Science.gov

Sample records for absorbed doses

  1. Absorbed dose water calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.R.

    1982-01-26

    An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated sleeving and then to junctions to form a wheatstone bridge circuit. Convection barriers may be provided to reduce the effects of convection from the point of measurement. Controlled heating of different levels in the water bath is accomplished by electrical heater circuits provided for controlling temperature drift and providing adiabatic operation of the calorimeter. The absorbed dose is determined from the known specific heat of water and the measured temperature change.

  2. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  3. On the definition of absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  4. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  5. Statistics of the doses absorbed by workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, A.

    1982-10-01

    A statistical analysis of the distribution of the doses by individual workers is presented to assess existing norms. A log-normal distribution is assumed for the individual doses. A reference distribution is introduced, characterized by log-normal distribution of annual doses, average 0,5 rem (10% of the limit) and 0.1% of the individuals that will absorb more than 5 rem. Expressions are given for the probability of finding a dose in a given interval and for the fraction of the collective dose due to doses from a given interval. An example using data from medical professions in the United States shows that the fraction of workers with annual doses larger than 5 rem is not contained within the 0.1% recommended limit, and that the level of risk is not uniform between professions.

  6. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N. D.; Thomas, C. G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-10-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%).

  7. Determination of neutron absorbed doses in lithium aluminates.

    PubMed

    Delfín Loya, A; Carrera, L M; Ureña-Núñez, F; Palacios, O; Bosch, P

    2003-04-01

    Lithium-based ceramics have been proposed as tritium breeders for fusion reactors. The lithium aluminate (gamma phase) seems to be thermally and structurally stable, the damages produced by neutron irradiation depend on the absorbed dose. A method based on the measurement of neutron activation of foils through neutron capture has been developed to obtain the neutron absorbed dose in lithium aluminates irradiated in the thermal column facility and in the fixed irradiation system of a Triga Mark III Nuclear Reactor. PMID:12672632

  8. Neutron absorbed dose determination by calculations of recoil energy.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, F; Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Lapraz, D

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to calculate the absorbed dose to matter due to neutrons in the 5-150 MeV energy range. Materials involved in the calculations are Al2O3, CaSO4 and CaS, which may be used as dosemeters and have already been studied for their luminescent properties. The absorbed dose is assumed to be mainly due to the energy deposited by the recoils. Elastic reactions are treated with the ECIS code while for the non-elastic ones, a Monte Carlo code has been developed and allowed to follow the nucleus decay and to determine its characteristics (nature and energy). Finally, the calculations show that the absorbed dose is mainly due to non-elastic process and that above 20 MeV this dose decreases slightly with the neutron energy. PMID:15353750

  9. Absorbed dose from traversing spherically symmetric, Gaussian radioactive clouds.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J M; Poston, J W

    1999-06-01

    If a large radioactive cloud is produced, sampling may require that an airplane traverse the cloud. A method to predict the absorbed dose to the aircrew from penetrating the radioactive cloud is needed. Dose rates throughout spherically symmetric Gaussian clouds of various sizes, and the absorbed doses from traversing the clouds, were calculated. Cloud size is a dominant parameter causing dose to vary by orders of magnitude for a given dose rate measured at some distance. A method to determine cloud size, based on dose rate readings at two or more distances from the cloud center, was developed. This method, however, failed to resolve the smallest cloud sizes from measurements made at 1,000 m to 2,000 m from the cloud center.

  10. Absorbed dose to water reference dosimetry using solid phantoms in the context of absorbed-dose protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Seuntjens, Jan; Olivares, Marina; Evans, Michael; Podgorsak, Ervin

    2005-09-15

    For reasons of phantom material reproducibility, the absorbed dose protocols of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) (TG-51) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (TRS-398) have made the use of liquid water as a phantom material for reference dosimetry mandatory. In this work we provide a formal framework for the measurement of absorbed dose to water using ionization chambers calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water but irradiated in solid phantoms. Such a framework is useful when there is a desire to put dose measurements using solid phantoms on an absolute basis. Putting solid phantom measurements on an absolute basis has distinct advantages in verification measurements and quality assurance. We introduce a phantom dose conversion factor that converts a measurement made in a solid phantom and analyzed using an absorbed dose calibration protocol into absorbed dose to water under reference conditions. We provide techniques to measure and calculate the dose transfer from solid phantom to water. For an Exradin A12 ionization chamber, we measured and calculated the phantom dose conversion factor for six Solid Water{sup TM} phantoms and for a single Lucite phantom for photon energies between {sup 60}Co and 18 MV photons. For Solid Water{sup TM} of certified grade, the difference between measured and calculated factors varied between 0.0% and 0.7% with the average dose conversion factor being low by 0.4% compared with the calculation whereas for Lucite, the agreement was within 0.2% for the one phantom examined. The composition of commercial plastic phantoms and their homogeneity may not always be reproducible and consistent with assumed composition. By comparing measured and calculated phantom conversion factors, our work provides methods to verify the consistency of a given plastic for the purpose of clinical reference dosimetry.

  11. Evaluation of absorbed dose in Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaeva, Gayane; Djuraeva, Gulnara; Kim, Andrey; Koblik, Yuriy; Kulabdullaev, Gairatulla; Rakhmonov, Turdimukhammad; Saytjanov, Shavkat

    2015-02-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is used for treatment of radioresistant malignant tumors. The absorbed dose in GdNCT can be divided into four primary dose components: thermal neutron, fast neutron, photon and natural gadolinium doses. The most significant is the dose created by natural gadolinium. The amount of gadolinium at the irradiated region is changeable and depends on the gadolinium delivery agent and on the structure of the location where the agent is injected. To de- fine the time dependence of the gadolinium concentration ρ(t) in the irradiated region the pharmacokinetics of gadolinium delivery agent (Magnevist) was studied at intratumoral injection in mice and intramuscular injection in rats. A polynomial approximation was applied to the experimental data and the influence of ρ(t) on the relative change of the absorbed dose of gadolinium was studied.

  12. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 MgY for the parotid gland, 0.15 MgY for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field.

  13. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Badavi, F F; Yang, T C; Cleghorn, T F

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  14. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  15. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Badavi, F F; Yang, T C; Cleghorn, T F

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  16. Developability assessment of clinical drug products with maximum absorbable doses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; Rose, John P; Van Gelder, Jan

    2012-05-10

    Maximum absorbable dose refers to the maximum amount of an orally administered drug that can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum absorbable dose, or D(abs), has proved to be an important parameter for quantifying the absorption potential of drug candidates. The purpose of this work is to validate the use of D(abs) in a developability assessment context, and to establish appropriate protocol and interpretation criteria for this application. Three methods for calculating D(abs) were compared by assessing how well the methods predicted the absorption limit for a set of real clinical candidates. D(abs) was calculated for these clinical candidates by means of a simple equation and two computer simulation programs, GastroPlus and an program developed at Eli Lilly and Company. Results from single dose escalation studies in Phase I clinical trials were analyzed to identify the maximum absorbable doses for these compounds. Compared to the clinical results, the equation and both simulation programs provide conservative estimates of D(abs), but in general D(abs) from the computer simulations are more accurate, which may find obvious advantage for the simulations in developability assessment. Computer simulations also revealed the complex behavior associated with absorption saturation and suggested in most cases that the D(abs) limit is not likely to be achieved in a typical clinical dose range. On the basis of the validation findings, an approach is proposed for assessing absorption potential, and best practices are discussed for the use of D(abs) estimates to inform clinical formulation development strategies.

  17. Evaluation of lens absorbed dose with Cone Beam IGRT procedures.

    PubMed

    Palomo, R; Pujades, M C; Gimeno-Olmos, J; Carmona, V; Lliso, F; Candela-Juan, C; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the absorbed dose to the eye lenses due to the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system used to accurately position the patient during head-and-neck image guided procedures. The on-board imaging (OBI) systems (v.1.5) of Clinac iX and TrueBeam (Varian) accelerators were used to evaluate the imparted dose to the eye lenses and some additional points of the head. All CBCT scans were acquired with the Standard-Dose Head protocol from Varian. Doses were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed in an anthropomorphic phantom. TLDs were calibrated at the beam quality used to reduce their energy dependence. Average dose to the lens due to the OBI systems of the Clinac iX and the TrueBeam were 0.71  ±  0.07 mGy/CBCT and 0.70  ±  0.08 mGy/CBCT, respectively. The extra absorbed dose received by the eye lenses due to one CBCT acquisition with the studied protocol is far below the 500 mGy threshold established by ICRP for cataract formation (ICRP 2011 Statement on Tissue Reactions). However, the incremental effect of several CBCT acquisitions during the whole treatment should be taken into account. PMID:26457404

  18. Absorbed dose assessment in newborns during x-ray examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taipe, Patricia K.; Berrocal, Mariella J.; Carita, Raúl F.

    2012-02-01

    Often a newborn presents breathing problems during the early days of life, i.e. bronchopneumonia, wich are caused in most of cases, by aspirating a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. In these cases, it is necessary to make use of a radiograph, requested by the physician to reach a diagnosis. This paper seeks to evaluate the absorbed doses in neonates undergoing a radiograph. For this reason we try to simulate the real conditions in a X-ray room from Lima hospitals. With this finality we perform a simulation made according a questionnaire related to technical data of X-ray equipment, distance between the source and the neonate, and its position to be irradiated. The information obtained has been used to determine the absorbed dose by infants, using the MCNP code. Finally, the results are compared with reference values of international health agencies.

  19. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 mGy for the parotid gland, 0.15 mGy for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field. The mean energy imparted from a full series of paranasal sinus projections was 4.8 mJ and from a total series of the facial skeleton, 7.9 mJ.

  20. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1-1.2·10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m.

  1. Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Atwell, W.; Beever, R.; Hardy, A.

    In order to make an assessment of radiation risk during manned missions in space, it is necessary first to have as accurate an estimation as possible of the radiation environment within the spacecraft to which the astronauts will be exposed. Then, with this knowledge and the inclusion of body self-shielding, estimations can be made of absorbed doses for various body organs (skin, eye, blood-forming organs, etc.). A review is presented of our present knowledge of the radiation environments and absorbed doses expected for several space mission scenarios selected for our development of the new radiation protection guidelines. The scenarios selected are a 90-day mission at an altitude (450 km) and orbital inclinations (28.5°, 57° and 90°) appropriate for NASA's Space Station, a 15-day sortie to geosynchronous orbit and a 90-day lunar mission. All scenarios chosen yielded dose equivalents between five and ten rem to the blood forming organs if no large solar particle event were encountered. Such particle events could add considerable exposure particularly to the skin and eye for all scenarios except the one at 28.5° orbital inclination.

  2. Strontium-89 therapy: measurement of absorbed dose to skeletal metastases.

    PubMed

    Blake, G M; Zivanovic, M A; Blaquiere, R M; Fine, D R; McEwan, A J; Ackery, D M

    1988-04-01

    We report measurements of absorbed dose to vertebral metastases in ten patients referred for 89Sr therapy for disseminated prostatic carcinoma. Patients received a tracer dose of 85Sr at the time of 89Sr treatment and metastatic strontium retention was monitored scintigraphically for 6 mo. Metastatic 85Sr activity corrected for tissue attenuation was measured using the conjugate view principle, with special care taken to eliminate errors due to the selection of the metastatic region of interest. Metastatic volume was determined from high resolution CT images, and density inferred from Hounsfield number using the QCT bone mineral calibration of Genant and Cann. The mean absorbed dose was 850 rad/mCi (23 cGy/MBq) with a range from 220-2260 rad/mCi (6 to 61 cGy/MBq). The wide range found was consistent with the variation expected to arise due to differences in strontium renal plasma clearance (range 0.1-11.81/day) and extent of skeletal metastatic disease (varying from two small metastases to a superscan on [99mTc]MDP images) among the patients studied. PMID:3351609

  3. Red bone marrow doses, integral absorbed doses, and somatically effective dose equivalent from four maxillary occlusal projections

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, T.I.; Wohni, T.

    1984-02-01

    Phantom measurements of red bone marrow (RBM) doses, integral absorbed doses, and somatically effective dose equivalent (SEDE) from four different maxillary occlusal projections are presented. For each projection, different combinations of focus-skin distances and tube potentials were compared with regard to the patient's radiation load. The axial incisal view produced the highest patient exposures, with a maximum red bone marrow dose of 122.5 microGy/exposure, integral absorbed dose of 8.6 mJ/exposure, and SEDE values of 39.6 microSv/exposure. The corresponding values from the frontal, lateral occlusal, and tuber views ranged between 4% and 44% of the axial incisal view values for the integral absorbed dose and SEDE values, and between 0.3% and 3% for the red bone marrow doses. Increasing the focus-skin distance from 17.5 cm to 27 cm is accompanied by a 24% to 30% reduction in integral absorbed dose. Increasing the tube potential from 50 kV to 65 kV likewise results in a 23% reduction in absorbed energy.

  4. Absorbed dose to water: Standards and traceability for radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Although the need for appropriate quantities and units for ionizing radiation has existed since shortly after discovery of X-rays, the quantities and units in general use today were not completely formalized until about 15 years ago. The development of appropriate national and international standards have also been ongoing. For many years the quantity, exposure, measured in units of roentgen was the national standard and they were also the quantity and units in which radiotherapy was described. With the introduction of megavoltage X-ray and electron-beam equipment and the adoption of the quantity {open_quotes}absorbed-dose{close_quotes} measured in units of rad (or gray) different approaches to calibrating these beams were needed. This was especially the case since the national standard in terms of exposure at a maximum photon energy for {sup 60}Co gamma rays was only available. Since the late 1960s various machine calibration protocols have been published. These protocols have to accommodate changes in modality, energy, quantities and units between the national standard and the user. Because of this, a new definition of traceability is proposed to accommodate the present system. By recording all intercomparisons and parameters used, an auditable calibration chain can be maintained. Even with the introduction of calibration protocols based upon national absorbed dose standards, the proposed traceability definition will still be needed.

  5. Calculation of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent induced by medium energy neutrons and protons and comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Bishop, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to determine the absorbed dose and dose equivalent for 592-MeV protons incident on a cylindrical phantom and for neutrons from 580-MeV proton-Be collisions incident on a semi-infinite phantom. For both configurations, the calculated depth dependence of the absorbed dose is in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Absorbed dose and LET spectra measurements on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Csige, I.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Frigo, L. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J.; Harmon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Total absorbed doses measured with TLD's, linear energy transfer (LET) spectra measured with plastic track detectors, and low energy neutrons measured on LDEF have been compared with model calculations. The total absorbed doses measured in TLD's were higher than predicted in the calculations of Armstrong et al. and differ from the calculations of Atwell et al. LDEF LET spectra are dependent on detector orientation, shielding and experiment location. These factors need to be taken into account when modeling the LDEF LET spectra. LET spectra measured with plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) also deviate significantly from calculations especially for high LET particles (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 100keV/micron). Modeling efforts to date do not include the contribution of proton induced secondaries. Analysis of polycarbonate PNTD's from the West-side of LDEF has revealed a very high fluence of tracks (greater than 1 x 10(exp 7) tracks/cm(exp 2) under 2 gm/cm(exp 2) shielding). Fluence drops off rapidly as shielding depth increases. Tracks only form in the region of the detector closest to the surface, not in the bulk of the detector. To date no adequate explanation for this observation has been found. We plan to measure range distribution of very high LET (LET (sub infinity) H2O greater than 500 keV/micron) secondary particles produced in silicon wafer by high energy primary cosmic ray particles. Refinements of experimental techniques and model calculations are being carried out in order to understand existing discrepancies between experimental measurements and calculations.

  7. Angular absorbed dose dependence of internal radiation-generating devices in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2012-01-01

    The angular dependence of the absorbed dose from internal radiation-generating devices located within a tumor mass is investigated. Given the systematics of proton and heavy-ion differential scattering cross sections, candidate internal radiation-generating devices will have a relatively constant absorbed dose output beyond a critical angle. Inside this angle, the absorbed dose output is suppressed because elastic and inelastic differential cross sections are peaked in the beam direction. This peaking increases in severity as the particle energy increases and suggests internal radiation-generating devices must have a limited rotation capability to compensate for the depression in the absorbed dose for angles near the beam direction.

  8. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  9. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1). PMID:25944962

  10. Uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose from a brain receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogan, B.; Miller, L.F.; Sparks, R.B.; Stubbs, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Absorbed dose estimates are known to contain uncertainties. A recent literature search indicates that prior to this study no rigorous investigation of uncertainty associated with absorbed dose has been undertaken. A method of uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose calculations has been developed and implemented for the brain receptor imaging agent {sup 123}I-IPT. The two major sources of uncertainty considered were the uncertainty associated with the determination of residence time and that associated with the determination of the S values. There are many sources of uncertainty in the determination of the S values, but only the inter-patient organ mass variation was considered in this work. The absorbed dose uncertainties were determined for lung, liver, heart and brain. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the organ absorbed dose distributions for each patient and for a seven-patient population group were determined by the ``Latin Hypercube Sampling`` method. For an individual patient, the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose was found to be about 2.5 times larger than the estimated mean absorbed dose. For the seven-patient population the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose distribution was around 45% more than the estimated population mean. For example, the 95% confidence interval of the population liver dose distribution was found to be between 1.49E+0.7 Gy/MBq and 4.65E+07 Gy/MBq with a mean of 2.52E+07 Gy/MBq. This study concluded that patients in a population receiving {sup 123}I-IPT could receive absorbed doses as much as twice as large as the standard estimated absorbed dose due to these uncertainties.

  11. Assessment of out-of-field absorbed dose and equivalent dose in proton fields

    SciTech Connect

    Clasie, Ben; Wroe, Andrew; Kooy, Hanne; Depauw, Nicolas; Flanz, Jay; Paganetti, Harald; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: In proton therapy, as in other forms of radiation therapy, scattered and secondary particles produce undesired dose outside the target volume that may increase the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer and interact with electronic devices in the treatment room. The authors implement a Monte Carlo model of this dose deposited outside passively scattered fields and compare it to measurements, determine the out-of-field equivalent dose, and estimate the change in the dose if the same target volumes were treated with an active beam scanning technique. Methods: Measurements are done with a thimble ionization chamber and the Wellhofer MatriXX detector inside a Lucite phantom with field configurations based on the treatment of prostate cancer and medulloblastoma. The authors use a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation, demonstrated to agree well with measurements inside the primary field, to simulate fields delivered in the measurements. The partial contributions to the dose are separated in the simulation by particle type and origin. Results: The agreement between experiment and simulation in the out-of-field absorbed dose is within 30% at 10-20 cm from the field edge and 90% of the data agrees within 2 standard deviations. In passive scattering, the neutron contribution to the total dose dominates in the region downstream of the Bragg peak (65%-80% due to internally produced neutrons) and inside the phantom at distances more than 10-15 cm from the field edge. The equivalent doses using 10 for the neutron weighting factor at the entrance to the phantom and at 20 cm from the field edge are 2.2 and 2.6 mSv/Gy for the prostate cancer and cranial medulloblastoma fields, respectively. The equivalent dose at 15-20 cm from the field edge decreases with depth in passive scattering and increases with depth in active scanning. Therefore, active scanning has smaller out-of-field equivalent dose by factors of 30-45 in the entrance region and this factor decreases with depth

  12. Measured absorbed dose rates from semi-infinite hemispherical volumes of 133Xe.

    PubMed

    Munyon, W J; Barber, D E; Howley, J R

    1986-07-01

    Surface absorbed dose rates from different hemispheric volumes of 133Xe have been measured directly with an extrapolation chamber. The results indicate that a linear relationship exists between the radius of the cloud volume and the surface absorbed dose rate for radii between 0 and 23 cm. If cloud volumes with radii larger than 23 cm are taken to be infinite with respect to the range of the charged particles emitted, the absorbed dose rate calculated based on that assumption will be within the uncertainty of any measurement of absorbed dose rate that might be made. For hemispheric volumes having radii less than or equal to 23 cm, the surface absorbed dose rate in tissue-equivalent material, in mGy h-1, is approximated (+/- 20%) by the product of [1.30 mGy h-1 cm-1 kBq-1 cm3] X [cloud radius, cm] X [cloud activity concentration, kBq cm-3].

  13. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams.

    PubMed

    Granville, Dal A; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O

    2016-02-21

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements.

  14. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams.

    PubMed

    Granville, Dal A; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O

    2016-02-21

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements. PMID:26859539

  15. Direct absorbed dose to water determination based on water calorimetry in scanning proton beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, A.; Clasie, B.; Chung, E.; Lu, H. M.; Flanz, J.; Cascio, E.; Engelsman, M.; Paganetti, H.; Seuntjens, J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the direct measurement of absolute absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton radiotherapy beam using a water calorimeter primary standard. Methods: The McGill water calorimeter, which has been validated in photon and electron beams as well as in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, was used to measure the absorbed dose to water in double scattering and scanning proton irradiations. The measurements were made at the Massachusetts General Hospital proton radiotherapy facility. The correction factors in water calorimetry were numerically calculated and various parameters affecting their magnitude and uncertainty were studied. The absorbed dose to water was compared to that obtained using an Exradin T1 Chamber based on the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on absorbed dose to water amounts to 0.4% and 0.6% in scattered and scanned proton water calorimetry, respectively. This compares to an overall uncertainty of 1.9% for currently accepted IAEA TRS-398 reference absorbed dose measurement protocol. The absorbed dose from water calorimetry agrees with the results from TRS-398 well to within 1-sigma uncertainty. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that a primary absorbed dose standard based on water calorimetry is feasible in scattered and scanned proton beams.

  16. The changes in optical absorbance of ZrO2 thin film with the rise of the absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayli, D.; Baydogan, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, zirconium oxide (ZrO2) thin film samples prepared by sol-gel method were irradiated using Co-60 radioisotope as gamma source. Then, it was investigated the ionizing effect on optical properties of ZrO2 thin film samples with the rise of the absorbed dose. The changes in the optical absorbance of ZrO2 thin films were determined by using optical transmittance and the reflectance measurements in the range between 190 - 1100 nm obtained from PG Instruments T80 UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  17. Estimates of absorbed dose in different organs in children treated with radium for skin hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, M.

    1994-12-01

    Between 1930 and 1959, more than 10,000 infants were treated at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm, with radium ({sup 226}Ra) needles and/or tubes for hemangioma of the skin. Absorbed dose to the brain, eye lenses, parotid glands, thyroid gland, breast enlarge, lungs, stomach, intestine, ovaries, testicles and bone marrow were calculated for each individual. The mean absorbed dose to the different organs ranged from 0.06 to 0.48 Gy. The highest absorbed dose was given to the breast (maximum 47.7 Gy). There was a wide dose range for each organ which was due mainly to differences in the distance between the applicator and the organ. The absorbed dose to all organs decreased on average by 32% during the study period. This was due to a 25% decrease in the treatment time and a change in the distribution of the treatment sites. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Measuring absorbed dose for i-CAT CBCT examinations in child, adolescent and adult phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Design and construct child and adolescent head phantoms to measure the absorbed doses imparted during dental CBCT and compare with the absorbed dose measured in an adult phantom. Methods: A child phantom was developed to represent the smallest patients receiving CBCT, usually for craniofacial developmental concerns, and an adolescent phantom was developed to represent healthy orthodontic patients. Absorbed doses were measured using a thimble ionization chamber for the custom-built child and adolescent phantoms and compared with measurements using a commercially available adult phantom. Imaging was performed with an i-CAT Next Generation (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) CBCT using two different fields of view covering the craniofacial complex (130 mm high) or maxilla/mandible (60 mm high). Results: Measured absorbed doses varied depending on the location of the ionization chamber within the phantoms. For CBCT images obtained using the same protocol for all phantoms, the highest absorbed dose was measured in all locations of the small child phantom. The lowest absorbed dose was measured in the adult phantom. Conclusions: Images were obtained with the same protocol for the adult, adolescent and child phantoms. A consistent trend was observed with the highest absorbed dose being measured in the smallest phantom (child), while the lowest absorbed dose was measured in the largest phantom (adult). This study demonstrates the importance of child-sizing the dose by using dedicated paediatric protocols optimized for the imaging task, which is critical as children are more sensitive to harmful effects of radiation and have a longer life-span post-irradiation for radiation-induced symptoms to develop than do adults. PMID:25785822

  19. Genetic effects induced by neutrons in Drosophila melanogaster I. Determination of absorbed dose.

    PubMed

    Delfin, A; Paredes, L C; Zambrano, F; Guzmán-Rincón, J; Ureña-Nuñez, F

    2001-12-01

    A method to obtain the absorbed dose in Drosophila melanogaster irradiated in the thermal column facility of the Triga Mark III Reactor has been developed. The method is based on the measurements of neutron activation of gold foils produced by neutron capture to obtain the neutron fluxes. These fluxes, combined with the calculations of kinetic energy released per unit mass, enables one to obtain the absorbed doses in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:11761104

  20. Space Radiation Absorbed Dose Distribution in a Human Phantom Torso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Yang, T.; Atwell, W.

    2000-01-01

    The flight of a human phantom torso with head that containing active dosimeters at 5 organ sites and 1400 TLDs distributed in 34 1" thick sections is described. Experimental dose rates and quality factors are compared with calculations for shielding distributions at the sites using the Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model. The measurements were complemented with those obtained from other instruments. These results have provided the most comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human and to assess the accuracy of radiation transport models and astronaut radiation risk.

  1. Graphite calorimetry for absorbed dose measurements in heavy-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakama, M.; Kanai, T.; Fukumura, A.

    In order to sophisticate the radiotherapy high accuracy knowledge of the absorbed dose delivered to the patient is essential The main methods of absolute dosimetry are indicated as follows a Dosimetry by ion chamber b Fricke dosimetry and c Calorimetry The calorimetry is most direct method of dosimetry due to direct measurement of energy deposit in principle and no requirement of information of radiation fields for the calibration Many countries tend to adopt the calorimetry to determine the standard absorbed dose to water and become to be capable of deciding the absorbed dose in precision of about 0 6 for photon and electron beams Despite the recent progress of particle therapy the parameters such as w-value and stopping power ratio for ionization chambers in the particles is not obtained accurately Therefore that causes uncertainty in determination of the absolute dose For this reason we developed a graphite calorimeter to obtain high precision absorbed dose and reduce the uncertainty for various beams When the absorbed dose of 1 Gy is irradiated to the sensitive volume the temperature rise is about 1 4 milliKelvins The performance require the resolution of plus or minus 7 micro Kelvins to measure it in precision of plus or minus 0 5 The stability within several micro Kelvins per minute is necessary to obtain measurable background The miniature glass bead thermistors were embedded in the sensitive volume to perform active control of temperature The resistance change of these thermistors is approximately 0 68 Ohms and 488 micro Ohms at

  2. Absorbed dose simulations in near-surface regions using high dose rate Iridium-192 sources applied for brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, E. S.; Zeituni, C. A.; Sakuraba, R. K.; Gonçalves, V. D.; Cruz, J. C.; Júnior, D. K.; Souza, C. D.; Rostelato, M. E. C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Brachytherapy treatment with Iridium-192 high dose rate (HDR) sources is widely used for various tumours and it could be developed in many anatomic regions. Iridium-192 sources are inserted inside or close to the region that will be treated. Usually, the treatment is performed in prostate, gynaecological, lung, breast and oral cavity regions for a better clinical dose coverage compared with other techniques, such as, high energy photons and Cobalt-60 machines. This work will evaluate absorbed dose distributions in near-surface regions around Ir-192 HDR sources. Near-surface dose measurements are a complex task, due to the contribution of beta particles in the near-surface regions. These dose distributions should be useful for non-tumour treatments, such as keloids, and other non-intracavitary technique. For the absorbed dose distribution simulations the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE with the general code penEasy was used. Ir-192 source geometry and a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube, for beta particles shield were modelled to yield the percentage depth dose (PDD) on a cubic water phantom. Absorbed dose simulations were realized at the central axis to yield the Ir-192 dose fall-off along central axis. The results showed that more than 99.2% of the absorbed doses (relative to the surface) are deposited in 5 cm depth but with slower rate at higher distances. Near-surface treatments with Ir-192 HDR sources yields achievable measurements and with proper clinical technique and accessories should apply as an alternative for treatment of lesions where only beta sources were used.

  3. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G. ); Poston, J.W. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No diffusion of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor cross fire between vessel was assumed. Results are useful in assessing the dose in blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W. Sr. )

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No penetration of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor was cross fire between the vessel assumed. The results are useful in assessing the dose to blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures.

  5. New absorbed dose measurement with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Onizuka, Ryota; Hioki, Kazunari; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new dosimetry with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The ionization measurement was performed with a Farmer ionization chamber at the center and four peripheral points in the body-type and head-type cylindrical water phantoms. The ionization was converted to the absorbed dose using a 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibration factor and Monte Carlo (MC) -calculated correction factors. The correction factors were calculated from MDCT (Brilliance iCT, 64-slice, Philips Electronics) modeled with GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. The spectrum of incident x-ray beams and the configuration of a bowtie filter for MDCT were determined so that calculated photon intensity attenuation curves for aluminum (Al) and calculated off-center ratio (OCR) profiles in air coincided with those measured. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated by the absorbed dose measured at the center in both cylindrical water phantoms. Calculated doses were compared with measured doses at four peripheral points and the center in the phantom for various beam pitches and beam collimations. The calibration factors and the uncertainty of the absorbed dose determined using this method were also compared with those obtained by CTDIair (CT dose index in air). Calculated Al half-value layers and OCRs in air were within 0.3% and 3% agreement with the measured values, respectively. Calculated doses at four peripheral points and the centers for various beam pitches and beam collimations were within 5% and 2% agreement with measured values, respectively. The MC-calibration factors by our method were 44-50% lower than values by CTDIair due to the overbeaming effect. However, the calibration factors for CTDIair agreed within 5% with those of our method after correction for the overbeaming effect. Our method makes it possible to directly measure the absorbed dose for MDCT and is more robust and accurate than the

  6. New absorbed dose measurement with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Onizuka, Ryota; Hioki, Kazunari; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new dosimetry with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The ionization measurement was performed with a Farmer ionization chamber at the center and four peripheral points in the body-type and head-type cylindrical water phantoms. The ionization was converted to the absorbed dose using a (60)Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibration factor and Monte Carlo (MC) -calculated correction factors. The correction factors were calculated from MDCT (Brilliance iCT, 64-slice, Philips Electronics) modeled with GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. The spectrum of incident x-ray beams and the configuration of a bowtie filter for MDCT were determined so that calculated photon intensity attenuation curves for aluminum (Al) and calculated off-center ratio (OCR) profiles in air coincided with those measured. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated by the absorbed dose measured at the center in both cylindrical water phantoms. Calculated doses were compared with measured doses at four peripheral points and the center in the phantom for various beam pitches and beam collimations. The calibration factors and the uncertainty of the absorbed dose determined using this method were also compared with those obtained by CTDIair (CT dose index in air). Calculated Al half-value layers and OCRs in air were within 0.3% and 3% agreement with the measured values, respectively. Calculated doses at four peripheral points and the centers for various beam pitches and beam collimations were within 5% and 2% agreement with measured values, respectively. The MC-calibration factors by our method were 44-50% lower than values by CTDIair due to the overbeaming effect. However, the calibration factors for CTDIair agreed within 5% with those of our method after correction for the overbeaming effect. Our method makes it possible to directly measure the absorbed dose for MDCT and is more robust and accurate than the

  7. Estimating absorbed dose of pesticides in a field setting using biomonitoring data and pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed

    Scher, Deanna P; Sawchuk, Ronald J; Alexander, Bruce H; Adgate, John L

    2008-01-01

    Linking biomarker data to pharmacokinetic (PK) models permits comparison of absorbed dose with a toxicological benchmark, which is an important step to understanding the health implications of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the feasibility of reconstructing the absorbed dose of two pesticides using PK models developed from biomarker data in a study of occupational application of these compounds. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from farmers 24 h before through 96 h after a typical application of chlorpyrifos or 2,4-D. PK models were used to link the amounts found in urine samples to absorbed dose. Modeled total body dose estimates (in micrograms) were compared to measured dose from time 0-96 h. Despite the complexities surrounding the interpretation of biomonitoring data from a field setting, the models developed as part of this analysis accurately estimated the absorbed dose of 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos when collection of urine samples was largely complete. Over half of the farmers were excluded from modeling due to suspected noncompliance with urine collection or confounding exposure events, which highlights the importance of these issues for designing and interpreting biomonitoring data in future studies. Further evaluation of PK models in scenarios using single void samples is warranted for improving field-based dose assessments.

  8. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Manzanares-Acuña, Eduardo; Hernández-Dávila, Víctor Martín; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iñiguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-01

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  9. Absorbed XFEL Dose in the Components of the LCLS X-Ray Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, Stefan

    2010-12-03

    There is great concern that the short, intense XFEL pulse of the LCLS will damage the optics that will be placed into the beam. We have analyzed the extent of the problem by considering the anticipated materials and position of the optical components in the beam path, calculated the absorbed dose as a function of photon energy, and compared these doses with the expected doses required (i) to observe rapid degradation due to thermal fatigue, (ii) to reach the melting temperature, or (iii) to actually melt the material. We list the materials that are anticipated to be placed into the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) beam line, their positions, and the absorbed dose, and compare this dose with anticipated damage thresholds.

  10. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Hernandez-Davila, Victor Martin; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iniguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-08

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  11. Air kerma and absorbed dose standards for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in primary standards for the calibration of brachytherapy sources, with an emphasis on the currently most common photon-emitting radionuclides. The introduction discusses the need for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy in general. The following section focuses on the three main quantities, i.e. reference air kerma rate, air kerma strength and absorbed dose rate to water, which are currently used for the specification of brachytherapy photon sources and which can be realized with primary standards from first principles. An overview of different air kerma and absorbed dose standards, which have been independently developed by various national metrology institutes over the past two decades, is given in the next two sections. Other dosimetry techniques for brachytherapy will also be discussed. The review closes with an outlook on a possible transition from air kerma to absorbed dose to water-based calibrations for brachytherapy sources in the future. PMID:24814696

  12. Average fetal depth in utero: data for estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose

    SciTech Connect

    Ragozzino, M.W.; Breckle, R.; Hill, L.M.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    To estimate fetal absorbed dose from radiographic examinations, the depth from the anterior maternal surface to the midline of the fetal skull and abdomen was measured by ultrasound in 97 pregnant women. The relationships between fetal depth, fetal presentation, and maternal parameters of height, weight, anteroposterior (AP) thickness, gestational age, placental location, and bladder volume were analyzed. Maternal AP thickness (MAP) can be estimated from gestational age, maternal height, and maternal weight. Fetal midskull and abdominal depths were nearly equal. Fetal depth normalized to MAP was independent or nearly independent of maternal parameters and fetal presentation. These data enable a reasonable estimation of absorbed dose to fetal brain, abdomen, and whole body.

  13. Plasma Membrane Permeabilization by 60- and 600-ns Electric Pulses Is Determined by the Absorbed Dose

    PubMed Central

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Murphy, Michael R.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2008-01-01

    We explored how the effect of plasma membrane permeabilization by nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) depends on the physical characteristics of exposure. The resting membrane resistance (Rm) and membrane potential (MP) were measured in cultured GH3 and CHO cells by conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Intact cells were exposed to a single nsEP (60 or 600 ns duration, 0-22 kV/cm), followed by patch-clamp measurements after a 2-3 min delay. Consistent with earlier findings, nsEP caused long-lasting Rm decrease, accompanied by the loss of MP. The threshold for these effects was about 6 kV/cm for 60 ns pulses, and about 1 kV/cm for 600 ns pulses. Further analysis established that it was neither pulse duration nor the E-field amplitude per se, but the absorbed dose that determined the magnitude of the biological effect. In other words, exposure to nsEP at either pulse duration caused equal effects if the absorbed doses were equal. The threshold absorbed dose to produce plasma membrane effects in either GH3 or CHO cells at either pulse duration was found to be at or below 10 mJ/g. Despite being determined by the dose, the nsEP effect clearly is not thermal, as the maximum heating at the threshold dose is less than 0.01 °C. The use of the absorbed dose as a universal exposure metric may help to compare and quantify nsEP sensitivity of different cell types and of cells in different physiological conditions. The absorbed dose may also prove to be a more useful metric than the incident E-field in determining safety limits for high peak, lowaverage power EMF emissions. PMID:18839412

  14. Absorbed doses of lungs from radon retained in airway lumens of mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides absorbed doses arising from radon gas in air retained in lung airway lumens. Because radon gas exposure experiments often use small animals, the calculation was performed for mice and rats. For reference, the corresponding computations were also done for humans. Assuming that radon concentration in airway lumens is the same as that in the environment, its progeny's production in and clearance from airways were simulated. Absorbed dose rates were obtained for three lung regions and the whole lung, considering that secretory and basal cells are sensitive to radiation. The results showed that absorbed dose rates for all lung regions and whole lung generally increase from mice to rats to humans. For example, the dose rates for the whole lung were 25.4 in mice, 41.7 in rats, and 59.9 pGy (Bq m⁻³)⁻¹ h⁻¹ in humans. Furthermore, these values were also compared with lung dose rates from two other types of exposures, that is, due to inhalation of radon or its progeny, which were already reported. It was confirmed that the direct inhalation of radon progeny in the natural environment, which is known as a cause of lung cancer, results in the highest dose rates for all species. Based on the present calculations, absorbed dose rates of the whole lung from radon gas were lower by a factor of about 550 (mice), 200 (rats), or 70 (humans) than those from radon progeny inhalation. The calculated dose rate values are comparatively small. Nevertheless, the present study is considered to contribute to our understanding of doses from inhalation of radon and its progeny.

  15. Uncertainties of organ-absorbed doses to patients from 18f-choline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. B.; Janzen, T.; Zankl, M.; Giussani, A.; Hoeschen, C.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation doses of radiopharmaceuticals to patients in nuclear medicine are, as the standard method, estimated by the administered activity, medical imaging (e.g. PET imaging), compartmental modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of radiation with reference digital human phantoms. However, in each of the contributing terms, individual uncertainty due to measurement techniques, patient variability and computation methods may propagate to the uncertainties of the calculated organ doses to the individual patient. To evaluate the overall uncertainties and the quality assurance of internal absorbed doses, a method was developed within the framework of the MADEIRA Project (Minimizing Activity and Dose with Enhanced Image quality by Radiopharmaceutical Administrations) to quantitatively analyze the uncertainties in each component of the organ absorbed doses after administration of 18F-choline to prostate cancer patients undergoing nuclear medicine diagnostics. First, on the basis of the organ PET and CT images of the patients as well as blood and urine samples, a model structure of 18F-choline was developed and the uncertainties of the model parameters were determined. Second, the model parameter values were sampled and biokinetic modeling using these sampled parameter values were performed. Third, the uncertainties of the new specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values derived with different phantoms representing individual patients were presented. Finally, the uncertainties of absorbed doses to the patients were calculated by applying the ICRP/ICRU adult male reference computational phantom. In addition to the uncertainty analysis, the sensitivity of the model parameters on the organ PET images and absorbed doses was indicated by coupling the model input and output using regression and partial correlation analysis. The results showed that the uncertainty factors of absorbed dose to patients are in most cases less than a factor of 2 without taking into account the uncertainties

  16. Improved estimates of the radiation absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin; Minarik, David; Johansson, Lennart; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-05-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have been calculated as a function of the content in the urinary bladder in order to allow more realistic calculations of the absorbed dose to the bladder wall. The SAFs were calculated using the urinary bladder anatomy from the ICRP male and female adult reference computational phantoms. The urinary bladder and its content were approximated by a sphere with a wall of constant mass, where the thickness of the wall depended on the amount of urine in the bladder. SAFs were calculated for males and females with 17 different urinary bladder volumes from 10 to 800 mL, using the Monte Carlo computer program MCNP5, at 25 energies of mono-energetic photons and electrons ranging from 10 KeV to 10 MeV. The decay was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the urinary bladder content and the urinary bladder wall, and the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall was calculated. The Monte Carlo simulations were validated against measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters. The SAFs obtained for a urine volume of 200 mL were compared to the values calculated for the urinary bladder wall using the adult reference computational phantoms. The mean absorbed dose to the urinary wall from 18F-FDG was found to be 77 µGy/MBq formales and 86 µGy/MBq for females, while for 99mTc-DTPA the mean absorbed doses were 80 µGy/MBq for males and 86 µGy/MBq for females. Compared to calculations using a constant value of the SAF from the adult reference computational phantoms, the mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were 60% higher for 18F-FDG and 30% higher for 99mTc-DTPA using the new SAFs.

