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Sample records for absorbed laser energy

  1. Metal shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A metal shearing energy absorber is described. The absorber is composed of a flat thin strip of metal which is pulled through a slot in a cutter member of a metal, harder than the metal of the strip. The slot's length, in the direction perpendicular to the pull direction, is less than the strip's width so that as the strip is pulled through the slot, its edges are sheared off, thereby absorbing some of the pulling energy. In one embodiment the cutter member is a flat plate of steel, while in another embodiment the cutter member is U-shaped with the slot at its base.

  2. A high-energy cladding-pumped 80 nanosecond Q-switched fiber laser using a tapered fiber saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sean W.; Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E.; Patterson, Brian D.; Hsu, Wen L.

    2013-02-01

    We report a passively Q-switched all-fiber laser using a large mode area (LMA) Yb3+-doped fiber cladding-pumped at 915 nm and an unpumped single-mode Yb3+-doped fiber as the saturable absorber (SA). The saturable absorber and gain fibers were first coupled with a free-space telescope to better study the composite system, and then fusion spliced with fiber tapers to match the mode field diameters. ASE generated in the LMA gain fiber preferentially bleaches the SA fiber before depleting the gain, thereby causing the SA fiber to act as a passive saturable absorber. Using this scheme we first demonstrate a Q-switched oscillator with 40 μJ 79 ns pulses at 1026 nm using a free-space taper, and show that pulses can be generated from 1020 nm to 1040 nm. We scale the pulse energy to 0.40 mJ using an Yb3+-doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier. Experimental studies in which the saturable absorber length, pump times, and wavelengths are independently varied reveal the impact of these parameters on laser performance. Finally, we demonstrate 60 μJ 81 ns pulses at 1030 nm in an all fiber architecture using tapered mode field adaptors to match the mode filed diameters of the gain and SA fibers.

  3. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  4. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-05-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  5. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  6. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  7. Twin laser cavity solitons in a VCSEL with saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Mansour; Kheradmand, Reza; Bahari, Parvin; Tajalli, Habib

    2015-09-01

    We show numerically the existence and stability of double-peak (twin) laser cavity solitons in a model of a semiconductor laser containing a saturable absorber. The onset of twin laser cavity solitons is observed in a narrow range of switching pulse energies above the maximum energy required to switch a normal single laser cavity soliton. Also, the FWHM value of the population dip at the end of injection is found to be wider which later breaks into two closely spaced dips. Three regimes of oscillating, oscillating-rotating and oscillating-rotating-travelling twin laser cavity solitons are reported depending on the value of a bifurcation parameter given by the ratio of the lifetimes of carriers in amplifier and absorber materials. The associated dynamical behaviors in these three regimes are also discussed.

  8. All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Cha, Yong-Ho; Jeong, Do-Young; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate a dissipative soliton fiber laser with high pulse energy (>30 nJ) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). In-line SA that evanescently interacts with the high quality SWCNT/polymer composite film was fabricated under optimized conditions, increasing the damage threshold of the saturation fluence of the SA to 97 mJ/cm(2). An Er-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser operating at net normal intra-cavity dispersion was built including the fabricated in-line SA. The laser stably delivers linearly chirped pulses with a pulse duration of 12.7 ps, and exhibits a spectral bandwidth of 12.1 nm at the central wavelength of 1563 nm. Average power of the laser output is measured as 335 mW at an applied pump power of 1.27 W. The corresponding pulse energy is estimated to be 34 nJ at the fundamental repetition rate of 9.80 MHz; this is the highest value, to our knowledge, reported in all-fiber Er-doped mode-locked laser using an SWCNT-SA. PMID:25321735

  9. Soliton Thulium-Doped Fiber Laser With Carbon Nanotube Saturable Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Kieu, K.; Wise, F. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report stabilization of a thulium–holmium codoped fiber soliton laser with a saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes. The laser generates transform-limited 750-fs pulses with 0.5-nJ energy. PMID:21731403

  10. Soliton Thulium-Doped Fiber Laser With Carbon Nanotube Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Kieu, K; Wise, F W

    2009-02-01

    We report stabilization of a thulium-holmium codoped fiber soliton laser with a saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes. The laser generates transform-limited 750-fs pulses with 0.5-nJ energy. PMID:21731403

  11. An all-fiber high-energy cladding-pumped 93 nanosecond Q-switched fiber laser using an Y 3+-doped fiber saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sean W.; Patterson, Brian D.; Soh, Daniel B.; Bisson, Scott E.

    2014-03-01

    We report an all-fiber passively Q-switched laser using a large mode area (LMA) Yb3+ -doped fiber claddingpumped at 915 nm and an unpumped single-mode (SM) Yb3+-doped fiber as the saturable absorber (SA). The saturable absorber SM fiber and LMA gain fiber were coupled with a fiber taper designed to match the fundamental spatial mode of the LMA fiber and the expanded LP01 mode of the single mode fiber. The amplified spontaneous (ASE) intensity propagating in the single mode SA saturates the absorption before the onset of gain depletion in the pumped fiber, switching the fiber cavity to a high Q-state and producing a pulse. Using this scheme we demonstrate a Q-switched all-fiber oscillator with 32 μJ 93 ns pulses at 1030 nm. The associated peak power is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than that reported in previous experimental studies using a single Yb+3 saturable absorber fiber. The pulse energy was amplified to 0.230 mJ using an Yb3+-doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier fusion spliced to the fiber oscillator, increasing the energy by eight fold while preserving the all-fiber architecture.

  12. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  13. Large-energy, narrow-bandwidth laser pulse at 1645 nm in a diode-pumped Er:YAG solid-state laser passively Q-switched by a monolayer graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong; Tang, Pinghua; Chen, Yu; Chen, Shuqing; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-01-10

    Nonlinear transmission parameters of monolayer graphene at 1645 nm were obtained. Based on the monolayer graphene saturable absorber, a 1532 nm LD pumped 1645 nm passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser was demonstrated. Under the pump power of 20.8 W, a 1645 nm Q-switched pulse with FWHM of 0.13 nm (without the use of etalon) and energy of 13.5 μJ per pulse can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy for graphene-based passively Q-switched Er:YAG laseroperating at 1645 nm, suggesting the potentials of graphene materials for high-energy solid-state laser applications. PMID:24514058

  14. Ablation loading of solid target through foam absorber on ABC laser at ENEA-Frascati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, R.; Consoli, F.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Rupasov, A. A.; Andreoli, P.; Cristofari, G.; Di Giorgio, G.; Giulietti, D.; Cantono, G.; Kalal, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports an experimental characterization of the efficiency of energy transmission of porous laser absorbers as a function of their density and thickness. In this campaign the foams were deposited on different metal substrates, which finally absorbed the energy deposited by the laser on the bulk of the porous material. The dimensions of the craters produced on the substrate can be related to the energy transmitted through the foams.

