Benghin, V.; Chernykh, I.; Shurshakov, V.; Petrov, V.; Drobyshev, S.; Nikolaev, I.

    2012-02-01

    The Liulin-5 experiment is a part of the international project MATROSHKA-R on the Russian segment of the ISS, which uses a tissue-equivalent spherical phantom equipped with a set of radiation detectors. The objective of the MATROSHKA-R project is to provide depth dose distribution of the radiation field inside the sphere in order to get more information on the distribution of dose in a human body. Liulin-5 is a charged particle telescope using three silicon detectors. It measures time resolved energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, particle flux, and absorbed doses of electrons, protons and heavy ions, simultaneously at three depths along the radius of the phantom. Measurements during the minimum of the solar activity in cycle 23 show that the average absorbed daily doses at 40 mm depth in the phantom are between 180 μGy/day and 220 μGy/day. The absorbed doses at 165 mm depth in the phantom decrease by a factor of 1.6-1.8 compared to the doses at 40 mm depth due to the self-shielding of the phantom from trapped protons. The average dose equivalent at 40 mm depth is 590 ± 32 μSV/day and the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contribute at least 70% of the total dose equivalent at that depth. Shown is that due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) trapped protons asymmetry and the direction of Liulin-5 lowest shielding zone the dose rates on ascending and descending nodes in SAA are different. The data obtained are compared to data from other radiation detectors on ISS.

  4. Internal dose assessment of 210Po using biokinetic modeling and urinary excretion measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gerstmann, Udo; Giussani, Augusto; Oeh, Uwe; Paretzke, Herwig G.

    2007-01-01

    The mysterious death of Mr. Alexander Litvinenko who was most possibly poisoned by Polonium-210 (210Po) in November 2006 in London attracted the attention of the public to the kinetics, dosimetry and the risk of this high radiotoxic isotope in the human body. In the present paper, the urinary excretion of seven persons who were possibly exposed to traces of 210Po was monitored. The values measured in the GSF Radioanalytical Laboratory are in the range of natural background concentration. To assess the effective dose received by those persons, the time-dependence of the organ equivalent dose and the effective dose after acute ingestion and inhalation of 210Po were calculated using the biokinetic model for polonium (Po) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the one recently published by Leggett and Eckerman (L&E). The daily urinary excretion to effective dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation were evaluated based on the ICRP and L&E models for members of the public. The ingestion (inhalation) effective dose per unit intake integrated over one day is 1.7 × 10−8 (1.4 × 10−7) Sv Bq−1, 2.0 × 10−7 (9.6 × 10−7) Sv Bq−1 over 10 days, 5.2 × 10−7 (2.0 × 10−6) Sv Bq−1 over 30 days and 1.0 × 10−6 (3.0 × 10−6) Sv Bq−1 over 100 days. The daily urinary excretions after acute ingestion (inhalation) of 1 Bq of 210Po are 1.1 × 10−3 (1.0 × 10−4) on day 1, 2.0 × 10−3 (1.9 × 10−4) on day 10, 1.3 × 10−3 (1.7 × 10−4) on day 30 and 3.6 × 10−4 (8.3 × 10−5) Bq d−1 on day 100, respectively. The resulting committed effective doses range from 2.1 × 10−3 to 1.7 × 10−2 mSv by an assumption of ingestion and from 5.5 × 10−2 to 4.5 × 10−1 mSv by inhalation. For the case of Mr. Litvinenko, the mean organ absorbed dose as a function of time was calculated using both the above stated models. The red bone marrow, the

  5. Internal dose assessment of 210Po using biokinetic modeling and urinary excretion measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Gerstmann, Udo; Giussani, Augusto; Oeh, Uwe; Paretzke, Herwig G

    2008-02-01

    The mysterious death of Mr. Alexander Litvinenko who was most possibly poisoned by Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in November 2006 in London attracted the attention of the public to the kinetics, dosimetry and the risk of this high radiotoxic isotope in the human body. In the present paper, the urinary excretion of seven persons who were possibly exposed to traces of (210)Po was monitored. The values measured in the GSF Radioanalytical Laboratory are in the range of natural background concentration. To assess the effective dose received by those persons, the time-dependence of the organ equivalent dose and the effective dose after acute ingestion and inhalation of (210)Po were calculated using the biokinetic model for polonium (Po) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the one recently published by Leggett and Eckerman (L&E). The daily urinary excretion to effective dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation were evaluated based on the ICRP and L&E models for members of the public. The ingestion (inhalation) effective dose per unit intake integrated over one day is 1.7 x 10(-8) (1.4 x 10(-7)) Sv Bq(-1), 2.0 x 10(-7) (9.6 x 10(-7)) Sv Bq(-1) over 10 days, 5.2 x 10(-7) (2.0 x 10(-6)) Sv Bq(-1) over 30 days and 1.0 x 10(-6) (3.0 x 10(-6)) Sv Bq(-1) over 100 days. The daily urinary excretions after acute ingestion (inhalation) of 1 Bq of (210)Po are 1.1 x 10(-3) (1.0 x 10(-4)) on day 1, 2.0 x 10(-3) (1.9 x 10(-4)) on day 10, 1.3 x 10(-3) (1.7 x 10(-4)) on day 30 and 3.6 x 10(-4) (8.3 x 10(-5)) Bq d(-1) on day 100, respectively. The resulting committed effective doses range from 2.1 x 10(-3) to 1.7 x 10(-2) mSv by an assumption of ingestion and from 5.5 x 10(-2) to 4.5 x 10(-1) mSv by inhalation. For the case of Mr. Litvinenko, the mean organ absorbed dose as a function of time was calculated using both the above stated models. The red bone marrow, the kidneys and the liver were considered as the critical organs. Assuming a

  6. Screening and monitoring microbial xenobiotics' biodegradation by rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform microplate UV-absorbance measurements.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Bastian; Lemmer, Hilde; Horn, Harald; Müller, Elisabeth

    2014-02-22

    Evaluation of xenobiotics biodegradation potential, shown here for benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors) and sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide antibiotic) by microbial communities and/or pure cultures normally requires time intensive and money consuming LC/GC methods that are, in case of laboratory setups, not always needed. The usage of high concentrations to apply a high selective pressure on the microbial communities/pure cultures in laboratory setups, a simple UV-absorbance measurement (UV-AM) was developed and validated for screening a large number of setups, requiring almost no preparation and significantly less time and money compared to LC/GC methods. This rapid and easy to use method was evaluated by comparing its measured values to LC-UV and GC-MS/MS results. Furthermore, its application for monitoring and screening unknown activated sludge communities (ASC) and mixed pure cultures has been tested and approved to detect biodegradation of benzotriazole (BTri), 4- and 5-tolyltriazole (4-TTri, 5-TTri) as well as SMX. In laboratory setups, xenobiotics concentrations above 1.0 mg L(-1) without any enrichment or preparation could be detected after optimization of the method. As UV-AM does not require much preparatory work and can be conducted in 96 or even 384 well plate formats, the number of possible parallel setups and screening efficiency was significantly increased while analytic and laboratory costs were reduced to a minimum.