  17. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PMID:27074452

  18. A method to efficiently simulate absorbed dose in radio-sensitive instrumentation components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana Leitner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Components installed in tunnels of high-power accelerators are prone to radiation-induced damage and malfunction. Such machines are usually modeled in detail and the radiation cascades are transported through the three-dimensional models in Monte Carlo codes. Very often those codes are used to compute energy deposition in beam components or radiation fields to the public and the environment. However, sensitive components such as electronic boards or insulator cables are less easily simulated, as their small size makes dose scoring a (statistically) inefficient process. Moreover the process to decide their location is iterative, as in order to define where these will be safely installed, the dose needs to be computed, but to do so the location needs to be known. This note presents a different approach to indirectly asses the potential absorbed dose by certain components when those are installed within a given radiation field. The method consists first in finding the energy and particle-dependent absorbed dose to fluence response function, and then programming those in a radiation transport Monte Carlo code, so that fluences in vacuum/air can be automatically converted real-time into potential absorbed doses and then mapped in the same way as fluences or dose equivalent magnitudes.

  19. A Graphite Absorbed-Dose Calorimeter in the Quasi-Isothermal Mode of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzani, J.; Duftschmid, K. E.; Strachotinsky, Ch; Leitner, A.

    1984-01-01

    A quasi-isothermal method of operating an absorbed-dose graphite calorimeter is described in theory and practice. In contrast with the well-known quasi-adiabatic operation, which entails temperature increases during measurements, in the quasi-isothermal mode the temperatures of the different graphite bodies remain constant except for small temperature drifts throughout the measurement. This implies that the temperature dependence of the specific heat of the absorber and of the sensitivity of the temperature sensor influence the absorbed-dose determination significantly less. The method is characterized by a power-compensating measuring principle which is illustrated with a 3-body graphite calorimeter. Comparisons of the quasi-isothermal with the quasi-adiabatic method of operation showed good agreement.

  20. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  1. Verification of absorbed dose using diodes in cobalt-60 radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Gadhi, Muhammad Asghar; Fatmi, Shahab; Chughtai, Gul M; Arshad, Muhammad; Shakil, Muhammad; Rahmani, Uzma Mahmood; Imran, Malik Younas; Buzdar, Saeed Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to enhance the quality and safety of dose delivery in the practice of radiation oncology. To achieve this goal, the absorbed dose verification program was initiated by using the diode in vivo dosimetry (IVD) system (for entrance and exit). This practice was implemented at BINO, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Diodes were calibrated for making absorbed dose measurements. Various correction factors (SSD, dose non-linearity, field size, angle of incidence, and wedge) were determined for diode IVD system. The measurements were performed in phantom in order to validate the IVD procedure. One hundred and nineteen patients were monitored and 995 measurements were performed. For phantom, the percentage difference between measured and calculated dose for entrance setting remained within ±2% and for exit setting ±3%. For patient measurements, the percentage difference between measured and calculated dose remained within ±5% for entrance/open fields and ±7% for exit/wedge/oblique fields. One hundred and nineteen patients and 995 fields have been monitored during the period of 6 months. The analysis of all available measurements gave a mean percent deviation of ±1.19% and standard deviation of ±2.87%. Larger variations have been noticed in oblique, wedge and exit measurements. This investigation revealed that clinical dosimetry using diodes is simple, provides immediate results and is a useful quality assurance tool for dose delivery. It has enhanced the quality of radiation dose delivery and increased/improved the reliability of the radiation therapy practice in BINO.

  2. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Etieli C; da Rosa, Luiz Antonio R; Batista, Delano Valdivino S

    2015-06-01

    In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. A female anthropomorphic Alderson phantom was used and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated protecting the patient's abdomen with a 7cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The target volume dose was 50Gy. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and 0.88±0.052cGy. PMID:25620113

  3. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars.

    PubMed

    Kircos, L T; Eakle, W S; Smith, R A

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography. PMID:3458783

  4. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars

    SciTech Connect

    Kircos, L.T.; Eakle, W.S.; Smith, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography.

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of absorbed dose in teeth from citizens of Ozyorsk.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A; Vasilenko, E; Aladova, E; Fattibene, P; Semiochkina, N; Smetanin, M

    2014-05-01

    In 1945, within the frame of the Uranium Project for the production of nuclear weapons, the Mayak nuclear facilities were constructed at the Lake Irtyash in the Southern Urals, Russia. The nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), who lived in the city of Ozyorsk, are the focus of epidemiological studies for the assessment of health risks due to protracted exposure to ionising radiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of absorbed dose in tooth enamel have already been used in the past, in an effort to validate occupational external doses that were evaluated in the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System. In the present study, 229 teeth of Ozyorsk citizens not employed at MPA were investigated for the assessment of external background exposure in Ozyorsk. The annually absorbed dose in tooth enamel from natural background radiation was estimated to be (0.7 ± 0.3) mGy. For citizens living in Ozyorsk during the time of routine noble gas releases of the MPA, which peaked in 1953, the average excess absorbed dose in enamel above natural background was (36 ± 29) mGy, which is consistent with the gamma dose obtained by model calculations. In addition, there were indications of possible accidental gaseous MPA releases that affected the population of Ozyorsk, during the early and late MPA operation periods, before 1951 and after 1960. PMID:24604722

  6. Uneven surface absorbed dose distribution in electron-accelerator irradiation of rubber items

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, I.F.; Pashinin, V.I.; Vanyushkin, B.M.

    1988-02-01

    Electron accelerators for industrial use are equipped with scanning devices, where the scan frequency or linear velocity along the window may vary. In a flow technology, where the items are transported to the irradiation zone at a set rate, the speed of an item may be comparable with the scan speed, so there is substantial nonuniformity in the absorbed dose, which adversely affects the quality. We have examined the dose nonuniformity for long rubber items during vulcanization by means of LUE-8-5RV and ELV-2 accelerators. The absorbed dose is calculated for an elementary part along which the irradiation is uniform on the assumption that current density distribution in the unswept beam is uniform as a result of scattering in the foil.

  7. Pain and Mean Absorbed Dose to the Pubic Bone After Radiotherapy Among Gynecological Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Al-Abany, Massoud; Palm, Asa; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer and occurrence of pubic bone pain among long-term survivors. Methods and Materials: In an unselected, population-based study, we identified 823 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy during 1991-2003. For comparison, we used a non-radiation-treated control population of 478 matched women from the Swedish Population Register. Pain, intensity of pain, and functional impairment due to pain in the pubic bone were assessed with a study-specific postal questionnaire. Results: We analyzed data from 650 survivors (participation rate 79%) with median follow-up of 6.3 years (range, 2.3-15.0 years) along with 344 control women (participation rate, 72 %). Ten percent of the survivors were treated with radiotherapy; ninety percent with surgery plus radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was added in 81%. Complete treatment records were recovered for 538/650 survivors, with dose distribution data including dose-volume histograms over the pubic bone. Pubic bone pain was reported by 73 survivors (11%); 59/517 (11%) had been exposed to mean absorbed external beam doses <52.5 Gy to the pubic bone and 5/12 (42%) to mean absorbed external beam doses {>=}52.5 Gy. Thirty-three survivors reported pain affecting sleep, a 13-fold increased prevalence compared with control women. Forty-nine survivors reported functional impairment measured as pain walking indoors, a 10-fold increased prevalence. Conclusions: Mean absorbed external beam dose above 52.5 Gy to the pubic bone increases the occurrence of pain in the pubic bone and may affect daily life of long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer.

  8. Graves' disease radioiodine-therapy: Choosing target absorbed doses for therapy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, J. Sapienza, M. T.; Coura-Filho, G. B.; Buchpiguel, C. A.; Watanabe, T.; Traino, A. C.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The precise determination of organ mass (m{sub th}) and total number of disintegrations within the thyroid gland (A{sup ~}) are essential for thyroid absorbed-dose calculations for radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, these parameters may vary according to the method employed for their estimation, thus introducing uncertainty in the estimated thyroid absorbed dose and in any dose–response relationship derived using such estimates. In consideration of these points, thyroid absorbed doses for Graves’ disease (GD) treatment planning were calculated using different approaches to estimating the m{sub th} and the A{sup ~}. Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. Thyroid{sup 131}I uptake measurements were performed at 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 220 h postadministration of a tracer activity in order to estimate the effective half-time (T{sub eff}) of {sup 131}I in the thyroid; the thyroid cumulated activity was then estimated using the T{sub eff} thus determined or, alternatively, calculated by numeric integration of the measured time-activity data. Thyroid mass was estimated by ultrasonography (USG) and scintigraphy (SCTG). Absorbed doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. The relationships between thyroid absorbed dose and therapy response were evaluated at 3 months and 1 year after therapy. Results: The average ratio (±1 standard deviation) betweenm{sub th} estimated by SCTG and USG was 1.74 (±0.64) and that between A{sup ~} obtained by T{sub eff} and the integration of measured activity in the gland was 1.71 (±0.14). These differences affect the calculated absorbed dose. Overall, therapeutic success, corresponding to induction of durable hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, was achieved in 72% of all patients at 3 months and in 90% at 1 year. A therapeutic success rate of at least 95% was found in the group of patients receiving doses of 200 Gy (p = 0.0483) and 330 Gy (p = 0.0131) when m{sub th} was measured by either USG or SCTG and A

  9. Microdosimetric measurements for neutron-absorbed dose determination during proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; DeLuca, Paul M.; Thornton, Allan F.; Fitzek, Markus; Hecksel, Draik; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This work presents microdosimetric measurements performed at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute in Bloomington, Indiana, USA. The measurements were done simulating clinical setups with a water phantom and for a variety of stopping targets. The water phantom was irradiated by a proton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) and by a proton pencil beam. Stopping target measurements were performed only for the pencil beam. The targets used were made of polyethylene, brass and lead. The objective of this work was to determine the neutron-absorbed dose for a passive and active proton therapy delivery, and for the interactions of the proton beam with materials typically in the beam line of a proton therapy treatment nozzle. Neutron doses were found to be higher at 45° and 90° from the beam direction for the SOBP configuration by a factor of 1.1 and 1.3, respectively, compared with the pencil beam. Meanwhile, the pencil beam configuration produced neutron-absorbed doses 2.2 times higher at 0° than the SOBP. For stopping targets, lead was found to dominate the neutron-absorbed dose for most angles due to a large production of low-energy neutrons emitted isotropically. PMID:22334761

  10. Absorbed Dose Determination Using Experimental and Analytical Predictions of X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron beam welding in a vacuum is a technology that NASA is investigating as a joining technique for manufacture of space structures. This investigation characterizes the x-ray environment due to operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool and provides recommendations for adequate shielding for astronauts performing the in-vacuum electron beam welding. NASA, in a joint venture with the Russian Space Agency, was scheduled to perform a series of welding in space experiments on board the U.S. Space Shuttle. This series of experiments was named the international space welding experiment (ISWE). The hardware associated with the ISWE was leased to NASA by the Paton Welding Institute (PWI) in Ukraine for ground-based welding experiments in preparation for flight. Two ground tests were scheduled, using the ISWE electron beam welding tool, to characterize the radiation exposure to an astronaut during the operation of the ISWE. These radiation exposure tests used thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) shielded with material currently used by astronauts during extravehicular activities to measure the radiation dose. The TLD's were exposed to x-ray radiation generated by operation of the ISWE in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. This investigation was the first known application of TLD's to measure absorbed dose from x rays of energy less than 10 keV. The ISWE hardware was returned to Ukraine before the issue of adequate shielding for the astronauts was completely verified. Therefore, alternate experimental and analytical methods were developed to measure and predict the x-ray spectral and intensity distribution generated by ISWE electron beam impact with metal. These x-ray spectra were normalized to an equivalent ISWE exposure, then used to calculate the absorbed radiation dose to astronauts. These absorbed dose values were compared to TLD measurements obtained during actual operation of the ISWE in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. The calculated absorbed dose

  11. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study.

  12. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for [1-carbon-11]-glucose in adults: The effects of hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J. |

    1996-10-01

    As preparation for studies of blood-brain glucose transport in diabetes mellitus, radiation absorbed dose estimates from intravenous administration of [1-{sup 11}C]-glucose for 24 internal organs, lens, blood and total body were calculated for three physiologic conditions: euinsulinemic euglycemia, hyperinsulinemic euglycemia and hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia. Cumulated activities in blood, insulin-independent and insulin-dependent compartments were calculated from blood time-activity curves in normal human volunteers and macaques. Apportionment of cumulated activity to individual organs in insulin-dependent and insulin-independent compartments was based on previously published data. Absorbed doses were calculated with the computer program MIRDOSE 3 for the 70-kg adult phantom. S for blood was calculated separately. The heart wall, lungs and spleen were the organs receiving the highest dose. The effect of hyperinsulinemia was demonstrated by the increase in adsorbed dose to the muscle, heart and blood with a decrease to other internal organs. This effect was more pronounced during hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia. Hyperinsulinemia produced a decrease in effective dose due to the decrease in cumulated activity in organs with specified weighting factors greater than 0.05. The effective dose per study for [1-{sup 11}C]-glucose is comparable to that reported for 2-deoxy-[2-{sup 18}F]-glucose. 43 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Determination of the absorbed dose and the average LET of space radiation in dependence on shielding conditions.

    PubMed

    Vana, N; Schoner, W; Noll, M; Fugger, M; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V

    1999-01-01

    The HTR method, developed for determination of absorbed dose and average LET of mixed radiation fields in space, was applied during several space missions on space station MIR, space shuttles and satellites. The method utilises the changes of peak height ratios in the glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer LET. Due to the small size of the dosemeters the evaluation of the variation of absorbed dose and average LET in dependence on the position of the dosemeters inside the space station is possible. The dose and LET distribution was determined during the experiment ADLET where dosemeters were exposed in two positions with different shielding conditions and during two following experiments (MIR-95, MIR-96) using six positions inside the space station. The results were compared with the shielding conditions of the positions. Calculations of the absorbed dose were carried out for comparison. Results have shown that the average LET increases with increasing absorbing thickness while the absorbed dose decreases.

  14. The Fricke dosimeter as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcolm

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy based on the Fricke dosimeter. To achieve this within the framework of the existing TG-43 protocol, a determination of the absorbed dose to water at the reference position, D(r0,θ0), was undertaken. Prior to this investigation, the radiation chemical yield of the ferric ions (G-value) at the Ir-192 equivalent photon energy (0.380 MeV) was established by interpolating between G-values obtained for Co-60 and 250 kV x-rays. An irradiation geometry was developed with a cylindrical holder to contain the Fricke solution and allow irradiations in a water phantom to be conducted using a standard Nucletron microSelectron V2 HDR Ir-192 afterloader. Once the geometry and holder were optimized, the dose obtained with the Fricke system was compared to the standard method used in North America, based on air-kerma strength. Initial investigations focused on reproducible positioning of the ring-shaped holder for the Fricke solution with respect to the Ir-192 source and obtaining an acceptable type A uncertainty in the optical density measurements required to yield the absorbed dose. Source positioning was found to be reproducible to better than 0.3 mm, and a careful cleaning and control procedure reduced the variation in optical density reading due to contamination of the Fricke solution by the PMMA holder. It was found that fewer than 10 irradiations were required to yield a type A standard uncertainty of less than 0.5%. Correction factors to take account of the non-water components of the geometry and the volume averaging effect of the Fricke solution volume were obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the dependence on the input data used (e.g. interaction cross-sections) was small with a type B uncertainty for these corrections estimated to be 0.2%. The combined standard uncertainty in the determination of absorbed dose to water

  15. The Fricke dosimeter as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcolm

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy based on the Fricke dosimeter. To achieve this within the framework of the existing TG-43 protocol, a determination of the absorbed dose to water at the reference position, D(r0,θ0), was undertaken. Prior to this investigation, the radiation chemical yield of the ferric ions (G-value) at the Ir-192 equivalent photon energy (0.380 MeV) was established by interpolating between G-values obtained for Co-60 and 250 kV x-rays.An irradiation geometry was developed with a cylindrical holder to contain the Fricke solution and allow irradiations in a water phantom to be conducted using a standard Nucletron microSelectron V2 HDR Ir-192 afterloader. Once the geometry and holder were optimized, the dose obtained with the Fricke system was compared to the standard method used in North America, based on air-kerma strength.Initial investigations focused on reproducible positioning of the ring-shaped holder for the Fricke solution with respect to the Ir-192 source and obtaining an acceptable type A uncertainty in the optical density measurements required to yield the absorbed dose. Source positioning was found to be reproducible to better than 0.3 mm, and a careful cleaning and control procedure reduced the variation in optical density reading due to contamination of the Fricke solution by the PMMA holder. It was found that fewer than 10 irradiations were required to yield a type A standard uncertainty of less than 0.5%.Correction factors to take account of the non-water components of the geometry and the volume averaging effect of the Fricke solution volume were obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the dependence on the input data used (e.g. interaction cross-sections) was small with a type B uncertainty for these corrections estimated to be 0.2%.The combined standard uncertainty in the determination of absorbed dose to water at

  16. Deterministic absorbed dose estimation in computed tomography using a discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Edward T.; Liu, Xin; Hsieh, Jiang

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Organ dose estimation for a patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning is very important. Although Monte Carlo methods are considered gold-standard in patient dose estimation, the computation time required is formidable for routine clinical calculations. Here, the authors instigate a deterministic method for estimating an absorbed dose more efficiently. Methods: Compared with current Monte Carlo methods, a more efficient approach to estimating the absorbed dose is to solve the linear Boltzmann equation numerically. In this study, an axial CT scan was modeled with a software package, Denovo, which solved the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method. The CT scanning configuration included 16 x-ray source positions, beam collimators, flat filters, and bowtie filters. The phantom was the standard 32 cm CT dose index (CTDI) phantom. Four different Denovo simulations were performed with different simulation parameters, including the number of quadrature sets and the order of Legendre polynomial expansions. A Monte Carlo simulation was also performed for benchmarking the Denovo simulations. A quantitative comparison was made of the simulation results obtained by the Denovo and the Monte Carlo methods. Results: The difference in the simulation results of the discrete ordinates method and those of the Monte Carlo methods was found to be small, with a root-mean-square difference of around 2.4%. It was found that the discrete ordinates method, with a higher order of Legendre polynomial expansions, underestimated the absorbed dose near the center of the phantom (i.e., low dose region). Simulations of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions proved to be the most efficient computation method in the authors’ study. The single-thread computation time of the deterministic simulation of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions was 21 min on a personal computer

  17. Absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examination of velopharyngeal function during speech

    SciTech Connect

    Isberg, A.; Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Henrikson, C.O. )

    1989-04-01

    Absorbed doses of radiation were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) using a skull phantom during simulated cinefluorographic and videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function in frontal and lateral projections. Dosages to the thyroid gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, and ocular lens were measured. Radiation dosage was found to be approximately 10 times less for videofluoroscopy when compared with that of cinefluoroscopy. In addition, precautionary measures were found to reduce further the exposure of radiation-sensitive tissues. Head fixation and shielding resulted in dose reduction for both video- and cinefluoroscopy. Pulsing exposure for cinefluoroscopy also reduced the dosage.

  18. Equilibration of a Graphite Absorbed-Dose Calorimeter and the Quasi-Isothermal Mode of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, A.; Cottens, E.; Paulsen, A.; Poffijn, A.

    1986-01-01

    From a mathematical model of a three-body absorbed-dose calorimeter a procedure for achieving thermal equilibrium is developed which uses calculational methods to determine the exact amount and timing of electrical energy to be dissipated in the calorimetric bodies. This procedure is applied to the quasi-isothermal mode of operation in which a radiation beam and equivalent electrical heating are alternately used to keep the calorimetric bodies at temperatures as constant as possible. Measurements of the dose rate of a 60Co beam in graphite using this technique are reported.

  19. Mycosis Fungoides electron beam absorbed dose distribution using Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, Michely C.; Sampaio, Francisco G. A.; Petchevist, Paulo C. D.; de Oliveira, André L.; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2011-12-01

    Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation to destroy tumor cells. The absorbed dose control in the target volume is realized through radiation sensors, such as Fricke dosimeters and radiochromic film, which permit to realize bi-dimensional evaluations at once and because of that, they will be used in this study as well. Among the several types of cancer suitable for ionizing radiation treatment, the Mycosis Fungoides, a lymphoma that spreads on the skin surface and depth, requires for its treatment total body irradiation by high-energy electrons. In this work the Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) was used in order to obtain information about the absorbed dose distribution induced by the electron interactions with the irradiated tissues and to control this type of treatment. FXG can be considered as an alternative dosimeter, since up to now only films have been used. FXG sample cuvettes, simulating two selected tomos (cranium and abdomen) of the Rando anthropomorphic phantom, were positioned along with radiochromic films for comparison. The phantom was subjected to Stanford total body irradiation using 6 MeV electrons. Tomographic images were acquired for both dosimeters and evaluated through horizontal and vertical profiles along the tomographic centers. These profiles were obtained through a Matlab routine developed for this purpose. From the obtained results, one could infer that, for a superficial and internal patient irradiation, the FXG dosimeter showed an absorbed dose distribution similar to the one of the film. These results can validate the FXG dosimeter as an alternative dosimeter for the Mycosis Fungoides treatment planning.

  20. Verification of absorbed dose using diodes in cobalt-60 radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Gadhi, Muhammad Asghar; Fatmi, Shahab; Chughtai, Gul M; Arshad, Muhammad; Shakil, Muhammad; Rahmani, Uzma Mahmood; Imran, Malik Younas; Buzdar, Saeed Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to enhance the quality and safety of dose delivery in the practice of radiation oncology. To achieve this goal, the absorbed dose verification program was initiated by using the diode in vivo dosimetry (IVD) system (for entrance and exit). This practice was implemented at BINO, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Diodes were calibrated for making absorbed dose measurements. Various correction factors (SSD, dose non-linearity, field size, angle of incidence, and wedge) were determined for diode IVD system. The measurements were performed in phantom in order to validate the IVD procedure. One hundred and nineteen patients were monitored and 995 measurements were performed. For phantom, the percentage difference between measured and calculated dose for entrance setting remained within ±2% and for exit setting ±3%. For patient measurements, the percentage difference between measured and calculated dose remained within ±5% for entrance/open fields and ±7% for exit/wedge/oblique fields. One hundred and nineteen patients and 995 fields have been monitored during the period of 6 months. The analysis of all available measurements gave a mean percent deviation of ±1.19% and standard deviation of ±2.87%. Larger variations have been noticed in oblique, wedge and exit measurements. This investigation revealed that clinical dosimetry using diodes is simple, provides immediate results and is a useful quality assurance tool for dose delivery. It has enhanced the quality of radiation dose delivery and increased/improved the reliability of the radiation therapy practice in BINO. PMID:26753835

  1. SU-E-I-85: Absorbed Dose Estimation for a Commercially Available MicroCT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y; Ren, L; Liu, H; Yang, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the simulated absorbed dose delivered for a typical scan from a commercially available microCT scanner in order to aid in the dose estimation. Methods: The simulations were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit (version 10) with the standard electromagnetic classes. The Quantum FX microCT scanner (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA) was modeled incorporating the energy fluence and angular distributions of generated photons, spatial dimensions of nominal source-to-object and source-to-detector distances. The energy distribution was measured using a spectrometer (X-123CdTe, Amptek Inc., Bedford, USA) with a 300 angular spread from the source for the 90 kVp X-ray beams with no additional filtration. The nominal distances from the source to object consisted of three setups: 154.0 mm, 104.0 mm, and 51.96 mm. Our simulations recorded the dose absorbed in a cylindrical phantom of PMMA with a fixed length of 2 cm and varying radii (10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) using 100 million incident photons. The averaged absorbed dose in the object was then quantified for all setups. An exposure measurement of 417 mR was taken using a Radcal 9095 system utilizing 10×9–180 ion chamber with the given technique of 90 kVp, 63 μA, and 12 s. The exposure rate was also simulated with same setup to calculate the conversion factor of the beam current and the number of incident photons. Results: For a typical cone-beam scan with non-filtered 90kVp, the dose coefficients (the absorbed dose per mAs) were 2.614, 2.549 and 2.467 μGy/mAs under source to object distance of 104 mm for the object diameters of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm, respectively. Conclusion: A look-up table was developed where an investigator can estimate the delivered dose using this particular microCT given the scanning protocol (kVp and mAs) as well as the size of the scanned object.

  2. Fine-Resolution Voxel S Values for Constructing Absorbed Dose Distributions at Variable Voxel Size

    PubMed Central

    Dieudonné, Arnaud; Hobbs, Robert F.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Sgouros, George; Gardin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a revised voxel S values (VSVs) approach for dosimetry in targeted radiotherapy, allowing dose calculation for any voxel size and shape of a given SPECT or PET dataset. This approach represents an update to the methodology presented in MIRD pamphlet no. 17. Methods VSVs were generated in soft tissue with a fine spatial sampling using the Monte Carlo (MC) code MCNPX for particle emissions of 9 radionuclides: 18F, 90Y, 99mTc, 111In, 123I, 131I, 177Lu, 186Re, and 201Tl. A specific resampling algorithm was developed to compute VSVs for desired voxel dimensions. The dose calculation was performed by convolution via a fast Hartley transform. The fine VSVs were calculated for cubic voxels of 0.5 mm for electrons and 1.0 mm for photons. Validation studies were done for 90Y and 131I VSV sets by comparing the revised VSV approach to direct MC simulations. The first comparison included 20 spheres with different voxel sizes (3.8–7.7 mm) and radii (4–64 voxels) and the second comparison a hepatic tumor with cubic voxels of 3.8 mm. MC simulations were done with MCNPX for both. The third comparison was performed on 2 clinical patients with the 3D-RD (3-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry) software using the EGSnrc (Electron Gamma Shower National Research Council Canada)-based MC implementation, assuming a homogeneous tissue-density distribution. Results For the sphere model study, the mean relative difference in the average absorbed dose was 0.20% ± 0.41% for 90Y and −0.36% ± 0.51% for 131I (n = 20). For the hepatic tumor, the difference in the average absorbed dose to tumor was 0.33% for 90Y and −0.61% for 131I and the difference in average absorbed dose to the liver was 0.25% for 90Y and −1.35% for 131I. The comparison with the 3D-RD software showed an average voxel-to-voxel dose ratio between 0.991 and 0.996. The calculation time was below 10 s with the VSV approach and 50 and 15 h with 3D-RD for the 2 clinical patients. Conclusion This new

  3. In vivo absorbed dose measurements in mammography using a new real-time luminescence technique.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M C; Hemdal, B; Medin, J; Marckmann, C J; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Andersson, I; Mattsson, S

    2005-04-01

    A dosimetry system based on radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from carbon doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals was developed for in vivo absorbed dose measurements in mammography. A small cylindrical crystal of Al2O3:C (diameter 0.48 mm and length 2 mm) was coupled to the end of a 1 mm diameter optical fibre cable. Owing to their small size and characteristic shape, these probes can be placed on the body surface in the field of view during the examination, without compromising the reading of the mammogram. Our new technique was tested with a mammography unit (Siemens Mammomat 3000) and screen-film technique over a range of clinically relevant X-ray energies. The results were compared with those obtained from an ionization chamber usually used for the determination of absorbed dose in mammography. The reproducibility of measurements was around 3% (1 standard deviation) at 4.5 mGy for both RL and OSL data. The dose response was found to be linear between 4.5 mGy and 30 mGy. The energy dependence of the system is around 18% between 23 kV and 35 kV. In vivo measurements were performed during three patient examinations. It was shown that entrance and exit doses could be measured. The presence of the small probes did not significantly interfere with the diagnostic quality of the images. Entrance doses estimated by RL/OSL results agreed within 3% with entrance surface dose values calculated from the ionization chamber measurements. These results indicate a considerable potential for use in routine control and in vivo dose measurements in mammography.

  4. The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota : an extended inter-comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Batlle, J. V. I.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Beresford, N. A.; Copplestone, D.; Horyna, J.; Hosseini, A.; Johansen, M.; Kamboj, S.; Keum, D.-K.; Kurosawa, N.; Newsome, L.; Olyslaegers, G.; Vandenhove, H.; Ryufuku, S.; Lynch, S. V.; Wood, M. D.; Yu, C.

    2011-05-01

    An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of {+-}20%. The variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota.

  5. The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota: an extended intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Vives i Batlle, J; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Beresford, N A; Copplestone, D; Horyna, J; Hosseini, A; Johansen, M; Kamboj, S; Keum, D-K; Kurosawa, N; Newsome, L; Olyslaegers, G; Vandenhove, H; Ryufuku, S; Vives Lynch, S; Wood, M D; Yu, C

    2011-05-01

    An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of ±20%. The variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota. PMID:21113609

  6. A geochemical assessment of terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, H A; Smith, A R

    1990-02-01

    A survey of the geochemical literature and unpublished data has resulted in the classification of the concentrations of the naturally occurring radioelements U, Th, and K by their associated rock types. A data base of over 2500 entries has been compiled, permitting calculation of terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates. The general lithology of terrains may be distinguished by their radioelement ratios, relative abundances, and total gamma radioactivities. The gamma-ray absorbed dose rates in air above igneous rocks generally vary with their silica contents, and with the exception of shale, sedimentary rocks have lower K:U and K:Th ratios than most igneous rocks. The appreciable difference between the overall mean terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate for rock of the continental surface (approximately 7 X 10(-8) Gy h-1) and the mean dose rate from field measurements over soil (approximately 5 X 10(-8) Gy h-1) is explained by the substantial differences between radioelement concentrations of soil and rock, differences that may vary markedly with rock type.

  7. Estimation of radiation absorbed doses to the red marrow in radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, D.J.; DeNardo, S.J.; DeNardo, G.L.; DeNardo, D.A.; Sui Shen

    1995-02-01

    Myelotoxicity is the dose-limiting factor in radioimmunotherapy. Traditional methods most commonly used to estimate the radiation adsorbed dose to the bone marrow of patients consider contribution from radionuclide in the blood and/or total body. Targeted therapies, such as radioimmunotherapy, add a third potential source for radiation to the bone marrow because the radiolabeled targeting molecules can accumulate specifically on malignant target cells infiltrating the bone marrow. A non-invasive method for estimating the radiation absorbed dose to the red marrow of patients who have received radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) has been developed and explored. The method depends on determining the cumulated activity in three contributing sources: (1) marrow; (2) blood; and (3) total body. The novel aspect of this method for estimating marrow radiation dose is derivation of the radiation dose for the entire red marrow from radiation dose estimates obtained by detection of cumulated activity in three lumbar vertebrae using a gamma camera. Contributions to the marrow radiation dose form marrow, blood, and total body cumulated activity were determined for patients who received an I-131 labeled MoAb, Lym-1, that reacts with malignant B-lymphocytes of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and nonHodgkin`s lymphoma. Six patients were selected for illustrative purposes because their vertebrae were readily visualized on lumbar images. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Assessment of indoor absorbed gamma dose rate from natural radionuclides in concrete by the method of build-up factors.

    PubMed

    Manić, Vesna; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Krstic, Dragana; Manić, Goran

    2014-12-01

    The specific absorbed gamma dose rates, originating from natural radionuclides in concrete, were calculated at different positions of a detection point inside the standard room, as well as inside an example room. The specific absorbed dose rates corresponding to a wall with arbitrary dimensions and thickness were also evaluated, and appropriate fitting functions were developed, enabling dose rate calculation for most realistic rooms. In order to make calculation simpler, the expressions fitting the exposure build-up factors for whole (238)U and (232)Th radionuclide series and (40)K were derived in this work, as well as the specific absorbed dose rates from a point source in concrete. Calculated values of the specific absorbed dose rates at the centre point of the standard room for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are in the ranges of previously obtained data.

  9. Calculation of absorbed doses to water pools in severe accident sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    1991-12-01

    A methodology is presented for calculating the radiation dose to a water pool from the decay of uniformly distributed nuclides in that pool. Motivated by the need to accurately model radiolysis reactions of iodine, direct application is made to fission product sources dissolved or suspended in containment sumps or pools during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Two methods of calculating gamma absorption are discussed - one based on point-kernal integration and the other based on Monte Carlo techniques. Using least-squares minimization, the computed results are used to obtain a correlation that relates absorbed dose to source energy and surface-to-volume ratio of the pool. This correlation is applied to most relevant fission product nuclides and used to actually calculate transient sump dose rate in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) severe accident sequence.

  10. Effect of gamma ray absorbed dose on the FET transistor parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Baharak; Ashrafi, Saleh

    This article tries to explain a modified method on dosimetry, based on electronic solid state including MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect) transistors. For this purpose, behavior of two models of MOSFETs has been studied as a function of the absorbed dose. The MOSFETs were irradiated at room temperature by 137Cs gamma ray source in the dose range of 1-5 Gy. Threshold voltage variation of investigated samples has been studied based on their transfer characteristic curves (TF) and also using the readout circuit (RC). For evaluation of laboratory samples sensitivity at different operating conditions, different biases were applied on the gate. In practical applications of radiation dosimetry, a significant change occurs in the threshold voltage of irradiated MOSFETs. And sensitivity of these MOSFETs is increased with increasing the bias values. Therefore, these transistors can be excellent candidates as low-cost sensors for systems that are capable of measuring gamma radiation dose.

  11. Absorbed dose determination using experimental and analytical predictions of x-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David Lee

    1999-10-01

    Electron beam welding in a vacuum is a technology that NASA is investigating as a joining technique for manufacture of space structures. The interaction of energetic electrons with metal produces x-rays. This investigation characterizes the x-ray environment due to operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool and provides recommendations for adequate radiation shielding for astronauts performing the in-vacuum electron beam welding. NASA, in a joint venture with the Russian Space Agency, was scheduled to perform a series of welding in space experiments on board the United States Space Shuttle. This series of experiments was named the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE). The hardware associated with the ISWE was leased to NASA, by the Paton Welding Institute (PWI) in Ukraine, for ground based welding experiments in preparation for flight. Two ground tests were scheduled, using the ISWE electron beam welding tool, to characterize the radiation exposure to an astronaut during the operation of the ISWE. These radiation exposure tests used Thermoluminescence Dosimeters (TLD's) shielded with material currently used by astronauts during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) to measure the radiation dose. The TLD's were exposed to x- ray radiation generated by operation of the ISWE in- vacuum electron beam welding tool. This investigation was the first known application of TLD's to measure absorbed dose from x-rays of energy less than 10 keV. The ISWE hardware was returned to Ukraine before the issue of adequate shielding for the astronauts was completely verified. Therefore alternate experimental and analytical methods were developed to measure and predict the x-ray spectral and intensity distribution generated by ISWE electron beam impact with metal. These x-ray spectra were normalized to an equivalent ISWE exposure then used to calculate the absorbed radiation dose to astronauts. These absorbed dose values were compared to TLD measurements obtained during

  12. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to (137)Cs dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  13. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to 137Cs) dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  14. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation—an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry B.; Bahadori, Amir A.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-04-01

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues—active and total shallow marrow—within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R2 = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  15. SU-FF-T-390: In-Vivo Prostate Brachytherapy Absorbed Dose Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gueye, Paul; Velasco, Carlos; Keppel, Cynthia; Murphy, B; Sinesi, C

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: In-vivo prostate brachytherapy absorbed dosimetrydetector using scintillating fibers. Method and Materials: Five pairs of 85.5 {+-} 0.05 cm long blue shifted scintillating fibers (model BCF-10) with 1 mm{sup 2} cross sectional area were placed in a mixture of gelatin (368.6 {+-} 0.5 grams) and water (3.78 {+-} 0.025 liters) to measured the absorbed dose delivered by a 12 Ci {sup 192}Ir HDR source. The fibers were held by a 7 x 7 cm{sup 2} template grid and optically connected to a 16-channel multianode photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, model H6568). Each pair consisted of one fiber 4 mm shorter than the other one to extract the dose by the subtraction method. A dose atlas was used for radiation delivered to the phantom. The plans followed delivered 5 and 7 Gy to a point located 2.0 centimeters away from the central dwelling positions. A total of 32 data points were acquired in a plan to assess the linearity and reproducibility of the measurements.Results: Reproducibility of the data was found to be within 5% and the overall accuracy of the system estimated to be {+-}5.5%. The linearity of the data for all 7 measureddose values (ranging from 0.6 to 7 Gy), gives a slope of 312 counts/Gy with a 1.4% relative deviation. Conclusion: This work indicates the possibility of measuring in real-time the dose effectively delivered to a biological system during prostate brachytherapy treatments. The availability of commercially thin (150 {micro}m) scintillating fibers opens the capability of using such system during clinical treatments (by embedding the fibers within the catheters) with the advantage of performing real-time adjustment of the dose delivery.

  16. Mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings: absorbed dose and the potential for adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Mackert, J R; Berglund, A

    1997-01-01

    This review examines the question of whether adverse health effects are attributable to amalgam-derived mercury. The issue of absorbed dose of mercury from amalgam is addressed first. The use of intra-oral Hg vapor measurements to estimate daily uptake must take into account the differences between the collection volume and flow rate of the measuring instrument and the inspiratory volume and flow rate of air through the mouth during inhalation of a single breath. Failure to account for these differences will result in substantial overestimation of the absorbed dose. Other factors that must be considered when making estimates of Hg uptake from amalgam include the accurate measurement of baseline (unstimulated) mercury release rates and the greater stimulation of Hg release afforded by chewing gum relative to ordinary food. The measured levels of amalgam-derived mercury in brain, blood, and urine are shown to be consistent with low absorbed doses (1-3 micrograms/day). Published relationships between the number of amalgam surfaces and urine levels are used to estimate the number of amalgam surfaces that would be required to produce the 30 micrograms/g creatinine urine mercury level stated by WHO to be associated with the most subtle, pre-clinical effects in the most sensitive individuals. From 450 to 530 amalgam surfaces would be required to produce the 30 micrograms/g creatinine urine mercury level for people without any excessive gum-chewing habits. The potential for adverse health effects and for improvement in health following amalgam removal is also addressed. Finally, the issue of whether any material can ever be completely exonerated of claims of producing adverse health effects is considered.

  17. Uncertainties in electron-absorbed fractions and lung doses from inhaled beta-emitters.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Bolch, Wesley E; Huston, Thomas E; Rajon, Didier A; Huh, Chulhaeng; Bolch, W Emmett

    2005-01-01

    The computer code LUDUC (Lung Dose Uncertainty Code), developed at the University of Florida, was originally used to investigate the range of potential doses from the inhalation of either plutonium or uranium oxides. The code employs the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract model; however, rather than using simple point estimates for each of the model parameters associated with particle deposition, clearance, and lung-tissue dosimetry, probability density functions are ascribed to these parameters based upon detailed literature review. These distributions are subsequently sampled within LUDUC using Latin hypercube sampling techniques to generate multiple (e.g., approximately 1,000) sets of input vectors (i.e., trials), each yielding a unique estimate of lung dose. In the present study, the dosimetry component of the ICRP-66 model within LUDUC has been extended to explicitly consider variations in the beta particle absorbed fraction due to corresponding uncertainties and biological variabilities in both source and target tissue depths and thicknesses within the bronchi and bronchioles of the thoracic airways. Example dose distributions are given for the inhalation of absorption Type S compounds of 90Sr (Tmax = 546 keV) and 90Y (Tmax = 2,284 keV) as a function of particle size. Over the particle size range of 0.001 to 1 microm, estimates of total lung dose vary by a factor of 10 for 90Sr particles and by a factor of 4 to 10 for 90Y particles. As the particle size increases to 10 microm, dose uncertainties reach a factor of 100 for both radionuclides. In comparisons to identical exposures scenarios run by the LUDEP 2.0 code, Reference Man doses for inhaled beta-emitters were shown to provide slightly conservative estimates of lung dose compared to those in this study where uncertainties in lung airway histology are considered.