  15. All-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with 6 nJ pulse energy based on evanescent field interaction with monoloayer graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Mi Hye; Rotermund, Fabian; Cha, Yong-Ho; Jeong, Do-Young; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate an all-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser with high power by using a monolayer graphene saturable absorber (SA). Large area, uniform monolayer graphene was transferred to the surface of the side-polished fiber (SPF) to realize an in-line graphene SA that operates around 2 μm wavelength. To increase the nonlinear interaction with graphene, we applied an over-cladding onto the SPF, where enhanced optical absorption at monolayer graphene was observed. All-fiber Tm-doped mode-locked laser was built including our in-line graphene SA, which stably delivered the soliton pulses with 773 fs pulse duration. The measured 3-dB spectral bandwidth was 5.14 nm at the wavelength of 1910 nm. We obtained the maximum average output power of 115 mW at a repetition rate of 19.31 MHz. Corresponding pulse energy was estimated to be 6 nJ, which is the highest value among all-fiber Tm-doped soliton oscillators using carbon-material-based SAs. PMID:27410573

  16. Excitable solitons in a semiconductor laser with a saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turconi, Margherita; Prati, Franco; Barland, Stéphane; Tissoni, Giovanna

    2015-11-01

    Self-pulsing cavity solitons may exist in a semiconductor laser with an intracavity saturable absorber. They show locally the passive Q -switching behavior that is typical of lasers with saturable absorbers in the plane-wave approximation. Here we show that excitable cavity solitons are also possible in a suitable parameter range and characterize their excitable dynamics and properties.

  17. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.

  18. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOEpatents

    Zapata, L.E.

    1994-08-02

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber. 16 figs.

  19. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOEpatents

    Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

  20. Absorbance detection of amino acids by laser wave mixing in microbore liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Tong, W G

    1998-05-01

    Nonlinear optical phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing is demonstrated as a sensitive "absorbance" detection method for microbore high-performance liquid chromatography. An argon ion laser operating at the 488-nm line is used as the excitation light source to generate the wave-mixing signal for dabsyl-labeled amino acids. Advantages of the nonlinear laser detection method include: virtually 100% optical signal collection efficiency, generation of the signal in the form of a coherent laser beam, signal measurement against a virtually dark background, reliable detection of small absorbance values, excellent detection sensitivity for both fluorescing and non-fluorescing analytes, relatively simple one-color one-laser optical setup, and low power or energy requirements for continuous-wave or pulsed lasers. Using our one-laser one-color nonlinear laser detector for "absorbance" measurements in liquid chromatography, we report a crude preliminary "injected" detection limit of 780 fmol for glycine. PMID:9618915

  1. High-energy passively Q-switched operation of Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser with a GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Han, Wenjuan; Guo, Yunfeng; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-11-16

    High-energy passively Q-switched operation of a Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser is demonstrated, with a GaAs crystal plate acting as saturable absorber. An average output power of 1.31 W at 1027 nm is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 1.92 kHz, the resulting pulse energy, duration, and peak power being respectively 0.68 mJ, 9.0 ns, and 75.6 kW. The shortest pulse duration obtained is 4.9 ns; whereas the maximum pulse energy achievable amounts to 0.83 mJ, which proves to be nearly one order of magnitude higher than ever generated from Yb or Nd lasers passively Q-switched by a GaAs saturable absorber. PMID:26698515

  2. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Energy Absorbing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellas, S.; Maddock, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    A critical element of a passive EEV performance is the energy absorbing system required to attenuate the dynamic landing loads. Two design approaches are described and the pros and cons based on particular mission requirements are discussed.

  3. Self-Resetting Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Nagy, Kornel; Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1992-01-01

    Device uses friction to dissipate kinetic energy. When moving mass pushes in one direction, it offers substantial friction. Pushed in opposite direction, it offers negligible friction. Built-in spring resets for another shock-absorption cycle. Used in industrial machinery, automobile bumpers and suspensions, and parachute lanyards.

  4. Dual-wavelength passively Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y J; Zhang, B Y; Song, Q; Wang, G J; Wang, W J; Hong, M H; Dou, R Q; Sun, D L; Zhang, Q L

    2016-06-20

    A dual-wavelength passively Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser using vacuum evaporating tungsten disulfide (WS2) as a saturable absorber was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The WS2 saturable absorber was prepared simply by evaporating nanometer WS2 powders onto a quartz substrate in a vacuum. By inserting the WS2 saturable absorber into the laser cavity, stable Q-switched laser operation was achieved with a maximum average output power of 367 mW, a pulse repetition rate of 70.7 kHz, the shortest pulse width of 591 ns, and pulse energy of about 1.05 μJ. By vacuum evaporation method, a high-quality WS2 saturable absorber can be produced, and it seems to be a suitable method for fabrication of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:27409120

  5. Investigations on laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; Britten, Simon W.; Engelmann, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Within the plastic industry laser transmission welding ranks among the most important joining techniques and opens up new application areas continuously. So far, a big disadvantage of the process was the fact that the joining partners need different optical properties. Since thermoplastics are transparent for the radiation of conventional beam sources (800- 1100 nm) the absorbance of one of the joining partners has to be enhanced by adding an infrared absorber (IR-absorber). Until recently, welding of absorber-free parts has not been possible. New diode lasers provide a broad variety of wavelengths which allows exploiting intrinsic absorption bands of thermoplastics. The use of a proper wavelength in combination with special optics enables laser welding of two optically identical polymer parts without absorbers which can be utilized in a large number of applications primarily in the medical and food industry, where the use of absorbers usually entails costly and time-consuming authorization processes. In this paper some aspects of the process are considered as the influence of the focal position, which is crucial when both joining partners have equal optical properties. After a theoretical consideration, an evaluation is carried out based on welding trials with polycarbonate (PC). Further aspects such as gap bridging capability and the influence of thickness of the upper joining partner are investigated as well.

  6. Intensity and absorbed-power distribution in a cylindrical solar-pumped dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The internal intensity and absorbed-power distribution of a simplified hypothetical dye laser of cylindrical geometry is calculated. Total absorbed power is also calculated and compared with laboratory measurements of lasing-threshold energy deposition in a dye cell to determine the suitability of solar radiation as a pump source or, alternatively, what modifications, if any, are necessary to the hypothetical system for solar pumping.

  7. Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. M.; Yang, H. R.; Cui, Y. D.; Chen, G. W.; Yang, Y.; Wu, X. Q.; Yao, X. K.; Han, D. D.; Han, X. X.; Zeng, C.; Guo, J.; Li, W. L.; Cheng, G.; Tong, L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene, whose absorbance is approximately independent of wavelength, allows broadband light–matter interactions with ultrafast responses. The interband optical absorption of graphene can be saturated readily under strong excitation, thereby enabling scientists to exploit the photonic properties of graphene to realize ultrafast lasers. The evanescent field interaction scheme of the propagating light with graphene covered on a D-shaped fibre or microfibre has been employed extensively because of the nonblocking configuration. Obviously, most of the fibre surface is unused in these techniques. Here, we exploit a graphene-clad microfibre (GCM) saturable absorber in a mode-locked fibre laser for the generation of ultrafast pulses. The proposed all-surface technique can guarantee a higher efficiency of light–graphene interactions than the aforementioned techniques. Our GCM-based saturable absorber can generate ultrafast optical pulses within 1.5 μm. This saturable absorber is compatible with current fibre lasers and has many merits such as low saturation intensities, ultrafast recovery times, and wide wavelength ranges. The proposed saturable absorber will pave the way for graphene-based wideband photonics.