  7. Screening and monitoring microbial xenobiotics’ biodegradation by rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform microplate UV-absorbance measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of xenobiotics biodegradation potential, shown here for benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors) and sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide antibiotic) by microbial communities and/or pure cultures normally requires time intensive and money consuming LC/GC methods that are, in case of laboratory setups, not always needed. Results The usage of high concentrations to apply a high selective pressure on the microbial communities/pure cultures in laboratory setups, a simple UV-absorbance measurement (UV-AM) was developed and validated for screening a large number of setups, requiring almost no preparation and significantly less time and money compared to LC/GC methods. This rapid and easy to use method was evaluated by comparing its measured values to LC-UV and GC-MS/MS results. Furthermore, its application for monitoring and screening unknown activated sludge communities (ASC) and mixed pure cultures has been tested and approved to detect biodegradation of benzotriazole (BTri), 4- and 5-tolyltriazole (4-TTri, 5-TTri) as well as SMX. Conclusions In laboratory setups, xenobiotics concentrations above 1.0 mg L-1 without any enrichment or preparation could be detected after optimization of the method. As UV-AM does not require much preparatory work and can be conducted in 96 or even 384 well plate formats, the number of possible parallel setups and screening efficiency was significantly increased while analytic and laboratory costs were reduced to a minimum. PMID:24558966

  8. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses.

    PubMed

    Turhan, S; Baykan, U N; Sen, K

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 144.9 +/- 4.9 Bq kg(-1), 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 169.9 +/- 6.6 Bq kg(-1) and 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1792.3 +/- 60.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 0.8 +/- 0.5, 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 +/- 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 +/- 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 +/- 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1.

  9. Gamma-Ray Dose Measurement with Radio-Photoluminescence Glass Dosimeter in Mixed Radiation Field for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Yoshihashi, S.; Kusaka, S.; Sato, F.; Hoashi, E.; Murata, I.

    2017-09-01

    Accelerator based neutron sources (ABNS) are being developed as the next generation neutron irradiation system for BNCT. From the ABNS, unnecessary gamma-rays will be generated by neutron capture reactions, as well as fast neutrons. To control the whole-body radiation dose to the patient, measurement of gamma-ray dose in the irradiation room is necessary. In this study, the objective is to establish a method to measure gamma-ray dose separately in a neutron/gamma mixed field by using RPL glass dosimeter. For this purpose, we proposed a lead filter method which uses a pair of RPL glasses with and without a lead filter outside. In order to realize this method, the basic characteristics of glass dosimeter was verified in the gamma-ray field, before adapting it in the mixture field. From the result of the experiment using the lead filter, the simulation result especially for the case with a lead filter overestimated the absorbed does obtained from measurement. We concluded that the reason of the discrepancy is caused by existence of gradient of the dose distribution in the glass, and the difference of sensitivity to low-energy photon between measurement and theory.

  10. Measurements of radioactivity and dose assessments in some building materials in Bitlis, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kayakökü, Halime; Karatepe, Şule; Doğru, Mahmut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, samples of perlite, pumice and Ahlat stones (Ignimbrite) extracted from mines in Bitlis and samples of other building materials produced in facilities in Bitlis were collected and analyzed. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of building materials were measured using NaI detector (NaI(Tl)) with an efficiency of 24%. The radon measurements of building material samples were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radioactivity concentrations ranged from (29.6±5.9 to 228.2±38.1Bq/kg), (10.8±5.4 to 95.5±26.1Bq/kg) and (249.3±124.7 to 2580.1±266.9Bq/kg), respectively. Radon concentration, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk and the values of hazard indices were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. Radon concentration ranged between 89.2±12.0Bq/m(3) and 1141.0±225.0Bq/m(3). It was determined that Raeq values of samples conformed to world standards except for perlite and single samples of brick and Ahlat stone. Calculated values of absorbed dose rate ranged from 81.3±20.5 to 420.6±42.8nGy/h. ELCR values ranged from (1.8±0.3)×10(-3) to (9.0±1.0)×10(-3). All samples had ELCR values higher than the world average. The values of Hin and Hex varied from 0.35±0.11 to 1.78±0.18 and from 0.37±0.09 to 1.17±0.13, respectively. The results were compared with standard radioactivity values determined by international organizations and with similar studies. There would be a radiation risk for people living in buildings made of perlite, Ahlat-1 and Brick-3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of ultraviolet absorbance and NO-chemiluminescence for ozone measurement in wildfire plumes at the Mount Bachelor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of the commonly used ozone (O3) instrument (the ultraviolet (UV) photometer) against a Federal Reference Method (Nitric Oxide -chemiluminescence) for ozone measurement in wildfire smoke plumes. We carried out simultaneous ozone measurement with two UV O3 photometers and one nitric oxide-chemiluminescence (NO-CL) ozone detectors during wildfire season (Aug. 1-Sept. 30) in 2015 at the Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO, 2763 m above mean sea level, Oregon, USA). The UV O3 shows good agreement and excellent correlation to NO-CL O3, with linear regression slopes close to unity and R2 of 0.92 for 1-h average data and R2 of 0.93 for O3 daily maximum 8-h average (MDA8). During this two-month period we identified 35 wildfire events. Ozone enhancements in those wildfire plumes measured by NO-CL O3 and UV O3 monitors also show good agreement and excellent linear correlation, with a slope and R2 of 1.03 and 0.86 for O3 enhancements (ΔO3) and 1.00 and 0.98 for carbon monoxide (CO)-normalized ozone enhancement ratios (ΔO3/ΔCO), respectively. Overall, the UV O3 was found to have a positive bias of 4.7 ± 2.8 ppbv compared to the NO-CL O3. The O3 bias between NO-CL O3 and UV O3 is independent of wildfire plume tracers such as CO, particulate matter (PM1), aerosol scattering, and ultrafine particles. The results demonstrate that the UV O3 absorbance method is reliable, even in highly concentrated wildfire plumes.

  12. Measurement and global analysis of the absorbance changes in the photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein from Ectothiorhodospira halophila.

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, W D; van Stokkum, I H; van Ramesdonk, H J; van Brederode, M E; Brouwer, A M; Fitch, J C; Meyer, T E; van Grondelle, R; Hellingwerf, K J

    1994-01-01

    The photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from Ectothiorhodospira halophila was examined by time-resolved difference absorption spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 300-600 nm. Both time-gated spectra and single wavelength traces were measured. Global analysis of the data established that in the time domain between 5 ns and 2 s only two intermediates are involved in the room temperature photocycle of PYP, as has been proposed before (Meyer T.E., E. Yakali, M. A. Cusanovich, and G. Tollin. 1987. Biochemistry. 26:418-423; Meyer, T. E., G. Tollin, T. P. Causgrove, P. Cheng, and R. E. Blankenship. 1991. Biophys. J. 59:988-991). The first, red-shifted intermediate decays biexponentially (60% with tau = 0.25 ms and 40% with tau = 1.2 ms) to a blue-shifted intermediate. The last step of the photocycle is the biexponential (93% with tau = 0.15 s and 7% with tau = 2.0 s) recovery to the ground state of the protein. Reconstruction of the absolute spectra of these photointermediates yielded absorbance maxima of about 465 and 355 nm for the red- and blue-shifted intermediate with an epsilon max at about 50% and 40% relative to the epsilon max of the ground state. The quantitative analysis of the photocycle in PYP described here paves the way to a detailed biophysical analysis of the processes occurring in this photoreceptor molecule. PMID:7819501

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of the OneDoseTM MOSFET for measuring kilovoltage imaging dose from image-guided radiotherapy procedures.