  18. Uncertainties in electron-absorbed fractions and lung doses from inhaled beta-emitters.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Bolch, Wesley E; Huston, Thomas E; Rajon, Didier A; Huh, Chulhaeng; Bolch, W Emmett

    2005-01-01

    The computer code LUDUC (Lung Dose Uncertainty Code), developed at the University of Florida, was originally used to investigate the range of potential doses from the inhalation of either plutonium or uranium oxides. The code employs the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract model; however, rather than using simple point estimates for each of the model parameters associated with particle deposition, clearance, and lung-tissue dosimetry, probability density functions are ascribed to these parameters based upon detailed literature review. These distributions are subsequently sampled within LUDUC using Latin hypercube sampling techniques to generate multiple (e.g., approximately 1,000) sets of input vectors (i.e., trials), each yielding a unique estimate of lung dose. In the present study, the dosimetry component of the ICRP-66 model within LUDUC has been extended to explicitly consider variations in the beta particle absorbed fraction due to corresponding uncertainties and biological variabilities in both source and target tissue depths and thicknesses within the bronchi and bronchioles of the thoracic airways. Example dose distributions are given for the inhalation of absorption Type S compounds of 90Sr (Tmax = 546 keV) and 90Y (Tmax = 2,284 keV) as a function of particle size. Over the particle size range of 0.001 to 1 microm, estimates of total lung dose vary by a factor of 10 for 90Sr particles and by a factor of 4 to 10 for 90Y particles. As the particle size increases to 10 microm, dose uncertainties reach a factor of 100 for both radionuclides. In comparisons to identical exposures scenarios run by the LUDEP 2.0 code, Reference Man doses for inhaled beta-emitters were shown to provide slightly conservative estimates of lung dose compared to those in this study where uncertainties in lung airway histology are considered. PMID:15596988

  19. Theory, performance, and measured results with an improved absorbed dose water calorimeter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of this calorimeter is mainly the result of the low thermal diffusivity of water that retards a temperature change at a point along a temperature profile. The temperature change is sensed by two calibrated thermistors sandwiched between two polyethylene films that electrically insulate the thermistors from water. The product of the temperature rise and the specific heat of water gives the combined effect of the absorbed dose and any heat defect. Temperature drifts are quickly controlled by making slight changes in electrical power dissipated in the water. Compared to solid-bodied calorimeters requiring vacuum systems, it was easy to construct, to get into operation, and to operate.

  20. Estimation of the absorbed dose in radiation-processed food. 4. EPR measurements on eggshell

    SciTech Connect

    Desrosiers, M.F.; Le, F.G. ); Harewood, P.M.; Josephson, E.S. ); Montesalvo, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Fresh whole eggs treated with ionizing radiation for Salmonellae control testing. The eggshell was then removed and examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine if EPR could be used to (1) distinguish irradiated from unirradiated eggs and (2) assess the absorbed dose. No EPR signals were detected in unirradiated eggs, while strong signals were measurable for more than 200 days after irradiation. Although a number of EPR signals were measured, the most intense resonance (g = 2.0019) was used for dosimetry throughout the study. This signal was observed to increase linearly with dose (up to [approximately]6 kGy), which decayed [approximately]20% within the first 5 days after irradiation and remained relatively constant thereafter. The standard added-dose method was used to assess, retrospectively, the dose to eggs processed at 0.2, 0.7, and 1.4 kGy. Relatively good results were obtained when measurement was made on the day the shell was reirradiated; with this procedure estimates were better for shell processed at the lower doses.

  1. Radiobiologic risk estimation from dental radiology. Part I. Absorbed doses to critical organs

    SciTech Connect

    Underhill, T.E.; Chilvarquer, I.; Kimura, K.; Langlais, R.P.; McDavid, W.D.; Preece, J.W.; Barnwell, G.

    1988-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to generate one consistent set of data for evaluating and comparing radiobiologic risks from different dental radiographic techniques. To accomplish this goal, absorbed doses were measured in fourteen anatomic sites from (1) five different panoramic machines with the use of rare-earth screens, (2) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long round cone, (3) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone, (4) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long round cone, and (5) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone. The dose to the thyroid gland, the active bone marrow, the brain, and the salivary glands was evaluated by means of exposure of a tissue-equivalent phantom, fitted with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at the relevant locations.

  2. Radiation-induced biomarkers for the detection and assessment of absorbed radiation doses

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sudha; Kumar, Raj; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Radiation incident involving living organisms is an uncommon but a very serious situation. The first step in medical management including triage is high-throughput assessment of the radiation dose received. Radiation exposure levels can be assessed from viability of cells, cellular organelles such as chromosome and different intermediate metabolites. Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation result in carcinogenesis, lowering of the immune response and, ultimately, damage to the hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. Biodosimetry is based on the measurement of the radiation-induced changes, which can correlate them with the absorbed dose. Radiation biomarkers such as chromosome aberration are most widely used. Serum enzymes such as serum amylase and diamine oxidase are the most promising biodosimeters. The level of gene expression and protein are also good biomarkers of radiation. PMID:21829314

  3. Radiobiologic risk estimation from dental radiology. Part I. Absorbed doses to critical organs.

    PubMed

    Underhill, T E; Chilvarquer, I; Kimura, K; Langlais, R P; McDavid, W D; Preece, J W; Barnwell, G

    1988-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to generate one consistent set of data for evaluating and comparing radiobiologic risks from different dental radiographic techniques. To accomplish this goal, absorbed doses were measured in fourteen anatomic sites from (1) five different panoramic machines with the use of rare-earth screens, (2) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long round cone, (3) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone, (4) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long round cone, and (5) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone. The dose to the thyroid gland, the active bone marrow, the brain, and the salivary glands was evaluated by means of exposure of a tissue-equivalent phantom, fitted with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at the relevant locations.

  4. Absorbed dose distribution visualization for superficial treatments through the Fricke Xylenol Gel dosimeter (FXG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva, M.; Sampaio, F. G. A.; Moreira, M. V.; Petchevist, P. C. D.; de Almeida, A.

    2010-11-01

    Electrons, orthovoltage X-rays and betas are used for superficial treatments. It has been shown that it is practical to measure these three types of radiation using gel dosimetry, which is an accurate dosimetric tool, from which one can infer the absorbed dose. The Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) dosimeter has presented adequate results due to its spatial resolution, effective atomic number and density that are near to those of soft tissue. The aim of this work is to compare three types of radiation for skin treatments like orthovoltage (X-rays), brachytherapy (beta rays) and megavoltage (electrons) using the FXG-CCD dosimetric system to determine the calibration curves (CC), beam profiles (BP) and percentage depth dose curves (PDD), evidencing why for clinical applications a specific type of radiation is selected for superficial treatment. From the results obtained we can infer that the FXG-CCD system is adequate for linear, area and volume measurements.

  5. A Comparison of Model Calculation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose for Proton Irradiation. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, N.; Semones, E.; Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.

    2003-01-01

    With the increase in the amount of time spent EVA that is necessary to complete the construction and subsequent maintenance of ISS, it will become increasingly important for ground support personnel to accurately characterize the radiation exposures incurred by EVA crewmembers. Since exposure measurements cannot be taken within the organs of interest, it is necessary to estimate these exposures by calculation. To validate the methods and tools used to develop these estimates, it is necessary to model experiments performed in a controlled environment. This work is such an effort. A human phantom was outfitted with detector equipment and then placed in American EMU and Orlan-M EVA space suits. The suited phantom was irradiated at the LLUPTF with proton beams of known energies. Absorbed dose measurements were made by the spaceflight operational dosimetrist from JSC at multiple sites in the skin, eye, brain, stomach, and small intestine locations in the phantom. These exposures are then modeled using the BRYNTRN radiation transport code developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, and the CAM (computerized anatomical male) human geometry model of Billings and Yucker. Comparisons of absorbed dose calculations with measurements show excellent agreement. This suggests that there is reason to be confident in the ability of both the transport code and the human body model to estimate proton exposure in ground-based laboratory experiments.

  6. Thyroid absorbed dose for people at Rongelap, Utirik, and Sifo on March 1, 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.T.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Conrad, R.A.; Musoline, S.V.; Naidu, J.R.; Moorthy, A.; Schopfer, C.J.

    1985-03-01

    A study was undertaken to reexamine thyroid absorbed dose estimates for people accidentally exposed to fallout at Rongelap, Sifo, and Utirik Islands from the Pacific weapon test known as Operation Castle BRAVO. The study included: (1) reevaluation of radiochemical analysis, to relate results from pooled urine to intake, retention, and excretion functions; (2) analysis of neutron-irradiation studies of archival soil samples, to estimate areal activities of the iodine isotopes; (3) analysis of source term, weather data, and meteorological functions used in predicting atmospheric diffusion and fallout deposition, to estimate airborne concentrations of the iodine isotopes; and (4) reevaluation of radioactive fallout, which contaminated a Japanese fishing vessel in the vicinity of Rongelap Island on March 1, 1954, to determine fallout components. The conclusions of the acute exposure study were that the population mean thyroid absorbed doses were 21 gray (2100 rad) at Rongelap, 6.7 gray (670 rad) at Sifo, and 2.8 gray (280 rad) at Utirik. The overall thyroid cancer risk we estimated was in agreement with results published on the Japanese exposed at Nagasaki and Hiroshima. We now postulate that the major route for intake of fallout was by direct ingestion of food prepared and consumed outdoors. 66 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. ESR spectroscopy for detecting gamma-irradiated dried vegetables and estimating absorbed doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2000-03-01

    In view of an increasing demand for food irradiation technology, the development of a reliable means of detection for the control of irradiated foods has become necessary. Various vegetable food materials (dried cabbage, carrot, chunggyungchae, garlic, onion, and green onion), which can be legally irradiated in Korea, were subjected to a detection study using ESR spectroscopy. Correlation coefficients ( R2) between absorbed doses (2.5-15 kGy) and their corresponding ESR signals were identified from ESR signals. Pre-established threshold values were successfully applied to the detection of 54 coded unknown samples of dried clean vegetables ( chunggyungchae, Brassica camestris var. chinensis), both non-irradiated and irradiated. The ESR signals of irradiated chunggyungchae decreased over a longer storage time, however, even after 6 months of ambient storage, these signals were still distinguishable from those of non-irradiated samples. The most successful estimates of absorbed dose (5 and 8 kGy) were obtained immediately after irradiation using a quadratic fit with average values of 4.85 and 8.65 kGy being calculated.

  8. Fraction of a dose absorbed estimation for structurally diverse low solubility compounds.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2011-02-28

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of the fully mechanistic gastrointestinal unified theoretical (GUT) framework for in vivo oral absorption of low solubility drugs. Solubility in biorelevant media, molecular weight, logP(oct), pK(a), Caco-2 permeability, dose and particle size were used as the input parameters. To neglect the effect of the low stomach pH on dissolution of a drug, the fraction of a dose absorbed (Fa%) of undissociable and free acids were used. In addition, Fa% of free base drugs with the high pH stomach was also included to increase the number of model drugs. In total twenty nine structurally diverse compounds were used as the model drugs. Fa% data at several doses and particle sizes in humans and dogs were collated from the literature (total 110 Fa% data). In approximately 80% cases, the prediction error was within 2 fold, suggesting that the GUT framework has practical predictability for drug discovery, but not for drug development. The GUT framework appropriately captured the dose and particle size dependency of Fa% as the particle drifting effect was taken into account. It should be noted that the present validation results cannot be applied for salt form cases and other special formulations such as solid dispersions and emulsion formulations.

  9. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Crosbie, J. C.; Cornelius, I.; Berkvens, P.; Donzelli, M.; Clavel, A. H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.

    2016-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency’s TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called ‘current ramping’ method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials.

  10. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Crosbie, J C; Cornelius, I; Berkvens, P; Donzelli, M; Clavel, A H; Rosenfeld, A B; Petasecca, M; Lerch, M L F; Bräuer-Krisch, E

    2016-07-21

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency's TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called 'current ramping' method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials. PMID:27366861

  11. An Absorbed-Dose/Dose-Rate Dependence for the Alanine-EPR Dosimetry System and Its Implications in High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Puhl, J. M.; Cooper, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    NIST developed the alanine dosimetry system in the early 1990s to replace radiochromic dye film dosimeters. Later in the decade the alanine system was firmly established as a transfer service for high-dose radiation dosimetry and an integral part of the internal calibration scheme supporting these services. Over the course of the last decade, routine monitoring of the system revealed a small but significant observation that, after examination, led to the characterization of a previously unknown absorbed-dose-dependent, dose-rate effect for the alanine system. Though the potential impact of this effect is anticipated to be extremely limited for NIST’s customer-based transfer dosimetry service, much greater implications may be realized for international measurement comparisons between National Measurement Institutes. PMID:27096113

  12. Uncertainties in Monte Carlo-based absorbed dose calculations for an experimental benchmark.

    PubMed

    Renner, F; Wulff, J; Kapsch, R-P; Zink, K

    2015-10-01

    There is a need to verify the accuracy of general purpose Monte Carlo codes like EGSnrc, which are commonly employed for investigations of dosimetric problems in radiation therapy. A number of experimental benchmarks have been published to compare calculated values of absorbed dose to experimentally determined values. However, there is a lack of absolute benchmarks, i.e. benchmarks without involved normalization which may cause some quantities to be cancelled. Therefore, at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt a benchmark experiment was performed, which aimed at the absolute verification of radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy. A thimble-type ionization chamber in a solid phantom was irradiated by high-energy bremsstrahlung and the mean absorbed dose in the sensitive volume was measured per incident electron of the target. The characteristics of the accelerator and experimental setup were precisely determined and the results of a corresponding Monte Carlo simulation with EGSnrc are presented within this study. For a meaningful comparison, an analysis of the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is necessary. In this study uncertainties with regard to the simulation geometry, the radiation source, transport options of the Monte Carlo code and specific interaction cross sections are investigated, applying the general methodology of the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Besides studying the general influence of changes in transport options of the EGSnrc code, uncertainties are analyzed by estimating the sensitivity coefficients of various input quantities in a first step. Secondly, standard uncertainties are assigned to each quantity which are known from the experiment, e.g. uncertainties for geometric dimensions. Data for more fundamental quantities such as photon cross sections and the I-value of electron stopping powers are taken from literature. The significant uncertainty contributions are identified as

  13. Uncertainties in Monte Carlo-based absorbed dose calculations for an experimental benchmark.

    PubMed

    Renner, F; Wulff, J; Kapsch, R-P; Zink, K

    2015-10-01

    There is a need to verify the accuracy of general purpose Monte Carlo codes like EGSnrc, which are commonly employed for investigations of dosimetric problems in radiation therapy. A number of experimental benchmarks have been published to compare calculated values of absorbed dose to experimentally determined values. However, there is a lack of absolute benchmarks, i.e. benchmarks without involved normalization which may cause some quantities to be cancelled. Therefore, at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt a benchmark experiment was performed, which aimed at the absolute verification of radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy. A thimble-type ionization chamber in a solid phantom was irradiated by high-energy bremsstrahlung and the mean absorbed dose in the sensitive volume was measured per incident electron of the target. The characteristics of the accelerator and experimental setup were precisely determined and the results of a corresponding Monte Carlo simulation with EGSnrc are presented within this study. For a meaningful comparison, an analysis of the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is necessary. In this study uncertainties with regard to the simulation geometry, the radiation source, transport options of the Monte Carlo code and specific interaction cross sections are investigated, applying the general methodology of the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Besides studying the general influence of changes in transport options of the EGSnrc code, uncertainties are analyzed by estimating the sensitivity coefficients of various input quantities in a first step. Secondly, standard uncertainties are assigned to each quantity which are known from the experiment, e.g. uncertainties for geometric dimensions. Data for more fundamental quantities such as photon cross sections and the I-value of electron stopping powers are taken from literature. The significant uncertainty contributions are identified as

  14. A Feasibility Study of Fricke Dosimetry as an Absorbed Dose to Water Standard for 192Ir HDR Sources

    PubMed Central

    deAlmeida, Carlos Eduardo; Ochoa, Ricardo; de Lima, Marilene Coelho; David, Mariano Gazineu; Pires, Evandro Jesus; Peixoto, José Guilherme; Salata, Camila; Bernal, Mario Antônio

    2014-01-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) using 192Ir sources is well accepted as an important treatment option and thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of the absolute dose to water for this particular source type is currently not available. An improved standard for the absorbed dose to water based on Fricke dosimetry of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources is presented in this study. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the Fricke dosimetry technique for the standardization of the quantity absorbed dose to water for 192Ir sources. A molded, double-walled, spherical vessel for water containing the Fricke solution was constructed based on the Fricke system. The authors measured the absorbed dose to water and compared it with the doses calculated using the AAPM TG-43 report. The overall combined uncertainty associated with the measurements using Fricke dosimetry was 1.4% for k = 1, which is better than the uncertainties reported in previous studies. These results are promising; hence, the use of Fricke dosimetry to measure the absorbed dose to water as a standard for HDR 192Ir may be possible in the future. PMID:25521914

  15. A feasibility study of Fricke dosimetry as an absorbed dose to water standard for 192Ir HDR sources.

    PubMed

    deAlmeida, Carlos Eduardo; Ochoa, Ricardo; Lima, Marilene Coelho de; David, Mariano Gazineu; Pires, Evandro Jesus; Peixoto, José Guilherme; Salata, Camila; Bernal, Mario Antônio

    2014-01-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) using 192Ir sources is well accepted as an important treatment option and thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of the absolute dose to water for this particular source type is currently not available. An improved standard for the absorbed dose to water based on Fricke dosimetry of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources is presented in this study. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the Fricke dosimetry technique for the standardization of the quantity absorbed dose to water for 192Ir sources. A molded, double-walled, spherical vessel for water containing the Fricke solution was constructed based on the Fricke system. The authors measured the absorbed dose to water and compared it with the doses calculated using the AAPM TG-43 report. The overall combined uncertainty associated with the measurements using Fricke dosimetry was 1.4% for k = 1, which is better than the uncertainties reported in previous studies. These results are promising; hence, the use of Fricke dosimetry to measure the absorbed dose to water as a standard for HDR 192Ir may be possible in the future. PMID:25521914

  16. Assessment of personnel absorbed dose at production of medical radioisotopes by a cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Sadat-Eshkevar, S M; Karimian, A; Mirzaee, M

    2011-09-01

    The medical radioisotope (201)Tl is produced by a cyclotron through the (203)Tl(p, 3n)(201)Pb reaction in the nuclear medicine research group of Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research Schools in Iran. The produced (201)Pb decays to (201)Tl by electron capture. One of the most important problems that may occur is malfunction of a part of target or beam line, so that it needs the bombardment to be stopped and the problem fixed. In this work, induced radioactivity of the target, aluminium case of target, beam line and concrete walls of the thallium target room were calculated by Monte Carlo method. Then by using the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, the whole body absorbed dose to cyclotron personnel during repair and after stopping the bombardment, were assessed at different places of target room.

  17. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  18. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-11-01

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues—active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM) and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). AM is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM50), defined as all tissues lying within the first 50 µm of the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent micro-CT imaging of a 40 year old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton (Hough et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309-46). This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites (Jokisch et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 6857-72). These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions and proton production cross sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose-response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM50 targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, AM, TM50 and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM50 DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged-particle equilibrium is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Radiation-Absorbed Dose Estimation of {sup 166}Ho Microspheres in Liver Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Seevinck, Peter R.; Maat, Gerrit H. van de; Wit, Tim C. de; Vente, Maarten A.D.; Nijsen, Johannes F.W.; Bakker, Chris J.G.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate assessment of the three-dimensional {sup 166}Ho activity distribution to estimate radiation-absorbed dose distributions in {sup 166}Ho-loaded poly (L-lactic acid) microsphere ({sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS) liver radioembolization. Methods and Materials: MRI, computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) experiments were conducted on an anthropomorphic gel phantom with tumor-simulating gel samples and on an excised human tumor-bearing liver, both containing known amounts of {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS. Three-dimensional radiation-absorbed dose distributions were estimated at the voxel level by convolving the {sup 166}Ho activity distribution, derived from quantitative MRI data, with a {sup 166}Ho dose point-kernel generated by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code) and from Medical Internal Radiation Dose Pamphlet 17. MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions were qualitatively compared with CT and autoradiography images and quantitatively compared with SPECT-based dose distributions. Both MRI- and SPECT-based activity estimations were validated against dose calibrator measurements. Results: Evaluation on an anthropomorphic phantom showed that MRI enables accurate assessment of local {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS mass and activity distributions, as supported by a regression coefficient of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.99, relating local MRI-based mass and activity calculations to reference values obtained with a dose calibrator. Estimated MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions of {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS in an ex vivo human liver visually showed high correspondence to SPECT-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions. Quantitative analysis revealed that the differences in local and total amounts of {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS estimated by MRI, SPECT, and the dose calibrator were within 10%. Excellent agreement was observed between MRI- and SPECT-based dose

  20. Monte Carlo Analysis of Pion Contribution to Absorbed Dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghara, S.K.; Battnig, S.R.; Norbury, J.W.; Singleterry, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV - GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  1. Monte Carlo analysis of pion contribution to absorbed dose from Galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghara, S. K.; Blattnig, S. R.; Norbury, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV-GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  2. Study of natural radionuclide and absorbed gamma dose in Ukhimath area of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Rautela, B S; Yadav, M; Bourai, A A; Joshi, V; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2012-11-01

    Natural radiation is the largest contributor to the collective radiation dose of the world population. It is widely distributed in different geological formations such as soil, rocks, air and groundwater. In the present investigation, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in soil samples of the Ukhimath region of Garhwal Himalaya, India using NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to vary from 38.4 ± 6.1 to 141.7 ± 11.9 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 80.5 Bq kg(-1), 57.0 ± 7.5 to 155.9 ± 12.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 118.9 Bq kg(-1) and 9.0 ± 3.0 to 672.8 ± 25.9 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 341 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The total absorbed gamma dose rate varies from 70.4 to 169.1 nGy h(-1) with an average of 123.4 nGy h(-1). This study is important to generate a baseline data of radiation exposure in the area. Health hazard effects due to natural radiation exposure are discussed in details.

  3. Dependence of TLD thermoluminescence yield on absorbed dose in a thermal neutron field.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, G; Roy, M S

    1997-01-01

    The emission from 6LiF and 7LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) exposed to the mixed field of thermal neutrons and gamma-rays of the thermal facility of a TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor has been investigated for various thermal neutron fluences of the order of magnitude of those utilised in radiotherapy, with the purpose of investigating the reliability of TLD readouts in such radiation fields and of giving some information for better obtainment of the absorbed dose values. The emission after exposure in this mixed field is compared with the emission after gamma-rays only. The glow curves have been deconvoluted into gaussian peaks, and the differences in the characteristics of the peaks observed for the two radiation fields, having different linear energy transfers, and for different doses are shown. Irreversible radiation damage in dosimeters having high sensitivity to thermal neutrons is also reported, showing a memory effect of the previous thermal neutron irradiation history which is not restored by anneal treatment. PMID:9463872

  4. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Santos Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-08-07

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 ExNxC, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the body distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.

  5. Computational Modeling of Cellular Effects Post-Irradiation with Low- and High-Let Particles and Different Absorbed Doses

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of computational methods to improve the understanding of biological responses to various types of radiation is an approach where multiple parameters can be modelled and a variety of data is generated. This study compares cellular effects modelled for low absorbed doses against high absorbed doses. The authors hypothesized that low and high absorbed doses would contribute to cell killing via different mechanisms, potentially impacting on targeted tumour radiotherapy outcomes. Cellular kinetics following irradiation with selective low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles were investigated using the Virtual Cell (VC) radiobiology algorithm. Two different cell types were assessed using the VC radiobiology algorithm: human fibroblasts and human crypt cells. The results showed that at lower doses (0.01 to 0.2 Gy), all radiation sources used were equally able to induce cell death (p>0.05, ANOVA). On the other hand, at higher doses (1.0 to 8.0 Gy), the radiation response was LET and dose dependent (p<0.05, ANOVA). The data obtained suggests that the computational methods used might provide some insight into the cellular effects following irradiation. The results also suggest that it may be necessary to re-evaluate cellular radiation-induced effects, particularly at low doses that could affect therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:23930101

  6. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland. Methods BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value <0.01 and fold change >1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively. Results In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy). PMID:26177204

  7. Proton and photon absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and foetus from top-down irradiation geometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Absorbed-dose conversion coefficients are calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months when the mother's body is exposed to protons and photons from top-down (TOP) direction. It provides data sets in addition to other standard irradiation geometries published previously. The TOP-irradiation geometry is considered here, because high-energy particles are often peaked from the TOP direction onboard aircrafts. The results show that absorbed-doses from high-energy particles could be underestimated significantly if isotropic (ISO) irradiation geometry is assumed. For protons of 100 GeV, absorbed-doses from TOP irradiation are approximately 2.3-2.9 times higher than the doses from ISO irradiation for different foetal ages. For 10 GeV photons, foetal doses from TOP irradiation are approximately 6.8-12 times higher than the doses from ISO irradiation. The coefficients from TOP-irradiation geometry are given in wide energy ranges, from 100 MeV to 100 GeV for protons and from 50 keV to 10 GeV for photons. They can, therefore, be used in various applications whenever exposure from the TOP-irradiation direction is concerned.

  8. Visible photoluminescence of color centers in LiF crystals for absorbed dose evaluation in clinical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal-Barajas, J. E.; Piccinini, M.; Vincenti, M. A.; Bonfigli, F.; Khan, R. F.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Among insulating materials, lithium fluoride (LiF) has been successfully used as ionizing radiation dosemeter for more than 60 years. Thermoluminescence (TL) has been the most commonly used reading technique to evaluate the absorbed dose. Lately, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of visible emitting color centers (CCs) has also been explored in pure and doped LiF. This work focuses on the experimental behaviour of nominally pure LiF crystals dosemeters for 6 MV x rays at low doses based on photoluminescence (PL) of radiation induced CCs. Polished LiF crystals were irradiated using 6 MV x rays produced by a clinical linear accelerator. The doses (absorbed dose to water) covered the 1-100 Gy range. Optical absorption spectra show stable formation of primary F defects up to a maximum concentration of 2×1016 cm-3, while no significant M absorption band at around 450 nm was detected. On the other hand, under Argon laser excitation at 458 nm, PL spectra of the irradiated LiF crystals clearly exhibited the characteristic F2 and F+3 visible broad emission bands. Their sum intensity is linearly proportional to the absorbed dose in the investigated range. PL integrated intensity was also measured using a conventional fluorescence optical microscope under blue lamp illumination. The relationship between the absorbed dose and the integrated F2 and F+3 PL intensities, represented by the net average pixel number in the optical fluorescence images, is also fairly linear. Even at the low point defect densities obtained at the investigated doses, these preliminary experimental results are encouraging for further investigation of CCs PL in LiF crystals for clinical dosimetry.

  9. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and {sup 137}Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79 ± 1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.15 ± 0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

  11. Determination of the Absorbed Dose Rate to Water for the 18-mm Helmet of a Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Youngho; Hyun, Sangil; Choi, Yongsoo; Kim, Gi Hong; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To measure the absorbed dose rate to water of {sup 60}Co gamma rays of a Gamma Knife Model C using water-filled phantoms (WFP). Methods and Materials: Spherical WFP with an equivalent water depth of 5, 7, 8, and 9 cm were constructed. The dose rates at the center of an 18-mm helmet were measured in an 8-cm WFP (WFP-3) and two plastic phantoms. Two independent measurement systems were used: one was calibrated to an air kerma (Set I) and the other was calibrated to the absorbed dose to water (Set II). The dose rates of WFP-3 and the plastic phantoms were converted to dose rates for an 8-cm water depth using the attenuation coefficient and the equivalent water depths. Results: The dose rate measured at the center of WFP-3 using Set II was 2.2% and 1.0% higher than dose rates measured at the center of the two plastic phantoms. The measured effective attenuation coefficient of Gamma Knife photon beam in WFPs was 0.0621 cm{sup -1}. After attenuation correction, the difference between the dose rate at an 8-cm water depth measured in WFP-3 and dose rates in the plastic phantoms was smaller than the uncertainty of the measurements. Conclusions: Systematic errors related to the characteristics of the phantom materials in the dose rate measurement of a Gamma Knife need to be corrected for. Correction of the dose rate using an equivalent water depth and attenuation provided results that were more consistent.

  12. Calculation of Absorbed Dose in Target Tissue and Equivalent Dose in Sensitive Tissues of Patients Treated by BNCT Using MCNP4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.

  13. Absorbed dose measurements for kV-cone beam computed tomography in image-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Kazunari; Araki, Fujio; Ohno, Takeshi; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Yuuki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we develope a novel method to directly evaluate an absorbed dose-to-water for kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Absorbed doses for the kV-CBCT systems of the Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) and the Elekta X-ray Volumetric Imager (XVI) were measured by a Farmer ionization chamber with a 60Co calibration factor. The chamber measurements were performed at the center and four peripheral points in body-type (30 cm diameter and 51 cm length) and head-type (16 cm diameter and 33 cm length) cylindrical water phantoms. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water by using a 60Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for 60Co to kV-CBCT. The irradiation for OBI and XVI was performed with pelvis and head modes for the body- and the head-type phantoms, respectively. In addition, the dose distributions in the phantom for both kV-CBCT systems were calculated with MC method and were compared with measured values. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated at the center in the water phantom and compared with measured doses at four peripheral points. The measured absorbed doses at the center in the body-type phantom were 1.96 cGy for OBI and 0.83 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 2.36-2.90 cGy for OBI and 0.83-1.06 cGy for XVI. The doses for XVI were lower up to approximately one-third of those for OBI. Similarly, the measured doses at the center in the head-type phantom were 0.48 cGy for OBI and 0.21 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 0.26-0.66 cGy for OBI and 0.16-0.30 cGy for XVI. The calculated peripheral doses agreed within 3% in the pelvis mode and within 4% in the head mode with measured doses for both kV-CBCT systems. In addition, the absorbed dose determined in this study was approximately 4% lower than that in TG-61 but the absorbed dose by both methods was in agreement within their combined

  14. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rottke, D; Grossekettler, L; Sawada, K; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the absorbed doses in a full anthropomorphic body phantom from two different panoramic radiography devices, performing protocols with and without applying a lead apron. Methods: A RANDO® full body phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Stamford, CT) was equipped with 110 thermoluminescent dosemeters at 55 different sites and set up in two different panoramic radiography devices [SCANORA® three-dimensional (3D) (SOREDEX, Tuusula, Finland) and ProMax® 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland)] and exposed. Two different protocols were performed in the two devices. The first protocol was performed without any lead shielding, whereas the phantom was equipped with a standard adult lead apron for the second protocol. Results: A two-tailed paired samples t-test for the SCANORA 3D revealed that there is no difference between the protocol using lead apron shielding (m = 87.99, s = 102.98) and the protocol without shielding (m = 87.34, s = 107.49), t(54) = −0.313, p > 0.05. The same test for the ProMax 3D showed that there is also no difference between the protocol using shielding (m = 106.48, s = 117.38) and the protocol without shielding (m = 107.75, s = 114,36), t(54) = 0.938, p > 0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of this study showed no statistically significant differences between a panoramic radiography with or without the use of lead apron shielding. PMID:24174012

  15. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for oxygen-15 radiopharmaceuticals (H2( V)O, C VO, O VO) in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J.; Stabin, M.; Howse, D.; Eichling, J.O.; Herscovitch, P.

    1988-12-01

    In preparation for measurement of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography, radiation absorbed dose estimates for 19 internal organs, blood, and total body were calculated for newborn infants following bolus intravenous administration of H2( V)O and brief inhalation of C VO and O VO. Cumulated activity for each radiopharmaceutical was calculated from a compartmental model based on the known biologic behavior of the compound. Values for mean absorbed dose/unit cumulated activity (S) for internal organs and total body were based on a newborn phantom. S was separately calculated for blood. Total radiopharmaceutical absorbed dose estimates necessary to measure cerebral oxygen metabolism in a 3.51-kg infant based on 0.7 mCi/kg H2( V)O and 1 mCi/kg C VO and O VO were determined to be 1.6 rad to the lung (maximum organ dose), 0.28 rad to the marrow, 0.46 rad to the gonads, and 0.22 rad to total body. These values are similar to those for current clinical nuclear medicine procedures employing /sup 99m/Tc in newborn infants.

  16. The PTB primary standard for the absorbed-dose to water for I-125 interstitial brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, T.

    2012-10-01

    The German national metrology institute (PTB) developed a primary standard in terms of absorbed-dose to water Dw for low-energy interstitial brachytherapy sources, which is based on an extrapolation chamber in a phantom of water-equivalent material. The method to determine Dw from extrapolation chamber measurements has been newly developed and is already described in the literature. With the chamber the absorbed-dose at 30 cm distance from the source is measured and the quantity is converted into the desired quantity, the absorbed-dose to water measured at 1 cm distance perpendicular to the source axis. In this paper, a synthesis of the work done within the EMRP Project: ‘TP2.JRP6: Increasing Cancer Treatment Efficacy Using 3D Brachytherapy’ is given and the final results and the final uncertainty budget are presented. Furthermore, an experimentally determined dose-rate constant for this seed type (BEBIG Symmetra I25.S16) is given based on the measurement of four different instances.

  17. Development of a water calorimetry-based standard for absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy based on 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimetry. Methods: The absolute absorbed dose to water was directly measured for several different Nucletron microSelectron {sup 192}Ir sources of air kerma strength ranging between 21 000 and 38 000 U and for source-to-detector separations ranging between 25 and 70 mm. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS software was used to accurately calculate the heat transport in a detailed model geometry. Through a coupling of the ''conduction and convection'' module with the ''Navier-Stokes incompressible fluid'' module in the software, both the conductive and convective effects were modeled. Results: A detailed uncertainty analysis resulted in an overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose of 1.90%(1{sigma}). However, this includes a 1.5% uncertainty associated with a nonlinear predrift correction which can be substantially reduced if sufficient time is provided for the system to come to a new equilibrium in between successive calorimetric runs, an opportunity not available to the authors in their clinical setting due to time constraints on the machine. An average normalized dose rate of 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a source-to-detector separation of 55 mm was measured for the microSelectron {sup 192}Ir source based on water calorimetry. The measured absorbed dose per air kerma strength agreed to better than 0.8%(1{sigma}) with independent ionization chamber and EBT-1 Gafchromic film reference dosimetry as well as with the currently accepted AAPM TG-43 protocol measurements. Conclusions: This work paves the way toward a primary absorbed dose to water standard in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

  18. Direct determination of the absorbed dose to water from 125I low dose-rate brachytherapy seeds using the new absorbed dose primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, M. P.; Pimpinella, M.; Pinto, M.; Quini, M.; Cappadozzi, G.; Silvestri, C.; Bottauscio, O.

    2012-10-01

    Low-intensity radioactive sources emitting low-energy photons are used in the clinic for low dose-rate brachytherapy treatments of tumours. The dosimetry of these sources is based on reference air kerma rate measurements. The absorbed dose rate to water at the reference depth d0 = 1 cm, \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} , is then obtained by a conversion procedure with a large relative standard uncertainty of about 5%. This paper describes a primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI to directly measure \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} due to LDR sources. The standard is based on a large-angle and variable-volume ionization chamber, embedded in a graphite phantom and operating under ‘wall-less air chamber’ conditions. A set of correction and conversion factors, based on experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, are determined to obtain the value of Dw,1 cm from measurements of increment of ionization current with increasing chamber volume. The relative standard uncertainty on \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} is 2.6%, which is appreciably lower than the current uncertainty. Characteristics of the standard, its associated uncertainty budget, and some experimental results are given for 125I BEBIG I25.S16.C brachytherapy seeds. Finally, results of the experimental determination of the dose-rate constant Λ1 cm, traceable to the Dw,1 cm and the low-energy air kerma ENEA-INMRI standards, are given. The relative standard uncertainty on Λ1 cm is 2.9%, appreciably lower than the typical uncertainty (4.8%) of the values available in the literature.

  19. Linear energy transfer dependence of a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter investigated using proton beam absorbed dose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Helen; Bäck, Sven Å. J.; Medin, Joakim; Grusell, Erik; Olsson, Lars E.

    2004-09-01

    Three-dimensional dosimetry with good spatial resolution can be performed using polymer gel dosimetry, which has been investigated for dosimetry of different types of particles. However, there are only sparse data concerning the influence of the linear energy transfer (LET) properties of the radiation on the gel absorbed dose response. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible LET dependence for a polymer gel dosimeter using proton beam absorbed dose measurements. Polymer gel containing the antioxidant tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium (THP) was irradiated with 133 MeV monoenergetic protons, and the gel absorbed dose response was evaluated using MRI. The LET distribution for a monoenergetic proton beam was calculated as a function of depth using the Monte Carlo code PETRA. There was a steep increase in the Monte Carlo calculated LET starting at the depth corresponding to the front edge of the Bragg peak. This increase was closely followed by a decrease in the relative detector sensitivity (Srel = Dgel/Ddiode), indicating that the response of the polymer gel detector was dependent on LET. The relative sensitivity was 0.8 at the Bragg peak, and reached its minimum value at the end of the proton range. No significant effects in the detector response were observed for LET < 4.9 keV µm-1, thus indicating that the behaviour of the polymer gel dosimeter would not be altered for the range of LET values expected in the case of photons or electrons in a clinical range of energies.

  20. Mean Absorbed Dose to the Anal-Sphincter Region and Fecal Leakage among Irradiated Prostate Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Alsadius, David; Hedelin, Maria; Lundstedt, Dan; Pettersson, Niclas; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Steineck, Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To supplement previous findings that the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to the anal sphincter or lower rectum affects the occurrence of fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors. We also wanted to determine whether anatomically defining the anal-sphincter region as the organ at risk could increase the degree of evidence underlying clinical guidelines for restriction doses to eliminate this excess risk. Methods and Materials: We identified 985 men irradiated for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, we assessed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms among these men using a study-specific questionnaire. We restrict the analysis to the 414 men who had been treated with external beam radiation therapy only (no brachytherapy) to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions to the prostate or postoperative prostatic region. On reconstructed original radiation therapy dose plans, we delineated the anal-sphincter region as an organ at risk. Results: We found that the prevalence of long-term fecal leakage at least once per month was strongly correlated with the mean dose to the anal-sphincter region. Examining different dose intervals, we found a large increase at 40 Gy; {>=}40 Gy compared with <40 Gy gave a prevalence ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.6). Conclusions: This long-term study shows that mean absorbed dose to the anal-sphincter region is associated with the occurrence of long-term fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors; delineating the anal-sphincter region separately from the rectum and applying a restriction of a mean dose <40 Gy will, according to our data, reduce the risk considerably.

  1. Simulation studies on the effect of absorbers on dose distribution in rotational radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T; Bliznakova, K; Malatara, G; Kardamakis, D; Kolitsi, Z; Pallikarakis, N

    2009-12-01

    The effect of cylindrical protector dimensions, material and distance from the source on the dose distribution in rotational radiotherapy was studied to assess the potential protection possibilities of small-sized radiosensitive structures, such as spinal cord. The dose distributions were evaluated in terms of dose at the protected region and surface dose, ratio of the dose at the protected region to the maximum dose, and dose gradient. High-density materials, such as lead, tungsten, gold and cerrobend, along with new polymer-metal composite ones were used in simulation studies, performed by an in-house developed Monte Carlo Radiotherapy Simulator. To ensure correct modeling of the composite materials, simulated attenuation data were verified against experimentally measured data. The dependence of the dose at the protected region from the protector diameter and the field size was established. Protectors of higher density and larger diameter provide not only lower dose at the protected region, but also steeper dose gradient and lower ratio of the dose at the protected region to the treatment dose. For the protection of small structures, high-density protectors placed further from the source allow thicker protectors to be used. The surface dose increases insignificantly for the studied protector-surface distances. The results have shown that shielding properties of composite materials are close to those of lead. PMID:19186088

  2. Reconstruction of Absorbed Doses to Fibroglandular Tissue of the Breast of Women undergoing Mammography (1960 to the Present)

    PubMed Central

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Kwon, Deukwoo; Linet, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of potential benefits versus harms from mammographic examinations as described in the controversial breast cancer screening recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Task Force included limited consideration of absorbed dose to the fibroglandular tissue of the breast (glandular tissue dose), the tissue at risk for breast cancer. Epidemiological studies on cancer risks associated with diagnostic radiological examinations often lack accurate information on glandular tissue dose, and there is a clear need for better estimates of these doses. Our objective was to develop a quantitative summary of glandular tissue doses from mammography by considering sources of variation over time in key parameters including imaging protocols, x-ray target materials, voltage, filtration, incident air kerma, compressed breast thickness, and breast composition. We estimated the minimum, maximum, and mean values for glandular tissue dose for populations of exposed women within 5-year periods from 1960 to the present, with the minimum to maximum range likely including 90% to 95% of the entirety of the dose range from mammography in North America and Europe. Glandular tissue dose from a single view in mammography is presently about 2 mGy, about one-sixth the dose in the 1960s. The ratio of our estimates of maximum to minimum glandular tissue doses for average-size breasts was about 100 in the 1960s compared to a ratio of about 5 in recent years. Findings from our analysis provide quantitative information on glandular tissue doses from mammographic examinations which can be used in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. PMID:21988547

  3. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  4. Absorbed dose to man from the Se-75 labeled conjugated bile salt SeHCAT: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Soundy, R.G.; Simpson, J.D.; Ross, H.M.; Merrick, M.V.