  8. Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, X M; Yang, H R; Cui, Y D; Chen, G W; Yang, Y; Wu, X Q; Yao, X K; Han, D D; Han, X X; Zeng, C; Guo, J; Li, W L; Cheng, G; Tong, L M

    2016-01-01

    Graphene, whose absorbance is approximately independent of wavelength, allows broadband light-matter interactions with ultrafast responses. The interband optical absorption of graphene can be saturated readily under strong excitation, thereby enabling scientists to exploit the photonic properties of graphene to realize ultrafast lasers. The evanescent field interaction scheme of the propagating light with graphene covered on a D-shaped fibre or microfibre has been employed extensively because of the nonblocking configuration. Obviously, most of the fibre surface is unused in these techniques. Here, we exploit a graphene-clad microfibre (GCM) saturable absorber in a mode-locked fibre laser for the generation of ultrafast pulses. The proposed all-surface technique can guarantee a higher efficiency of light-graphene interactions than the aforementioned techniques. Our GCM-based saturable absorber can generate ultrafast optical pulses within 1.5 μm. This saturable absorber is compatible with current fibre lasers and has many merits such as low saturation intensities, ultrafast recovery times, and wide wavelength ranges. The proposed saturable absorber will pave the way for graphene-based wideband photonics. PMID:27181419

  9. Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. M.; Yang, H. R.; Cui, Y. D.; Chen, G. W.; Yang, Y.; Wu, X. Q.; Yao, X. K.; Han, D. D.; Han, X. X.; Zeng, C.; Guo, J.; Li, W. L.; Cheng, G.; Tong, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene, whose absorbance is approximately independent of wavelength, allows broadband light–matter interactions with ultrafast responses. The interband optical absorption of graphene can be saturated readily under strong excitation, thereby enabling scientists to exploit the photonic properties of graphene to realize ultrafast lasers. The evanescent field interaction scheme of the propagating light with graphene covered on a D-shaped fibre or microfibre has been employed extensively because of the nonblocking configuration. Obviously, most of the fibre surface is unused in these techniques. Here, we exploit a graphene-clad microfibre (GCM) saturable absorber in a mode-locked fibre laser for the generation of ultrafast pulses. The proposed all-surface technique can guarantee a higher efficiency of light–graphene interactions than the aforementioned techniques. Our GCM-based saturable absorber can generate ultrafast optical pulses within 1.5 μm. This saturable absorber is compatible with current fibre lasers and has many merits such as low saturation intensities, ultrafast recovery times, and wide wavelength ranges. The proposed saturable absorber will pave the way for graphene-based wideband photonics. PMID:27181419

  10. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap without glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Absorber efficiency can be improved to 90% by removing glass plates and using infrared traps. Absorber configuration may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

  11. Saturable absorber mode-locked femtosecond Cr4+:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayduk, Michael J.; Johns, Steven T.; Krol, Mark F.

    1997-07-01

    We have demonstrated self-starting passive mode-locking of a chromium-doped:YAG (Cr4+:YAG) laser using a saturable absorber mirror (SAM) structure. Highly stable femtosecond pulses tunable from 1488 to 1535 nm were generated. Average TEM00 output powers ranged from 40 to 80 mW with a minimum pulse width of 120 fs measured at 1488 nm. The generation of ultrashort pulses in solid-state lasers using the Kerr lens modelocking (KLM) technique has been the center of much attention in recent years. Sub 100 fs pulses have been produced using many different laser systems. However, the KLM process is very sensitive to cavity alignment and is easily perturbed by mechanical vibrations and pump power fluctuations. A more reliable process makes use of a saturable absorber to start and stabilize the soliton formation process. The saturable absorber eliminates the need for critical cavity alignment. The femtosecond pulse train produced by the SAM structure in the Cr4+:YAG laser system is highly stable over very long periods of time. The wide tunability of the Cr4+:YAG laser throughout the 1.5 micrometer transmission window of optical fiber makes it an ideal spectroscopic source for the characterization and development of novel materials and devices for ultrafast optical interconnects.

  12. A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong Gang; Chen, Hou Ren; Wen, Xiao Ming; Hsieh, Wen Feng; Tang, Jau

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrated that graphene oxide material could be used as a highly efficient saturable absorber for the Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser. A novel and low-cost graphene oxide (GO) absorber was fabricated by a vertical evaporation technique and high viscosity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution. A piece of GO/PVA absorber, a piece of round quartz, and an output coupler mirror were combined to be a sandwich structure passive component. Using such a structure, 104 ns pulses and 1.22 W average output power were obtained with the maximum pulse energy at 2 µJ and a slope efficiency of 17%.

  13. Lightweight Energy Absorbers for Blast Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald L.; Ingram, Thomas M.; Novak, Howard L.; Schricker, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic-energy-absorbing liners made of aluminum foam have been developed to replace solid lead liners in blast containers on the aft skirt of the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle. The blast containers are used to safely trap the debris from small explosions that are initiated at liftoff to sever frangible nuts on hold-down studs that secure the spacecraft to a mobile launch platform until liftoff.

  14. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  15. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-30

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  16. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-06-17

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  17. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-07-15

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  18. Load limiting energy absorbing lightweight debris catcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor); Schneider, William C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In the representative embodiment of the invention disclosed, a load limiting, energy absorbing net is arranged to overlay a normally-covered vent opening in the rear bulkhead of the space orbiter vehicle. Spatially-disposed flexible retainer straps are extended from the net and respectively secured to bulkhead brackets spaced around the vent opening. The intermediate portions of the straps are doubled over and stitched together in a pattern enabling the doubled-over portions to progressively separate at a predicable load designed to be well below the tensile capability of the straps as the stitches are successively torn apart by the forces imposed on the retainer members whenever the cover plate is explosively separated from the bulkhead and propelled into the net. By arranging these stitches to be successively torn away at a load below the strap strength in response to forces acting on the retainers that are less than the combined strength of the retainers, this tearing action serves as a predictable compact energy absorber for safely halting the cover plate as the retainers are extended as the net is deployed. The invention further includes a block of an energy-absorbing material positioned in the net for receiving loose debris produced by the explosive release of the cover plate.

  19. Cavitation induced by CW lasers in absorbing liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.; Rodriguez-Aboytes, E.; Martínez-Canton, A. E.; Baldovino-Pantaleon, O.; Torres-Hurtado, S.; Robledo-Martinez, A.; Korneev, N.; Ramos-Garcia, R.