    PubMed

    Ding, George X; Coffey, Charles W

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a single-use dosimeter, OneDose MOSFET designed for in vivo patient dosimetry, for measuring the radiation dose from kilovoltage (kV) x rays resulting from image-guided procedures. The OneDose MOSFET dosimeters were precalibrated by the manufacturer using Co-60 beams. Their energy response and characteristics for kV x rays were investigated by using an ionization chamber, in which the air-kerma calibration factors were obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (ADCL). The dosimetric properties have been tested for typical kV beams used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The direct dose reading from the OneDose system needs to be multiplied by a correction factor ranging from 0.30 to 0.35 for kilovoltage x rays ranging from 50 to 125 kVp, respectively. In addition to energy response, the OneDose dosimeter has up to a 20% reduced sensitivity for beams (70-125 kVp) incident from the back of the OneDose detector. The uncertainty in measuring dose resulting from a kilovoltage beam used in IGRT is approximately 20%; this uncertainty is mainly due to the sensitivity dependence of the incident beam direction relative to the OneDose detector. The ease of use may allow the dosimeter to be suitable for estimating the dose resulting from image-guided procedures.

  14. Peripheral dose measurement in high-energy photon radiotherapy with the implementation of MOSFET.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulou, Vassiliki; Malatara, Georgia; Delis, Harry; Theodorou, Kiki; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Panayiotakis, George

    2010-11-28

    To study the peripheral dose (PD) from high-energy photon beams in radiotherapy using the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dose verification system. The radiation dose absorbed by the MOSFET detector was calculated taking into account the manufacturer's Correction Factor, the Calibration Factor and the threshold voltage shift. PD measurements were carried out for three different field sizes (5 cm × 5 cm, 10 cm × 10 cm and 15 cm × 15 cm) and for various depths with the source to surface distance set at 100 cm. Dose measurements were realized on the central axis and then at distances (1 to 18 cm) parallel to the edge of the field, and were expressed as the percentage PD (% PD) with respect to the maximum dose (d(max)). The accuracy of the results was evaluated with respect to a calibrated 0.3 cm(3) ionization chamber. The reproducibility was expressed in terms of standard deviation (s) and coefficient of variation. % PD is higher near the phantom surface and drops to a minimum at the depth of d(max), and then tends to become constant with depth. Internal scatter radiation is the predominant source of PD and the depth dependence is determined by the attenuation of the primary photons. Closer to the field edge, where internal scatter from the phantom dominates, the % PD increases with depth because the ratio of the scatter to primary increases with depth. A few centimeters away from the field, where collimator scatter and leakage dominate, the % PD decreases with depth, due to attenuation by the water. The % PD decreases almost exponentially with the increase of distance from the field edge. The decrease of the % PD is more than 60% and can reach up to 90% as the measurement point departs from the edge of the field. For a given distance, the % PD is significantly higher for larger field sizes, due to the increase of the scattering volume. Finally, the measured PD obtained with MOSFET is higher than that obtained with an ionization chamber

  15. Peripheral dose measurement in high-energy photon radiotherapy with the implementation of MOSFET

    PubMed Central

    Vlachopoulou, Vassiliki; Malatara, Georgia; Delis, Harry; Theodorou, Kiki; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Panayiotakis, George

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the peripheral dose (PD) from high-energy photon beams in radiotherapy using the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dose verification system. METHODS: The radiation dose absorbed by the MOSFET detector was calculated taking into account the manufacturer’s Correction Factor, the Calibration Factor and the threshold voltage shift. PD measurements were carried out for three different field sizes (5 cm × 5 cm, 10 cm × 10 cm and 15 cm × 15 cm) and for various depths with the source to surface distance set at 100 cm. Dose measurements were realized on the central axis and then at distances (1 to 18 cm) parallel to the edge of the field, and were expressed as the percentage PD (% PD) with respect to the maximum dose (dmax). The accuracy of the results was evaluated with respect to a calibrated 0.3 cm3 ionization chamber. The reproducibility was expressed in terms of standard deviation (s) and coefficient of variation. RESULTS: % PD is higher near the phantom surface and drops to a minimum at the depth of dmax, and then tends to become constant with depth. Internal scatter radiation is the predominant source of PD and the depth dependence is determined by the attenuation of the primary photons. Closer to the field edge, where internal scatter from the phantom dominates, the % PD increases with depth because the ratio of the scatter to primary increases with depth. A few centimeters away from the field, where collimator scatter and leakage dominate, the % PD decreases with depth, due to attenuation by the water. The % PD decreases almost exponentially with the increase of distance from the field edge. The decrease of the % PD is more than 60% and can reach up to 90% as the measurement point departs from the edge of the field. For a given distance, the % PD is significantly higher for larger field sizes, due to the increase of the scattering volume. Finally, the measured PD obtained with MOSFET is higher than that obtained with an

  16. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-04-04

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors.

  17. SU-E-I-45: Measurement of CT Dose to An HDPE Phantom Using Calorimetry: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Mayer, H; Tosh, R; Bateman, F; Zimmerman, B

    2012-06-01

    Radiation dose in CT is traditionally evaluated using an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma in a phantom of specific dimensions. The radiation absorbed dose, J/kg, can also be realized directly by measuring the temperature rise in the medium. We investigate using this primary method to determine the CT dose at a point (a few mm), using the recently proposed (APMM TG220) high density polyethylene (HDPE) phantom as a medium. The calorimeter detection scheme is adapted from the second generation NIST water calorimeter using sensitive thermistors in a Wheatstone bridge powered by a lock-in amplifier. The temperature sensitivity is about 3 microK. The expected temperature rise in PE is about 0.6 mK per Gy. The thermistor sensors were placed inside a 26 cm dia. × 10 cm HDPE phantom. Two preliminary tests were made: at a linear accelerator with a 6 MV photon beam, and at a 16-slice CT scanner with a 120 kV beam, each with the thermal sensor and with a calibrated ionization chamber. The 6 MV photon beam with 10 on/off cycles at 60 s each yielded the (uncorrected) run-to-run average dose of 3.06 Gy per cycle (sdm 0.3%), about 8% higher than the Result from the ionization chamber (calibrated in terms of absorbed to water). The CT measurements were also made in the middle section of the TG200 30 cm phantom. Twenty consecutive axial scans at 250 mA, which delivers a nominal accumulated dose (CTDIvol) of 705 mGy in 50 s at three axial and three radial locations were measured. The accumulated dose measured by the ionization chamber at the center of the smaller phantom was 347 mGy. The calorimeter data show qualitative tracking of the chamber measurements. Detailed thermal and electrical analysis of the system are planned to obtain quantitative results. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Characterization of differences in calculated and actual measured skin doses to canine limbs during stereotactic radiosurgery using Gafchromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jerri; Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO; Ryan, Stewart