    1982-02-01

    The absorbed radiation dose that would result from the oral or intravenous administration of SeHCAT (23-(75Se)selena-25-homotaurocholate) has been calculated using the MIRD tables and formulas and data from measurements of whole-body distribution and from long-term whole-body counting in rats, mice, and man. When SeHCAT is administered to normal subjects, the gallbladder is the critical organ, receiving 12 mrad (oral dose) or 22 mrad (i.v.) per microcurie. The whole-body dose is 1 mrad/microCi, whatever the route of administration. In severe hepatic failure the liver might receive 200 mrad/microCi. The activity likely to be used in routine clinical practice is 10 microCi. Where a whole-body counter is used, an activity of 1 microCi has proved adequate. Even at an administered activity of 25 microCi, the absorbed dose is small compared with established techniques of investigating the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Absorbed dose to man from the Se-75 labeled conjugated bile salt SeHCAT: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Soundy, R.G.; Simpson, J.D.; Ross, H.M.; Merrick, M.V.

    1982-02-01

    The absorbed radiation dose that would result from the oral or intravenous administration of SeHCAT (23-(/sup 75/Se)selena-25-homotaurocholate) has been calculated using the MIRD tables and formulas and data from measurements of whole-body distribution and from long-term whole-body counting in rats, mice, and man. When SeHCAT is administered to normal subjects, the gallbladder is the critical organ, receiving 12 mrad (oral dose) or 22 mrad (i.v.) per microcurie. The whole-body dose is 1 mrad/..mu..Ci, whatever the route of administration. In severe hepatic failure the liver might receive 200 mrad/..mu..Ci. The activity likely to be used in routine clinical practice is 10 ..mu..Ci. Where a whole-body counter is used, an activity of 1 ..mu..Ci has proved adequate. Even at an administered activity of 25 ..mu..Ci, the absorbed dose is small compared with established techniques of investigating the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Comparison of mathematical models for red marrow and blood absorbed dose estimation in the radioiodine treatment of advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranti, A.; Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Gino, E.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2015-02-01

    Metastatic and recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma is preferably treated with 131I, whose administered activity is limited by red marrow (RM) toxicity, originally correlated by Benua to a blood absorbed dose higher than 2 Gy. Afterward a variety of dosimetric approaches has been proposed. The aim of this work is to compare the results of the Benua formula with the ones of other three blood and RM absorbed dose formulae. Materials and methods have been borrowed by the dosimetric protocol of the Italian Internal Dosimetry group and adapted to the routine of our centre. Wilcoxon t-tests and percentage differences have been applied for comparison purposes. Results are significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other, with an average percentage difference between Benua versus other results of -22%. The dosimetric formula applied to determine blood or RM absorbed dose may contribute significantly to increase heterogeneity in absorbed dose and dose-response results. Standardization should be a major objective.

  7. On the suitability of ultrathin detectors for absorbed dose assessment in the presence of high-density heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno, M. Duch, M. A.; Carrasco, P.; Jornet, N.; Muñoz-Montplet, C.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of several detectors for the determination of absorbed dose in bone. Methods: Three types of ultrathin LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)—two LiF:Mg,Cu,P-based (MCP-Ns and TLD-2000F) and a{sup 7}Li-enriched LiF:Mg,Ti-based (MTS-7s)—as well as EBT2 Gafchromic films were used to measure percentage depth-dose distributions (PDDs) in a water-equivalent phantom with a bone-equivalent heterogeneity for 6 and 18 MV and a set of field sizes ranging from 5×5 cm{sup 2} to 20×20 cm{sup 2}. MCP-Ns, TLD-2000F, MTS-7s, and EBT2 have active layers of 50, 20, 50, and 30 μm, respectively. Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations (PENELOPE code) were used as the reference and helped to understand the experimental results and to evaluate the potential perturbation of the fluence in bone caused by the presence of the detectors. The energy dependence and linearity of the TLDs’ response was evaluated. Results: TLDs exhibited flat energy responses (within 2.5%) and linearity with dose (within 1.1%) within the range of interest for the selected beams. The results revealed that all considered detectors perturb the electron fluence with respect to the energy inside the bone-equivalent material. MCP-Ns and MTS-7s underestimated the absorbed dose in bone by 4%–5%. EBT2 exhibited comparable accuracy to MTS-7s and MCP-Ns. TLD-2000F was able to determine the dose within 2% accuracy. No dependence on the beam energy or field size was observed. The MC calculations showed that a50 μm thick detector can provide reliable dose estimations in bone regardless of whether it is made of LiF, water or EBT’s active layer material. Conclusions: TLD-2000F was found to be suitable for providing reliable absorbed dose measurements in the presence of bone for high-energy x-ray beams.

  8. Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Nicholas; Newhauser, Wayne D; Titt, Uwe; Gombos, Dan; Coombes, Kevin; Starkschall, George

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy. PMID:18367789

  9. Spatial variations in natural background radiation: absorbed dose rates in air in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Stone, J M; Whicker, R D; Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W

    1999-05-01

    Large and small-scale spatial variations in natural ambient background radiation dose rates in Colorado were investigated at 1,150 specific locations with particular attention to 40 of the more populated areas along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Total dose rates (including cosmic and terrestrial components) in Front Range communities below 2,000 m elevation averaged 135 nGy h(-1). Terrestrial dose rates had a coefficient of variation of 17%. Communities above 2,000 m had a mean total dose rate of 196 nGy h(-1), and a terrestrial dose rate coefficient of variation of 17%. Across all Front Range communities, the coefficient of variation for terrestrial dose rates was 22%. Within individual communities, coefficient of variation values for terrestrial dose rates ranged from 3 to 21%. Smaller-scale spatial variability (to within a few meters) was relatively small (coefficient of variation values generally ranged from 3 to 7%). A significant linear relationship (r2 = 0.83) between the size of area surveyed (km2) and coefficient of variation value for terrestrial dose rates was found. West of the Continental Divide, the terrestrial component accounted for roughly 60% of total measured dose rates, while east of the Continental Divide, where enriched granitic source rocks and associated soils are prevalent, the terrestrial component generally accounted for two-thirds or more of total dose rates. PMID:10201565

  10. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  11. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  12. Calculation of. beta. -ray absorbed dose rate for /sup 131/I applied to the inflorescence of Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Bingo, K.; Tano, S.; Numakunai, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    1981-03-01

    Effects of /sup 131/I applied to the inflorescence on the induction of somatic mutations in Tradescantia stamen hairs were previously investigated, and the doubling dose (activity) was estimated to be 4 nCi. In the present paper, the absorbed dose rate in stamen hairs of Tradescantia for ..beta.. rays from the applied /sup 131/I was calculated. The doubling dose for the /sup 131/I (4 nCi) applied to the inflorescence was estimated to be higher than 0.3 rad (assuming uniform distribution of /sup 131/I on the surface of the buds and assuming that the shape of the buds was a sphere) and lower than 1.0 rad.

  13. Human absorbed dose estimation for a new (175)Yb-phosphonate based on rats data: Comparison with similar bone pain palliation agents.

    PubMed

    Vaez-Tehrani, Mahdokht; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Afarideh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the absorbed dose to human organs for (175)Yb-BPAMD was evaluated based on the biodistribution studies in rats. The results showed that the bone surface would receive the highest absorbed dose after injection of (175)Yb-BPAMD with 13.32mGy/MBq, while the other organs receive insignificant absorbed dose. Also, the comparison of (175)Yb-BPAMD with other therapeutic phosphonate complexes demonstrated noticeable characteristics for this new agent. Generally, based on the obtained results, (175)Yb-BPAMD can be considered as a promising agent for bone pain palliative therapy in near future. PMID:27337650

  14. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  15. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  16. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Absorbed Gamma-Ray Doses due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Moreira, Ramon H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G.

    2010-05-21

    This work is devoted to the application of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from naturally occurring radionuclides, namely {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, present in building materials such as sand, cement, and granitic gravel. Four models were applied to estimate the effective dose and the hazard indices. The maximum estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms considered is 0.90(45) mSv/yr, and maximum internal hazard index is 0.77(24), both for the compact clay brick reference room. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks.

  18. Absorbed Gamma-Ray Doses due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Moreira, Ramon H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G.

    2010-05-01

    This work is devoted to the application of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 40K, 232Th and 238U, present in building materials such as sand, cement, and granitic gravel. Four models were applied to estimate the effective dose and the hazard indices. The maximum estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms considered is 0.90(45) mSv/yr, and maximum internal hazard index is 0.77(24), both for the compact clay brick reference room. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks.

  19. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S.; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D.; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA ® for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and 192Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as 131I and 90Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ({{M}0},{{M}1},{{M}2} ), energy group structures ({{E}0},{{E}1},{{E}2} ) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders (≤ft. {{S}4},{{S}8},{{S}16}\\right) , and scattering order expansions ({{P}0} –{{P}6} ); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  ‑3% to  ‑20% with larger differences at lower energies (‑3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  ‑20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for 90Y and 131I were  ‑6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a

  20. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S.; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D.; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA ® for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and 192Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as 131I and 90Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ({{M}0},{{M}1},{{M}2} ), energy group structures ({{E}0},{{E}1},{{E}2} ) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders (≤ft. {{S}4},{{S}8},{{S}16}\\right) , and scattering order expansions ({{P}0} -{{P}6} ); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  -3% to  -20% with larger differences at lower energies (-3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  -20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for 90Y and 131I were  -6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a viable

  1. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-21

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA (®) for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and (192)Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as (131)I and (90)Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ([Formula: see text]), energy group structures ([Formula: see text]) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders ([Formula: see text], and scattering order expansions ([Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  -3% to  -20% with larger differences at lower energies (-3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  -20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for (90)Y and (131)I were  -6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a

  2. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-21

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA (®) for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and (192)Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as (131)I and (90)Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ([Formula: see text]), energy group structures ([Formula: see text]) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders ([Formula: see text], and scattering order expansions ([Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  -3% to  -20% with larger differences at lower energies (-3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  -20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for (90)Y and (131)I were  -6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a

  3. Experimental determination of the absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton beam using a water calorimeter and an ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnebin, Solange; Twerenbold, Damian; Pedroni, Eros; Meer, David; Zenklusen, Silvan; Bula, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The absorbed dose to water is the reference physical quantity for the energy absorbed in tissue when exposed to beams of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. The SI unit of absorbed dose to water is the gray (Gy = 1 J/kg). Ionization chambers are used as the dosimeters of choice in the clinical environment because they show a high reproducibility and are easy to use. However, ionization chambers have to be calibrated in order to convert the measured electrical charge into absorbed dose to water. In addition, protocols require these conversion factors to be SI traceable to a primary standard of absorbed dose to water. We present experimental results where the ionization chamber used for the dosimetry for the scanned proton beam facility at PSI is compared with the direct determination of absorbed dose to water from the METAS primary standard water calorimeter. The agreement of 3.2% of the dose values measured by the two techniques are within their respective statistical uncertainties.

  4. High-Dose 131I-Tositumomab (Anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Adjusting Radiation Absorbed Dose to Actual Organ Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, A K.; Durack, L. D.; Press, O. W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-06-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab has been used successfully to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgin's lymphoma (NHL). Our approach to treatment planning has been to determine limits on radiation absorbed close to critical nonhematopoietic organs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using CT to adjust for actual organ volumes in calculating organ-specific absorbed dose estimates. Methods: Records of 84 patients who underwent biodistribution studies after a trace-labeled infusion of 131I-tositumomab for RIT (January 1990 and April 2003) were reviewed. Serial planar -camera images and whole-body Nal probe counts were obtained to estimate 131I-antibody source-organ residence times as recommended by the MIRD Committee. The source-organ residence times for standard man or woman were adjusted by the ratio of the MIRD phantom organ mass to the CT-derived organ mass. Results: The mean radiation absorbed doses (in mGy/MBq) for our data using the MIRD model were lungs= 1.67; liver= 1.03; kidneys= 1.08; spleen= 2.67; and whole body= 0.3; and for CT volume-adjusted organ volumes (in mGy/MBq) were lungs= 1.30; liver= 0.92; kidneys= 0.76; spleen= 1.40; and whole body= 0.22. We determined the following correlation coefficients between the 2 methods for the various organs; lungs, 0.49; (P= 0.0001); liver, 0.64 (P= 0.004); kidneys, 0.45 (P= 0.0001), for the residence times. For therapy, patients received mean 131I administered activities of 19.2 GBq (520 mCi) after adjustment for CT-derived organ mass compared with 16.0 GBq (433 mCi) that would otherwise have been given had therapy been based only using standard MIRD organ volumes--a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: We observed large variations in organ masses among our patients. Our treatments were planned to deliver the maximally tolerated radiation dose to the dose-limiting normal organ. This work provides a simplified method for calculating patient-specific radiation

  5. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnica-Garza, H. M.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360° arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution.

  6. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors.

    PubMed

    Garnica-Garza, H M

    2009-09-21

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360 degrees arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution.

  7. [Spatial distribution of local absorbed doses inside the Russian segment of the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V A; Mitrikas, V G; Tsetlin, V V

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the procedure of operational radiation safety monitoring with the use of portable Pille-MKS dosimeters, presents the results of ISS dose measurements from September 22, 2003 (after Pille deployment on board the ISS) to March 16, 2011 (completion of the ISS-25 mission). The necessity of continuous dynamic tracking of the radiation environment in ISS compartments arises from the character and uniqueness of space ionizing radiation effects on crew. Radiation loading in the ISS compartments was analyzed and results of using different dosimeters were compared. Experimental radiation studies of the ISS piloted compartments are needed for reliable prediction of doses for the crew that still defy precise estimation. PMID:21970039

  8. Detector photon response and absorbed dose and their applications to rapid triage techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Shannon Prentice

    As radiation specialists, one of our primary objectives in the Navy is protecting people and the environment from the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Focusing on radiological dispersal devices (RDD) will provide increased personnel protection as well as optimize emergency response assets for the general public. An attack involving an RDD has been of particular concern because it is intended to spread contamination over a wide area and cause massive panic within the general population. A rapid method of triage will be necessary to segregate the unexposed and slightly exposed from those needing immediate medical treatment. Because of the aerosol dispersal of the radioactive material, inhalation of the radioactive material may be the primary exposure route. The primary radionuclides likely to be used in a RDD attack are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Sr-90 and Am-241. Through the use of a MAX phantom along with a few Simulink MATLAB programs, a good anthropomorphic phantom was created for use in MCNPX simulations that would provide organ doses from internally deposited radionuclides. Ludlum model 44-9 and 44-2 detectors were used to verify the simulated dose from the MCNPX code. Based on the results, acute dose rate limits were developed for emergency response personnel that would assist in patient triage.

  9. Tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate conjugated to gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Vega, E P; Zambrano-Ramírez, O D; Rojas-Calderón, E L; Ocampo-García, B E; Ferro-Flores, G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of the radiopharmaceuticals (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate (monomeric) and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate-gold nanoparticles (multimeric) using an experimental HeLa cells tumoral model and the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Experimental and computer micro-environment models with or without fibrosis were constructed. Results showed that fibrosis increases up to 33% the tumor radiation absorbed dose, although the major effect on the dose was produced by the type of radiopharmaceutical (112Gy-multimeric vs. 43Gy-monomeric).

  10. Tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate conjugated to gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Vega, E P; Zambrano-Ramírez, O D; Rojas-Calderón, E L; Ocampo-García, B E; Ferro-Flores, G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of the radiopharmaceuticals (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate (monomeric) and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate-gold nanoparticles (multimeric) using an experimental HeLa cells tumoral model and the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Experimental and computer micro-environment models with or without fibrosis were constructed. Results showed that fibrosis increases up to 33% the tumor radiation absorbed dose, although the major effect on the dose was produced by the type of radiopharmaceutical (112Gy-multimeric vs. 43Gy-monomeric). PMID:25305748

  11. Absorbed Radiation Dose in Radiosensitive Organs Using 64- and 320-Row Multidetector Computed Tomography: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Atif N.; Nikolic, Boris; Khan, Mohammad K.; Kang, Jian; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine absorbed radiation dose (ARD) in radiosensitive organs during prospective and full phase dose modulation using ECG-gated MDCTA scanner under 64- and 320-row detector modes. Methods. Female phantom was used to measure organ radiation dose. Five DP-3 radiation detectors were used to measure ARD to lungs, breast, and thyroid using the Aquilion ONE scanner in 64- and 320-row modes using both prospective and dose modulation in full phase acquisition. Five measurements were made using three tube voltages: 100, 120, and 135 kVp at 400 mA at heart rate (HR) of 60 and 75 bpm for each protocol. Mean acquisition was recorded in milligrays (mGy). Results. Mean ARD was less for 320-row versus 64-row mode for each imaging protocol. Prospective EKG-gated imaging protocol resulted in a statistically lower ARD using 320-row versus 64-row modes for midbreast (6.728 versus 19.687 mGy, P < 0.001), lung (6.102 versus 21.841 mGy, P < 0.001), and thyroid gland (0.208 versus 0.913 mGy; P < 0.001). Retrospective imaging using 320- versus 64-row modes showed lower ARD for midbreast (10.839 versus 43.169 mGy, P < 0.001), lung (8.848 versus 47.877 mGy, P < 0.001), and thyroid gland (0.057 versus 2.091 mGy; P < 0.001). ARD reduction was observed at lower kVp and heart rate. Conclusions. Dose reduction to radiosensitive organs is achieved using 320-row compared to 64-row modes for both prospective and retrospective gating, whereas 64-row mode is equivalent to the same model 64-row MDCT scanner. PMID:25170427

  12. A radiochromic folm dosimeter for gamma radiation in the absorbed-dose range 0.1-10 kGy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Hasan M.; Farahani, Mahnaz; William L., McLaughlin

    A commercially available leuco-dye film (FWT-63-02), having a thickness of 0.55 mm, has been investigated spectrophotometrically for its characteristics as a radiochromic dosimeter and for its potential use in food-irradiation applications. The γ-ray irradiation of the nearly colorless, transparent film induces blue color with an absorption maximum at 600 nm. The increase in absorbance at 600 nm per unit thickness of film (Δ A mm -1) is linear with dose in the dose range up to 8 kGy, with a slope of 0.91 mm -1·kGy -1. After a modest additional increase during the first day following irradiation, the radiation-induced color is stable when stored at room temperature at least for 5 weeks. The response slope is 16% higher when stored at 60°C, however, after the initial 1-day increase it is stable for several weeks when stored at that temperature. The response of the dosimeter is independent of dose rate in the range 0.5-170 Gy min -1.

  13. The development of early pediatric models and their application to radiation absorbed dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    This presentation will review and describe the development of pediatric phantoms for use in radiation dose calculations . The development of pediatric models for dose calculations essentially paralleled that of the adult. In fact, Snyder and Fisher at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reported on a series of phantoms for such calculations in 1966 about two years before the first MIRD publication on the adult human phantom. These phantoms, for a newborn, one-, five-, ten-, and fifteen-year old, were derived from the adult phantom. The ``pediatric`` models were obtained through a series of transformations applied to the major dimensions of the adult, which were specified in a Cartesian coordinate system. These phantoms suffered from the fact that no real consideration was given to the influence of these mathematical transformations on the actual organ sizes in the other models nor to the relation of the resulting organ masses to those in humans of the particular age. Later, an extensive effort was invested in designing ``individual`` pediatric phantoms for each age based upon a careful review of the literature. Unfortunately, the phantoms had limited use and only a small number of calculations were made available to the user community. Examples of the phantoms, their typical dimensions, common weaknesses, etc. will be discussed.

  14. The development of early pediatric models and their application to radiation absorbed dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation will review and describe the development of pediatric phantoms for use in radiation dose calculations . The development of pediatric models for dose calculations essentially paralleled that of the adult. In fact, Snyder and Fisher at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reported on a series of phantoms for such calculations in 1966 about two years before the first MIRD publication on the adult human phantom. These phantoms, for a newborn, one-, five-, ten-, and fifteen-year old, were derived from the adult phantom. The pediatric'' models were obtained through a series of transformations applied to the major dimensions of the adult, which were specified in a Cartesian coordinate system. These phantoms suffered from the fact that no real consideration was given to the influence of these mathematical transformations on the actual organ sizes in the other models nor to the relation of the resulting organ masses to those in humans of the particular age. Later, an extensive effort was invested in designing individual'' pediatric phantoms for each age based upon a careful review of the literature. Unfortunately, the phantoms had limited use and only a small number of calculations were made available to the user community. Examples of the phantoms, their typical dimensions, common weaknesses, etc. will be discussed.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Advances in the determination of absorbed dose to water in clinical high-energy photon and electron beams using ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiful Huq, M.; Andreo, Pedro

    2004-02-01

    During the last two decades, absorbed dose to water in clinical photon and electron beams was determined using dosimetry protocols and codes of practice based on radiation metrology standards of air kerma. It is now recommended that clinical reference dosimetry be based on standards of absorbed dose to water. Newer protocols for the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams, based on the use of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, ND,w, in a standards laboratory's reference quality beam, have been published by several national or regional scientific societies and international organizations. Since the publication of these protocols multiple theoretical and experimental dosimetry comparisons between the various ND,w based recommendations, and between the ND,w and the former air kerma (NK) based protocols, have been published. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the dosimetry protocols based on these standards and of the intercomparisons of the different protocols published in the literature, discussing the reasons for the observed discrepancies between them. A summary of the various types of standards of absorbed dose to water, together with an analysis of the uncertainties along the various steps of the dosimetry chain for the two types of formalism, is also included. It is emphasized that the NK-ND,air and ND,w formalisms have very similar uncertainty when the same criteria are used for both procedures. Arguments are provided in support of the recommendation for a change in reference dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water.

  16. Influence of the characteristic curve on the clinical image quality and patient absorbed dose in lumbar spine radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingberg, Anders; Herrmann, Clemens; Lanhede, Birgitta; Almen, Anja; Mattsson, Saron; Panzer, Werner; Besjakov, Jack; Mansson, Lars G.; Kheddache, Susanne; Zankl, Maria

    2001-06-01

    The 'European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images' do not address the choice of film characteristic (H/D) curve, which is an important parameter for the description of a radiographic screen-film system. Since it is not possible to investigate this influence by taking repeated exposures of the same patients on films with systematically varied H/D curves, patient images of lumbar spine were digitised in the current study. The image contrast was altered by digital image processing techniques, simulating images with H/D curves varying from flat over standard latitude to a film type steeper than a mammography film. The manipulated images were printed on film for evaluation. Seven European radiologists evaluated the clinical image quality of in total 224 images by analysing the fulfilment of the European Image Criteria and by visual grading analysis of the images. The results show that the local quality can be significantly improved by the application of films with a steeper film H/D curve compared to the standard latitude film. For images with an average optical density of about 1.25, the application of the steeper film results in a reduction of patient absorbed dose by about 10-15% without a loss of diagnostically relevant image information. The results also show that the patient absorbed dose reduction obtained by altering the tube voltage from 70 kV to 90 kV coincides with a loss of image information that cannot be compensated for by simply changing the shape of the H/D curve.

  17. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, M.; Pimpinella, M.; Quini, M.; D'Arienzo, M.; Astefanoaei, I.; Loreti, S.; Guerra, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm-2, and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min-1, results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D w, were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D w and D wK were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D w uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D w, it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  18. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  19. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Ahmad, Pauzi; Zulkafli, Hashim, Siti A'aisah

    2014-09-01

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD5, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  20. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  1. Toward the development of transcriptional biodosimetry for the identification of irradiated individuals and assessment of absorbed radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Brzóska, Kamil; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    The most frequently used and the best established method of biological dosimetry at present is the dicentric chromosome assay, which is poorly suitable for a mass casualties scenario. This gives rise to the need for the development of new, high-throughput assays for rapid identification of the subjects exposed to ionizing radiation. In the present study, we tested the usefulness of gene expression analysis in blood cells for biological dosimetry. Human peripheral blood from three healthy donors was X-irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 0.6, and 2 Gy. The mRNA level of 16 genes (ATF3, BAX, BBC3, BCL2, CDKN1A, DDB2, FDXR, GADD45A, GDF15, MDM2, PLK3, SERPINE1, SESN2, TNFRSF10B, TNFSF4, and VWCE) was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after exposure with ITFG1 and DPM1 used as a reference genes. The panel of radiation-responsive genes was selected comprising GADD45A, CDKN1A, BAX, BBC3, DDB2, TNFSF4, GDF15, and FDXR. Cluster analysis showed that ΔC t values of the selected genes contained sufficient information to allow discrimination between irradiated and non-irradiated blood samples. The samples were clearly grouped according to the absorbed doses of radiation and not to the time interval after irradiation or to the blood donor. PMID:25972268

  2. Estimated human absorbed dose of ¹⁷⁷Lu-BPAMD based on mice data: Comparison with ¹⁷⁷Lu-EDTMP.

    PubMed

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the absorbed dose of human organs for (177)Lu-BPAMD was evaluated based on biodistribution studies into the Syrian mice by RADAR method and was compared with (177)Lu-EDTMP as the only clinically used Lu-177 bone-seeking agent. The highest absorbed dose for both (177)Lu-BPAMD and (177)Lu-EDTMP is observed on the bone surface with 8.007 and 4.802 mSv/MBq. Generally, (177)Lu-BPAMD has considerable characteristics compared with (177)Lu-EDTMP and can be considered as a promising agent for the bone pain palliation therapy. PMID:26163291

  3. Accuracy and optimal timing of activity measurements in estimating the absorbed dose of radioiodine in the treatment of Graves' disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, S.; Horowitz, J.; Traino, A. C.; Chipkin, S. R.; Hollot, C. V.; Chait, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Calculation of the therapeutic activity of radioiodine 131I for individualized dosimetry in the treatment of Graves' disease requires an accurate estimate of the thyroid absorbed radiation dose based on a tracer activity administration of 131I. Common approaches (Marinelli-Quimby formula, MIRD algorithm) use, respectively, the effective half-life of radioiodine in the thyroid and the time-integrated activity. Many physicians perform one, two, or at most three tracer dose activity measurements at various times and calculate the required therapeutic activity by ad hoc methods. In this paper, we study the accuracy of estimates of four 'target variables': time-integrated activity coefficient, time of maximum activity, maximum activity, and effective half-life in the gland. Clinical data from 41 patients who underwent 131I therapy for Graves' disease at the University Hospital in Pisa, Italy, are used for analysis. The radioiodine kinetics are described using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. The distributions of the target variables in the patient population are characterized. Using minimum root mean squared error as the criterion, optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules are determined for estimation of the target variables, and probabilistic bounds are given for the errors under the optimal times. An algorithm is developed for computing the optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules for the target variables. This algorithm is implemented in a freely available software tool. Taking into consideration 131I effective half-life in the thyroid and measurement noise, the optimal 1-point time for time-integrated activity coefficient is a measurement 1 week following the tracer dose. Additional measurements give only a slight improvement in accuracy.

  4. Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung and secondary electrons induced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams in thick targets.

    PubMed

    Takada, Masashi; Kosako, Kazuaki; Oishi, Koji; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Kouichi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2013-03-01

    Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung photons and secondary electrons at a wide range of emission angles from 0 to 135°, were experimentally obtained using an ion chamber with a 0.6 cm(3) air volume covered with or without a build-up cap. The Bremsstrahlung photons and electrons were produced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams bombarding tungsten, copper, aluminium and carbon targets. The absorbed doses were also calculated from simulated photon and electron energy spectra by multiplying simulated response functions of the ion chambers, simulated with the MCNPX code. Calculated-to-experimental (C/E) dose ratios obtained are from 0.70 to 1.57 for high-Z targets of W and Cu, from 15 to 135° and the C/E range from 0.6 to 1.4 at 0°; however, the values of C/E for low-Z targets of Al and C are from 0.5 to 1.8 from 0 to 135°. Angular distributions at the forward angles decrease with increasing angles; on the other hand, the angular distributions at the backward angles depend on the target species. The dependences of absorbed doses on electron energy and target thickness were compared between the measured and simulated results. The attenuation profiles of absorbed doses of Bremsstrahlung beams at 0, 30 and 135° were also measured.

  5. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-06: Y90 PET/CT for the Instantaneous Determination of Both Target and Non-Target Absorbed Doses Following Hepatic Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Pasciak, A; Kao, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose The process of converting Yttrium-90 (Y90) PET/CT images into 3D absorbed dose maps will be explained. The simple methods presented will allow the medical physicst to analyze Y90 PET images following radioembolization and determine the absorbed dose to tumor, normal liver parenchyma and other areas of interest, without application of Monte-Carlo radiation transport or dose-point-kernel (DPK) convolution. Methods Absorbed dose can be computed from Y90 PET/CT images based on the premise that radioembolization is a permanent implant with a constant relative activity distribution after infusion. Many Y90 PET/CT publications have used DPK convolution to obtain 3D absorbed dose maps. However, this method requires specialized software limiting clinical utility. The Local Deposition method, an alternative to DPK convolution, can be used to obtain absorbed dose and requires no additional computer processing. Pixel values from regions of interest drawn on Y90 PET/CT images can be converted to absorbed dose (Gy) by multiplication with a scalar constant. Results There is evidence that suggests the Local Deposition method may actually be more accurate than DPK convolution and it has been successfully used in a recent Y90 PET/CT publication. We have analytically compared dose-volume-histograms (DVH) for phantom hot-spheres to determine the difference between the DPK and Local Deposition methods, as a function of PET scanner point-spread-function for Y90. We have found that for PET/CT systems with a FWHM greater than 3.0 mm when imaging Y90, the Local Deposition Method provides a more accurate representation of DVH, regardless of target size than DPK convolution. Conclusion Using the Local Deposition Method, post-radioembolization Y90 PET/CT images can be transformed into 3D absorbed dose maps of the liver. An interventional radiologist or a Medical Physicist can perform this transformation in a clinical setting, allowing for rapid prediction of treatment efficacy by

  6. First international comparison of primary absorbed dose to water standards in the medium-energy X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, Ludwig; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Pimpinella, Maria; Pinto, Massimo; de Pooter, Jacco; de Prez, Leon; Jansen, Bartel; Denoziere, Marc; Rapp, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first international comparison of primary measurement standards of absorbed dose to water for the medium-energy X-ray range. Three of the participants (VSL, PTB, LNE-LNHB) used their existing water calorimeter based standards and one participant (ENEA) recently developed a new standard based on a water-graphite calorimeter. The participants calibrated three transfer chambers of the same type in terms of absorbed dose to water (NDw) and in addition in terms of air kerma (NK) using the CCRI radiation qualities in the range 100 kV to 250 kV. The additional NK values were intended to be used for a physical analysis of the ratios NDw/NK. All participants had previously participated in the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of air kerma standards. Ratios of pairs of NMI's NK results of the current comparison were found to be consistent with the corresponding key comparison results within the expanded uncertainties of 0.6 % - 1 %. The NDw results were analysed in terms of the degrees of equivalence with the comparison reference values which were calculated for each beam quality as the weighted means of all results. The participant's results were consistent with the reference value within the expanded uncertainties. However, these expanded uncertainties varied significantly and ranged between about 1-1.8 % for the water calorimeter based standards and were estimated at 3.7 % for the water-graphite calorimeter. It was shown previously that the ratios NDw/NK for the type of ionization chamber used as transfer chamber in this comparison were very close (within less than 1 %) to the calculated values of (bar muen/ρ)w,ad, the mean values of the water-to-air ratio of the mass-energy-absorption coefficients at the depth d in water. Some of the participant's results deviated significantly from the expected behavior. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of

  7. SU-E-T-516: Measurement of the Absorbed Dose Rate in Water Under Reference Conditions in a CyberKnife Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Martinez, N; Hernandez-Guzman, A; Gomez-Munoz, A; Massillon-JL, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to measure the absorbed-dose-rate in a CyberKnife unit reference-field (6cm diameter) using three ionization chambers (IC) following the new IAEA/AAPM formalism and Gafchromic film (MD-V3-55 and EBT3) protocol according to our work reported previously. Methods: The absorbed-dose-rates were measured at 90cm and 70cm SSD in a 10cmx10cm field and at 70cm SSD in a 5.4cmx5.4cm equivalent to 6cm diameter field using a linac Varian iX. All measurements were performed at 10cm depth in water. The correction factors that account for the difference between the IC response on the reference field and the CyberKnife reference field, k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref), were evaluated and Gafchromic film were calibrated using the results obtained above. Under the CyberKnife reference conditions, the factors were used to measure the absorbed-dose-rate with IC according to the new formalism and the calibrated film was irradiated in water. The film calibration curve was used to evaluate the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife unit. Results: Difference up to 2.56% is observed between dose-rate measured with IC in the reference 10cmx10cm field, depending where the chamber was calibrated, which was not reflected in the correction factor k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref ) where variations of ~0.15%-0.5% were obtained. Within measurements uncertainties, maximum difference of 1.8% on the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife reference field is observed between all IC and the films Conclusion: Absorbed-dose-rate to water was measured in a CyberKnife reference field with acceptable accuracy (combined uncertainties ~1.32%-1.73%, k=1) using three IC and films. The MD-V3-55 film as well as the new IAEA/AAPM formalism can be considered as a suitable dosimetric method to measure absorbed-dose-rate to water in small and non-standard CyberKnife fields used in clinical treatments However, the EBT3 film is not appropriated due to the high uncertainty provided (combined uncertainty ~9%, k=1

  8. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Tucker, Susan; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  9. The effect of systematic set-up deviations on the absorbed dose distribution for left-sided breast cancer treated with respiratory gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, A.; Ceberg, S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to investigate interfraction set-up uncertainties for patients treated with respiratory gating for left-sided breast cancer, 2) to investigate the effect of the inter-fraction set-up on the absorbed dose-distribution for the target and organs at risk (OARs) and 3) optimize the set-up correction strategy. By acquiring multiple set-up images the systematic set-up deviation was evaluated. The effect of the systematic set-up deviation on the absorbed dose distribution was evaluated by 1) simulation in the treatment planning system and 2) measurements with a biplanar diode array. The set-up deviations could be decreased using a no action level correction strategy. Not using the clinically implemented adaptive maximum likelihood factor for the gating patients resulted in better set-up. When the uncorrected set-up deviations were simulated the average mean absorbed dose was increased from 1.38 to 2.21 Gy for the heart, 4.17 to 8.86 Gy to the left anterior descending coronary artery and 5.80 to 7.64 Gy to the left lung. Respiratory gating can induce systematic set-up deviations which would result in increased mean absorbed dose to the OARs if not corrected for and should therefore be corrected for by an appropriate correction strategy.

  10. A 3-Dimensional Absorbed Dose Calculation Method Based on Quantitative SPECT for Radionuclide Therapy: Evaluation for 131I Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen, Katarina; Liu, Xiaowei; Frey, Eric; Dewaraja, Yuni; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    A general method is presented for patient-specific 3-dimensional absorbed dose calculations based on quantitative SPECT activity measurements. Methods The computational scheme includes a method for registration of the CT image to the SPECT image and position-dependent compensation for attenuation, scatter, and collimator detector response performed as part of an iterative reconstruction method. A method for conversion of the measured activity distribution to a 3-dimensional absorbed dose distribution, based on the EGS4 (electron-gamma shower, version 4) Monte Carlo code, is also included. The accuracy of the activity quantification and the absorbed dose calculation is evaluated on the basis of realistic Monte Carlo–simulated SPECT data, using the SIMIND (simulation of imaging nuclear detectors) program and a voxel-based computer phantom. CT images are obtained from the computer phantom, and realistic patient movements are added relative to the SPECT image. The SPECT-based activity concentration and absorbed dose distributions are compared with the true ones. Results Correction could be made for object scatter, photon attenuation, and scatter penetration in the collimator. However, inaccuracies were imposed by the limited spatial resolution of the SPECT system, for which the collimator response correction did not fully compensate. Conclusion The presented method includes compensation for most parameters degrading the quantitative image information. The compensation methods are based on physical models and therefore are generally applicable to other radionuclides. The proposed evaluation methodology may be used as a basis for future intercomparison of different methods. PMID:12163637

  11. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  12. Absorbed dose estimates for positron emission tomography (PET): C/sup 15/O, /sup 11/CO, and CO/sup 15/O

    SciTech Connect

    Kearfott, K.J.

    1982-11-01

    Regional cerebral blood volume and blood flow may be determined using PET and C/sup 15/O, /sup 11/CO, and CO/sup 15/O. Detailed estimates of radiation absorbed dose for 22 organs and the whole body are reported and compared for these gases administered by continuous or bolus inhalation and by infusion techniques.

  13. Evaluation of absorbed dose in irradiated sugar-containing plant material (peony roots) by an ESR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of irradiated plant materials and sugar content was investigated by spectral analysis using peony roots. A weak background signal near g=2.005 was observed in the roots. After a 10 kGy irradiation, the ESR line broadened and the intensity increased, and the spectral characteristics were similar to a typical spectrum of irradiated food containing crystalline sugars. The free radical concentration was nearly stable 30 days after irradiation. The spectrum of peony root 30 days after irradiation was simulated using the summation of the intensities of six assumed components: radical signals derived from (a) sucrose, (b) glucose, (c) fructose, (d) cellulose, (e) the background signal near g=2.005 and (f) unidentified component. The simulated spectra using the six components were in agreement with the observed sample spectra. The intensity of sucrose radical signal in irradiated samples increased proportionally up to 20 kGy. In addition, the intensity of sucrose radical signals was strongly correlated with the sucrose contents of the samples. The results showed that the radiation sensitivity of sucrose in peony roots was influenced little by other plant constituents. There was also a good correlation between the total area of the spectra and the sucrose content, because the sucrose content was higher than that of other sugars in the samples. In peony roots, estimation of the absorbed dose from the ESR signal intensity may be possible by a calibration method based on the sucrose content.

  14. Determination of absorbed dose of ozone (O3) in animals and humans using stable-isotope (oxygen-18) tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.E.; Aissa, M.

    1987-05-01

    A method for the determination of absorbed dose of ozone (O3) in animals and humans using oxygen-18 YO as a physiological tracer is presented. The experimental aspects of the method are based on the instantaneous pyrolysis of tissue samples and subsequent conversion of the sample oxygen to carbon monoxide then to carbon dioxide whose isotopic composition is determined by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. A mathematical procedure is then used to correct the isotopic data for interferences from the blank and memory effects and from the iodine pentoxide oxidation of CO to CO2. Laboratory animals were exposed to YO3 (1 ppm, 1 hr) then tissues were dried and processed for YO measurement. Enrichments in YO over natural abundance YO was observed in lung homogenates, nasal cavities, trachea, and pulmonary lavage fluids but not in blood of mice, rats, and rabbits. Thus, the YO tracing method appears to be sensitive enough to detect the reaction products of YO in animals exposed to near environmental concentrations of this gas.

  15. Comparison of the NMIJ and the ARPANSA standards for absorbed dose to water in high-energy photon beams.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Morishita, Y; Kato, M; Tanaka, T; Kurosawa, T; Takata, N; Saito, N; Ramanathan, G; Harty, P D; Oliver, C; Wright, T; Butler, D J

    2015-04-01

    The authors report the results of an indirect comparison of the standards of absorbed dose to water in high-energy photon beams from a clinical linac and (60)Co radiation beam performed between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). Three ionisation chambers were calibrated by the NMIJ in April and June 2013 and by the ARPANSA in May 2013. The average ratios of the calibration coefficients for the three ionisation chambers obtained by the NMIJ to those obtained by the ARPANSA were 0.9994, 1.0040 and 1.0045 for 6-, 10- and 15-MV (18 MV at the ARPANSA) high-energy photon beams, respectively. The relative standard uncertainty of the value was 7.2 × 10(-3). The ratio for (60)Co radiation was 0.9986(66), which is consistent with the results published in the key comparison of BIPM.RI(I)-K4.