    2010-02-01

    Novel results are presented on thermocavitation in highly absorbing solutions using CW low power laser (λ=975 nm). Due to the large absorption coefficient (135 cm-1) at the laser wavelength, penetration length is only ~74μm inside the liquid and asymmetric bubbles are generated near the beam's entrance wall. We report the temporal dynamic of the cavitation bubble, which is much shorter than previously reported. We found that the amplitude of the shock wave decreases exponentially with the beam power. As shown in this work, thermocavitation is a phenomenon that has a great application potential in areas such as ultrasonic waves generation and controlled tissue ablation for use in lithotripsy.

  20. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Efficiency of solar-energy absorbers may be improved to 95% by actively cooling their intermediate glass plates. This approach may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

  1. Properties of a laser cavity containing an absorbing ring.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Abdelkrim; Ait-Ameur, Kamel

    2010-07-20

    This paper considers the transverse optical properties of an absorbing ring when it is lighted by a symmetrical Laguerre-Gauss beam TEM(p0). It is demonstrated that the insertion of an opaque ring having adequate size inside a diaphragmed laser cavity is able to improve greatly (rate of about 100%) the discrimination between the TEM(00) and the TEM(10) modes, while keeping the diffraction losses unchanged or even decreased. PMID:20648186

  2. Energy transmission by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF) and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of superlong ionised channels with a characteristic diameter of ~ 100 mkm in atmosphere along the beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below 1016 cm-3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0.5 - 1.0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation. In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~ 100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J). An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m). Not so long ago scientific group from P.N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap -1m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m) electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result - 16 m long conducting channel controlled by a laser spark at the voltage - 3 MV - was obtained more than 20years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2 laser with energy - 0.5 kJ. An average electric field strength was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  3. Energy harvesting from an autoparametric vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhimiao; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2015-11-01

    The combined control and energy harvesting characteristics of an autoparametric vibration absorber consisting of a base structure subjected to the external force and a cantilever beam with a tip mass are investigated. The piezoelectric sheets are attached to the cantilever beam to convert the vibrations of the base structure into electrical energy. The coupled nonlinear representative model is developed by using the extended Hamiton’s principle. The effects of the electrical load resistance on the frequency and damping ratio of the cantilever beam are analyzed. The impacts of the external force and load resistance on the structural displacements of the base structure and the beam and on the level of harvested energy are determined. The results show that the initial conditions have a significant impact on the system’s response. The relatively high level of energy harvesting is not necessarily accompanied with the minimum displacements of the base structure.

  4. Positive and negative chirping of laser pulses shorter than 100 fsec in a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, R.S.; Jacobovitz, G.R.; Brito Cruz, C.H.; Scarparo, M.A.F.

    1986-04-01

    We present a calculation of the chirp generated in laser pulses shorter than 100 fsec on propagation through a saturable absorber (DODCI in ethylene glycol). The calculation takes into account the absorber saturation and the solvent nonlinear refractive index. At pulse energies greater than 10 nJ the chirp tends to be predominantly positive, and it increases rapidly as the pulse duration becomes shorter than 50 fsec. At pulse energies in the 1--7-nJ range the chirp is mostly negative for pulses longer than 30 fsec.

  5. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  6. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  7. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Alaraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  8. High-power, efficient, semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked Yb:KGW bulk laser.

    PubMed

    Kisel, V E; Rudenkov, A S; Pavlyuk, A A; Kovalyov, A A; Preobrazhenskii, V V; Putyato, M A; Rubtsova, N N; Semyagin, B R; Kuleshov, N V

    2015-06-15

    A high-power, diode-pumped, semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked Yb(5%):KGW bulk laser was demonstrated with high optical-to-optical efficiency. Average output power as high as 8.8 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 37.5% was obtained for Nm-polarized laser output with 162 fs pulse duration and 142 nJ pulse energy at a pulse repetition frequency of 62 MHz. For Np polarization, 143 fs pulses with pulse energy of 139 nJ and average output power of up to 8.6 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 31% were generated. PMID:26076242

  9. Dynamic operations of a dye laser with a saturable absorber: pumping anisotropy and orientational relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisenok, V. A.; Krylov, G. G.; Sergeyev, S. V.

    1994-04-01

    Coupled oscillators nonlinear dynamics was found for a dye laser with a saturable absorber and polarized pumping. It has been shown that two coupled cross-linearly polarized modes demonstrate the Bar-Eli effect, when excitation conditions for them are different. As a result, output energy of laser emission stops oscillating and stabilize at a constant steady state. When excitation conditions for them are the same, a new type of asymmetrical auto-oscillations for two modes arises. In addition it was emphasized that orientational relaxation processes (radiationless energy transfer or Brownian rotation of molecules) in an active medium transform asymmetrical auto-oscillations to symmetrical ones.

  10. A study on snubber elimination using energy absorbers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khalafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.; Dong, M.Y.; Wilkenson, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a snubber elimination study performed by Bechtel Power Corporation (Bechtel) using energy absorbers. Energy absorbers are used here as one of three separate snubber elimination/optimization methods evaluated by independent contractors in a coordinated EPRI program. As a starting baseline, each method considers systems selected from existing operating plants, which were originally designed with snubbers. Energy absorbers used in this study were developed by Bechtel based on earlier success in experimentally demonstrating the concept of energy absorbing restraints on the shaker table at the University of California at Berkeley. ASME code Case N-420 provides rules for construction of energy absorbers under the provisions of Section III of the code. First applications of energy absorbers to nuclear plants are currently being reviewed by the NRC on the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and the Point Beach Atomic Plant.

  11. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from a UV-A absorber butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane to UV-B absorbers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorescence decay of a UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzolymethane (BMDBM) has been observed following a 355 nm laser excitation in the absence and presence of UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC) and octocrylene (OCR) in ethanol at 77 K. The lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T1) state of BMDBM is significantly reduced in the presence of OMC and OCR. The observed quenching of BMDBM triplet by OMC and OCR suggests that the intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer occurs from BMDBM to OMC and OCR. The T1 state of OCR is nonphosphorescent or very weakly phosphorescent. However, we have shown that the energy level of the T1 state of OCR is lower than that of the enol form of BMDBM. Our methodology of energy-donor phosphorescence decay measurements can be applied to the study of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers even if the energy acceptor is nonphosphorescent. In addition, the delayed fluorescence of BMDBM due to triplet-triplet annihilation was observed in the BMDBM-OMC and BMDBM-OCR mixtures in ethanol at 77 K. Delayed fluorescence is one of the deactivation processes of the excited states of BMDBM under our experimental conditions. PMID:24329403

  12. Femtosecond laser printing of living cells using absorbing film-assisted laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Béla; Smausz, Tomi; Szabó, Gábor; Kolozsvári, Lajos; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Fotakis, Costas; Nógrádi, Antal

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of a femtosecond KrF laser in absorbing film-assisted, laser-induced forward transfer of living cells was studied. The absorbing materials were 50-nm-thick metal films and biomaterials (gelatine, Matrigel, each 50 μm thick, and polyhydroxybutyrate, 2 μm). The used cell types were human neuroblastoma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and osteogenic sarcoma cell lines, and primary astroglial rat cells. Pulses of a 500-fs KrF excimer laser focused onto the absorbing layer in a 250-μm diameter spot with 225 mJ/cm2 fluence were used to transfer the cells to the acceptor plate placed at 0.6 mm distance, which was a glass slide either pure or covered with biomaterials. While the low-absorptivity biomaterial absorbing layers proved to be ineffective in transfer of cells, when applied on the surface of acceptor plate, the wet gelatine and Matrigel layers successfully ameliorated the impact of the cells, which otherwise did not survive the arrival onto a hard surface. The best short- and long-term survival rate was between 65% and 70% for neuroblastoma and astroglial cells. The long-term survival of the transferred osteosarcoma cells was low, while the myeloid leukemia cells did not tolerate the procedure under the applied experimental conditions.