    Accurate calculation of absorbed dose to the skin, especially the superficial and radiosensitive basal cell layer, is difficult for many reasons including, but not limited to, the build-up effect of megavoltage photons, tangential beam effects, mixed energy scatter from support devices, and dose interpolation caused by a finite resolution calculation matrix. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been developed as an alternative limb salvage treatment option at Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dogs with extremity bone tumors. Optimal dose delivery to the tumor during SBRT treatment can be limited by uncertainty in skin dose calculation. The aim of thismore » study was to characterize the difference between measured and calculated radiation dose by the Varian Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) AAA treatment planning algorithm (for 1-mm, 2-mm, and 5-mm calculation voxel dimensions) as a function of distance from the skin surface. The study used Gafchromic EBT film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ), FilmQA analysis software, a limb phantom constructed from plastic water Trade-Mark-Sign (fluke Biomedical, Everett, WA) and a canine cadaver forelimb. The limb phantom was exposed to 6-MV treatments consisting of a single-beam, a pair of parallel opposed beams, and a 7-beam coplanar treatment plan. The canine forelimb was exposed to the 7-beam coplanar plan. Radiation dose to the forelimb skin at the surface and at depths of 1.65 mm and 1.35 mm below the skin surface were also measured with the Gafchromic film. The calculation algorithm estimated the dose well at depths beyond buildup for all calculation voxel sizes. The calculation algorithm underestimated the dose in portions of the buildup region of tissue for all comparisons, with the most significant differences observed in the 5-mm calculation voxel and the least difference in the 1-mm voxel. Results indicate a significant difference between measured and

  19. Specific ultra-violet absorbance as an indicator measurement of merucry sources in an Adirondack River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aiken, George R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Schelker, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The Adirondack region of New York has been identified as a hot spot where high methylmercury concentrations are found in surface waters and biota, yet mercury (Hg) concentrations vary widely in this region. We collected stream and groundwater samples for Hg and organic carbon analyses across the upper Hudson River, a 493 km2 basin in the central Adirondacks to evaluate and model the sources of variation in filtered total Hg (FTHg) concentrations. Variability in FTHg concentrations during the growing seasons (May-Oct) of 2007-2009 in Fishing Brook, a 66-km2 sub-basin, was better explained by specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), a measure of organic carbon aromaticity, than by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, a commonly used Hg indicator. SUVA254 was a stronger predictor of FTHg concentrations during the growing season than during the dormant season. Multiple linear regression models that included SUVA254 values and DOC concentrations could explain 75 % of the variation in FTHg concentrations on an annual basis and 84 % during the growing season. A multiple linear regression landscape modeling approach applied to 27 synoptic sites across the upper Hudson basin found that higher SUVA254 values are associated with gentler slopes, and greater riparian area, and lower SUVA254 values are associated with an increasing influence of open water. We hypothesize that the strong Hg?SUVA254 relation in this basin reflects distinct patterns of FTHg and SUVA254 that are characteristic of source areas that control the mobilization of Hg to surface waters, and that the seasonal influence of these source areas varies in this heterogeneous basin landscape.

  20. Measure Your Gradient”: A New Way to Measure Gradients in High Performance Liquid Chromatography by Mass Spectrometric or Absorbance Detection

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Megan H.; Manulik, Joseph C.; Barnes, Brian B.; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T.; Boswell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The gradient produced by an HPLC is never the same as the one it is programmed to produce, but non-idealities in the gradient can be taken into account if they are measured. Such measurements are routine, yet only one general approach has been described to make them: both HPLC solvents are replaced with water, solvent B is spiked with 0.1% acetone, and the gradient is measured by UV absorbance. Despite the widespread use of this procedure, we found a number of problems and complications with it, mostly stemming from the fact that it measures the gradient under abnormal conditions (e.g. both solvents are water). It is also generally not amenable to MS detection, leaving those with only an MS detector no way to accurately measure their gradients. We describe a new approach called “Measure Your Gradient” that potentially solves these problems. One runs a test mixture containing 20 standards on a standard stationary phase and enters their gradient retention times into open-source software available at www.measureyourgradient.org. The software uses the retention times to back-calculate the gradient that was truly produced by the HPLC. Here we present a preliminary investigation of the new approach. We found that gradients measured this way are comparable to those measured by a more accurate, albeit impractical, version of the conventional approach. The new procedure worked with different gradients, flow rates, column lengths, inner diameters, on two different HPLCs, and with six different batches of the standard stationary phase. PMID:25441073

  1. SU-F-T-06: Development of a Formalism for Practical Dose Measurements in Brachytherapy in the German Standard DIN 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, F; Chofor, N; Schoenfeld, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In the steep dose gradients in the vicinity of a radiation source and due to the properties of the changing photon spectra, dose measurements in Brachytherapy usually have large uncertainties. Working group DIN 6803-3 is presently discussing recommendations for practical brachytherapy dosimetry incorporating recent theoretical developments in the description of brachytherapy radiation fields as well as new detectors and phantom materials. The goal is to prepare methods and instruments to verify dose calculation algorithms and for clinical dose verification with reduced uncertainties. Methods: After analysis of the distance dependent spectral changes of the radiation field surrounding brachytherapy sources, themore » energy dependent response of typical brachytherapy detectors was examined with Monte Carlo simulations. A dosimetric formalism was developed allowing the correction of their energy dependence as function of source distance for a Co-60 calibrated detector. Water equivalent phantom materials were examined with Monte Carlo calculations for their influence on brachytherapy photon spectra and for their water equivalence in terms of generating equivalent distributions of photon spectra and absorbed dose to water. Results: The energy dependence of a detector in the vicinity of a brachytherapy source can be described by defining an energy correction factor kQ for brachytherapy in the same manner as in existing dosimetry protocols which incorporates volume averaging and radiation field distortion by the detector. Solid phantom materials were identified which allow precise positioning of a detector together with small correctable deviations from absorbed dose to water. Recommendations for the selection of detectors and phantom materials are being developed for different measurements in brachytherapy. Conclusion: The introduction of kQ for brachytherapy sources may allow more systematic and comparable dose measurements. In principle, the corrections can

  2. Fractional absorption of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa) and calcium carbonate measured by a dual stable-isotope method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In ...

  3. Fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for neutron beams from 0.001 eV to 100 GeV calculated for a set of pregnant female and fetus models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2008-03-01

    Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.