  16. Determination of absorbed dose in high-energy electron and photon radiation by means of an uncalibrated ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Klevenhagen, S C

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a dosimetric method based on an ionization chamber which has an uncalibrated sensitive volume but which behaves as a Bragg-Gray cavity in high-energy radiation. The new type of chamber developed in the course of this study has a variable volume and is constructed from water-similar materials. It can be used in a water phantom directly in a beam of a therapy megavoltage machine under clinical conditions. The chamber allows absorbed dose to be determined from first principles, overcoming many of the problems encountered with conventional dosimetry based on calibrated chambers. The study involved an intercomparison of the performance of the new chamber in high-energy electron and photon radiation with the conventional calibrated chambers employed according to the established dosimetry protocols. Good agreement was found between these dosimetric methods and it may therefore be concluded that the method developed in this work can be successfully employed for absolute dosimetry. The new chamber is a promising device for research in various aspects of dosimetry.

  17. Case control study to assess the possibility of decrease the risk of osteoradionecrosis in relation to the dose of radiation absorbed by the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Fabrizio; Bucalo, Concetta; Saggese, Vito; Monai, Dario; Porcaro, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Summary Aims the assessment of the limit dose for the organs at risk in external radiotherapy is a fundamental step to guarantee an optimal risk-benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to assess, through contouring the single dental cavities, the absorbed radiation dose on irradiated alveolar bones during the treatment of cervico-facial tumours, so as to test the correlation between the absorbed dose of radiation at alveolar level and the level of individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis. Materials and methods we selected 45 out of 89 patients on the basis of different exclusion criteria. Nine of these patients showed evidence of osteoradionecrosis. The patients were treated either with 3D conformational radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), there after alveolar bones were contoured using computed axial tomography (CAT scans) carried out following oncological and dental treatment. The dose-volume histograms (DVH) were obtained on the basis of such data, which included those relating to the dental cavities in addition to those inherent to the tumours and the organs at risk. Results all patients, irrespective of type of treatment, received an average of 60 to 70 grays in 30/35 sittings. The patients treated with IMRT showed higher variation in absorbed radiation dose than those treated with 3D-CRT. The alveolar encirclement allowed the assessment of the absorbed radiation dose, and consequently it also allowed to assess the individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis in patients with head and neck tumours who underwent radiography treatment. Conclusions the study of DVH allows the assessment of limit dose and the detection of the areas at greater risk for osteoradionecrosis before dental surgery. PMID:23285316

  18. Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi; Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki; Kawamura, Shinji

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90°) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol

  19. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams. PMID:26841127

  20. Direct measurement of absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy: Water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Kawrakow, Iwan; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. All results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.

  1. Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR {sup 192}Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjaern, Haakan; Olsson, Sara; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a {sup 60}Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al.[Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a {sup 137}Cs beam than in a {sup 60}Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around {sup 192}Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam. Methods: LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users'{sup 192}Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Results: Measured absorbed doses to water around the {sup 192}Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the results using

  2. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  3. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  4. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results.

  5. Measurement of absorbed dose to water around an electronic brachytherapy source. Comparison of two dosimetry systems: lithium formate EPR dosimeters and radiochromic EBT2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfsson, Emelie; White, Shane; Landry, Guillaume; Lund, Eva; Gustafsson, Håkan; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2015-05-01

    Interest in high dose rate (HDR) electronic brachytherapy operating at 50 kV is increasing. For quality assurance it is important to identify dosimetry systems that can measure the absorbed doses in absolute terms which is difficult in this energy region. In this work a comparison is made between two dosimetry systems, EPR lithium formate dosimeters and radiochromic EBT2 film. Both types of dosimeters were irradiated simultaneously in a PMMA phantom using the Axxent EBS. Absorbed dose to water was determined at distances of 10 mm, 30 mm and 50 mm from the EBS. Results were traceable to different primary standards as regards to absorbed dose to water (EPR) and air kerma (EBT2). Monte Carlo simulations were used in absolute terms as a third estimate of absorbed dose to water. Agreement within the estimated expanded (k = 2) uncertainties (5% (EPR), 7% (EBT2)) was found between the results at 30 mm and 50 mm from the x-ray source. The same result was obtained in 4 repetitions of irradiation, indicating high precision in the measurements with both systems. At all distances, agreement between EPR and Monte Carlo simulations was shown as was also the case for the film measurements at 30mm and 50mm. At 10mm the geometry for the film measurements caused too large uncertainty in measured values depending on the exact position (within sub-mm distances) of the EBS and the 10 mm film results were exculded from comparison. This work has demonstrated good performance of the lithium formate EPR dosimetry system in accordance with earlier experiments at higher photon energies (192Ir HDR brachytherapy). It was also highlighted that there might be issues regarding the energy dependence and intrinsic efficiency of the EBT2 film that need to be considered for measurements using low energy sources.

  6. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  7. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-hynic-Tyr3-octreotide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr3-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. 99mTc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of 99mhynic-Tyr3-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  8. Role of shielding in modulating the effects of solar particle events: Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose and DNA complex lesions in different organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Zankl, M.

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes - such as FLUKA - yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy -1 Da -1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm 2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for

  9. Comparison of the action spectra and relative DNA absorbance spectra of microorganisms: information important for the determination of germicidal fluence (UV dose) in an ultraviolet disinfection of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren Zhuo; Craik, Stephen A; Bolton, James R

    2009-12-01

    The action spectra of Bacillus subtilis spores (ATCC6633) and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were characterized using physical radiometry for irradiance measurements and a multiple target model to interpret the inactivation kinetics. The observed action spectrum of B. subtilis spores deviated significantly from the relative absorbance spectrum of the DNA purified from the spores, but matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of decoated spores. The action spectrum of B. subtilis spores determined in this study was statistically different from those reported in previous studies. On the other hand, the action spectrum of S. typhimurium bacteria matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of DNA extracted from vegetative cells, except in the region below 240nm. It is concluded that the common use of the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as a surrogate for the germicidal action spectrum can result in systematic errors when evaluating the performance of a polychromatic UV light reactors using bioassays. For example, if the weighted germicidal fluence (UV dose) calculated using the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as the germicidal weighting factor is found to be 40mJcm(-2) for a medium pressure lamp UV reactor, that calculated using the relative action spectrum of B. subtilis spores, as determined in this study, would be 66mJcm(-2). PMID:19762061

  10. Comparison of the action spectra and relative DNA absorbance spectra of microorganisms: information important for the determination of germicidal fluence (UV dose) in an ultraviolet disinfection of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren Zhuo; Craik, Stephen A; Bolton, James R

    2009-12-01

    The action spectra of Bacillus subtilis spores (ATCC6633) and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were characterized using physical radiometry for irradiance measurements and a multiple target model to interpret the inactivation kinetics. The observed action spectrum of B. subtilis spores deviated significantly from the relative absorbance spectrum of the DNA purified from the spores, but matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of decoated spores. The action spectrum of B. subtilis spores determined in this study was statistically different from those reported in previous studies. On the other hand, the action spectrum of S. typhimurium bacteria matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of DNA extracted from vegetative cells, except in the region below 240nm. It is concluded that the common use of the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as a surrogate for the germicidal action spectrum can result in systematic errors when evaluating the performance of a polychromatic UV light reactors using bioassays. For example, if the weighted germicidal fluence (UV dose) calculated using the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as the germicidal weighting factor is found to be 40mJcm(-2) for a medium pressure lamp UV reactor, that calculated using the relative action spectrum of B. subtilis spores, as determined in this study, would be 66mJcm(-2).

  11. Ion chamber absorbed dose calibration coefficients, N{sub D,w}, measured at ADCLs: Distribution analysis and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To analyze absorbed dose calibration coefficients, N{sub D,w}, measured at accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories (ADCLs) for client ionization chambers to study (i) variability among N{sub D,w} coefficients for chambers of the same type calibrated at each ADCL to investigate ion chamber volume fluctuations and chamber manufacturing tolerances; (ii) equivalency of ion chamber calibration coefficients measured at different ADCLs by intercomparing N{sub D,w} coefficients for chambers of the same type; and (iii) the long-term stability of N{sub D,w} coefficients for different chamber types by investigating repeated chamber calibrations. Methods: Large samples of N{sub D,w} coefficients for several chamber types measured over the time period between 1998 and 2014 were obtained from the three ADCLs operating in the United States. These are analyzed using various graphical and numerical statistical tests for the four chamber types with the largest samples of calibration coefficients to investigate (i) and (ii) above. Ratios of calibration coefficients for the same chamber, typically obtained two years apart, are calculated to investigate (iii) above and chambers with standard deviations of old/new ratios less than 0.3% meet stability requirements for accurate reference dosimetry recommended in dosimetry protocols. Results: It is found that N{sub D,w} coefficients for a given chamber type compared among different ADCLs may arise from differing probability distributions potentially due to slight differences in calibration procedures and/or the transfer of the primary standard. However, average N{sub D,w} coefficients from different ADCLs for given chamber types are very close with percent differences generally less than 0.2% for Farmer-type chambers and are well within reported uncertainties. Conclusions: The close agreement among calibrations performed at different ADCLs reaffirms the Calibration Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee process of ensuring

  12. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 μGy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after

  13. Comparison of MCNPX and GEANT4 to Predict the Contribution of Non-elastic Nuclear Interactions to Absorbed Dose in Water, PMMA and A150

    SciTech Connect

    Shtejer, K.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.; Rodrigues, T. E.; Schulte, R.; Wroe, A.; Menezes, M. O. de; Moralles, M.

    2008-08-11

    Proton induced non-elastic nuclear reactions play an important role in the dose distribution of clinically used proton beams as they deposit dose of high biological effectiveness both within the primary beam path as well as outside the beam to untargeted tissues. Non-elastic nuclear reactions can be evaluated using transport codes based on the Monte Carlo method. In this work, we have utilized the Los Alamos code MCNPX and the CERN GEANT4 toolkit, which are currently the most widely used Monte Carlo programs for proton radiation transport simulations in medical physics, to study the contribution of non-elastic nuclear interactions to the absorbed dose of proton beams in the therapeutic energy range. The impact of different available theoretical models to address the nuclear reaction process was investigated. The contribution of secondary particles from non-elastic nuclear reactions was calculated in three materials relevant in radiotherapy applications: water, PMMA and A150. The results evidence that there are differences in the calculated contribution of the secondary particles heavier than protons to the absorbed dose, with different approaches to model the nuclear reactions. The MCNPX calculation give rise to a larger contribution of d, t, {alpha}{sup 3}He to the total dose compared to the GEANT4 physical models chosen in this work.

  14. KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the ENEA-INMRI (Italy) and the BIPM for 60Co γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Burns, D. T.; Guerra, A. S.; Laitano, R. F.; Pimpinella, M.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy (ENEA-INMRI), and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co gamma radiation under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for three transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the ENEA and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9999 (0.0044). The present 2007 result replaces the earlier ENEA value in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence between the ENEA and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix for the ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) that have published results in this ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. Efficacy of a Radiation Absorbing Shield in Reducing Dose to the Interventionalist During Peripheral Endovascular Procedures: A Single Centre Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Power, S.; Mirza, M.; Thakorlal, A.; Ganai, B.; Gavagan, L. D.; Given, M. F.; Lee, M. J.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures.Materials and MethodsA commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used to measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated.ResultsTLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142).ConclusionInitial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator’s body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.

  16. Calculated and TLD-based absorbed dose estimates for I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody in a human neuroblastoma xenograft nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ugur, O; Scott, A M; Kostakoglu, L; Hui, T E; Masterson, M E; Febo, R; Sgouros, G; Rosa, E; Mehta, B M; Fisher, D R

    1995-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of the therapeutic potential of radiolabeled antibodies is commonly performed in a xenografted nude mouse model. To assess therapeutic efficacy it is important to estimate the absorbed dose to the tumor and normal tissues of the nude mouse. The current study was designed to accurately measure radiation does to human neuroblastoma xenografts and normal organs in nude mice treated with I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against disialoganglioside GD2 antigen. Absorbed dose estimates were obtained using two different approaches: (1) measurement with teflon-imbedded CaSO4:Dy mini-thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and (2) calculations using mouse S-factors. The calculated total dose to tumor one week after i.v. injection of the 50 microCi I-131-3F8 MoAb was 604 cGy. The corresponding decay corrected and not corrected TLD measurements were 109 +/- 9 and 48.7 +/- 3.4 cGy respectively. The calculated to TLD-derived dose ratios for tumor ranged from 6.1 at 24 h to 5.5 at 1 week. The light output fading rate was found to depend upon the tissue type within which the TLDs were implanted. The decay rate in tumor, muscle, subcutaneous tissue and in vitro, were 9.5, 5.0, 3.7 and 0.67% per day, respectively. We have demonstrated that the type of tissue in which the TLD was implanted strongly influenced the in vivo decay of light output. Even with decay correction, a significant discrepancy was observed between MIRD-based calculated and CaSO4:Dy mini-TLD measured absorbed doses. Batch dependence, pH of the tumor or other variables associated with TLDs which are not as yet well known may account for this discrepancy.

  17. Estimation of absorbed dose to the kidneys in patients after treatment with 177Lu-octreotate: comparison between methods based on planar scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lu-[DOTA0, Tyr3]-octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) is used to treat neuroendocrine tumors with high somatostatin-receptor expression. 177Lu-octreotate is mainly excreted via the kidneys, but to some extent, accumulates in the kidney cortex due to, e.g., tubular reabsorption. Renal toxicity is one of the main limiting factors in 177Lu-octreotate treatment. Further knowledge of the biodistribution and dosimetry of 177Lu-octreotate in individual patients is needed. The aim of this study was to estimate the absorbed dose to the kidneys and compare the results obtained with planar imaging and different dosimetric methods: (1) conjugate-view (CV) method using patient-specific kidney sizes, (2) PA method, based on posterior images only, (3) CV method with reduced number of time points (CVreduced data), and (4) CV method using standard kidney sizes (CVstandard size). Methods Totally, 33 patients each received 3.4 to 8.2 GBq of 177Lu-octreotate up to five times, with infusion of lysine and arginine to block the renal uptake. Whole-body planar gamma camera images were acquired on days 0, 1, 2, and 7. The 177Lu concentration in the kidneys was determined by the CV method, and the absorbed dose was estimated with patient-specific organ sizes. Comparison to the CV method was made using posterior images only, together with the influence of the number of time points and with standard organ sizes. Results Large interindividual variations were found in the time-activity curve pattern and in the absorbed dose to the kidneys using the CV method: 0.33 to 2.4 Gy/GBq (mean =  0.80 Gy/GBq, SD = 0.30). In the individual patient, the mean deviation of all subsequent kidney doses compared to that of the first administration was 1% (SD = 19%) and 5% (SD = 23%) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Excluding data for day 7 resulted in large variations in the absorbed dose. Conclusion Large interindividual variations in kidney dose were found, demonstrating the

  18. Using LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around an {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, P. Avilés Aubineau-Lanièce, I.; Lourenço, V.; Vermesse, D.; Cutarella, D.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The absorbed dose to water is the fundamental reference quantity for brachytherapy treatment planning systems and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have been recognized as the most validated detectors for measurement of such a dosimetric descriptor. The detector response in a wide energy spectrum as that of an{sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source as well as the specific measurement medium which surrounds the TLD need to be accounted for when estimating the absorbed dose. This paper develops a methodology based on highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to directly estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around a high dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source. Methods: Different experimental designs in liquid water and air were constructed to study the response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs when irradiated in several standard photon beams of the LNE-LNHB (French national metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation). Measurement strategies and Monte Carlo techniques were developed to calibrate the LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors in the energy interval characteristic of that found when TLDs are immersed in water around an{sup 192}Ir source. Finally, an experimental system was designed to irradiate TLDs at different angles between 1 and 11 cm away from an {sup 192}Ir source in liquid water. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to correct measured results to provide estimates of the absorbed dose to water in water around the {sup 192}Ir source. Results: The dose response dependence of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs with the linear energy transfer of secondary electrons followed the same variations as those of published results. The calibration strategy which used TLDs in air exposed to a standard N-250 ISO x-ray beam and TLDs in water irradiated with a standard{sup 137}Cs beam provided an estimated mean uncertainty of 2.8% (k = 1) in the TLD calibration coefficient for irradiations by the {sup 192}Ir source in water. The 3D TLD measurements performed in liquid water were obtained with a

  19. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays-leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  20. SU-F-18C-08: A Validation Study of a Commercially Available Software Package's Absorbed Dose Estimates in a Physical Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Supanich, M; Siegelman, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This study assesses the accuracy of the absorbed dose estimates from CT scans generated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a commercially available radiation dose monitoring software program. Methods: Axial CT studies of an anthropomorphic abdomen phantom with dose bores at a central location and 4 peripheral locations were conducted using a fixed tube current at 120 kV. A 100 mm ion chamber and a 0.6 cc ion chamber calibrated at diagnostic energy levels were used to measure dose in the phantom at each of the 5 dose bore locations. Simulations using the software program's Monte Carlo engine were run using a mathematical model of the anthropomorphic phantom to determine conversion coefficients between the CTDIvol used for the study and the dose at the location of the dose bores. Simulations were conducted using both the software's generic CT beam model and a refined model generated using HVL and bow tie filter profile measurements made on the scanner used for the study. Results: Monte Carlo simulations completed using the generalized beam model differed from the measured conversion factors by an absolute value average of 13.0% and 13.8% for the 100 mm and 0.6 cc ion chamber studies, respectively. The MC simulations using the scanner specific beam model generated conversion coefficients that differed from the CTDIvol to measured dose conversion coefficients by an absolute value average of 7.3% and 7.8% for the 100 mm and 0.6 cc ion chamber cases, respectively. Conclusion: A scanner specific beam model used in MC simulations generates more accurate dose conversion coefficients in an anthropomorphic phantom than those generated with a generalized beam model. Agreement between measured conversion coefficients and simulated values were less than 20% for all positions using the universal beam model.

  1. Dynamic evaluation of absorbed dose to the bladder wall with a balloon-bladder phantom during a study using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, T H; Liu, R S; Dong, S L; Chung, Y W; Chou, K L; Lee, J S

    2002-08-01

    An accurate evaluation of the absorbed dose to the bladder wall from 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) is clinically important because the bladder is considered as a critical organ in most positron emission tomography (PET) studies that cumulate about 20% of the total activity injection during image procedures. In the MIRD calculation, no allowance is made for the inclusion of all the dynamic parameters that affect the actual dose to the bladder wall to be taken in the dose assessment. The goal of the study is to propose a dose evaluation model by using a dynamic bladder phantom and time-activity curves from the bladder PET imaging. The proposed model takes all dynamic parameters into account and provides a much more accurate dose estimation to the bladder. In this study, the lowest dose to the bladder wall was obtained at the conditions of having a larger initial volume for the bladder contents and a higher production rate for urine. It is then advised patients to drink a bulk amount of water before the FDG injection or after urine voiding to facilitate urine production and to enlarge the bladder surface area, which are the most crucial steps in reducing the dose to the bladder wall. In our study, the voiding schedule in dose calculation plays certain roles although it is much more critical in the conventional MIRD calculation. The model estimated that the lowest dose to the bladder would occur at an initial void about 40 min after the FDG injection and the urine voiding was as complete as possible. PMID:12124480

  2. Treatment of small-cell lung cancer xenografts with iodine-313-anti-neural cell adhesion molecule monoclonal antibody and evaluation of absorbed dose in tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Hosono, Makoto; Endo, Keigo; Hosono, Masako N.

    1994-02-01

    Human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a feasible target for immunotherapy using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (Mab). A murine Mab, NE150 (IgG1), reacts with the neural cell adhesion molecule, which is identical to cluster 1 antigen of SCLC. To estimate their therapeutic effects, NE150 and an isotype-matched control Mab were labeled with {sup 131}I and administered intravenously as a single dose into athymic mice inoculated with a NCI-H69 SCLC xenograft. The absorbed dose in organs was also examined based upon a long-term biodistribution study of {sup 131}I-NE150. Tumors initial volume 563.4 {plus_minus} 223.5 mm{sup 3} treated with 11.1 MBq (300 {mu}Ci) of {sup 131}I-NE150 diminished and became invisible at days 30-33, demonstrating a 60-day mean growth delay to reach a tripled initial volume compared with sham-treated tumors. Cumulative absorbed doses were estimated to be 2310, 410, 500, 330, and 790 cGy for the tumor, liver, kidney, spleen and lung, respectively. Iodine-131-NE150 had potent therapeutic effects against SCLC transplants in athymic mice, however, careful assessment of the side effects, improvement of radioiodination and chimerization of the Mab might be necessary to achieve efficient targeting in clinical therapeutic applications. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Monte Carlo evaluations of the absorbed dose and quality dependence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in radiotherapy photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Shaowen; Wang Xuetao; Chen Lixin; Tang Qiang; Liu Xiaowei

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the absorbed dose to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dosimeter at various depths of water phantom in radiotherapy photon beams by Monte Carlo simulation and evaluate the beam quality dependence. Methods: The simulations were done using EGSnrc. The cylindrical Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dosimeter ({Phi}4 mmx1 mm) was placed at the central axis of the water phantom ({Phi}16 cmx16 cm) at depths between 0.5 and 8 cm. The incident beams included monoenergetic photon beams ranging from 1 to 18 MeV, {sup 60}Co {gamma} beams, Varian 6 MV beams using phase space files based on a full simulation of the linac, and Varian beams between 4 and 24 MV using Mohan's spectra. The absorbed dose to the dosimeter and the water at the corresponding position in the absence of the dosimeter, as well as absorbed dose ratio factor f{sub md}, was calculated. Results: The results show that f{sub md} depends obviously on the photon energy at the shallow depths. However, as the depth increases, the change in f{sub md} becomes small, beyond the buildup region, the maximum discrepancy of f{sub md} to the average value is not more than 1%. Conclusions: These simulation results confirm the use of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dosimeter in radiotherapy photon beams and clearly indicate that more attention should be paid when using such a dosimeter in the buildup region of high-energy radiotherapy photon beams.

  4. Role of shielding in modulating the effects of solar particle events: Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose and DNA complex lesions in different organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Zankl, M.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes--such as FLUKA--yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy-1 Da-1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for the

  5. Production and in vivo imaging of (203)Pb as a surrogate isotope for in vivo (212)Pb internal absorbed dose studies.

    PubMed

    Máthé, Domokos; Szigeti, Krisztián; Hegedűs, Nikolett; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S; Kovács, Béla; Szűcs, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    (212)Pb is a clinically relevant therapeutic alpha emitter isotope. A surrogate, (203)Pb, if prepared with sufficiently high specific activity could be used to estimate (212)Pb in vivo absorbed doses. An improved production procedure of (203)Pb with a simple, new separation method and high specific radioactivity for imaging is reported. We determined the in-vivo biodistribution of (203)Pb in mice by SPECT/CT. This highlights application possibilities of (203)Pb for further in vivo and clinical uses (radiolabeled (212)Pb-peptide co-injection, dosimetry calculation).

  6. SU-F-19A-02: Comparison of Absorbed Dose to Water Standards for HDR Ir-192 Brachytherapy Between the LCR, Brazil and NRC, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Salata, C; David, M; Almeida, C de; El Gamal, I; Cojocaru, C; Mainegra-Hing, E; McEwen, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiological Science Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Methods: The two institutions have separately developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are important differences between the two standards, including: preparation and read-out of the Fricke solution, irradiation geometry of the Fricke holder in relation to the Ir-192 source, and determination of the G-value to be used at Ir-192 energies. All measurements for both standards were made directly at the NRC laboratory (i.e., no transfer instrument was used) using a single Ir-192 source (microSelectron v2). In addition, the NRC group has established a self-consistent method to determine the G-value for Ir-192, based on an interpolation between G-values obtained at Co-60 and 250kVp X-rays, and this measurement was repeated using the LCR Fricke solution to investigate possible systematic uncertainties. Results: G-values for Co-60 and 250 kVp x-rays, obtained using the LCR Fricke system, agreed with the NRC values within 0.5 % and 1 % respectively, indicating that the general assumption of universal G-values is appropriate in this case. The standard uncertainty in the determination of G for Ir-192 is estimated to be 0.6 %. For the comparison of absorbed dose measurements at the reference point for Ir-192 (1 cm depth in water, perpendicular to the seed long-axis), the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR) was found to be 1.011 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 %, k=1. Conclusion: The agreement in the absorbed dose to water values for the LCR and NRC systems is very encouraging. Combined with the lower uncertainty in this approach compared to the present air-kerma approach, these results reaffirm the use of Fricke solution as a potential primary standard for HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy.

  7. Role of cardiac ultrafast cameras with CZT solid-state detectors and software developments on radiation absorbed dose reduction to the patients.

    PubMed

    Gunalp, Bengul

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is one the most contributing nuclear medicine technique to the annual population dose. The purpose of this study is to compare radiation-absorbed doses to the patients examined by conventional cardiac SPECT (CSPECT) camera and ultrafast cardiac (UFC) camera with cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors. Total injected activity was reduced by 50 % when both stress and rest images were acquired and by 75 % when only stress images were taken with UFC camera. As a result of this, the mean total effective dose was found significantly lower with UFC camera (2.2 ± 1.2 mSv) than CSPECT (7.7 ± 3.8 mSv) (p < 0.001). Further dose reduction was obtained by reducing equivocal test results and unnecessary additional examinations with UFC camera. Using UFC camera, MPI can be conveniently used for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) much less increasing annual population radiation dose as it had been before. PMID:25848109

  8. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  9. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA.

  10. Development and verification of an analytical algorithm to predict absorbed dose distributions in ocular proton therapy using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Nicholas C; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-02-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy is an effective and non-invasive treatment for uveal melanoma. Recent research efforts have focused on improving the dosimetric accuracy of treatment planning and overcoming the present limitation of relative analytical dose calculations. Monte Carlo algorithms have been shown to accurately predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) values, but this has yet to be shown for analytical algorithms dedicated to ocular proton therapy, which are typically less computationally expensive than Monte Carlo algorithms. The objective of this study was to determine if an analytical method could predict absolute dose distributions and D/MU values for a variety of treatment fields like those used in ocular proton therapy. To accomplish this objective, we used a previously validated Monte Carlo model of an ocular nozzle to develop an analytical algorithm to predict three-dimensional distributions of D/MU values from pristine Bragg peaks and therapeutically useful spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). Results demonstrated generally good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations. While agreement in the proximal region decreased for beams with less penetrating Bragg peaks compared with the open-beam condition, the difference was shown to be largely attributable to edge-scattered protons. A method for including this effect in any future analytical algorithm was proposed. Comparisons of D/MU values showed typical agreement to within 0.5%. We conclude that analytical algorithms can be employed to accurately predict absolute proton dose distributions delivered by an ocular nozzle.

  11. Calculation of the absorbed dose for the overexposed patients at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Ishigure, N; Endo, A; Yamaguchi, Y; Kawachi, K

    2001-09-01

    The doses for the overexposed patients were estimated by the measurement result of specific activity of 24Na in blood. The present method is almost based on documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The neutron energy spectrum obtained using the ANISN code (Multigroup One-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Transport Code System with Anisotropic Scattering) was assumed. The values in ICRP Publication 74 were applied for the doses in each organ per unit neutron fluence. Gamma-ray dose was indirectly estimated based on (a) the result of environmental monitoring around the accident site and (b) a graph in IAEA manual, which gives the kerma ratio of neutrons and gamma-rays as a function of the critical volume or the atomic ratio of hydrogen to 235U. The estimated neutron doses were 5.4 Gy for patient A. 2.9 Gy for patient B and 0.81 Gy for patient C. The estimated gamma-ray doses were 8.5 or 13 Gy for patient A, 4.5 or 6.9 Gy for patient B, and 1.3 or 2.0 Gy for patient C. PMID:11791747

  12. Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase

    PubMed Central

    De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E.; Blanford, Christopher F.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O2. In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-­ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O2 reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account. PMID:22525754

  13. Comparison of the calculated absorbed dose using the Cadplan™ treatment planning software and Tld-100 measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom for a bronchogenic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez Castillo, J. G.; Álvarez Romero, J. T. E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com Calderón, A. Torres E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com M, V. Tovar E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com

    2014-11-07

    To verify the accuracy of the absorbed doses D calculated by a TPS Cadplan for a bronchogenic treatment (in an Alderson-Rando phantom) are chosen ten points with the following D's and localizations. Point 1, posterior position on the left edge with 136.4 Gy. Points: 2, 3 and 4 in the left lung with 104.9, 104.3 and 105.8 Gy, respectively; points 5 and 6 at the mediastinum with 192.4 and 173.5 Gy; points 7, 8 and 9 in the right lung with 105.8, 104.2 and 104.7 Gy, and 10 at posterior position on right edge with 143.7 Gy. IAEA type capsules with TLD 100 powder are placed, planned and irradiated. The evaluation of the absorbed dose is carried out a curve of calibration for the LiF response (nC) {sup vs} {sup DW}, to several cavity theories. The traceability for the DW is obtained with a secondary standard calibrated at the NRC (Canada). The dosimetric properties for the materials considered are determined from the Hounsfield numbers reported by the TPS. The stopping power ratios are calculated for nominal spectrum to 6 MV photons. The percent variations among the planned and determined D in all the cases they are < ± 3%.

  14. The effect of differences in data base on the determination of absorbed dose in high-energy photon beams using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine protocol.

    PubMed

    Mijnheer, B J; Chin, L M

    1989-01-01

    Exposure rates were adjusted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on January 1, 1986 to take into account more recent values for some physical parameters, mainly in electron stopping power ratios. Exposure calibration factors for 60Co gamma rays Nx will therefore be lowered by 1.1%. Consequently, absorbed dose determinations in high-energy photon beams will be reduced by the same amount if the values for these physical parameters remain unchanged in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) protocol. If the same data base as used at NIST is applied in the AAPM protocol, then Ngas/Nx values, water-air stopping power ratios, and Pwall values will be different. The overall change in absorbed dose determinations using a consistent set of data will be a reduction of 0.8% for 60Co gamma rays and 1.5% for a 20-MV x-ray beam compared to the values before January 1, 1986. Since the net effect is small when different sets of data are applied, the new NIST exposure calibration factors may be used in combination with the AAPM protocol without significant error.

  15. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 of the absorbed dose to water standards of the PTB, Germany and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Krauss, A.

    2016-01-01

    An indirect comparison has been made of the standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co radiation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), Germany and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The measurements at the BIPM were carried out in October 2015. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and evaluated as a ratio of the PTB and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9977 with a combined standard uncertainty of 3.8 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Comparison of the calculated absorbed dose using the Cadplan™ treatment planning software and Tld-100 measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom for a bronchogenic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Castillo, J. G.; Álvarez Romero, J. T.; Torres Calderón, A.; Tovar, M. V.

    2014-11-01

    To verify the accuracy of the absorbed doses D calculated by a TPS Cadplan for a bronchogenic treatment (in an Alderson-Rando phantom) are chosen ten points with the following D's and localizations. Point 1, posterior position on the left edge with 136.4 Gy. Points: 2, 3 and 4 in the left lung with 104.9, 104.3 and 105.8 Gy, respectively; points 5 and 6 at the mediastinum with 192.4 and 173.5 Gy; points 7, 8 and 9 in the right lung with 105.8, 104.2 and 104.7 Gy, and 10 at posterior position on right edge with 143.7 Gy. IAEA type capsules with TLD 100 powder are placed, planned and irradiated. The evaluation of the absorbed dose is carried out a curve of calibration for the LiF response (nC) vs DW, to several cavity theories. The traceability for the DW is obtained with a secondary standard calibrated at the NRC (Canada). The dosimetric properties for the materials considered are determined from the Hounsfield numbers reported by the TPS. The stopping power ratios are calculated for nominal spectrum to 6 MV photons. The percent variations among the planned and determined D in all the cases they are < ± 3%.

  17. An ICRP-based Chinese adult male voxel model and its absorbed dose for idealized photon exposures--the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Zhang, Binquan; Qiu, Rui; Ma, Jizeng

    2009-11-01

    A site-specific skeleton voxel model for a Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper upon a previous Chinese individual voxel model. The whole skeleton was divided into 19 site-specific bones and bone groups; the mass of various skeleton tissues at each bone site, e.g. red bone marrow, was specified according to Asian reference data and the distribution data from ICRP Publication 70. The resultant voxel model (called CAM) has a resolution of 1.741 mm x 1.741 mm in plane, and the total bone mass is 8397.8 g which is almost equal to the Asian reference value. Dose coefficients for the red bone marrow and bone surface in CAM were calculated, and then compared with those from Rex, CMP and ICRP 74. It shows that the dose to RBM in Rex is generally 12% lower than that to CAM in low-energy range (30-150 keV) for AP, LAT, ROT and ISO geometries. It is also found that the RBM dose from mathematical models, i.e. CMP and ICRP 74, is underestimated by -30% in AP geometry and overestimated by 30% in PA geometry for low-energy photons. Meanwhile, the bone surface dose in the low-energy range is overestimated by 150% and 75% in CMP and ICRP 74, respectively, if compared with that from CAM. PMID:19841519

  18. An ICRP-based Chinese adult male voxel model and its absorbed dose for idealized photon exposures—the skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Zhang, Binquan; Qiu, Rui; Ma, Jizeng

    2009-11-01

    A site-specific skeleton voxel model for a Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper upon a previous Chinese individual voxel model. The whole skeleton was divided into 19 site-specific bones and bone groups; the mass of various skeleton tissues at each bone site, e.g. red bone marrow, was specified according to Asian reference data and the distribution data from ICRP Publication 70. The resultant voxel model (called CAM) has a resolution of 1.741 mm × 1.741 mm in plane, and the total bone mass is 8397.8 g which is almost equal to the Asian reference value. Dose coefficients for the red bone marrow and bone surface in CAM were calculated, and then compared with those from Rex, CMP and ICRP 74. It shows that the dose to RBM in Rex is generally 12% lower than that to CAM in low-energy range (30-150 keV) for AP, LAT, ROT and ISO geometries. It is also found that the RBM dose from mathematical models, i.e. CMP and ICRP 74, is underestimated by -30% in AP geometry and overestimated by 30% in PA geometry for low-energy photons. Meanwhile, the bone surface dose in the low-energy range is overestimated by 150% and 75% in CMP and ICRP 74, respectively, if compared with that from CAM.

  19. Experimental assessment of absorbed dose to mineralized bone tissue from internal emitters: An electron paramagnetic resonance study

    SciTech Connect

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1994-12-31

    EPR resonances attributable to radiation-induced centers in hydroxyapatite were not detectable in bone samples supplied by the USTUR. These centers are the basis for imaging and dose assessment. Presumable, the short range of the alpha particles emitted precluded the formation of appreciable amounts of hydroxyapatite centers. However, one bone sample did offer a suggestion of hydroxyapatite centers and newly-developed methods to extract this information will be pursued.

  20. PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with TLDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Sihver, Lembit; Kartashov, Dmitry; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Tolochek, Raisa

    2013-12-01

    "Protective curtain" was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose - reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors.

  1. Extrapolation algorithm to Forecast the Dynamics of Accumulation of the Absorbed Dose at the International Space Station, according to the Radiation Monitoring System Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, Andrey

    The ISS service module is equipped with the radiation monitoring system (RMS) which provides data for the daily estimation of the radiation environment on board the station. The sensitive elements of the RMS are silicon semiconductor detectors and ionization chambers. The data obtained in quiet radiation environment allowed to determine the contribution to the absorbed radiation dose due to galactic cosmic rays and the Earth’s inner radiation belt. The corresponding analysis was conducted for the 2005-2011 period. As a result empirical relations were obtained allowing to calculate the dose for one crossing of the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The initial parameters for the calculation are longitude and altitude on which the ISS trajectory crosses this area. The obtained empirical relations allowed to develop a simple calculation algorithm for the short-term forecasting of the dynamics of accumulation of the radiation dose at the ISS which is based on the assumption that the current level of contribution to the daily dose of galactic cosmic rays and the structure of the Earth’s inner radiation belt at the station flight altitude remains unchanged within a few days. The results of the analysis of the ISS RMS data which was conducted using the developed calculation algorithm for the period from 2005 to 2011 (the period in which solar cycle 23 ended and solar cycle 24 began) showed the possibility to implement a short-term (1-2 days) forecast of the dynamics of accumulation of the dose on board the station with an acceptable error (of no more than 30 percent). Besides, the developed forecast algorithm for the growth phase of the 24th solar cycle (2011-2014) was verified. The algorithm developed for forecasting the radiation environment may be used to process and analyse the current RMS information when providing effective radiation safety for the ISS crew.

  2. Monte Carlo evaluation of the relationship between absorbed dose and contrast-to-noise ratio in coherent scatter breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghammraoui, B.; Popescu, L. M.; Badal, A.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the advantages and shortcomings associated with Coherent Scatter Computed Tomography (CSCT) systems for breast imaging and study possible alternative configurations. The relationship between dose in a breast phantom and a simple surrogate of image quality in pencil-beam and fan-beam CSCT geometries was evaluated via Monte Carlo simulation, and an improved pencil-beam setup was proposed for faster CSCT data acquisition. CSCT projection datasets of a simple breast phantom have been simulated using a new version of the MC-GPU code that includes an improved model of x-ray coherent scattering using experimentally measured molecular interference functions. The breast phantom was composed of an 8 cm diameter cylinder of 50/50 glandular/adipose material and nine rods with different diameters of cancerous, adipose and glandular tissues. The system performance has been assessed in terms of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in multiple regions of interest within the reconstructed images, for a range of exposure levels. The enhanced pencil-beam setup consisted of multiplexed pencil beams and specific post-processing of the projection data to calculate the scatter intensity coming from each beam separately. At reconstruction spatial resolution of 1×1×1 mm3 and from 1 to 10 mGy of received breast dose, fan-beam geometry showed higher statistical noise and lower CNR than pencil-beam geometry. Conventional CT acquisition had the highest CNR per dose. However, the CNR figure of merit did not combine yet all the information available at different scattering angles in the CSCT, which has potential for increased discrimination of materials with similar attenuation properties. Preliminary evaluation of the multiplexed pencil-beam geometry showed that the scattering profiles simulated with the new approach are similar to those of the single pencil-beam geometry. Conclusion: It has been shown that the GPU-accelerated MC-GPU code is a practical

  3. Monte Carlo estimation of radiation dose in organs of female and male adult phantoms due to FDG-F18 absorbed in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Silva, Rogério M. V.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of dose conversion factors (S values) for the radionuclide fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) absorbed in the lungs during a positron emission tomography (PET) procedure was calculated using the Monte Carlo method (MCNPX version 2.7.0). For the obtained dose conversion factors of interest, it was considered a uniform absorption of radiopharmaceutical by the lung of a healthy adult human. The spectrum of fluorine was introduced in the input data file for the simulation. The simulation took place in two adult phantoms of both sexes, based on polygon mesh surfaces called FASH and MASH with anatomy and posture according to ICRP 89. The S values for the 22 internal organs/tissues, chosen from ICRP No. 110, for the FASH and MASH phantoms were compared with the results obtained from a MIRD V phantoms called ADAM and EVA used by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD). We observed variation of more than 100% in S values due to structural anatomical differences in the internal organs of the MASH and FASH phantoms compared to the mathematical phantom.

  4. The expression revealing variation trend about radiation resistance of aromatic polymers serving in nuclear environment over absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shuangying; Hu, Huasi; Hu, Guang; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    For polymeric materials applied in nuclear environment, the macroscopic properties usually remain unchanged after irradiation for several years or decades up to a threshold dose at which the deterioration of materials begins to take place. In this paper, the general radiation response of aromatic polymers is firstly reviewed and discussed. Then percolation theory is employed innovatively to elucidate the critical phenomenon over the service life for polymeric materials with high radiation resistance. For a better quantitative evaluation, a novel two-parameter radiation resistance model is proposed by the method of analogy between two nuclear-related phenomena. Six epoxy systems are employed from the published literatures to verify the novel model and the result shows that it is reliable and helpful in not only estimating the radiation damage over the service period but also multi-objective optimum design of polymeric materials.

  5. Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E.; Blanford, Christopher F.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

    2012-05-01

    Radiation-induced reduction, radiolysis of copper sites and the effect of pH value together with the concomitant geometrical distortions of the active centres were analysed in several fungal (C. gallica) laccase structures collected at cryotemperature. This study emphasizes the importance of careful interpretation when the crystallographic structure of a metalloprotein is described. X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O{sub 2}. In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O{sub 2} reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account.