  13. Laser heating of an absorbing and conducting media applied to laser flash property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, L.A.; Anderson, E.E.

    1993-12-31

    The laser flash technique is widely used for determining the thermal diffusivity of a sample. In this work, the temperature distribution throughout the sample is investigated, identifying localized, highly-heated regions near the front surface of the sample as a function of: (1) pulse duration, (2) incident beam uniformity, and (3) sample opacity. These high-temperature regions result in an increase in the uncertainty due to temperature-dependent properties, an increase in the heat loss from the sample, and an increased risk of sample damage. The temperature within a semi-transparent media is also investigated in order to establish a regime for which the media can reasonably be considered as opaque. This analysis illustrates that, for same total energy deposition, treatment of the incident energy as a continuous heat source, as opposed to an infinitesimal pulse of energy, results in a factor of 2 increase in the front surface temperature during heating. Also, for the same total energy deposition and approximate beam size, use of a Gaussian intensity distribution increases the front surface temperature during heating by more than a factor of 2 as compared to the use of a uniform temperature distribution. By analyzing the front surface temperature of an absorbing and conducting semi-transparent sample subjected to a Gaussian intensity distribution, it is concluded that the media can be treated as opaque, (i.e. the energy can be applied as a boundary condition) for {var_epsilon} = kd > 50, where k is the extinction coefficient and d is the beam diameter. For materials with a sufficiently small absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity, a closed-form solution suitable for design use is presented for the front-surface temperature at a location coincident with the beam centerline.

  14. Femtosecond solid-state laser based on a few-layered black phosphorus saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiancui; Wang, Yiran; Zhang, Baitao; Zhao, Ruwei; Yang, Kejian; He, Jingliang; Hu, Qiangqiang; Jia, Zhitai; Tao, Xutang

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, a high-quality, few-layered black phosphorus (BP) saturable absorber (SA) was fabricated successfully, and a femtosecond solid-state laser modulated by BP-SA was experimentally demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Pulses as short as 272 fs were achieved with an average output power of 0.82 W, corresponding to the pulse energy of 6.48 nJ and peak power of 23.8 MW. So far, these represent the shortest pulse duration and highest output power ever obtained with a BP-based mode-locked solid-state laser. The results indicate the promising potential of few-layered BP-SA for applications in solid-state femtosecond mode-locked lasers. PMID:27128045

  15. Investigation on pulse shaping in fiber laser hybrid mode-locked by Sb(2)Te(3) saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Bogusławski, Jakub; Soboń, Grzegorz; Zybała, Rafał; Mars, Krzysztof; Mikuła, Andrzej; Abramski, Krzysztof M; Sotor, Jarosław

    2015-11-01

    We report a study on a hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with two saturable absorbers: slow and fast, integrated in a single device. Amorphous antimony telluride (Sb(2)Te(3)) layer was deposited on side-polished fiber to form the slow saturable absorber due to the third order nonlinear susceptibility of Sb(2)Te(3). Additionally, an unsymmetrical design of the device causes polarization-dependent losses and together with polarization controller allows to use a nonlinear polarization evolution to form the artificial fast saturable absorber. Sub-200 fs soliton pulses with 0.27 nJ of pulse energy were generated in the hybrid mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser. Differences in the dynamics of mode-locked laser are further investigated with the use of slow and fast saturable absorbers solely, and compared with the hybrid device. Joint operation of two saturable absorbers enhances the laser performance and stability. The conducted experiments allowed to define roles of each mechanism on the pulse shaping in the laser cavity. PMID:26561170

  16. fs Laser surface nano-structuring of high refractory ceramics to enhance solar radiation absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, E.; Orlando, S.; Sciti, D.; Bellucci, A.; Lettino, A.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2014-10-01

    High refractory pressure-less sintered ternary composite ceramics of AlN-SiC-MoSi2 (ASMY), polished by mechanical grinding to a surface roughness R a ~40 nm, have been treated in vacuum by fs Ti:sapphire laser, operating at 800 nm wavelength, 100 fs pulse duration, and increasing fluence, to generate a "black ceramic material", able to minimize solar radiation reflectance, in such a way that they could be used as the absorber material in an innovative conversion module of solar radiation into electrical energy. Disk specimens of approximately 3 cm in diameter and 3 mm thick have been treated by normal incident laser beam, generating a scanning pattern of parallel lines, at a lateral distance of about 80 μm, using a stage in motion, in the x, y, z directions, driven by a computer. The experimental conditions of laser treatment (energy fluence, speed of transition and lateral distance of steps) have been optimized to maximize the absorption properties of the patterned surface. In some samples this value was increased by about 15 %, compared to untreated surface, up to a value of final absorbance of about 95 %, all over the range of solar radiation spectrum (from UV to NIR). The morphological and chemical effects have been evaluated by SEM-EDS analysis. At higher fluence, we obtained the characteristic ablation craters and corresponding local material decomposition, while at lower fluence (over the ablation threshold) an ordered periodic nano-structure has been obtained, exploitable for its high capacity of entrapment of visible light. The laser treated ceramic specimen, characterized by very high absorption properties and reflectivity values lower than 4 %, has been used as active absorber material in a conversion module, installed in a solar test platform.

  17. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  18. Mode locking of diode- and flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers using semiconductor saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrovsky, Andrej; Kubecek, Vaclav; Zvonicek, K.; Diels, Jean-Claude M.; Stintz, Andreas

    2003-07-01

    Operation of laser diode and flash lamp pumped Nd:YAG lasers mode locked with two different types of semiconductor saturable absorbers is reported. In the first type that is used mainly in diode pumped systems the absorber layers are integrated on highly reflective Bragg mirror. The second type is for use in transmission mode inside the resonator. Different design of semiconductor elements, pumping geometries and resonator configurations were investigated and characteristics of laser operation in mode-locked regime are presented.