  4. SU-E-T-263: Luminescent Dosimetry to Measure the Out-Of-Field Low and High LET Dose Components in High Energy Photon and Proton Therapy Beams.

    PubMed

    Reft, C

    2012-06-01

    Luminescent dosimetry using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs) were used in mixed radiation fields containing both low LET (photons and protons) and high LET (neutrons)components to obtain their out-of-field absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor. LiF Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLDs) 600 and 700 chips with dimensions 0.31×0.31×0.038 cm 3 were used in a 25.4 cm diameter Bonner sphere centered 42 cm from the isocenter of a 15×x15 cm 2 field to measure the secondary doses for 10, 15 and 18 MV photons and a 200 MeV proton therapy beam. From the sensitivity difference to LET radiation between the210 and 280 C peaks in the glow curve, the areas under the peaks were used to obtain the absorbed dose, dose equivalent and QF of the secondary radiation. The OSLD detector measured the low LET dose component to compare with the TLD dose measurement. The neutron calibration of the TLDs was obtained from an Am-Be source at the Argonne National Laboratory. The photon and proton TLD and OSLD calibrations were obtained in 6 MV and 200 MeV beams, respectively. From the two-peak analysis of the TLDs in the Bonner sphere the ratios of the neutron dose to photon dose were 0.001, 0.014 and 0.17 for 10, 15 and 18 MV, respectively. The low LET OSLD measurements agreed within 10% of the TLD results. From the dose equivalent measurements the QFs (+/-14%) obtained were 4.5, 3.9 and 4.0 for these beam energies. For the 200 MeV proton beam the ratio of neutron to proton dose was 0.28 with a measured QF of 13. Luminescent detectors in a Bonner Sphere provide measurements of the secondary photon, proton and neutron doses and provide an estimate of the neutron QF. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Yoshinori, E-mail: yosakura@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditionsmore » in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization

  6. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a "dual phantom technique" for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % 6LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % 6LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the depth dose distributions of the

  7. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    PubMed

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks number by considering cell cycle and absorbed dose per cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Ryosuke; Matsuya, Yusuke; Yoshii, Yuji; Date, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Abstract DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are thought to be the main cause of cell death after irradiation. In this study, we estimated the probability distribution of the number of DSBs per cell nucleus by considering the DNA amount in a cell nucleus (which depends on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the energy imparted to the cell nucleus by X-ray irradiation. The probability estimation of DSB induction was made following these procedures: (i) making use of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line as the target example, the amounts of DNA per nucleus in the logarithmic and the plateau phases of the growth curve were measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) dyeing; (ii) the probability distribution of the DSB number per cell nucleus for each phase after irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 200 kVp X-rays was measured by means of γ-H2AX immunofluorescent staining; (iii) the distribution of the cell-specific energy deposition via secondary electrons produced by the incident X-rays was calculated by WLTrack (in-house Monte Carlo code); (iv) according to a mathematical model for estimating the DSB number per nucleus, we deduced the induction probability density of DSBs based on the measured DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the calculated dose per nucleus. The model exhibited DSB induction probabilities in good agreement with the experimental results for the two phases, suggesting that the DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the local energy deposition are essential for estimating the DSB induction probability after X-ray exposure. PMID:29800455

  9. Estimation of the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks number by considering cell cycle and absorbed dose per cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryosuke; Matsuya, Yusuke; Yoshii, Yuji; Date, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are thought to be the main cause of cell death after irradiation. In this study, we estimated the probability distribution of the number of DSBs per cell nucleus by considering the DNA amount in a cell nucleus (which depends on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the energy imparted to the cell nucleus by X-ray irradiation. The probability estimation of DSB induction was made following these procedures: (i) making use of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line as the target example, the amounts of DNA per nucleus in the logarithmic and the plateau phases of the growth curve were measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) dyeing; (ii) the probability distribution of the DSB number per cell nucleus for each phase after irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 200 kVp X-rays was measured by means of γ-H2AX immunofluorescent staining; (iii) the distribution of the cell-specific energy deposition via secondary electrons produced by the incident X-rays was calculated by WLTrack (in-house Monte Carlo code); (iv) according to a mathematical model for estimating the DSB number per nucleus, we deduced the induction probability density of DSBs based on the measured DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the calculated dose per nucleus. The model exhibited DSB induction probabilities in good agreement with the experimental results for the two phases, suggesting that the DNA amount (depending on the cell cycle) and the statistical variation in the local energy deposition are essential for estimating the DSB induction probability after X-ray exposure.

  10. A bounding estimate of neutron dose based on measured photon dose around single pass reactors at the Hanford site.

    PubMed

    Taulbee, Timothy D; Glover, Samuel E; Macievic, Gregory V; Hunacek, Mickey; Smith, Cheryl; DeBord, Gary W; Morris, Donald; Fix, Jack

    2010-07-01

    Neutron and photon radiation survey records have been used to evaluate and develop a neutron to photon (NP) ratio to reconstruct neutron doses to workers around Hanford's single pass reactors that operated from 1945 to 1972. A total of 5,773 paired neutron and photon measurements extracted from 57 boxes of survey records were used in the development of the NP ratio. The development of the NP ratio enables the use of the recorded dose from an individual's photon dosimeter badge to be used to estimate the unmonitored neutron dose. The Pearson rank correlation between the neutron and photon measurements was 0.71. The NP ratio best fit a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.8, a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.95, and the upper 95 th % of this distribution was 4.75. An estimate of the neutron dose based on this NP ratio is considered bounding due to evidence that up to 70% of the total photon exposure received by workers around the single pass reactors occurs during shutdown maintenance and refueling activities when there is no significant neutron exposure. Thus when this NP ratio is applied to the total measured photon dose from an individual film badge dosimeter, the resulting neutron dose is considered bounded.

  11. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  12. Panel Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MECHEL, F. P.

    2001-11-01

    A plane wave is incident on a simply supported elastic plate covering a back volume; the arrangement is surrounded by a hard baffle wall. The plate may be porous with a flow friction resistance; the back volume may be filled either with air or with a porous material. The back volume may be bulk reacting (i.e., with sound propagation parallel to the plate) or locally reacting. Since this arrangement is of some importance in room acoustics, Cremer in his book about room acoustics [1] has presented an approximate analysis. However, Cremer's analysis uses a number of assumptions which make his solution, in his own estimate, unsuited for low frequencies, where, on the other hand, the arrangement mainly is applied. This paper presents a sound field description which uses modal analysis. It is applicable not only in the far field, but also near the absorber. Further, approximate solutions are derived, based on simplifying assumptions like Cremer has used. The modal analysis solution is of interest not only as a reference for approximations but also for practical applications, because the aspect of computing time becomes more and more unimportant (the 3D-plots presented below for the sound field were evaluated with modal analysis in about 6 s).

  13. Quantifying annual internal effective 137Cesium dose utilizing direct body-burden measurement and ecological dose modeling.