  6. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Atkins, H.

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consisted of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.

  7. EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison of alanine dosimetry systems for absorbed dose to water measurements in gamma- and x-radiation at radiotherapy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Tristan; Anton, Mathias; Sharpe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) are involved in the European project 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', a project of the European Metrology Research Programme. Within this project, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetric method has been chosen for performing measurements in small fields such as those used in IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). In this context, these three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) wished to compare the result of their alanine dosimetric systems (detector, modus operandi etc) at radiotherapy dose levels to check their consistency. This EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison has been performed with the support of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) which collected and distributed the results as a neutral organization, to ensure the comparison was 'blind'. Irradiations have been made under reference conditions by each laboratory in a 60Co beam and in an accelerator beam (10 MV or 12 MV) in a water phantom of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm in a square field of 10 cm × 10 cm at the reference depth. Irradiations have been performed at known values of absorbed dose to water (Dw) within 10% of nominal doses of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, i.e. between 4.5 Gy and 5.5 Gy and between 9 Gy and 11 Gy, respectively. Each participant read out their dosimeters and assessed the doses using their own protocol (calibration curve, positioning device etc) as this comparison aims at comparing the complete dosimetric process. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the EPR/alanine dosimetry systems operated by National Metrology Institutes as a method of assuring therapy level doses with the accuracy required. The maximum deviation in the ratio of measured to applied dose is less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key

  8. Fluence-to-Absorbed Dose Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection of Embryo and Foetus Against External Exposure to Muons from 20MeV to 50GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients are yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap.

  9. [Comparison of the absorbed dose at calibration depth of photon beams using the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 beam quality conversion factor in the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Naoki; Takemura, Akihiro; Kita, Akinobu; Murai, Emi; Nishimoto, Yasuhiro; Toi, Akiko; Shimada, Masato; Sasamoto, Kouhei; Adachi, Toshiki

    2013-10-01

    In standard external beam radiotherapy dosimetry, which is based on absorbed dose by water, the absorbed dose at any calibration depth is calculated using the same beam quality conversion factor, regardless of the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve. In this study, we evaluated whether there were differences between absorbed doses at calibration depths calculated using a beam quality conversion factor including a wall correction factor that corresponds to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, and without a waterproofing sleeve. The Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) has reported that the uncertainty of the results using a beam quality conversion factor that included a wall correction factor corresponding to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, regardless of the presence or absence of the sleeve, was 0.2%. This uncertainty proved to be in agreement with the reported range.

  10. PLATIN (plant-atmosphere interaction) I: A model of plant-atmosphere interaction for estimating absorbed doses of gaseous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Grünhage, L; Haenel, H D

    1997-01-01

    A PLant-ATmosphere INteraction model (PLATIN) was developed for estimating air pollutant absorbed doses under ambient conditions. PLATIN is based on the canopy energy balance combined with a gas transport submodel. The model has three major resistance components: (1) a turbulent atmospheric resistance Rah(zm) that describes the atmospheric transport properties between a measurement height above the canopy and the conceptual height z=d+z0m which represents the sink for momentum according to the big-leaf concept; (2) a quasilaminar layer resistance R(b,A) that quantifies the way in which the transfer of sensible heat and matter (e.g. latent heat, ozone) differs from momentum transfer; (3) a canopy or surface resistance R(c,A) that describes the influences of the plant/soil system on the exchange processes. Soil water content is simulated by a Force-Restore model. By a simple interception submodel precipitation and dew are partitioned into intercepted water and water reaching the soil surface. PLATIN can be run in a prognostic or a diagnostic mode. It is also intended for on-line use in air quality monitoring networks.

  11. A water calorimeter for on-site absorbed dose to water calibrations in (60)Co and MV-photon beams including MRI incorporated treatment equipment.

    PubMed

    de Prez, Leon; de Pooter, Jacco; Jansen, Bartel; Aalbers, Tony

    2016-07-01

    In reference dosimetry the aim is to establish the absorbed dose to water, D w, under reference conditions. However, existing dosimetry protocols are not always applicable for rapidly emerging new treatment modalities. For primary standard dosimetry laboratories it is generally not feasible to acquire such modalities. Therefore it is strongly desired that D w measurements with primary standards can be performed on-site in clinical beams for the new treatment modalities in order to characterize and calibrate detectors. To serve this need, VSL has developed a new transportable water calorimeter serving as a primary D w standard for (60)Co and MV-photons including MRI incorporated treatment equipment. Special attention was paid to its operation in different beam geometries and beam modalities including the application in magnetic fields. The new calorimeter was validated in the VSL (60)Co beam and on-site in clinical MV-photon beams. Excellent agreement of 0.1% was achieved with previous (60)Co field calibrations, i.e. well within the uncertainty of the previous calorimeter, and with measurements performed in horizontal and vertical MV-photon beams. k Q factors, determined for two PTW 30013 ionization chambers, agreed very well with available literature data. The relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) for D w measurements in (60)Co and MV-photons is 0.37%. Calibrations are carried out with a standard uncertainty of 0.42% and k Q -factors are determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.40%. PMID:27300589

  12. A water calorimeter for on-site absorbed dose to water calibrations in 60Co and MV-photon beams including MRI incorporated treatment equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prez, Leon; de Pooter, Jacco; Jansen, Bartel; Aalbers, Tony

    2016-07-01

    In reference dosimetry the aim is to establish the absorbed dose to water, D w, under reference conditions. However, existing dosimetry protocols are not always applicable for rapidly emerging new treatment modalities. For primary standard dosimetry laboratories it is generally not feasible to acquire such modalities. Therefore it is strongly desired that D w measurements with primary standards can be performed on-site in clinical beams for the new treatment modalities in order to characterize and calibrate detectors. To serve this need, VSL has developed a new transportable water calorimeter serving as a primary D w standard for 60Co and MV-photons including MRI incorporated treatment equipment. Special attention was paid to its operation in different beam geometries and beam modalities including the application in magnetic fields. The new calorimeter was validated in the VSL 60Co beam and on-site in clinical MV-photon beams. Excellent agreement of 0.1% was achieved with previous 60Co field calibrations, i.e. well within the uncertainty of the previous calorimeter, and with measurements performed in horizontal and vertical MV-photon beams. k Q factors, determined for two PTW 30013 ionization chambers, agreed very well with available literature data. The relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) for D w measurements in 60Co and MV-photons is 0.37%. Calibrations are carried out with a standard uncertainty of 0.42% and k Q -factors are determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.40%.

  13. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  14. Data on biodistribution and radiation absorbed dose profile of a novel (64)Cu-labeled high affinity cell-specific peptide for positron emission tomography imaging of tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Joseph R; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Yuan, Hong; Frank, Jonathan E; Lalush, David S; Patterson, Cam; Veleva, Anka N

    2016-06-01

    New peptide-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches hold promise for highly selective targeting of cancer leading to more precise and effective diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. An important feature of these approaches is to reach the tumor tissue while limiting or minimizing the dose to normal organs. In this context, efforts to design and engineer materials with optimal in vivo targeting and clearance properties are important. This Data In Brief article reports on biodistribution and radiation absorbed dose profile of a novel high affinity radiopeptide specific for bone marrow-derived tumor vasculature. Background information on the design, preparation, and in vivo characterization of this peptide-based targeted radiodiagnostic is described in the article "Synthesis and comparative evaluation of novel 64Cu-labeled high affinity cell-specific peptides for positron emission tomography of tumor vasculature" (Merrill et al., 2016) [1]. Here we report biodistribution measurements in mice and calculate the radiation absorbed doses to normal organs using a modified Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology that accounts for physical and geometric factors and cross-organ beta doses. PMID:27014735

  15. Fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for neutron beams from 0.001 eV to 100 GeV calculated for a set of pregnant female and fetus models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2008-03-01

    Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.

  16. Comparison of internal doses calculated using the specific absorbed fractions of the average adult Japanese male phantom with those of the reference computational phantom-adult male of ICRP publication 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira

    2014-03-01

    In order to study the effects of body sizes and masses of organs and tissues on internal dose assessment, the values corresponding to effective dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides were calculated using the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of two phantoms: the average adult Japanese male phantom (JM-103) and the reference computational phantom-adult male (RCP-AM) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. SAFs were evaluated using the phantoms and Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX or were taken from published data. As a result of a comparison for 2894 cases of 923 radionuclides, the maximum discrepancy in the effective dose coefficients between the JM-103 and RCP-AM was about 40%. However, the discrepancies were smaller than 10% in 97% of all cases.

  17. USE OF PBPK MODELS FOR ASSESSING ABSORBED DOSE AND CHE INHIBITION FROM AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiological pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling framework has been established to assess cumulative risk of dose and injury of infants and children to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides from aggregate sources and routes. Exposure inputs were drawn from all reasonable sources, pr...

  18. Estimation of absorbed dose in irradiated dates ( Phoenix dactylifera L.). Test of ESR response function by a weighted linear least-squares regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelawi, M. A.; Moore, J. S.; Bisby, R. H.; Dodd, N. J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Food spoilage is caused by infestation by insects, contamination by bacteria and fungi and by deterioration by enzymes. In the third world, it has been estimated that 25% of agricultural products are lost before they reach the market. One way to decrease such losses is by treatment with ionising radiation and maximum permitted doses have been established for treatment of a wide variety of foods. For dates this dose is 2.0 kGy. Detection of irradiated foods is now essential and here we have used ESR to detect and estimate the dose received by a single date. The ESR spectrum of unirradiated date stone contains a single line g=2.0045 (signal A). Irradiation up to 2.0 kGy induces radical formation with g=1.9895, g=2.0159 (signal C) and g=1.9984 (signal B) high field. The lines with g=1.9895 and 2.0159 are readily detected and stable at room temperature for at least 27 months for samples irradiated up to this dose. The yield of the radicals resulting in these lines increase linearly up to a dose of 5.0 kGy as is evidenced by the linear increase in their intensity. In blind trials of 21 unirradiated and irradiated dates we are able to identify with 100% accuracy an irradiated sample and to estimate the dose to which the sample was irradiated to within ˜0.5 kGy.

  19. Assessment of the accuracy of an MCNPX-based Monte Carlo simulation model for predicting three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions

    PubMed Central

    Titt, U; Sahoo, N; Ding, X; Zheng, Y; Newhauser, W D; Zhu, X R; Polf, J C; Gillin, M T; Mohan, R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the Monte Carlo method has been used in a large number of research studies in radiation therapy. For applications such as treatment planning, it is essential to validate the dosimetric accuracy of the Monte Carlo simulations in heterogeneous media. The AAPM Report no 105 addresses issues concerning clinical implementation of Monte Carlo based treatment planning for photon and electron beams, however for proton-therapy planning, such guidance is not yet available. Here we present the results of our validation of the Monte Carlo model of the double scattering system used at our Proton Therapy Center in Houston. In this study, we compared Monte Carlo simulated depth doses and lateral profiles to measured data for a magnitude of beam parameters. We varied simulated proton energies and widths of the spread-out Bragg peaks, and compared them to measurements obtained during the commissioning phase of the Proton Therapy Center in Houston. Of 191 simulated data sets, 189 agreed with measured data sets to within 3% of the maximum dose difference and within 3 mm of the maximum range or penumbra size difference. The two simulated data sets that did not agree with the measured data sets were in the distal falloff of the measured dose distribution, where large dose gradients potentially produce large differences on the basis of minute changes in the beam steering. Hence, the Monte Carlo models of medium- and large-size double scattering proton-therapy nozzles were valid for proton beams in the 100 MeV–250 MeV interval. PMID:18670050

  20. WE-A-17A-01: Absorbed Dose Rate-To-Water at the Surface of a Beta-Emitting Planar Ophthalmic Applicator with a Planar, Windowless Extrapolation Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, A; Soares, C; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently there is no primary calibration standard for determining the absorbed dose rate-to-water at the surface of β-emitting concave ophthalmic applicators and plaques. Machining tolerances involved in the design of concave window extrapolation chambers are a limiting factor for development of such a standard. Use of a windowless extrapolation chamber avoids these window-machining tolerance issues. As a windowless extrapolation chamber has never been attempted, this work focuses on proof of principle measurements with a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber to verify the accuracy in comparison to initial calibration, which could be extended to the design of a hemispherical, windowless extrapolation chamber. Methods: The window of an extrapolation chamber defines the electrical field, aids in aligning the source parallel to the collector-guard assembly, and decreases the backscatter due to attenuation of lower electron energy. To create a uniform and parallel electric field in this research, the source was made common to the collector-guard assembly. A precise positioning protocol was designed to enhance the parallelism of the source and collector-guard assembly. Additionally, MCNP5 was used to determine a backscatter correction factor to apply to the calibration. With these issues addressed, the absorbed dose rate-to-water of a Tracerlab 90Sr planar ophthalmic applicator was determined using National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) calibration formalism, and the results of five trials with this source were compared to measurements at NIST with a traditional extrapolation chamber. Results: The absorbed dose rate-to-water of the planar applicator was determined to be 0.473 Gy/s ±0.6%. Comparing these results to NIST's determination of 0.474 Gy/s yields a −0.6% difference. Conclusion: The feasibility of a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber has been demonstrated. A similar principle will be applied to developing a primary

  1. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom

  2. Monte Carlo Simulations on Neutron Transport and Absorbed Dose in Tissue-Equivalent Phantoms Exposed to High-Flux Epithermal Neutron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartesaghi, G.; Gambarini, G.; Negri, A.; Carrara, M.; Burian, J.; Viererbl, L.

    2010-04-01

    Presently there are no standard protocols for dosimetry in neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments. Because of the high radiation intensity and of the presence at the same time of radiation components having different linear energy transfer and therefore different biological weighting factors, treatment planning in epithermal neutron fields for BNCT is usually performed by means of Monte Carlo calculations; experimental measurements are required in order to characterize the neutron source and to validate the treatment planning. In this work Monte Carlo simulations in two kinds of tissue-equivalent phantoms are described. The neutron transport has been studied, together with the distribution of the boron dose; simulation results are compared with data taken with Fricke gel dosimeters in form of layers, showing a good agreement.

  3. [Evaluation of the dose equivalent absorbed by the population of Como and surrounding area following the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl].

    PubMed

    Cirla, A; Ostinelli, A; Zingales, A

    1987-12-01

    The effects produced as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the population of Como are assessed on the basis of the measurements taken in the environment and on the food. Exposure measurements produced by external radiation and the activities of the different radionuclides introduced into the body, by ingestion and inhalation, made it possible to obtain an estimate of the dose equivalent and its somatic and genetic effects on the population. The results show that such effects may produce 0.5-2 cases of malignant tumour in the next 25 years and 0.2-1 case of genetic damage in the next 60 years and are therefore statistically insignificant.

  4. A method for a short-term forecast of the absorbed dose accumulation dynamics on the international space station based on radiation monitoring system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Many papers are devoted to the prediction of radiation conditions on board of a spacecraft (Pichkhadze et al., 2004; Khamidullina et al., 2008; 2012), and a number of software systems for corresponding calculations have been developed: the US information system CREME96 (https://creme.isde.vander-bilt.edu/); European SPENVIS (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/intro.php); Russian SEREIS (Kuznetsov et al., 2001; Model' kosmosa, 2007) and COSRAD (http://cosrad.sinp.msu.ru/manual.html; Kuznetsov et al., 2011) based on the models of the radiation environment in near-Earth space (Bashkirov et al., 1998; Nymmik, 2004; Model' kosmosa, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2011). In this paper we propose a simple calculation algorithm of short-term (for a few days) forecasting of dynamics of the radiation dose on the International Space Station (ISS) in radiation environment undisturbed by solar proton events. This algorithm does not use radiation environment models and detailed ballistic calculations, while it uses data of the onboard radiation monitoring system (RMS) and empirical relations, obtained for ISS orbital motion.

  5. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  7. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  8. Modelling Absorbent Phenomena of Absorbent Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeb, S.; Ladhari, N.; Ben Hassen, M.; Sakli, F.

    Absorption, retention and strike through time, as evaluating criteria of absorbent structures quality were studied. Determination of influent parameters on these criteria were realized by using the design method of experimental sets. In this study, the studied parameters are: Super absorbent polymer (SAP)/fluff ratio, compression and the porosity of the non woven used as a cover stock. Absorption capacity and retention are mostly influenced by SAP/fluff ratio. However, strike through time is affected by compression. Thus, a modelling of these characteristics in function of the important parameter was established.

  9. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  10. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  11. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  12. Absorbing Outflows in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this program was a comprehensive multiwavelength study of absorption phenomena in active galactic nuclei (AGN). These include a variety of associated absorption systems: X-ray warm absorbers, X-ray cold absorbers. UV absorbers with high ionization lines, MgII absorbers, red quasars and BALQSOs. The aim is to determine the physical conditions in the absorbing outflows, study their inter-relations and their role in AGN. We designed several observing programs to achieve this goal: X-ray spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, FLAY spectroscopy and X-ray imaging. We were very successful towards achieving the goal over the five year period as shown through following observing programs and papers. Copies of a few papers are attached with this report.

  13. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  14. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  15. Diagnostic beam absorber in Mu2e beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Star density, hadron flux, and residual dose distributions are calculated around the {mu}2e diagnostic beam absorber. Corresponding surface and ground water activation, and air activation are presented as well.

  16. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  17. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  18. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  19. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  20. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-09-12

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  1. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  2. Solar concentrator/absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Collector/energy converter, consisting of dual-slope optical concentrator and counterflow thermal energy absorber, is attached to multiaxis support structure. Efficient over wide range of illumination levels, device may be used to generate high temperature steam, serve as solar powered dryer, or power absorption cycle cooler.

  3. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  4. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  5. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  6. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  7. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  8. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  9. Know your dose: RADDOSE

    PubMed Central

    Paithankar, Karthik S.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2010-01-01

    The program RADDOSE is widely used to compute the dose absorbed by a macromolecular crystal during an X-ray diffraction experiment. A number of factors affect the absorbed dose, including the incident X-ray flux density, the photon energy and the composition of the macromolecule and of the buffer in the crystal. An experimental dose limit for macromolecular crystallography (MX) of 30 MGy at 100 K has been reported, beyond which the biological information obtained may be compromised. Thus, for the planning of an optimized diffraction experiment the estimation of dose has become an additional tool. A number of approximations were made in the original version of RADDOSE. Recently, the code has been modified in order to take into account fluorescent X-­ray escape from the crystal (version 2) and the inclusion of incoherent (Compton) scattering into the dose calculation is now reported (version 3). The Compton cross-section, although negligible at the energies currently commonly used in MX, should be considered in dose calculations for incident energies above 20 keV. Calculations using version 3 of RADDOSE reinforce previous studies that predict a reduction in the absorbed dose when data are collected at higher energies compared with data collected at 12.4 keV. Hence, a longer irradiation lifetime for the sample can be achieved at these higher energies but this is at the cost of lower diffraction intensities. The parameter ‘diffraction-dose efficiency’, which is the diffracted intensity per absorbed dose, is revisited in an attempt to investigate the benefits and pitfalls of data collection using higher and lower energy radiation, particularly for thin crystals. PMID:20382991

  10. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  11. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  12. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  13. Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2014-02-01

    Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.

  14. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  15. Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

    2005-08-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

  16. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  17. Absorber coatings' degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

  18. Use of effective dose.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group. PMID:26980800

  19. Use of effective dose.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group.

  20. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes.

    PubMed

    Amato, E; Lizio, D; Baldari, S

    2011-01-21

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as (90)Y and to (131)I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.

  1. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, E.; Lizio, D.; Baldari, S.

    2011-01-01

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as 90Y and to 131I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.

  2. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7 mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple λ/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  3. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  4. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  5. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  6. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  7. Hydraulic shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic shock absorber including a piston reciprocating in a cylinder, a piston upper chamber and a piston lower chamber which are oil-tightly separated by the piston, piston ports formed through the piston in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber, and return ports formed outside of the piston ports in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber. It also includes a sheet ring-like non-return valve provided above the piston and fitted to a piston rod, valve holes formed through the non-return valve in opposed relation with the piston ports. A ring-like non-return valve stopper fixed to the piston rod on an upper side of the non-return valve with a small spaced defined between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper, and a spring is interposed between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper for normally urging the non-return valve to an upper surface of the piston. Movement of the piston to the piston upper chamber allows oil to flow from the piston upper chamber through the piston ports to the piston lower chamber, while the return ports are closed by the non-return valve to generate a vibration damping force by resistance upon pass of the oil through the piston parts. The improvement described here comprises a groove formed in an upper surface of the piston facing the non-return valve and aligned with the valve holes, the groove being in the circle where the piston ports lie and being in communication with the piston ports.

  8. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  9. The broadband dynamic vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. B.; Nissen, J.-C.

    1982-08-01

    The limited effectiveness of the linear passive dynamic vibration absorber is described. This is followed by an analysis producing the response of a primary system when a non-linear softening Belleville spring is used in the absorber. It is shown that the suppression bandwidth can be doubled by this means.

  10. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Torabinejad, M.; Danforth, R.; Andrews, K.; Chan, C.

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures.

  11. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  12. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  13. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  14. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  15. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  16. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  17. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  18. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  19. Nonventing, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, regenerable heat absorber (RHA), developed for rejecting metabolic heat from a space suit, may also be useful on Earth for short-term cooling of heavy protective garments. Unlike prior space-suit-cooling systems, a system that includes this RHA does not vent water. The closed system contains water reservoirs, tubes through which water is circulated to absorb heat, an evaporator, and an absorber/radiator. The radiator includes a solution of LiCl contained in a porous material in titanium tubes. The evaporator cools water that circulates through a liquid-cooled garment. Water vapor produced in the evaporator enters the radiator tubes where it is absorbed into the LiCl solution, releasing heat. Much of the heat of absorption is rejected to the environment via the radiator. After use, the RHA is regenerated by heating it to a temperature of 100 C for about 2 hours to drive the absorbed water back to the evaporator. A system including a prototype of the RHA was found to be capable of maintaining a temperature of 20 C while removing heat at a rate of 200 W for 6 hours.

  20. Tumour dose estimation using automated TLD techniques.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, H M; Lambert, G D; Gustard, D; Harrison, R M

    1998-01-01

    Lithium fluoride (TLD-700) dosimeters were used to measure exit surface absorbed doses in external beam radiotherapy using an automated TLD reader. Delivered tumour absorbed doses were derived from these measurements for head and neck, pelvis and breast treatments. For the head and neck treatments (first fraction only), the mean percentage difference between prescribed and delivered tumour absorbed doses was -0.15 +/- 3.0% (+/- 1 SD), for the pelvic treatments -0.83 +/- 2.8% and for the breast treatments +0.26 +/- 2.9%. The spread of results is approximately +/- 3% (+/- 1 SD). This is comparable with the estimated uncertainty in a single TLD absorbed dose measurement in phantom (+/- 2%; +/- 1 SD). Thus, ICRU recommended tolerances for absorbed dose delivery of +/- 5% may not be unequivocally detectable using this method. An action level of +/- 10% is suggested, allowing investigation of possible gross errors in treatment delivery at an early stage, before the course of treatment has progressed to a point at which absorbed dose compensation is impossible.

  1. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  2. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  3. Waveform-Dependent Absorbing Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Kim, Sanghoon; Rushton, Jeremiah J.; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first use of a waveform-dependent absorbing metasurface for high-power pulsed surface currents. The new type of nonlinear metasurface, composed of circuit elements including diodes, is capable of storing high-power pulse energy to dissipate it between pulses, while allowing propagation of small signals. Interestingly, the absorbing performance varies for high-power pulses but not for high-power continuous waves (CW’s), since the capacitors used are fully charged up. Thus, the waveform dependence enables us to distinguish various signal types (i.e., CW or pulse) even at the same frequency, which potentially creates new kinds of microwave technologies and applications.

  4. [Study on radiation dose estimation and monitor in TBI using an anthropomorphic phantom].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y B; Yang, Y

    2001-11-01

    Absorbed doses and the dose distributions at important tissues and organs in an anthropomorphic phantom are measured using TLD under the TBI conditions. The dose for each tissue or organ is also estimated and monitored for TBI treatment. PMID:12583267

  5. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  6. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  7. Calculation of dose conversion factors for doses in the fingernails to organ doses at external gamma irradiation in air

    PubMed Central

    Khailov, A.M.; Ivannikov, A. I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Orlenko, S.P.; Flood, A.B.; Williams, B.B.; Swartz, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Absorbed doses to fingernails and organs were calculated for a set of homogenous external gamma-ray irradiation geometries in air. The doses were obtained by stochastic modeling of the ionizing particle transport (Monte Carlo method) for a mathematical human phantom with arms and hands placed loosely along the sides of the body. The resulting dose conversion factors for absorbed doses in fingernails can be used to assess the dose distribution and magnitude in practical dose reconstruction problems. For purposes of estimating dose in a large population exposed to radiation in order to triage people for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the calculated data for a range of energies having a width of from 0.05 to 3.5 MeV were used to convert absorbed doses in fingernails to corresponding doses in organs and the whole body as well as the effective dose. Doses were assessed based on assumed rates of radioactive fallout at different time periods following a nuclear explosion. PMID:26347593

  8. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  9. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  10. Clearance of absorbed selenium by the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tatsuko; Read, R.; Rozga, J.; Burk, R.F. )

    1991-03-11

    The liver plays a central role in the metabolism of selenium. It secretes plasma selenoproteins, contains a major fraction of the glutathione peroxidase in the body, and synthesizes excretory metabolites. The role of the liver in processing newly absorbed selenium was studied. Male chow-fed rats were fasted overnight and given 24 ng of selenium as {sup 75}SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} by stomach tube. Animals were exsanguinated at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min after dosing. Comparison of {sup 75}Se uptake by liver, kidney, heart, muscle, testis, brain, and spleen indicated an earlier uptake by liver than by any other tissue. At 15 min, {sup 75}Se in the portal vein blood was 2.6 times that in the hepatic vein blood. Gel filtration analysis suggested a loose association of {sup 75}Se with protein in plasma at 15 min, but immunoprecipitation indicated it was largely in the form of selenoprotein P after 30 min. End-to-side portacaval shunts (PCS) were constructed in rats and sham-operated animals were used as controls. When {sup 75}SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} was given to animals with PCS, uptake of {sup 75}Se by liver did not precede uptake by other tissues. Also no gradient was detected across the lungs or kidney. {sup 75}Se content of the kidney was higher in PCS rats than in sham-operated rats. This is consistent with removal of the first-pass effect of the liver facilitating uptake of {sup 75}Se by systemic tissues. These results suggest that the preferential uptake of absorbed selenium by the liver is due both to its position in the portal circulation and to an intrinsic high uptake capacity.

  11. Radiation dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Stubbs, J.B.; Toohey, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    Tables of radiation dose estimates based on the Cristy-Eckerman adult male phantom are provided for a number of radiopharmaceuticals commonly used in nuclear medicine. Radiation dose estimates are listed for all major source organs, and several other organs of interest. The dose estimates were calculated using the MIRD Technique as implemented in the MIRDOSE3 computer code, developed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Internal Dose Information Center. In this code, residence times for source organs are used with decay data from the MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes to produce estimates of radiation dose to organs of standardized phantoms representing individuals of different ages. The adult male phantom of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series is different from the MIRD 5, or Reference Man phantom in several aspects, the most important of which is the difference in the masses and absorbed fractions for the active (red) marrow. The absorbed fractions for flow energy photons striking the marrow are also different. Other minor differences exist, but are not likely to significantly affect dose estimates calculated with the two phantoms. Assumptions which support each of the dose estimates appears at the bottom of the table of estimates for a given radiopharmaceutical. In most cases, the model kinetics or organ residence times are explicitly given. The results presented here can easily be extended to include other radiopharmaceuticals or phantoms.

  12. Improving the laboratory monitoring of absorbent oil

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; S.S. Sychev; I.V. Safina; S.A. Klykov

    2009-05-15

    The performance of absorbent coal tar oil is analyzed as a function of the constituent and group composition. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil that ensures the required absorbent properties is determined. Operative monitoring may be based on absorbent characteristics that permit regulation of the beginning and end of regeneration.

  13. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  14. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  15. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  16. The Double Absorbing Boundary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Givoli, Dan; Rabinovich, Daniel; Bielak, Jacobo

    2014-02-01

    A new approach is devised for solving wave problems in unbounded domains. It has common features to each of two types of existing techniques: local high-order Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC) and Perfectly Matched Layers (PML). However, it is different from both and enjoys relative advantages with respect to both. The new method, called the Double Absorbing Boundary (DAB) method, is based on truncating the unbounded domain to produce a finite computational domain Ω, and on applying a local high-order ABC on two parallel artificial boundaries, which are a small distance apart, and thus form a thin non-reflecting layer. Auxiliary variables are defined on the two boundaries and inside the layer bounded by them, and participate in the numerical scheme. The DAB method is first introduced in general terms, using the 2D scalar time-dependent wave equation as a model. Then it is applied to the 1D Klein-Gordon equation, using finite difference discretization in space and time, and to the 2D wave equation in a wave guide, using finite element discretization in space and dissipative time stepping. The computational aspects of the method are discussed, and numerical experiments demonstrate its performance.

  17. Verification of Internal Dose Calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissi, Abdelmadjid

    The MIRD internal dose calculations have been in use for more than 15 years, but their accuracy has always been questionable. There have been attempts to verify these calculations; however, these attempts had various shortcomings which kept the question of verification of the MIRD data still unanswered. The purpose of this research was to develop techniques and methods to verify the MIRD calculations in a more systematic and scientific manner. The research consisted of improving a volumetric dosimeter, developing molding techniques, and adapting the Monte Carlo computer code ALGAM to the experimental conditions and vice versa. The organic dosimetric system contained TLD-100 powder and could be shaped to represent human organs. The dosimeter possessed excellent characteristics for the measurement of internal absorbed doses, even in the case of the lungs. The molding techniques are inexpensive and were used in the fabrication of dosimetric and radioactive source organs. The adaptation of the computer program provided useful theoretical data with which the experimental measurements were compared. The experimental data and the theoretical calculations were compared for 6 source organ-7 target organ configurations. The results of the comparison indicated the existence of an agreement between measured and calculated absorbed doses, when taking into consideration the average uncertainty (16%) of the measurements, and the average coefficient of variation (10%) of the Monte Carlo calculations. However, analysis of the data gave also an indication that the Monte Carlo method might overestimate the internal absorbed doses. Even if the overestimate exists, at least it could be said that the use of the MIRD method in internal dosimetry was shown to lead to no unnecessary exposure to radiation that could be caused by underestimating the absorbed dose. The experimental and the theoretical data were also used to test the validity of the Reciprocity Theorem for heterogeneous

  18. A polarization-independent broadband terahertz absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Cheng; Zang, XiaoFei E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn; Wang, YiQiao; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn

    2014-07-21

    A highly efficient broadband terahertz absorber is designed, fabricated, and experimentally as well as theoretically evaluated. The absorber comprises a heavily doped silicon substrate and a well-designed two-dimensional grating. Due to the destructive interference of waves and diffraction, the absorber can achieve over 95% absorption in a broad frequency range from 1 to 2 THz and for angles of incidence from 0° to 60°. Such a terahertz absorber is also polarization-independent due to its symmetrical structure. This omnidirectional and broadband absorber have potential applications in anti-reflection coatings, imaging systems, and so on.

  19. Radiation Dose Optimization For Critical Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadegan, Yasaman

    Ionizing radiation used in the patient diagnosis or therapy has negative effects on the patient body in short term and long term depending on the amount of exposure. More than 700,000 examinations are everyday performed on Interventional Radiology modalities, however; there is no patient-centric information available to the patient or the Quality Assurance for the amount of organ dose received. In this study, we are exploring the methodologies to systematically reduce the absorbed radiation dose in the Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Radiology procedures. In the first part of this study, we developed a mathematical model which determines a set of geometry settings for the equipment and a level for the energy during a patient exam. The goal is to minimize the amount of absorbed dose in the critical organs while maintaining image quality required for the diagnosis. The model is a large-scale mixed integer program. We performed polyhedral analysis and derived several sets of strong inequalities to improve the computational speed and quality of the solution. Results present the amount of absorbed dose in the critical organ can be reduced up to 99% for a specific set of angles. In the second part, we apply an approximate gradient method to simultaneously optimize angle and table location while minimizing dose in the critical organs with respect to the image quality. In each iteration, we solve a sub-problem as a MIP to determine the radiation field size and corresponding X-ray tube energy. In the computational experiments, results show further reduction (up to 80%) of the absorbed dose in compare with previous method. Last, there are uncertainties in the medical procedures resulting imprecision of the absorbed dose. We propose a robust formulation to hedge from the worst case absorbed dose while ensuring feasibility. In this part, we investigate a robust approach for the organ motions within a radiology procedure. We minimize the absorbed dose for the critical

  20. Reevaluation of the newborn thyroid dose from radioiodines

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, W.R.; Milavickas, L.R.

    1987-07-01

    The basis for the current thyroid absorbed dose estimates for radioiodines has been examined. The values for the newborn thyroid dose were found to underestimate the dose by a factor of 3. This underestimation of the dose was caused by the assumption that the biokinetic distribution of iodine is the same for the newborn and the adult. Increased thyroid uptake by the newborn requires that higher cumulated activities be incorporated into the dose determinations for the newborn.

  1. High-Dose-Rate 192Ir Brachytherapy Dose Verification: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikoofar, Alireza; Hoseinpour, Zohreh; Rabi Mahdavi, Seied; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy might be an effective tool for palliation of dysphagia. Because of some concerns about adverse effects due to absorbed radiation dose, it is important to estimate absorbed dose in risky organs during this treatment. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the absorbed dose in the parotid, thyroid, and submandibular gland, eye, trachea, spinal cord, and manubrium of sternum in brachytherapy in an anthropomorphic phantom. Materials and Methods: To measure radiation dose, eye, parotid, thyroid, and submandibular gland, spine, and sternum, an anthropomorphic phantom was considered with applicators to set thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). A specific target volume of about 23 cm3 in the upper thoracic esophagus was considered as target, and phantom planned computed tomography (CT) for HDR brachytherapy, then with a micro-Selectron HDR (192Ir) remote after-loading unit. Results: Absorbed doses were measured with calibrated TLDs and were expressed in centi-Gray (cGy). In regions far from target (≥ 16 cm) such as submandibular, parotid and thyroid glands, mean measured dose ranged from 1.65 to 5.5 cGy. In closer regions (≤ 16 cm), the absorbed dose might be as high as 113 cGy. Conclusions: Our study showed similar depth and surface doses; in closer regions, the surface and depth doses differed significantly due to the role of primary radiation that had imposed a high-dose gradient and difference between the plan and measurement, which was more severe because of simplifications in tissue inhomogeneity, considered in TPS relative to phantom. PMID:26413250

  2. Dose to lung from inhaled tritiated particles.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R B; Hong, A

    2001-09-01

    Tritiated particulate materials are of potential hazard in fission, fusion, and other tritium handling facilities. The absorbed fractions (fraction of energy emitted that is absorbed by the target region) are calculated for tritiated particles deposited in the alveolar-interstitial (AI) region of the respiratory tract. The energy absorbed by radiologically sensitive tissue irradiated by tritiated particles, in regions of the lung other than in the AI region, is negligible. The ICRP Publication 71 assumes the absorbed fraction is unity for tritium deposited in the AI region. We employed Monte Carlo methods in a model to evaluate the energy deposition in the wall of the alveolar sac from particles of tritiated beryllium, tritiated graphite, titanium tritide, tritiated iron hydroxide and zirconium tritide. For the five materials examined, the absorbed fraction in alveolar tissue ranged from 0.31 to 0.61 for particles of 1 microm physical diameter and 0.07 to 0.21 for 5 microm diameter particles. The dose to alveolar tissue, for an acute inhalation of tritiated particles by an adult male worker, was calculated based on the ICRP 66 lung model and the particle dissolution model of Mercer (1967). For particles of 5 microm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), the committed equivalent dose to alveolar tissue, calculated for the five materials, ranged from 32-42%, respectively, of the committed equivalent dose derived assuming the absorbed fractions were unity. PMID:11513464

  3. Patient radiation doses for electron beam CT.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Isabel A; Dance, David R; Skinner, Claire L; Evans, Phil M

    2005-08-01

    A Monte Carlo based computer model has been developed for electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) to calculate organ and effective doses in a humanoid hermaphrodite phantom. The program has been validated by comparison with experimental measurements of the CT dose index in standard head and body CT dose phantoms; agreement to better than 8% has been found. The robustness of the model has been established by varying the input parameters. The amount of energy deposited at the 12:00 position of the standard body CT dose phantom is most susceptible to rotation angle, whereas that in the central region is strongly influenced by the beam quality. The program has been used to investigate the changes in organ absorbed doses arising from partial and full rotation about supine and prone subjects. Superficial organs experience the largest changes in absorbed dose with a change in subject orientation and for partial rotation. Effective doses for typical clinical scan protocols have been calculated and compared with values obtained using existing dosimetry techniques based on full rotation. Calculations which make use of Monte Carlo conversion factors for the scanner that best matches the EBCT dosimetric characteristics consistently overestimate the effective dose in supine subjects by typically 20%, and underestimate the effective dose in prone subjects by typically 13%. These factors can therefore be used to correct values obtained in this way. Empirical dosimetric techniques based on the dose-length product yield errors as great as 77%. This is due to the sensitivity of the dose length product to individual scan lengths. The magnitude of these errors is reduced if empirical dosimetric techniques based on the average absorbed dose in the irradiated volume (CTDIvol) are used. Therefore conversion factors specific to EBCT have been calculated to convert the CTDIvol to an effective dose. PMID:16193782

  4. Patient radiation doses for electron beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, Isabel A.; Dance, David R.; Skinner, Claire L.; Evans, Phil M.

    2005-08-15

    A Monte Carlo based computer model has been developed for electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) to calculate organ and effective doses in a humanoid hermaphrodite phantom. The program has been validated by comparison with experimental measurements of the CT dose index in standard head and body CT dose phantoms; agreement to better than 8% has been found. The robustness of the model has been established by varying the input parameters. The amount of energy deposited at the 12:00 position of the standard body CT dose phantom is most susceptible to rotation angle, whereas that in the central region is strongly influenced by the beam quality. The program has been used to investigate the changes in organ absorbed doses arising from partial and full rotation about supine and prone subjects. Superficial organs experience the largest changes in absorbed dose with a change in subject orientation and for partial rotation. Effective doses for typical clinical scan protocols have been calculated and compared with values obtained using existing dosimetry techniques based on full rotation. Calculations which make use of Monte Carlo conversion factors for the scanner that best matches the EBCT dosimetric characteristics consistently overestimate the effective dose in supine subjects by typically 20%, and underestimate the effective dose in prone subjects by typically 13%. These factors can therefore be used to correct values obtained in this way. Empirical dosimetric techniques based on the dose-length product yield errors as great as 77%. This is due to the sensitivity of the dose length product to individual scan lengths. The magnitude of these errors is reduced if empirical dosimetric techniques based on the average absorbed dose in the irradiated volume (CTDI{sub vol}) are used. Therefore conversion factors specific to EBCT have been calculated to convert the CTDI{sub vol} to an effective dose.

  5. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  6. [The shape of the absorbed dosage in neutron irradiation of a water phantom].

    PubMed

    Kapchigashev, S P; Chernichenko, I M; Kuznetsov, M V; Obaturov, G M; Baranov, O V; Korobeĭnikov, V V

    1990-02-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of experimental and estimated investigations into the spatial distribution of an absorbed dose and the spectrum of neutrons during irradiation of a water phantom by a P-3 beam of a BP-10 reactor. The ratio of densely ionizing and rarely ionizing components of an absorbed dose as well as the ratios between neutrons of different energetic groups were shown to undergo considerable changes with the penetration of reactor neutrons into the depth of a tissue-equivalent medium. The obtained results serve as basic data in various biomedical investigations using reactor neutron beams, including the planning of their use in cancer therapy.

  7. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.

  8. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  9. Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.

  10. LINKING DERMAL MODELING AND LOADING DATA TO PREDICT LONG-TERM DOSES FROM INTERMITTENT DERMAL CONTACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we assess dermal exposure and dose resulting from intermittent contact with residue-contaminated surfaces. These estimates require an understanding of (1) the quantitative relationship between exposure and absorbed dose; (2) the impact of intermittent exposure on ...