  19. Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhengqian; Wu, Duanduan; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian; Xu, Shuo; Zhu, Chunhui; Wang, Fengqiu; Sun, Zhipei; Zhang, Han

    2015-12-01

    Passive Q-switching or mode-locking by placing a saturable absorber inside the laser cavity is one of the most effective and popular techniques for pulse generation. However, most of the current saturable absorbers cannot work well in the visible spectral region, which seriously impedes the progress of passively Q-switched/mode-locked visible pulsed fibre lasers. Here, we report a kind of visible saturable absorber--two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g. WS2, MoS2, MoSe2), and successfully demonstrate compact red-light Q-switched praseodymium (Pr3+)-doped all-fibre lasers. The passive Q-switching operation at 635 nm generates stable laser pulses with ~200 ns pulse duration, 28.7 nJ pulse energy and repetition rate from 232 to 512 kHz. This achievement is attributed to the ultrafast saturable absorption of these layered TMDs in the visible region, as well as the compact and all-fibre laser-cavity design by coating a dielectric mirror on the fibre end facet. This work may open a new route for next-generation high-performance pulsed laser sources in the visible (even ultraviolet) range.Passive Q-switching or mode-locking by placing a saturable absorber inside the laser cavity is one of the most effective and popular techniques for pulse generation. However, most of the current saturable absorbers cannot work well in the visible spectral region, which seriously impedes the progress of passively Q-switched/mode-locked visible pulsed fibre lasers. Here, we report a kind of visible saturable absorber--two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g. WS2, MoS2, MoSe2), and successfully demonstrate compact red-light Q-switched praseodymium (Pr3+)-doped all-fibre lasers. The passive Q-switching operation at 635 nm generates stable laser pulses with ~200 ns pulse duration, 28.7 nJ pulse energy and repetition rate from 232 to 512 kHz. This achievement is attributed to the ultrafast saturable absorption of these layered TMDs in the visible

  20. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS. GENERATION OF ULTRASHORT PULSES: Passive mode locking in a cw dye laser with a rapidly relaxing absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krindach, D. P.; Kur'yanov, A. A.; Novoderezhkin, V. I.

    1990-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made of the characteristics of passive mode locking in a cw dye laser with a rapidly relaxing absorber. It was found that such a "fast" absorber was prone to fluctuations. This altered the limits and widened the mode-locking range in the direction of higher energy densities of the pulses, compared with a "slow" absorber of the DODCI type. This made it possible to generate pulses shorter than 100 fs with an average power of 30-50 mW.

  1. High energy laser beam dump

    SciTech Connect

    Halpin, John

    2004-09-14

    The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

  2. Dental Enamel Irradiated with Infrared Diode Laser and Photo-Absorbing Cream: Part 2—EDX Study

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edson Aparecido Pereira; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; do Espírito Santo, Ana Maria; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Duarte, Danilo Antônio; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Brugnera, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The effects of laser-induced compositional changes on the enamel were investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDX). After cariogenic challenge, we administered treatment of low-level infrared diode laser and a photo-absorbing cream (used to intensify the superficial light absorption). Background Data: Dental caries is considered the most prevalent oral disease. A simple and noninvasive caries preventive regimen is treating tooth enamel with a laser, either alone or in combination with fluoride, which reduces enamel solubility and dissolution rates. High power lasers are still not widely used in private practice. Low-power near-infrared lasers may be an alternative approach. Energy-dispersive μ-EDX is a versatile and nondestructive spectroscopic technique that allows for a qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of inorganic enamel components, such as calcium and phosphorus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted or exfoliated caries-free deciduous molars were divided into six groups: 1) control group (CTR-no treatment); 2) infrared laser treatment (L) (λ = 810 nm, 100 mW/cm2, 90 sec, 4.47 J/cm2, 9 J); 3) infrared laser irradiation and photo-absorbing agent (CL); 4) photo-absorbing agent alone (C); 5) infrared laser irradiation and fluoridated photo-absorbing agent (FCL); and 6) fluoridated photo-absorbing agent alone (FC). Samples were analyzed using μ-EDX after two sets of treatments and pH cycling cariogenic challenges. Results: The CL group showed statistically significant increases in calcium and phosphorus (wt%) compared with the CTR group. The Ca/P ratio was similar in the FCL and CTR groups. There was a significant laser-induced reduction compared with the CTR group, and there was a possible modification of the organic balance content in enamel treated with laser and cream. Conclusion: μ-EDX may be able to detect compositional changes in mineral phases of lased enamel under

  3. A comparison of absorbable suture and argon laser welding for lateral repair of arteries.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, P F; Li, K; Merrell, S W; Goodman, G R

    1991-08-01

    Conventional vascular anastomoses between autogenous vessels are performed with nonabsorbable sutures. Recently, use of absorbable sutures and laser-assisted vascular anastomoses has been advocated because of their improved healing characteristics. This study compared arterial repairs with the argon laser, absorbable suture, and nonabsorbable suture for technical characteristics including additional suture and overall success rates, burst strength, and cost. Absorbable and nonabsorbable suture closures were comparable with respect to technique, but laser-assisted vascular anastomosis was technically more demanding and required almost twice as much time for completion. The argon laser successfully closed only 58.6% of the arteriotomies, and 90% of the closures required additional sutures for complete hemostasis. All sutured arteriotomies were successfully completed by use of either absorbable or nonabsorbable suture. Burst strength was similar for all groups, but was uniformly greater than 300 mm Hg for sutured repairs, whereas two of five laser-assisted closures burst below 300 mm Hg. Finally, costs for purchasing ($35,000) and operating ($300/hr.) an argon laser make laser-assisted vascular anastomosis much more expensive than sutured repair. These data suggest argon laser-assisted vascular anastomoses are more technically demanding, less successful, and more expensive than conventional sutured anastomoses when evaluated in large caliber arteries in a canine model. Absorbable suture, however, is comparable to conventional nonabsorbable sutured arterial repairs in expense, handling characteristics, and success rates with the added advantage of eliminating permanent foreign body in the arterial wall when it is absorbed. PMID:1861329

  4. Delayed-feedback vibration absorbers to enhance energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, Ayhan S.; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-02-01

    Recovering energy from ambient vibrations has recently been a popular research topic. This article is conceived as a concept study that explores new directions to enhance the performance of such energy harvesting devices from base excitation. The main idea revolves around the introduction of delayed feedback sensitization (or tuning) of an active vibration absorber setup. To clarify the concept, the Delayed Resonator theory is reviewed and its suitability for energy harvesting purposes is studied. It is recognized that an actively tuned and purely resonant absorber is infeasible for such applications. The focus is then shifted to alternative tuning schemes that deviate from resonance conditions. Also called Delayed Feedback Vibration Absorbers, these devices may indeed provide significant enhancements in energy harvesting capacity. Analytical developments are presented to study energy generation and consumption characteristics. Effects of excitation frequency and absorber damping are investigated. The influences of time-delayed feedback on the stability and the transient performance of the system are also treated. The analysis starts from a stand-alone absorber, emulating seismic mass type harvesters. The work is then extended to vibration control applications, where an absorber/harvester is coupled with a primary structure. The results are demonstrated with numerical simulations on a case study.