    PubMed

    Jelin, Benjamin A; Sun, Wenjie; Kravets, Alexandra; Naboka, Maryna; Stepanova, Eugenia I; Vdovenko, Vitaliy Y; Karmaus, Wilfried J; Lichosherstov, Alex; Svendsen, Erik R

    2016-11-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident represents one of the most significant civilian releases of 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs, radiocesium) in human history. In the Chernobyl-affected region, radiocesium is considered to be the greatest on-going environmental hazard to human health by radiobiologists and public health scientists. The goal of this study was to characterize dosimetric patterns and predictive factors for whole-body count (WBC)-derived radiocesium internal dose estimations in a CNPP-affected children's cohort, and cross-validate these estimations with a soil-based ecological dose estimation model. WBC data were used to estimate the internal effective dose using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 67 dose conversion coefficient for 137 Cs and MONDAL Version 3.01 software. Geometric mean dose estimates from each model were compared utilizing paired t-tests and intra-class correlation coefficients. Additionally, we developed predictive models for WBC-derived dose estimation in order to determine the appropriateness of EMARC to estimate dose for this population. The two WBC-derived dose predictive models identified 137 Cs soil concentration (P<0.0001) as the strongest predictor of annual internal effective dose from radiocesium validating the use of the soil-based EMARC model. The geometric mean internal effective dose estimate of the EMARC model (0.183 mSv/y) was the highest followed by the ICRP 67 dose estimates (0.165 mSv/y) and the MONDAL model estimates (0.149 mSv/y). All three models yielded significantly different geometric mean dose (P<0.05) estimates for this cohort when stratified by sex, age at time of exam and season of exam, except for the mean MONDAL and EMARC estimates for 15- and 16-year olds and mean ICRP and MONDAL estimates for children examined in Winter. Further prospective and retrospective radio-epidemiological studies utilizing refined WBC measurements and ecological model dose estimations, in

  14. An analytical model of leakage neutron equivalent dose for passively-scattered proton radiotherapy and validation with measurements.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christopher; Newhauser, Wayne; Farah, Jad

    2015-05-18

    Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test an analytical model of neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose  at 75 MeV and to improve the model by reducing the number of configuration parameters and making it continuous in proton energy from 100 to 250 MeV. To develop the analytical model, we used previously published H/D values in water from Monte Carlo simulations of a general-purpose beamline for proton energies from 100 to 250 MeV. We also configured and tested the model on in-air neutron equivalent doses measured for a 75 MeV ocular beamline. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model and Monte Carlo agreed well from 100 to 250 MeV (10% average difference). Predicted H/D values from the analytical model also agreed well with measurements at 75 MeV (15% average difference). The results indicate that analytical models can give fast, reliable calculations of neutron exposure after proton therapy. This ability is absent in treatment planning systems but vital to second cancer risk estimation.

  15. SU-G-BRB-14: Uncertainty of Radiochromic Film Based Relative Dose Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, S; Tomic, N; DeBlois, F

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Due to inherently non-linear dose response, measurement of relative dose distribution with radiochromic film requires measurement of absolute dose using a calibration curve following previously established reference dosimetry protocol. On the other hand, a functional form that converts the inherently non-linear dose response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system into linear one has been proposed recently [Devic et al, Med. Phys. 39 4850–4857 (2012)]. However, there is a question what would be the uncertainty of such measured relative dose. Methods: If the relative dose distribution is determined going through the reference dosimetry system (conversion of the response bymore » using calibration curve into absolute dose) the total uncertainty of such determined relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature total uncertainties of doses measured at a given and at the reference point. On the other hand, if the relative dose is determined using linearization method, the new response variable is calculated as ζ=a(netOD)n/ln(netOD). In this case, the total uncertainty in relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature uncertainties for a new response function (σζ) for a given and the reference point. Results: Except at very low doses, where the measurement uncertainty dominates, the total relative dose uncertainty is less than 1% for the linear response method as compared to almost 2% uncertainty level for the reference dosimetry method. The result is not surprising having in mind that the total uncertainty of the reference dose method is dominated by the fitting uncertainty, which is mitigated in the case of linearization method. Conclusion: Linearization of the radiochromic film dose response provides a convenient and a more precise method for relative dose measurements as it does not require reference dosimetry and creation of calibration curve. However, the linearity of the newly introduced function must be verified. Dave

  16. Shuttle radiation dose measurements in the International Space Station orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is now a reality with the start of a permanent human presence on board. Radiation presents a serious risk to the health and safety of the astronauts, and there is a clear requirement for estimating their exposures prior to and after flights. Predictions of the dose rate at times other than solar minimum or solar maximum have not been possible, because there has been no method to calculate the trapped-particle spectrum at intermediate times. Over the last few years, a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been flown at a fixed mid-deck location on board the Space Shuttle in 51.65 degrees inclination flights. These flights have provided data that cover the expected changes in the dose rates due to changes in altitude and changes in solar activity from the solar minimum to the solar maximum of the current 23rd solar cycle. Based on these data, a simple function of the solar deceleration potential has been derived that can be used to predict the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) dose rates to within +/-10%. For altitudes to be covered by the ISS, the dose rate due to the trapped particles is found to be a power-law function, rho(-2/3), of the atmospheric density, rho. This relationship can be used to predict trapped dose rates inside these spacecraft to +/-10% throughout the solar cycle. Thus, given the shielding distribution for a location inside the Space Shuttle or inside an ISS module, this approach can be used to predict the combined GCR + trapped dose rate to better than +/-15% for quiet solar conditions.

  17. Novel Measure of Opioid Dose and Costs of Care for Diabetes Mellitus: Opioid Dose and Health Care Costs.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Santosh; Franzini, Luisa; Mikhail, Osama I; Chan, Wenyaw; Turner, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has well known costly complications but we hypothesized that costs of care for chronic pain treated with opioid analgesic (OA) medications would also be substantial. In a statewide, privately insured cohort of 29,033 adults aged 18 to 64 years with DM and noncancer pain who filled OA prescription(s) from 2008 to 2012, our outcomes were costs for specific health care services and total costs per 6-month intervals after the first filled OA prescription. Average daily OA dose (4 categories) and total dose (quartiles) in morphine-equivalent milligrams were calculated per 6-month interval after the first OA prescription and combined into a novel OA dose measure. Associations of OA measures with costs of care (n = 126,854 6-month intervals) were examined using generalized estimating equations adjusted for clinical conditions, psychotherapeutic drugs, and DM treatment. Incremental costs for each type of health care service and total cost of care increased progressively with average daily and total OA dose versus no OAs. The combined OA measure identified the highest incremental total costs per 6-month interval that were increased by $8,389 for 50- to 99-mg average daily dose plus >900 mg total dose and, by $9,181 and $9,958 respectively, for ≥100 mg average daily dose plus 301- to 900-mg or >900 mg total dose. In this statewide DM cohort, total health care costs per 6-month interval increased progressively with higher average daily OA dose and with total OA dose but the greatest increases of >$8,000 were distinguished by combinations of higher average daily and total OA doses. The higher costs of care for opioid-treated patients appeared for all types of services and likely reflects multiple factors including morbidity from the underlying cause of pain, care and complications related to opioid use, and poorer control of diabetes as found in other studies. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The "Next Dose" dosage spoon circa 1927 as an aid for proper dose measurement and enhancement of medication compliance.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Jack E