  11. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

  12. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  13. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  14. Radon Exposure and the Definition of Low Doses-The Problem of Spatial Dose Distribution.

    PubMed

    Madas, Balázs G

    2016-07-01

    Investigating the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation is considered to be one of the most important fields in radiological protection research. Although the definition of low dose given by a dose range seems to be clear, it leaves some open questions. For example, the time frame and the target volume in which absorbed dose is measured have to be defined. While dose rate is considered in the current system of radiological protection, the same cancer risk is associated with all exposures, resulting in a given amount of energy absorbed by a single target cell or distributed among all the target cells of a given organ. However, the biological effects and so the health consequences of these extreme exposure scenarios are unlikely to be the same. Due to the heterogeneous deposition of radon progeny within the lungs, heterogeneous radiation exposure becomes a practical issue in radiological protection. While the macroscopic dose is still within the low dose range, local tissue doses on the order of Grays can be reached in the most exposed parts of the bronchial airways. It can be concluded that progress in low dose research needs not only low dose but also high dose experiments where small parts of a biological sample receive doses on the order of Grays, while the average dose over the whole sample remains low. A narrow interpretation of low dose research might exclude investigations with high relevance to radiological protection. Therefore, studies important to radiological protection should be performed in the frame of low dose research even if the applied doses do not fit in the dose range used for the definition of low doses. PMID:27218294

  15. Radon Exposure and the Definition of Low Doses-The Problem of Spatial Dose Distribution.

    PubMed

    Madas, Balázs G

    2016-07-01

    Investigating the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation is considered to be one of the most important fields in radiological protection research. Although the definition of low dose given by a dose range seems to be clear, it leaves some open questions. For example, the time frame and the target volume in which absorbed dose is measured have to be defined. While dose rate is considered in the current system of radiological protection, the same cancer risk is associated with all exposures, resulting in a given amount of energy absorbed by a single target cell or distributed among all the target cells of a given organ. However, the biological effects and so the health consequences of these extreme exposure scenarios are unlikely to be the same. Due to the heterogeneous deposition of radon progeny within the lungs, heterogeneous radiation exposure becomes a practical issue in radiological protection. While the macroscopic dose is still within the low dose range, local tissue doses on the order of Grays can be reached in the most exposed parts of the bronchial airways. It can be concluded that progress in low dose research needs not only low dose but also high dose experiments where small parts of a biological sample receive doses on the order of Grays, while the average dose over the whole sample remains low. A narrow interpretation of low dose research might exclude investigations with high relevance to radiological protection. Therefore, studies important to radiological protection should be performed in the frame of low dose research even if the applied doses do not fit in the dose range used for the definition of low doses.

  16. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  17. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associatedwith a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This reportdescribes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world,to the abosrber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and theninto helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for freeconvection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber.

  18. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  2. Structured Metal Film as Perfect Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    With standing U-shaped resonators, fish-spear-like resonator has been designed for the first time as the building block to assemble perfect absorbers. The samples have been fabricated with two-photon polymerization process and FTIR measurement results support the effectiveness of the perfect absorber design. In such a structure the polarization-dependent resonance occurs between the tines of the spears instead of the conventional design where the resonance occurs between the metallic layers separated by a dielectric interlayer. The incident light neither transmits nor reflects back which results in unit absorbance. The power of light is trapped between the tines of spears and finally be absorbed. The whole structure is covered with a continuous metallic layer with good thermo-conductance, which provides an excellent approach to deal with heat dissipation, is enlightening in exploring metamaterial absorbers.

  3. The influence of feature sidewall tolerance on minimum absorber thickness for LIGA x-ray masks

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Griffiths; J. M. Hruby; A. Ting

    1999-02-01

    Minimizing mask absorber thickness is an important practical concern in producing very small features by the LIGA process. To assist in this minimization, the authors have developed coupled numerical models describing both the exposure and development of a thick PMMA resist. The exposure model addresses multi-wavelength, one-dimensional x-ray transmission through multiple beam filters, through the mask substrate and absorber, and the subsequent attenuation and photon absorption in the PMMA resist. The development model describes one-dimensional dissolution of a feature and its sidewalls, taking into account the variation in absorbed dose through the PMMA thickness. These exposure and development models are coupled in a single interactive code, permitting the automated adjustment of mask absorber thickness to yield a prescribed sidewall taper or dissolution distance. They have used this tool to compute the minimum required absorber thickness yielding a prescribed sidewall tolerance for exposures performed at the ALS, SSRL and NSLS synchrotron sources. Results are presented as a function of the absorbed dose for a range of the prescribed sidewall tolerance, feature size, PMMA thickness, mask substrate thickness and the development temperature.

  4. ANALYSIS OF UNCERTAINTIES IN DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FROM BIOMARKERS: IMPACT ON STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The absorbed dose is defined as the quantity which has passed through the barriers (skin, GI tract, The absorbed dose of a pesticide can be estimated from its established urinary biomarker. ungs). For an exposure study, there are several options for biomarker collection, each w...

  5. Radiological Dose Assessment - Nonuniform Skin Dose, Radioactive Skin Contamination, and Multiple Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci

    1999-03-01

    Radioactive skin contamination with {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides may result in biologically significant absorbed doses to the skin. A specific exposure scenario of interest is a nonuniform skin dose delivered by {beta}- and {gamma}-emissions from radioactive skin contamination. The United States Department of Energy requires a formal evaluation and reporting of nonuniform skin doses. The United States Department of Energy also requires specific, formal procedures for evaluating the results from the placement or use of multiple dosimeters. Action levels relative to potential absorbed doses for the contamination survey instrumentation in use at Los Alamos and formal procedures for evaluating nonuniform skin doses and multiple dosimeters are developed and presented here.

  6. Measurements of a prototype synchrotron radiation pumped absorber for future light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.S.; Foerster, C.L.; Halama, H.; Lanni, C.

    1988-01-01

    In the new generation of advanced synchrotron light sources, the conventional concept of distributed pumping is no longer suitable for removing the gas load caused by photon stimulated desorption (PSD). A new concept using a combination of photon absorber and pumping station has been designed, constructed, and installed in the U1OB beam line at the VUV ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The system consists of an electrically insulated water cooled copper block, a titanium sublimation pump, calibrated BA gauges, a calibrated RGA, and a known conductance. A photon beam 10 milliradian wide and 3.26 milliradian high, having critical energy of 500 eV, is directed on the absorber. PSD yield is studied as a function of total beam dose and absorber surface preparation. The results from this experiment, pump characteristics, design of an absorber pump for future light sources, and the pressure improvement factors will be presented. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Monte Carlo calculation of specific absorbed fractions: variance reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Londoño, G.; García-Pareja, S.; Salvat, F.; Lallena, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present work is to calculate specific absorbed fractions using variance reduction techniques and assess the effectiveness of these techniques in improving the efficiency (i.e. reducing the statistical uncertainties) of simulation results in cases where the distance between the source and the target organs is large and/or the target organ is small. The variance reduction techniques of interaction forcing and an ant colony algorithm, which drives the application of splitting and Russian roulette, were applied in Monte Carlo calculations performed with the code penelope for photons with energies from 30 keV to 2 MeV. In the simulations we used a mathematical phantom derived from the well-known MIRD-type adult phantom. The thyroid gland was assumed to be the source organ and urinary bladder, testicles, uterus and ovaries were considered as target organs. Simulations were performed, for each target organ and for photons with different energies, using these variance reduction techniques, all run on the same processor and during a CPU time of 1.5 · 105 s. For energies above 100 keV both interaction forcing and the ant colony method allowed reaching relative uncertainties of the average absorbed dose in the target organs below 4% in all studied cases. When these two techniques were used together, the uncertainty was further reduced, by a factor of 0.5 or less. For photons with energies below 100 keV, an adapted initialization of the ant colony algorithm was required. By using interaction forcing and the ant colony algorithm, realistic values of the specific absorbed fractions can be obtained with relative uncertainties small enough to permit discriminating among simulations performed with different Monte Carlo codes and phantoms. The methodology described in the present work can be employed to calculate specific absorbed fractions for arbitrary arrangements, i.e. energy spectrum of primary radiation, phantom model and source and target organs.

  8. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  9. Ultraviolet absorbance screening for DNAPL site compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Misquitta, N.; Foster, D.; Coll, F.; Brourman, M.

    1997-12-31

    The UV Absorbance Effectiveness Demonstration was developed to evaluate the feasibility of using UV absorbance as a surrogate for oil & grease methods of measuring the concentration of coal tar-related constituents in groundwater. Since the current oil & grease method via Freon{reg_sign} extraction is being phased out, a new alternative oil & grease method using a hexane extraction will be introduced in the near future. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to compare the two oil & grease methods, as they relate to facility groundwater, in order to demonstrate the overall robustness of UV absorbance as a surrogate for oil & grease analysis, regardless of the method of extraction.

  10. Bond integrity of microwave absorbers for CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    A. Ananda; Y. Verma; B.T. Smith; P.H. Johnson; I.E. Campisi; K.E. Finger

    1992-10-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses superconducting niobium cavities. Specially developed microwave absorbing ceramics are used in the cavities to absorb the higher order mode power. The ceramic absorbers are brazed to copper mounts. The structural integrity and the thermal contact of the braze joints are essential. The ultrasonic reflection signal from the various bonds is evaluated to locate voids and partial braze surfaces. The acoustic wave properties of the four components of the structure are used as input to an ultrasonic transmission line model which is compared to the experimental data. There is good correlation between the ultrasonic reflection data and destructive testing of the bonds.

  11. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Wright, Richard N.; Swank, William D.; Lister, Tedd E.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  12. Energy absorber uses expanded coiled tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical shock mitigating device, based on working material to its failure point, absorbs mechanical energy by bending or twisting tubing. It functions under axial or tangential loading, has no rebound, is area independent, and is easy and inexpensive to build.

  13. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. )

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  14. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  15. Porous absorber for solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, J.A.

    1980-09-10

    A general discussion of the factors affecting solar collector performance is presented. Bench scale tests done to try to determine the heat transfer characteristics of various screen materials are explained. The design, performance, and evaluation of a crude collector with a simple screen stack absorber is treated. The more sophisticated absorber concept, and its first experimental approximation is examined. A short summary of future plans for the collector concept is included. (MHR)

  16. Taming electromagnetic metamaterials for isotropic perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, Doan Tung; Viet, Do Thanh; Trang, Pham Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Quy, Ho Quang; Hieu, Nguyen Van; Lam, Vu Dinh; Tung, Nguyen Thanh

    2015-07-01

    Conventional metamaterial absorbers, which consist of a dielectric spacer sandwiched between metamaterial resonators and a metallic ground plane, have been inherently anisotropic. In this paper, we present an alternative approach for isotropic perfect absorbers using symmetric metamaterial structures. We show that by systematically manipulating the electrically and magnetically induced losses, one can achieve a desired absorption without breaking the structural homogeneity. Finite integration simulations and standard retrieval method are performed to elaborate on our idea.

  17. Structured metal film as a perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2013-08-01

    A new type of absorber, a four-tined fish-spear-like resonator (FFR), constructed by the two-photon polymerization process, is reported. An absorbance of more than 90% is experimentally realized and the resonance occurs in the space between the tines. Since a continuous layer of metallic thin film covers the structure, it is perfectly thermo- and electroconductive, which is the mostly desired feature for many applications. PMID:23661582

  18. Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; Smirnova, E I; O' Hara, John F

    2009-01-01

    We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance frequencies. However, the downside of these designs is that they all employ resonators of rather complicated shape with many fine parts and so they are not easy to fabricate and are sensitive to distortions.

  19. Radar Absorbing Materials for Cube Stealth Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, D.; Pastore, R.; Vricella, A.; Marchetti, M.

    A Cube Stealth Satellite is proposed for potential applications in defense system. Particularly, the faces of the satellite exposed to the Earth are made of nanostructured materials able to absorb radar surveillance electromagnetic waves, conferring stealth capability to the cube satellite. Microwave absorbing and shielding material tiles are proposed using composite materials consisting in epoxy-resin and carbon nanotubes filler. The electric permittivity of the composite nanostructured materials is measured and discussed. Such data are used by the modeling algorithm to design the microwave absorbing and the shielding faces of the cube satellite. The electromagnetic modeling takes into account for several incidence angles (0-80°), extended frequency band (2-18 GHz), and for the minimization of the electromagnetic reflection coefficient. The evolutionary algorithm used for microwave layered microwave absorber modeling is the recently developed Winning Particle Optimization. The mathematical model of the absorbing structure is finally experimentally validated by comparing the electromagnetic simulation to the measurement of the manufactured radar absorber tile. Nanostructured composite materials manufacturing process and electromagnetic reflection measurements methods are described. Finally, a finite element method analysis of the electromagnetic scattering by cube stealth satellite is performed.

  20. Effects of protein leakage on online monitoring of ultraviolet absorbance in spent dialysate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ken-Ichiro; Hirakawa, Shinya; Murakami, Jun; Akiba, Takashi; Mineshima, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Recently, dialysis dose during hemodialysis treatment has been monitored by measuring the concentration of urea-like solutes such as uric acid in spent dialysate using near-ultraviolet (UV) light. The measured absorbance has been shown to have a good correlation with the time course of urea level even if the absorbance does not result from urea. However, the spent dialysate includes various solutes such as uric acid and albumin as well as unknown solutes that also absorb UV light. The effects of these solutes on monitored absorbance values are not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of protein leakage on data from the UV monitoring of spent dialysate. Albumin leakage in the earlier stage of the treatment may result in an increase in absorbance greater than the expected value. As a result, there is a possibility that the dialysis dose is overestimated. On the other hand, the quantity of albumin leakage could be estimated by a spent dialysate monitoring technique combined with a protein removal process.

  1. A mathematical model of the nine-month pregnant woman for calculating specific absorbed fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Existing models that allow calculation of internal doses from radionuclide intakes by both men and women are based on a mathematical model of Reference Man. No attempt has been made to allow for the changing geometric relationships that occur during pregnancy which would affect the doses to the mother's organs and to the fetus. As pregnancy progresses, many of the mother's abdominal organs are repositioned, and their shapes may be somewhat changed. Estimation of specific absorbed fractions requires that existing mathematical models be modified to accommodate these changes. Specific absorbed fractions for Reference Woman at three, six, and nine months of pregnancy should be sufficient for estimating the doses to the pregnant woman and the fetus. This report describes a model for the pregnant woman at nine months. An enlarged uterus was incorporated into a model for Reference Woman. Several abdominal organs as well as the exterior of the trunk were modified to accommodate the new uterus. This model will allow calculation of specific absorbed fractions for the fetus from photon emitters in maternal organs. Specific absorbed fractions for the repositioned maternal organs from other organs can also be calculated. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  3. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  4. Impact of reticle absorber on the imaging properties in ArFi lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finders, Jo; Mouraille, O.; Bouma, A.; Ngai, A.; Grim, K.; van Praagh, J.; Toma, C.; Miyazaki, J.; Higuchi, M.; Kojima, Y.; Connolly, B.; Englard, I.; Cohen, Y.; Mangan, S.; Ben Yishai, Michael; Jullian, Karine

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we compare the imaging properties of lithographic test structures formed on test masks with different reticle absorbers for use in1.35 NA immersion lithography. We will look into different aspects like process windows and CD fingerprints. Beyond that we look into the topographic effects caused by the different absorbers, the mask 3D effects. We will study the interaction between the different masks and immersion scanner. Special attention is given towards the correctability of the intrafield CD fingerprint by mask and scanner applying dose corrections.

  5. Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-07-21

    The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

  6. Ultrathin flexible dual band terahertz absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yan; Chen, Lin; Shi, Cheng; Cheng, Zhaoxiang; Zang, Xiaofei; Xu, Boqing; Zhu, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    We propose an ultrathin and flexible dual band absorber operated at terahertz frequencies based on metamaterial. The metamaterial structure consists of periodical split ring resonators with two asymmetric gaps and a metallic ground plane, separated by a thin-flexible dielectric spacer. Particularly, the dielectric spacer is a free-standing polyimide film with thickness of 25 μm, resulting in highly flexible for our absorber and making it promising for non-planar applications such as micro-bolometers and stealth aircraft. Experimental results show that the absorber has two resonant absorption frequencies (0.41 THz and 0.75 THz) with absorption rates 92.2% and 97.4%, respectively. The resonances at the absorption frequencies come from normal dipole resonance and high-order dipole resonance which is inaccessible in the symmetrical structure. Multiple reflection interference theory is used to analyze the mechanism of the absorber and the results are in good agreement with simulated and experimental results. Furthermore, the absorption properties are studied under various spacer thicknesses. This kind of metamaterial absorber is insensitive to polarization, has high absorption rates (over 90%) with wide incident angles range from 0° to 45° and the absorption rates are also above 90% when wrapping it to a curved surface.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation absorbing compounds in marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chalker, B.E.; Dunlap, W.C. )

    1990-01-09

    Studies on the biological effects of solar ultraviolet radiations are becoming increasingly common, in part due to recent interest in the Antarctic ozone hole and in the perceived potential for global climate change. Marine organisms possess many strategies for ameliorating the potentially damaging effects of UV-B (280-320 nm) and the shorter wavelengths of UV-A (320-400nm). One mechanism is the synthesis of bioaccumulation of ultraviolet radiation absorbing compounds. Several investigators have noted the presence of absorbing compounds in spectrophotometer scans of extracts from a variety of marine organisms, particularly algae and coelenterates containing endosymbiotic algae. The absorbing compounds are often mycosporine-like amino acids. Thirteen mycosporine-like amino acids have already been described, and several others have recently been detected. Although, the mycosporine-like amino acids are widely distributed. these compounds are by no means the only type of UV-B absorbing compounds which has been identified. Coumarins from green algae, quinones from sponges, and indoles from a variety of sources are laternative examples which are documented in the natural products literature. When the biological impact of solar ultraviolet radiation is assessed, adequate attention must be devoted to the process of photoadaptation, including the accumulation of ultraviolet radiation absorbing compounds.

  8. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world. PMID:25829570

  9. An extremely wideband and lightweight metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pei, Zhibin; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Zhang, Anxue; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional microwave metamaterial absorber based on the stand-up resistive film patch array. The absorber has wideband absorption, lightweight, and polarization-independent properties. Our design comes from the array of unidirectional stand-up resistive film patches backed by a metallic plane, which can excite multiple standing wave modes. By rolling the resistive film patches as a square enclosure, we obtain the polarization-independent property. Due to the multiple standing wave modes, the most incident energy is dissipated by the resistive film patches, and thus, the ultra-wideband absorption can be achieved by overlapping all the absorption modes at different frequencies. Both the simulated and experimental results show that the absorber possesses a fractional bandwidth of 148.2% with the absorption above 90% in the frequency range from 3.9 to 26.2 GHz. Moreover, the proposed absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.062 g/cm2, which is approximately equivalent to that of eight stacked standard A4 office papers. It is expected that our proposed absorber may find potential applications such as electromagnetic interference and stealth technologies.

  10. Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenliang; Liu, Yuexia; Han, Tiancheng

    2016-09-01

    By using sub-wavelength resonators, metamaterial absorber shows great potential in many scientific and technical applications due to its perfect absorption characteristics. For most practical applications, the absorption bandwidth is one of the most important performance metrics. In this paper, we demonstrate the design of an ultra-broadband infrared absorber based on metasurface. Compared with the prior work [Opt. Express22(S7), A1713-A1724 (2014)], the proposed absorber shows more than twice the absorption bandwidth. The simulated total absorption exceeds 90% from 7.8 to 12.1 um and the full width at half maximum is 50% (from 7.5 to 12.5 μm), which is achieved by using a single layer of metasurface. Further study demonstrates that the absorption bandwidth can be greatly expanded by using two layers of metasurface, i.e. dual-layered absorber. The total absorption of the dual-layered absorber exceeds 80% from 5.2 to 13.7 um and the full width at half maximum is 95% (from 5.1 to 14.1 μm), much greater than those previously reported for infrared spectrum. The absorption decreases with fluctuations as the incident angle increases but remains quasi-constant up to relatively large angles. PMID:27607662

  11. Solar absorber material reflectivity measurements at temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometti, J.A.; Hawk, C.W.

    1999-07-01

    Assessment of absorber shell material properties at high operating temperatures is essential to the full understanding of the solar energy absorption process in a solar thermal rocket. A review of these properties, their application and a new experimental methodology to measure them at high temperatures is presented. The direct application for the research is absorber cavity development for a Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS). High temperature measurements, greater than 1,000 Kelvin, are difficult to obtain for incident radiation upon a solid surface that forms an absorber cavity in a solar thermal engine. The basic material properties determine the amount of solar energy that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected and are dependent upon the material's temperature. This investigation developed a new approach to evaluate the material properties (i.e., reflectivity, absorptive) of the absorber wall and experimentally determined them for rhenium and niobium sample coupons. The secular reflectivity was measured both at room temperature and at temperatures near 1,000 Kelvin over a range of angles from 0 to 90 degrees. The same experimental measurements were used to calculate the total reflectivity of the sample by integrating the recorded intensities over a hemisphere. The test methodology used the incident solar energy as the heating source while directly measuring the reflected light (an integrated value over all visible wavelengths). Temperature dependence on total reflectivity was found to follow an inverse power function of the material's temperature.

  12. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  13. Circular polarization sensitive absorbers based on graphene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kunpeng; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the polarization of a linearly polarized (LP) light would rotate after passing through a single layer graphene under the bias of a perpendicular magnetostatic field. Here we show that a corresponding phase shift could be expected for circularly polarized (CP) light, which can be engineered to design the circular polarization sensitive devices. We theoretically validate that an ultrathin graphene-based absorber with the thickness about λ/76 can be obtained, which shows efficient absorption >90% within incident angles of ±80°. The angle-independent phase shift produced by the graphene is responsible for the nearly omnidirectional absorber. Furthermore, a broadband absorber in frequencies ranging from 2.343 to 5.885 THz with absorption over 90% is designed by engineering the dispersion of graphene. PMID:27034257

  14. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  15. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  16. Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

    1982-11-15

    The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors.

  17. Absorber topography dependence of phase edge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Waller, Laura; Neureuther, Andy

    2015-10-01

    Mask topography contributes to phase at the wafer plane, even for OMOG binary masks currently in use at the 22nm node in deep UV (193nm) lithography. Here, numerical experiments with rigorous FDTD simulation are used to study the impact of mask 3D effects on aerial imaging, by varying the height of the absorber stack and its sidewall angle. Using a thin mask boundary layer model to fit to rigorous simulations it is seen that increasing the absorber thickness, and hence the phase through the middle of a feature (bulk phase) monotonically changes the wafer-plane phase. Absorber height also influences best focus, revealed by an up/down shift in the Bossung plot (linewidth vs. defocus). Bossung plot tilt, however, responsible for process window variability at the wafer, is insensitive to changes in the absorber height (and hence also the bulk phase). It is seen to depend instead on EM edge diffraction from the thick mask edge (edge phase), but stays constant for variations in mask thickness within a 10% range. Both bulk phase and edge phase are also independent of sidewall angle fluctuation, which is seen to linearly affect the CD at the wafer, but does not alter wafer phase or the defocus process window. Notably, as mask topography varies, the effect of edge phase can be replicated by a thin mask model with 8nm wide boundary layers, irrespective of absorber height or sidewall angle. The conclusions are validated with measurements on phase shifting masks having different topographic parameters, confirming the strong dependence of phase variations at the wafer on bulk phase of the mask absorber.

  18. Precise dispersion equations of absorbing filter glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, S.; Biertümpfel, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The refractive indices versus wavelength of optical transparent glasses are measured at a few wavelengths only. In order to calculate the refractive index at any wavelength, a so-called Sellmeier series is used as an approximation of the wavelength dependent refractive index. Such a Sellmeier representation assumes an absorbing free (= loss less) material. In optical transparent glasses this assumption is valid since the absorption of such transparent glasses is very low. However, optical filter glasses have often a rather high absorbance in certain regions of the spectrum. The exact description of the wavelength dependent function of the refractive index is essential for an optimized design for sophisticated optical applications. Digital cameras use an IR cut filter to ensure good color rendition and image quality. In order to reduce ghost images by reflections and to be nearly angle independent absorbing filter glass is used, e.g. blue glass BG60 from SCHOTT. Nowadays digital cameras improve their performance and so the IR cut filter needs to be improved and thus the accurate knowledge of the refractive index (dispersion) of the used glasses must be known. But absorbing filter glass is not loss less as needed for a Sellmeier representation. In addition it is very difficult to measure it in the absorption region of the filter glass. We have focused a lot of effort on measuring the refractive index at specific wavelength for absorbing filter glass - even in the absorption region. It will be described how to do such a measurement. In addition we estimate the use of a Sellmeier representation for filter glasses. It turns out that in most cases a Sellmeier representation can be used even for absorbing filter glasses. Finally Sellmeier coefficients for the approximation of the refractive index will be given for different filter glasses.

  19. Engineering reverse saturable absorbers for desired wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Yehuda B.; Scharf, Benjamin

    1986-06-01

    A variety of applications exist for reverse saturable absorbers (RSAs) in laser science (RSAs are substances whose excited-state absorption cross section is larger than their ground-state absorption cross section at a given wavelength and possess a number of other properties). We propose an approach to designing RSAs at a desired wavelength by construction of dimers of dye molecules which absorb near the wavelength of interest. The dimer ground-state absorption is to a state in which the excitation is spread over both monomeric units and the excited-state absorption commences from this state to the doubly excited electronic state in which both monomeric units are excited.

  20. Spin Particle in an Absorbing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amooshahi, M.

    2015-10-01

    The quantum dynamics of a localized spin Particle interacting with an absorbing environment is investigated. The quantum Langevin-Schrödinger equation for spin is obtained. The susceptibility function of the environment is calculated in terms of the coupling function of the spin and the environment. it is shown that the susceptibility function satisfies the Kramers-Kronig relations. Spontaneous emission and the shift frequency of the spin is obtained in terms of the imaginary part of the susceptibility function in frequency domain. Some transition probabilities between the spin states are calculated when the absorbing environment is in the thermal state.

  1. OSCEE fan exhaust bulk absorber treatment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Samanich, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustic suppression capability of bulk absorber material designed for use in the fan exhaust duct walls of the quiet clean short haul experiment engine (OCSEE UTW) was evaluated. The acoustic suppression to the original design for the engine fan duct which consisted of phased single degree-of-freedom wall treatment was tested with a splitter and also with the splitter removed. Peak suppression was about as predicted with the bulk absorber configuration, however, the broadband characteristics were not attained. Post test inspection revealed surface oil contamination on the bulk material which could have caused the loss in bandwidth suppression.

  2. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  3. Evaluation of Organs at Risk’s Dose in External Radiotherapy of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi-Gelyan, Hamideh; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Makhdumi, Yasha; Abdollahi, Sara; Akbari, Fatemeh; Varshoee-Tabrizi, Fatemeh; Almasrou, Hamzeh; Nikoofar, Alireza; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of most malignant and many benign primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Radiotherapy affects both tumor cells and uninvolved normal cells; so, it is important to estimate absorbed dose to organs at risk in this kind of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the absorbed dose to chiasma, lens, optic nerve, retina, parotid, thyroid and submandibular gland in frontal lobe brain tumors radiotherapy based on treatment planning system (TPS) calculation and direct measurement on the phantom. Methods A head and neck phantom was constructed using natural human bone and combination of paraffin wax and Sodium Chloride (NaCl) as tissue-equivalent material. Six cylinders were made of phantom material which had cavities to insert Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) at several depths in order to measure absorbed dose to chiasma, lens, optic nerve, retina, parotid, thyroid and submandibular gland. Three routine conventional plans associated with tumors of this region and a new purposed technique were performed on the phantom and dose distribution and absorbed dose to critical organs were compared using treatment planning system (TPS) calculation and direct measurement on the phantom. Results Absorbed doses were measured with calibrated TLDs and are expressed in centigray (cGy). In all techniques absorbed dose to all organs except the lenses were at their tolerance dose levels and in the new purposed technique, absorbed dose to chiasma was significantly reduced. Conclusion Our findings showed differences in the range of 1-5% in all techniques between TPS calculation and direct measurements for all organs except submandibular glands and thyroid. Because submandibular glands and thyroid are far from primary radiation field, TLD reading in these regions although small but differs from TPS calculation which shows very smaller doses. This might be due to scattered radiation which is not well considered

  4. Radiation-dose calculation for five /sup 99/mTc IDA hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Kingston, E.; Turner, F.E.

    1982-11-01

    The radiation absorbed doses from five commercially available hepatobiliary agents--/sup 99m/Tc-tagged analogs of IDA (EIDA, PIPIDA, HIDA, PBIDA, DISIDA) have been calculated from biokinetic data in 41 normal subjects. Serial gamma images, with blood and urine samples, were obtained to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the source organs: blood, kidney, bladder, liver, gallbladder, and intestines. The critical organ was the gallbladder, with an absorbed-dose range of 690 to 780 mrad/mCl. Absorbed doses for other target organs were: upper large intestine 320 to 370 mrad/mCi, lower large intestine 210 to 240, small intestine 170 to 200, liver 65 (DISIDA) to 130 (PBIDA), ovaries 63 to 72, and urinary bladder wall 23 (PBIDA) to 36 (EIDA). The radiation absorbed dose was largely independent of changes in chemical structure except in (a) the liver, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of two in proportion to the rate of excretion of the IDA agent from the liver, and (b) the urinary bladder, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of 1.6 because of differences in rate of excretion. When the stimulus for gallbladder emptying is changed from whole-meal ingestion to cholecystokinin injection, the absorbed dose to the gallbladder increases to approximately 1 rad/mCi; if no gallbladder emptying is assumed, its absorbed dose increases to approximately 1.9 rad/mCi. In the absence of contraindication, the gallbladder absorbed dose may thus be decreased by inducing gallbladder emptying at the end of the imaging study.

  5. Radiation-dose calculation for five Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Kingston, E.; Turner, F.E.

    1982-11-01

    The radiation absorbed doses from five commercially available hepatobiliary agents-Tc-99m-tagged analogs of IDA (EIDA, PIPIDA, HIDA, PBIDA, DISIDA*) have been calculated from biokinetic data in 41 normal subjects. Serial gamma images, with blood and urine samples, were obtained to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the source organs: blood, kidey, bladder, liver, gallbladder, and intestines. The critical organ was the gallbladder, with an absorbed-dose range of 690 to 780 mrad/mCi. Absorbed doses for other target organs were: upper large intestine 320 to 370 mrad/mCi, lower large intestine 210 to 240, small intestine 170 to 200, liver 65 (DISIDA) to 130 (PBIDA), ovaries 63 to 72, and urinary bladder wall 23 (PBIDA) to 36 (EIDA). The radiation absorbed dose was largely independent of changes in chemical structure except in (a) the liver, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of two in proportion to the rate of excretion of the IDA agent from the liver, and (b) the urinary bladder, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of 1.6 because of differences in rate of excretion. When the stimulus for gallbladder emptying is changed from whole-meal ingestion to cholecystokinin injection, the absorbed dose to the gallbladder increases to approx. 1 rad/mCi; if no gallbladder emptying is assumed, its absorbed dose increases to approx. 1.9 rad/mCi. In the absence of contraindication, the gallbladder absorbed dose may thus be decreased by inducing gallbladder emptying at the end of the imaging study.

  6. The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

    2005-08-24

    This report discusses the use of small cryogenic coolers for cooling the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) liquid cryogen absorbers. Since the absorber must be able contain liquid helium as well liquid hydrogen, the characteristics of the available 4.2 K coolers are used here. The issues associated with connecting two-stage coolers to liquid absorbers are discussed. The projected heat flows into an absorber and the cool-down of the absorbers using the cooler are presented. The warm-up of the absorber is discussed. Special hydrogen safety issues that may result from the use of a cooler on the absorbers are also discussed.

  7. Integrated tuned vibration absorbers: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Gardonio, Paolo; Zilletti, Michele

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a simulation study on two integrated tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) designed to control the global flexural vibration of lightly damped thin structures subject to broad frequency band disturbances. The first one consists of a single axial switching TVA composed by a seismic mass mounted on variable axial spring and damper elements so that the characteristic damping and natural frequency of the absorber can be switched iteratively to control the resonant response of three flexural modes of the hosting structure. The second one consists of a single three-axes TVA composed by a seismic mass mounted on axial and rotational springs and dampers, which are arranged in such a way that the suspended mass is characterized by uncoupled heave and pitch-rolling vibrations. In this case the three damping and natural frequency parameters of the absorber are tuned separately to control three flexural modes of the hosting structure. The simulation study shows that the proposed single-unit absorbers produce, respectively, 5.3 and 8.7 dB reductions of the global flexural vibration of a rectangular plate between 20 and 120 Hz.

  8. Tunable metamaterial dual-band terahertz absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C. Y.; Li, Z. Z.; Guo, Z. H.; Yue, J.; Luo, Q.; Yao, G.; Ji, J.; Rao, Y. K.; Li, R. K.; Li, D.; Wang, H. X.; Yao, J. Q.; Ling, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report a design of a temperature controlled tunable dual band terahertz absorber. The compact single unit cell consists of two nested closed square ring resonators and a layer metallic separated by a substrate strontium titanate (STO) dielectric layer. It is found that the absorber has two distinctive absorption peaks at frequencies 0.096 THz and 0.137 THz, whose peaks are attained 97% and 75%. Cooling the absorber from 400 K to 250 K causes about 25% and 27% shift compared to the resonance frequency of room temperature, when we cooling the temperature to 150 K, we could attained both the two tunabilities exceeding 53%. The frequency tunability is owing to the variation of the dielectric constant of the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate. The mechanism of the dual band absorber is attributed to the overlapping of dual resonance frequencies, and could be demonstrated by the distributions of the electric field. The method opens up avenues for designing tunable terahertz devices in detection, imaging, and stealth technology.

  9. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  10. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  11. Optimization of ramified absorber networks doing desalination.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Martin S; Heiss, Gregor; Hübler, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    An iterated function system is used to generate fractal-like ramified graph networks of absorbers, which are optimized for desalination performance. The diffusion equation is solved for the boundary case of constant pressure difference at the absorbers and a constant ambient salt concentration far from the absorbers, while constraining both the total length of the network and the total area of the absorbers to be constant as functions of generation G. A linearized form of the solution was put in dimensionless form which depends only on a dimensionless membrane resistance, a dimensionless inverse svelteness ratio, and G. For each of the first nine generations G=2,…,10, the optimal graph shapes were obtained. Total water production rate increases parabolically as a function of generation, with a maximum at G=7. Total water production rate is shown to be approximately linearly related to the power consumed, for a fixed generation. Branching ratios which are optimal for desalination asymptote decreasingly to r=0.510 for large G, while branching angles which are optimal for desalination asymptote decreasingly to 1.17 radians. Asymmetric graphs were found to be less efficient for desalination than symmetric graphs. The geometry which is optimal for desalination does not depend strongly on the dimensionless parameters, but the optimal water production does. The optimal generation was found to increase with the inverse svelteness ratio.

  12. Estimating the radiation absorbed by a human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Natasha A.; Warland, Jon S.; Brown, Robert D.; Gillespie, Terry G.

    2008-07-01

    The complexities of the interactions between long- and short-wave radiation fluxes and the human body make it inherently difficult to estimate precisely the total radiation absorbed ( R) by a human in an outdoor environment. The purpose of this project was to assess and compare three methods to estimate the radiation absorbed by a human in an outdoor environment, and to compare the impact of applying various skin and clothing albedos ( α h ) on R. Field tests were conducted under both clear and overcast skies to evaluate the performance of applying a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model to predict R. Three albedos were evaluated: light ( α h = 0.57), medium ( α h = 0.37), and dark ( α h = 0.21). During the sampling periods, the range of error between the methods used to estimate the radiation absorbed by a cylindrical body under clear and overcast skies ranged from 3 to 8%. Clothing and skin albedo had a substantial impact on R, with the mean change in R between the darkest and lightest albedos ranging from 115 to 157 W m - 2 over the sampling period. Radiation is one of the most important variables to consider in outdoor thermal comfort research, as R is often the largest contributor to the human energy balance equation. The methods outlined and assessed in this study can be conveniently applied to provide reliable estimates of the radiation absorbed by a human in an outdoor environment.

  13. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  14. Shock absorber protects motive components against overloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Shock absorber with an output shaft, hollow gear, and a pair of springs forming a resilient driving connection between shaft and gear, operates when abnormally high torques are applied. This simple durable frictional device is valuable in rotating mechanisms subject to sudden overloads.

  15. Debuncher Microwave Absorber Tests of January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fullett, Ken

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the tests performed on the microwave absorbers placed in the Debuncher to replace the existing microwave cutoffs. The purpose of the microwave cutoffs is to reduce the transmission of microwave energy through the beam pipe. The old microwave cutoffs consisted of a stainless steel beam pipe of approximately 2.8 inches inside diameter into which a glass tube with an inside diameter of 1.835 inches was placed. The glass tube was coated with a thin coat of microwave absorbing material on its outside. Three of these cutoffs were installed in the Debuncher at locations D6Q5, D1Q7, and D4Q10 (see Figure 1). However, the glass tube was removed from the cutoff at D4Q10 leaving only the metal beam pipe. Please note that there was not an old style microwave cutoff installed at location D2Q09. It was felt that the glass tube cutoff was an aperture restriction in the Debuncher with its small (1.8 inch) inside diameter. It was decided that new cutoffs would be needed that would increase the aperture. The new microwave absorbers consist of a four inch stainless steel beam pipe into which eleven dielectric cores are inserted separated by aluminum spacers. The spacing allows adjustment of the frequency response of the absorber assembly. The inside diameter is 3 inches thus providing an increase of 1.2 inches over the old cutoffs. The new absorbers will be installed at four locations as shown in Figure 1.

  16. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  17. Microchip micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation of alkaloids with UV-absorbance spectral detection.

    PubMed

    Newman, Carl I D; Giordano, Braden C; Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2008-02-01

    A microchip device is demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation and UV-absorbance spectral detection of four toxic alkaloids: colchicine, aconitine, strychnine, and nicotine. A fused-silica (quartz) microchip containing a simple cross geometry is utilized to perform the separations, and a miniature, fiber-optic CCD spectrometer is coupled to the microchip for detection. Sensitive UV-absorbance detection is achieved via the application of online preconcentration techniques in combination with the quartz microchip substrate which contains an etched bubble-cell for increased pathlength. The miniature CCD spectrometer is configured to detect light between 190 and 645 nm and LabView programming written in-house enables absorbance spectra as well as separations to be monitored from 210 to 400 nm. Consequently, the configuration of this microchip device facilitates qualitative and quantitative separations via simultaneous spatial and spectral resolution of solutes. UV-absorbance limits of quantification for colchicine, 20 microM (8 mg/L); strychnine, 50 microM (17 mg/L); aconitine, 50 microM (32 mg/L); and nicotine, 100 microM (16 mg/L) are demonstrated on the microchip. With the exception of aconitine, these concentrations are > or =20-times more sensitive than lethal dose monitoring requirements. Finally, this device is demonstrated to successfully detect each toxin in water, skim milk, and apple juice samples spiked at sublethal dose concentrations after a simple, SPE procedure. PMID:18203247

  18. Thyroid dose distribution in dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, R.G.; Wood, R.E.; Clark, G.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland make it an organ of concern in dental radiography. A calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry system was used to investigate the absorbed dose (microGy) to the thyroid gland resultant from a minimum irradiated volume, intraoral full-mouth radiography technique with the use of rectangular collimation with a lead-backed image receptor, and conventional panoramic radiography performed with front and rear lead aprons. Use of the minimum irradiated volume technique resulted in a significantly decreased absorbed dose over the entire thyroid region ranging from 100% to 350% (p less than 0.05). Because this intraoral technique results in radiographs with greater image quality and also exposes the thyroid gland to less radiation than the panoramic, this technique may be an alternative to the panoramic procedure.