  5. Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Long; Li, Xian-Lei; Wu, Yong-Zhong; Hao, Xiao-Peng; He, Jing-Liang; Yang, Ke-Jian

    2011-05-15

    High-quality graphene sheets with lateral size over 20 μm have been obtained by bath sonicating after subjecting the wormlike graphite marginally to mixed oxidizer. To date, to our knowledge, they are the largest graphene sheets prepared by exfoliation in the liquid phase. A saturable absorber mirror was fabricated based on these sheets. We exploited it to realize mode-locking operation in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) laser. A pulse duration of 16 ps was produced with an average power of 360 mW and a highest pulse energy of 8.4 nJ for a graphene mode-locked laser. PMID:21593945

  6. Tunable Q-switched fiber laser using zinc oxide nanoparticles as a saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H; Lee, C S J; Ismail, M A; Ali, Z A; Reduan, S A; Ruslan, N E; Harun, S W

    2016-06-01

    Nanomaterials have ignited new interest due to their distinctive electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Zinc oxide nanostructures are fabricated into thin film and then inserted between two fiber ferrules to act as a saturable absorber (SA). The modulation depth and insertion loss of the SA are 5% and 3.5 dB, respectively. When the ZnO-SA is incorporated into the laser cavity, a stable Q-switched pulse tunable from 1536 to 1586 nm (50 nm range) with pulse energy up to 46 nJ was observed. Our result suggests that ZnO is a promising broadband SA to generate passively Q-switched fiber lasers. PMID:27411175

  7. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. C.; Man, B. Y.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chen, C. S.; Liu, M.; Yang, C.; Gao, S. B.; Feng, D. J.; Hu, G. D.; Huang, Q. J.; Chen, X. F.; Zhang, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel method for the direct metal-free growth of graphene on quartz substrate. The direct-grown graphene yields excellent nonlinear saturable absorption properties and is demonstrated to be suitable as a saturable absorber (SA) for an ultrafast solid-state laser. Nearly Fourier-limited 367 fs was obtained at a central wavelength of 1048 nm with a repetition rate of 105.7 MHz. At a pump power of 7.95 W, the average output power was 1.93 W and the highest pulse energy reached 18.3 nJ, with a peak power of 49.8 kW. Our work opens an easy route for making a reliable graphene SA with a mode-locking technique and also displays an exciting prospect in making low-cost and ultrafast lasers.

  8. Oscillatory phenomena and Q switching in a model for laser with a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Antoranz, J.C.; Gea, J.; Velarde, M.G.

    1981-12-28

    Sufficiently long population decay times and sufficiently short dipole decay times in a single-mode laser with saturable absorber permit passive Q switching in the form of a hard-mode sustained relaxation oscillation.

  9. Bistable limit cycles in a model for a laser with a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Antoranz, J.C.; Bonilla, L.L.; Gea, J.; Velarde, M.G.

    1982-07-05

    Sufficiently long population decay times and sufficiently short dipole decay times in a single-mode model for a laser with saturable absorber permit coexistence of soft-excited oscillations and Q switching (hard-mode sustained relaxation oscillations).

  10. Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhengqian; Wu, Duanduan; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian; Xu, Shuo; Zhu, Chunhui; Wang, Fengqiu; Sun, Zhipei; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-14

    Passive Q-switching or mode-locking by placing a saturable absorber inside the laser cavity is one of the most effective and popular techniques for pulse generation. However, most of the current saturable absorbers cannot work well in the visible spectral region, which seriously impedes the progress of passively Q-switched/mode-locked visible pulsed fibre lasers. Here, we report a kind of visible saturable absorber-two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g. WS2, MoS2, MoSe2), and successfully demonstrate compact red-light Q-switched praseodymium (Pr(3+))-doped all-fibre lasers. The passive Q-switching operation at 635 nm generates stable laser pulses with ∼200 ns pulse duration, 28.7 nJ pulse energy and repetition rate from 232 to 512 kHz. This achievement is attributed to the ultrafast saturable absorption of these layered TMDs in the visible region, as well as the compact and all-fibre laser-cavity design by coating a dielectric mirror on the fibre end facet. This work may open a new route for next-generation high-performance pulsed laser sources in the visible (even ultraviolet) range. PMID:26658877

  11. Evaluation of a commercially available passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF: F2- saturable absorber for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Cantwell G.; Goueguel, Christian L.; Sanghapi, Hervé; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Interest in passively Q-switched microchip lasers as a means for miniaturization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) apparatus has rapidly grown in the last years. To explore the possibility of using a comparatively UV-vis transparent absorber, we herein present the first report on the evaluation of a commercially available flash lamp-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF: F2- saturable absorber as an excitation source in LIBS. Quantitative measurements of barium, strontium, rubidium and lithium in granite, rhyolite, basalt and syenite whole-rock glass samples were performed. Using a gated intensified benchtop spectrometer, limits of detection of 0.97, 23, 37, and 144 ppm were obtained for Li, Sr, Rb, and Ba, respectively. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using such a laser unit for LIBS applications in terms of ablation efficiency, analytical performances, output energy, and standoff capabilities.

  12. Failure mechanisms in energy-absorbing composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; David, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Quasi-static tests are described for determination of the energy-absorption properties of composite crash energy-absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens were used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. These mechanisms are important for selecting composite materials for energy-absorbing structures, such as helicopter and aircraft sub-floors. Finite element models of the failure processes are described that could be the basis for materials selection and future design procedures for crashworthy structures.

  13. Yb:YAG thin disk laser passively Q-switched by a hydro-thermal grown molybdenum disulfide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yi; Wang, Li; Wang, Jie Yu; Li, Hong Wei; Yu, Zhen Huang

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate a passively Q-switched Yb:YAG thin disk solid-state laser based on nanoflake MoS2 as a saturable absorber. MoS2 is synthesized by a hydro-thermal process. The prepared MoS2 is transferred onto the BK7 glass for ease-of-use in the solid-state laser as a saturable absorber. The average output power could reach up to 250 mW, center wavelength 1030 nm corresponding to a pulse width, a pulse repetition rate, and a per pulse energy of 12 μs, 17 kHz, and 15 μJ, respectively. Our results show that nanoflake MoS2 could be a promising saturable absorber for Q-switching solid-state lasers. The over saturation of the MoS2 saturable absorber at a high pump strength limit in a solid-state laser could be also effective for high power operation.

  14. Passively Q-switched flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser using liquid graphene oxide as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, N. N.; Bidin, N.; Taib, N. A. M.; Haris, H.; Fakaruddin, M.; Hashim, A. M.; Krishnan, G.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    The performance of passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1060 nm is demonstrated using liquid graphene oxide (GO) composite solution as saturable absorber for the first time. The Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is pumped by a xenon flashlamp. The GO was prepared using the simplified Hummer's method and then mixed with polyethylene oxide to form a composite solution. The Q-switched pulsed laser operates at wavelength of 1064.5 nm with a threshold pump energy of 33.64 J. The maximum output Q-switched laser energy of 41.6 mJ achieved at the maximum pump energy of 81 J. The corresponding pulse width is 98.67 ns.