    2007-01-01

    These "Next Dose" spoons were marketed until the 1960s in the United States. Unfortunately, the further paths crossed by Messieurs Morgan and Bushey cannot be further elucidated. Nor can further information be identified for the eventual marketer of the "Next Dose" spoon. What we can surmise is that the use of specialized devices to administer and remind patients about dosing is not new. There is scant mention of compliance in the literature too years ago, but pharmacies and patients no doubt found these devices to be useful. For the pharmacist, advertising on the spoon provided a reminder of their services, and for the patient, a reminder was present on the body of the spoon to remind them of the next dosing time. Most medications during this time were in liquid form, and a device to help accurately measure liquid, elixir, tonic, suspensions was a highly sought-after item welcomed by patients and/or caregivers.

  19. The effect of poorly absorbed solute on intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Menzies, I S; Jenkins, A P; Heduan, E; Catt, S D; Segal, M B; Creamer, B

    1990-12-01

    To determine the effects of poorly absorbed solute on intestinal absorption, the urinary recovery of ingested lactulose, L-rhamnose, D-xylose, and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose was measured after simultaneous ingestion of various 'loads' of mannitol given in iso-osmolar solution. Mannitol reduced intestinal uptake of the poorly absorbed test sugars, lactulose and L-rhamnose; uptake of D-xylose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, which are absorbed by carrier-mediated transport largely from the jejunum, was less affected. The dose-response effect of mannitol on the absorption of L-rhamnose was approximately exponential; doses of 5, 10, and 20 g mannitol reduced the average urinary excretion of L-rhamnose by 34.7%, 51.7%, and 61.2%, respectively. In this respect, an osmotically equivalent load of lactulose, ingested as 'solute', was approximately twice as effective as mannitol in reducing L-rhamnose absorption, probably because lactulose is more poorly absorbed than mannitol (less than 1.0% versus 32-41%). Ingestion of other poorly absorbed solutes such as raffinose, sorbitol, xylitol, magnesium sulphate, and sodium sulphate also significantly depressed the absorption of L-rhamnose; in contrast, more efficiently absorbed solutes, such as sodium chloride, glucose, glycerol, and urea had little effect.

  20. Characterisation of a MOSFET-based detector for dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, W. L.; Ung, N. M.; Tiong, A. H. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Wong, J. H. D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental dosimetric characteristics of the MOSkin detector for megavoltage electron beam dosimetry. The reproducibility, linearity, energy dependence, dose rate dependence, depth dose measurement, output factor measurement, and surface dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam were tested. The MOSkin detector showed excellent reproducibility (>98%) and linearity (R2= 1.00) up to 2000 cGy for 4-20 MeV electron beams. The MOSkin detector also showed minimal dose rate dependence (within ±3%) and energy dependence (within ±2%) over the clinical range of electron beams, except for an energy dependence at 4 MeV electron beam. An energy dependence correction factor of 1.075 is needed when the MOSkin detector is used for 4 MeV electron beam. The output factors measured by the MOSkin detector were within ±2% compared to those measured with the EBT3 film and CC13 chamber. The measured depth doses using the MOSkin detector agreed with those measured using the CC13 chamber, except at the build-up region due to the dose volume averaging effect of the CC13 chamber. For surface dose measurements, MOSkin measurements were in agreement within ±3% to those measured using EBT3 film. Measurements using the MOSkin detector were also compared to electron dose calculation algorithms namely the GGPB and eMC algorithms. Both algorithms were in agreement with measurements to within ±2% and ±4% for output factor (except for the 4 × 4 cm2 field size) and surface dose, respectively. With the uncertainties taken into account, the MOSkin detector was found to be a suitable detector for dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam. This has been demonstrated in the in vivo skin dose measurement on patients during electron boost to the breast tumour bed.

  1. A quality assurance device for measuring afterloader performance and transit dose for nasobiliary high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Deufel, Christopher L; Mullins, John P; Zakhary, Mark J

    2018-05-17

    Nasobiliary high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has emerged as an effective tool to boost the radiation dose for patients with unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. This work describes a quality assurance (QA) tool for measuring the HDR afterloader's performance, including the transit dose, when the source wire travels through a tortuous nasobiliary catheter path. The nasobiliary QA device was designed to mimic the anatomical path of a nasobiliary catheter, including the nasal, stomach, duodenum, and bile duct loops. Two of these loops, the duodenum and bile duct loops, have adjustable radii of curvature, resulting in the ability to maximize stress on the source wire in transit. The device was used to measure the performance over time for the HDR afterloader and the differences between intraluminal catheter lots. An upper limit on the transit dose was also measured using radiochromic film and compared with a simple theoretical model. The QA device was capable of detecting performance variations among nasobiliary catheter lots and following radioactive source replacement. The transit dose from a nasobiliary treatment increased by up to one order of magnitude when the source wire encountered higher than normal friction. Three distinct travel speeds of the source wire were observed: 5.2, 17.4, and 54.7 cm/s. The maximum transit dose was 0.3 Gy at a radial distance of 5 mm from a 40.3 kU 192 Ir source. The source wire encounters substantially greater friction when it navigates through the nasobiliary brachytherapy catheter. A QA tool that mimics the nasal, stomach, duodenum, and bile duct loops may be used to evaluate transit dose and the afterloader's performance over time. Copyright © 2018 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study the Characterization of Spectral Absorbance on Irradiated Milk Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohely, F.; Suardi, N.

    2018-04-01

    The milk has been adopted as a structural nature food for a long era since it is containing most of the growth factors, protective agents, and enzymes needed for the body. a few attempts have been conducted to treat the dairy products especially raw milk by the means of ionizing radiation. as its production has been an expanding industry for many years due to the high demands from the consumers worldwide, there is still some doubt about preserving these products by irradiation. In this work, a preliminary effort to describe the influences of ionizing radiation on raw milk’s protein will be devoted to measuring the spectral absorbance of the total protein (after subjected to varied radiation doses) by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy analysis. The absorbance spectrum then analyzed based on absorbance spectra of organic compounds. A comparison is made between the effects of different radiation doses to estimate the influence in milk’s structure.

  3. USE OF PBPK MODELS FOR ASSESSING ABSORBED DOSE AND CHE INHIBITION FROM AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiological pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling framework has been established to assess cumulative risk of dose and injury of infants and children to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides from aggregate sources and routes. Exposure inputs were drawn from all reasonable sources, pr...