  19. Radiation dose descriptors: BERT, COD, DAP, and other strange creatures.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, Edward L; Lu, Zheng Feng; Dutta, Ajoy K; So, James C

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, a number of terms have been used to describe radiation dose. Eight common radiation dose descriptors include background equivalent radiation time (BERT), critical organ dose (COD), surface absorbed dose (SAD), dose area product (DAP), diagnostic acceptable reference level (DARLing), effective dose (ED), fetal absorbed dose (FAD), and total imparted energy (TIE). BERT is compared to the annual natural background radiation (about 3 mSv per year) and is easily understandable for the general public. COD refers to the radiation dose delivered to an individual critical organ. SAD is the radiation dose delivered at the skin surface. DAP is a product of the irradiated surface area multiplied by the radiation dose at the surface. DARLing is usually the radiation level that encompasses 75% (the third quartile) of the data derived from a nationwide or regional survey. DARLings are meant for voluntary guidance. Consistently higher patient doses should be investigated for possible equipment deficiencies or suboptimal protocols. ED is obtained by multiplying the radiation dose delivered to each organ by its weighting factor and then by adding those values to get the sum. It can be used to assess the risk of radiation-induced cancers and serious hereditary effects to future generations, regardless of the procedure being performed, and is the most useful radiation dose descriptor. FAD is the radiation dose delivered to the fetus, and TIE is the sum of the energy imparted to all irradiated tissue. Each of these descriptors is intended to relate radiation dose ultimately to potential biologic effects. To avoid confusion, the key is to avoid using the terms interchangeably. It is important to understand each of the radiation dose descriptors and their derivation in order to correctly evaluate radiation dose and to consult with patients concerned about the risks of radiation.

  20. Estimation of Radiation Dose in CT Based on Projection Data.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Yin, Zhye; De Man, Bruno; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-10-01

    Managing and optimizing radiation dose has become a core problem for the CT community. As a fundamental step for dose optimization, accurate and computationally efficient dose estimates are crucial. The purpose of this study was to devise a computationally efficient projection-based dose metric. The absorbed energy and object mass were individually modeled using the projection data. The absorbed energy was estimated using the difference between intensity of the primary photon and the exit photon. The mass was estimated using the volume under the attenuation profile. The feasibility of the approach was evaluated across phantoms with a broad size range, various kVp settings, and two bowtie filters, using a simulation tool, the Computer Assisted Tomography SIMulator (CATSIM) software. The accuracy of projection-based dose estimation was validated against Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The relationship between projection-based dose metric and MC dose estimate was evaluated using regression models. The projection-based dose metric showed a strong correlation with Monte Carlo dose estimates (R (2) > 0.94). The prediction errors for the projection-based dose metric were all below 15 %. This study demonstrated the feasibility of computationally efficient dose estimation requiring only the projection data.

  1. Effects of fragmentation parameter variations on estimates of galactic cosmic ray exposure: Dose sensitivity studies for aluminum shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Initial studies of the sensitivities of estimates of particle fluence, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent to fragmentation parameter variations are undertaken by using the LaRC galactic cosmic ray transport code (HZETRN). The new results, presented as a function of aluminum shield thickness, include upper and lower bounds on dose/dose equivalent corresponding to the physically realistic extremes of the fragmentation process and the percentage of variation of the dose/dose equivalent as a function of fragmentation parameter variation.

  2. Weighting of secondary radiations in organ dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, T; Tapiovaara, M

    2010-09-01

    The current system of dose quantities in radiological protection is based, in addition to the absorbed dose, on the concepts of equivalent dose and effective dose. This system has been developed mainly with uniform whole-body exposures in mind. Conceptual and practical problems arise when the system is applied to more general exposure situations where the radiation quality is altered within the human body. In this article these problems are discussed, using proton beam radiotherapy as a specific example, and a proposition is made that dose equivalent quantities should be used instead of equivalent doses when organ doses are of interest. The calculations of out-of-field organ doses in proton therapy show that the International Commission on Radiological Protection-prescribed use of the proton weighting factor generally leads to an underestimation of the stochastic risks, while the use of neutron weighting factors in the way as practised in the literature leads to a significant overestimation of these risks.

  3. A sound absorbing metasurface with coupled resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junfei; Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-08-01

    An impedance matched surface is able, in principle, to totally absorb the incident sound and yield no reflection, and this is desired in many acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate a design of impedance matched sound absorbing surface with a simple construction. By coupling different resonators and generating a hybrid resonance mode, we designed and fabricated a metasurface that is impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies with subwavelength scale unit cells. With careful design of the coupled resonators, over 99% energy absorption at central frequency of 511 Hz with a 50% absorption bandwidth of 140 Hz is achieved experimentally. The proposed design can be easily fabricated, and is mechanically stable. The proposed metasurface can be used in many sound absorption applications such as loudspeaker design and architectural acoustics.

  4. Absorbing Software Testing into the Scrum Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomikoski, Janne; Tervonen, Ilkka

    In this paper we study, how to absorb software testing into the Scrum method. We conducted the research as an action research during the years 2007-2008 with three iterations. The result showed that testing can and even should be absorbed to the Scrum method. The testing team was merged into the Scrum teams. The teams can now deliver better working software in a shorter time, because testing keeps track of the progress of the development. Also the team spirit is higher, because the Scrum team members are committed to the same goal. The biggest change from test manager’s point of view was the organized Product Owner Team. Test manager don’t have testing team anymore, and in the future all the testing tasks have to be assigned through the Product Backlog.

  5. Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Marhauser, Frank; Elliott, Thomas; Rimmer, Robert

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variations from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.

  6. Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Turner, A. D.; DelCastillo, H. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Lange, A. E.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitive far infrared and millimeter wave bolometers fabricated from a freestanding membrane of low stress silicon nitride are reported. The absorber, consisting of a metallized silicon nitride micromesh thermally isolated by radial legs of silicon nitride, is placed in an integrating cavity to efficiently couple to single mode or multiple mode infrared radiation. This structure provides low heat capacity, low thermal conduction and minimal cross section to energetic particles. A neutron transmutation doped Ge thermister is bump bonded to the center of the device and read out with evaporated Cr-Au leads. The limiting performance of the micromesh absorber is discussed and the recent results obtained from a 300 mK cold stage are summarized.

  7. Mechanically stretchable and tunable metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuli; Feng, Shuqi; Qiu, Kepeng; Liu, Zijun; Fan, Yuancheng; Zhang, Weihong; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji

    2015-03-01

    In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of a mechanically stretchable and tunable metamaterial absorber composed of dielectric resonator stacked on a thin conductive rubber layer. A near unity absorption is observed due to strong local field confinement around magnetic Mie resonance of dielectric resonator. Furthermore, the interspacing between unit cells is modulated dynamically under uniaxial stress. Owing to the decreases of longitudinal coupling between neighboring unit cells, the resonant absorption peak is reversibly tuned by 410 MHz, as the stain varies up to 180% along H field direction. On the contrary, the resonant absorption state is nearly independent on strain variation when external stress is applied along E field direction, due to the weak transverse interplaying. The mechanically tunable metamaterial absorber featured by flexibility paves a way forwards for actual application.

  8. Imaging highly absorbing nanoparticles using photothermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussier, Simon-Alexandre; Moradi, Hamid; Price, Alain; Murugkar, Sangeeta

    2015-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have tremendous potential in biomedicine. They can be used as absorbing labels inside living cells for the purpose of biomedical imaging, biosensing as well as for photothermal therapy. We demonstrate photothermal imaging of highly-absorbing particles using a pump-probe setup. The photothermal signal is recovered by heterodyne detection, where the excitation pump laser is at 532 nm and the probe laser is at 638 nm. The sample is moved by a scanning stage. Proof of concept images of red polystyrene microspheres and gold nanoparticles are obtained with this home-built multimodal microscope. The increase in temperature at the surface of the gold NPs, due to the pump laser beam, can be directly measured by means of this photothermal microscope and then compared with the results from theoretical predictions. This technique will be useful for characterization of nanoparticles of different shapes, sizes and materials that are used in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash.

  10. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  11. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  12. Development and application of rotary shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kozo; Yamada, Toshihiro; Fukuyama, Katsura

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, rear suspension systems with a single shock absorber unit placed behind the engine, have been used primarily in the middle and large classes of motorcycles. Some features such as the longer rear wheel travel, progressive response characteristics and mass concentration at the center part of motorcycle are effective in improving maneuverability of the motorcycle. In the 1980s, the systems were introduced first in the off-road motorcycles and then in the on-road motorcycles. Performance of the systems are excellent, but there are demands for further improvement of suspension characteristics and space utility at the center part of motorcycle. For this purpose, the authors have developed a prototype of a rotary shock absorber and studied the applicability to modern motorcycles.

  13. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing

    PubMed Central

    Mattiucci, N.; Bloemer, M. J.; Aközbek, N.; D'Aguanno, G.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin (<1 micron), polarization independent, extremely efficient absorbers (in principle being capable to reach A > 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others. PMID:24220284

  14. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. PMID:24961785

  15. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-01-01

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin (<1 micron), polarization independent, extremely efficient absorbers (in principle being capable to reach A > 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others. PMID:24220284

  16. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin (<1 micron), polarization independent, extremely efficient absorbers (in principle being capable to reach A > 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  17. Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

  18. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-06-17

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  19. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  20. Lightweight Energy Absorbers for Blast Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald L.; Ingram, Thomas M.; Novak, Howard L.; Schricker, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic-energy-absorbing liners made of aluminum foam have been developed to replace solid lead liners in blast containers on the aft skirt of the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle. The blast containers are used to safely trap the debris from small explosions that are initiated at liftoff to sever frangible nuts on hold-down studs that secure the spacecraft to a mobile launch platform until liftoff.

  1. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2016-07-12

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  2. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  3. Load limiting energy absorbing lightweight debris catcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor); Schneider, William C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In the representative embodiment of the invention disclosed, a load limiting, energy absorbing net is arranged to overlay a normally-covered vent opening in the rear bulkhead of the space orbiter vehicle. Spatially-disposed flexible retainer straps are extended from the net and respectively secured to bulkhead brackets spaced around the vent opening. The intermediate portions of the straps are doubled over and stitched together in a pattern enabling the doubled-over portions to progressively separate at a predicable load designed to be well below the tensile capability of the straps as the stitches are successively torn apart by the forces imposed on the retainer members whenever the cover plate is explosively separated from the bulkhead and propelled into the net. By arranging these stitches to be successively torn away at a load below the strap strength in response to forces acting on the retainers that are less than the combined strength of the retainers, this tearing action serves as a predictable compact energy absorber for safely halting the cover plate as the retainers are extended as the net is deployed. The invention further includes a block of an energy-absorbing material positioned in the net for receiving loose debris produced by the explosive release of the cover plate.

  4. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOEpatents

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  5. Microscopic modeling of nitride intersubband absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Ines; Allerman, A. A.; Wierer, J. J.; Moseley, M.; Skogen, E. J.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Vawter, G. A.

    III-nitride intersubband structures have recently attracted much interest because of their potential for a wide variety of applications ranging from electro-optical modulators to terahertz quantum cascade lasers. To overcome present simulation limitations we have developed a microscopic absorbance simulator for nitride intersubband devices. Our simulator calculates the band structure of nitride intersubband systems using a fully coupled 8x8 k.p Hamiltonian and determines the material response of a single period in a density-matrix-formalism by solving the Heisenberg equation including many-body and dephasing contributions. After calculating the polarization due to intersubband transitions in a single period, the resulting absorbance of a superlattice structure including radiative coupling between the different periods is determined using a non-local Green's-function formalism. As a result our simulator allows us to predict intersubband absorbance of superlattice structures with microscopically determined lineshapes and linewidths accounting for both many-body and correlation contributions. This work is funded by Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin.

  6. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, Isidoro E.

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  7. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  8. Preparation of perlite-based carbon dioxide absorbent.

    PubMed

    He, H; Wu, L; Zhu, J; Yu, B

    1994-02-01

    A new highly efficient carbon dioxide absorbent consisting of sodium hydroxide, expanded perlite and acid-base indicator was prepared. The absorption efficiency, absorption capacity, flow resistance and color indication for the absorbent were tested and compared with some commercial products. The absorbent can reduce the carbon dioxide content in gases to 3.3 ppb (v/v) and absorbs not less than 35% of its weight of carbon dioxide. Besides its large capacity and sharp color indication, the absorbent has an outstanding advantage of small flow resistance in comparison with other commercial carbon dioxide absorbents. Applications in gas analysis and purification were also investigated.

  9. Advantage and limitations of weighting factors and weighted dose quantities and their units in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Rassow, J; Sauerwein, W; Wittig, A; Bourhis-Martin, E; Hideghéty, K; Moss, R

    2004-05-01

    Defining the parameters influencing the biological reaction due to absorbed dose is a continuous topic of research. The main goal of radiobiological research is to translate the measurable dose of ionizing radiation to a quantitative expression of biological effect. Mathematical models based on different biological approaches (e.g., skin reaction, cell culture) provide some estimations that are often misleading and, to some extent, dangerous. Conventional radiotherapy is the simplest case because the primary radiation and secondary radiation are both low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and have about the same relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Nevertheless, for this one-dose-component case, the dose-effect curves are not linear. In fact, the total absorbed dose and the absorbed dose per fraction as well as the time schedule of the fractionation scheme influence the biological effects. Mathematical models such as the linear-quadratic model can only approximate biological effects. With regard to biological effects, fast neutron therapy is more complex than conventional radiotherapy. Fast neutron beams are always contaminated by gamma rays. As a consequence, biological effects are due to two components, a high-LET component (neutrons) and a low-LET component (photons). A straight transfer of knowledge from conventional radiotherapy to fast neutron therapy is, therefore, not possible: RBE depends on the delivered dose and several other parameters. For dose reporting, the European protocol for fast neutron dosimetry recommends that the total absorbed dose with gamma-ray absorbed dose in brackets is stated. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an even more complex case, because the total absorbed dose is due to four dose components with different LET and RBE. In addition, the terminology and units used by the different BNCT groups is confusing: absorbed dose and weighted dose are both to be stated in grays and are never "photon equivalent." The

  10. Ir-192 HDR transit dose and radial dose function determination using alanine/EPR dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán Calcina, Carmen S.; de Almeida, Adelaide; Oliveira Rocha, José R.; Abrego, Felipe Chen; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2005-03-01

    Source positioning close to the tumour in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is not instantaneous. An increment of dose will be delivered during the movement of the source in the trajectory to its static position. This increment is the transit dose, often not taken into account in brachytherapeutic treatment planning. The transit dose depends on the prescribed dose, number of treatment fractions, velocity and activity of the source. Combining all these factors, the transit dose can be 5% higher than the prescribed absorbed dose value (Sang-Hyun and Muller-Runkel, 1994 Phys. Med. Biol. 39 1181 8, Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209 34). However, it cannot exceed this percentage (Nath et al 1995). In this work, we use the alanine-EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) dosimetric system using analysis of the first derivative of the signal. The transit dose was evaluated for an HDR system and is consistent with that already presented for TLD dosimeters (Bastin et al 1993 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26 695 702). Also using the same dosimetric system, the radial dose function, used to evaluate the geometric dose degradation around the source, was determined and its behaviour agrees better with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations (Nath et al 1995, Williamson and Nath 1991 Med. Phys. 18 434 48, Ballester et al 1997 Med. Phys. 24 1221 8, Ballester et al 2001 Phys. Med. Biol. 46 N79 90) than with TLD measurements (Nath et al 1990 Med. Phys. 17 1032 40).

  11. Implementation of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses for a mathematical absorption model (transit compartment model).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Boeckmann, Alison; Vick, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    A mathematical absorption model (e.g. transit compartment model) is useful to describe complex absorption process. However, in such a model, an assumption has to be made to introduce multiple doses that a prior dose has been absorbed nearly completely when the next dose is administered. This is because the drug input cannot be determined from drug depot compartment through integration of the differential equation system and has to be analytically calculated. We propose a method of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses; thereby eliminating the assumption. The code for implementing the dose superimposition in WinNonlin and NONMEM was provided. For implementation in NONMEM, we discussed a special case (SC) and a general case (GC). In a SC, dose superimposition was implemented solely using NM-TRAN abbreviated code and the maximum number of the doses that can be administered for any subject must be pre-defined. In a GC, a user-supplied function (FUNCA) in FORTRAN code was defined to perform dose superimposition to remove the restriction that the maximum number of doses must be pre-defined. PMID:22555854

  12. Highly ionised absorbers at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Herbert-Fort, Stéphane

    2005-03-01

    We build a sample of O VI absorption systems in the redshift range 2.0 ≲ z ≲ 2.6 using high spectral resolution data of ten quasars from the VLT-UVES large programme. We investigate the existence of a metal-rich O VI population and define observational criteria for this class of absorbers under the assumption of photoionisation. The low temperatures of nearly half of all O VI absorbers, implied by their line widths, are too low for collisional ionisation to be a dominant process. We estimate the oxygen abundance under the assumption of photoionisation; a striking result is the bimodal distribution of [o/h] with median values close to 0.01 and 0.5 solar for the metal-poor and metal-rich populations, respectively. Using the line widths to fix the temperature or assuming a constant, low gas density does not drastically change the metallicities of the metal-rich population. We present the first estimate of the O VI column density distribution. Assuming a single power-law distribution, f(n) ∝ n-α, yields α ˜ 1.7 and a normalisation of f(n) =2.3× 10-13 at log n(O VI) ˜ 13.5, both with a ˜30% uncertainty. The value of α is similar to that found for C IV surveys, whereas the normalisation factor is about ten times higher. We use f(n) to derive the number density per unit z and cosmic density ωb(O VI), selecting a limited column density range not strongly affected by incompleteness or sample variance. Comparing our results with those obtained at z˜0.1 for a similar range of column densities implies some decline of dn/dz with z. The cosmic O VI density derived from f(n), ωb(O VI)≈ (3.5± 3.20.9) × 10-7, is 2.3 times higher than the value estimated using the observed O VI sample (of which the metal-rich population contributes ˜35%), easing the problem of missing metals at high z (˜ 1/4 of the produced metals) but not solving it. We find that the majori ty of the metal-rich absorbers are located within ˜ 450 km s-1 of strong Ly-α lines and show that

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., being gradually delivered as the radionuclide decays. The time distribution of the absorbed dose rate... following an intake of radioactive material into the body: ER15OC08.002 for a single intake of activity...

  14. Neutron dose estimation in a zero power nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triviño, S.; Vedelago, J.; Cantargi, F.; Keil, W.; Figueroa, R.; Mattea, F.; Chautemps, A.; Santibañez, M.; Valente, M.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the characterization and contribution of neutron and gamma components to the absorbed dose in a zero power nuclear reactor. A dosimetric method based on Fricke gel was implemented to evaluate the separation between dose components in the mixed field. The validation of this proposed method was performed by means of direct measurements of neutron flux in different positions using Au and Mg-Ni activation foils. Monte Carlo simulations were conversely performed using the MCNP main code with a dedicated subroutine to incorporate the exact complete geometry of the nuclear reactor facility. Once nuclear fuel elements were defined, the simulations computed the different contributions to the absorbed dose in specific positions inside the core. Thermal/epithermal contributions of absorbed dose were assessed by means of Fricke gel dosimetry using different isotopic compositions aimed at modifying the sensitivity of the dosimeter for specific dose components. Clear distinctions between gamma and neutron capture dose were obtained. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results provided reliable estimations about neutron flux rate as well as dose rate during the reactor operation. Simulations and experimental results are in good agreement in every positions measured and simulated in the core.

  15. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  16. Quantification of Adaptive Protection Following Low-dose Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E

    2016-03-01

    The question whether low doses and low dose-rates of ionizing radiation pose a health risk to people is of public, scientific and regulatory concern. It is a subject of intense debate and causes much fear. The controversy is to what extent low-dose effects, if any, cause or protect against damage such as cancer. Even if immediate molecular damage in exposed biological systems rises linearly with the number of energy deposition events (i.e., with absorbed dose), the response of the whole biological system to that damage is not linear. To understand how initial molecular damage affects a complex living system is the current challenge. PMID:26808882

  17. Inorganic UV absorbers for the photostabilisation of wood-clearcoating systems: Comparison with organic UV absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, F.; Ahajji, A.; Irmouli, Y.; George, B.; Charrier, B.; Merlin, A.

    2007-02-01

    Inorganic UV absorbers which are widely used today were originally designed neither as a UV blocker in coatings applications, nor for wood protection. In recent years however, there has been extensive interest in these compounds, especially with regard to their properties as a UV blocker in coating applications. In this work, we carried out a comparative study to look into some inorganic and organic UV absorbers used in wood coating applications. The aim of this study is to determine the photostabilisation performances of each type of UV absorbers, to seek possible synergies and the influences of different wood species. We have also searched to find eventual correlation between these performances and the influence of UV absorbers on the film properties. Our study has compared the performances of the following UV absorbers: hombitec RM 300, hombitec RM 400 from the Sachtleben Company; transparent yellow and red iron oxides from Sayerlack as inorganic UV absorbers; organic UV absorbers Tinuvin 1130 and Tinuvin 5151 from Ciba Company. The study was carried out on three wood species: Abies grandis, tauari and European oak. The environmental constraints (in particular the limitation of the emission of volatile organic compounds VOCs) directed our choice towards aqueous formulations marketed by the Sayerlack Arch Coatings Company. The results obtained after 800 h of dry ageing showed that the Tinuvins and the hombitecs present better wood photostabilisations. On the other hand in wet ageing, with the hombitec, there are appearances of some cracks and an increase in the roughness of the surface. This phenomenon is absent when the Tinuvins are used. With regard to these results, the thermomechanical analyses relating to the follow-up of the change of the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of the various coating systems, show a different behaviour between the two types of absorbers. However, contrary to organic UV absorbers, inorganic ones tend to increase Tg during ageing

  18. Modeling the Effect of Polychromatic Light in Quantitative Absorbance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachel; Cantrell, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiment is conducted to give the students practical experience with the principles of electronic absorbance spectroscopy. This straightforward approach creates a powerful tool for exploring many of the aspects of quantitative absorbance spectroscopy.

  19. β-Cyclodextrin-based oil-absorbent microspheres: preparation and high oil absorbency.

    PubMed

    Song, Ci; Ding, Lei; Yao, Fei; Deng, Jianping; Yang, Wantai

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the preparation and evaluation of polymeric microspheres as a new class of oil-absorbent (POAMs). Based on our earlier oil-absorbents, the present microspheres contained β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) moieties as both cross-linking agent and porogen agent, and showed exciting high oil absorbency, fast oil absorption speed and good reusability. Such microspheres were prepared via suspension polymerization with octadecyl acrylate and butyl acrylate as co-monomers, β-CD derivative as cross-linking agent, 2,2'-azoisobutyronitrile as initiator and polyvinylalcohol as stabilizer. Oil absorbency of the POAMs was, for CCl(4), 83.4; CHCl(3), 75.1; xylene, 48.7; toluene, 42.8; gasoline, 30.0; kerosene 27.1; and diesel, 18.2 g/g (oil/POAMs). Saturation oil absorption reached within 3h in CCl(4). The POAMs exhibited high oil retention percentage (>90%), and can be reused for at least 10 times while keeping oil absorbency almost unchanged. PMID:23044125

  20. Method for absorbing an ion from a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.

    2007-07-03

    A method for absorbing an ion from a fluid by using dispersing an organic acid into an anion surfactant solution, mixing in a divalent-metal containing compound and a trivalent-metal containing compound and calcining the resulting solid layered double hydroxide product to form an absorbent material and then contacting the absorbent material with an aqueous solution of cations or anions to be absorbed.

  1. Grover walks on a line with absorbing boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Wu, Nan; Kuklinski, Parker; Xu, Ping; Hu, Haixing; Song, Fangmin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study Grover walks on a line with one and two absorbing boundaries. In particular, we present some results for the absorbing probabilities in both a semi-finite and finite line. Analytical expressions for these absorbing probabilities are presented by using the combinatorial approach. These results are perfectly matched with numerical simulations. We show that the behavior of Grover walks on a line with absorbing boundaries is strikingly different from that of classical walks and that of Hadamard walks.

  2. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  12. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  13. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  14. 21 CFR 878.4755 - Absorbable lung biopsy plug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable lung biopsy plug. 878.4755 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4755 Absorbable lung biopsy plug. (a) Identification. A preformed (polymerized) absorbable lung biopsy plug is intended to...

  15. About sound mufflers sound-absorbing panels aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudarev, A. S.; Bulbovich, R. V.; Svirshchev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The article provides a formula for calculating the frequency of sound absorbed panel with a perforated wall. And although the sound absorbing structure is a set of resonators Helmholtz, not individual resonators should be considered in acoustic calculations, and all the perforated wall panel. The analysis, showing how the parameters affect the size and sound-absorbing structures in the absorption rate.

  16. A novel broadband waterborne acoustic absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changxian; Wen, Weibin; Huang, Yixing; Chen, Mingji; Lei, Hongshuai; Fang, Daining

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we extended the ray tracing theory in polar coordinate system, and originally proposed the Snell-Descartes law in polar coordinates. Based on these theories, a novel broadband waterborne acoustic absorber device was proposed. This device is designed with gradient-distributing materials along radius, which makes the incidence acoustic wave ray warps. The echo reduction effects of this device were investigated by finite element analysis, and the numerical results show that the reflectivity of acoustic wave for the new device is lower than that of homogenous and Alberich layers in almost all frequency 0-30 kHz at the same loss factor.

  17. Acoustical model of a Shoddy fibre absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, John Peter

    Shoddy fibres or "Shoddies" are a mixture of post-consumer and post-industrial fibres diverted from textile waste streams and recycled into their raw fibre form. They have found widespread use as a raw material for manufacturing sound absorbers that include, but are not limited to: automotive, architectural and home appliance applications. The purpose of this project is to develop a simple acoustic model to describe the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbers composed primarily of Shoddy fibres. The model requires knowledge of the material's bulk density only. To date, these materials have not been the focus of much published research and acoustical designers must rely on models that were developed for other materials or are overly complex. For modelling purposes, an equivalent fluid approach is chosen to balance complexity and accuracy. In deriving the proposed model, several popular equivalent fluid models are selected and the required input parameters for each model identified. The models are: the model of Delaney and Bazley, two models by Miki, the model of Johnson in conjunction with the model of Champoux and Allard and the model of Johnson in conjunction with the model of Lafarge. Characterization testing is carried out on sets of Shoddy absorbers produced using three different manufacturing methods. The measured properties are open porosity, tortuosity, airflow resistivity, the viscous and thermal characteristic lengths and the static thermal permeability. Empirical relationships between model parameters and bulk density are then derived and used to populate the selected models. This yields several 'simplified' models with bulk density as the only parameter. The most accurate model is then selected by comparing each model's prediction to the results of normal incidence sound absorption tests. The model of Johnson-Lafarge populated with the empirical relations is the most accurate model over the range of frequencies considered (approx. 300 Hz - 4000 Hz

  18. DHCAL with minimal absorber: measurements with positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, B.; Neubüser, C.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Dotti, A.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schroeder, S.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Besson, D.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Corriveau, F.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-05-01

    In special tests, the active layers of the CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype, the DHCAL, were exposed to low energy particle beams, without being interleaved by absorber plates. The thickness of each layer corresponded approximately to 0.29 radiation lengths or 0.034 nuclear interaction lengths, defined mostly by the copper and steel skins of the detector cassettes. This paper reports on measurements performed with this device in the Fermilab test beam with positrons in the energy range of 1 to 10 GeV. The measurements are compared to simulations based on GEANT4 and a standalone program to emulate the detailed response of the active elements.

  19. Dose distribution for dental cone beam CT and its implication for defining a dose index

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, R; Theodorakou, C; Walker, A; Bosmans, H; Jacobs, R; Horner, K; Bogaerts, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the dose distribution for a range of cone beam CT (CBCT) units, investigating different field of view sizes, central and off-axis geometries, full or partial rotations of the X-ray tube and different clinically applied beam qualities. The implications of the dose distributions on the definition and practicality of a CBCT dose index were assessed. Methods Dose measurements on CBCT devices were performed by scanning cylindrical head-size water and polymethyl methacrylate phantoms, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, a small-volume ion chamber and radiochromic films. Results It was found that the dose distribution can be asymmetrical for dental CBCT exposures throughout a homogeneous phantom, owing to an asymmetrical positioning of the isocentre and/or partial rotation of the X-ray source. Furthermore, the scatter tail along the z-axis was found to have a distinct shape, generally resulting in a strong drop (90%) in absorbed dose outside the primary beam. Conclusions There is no optimal dose index available owing to the complicated exposure geometry of CBCT and the practical aspects of quality control measurements. Practical validation of different possible dose indices is needed, as well as the definition of conversion factors to patient dose. PMID:22752320

  20. A quality index for equivalent uniform dose

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez, Francisco Cutanda; Castrillón, Silvia Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) is the absorbed dose that, when homogeneously given to a tumor, yields the same mean surviving clonogen number as the given non-homogeneous irradiation. EUD is used as an evaluation tool under the assumption that two plans with the same value of EUD are equivalent, and their biological effect on the tumor (clonogen survival) would be the same as the one of a homogeneous irradiation of absorbed dose EUD. In this work, this assumption has been studied, and a figure of merit of its applicability has been obtained. Distributions of surviving clonogen number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous irradiations are found to be different even if their mean values are the same, the figure of merit being greater when there is a wider difference, and the equivalence assumption being less valid. Therefore, EUD can be closer to a uniform dose for some cases than for other ones (high α values, extreme heterogeneity), and the accuracy of the radiobiological indices obtained for evaluation, could be affected. Results show that the equivalence is very sensitive to the choice of radiobiological parameters, and this conclusion has been derived from mathematical properties of EUD. PMID:21897557

  1. Evaluation of in vivo low-dose mouse irradiation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H.; Kye, Y.-U.; Kim, J. K.; Son, T. G.; Lee, M. W.; Jeong, D. H.; Yang, K. M.; Nam, S.-H.; Kang, Y.-R.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop a facility that can irradiate subjects with a desired low dose, which can be used to assess the biological effects of low-dose radiation. We develop a single-occupancy mouse-cage and shelf system with adjustable geometric parameters, such as the distances and angles of the cages relative to the collimator. We assess the irradiation-level accuracy using two measurement methods. First, we calculate the angle and distance of each mouse cage relative to the irradiator. We employ a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation for all of the cages at a given distance from the radiation source to calculate the air kerma and the relative absorbed dose in the in-house designed shelving system; these are found to be approximately 0.108 and 0.109 Gy, respectively. Second, we measure the relative absorbed dose using glass dosimeters inserted directly into the heads and bodies of the mice. For a conventional irradiation system, the irradiation measurements show a maximum discrepancy of 42% between the absorbed and desired doses, whereas a discrepancy of only 6% from the desired dose is found for the designed mouse apartment system. In addition, multi-mouse cages are shown to yield to significantly greater differences in the mouse head and body relative absorbed doses, compared to the discrepancies found for single-occupancy cages in the conventional irradiation system. Our findings suggest that the in-house shelving system has greater reliability for the biological analysis of the effects of low-dose radiation.

  2. Configurable metamaterial absorber with pseudo wideband spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiren; Huang, Yongjun; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Wen, Guangjun; Premaratne, Malin

    2012-03-12

    Metamaterials attain their behavior due to resonant interactions among their subwavelength components and thus show specific designer features only in a very narrow frequency band. There is no simple way to dynamically increase the operating bandwidth of a narrowband metamaterial, but it may be possible to change its central frequency, shifting the spectral response to a new frequency range. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a metamaterial absorber that can shift its central operating frequency by using mechanical means. The shift is achieved by varying the gap between the metamaterial and an auxiliary dielectric slab parallel to its surface. We also show that it is possible to create multiple absorption peaks by adjusting the size and/or shape of the dielectric slab, and to shift them by moving the slab relative to the metamaterial. Specifically, using numerical simulations we design a microwave metamaterial absorber and experimentally demonstrate that its central frequency can be set anywhere in a 1.6 GHz frequency range. The proposed configuration is simple and easy to make, and may be readily extended to THz frequencies.

  3. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Bue, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust nonventing system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. This water vapor is then captured by solid LiCl in the LCAR with a high enthalpy of absorption, resulting in sufficient temperature lift to reject heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the LCAR would be heated up and dried in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A engineering development prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The LCAR was able to stably reject 75 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

  4. Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason

    2014-06-11

    While the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process that limits the performance of plasmonic devices, it has recently been shown that it can be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron devices remains low due to poor electron injection and in some cases low optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate how metamaterial perfect absorbers can be used to achieve near-unity optical absorption using ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures with thicknesses of 15 nm, smaller than the hot electron diffusion length. By integrating the metamaterial with a silicon substrate, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional hot electron photodetector with a photoresponsivity that is among the highest yet reported. We also show how the spectral bandwidth and polarization-sensitivity can be manipulated through engineering the geometry of the metamaterial unit cell. These perfect absorber photodetectors could open a pathway for enhancing hot electron based photovoltaic, sensing, and photocatalysis systems. PMID:24837991

  5. Fabrication of THz Sensor with Metamaterial Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Hugo; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    The terahertz (THz) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.1-10 THz) has not been fully utilized due to the lack of sensitive detectors. Real-time imaging in this spectral range has been demonstrated using uncooled infrared microbolometer cameras and external illumination provided by quantum cascade laser (QCL) based THz sources. However, the microbolometer pixels in the cameras have not been optimized to achieve high sensitivity in THz frequencies. Recently, we have developed a highly sensitive micromechanical THz sensor employing bi-material effect with an integrated metamaterial absorber tuned to the THz frequency of interest. The use of bi-material structures causes deflection on the sensor to as the absorbed THz radiation increases its temperature, which can be monitored optically by reflecting a light beam. This approach eliminates the integration of readout electronics needed in microbolometers. The absorption of THz by metamaterial can be tailored by controlling geometrical parameters. The sensors can be fabricated using conventional microelectronic materials and incorporated into pixels to form focal plane arrays (FPAs). In this presentation, characterization and readout of a THz sensor with integrated metamaterial structure will be described. Supported by DoD.

  6. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S. Rohani, M. S. Sahar, M. R. Arifin, R. Ghoshal, S. K. Hamzah, K.

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  7. Method of designing layered sound absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalla, Youssef; Panneton, Raymond

    2002-11-01

    A widely used model for describing sound propagation in porous materials is the Johnson-Champoux-Allard model. This rigid frame model is based on five geometrical properties of the porous medium: resistivity, porosity, tortuosity, and viscous and thermal characteristic lengths. Using this model and with the knowledge of such properties for different absorbing materials, the design of a multiple layered system can be optimized efficiently and rapidly. The overall impedance of the layered systems can be calculated by the repeated application of single layer impedance equation. The knowledge of the properties of the materials involved in the layered system and their physical meaning, allows to perform by computer a systematic evaluation of potential layer combinations rather than do it experimentally which is time consuming and always not efficient. The final design of layered materials can then be confirmed by suitable measurements. A method of designing the overall acoustic absorption of multiple layered porous materials is presented. Some aspects based on the material properties, for designing a flat layered absorbing system are considered. Good agreement between measured and computed sound absorption coefficients has been obtained for the studied configurations. [Work supported by N.S.E.R.C. Canada, F.C.A.R. Quebec, and Bombardier Aerospace.

  8. A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing-Zheng; Gu, Chang-Qing; Li, Zhuo; Niu, Zhen-Yi

    2013-10-01

    Graphene can be used as a platform for tunable absorbers for its tunability of conductivity. In this paper, we proposed an "uneven dielectric slab structure" for the terahertz (THz) tunable absorber based on graphene. The absorber consists of graphene-dielectric stacks and an electric conductor layer, which is easy to fabricate in the manufacturing technique. Fine tuning of the absorption resonances can be conveniently achieved by adjusting the bias voltage. Both narrowband and broadband tunable absorbers made of this structure are demonstrated without using a patterned graphene. In addition, this type of graphene-based absorber exhibits stable resonances with a wide range angles of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves. PMID:24104291

  9. Specific absorbed fractions of energy from internal photon sources in brain tumor and cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F. )); Stubbs, J.B. )

    1995-03-01

    Transferrin, radiolabeled with In-111, can be coinjected into glioblastoma multiforme lesions, and subsequent scintigraphic imaging can demonstrate the biokinetics of the cytotoxic transferrin. The administration of [sup 111]In transferrin into a brain tumor results in distribution of radioactivity in the brain, brain tumor, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Information about absorbed radiation doses to these regions, as well as other nearby tissues and organs, is important for evaluating radiation-related risks from this procedure. The radiation dose is usually estimated for a mathematical representation of the human body. We have included source/target regions for the eye, lens of the eye, spinal column, spinal CSF, cranial CSF, and a 100-g tumor within the brain of an adult male phantom developed by Cristy and Eckerman. The spinal column, spinal CSF, and the eyes have not been routinely included in photon transport simulations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) as a function of photon energy were calculated using the ALGAMP computer code, which utilizes Monte Carlo techniques for simulating photon transport. The ALGAMP code was run three times, with the source activity distributed uniformly within the tumor, cranial CSF, and the spinal CSF volumes. These SAFs, which were generated for 12 discrete photon energies ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV, were used with decay scheme data to calculate [ital S]-values needed for estimating absorbed doses. [ital S]-values for [sup 111]In are given for three source regions (brain tumor, cranial CSF, and spinal CSF) and all standard target regions/organs, the eye and lens, as well as to tissues within these source regions. [ital S]-values for the skeletal regions containing active marrow are estimated. These results are useful in evaluating the radiation doses from intracranial administration of [sup 111]In transferrin.

  10. Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.; Heung, Leung K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

  11. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  12. Determination of decay coefficients for combustors with acoustic absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. E.; Espander, W. R.; Baer, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical technique for the calculation of linear decay coefficients in combustors with acoustic absorbers is presented. Tuned circumferential slot acoustic absorbers were designed for the first three transverse modes of oscillation, and decay coefficients for these absorbers were found as a function of backing distance for seven different chamber configurations. The effectiveness of the absorbers for off-design values of the combustion response and acoustic mode is also investigated. Results indicate that for tuned absorbers the decay coefficient increases approximately as the cube of the backing distance. For most off-design situations the absorber still provides a damping effect. However, if an absorber designed for some higher mode of oscillation is used to damp lower mode oscillations, a driving effect is frequently found.

  13. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  14. Method of absorbing UF.sub.6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    DOEpatents

    Lafferty, Robert H.; Smiley, Seymour H.; Radimer, Kenneth J.

    1976-04-06

    A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures employing as an absorbent a liquid composition at least one of the components of which is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2.

  15. Using the Monte Carlo method for assessing the tissue and organ doses of patients in dental radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, K. O.; Minenko, V. F.; Verenich, K. A.; Kuten, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    This work is dedicated to modeling dental radiographic examinations to assess the absorbed doses of patients and effective doses. For simulating X-ray spectra, the TASMIP empirical model is used. Doses are assessed on the basis of the Monte Carlo method by using MCNP code for voxel phantoms of ICRP. The results of the assessment of doses to individual organs and effective doses for different types of dental examinations and features of X-ray tube are presented.

  16. Prediction of in-phantom dose distribution using in-air neutron beam characteristics for BNCS

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.

    1999-12-14

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints, such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures-of-merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium absorbed dose to the skin absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium absorbed dose to the bone absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment, (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce by a factor of 10 the particle transport simulation time by modeling the moderator only.

  17. Radiation dose reduction efficiency of buildings after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Hosoda, Masahiro; Osanai, Minoru; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS) in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air) of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55 ± 0.04, 0.15 ± 0.02, and 0.19 ± 0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites.

  18. Radiation Dose Reduction Efficiency of Buildings after the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    PubMed Central

    Monzen, Satoru; Hosoda, Masahiro; Osanai, Minoru; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS) in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air) of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55±0.04, 0.15±0.02, and 0.19±0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites. PMID:24999992

  19. Radiation dose reduction efficiency of buildings after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Hosoda, Masahiro; Osanai, Minoru; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS) in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air) of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55 ± 0.04, 0.15 ± 0.02, and 0.19 ± 0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites. PMID:24999992

  20. [Irradiation of lymphogranulomatosis patients with large fields of complex configuration, calculating absorbed doses by microcomputer].

    PubMed

    Belyĭ, E K; Miasnikov, A A; Mendeleev, I M

    1985-01-01

    The authors demonstrated advantages of irradiating lymphogranulomatosis patients with large fields of complex configuration. The use of computer eliminates the difficulties of dosage calculation. Application for these purposes of the 15 VUMS-28 unit based on the microcomputer "Elektronika-60" is suggested. Algorithm of the dosage calculation program is presented. The program is drawn up according to the GOST so that it can be used by other institutions concerned.