  4. Measured and Calculated Neutron Spectra and Dose Equivalent Rates at High Altitudes; Relevance to SST Operations and Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.; Mendell, R. B.; Wilson, J. W.; Adams, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of the NASA Langley-New York University high-altitude radiation study are presented. Measurements of the absorbed dose rate and of secondary fast neutrons (1 to 10 MeV energy) during the years 1965 to 1971 are used to determine the maximum radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays of supersonic transport (SST) and subsonic jet occupants. The maximum dose equivalent rates that the SST crews might receive turn out to be 13 to 20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate (MPD) for radiation workers (5 rem/yr). The exposure of passengers encountering an intense giant-energy solar particle event could exceed the MPD for the general population (0.5 rem/yr), but would be within these permissible limits if in such rare cases the transport descends to subsonic altitude; it is in general less than 12 percent of the MPD. By Monte Carlo calculations of the transport and buildup of nucleons in air for incident proton energies E of 0.02 to 10 GeV, the measured neutron spectra were extrapolated to lower and higher energies and for galactic cosmic rays were found to continue with a relatively high intensity to energies greater than 400 MeV, in a wide altitude range. This condition, together with the measured intensity profiles of fast neutrons, revealed that the biologically important fast and energetic neutrons penetrate deep into the atmosphere and contribute approximately 50 percent of the dose equivalant rates at SST and present subsonic jet altitudes.

  5. MARIE Dose and Flux Measurements in Mars Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L. S.; Turner, R.; Atwell, W.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. MARIE operated successfully from March 2002 through October 2003. At the time of this writing, the instrument is off due to a loss of communications during an extremely intense Solar Particle Event. Efforts to revive MARIE are planned for Spring 2004, when Odyssey's role as a communications relay for the MER rovers is completed. During the period of successful operation, MARIE returned the first detailed energetic charged particle data from Mars. Due to limitations of the instrument, normalizing MARIE data to flux or dose is not straightforward - several large corrections are needed. Thus normalized results (like dose or flux) have large uncertainties and/or significant model-dependence. The problems in normalization are mainly due to inefficiency in detecting high-energy protons (signal-to-noise problems force the trigger threshold to be higher than optimal), to the excessively high gains employed in the signal processing electronics (many ions deposit energy sufficient to saturate the electronics, and dE/dx information is lost), and to artifacts associated with the two trigger detectors (incomplete registration of dE/dx). Despite these problems, MARIE is efficient for detecting helium ions with kinetic energies above about 30 MeV/nucleon, and for detecting high-energy ions (energies above about 400 MeV/nucleon) with charges from 5 to 10. Fluxes of these heavier ions can be compared to fluxes obtained from the ACE/CRIS instrument, providing at least one area of direct comparison between data obtained at Earth and at Mars; this analysis will be presented as a work in progress. We will also present dose-rate data, with a detailed explanation of the many sources of uncertainty in normalization. The results for both flux and dose will be compared to predictions of the HZETRN model of the GCR.

  6. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  7. A simplified approach for exit dose in vivo measurements in radiotherapy and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Banjade, D P; Shrestha, S L; Shukri, A; Tajuddin, A A; Bhat, M

    2002-09-01

    This is a study using LiF:Mg;Ti thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) rods in phantoms to investigate the effect of lack of backscatter on exit dose. Comparing the measured dose with anticipated dose calculated using tissue maximum ratio (TMR) or percentage depth dose (PDD) gives rise to a correction factor. This correction factor may be applied to in-vivo dosimetry results to derive true dose to a point within the patient. Measurements in a specially designed humanoid breast phantom as well as patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment were also been done. TLDs with reproducibility of within +/- 3% (1 SD) are irradiated in a series of measurements for 6 and 10 MV photon beams from a medical linear accelerator. The measured exit doses for the different phantom thickness for 6 MV beams are found to be lowered by 10.9 to 14.0% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at dmax). The same measurements for 10 MV beams are lowered by 9.0 to 13.5%. The variations of measured exit dose for different field sizes are found to be within 2.5%. The exit doses with added backscatter material from 2 mm up to 15 cm, shows gradual increase and the saturated values agreed within 1.5% with the expected results for both beams. The measured exit doses in humanoid breast phantom as well as in the clinical trial on patients undergoing radiotherapy also agreed with the predicted results based on phantom measurements. The authors' viewpoint is that this technique provides sufficient information to design exit surface bolus to restore build down effect in cases where part of the exit surface is being considered as a target volume. It indicates that the technique could be translated for in vivo dose measurements, which may be a conspicuous step of quality assurance in clinical practice.

  8. Measurement of the secondary neutron dose distribution from the LET spectrum of recoils using the CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector in 10 MV X-ray medical radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Kodaira, Satoshi; Sawaguchi, Fumiya; Abe, Yasuyuki; Obara, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masae; Kawashima, Hajime; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kurano, Mieko; Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Masaru; Kitamura, Nozomi; Sato, Tomoharu

    2015-04-01

    We measured the recoil charged particles from secondary neutrons produced by the photonuclear reaction in a water phantom from a 10-MV photon beam from medical linacs. The absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were evaluated from the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum of recoils using the CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) based on well-established methods in the field of space radiation dosimetry. The contributions and spatial distributions of these in the phantom on nominal photon exposures were verified as the secondary neutron dose and neutron dose equivalent. The neutron dose equivalent normalized to the photon-absorbed dose was 0.261 mSv/100 MU at source to chamber distance 90 cm. The dose equivalent at the surface gave the highest value, and was attenuated to less than 10% at 5 cm from the surface. The dose contribution of the high LET component of ⩾100 keV/μm increased with the depth in water, resulting in an increase of the quality factor. The CR-39 PNTD is a powerful tool that can be used to systematically measure secondary neutron dose distributions in a water phantom from an in-field to out-of-field high-intensity photon beam.

  9. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses.

  10. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Dose measurements in intraoral radiography using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorín, C.; Azorín, J.; Aguirre, F.; Rivera, T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-ray in medicine demands to expose the patient and the professional to the lowest radiation doses available in agreement with ALARA philosophy. The reference level for intraoral dental radiography is 7 mGy and, in Mexico, a number of examinations of this type are performed annually. It is considered that approximately 25% of all the X-rays examinations carried out in our country correspond to intraoral radiographies. In other hand, most of the intraoral X-ray equipment correspond to conventional radiological systems using film, which are developed as much manual as automatically. In this work the results of determining the doses received by the patients in intraoral radiological examinations made with different radiological systems using LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters are presented. In some conventional radiological systems using film, when films are developed manual or automatically, incident kerma up to 10.61 ± 0.74 mGv were determined. These values exceed that reference level suggested by the IAEA and in the Mexican standards for intraoral examinations.

  12. SU-E-T-196: Comparative Analysis of Surface Dose Measurements Using MOSFET Detector and Dose Predicted by Eclipse - AAA with Varying Dose Calculation Grid Size

    SciTech Connect

    Badkul, R; Nejaiman, S; Pokhrel, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Skin dose can be the limiting factor and fairly common reason to interrupt the treatment, especially for treating head-and-neck with Intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy(IMRT) or Volumetrically-modulated - arc-therapy (VMAT) and breast with tangentially-directed-beam