  15. Sensitive absorbance measurement method based on laser multi-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jinying; Tong, william G.

    1994-12-01

    A sensitive absorbance measurement based on nonlinear laser degenerate four-wave mixing is demonstrated for cadmium. The cadmium ions react with dithizone to form a cadium complex which is then extracted in carbon tetrachloride and analyzed. A relatively low-power argon ion laser line at 514.5 nm is used as the excitation light source. This nonlinear laser method offers many useful features including efficient and simple optical signal detection (signal is a collimated coherent beam), excellent detection sensitivity for absorbance, and efficient use of low laser power levels, small laser probe volumes and short analyte path legnths (e.g., <0.5 mm). A detection limit of 7 fg or 0.05 ng/ml for cadmium, corresponding to an absorbance detection limit of 1.8 × 10 -6 AU is reported using a flowing analyte cell at room temperature.

  16. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-29

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  17. Passively Q-switched 2 μm Tm:YAP laser based on graphene saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jia; Zhang, Baitao; He, Jingliang; Wang, Zhaowei; Lou, Fei; Ning, Jian; Zhao, Ruwei; Su, Xiancui

    2014-08-01

    Using high-quality single-layer graphene as a saturable absorber, Tm:YAlO₃ (Tm:YAP) crystal as the gain medium, we demonstrated a laser-diode-pumped, compact, passively Q-switched (PQS) solid-state laser in the 2 μm region. The maximum average output power was 362 mW, with the corresponding largest pulse repetition rate and pulse energy of 42.4 kHz and 8.5 μJ, respectively. Under the same pump power, the pulse width of 735 ns was obtained, which is, to our best knowledge, the shortest pulse width among Tm-doped solid-state PQS lasers using graphene saturable absorber mirrors. PMID:25090328

  18. Field-Analysis of Vacuum Free-Space LaserAcceleration from Rough-Surface and Absorbing Thin Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Plettner, Thomas; /Stanford U., Ginzton Lab.

    2008-06-02

    This script presents a field-based analysis of laser acceleration of relativistic electrons in a free space that is bounded by a thin scattering or by a thin absorbing surface. The laser acceleration process is analyzed in terms of the inverse-radiation formalism and compared to the more familiar field path-integral analysis method. When the scattering boundary is modeled as a linear-index medium the predictions for laser-electron interactions from both field methods are found to agree. For the absorbing boundary both interaction pictures are also found to agree provided that the inverse radiation method is generalized to include absorption of energy from the boundary that is modeled as a linear ohmic-loss object.

  19. Passively mode-locked picosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers using multiple quantum well saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayduk, Michael J.; Krol, Mark F.; Pollock, Clifford R.; Teegarden, Kenneth J.; Wicks, Gary W.; Kaechele, Walter

    1998-07-01

    An experimental study of the mode-locking process in erbium- doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) operating at 1.55 micrometer using multiple quantum well saturable absorbers is described. The self-starting passively mode-locked laser was constructed in a Fabry-Perot configuration using the saturable absorber as the back reflector of the cavity. Picosecond pulses that ranged from 3.1 to 38.8 ps were generated using a series of saturable absorbers. The pulse widths were dependent upon the optical properties of the saturable absorber used as the mode- locking element as well as the dispersive elements contained within the cavity. The output power of the EDFL varied from 0.2 to 6.7 mW and was also dependent upon the saturable absorber used in the cavity.

  20. Energy absorber for sodium-heated heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-12-01

    A heat exchanger is described in which water-carrying tubes are heated by liquid sodium and in which the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes is minimized. An energy absorbing chamber contains a compressible gas and is connected to the body of flowing sodium by a channel so that, in the event of a sodium-water reaction, products of the reaction will partially fill the energy absorbing chamber to attenuate the rise in pressure within the heat exchanger.

  1. Laser plasmadynamic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1976-01-01

    The generation of electrons ions by interacting an intense laser beam with cesium vapor is considered. Theoretical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency is as high as 40 percent if the entire photon energy is utilized in ionizing the cesium vapor that is generated initially by the incoming laser beam. An output voltage is expected to be generated across two electrodes, one of which is the liquid cesium, by keeping the other electrode at a different work function. Evaluation of the laser plasmadynamic (LPD) converter was performed using pulsed ruby and Nd-glass lasers. Although the results obtained to date indicate an efficiency smaller than that of theoretical predictions, an unoptimized LPD converter did demonstrate the capability of converting laser energy at large power levels. The limitations in the performance may by due to converter geometry, the types of lasers used, and other limitations inherent to the cesium plasma.

  2. Cr 4+: GSGG saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Spariosu, K.; Stultz, R.; Kuo, Y. K.; Birnbaum, M.; Shestakov, A. V.

    1993-12-01

    Cr 4+: GSGG has been utilized for the first time to provide a saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser. Single output pulse operation (100 mJ and 27 ns duration) with efficiencies relative to the free-running ruby laser operation of 25-30% was routinely obtained.

  3. Scaling of energy absorbing composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen; Lavoie, J. Andre; Morton, John

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorption response and crushing characteristics of geometrically scaled graphite-Kevlar epoxy composite plates were investigated. Two different trigger mechanisms including notch, and steeple geometries were incorporated into the plate specimens to initiate crushing. Sustained crushing was achieved with a new test fixture which provided lateral support to prevent global buckling. Values of specific sustained crushing stress (SSCS) were obtained which were lower than values reported for tube specimens from previously published data. Two sizes of hybrid plates were fabricated; a baseline or model plate, and a full-scale plate with inplane dimensions scaled by a factor of two. The thickness dimension of the full-scale plates was increased using two different techniques: the ply-level method in which each ply orientation in the baseline laminate stacking sequence is doubled, and the sublaminate technique in which the baseline laminate stacking sequence is repeated as a group. Results indicated that the SSCS has a small dependence on trigger mechanism geometry. However, a reduction in the SSCS of 10-25% was observed for the full-scale plates as compared with the baseline specimens, indicating a scaling effect in the crushing response.

  4. Scaling of energy absorbing composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen; Morton, John; Traffanstedt, Catherine; Boitnott, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The energy absorption response and crushing characteristics of geometrically scaled graphite-Kevlar epoxy composite plates were investigated. Three different trigger mechanisms including chamfer, notch, and steeple geometries were incorporated into the plate specimens to initiate crushing. Sustained crushing was achieved with a simple test fixture which provided lateral support to prevent global buckling. Values of specific sustained crushing stress (SSCS) were obtained which were comparable to values reported for tube specimens from previously published data. Two sizes of hybrid plates were fabricated; a baseline or model plate, and a full-scale plate with in-plane dimensions scaled by a factor of two. The thickness dimension of the full-scale plates was increased using two different techniques; the ply-level method in which each ply orientation in the baseline laminate stacking sequence is doubled, and the sublaminate technique in which the baseline laminate stacking sequence is repeated as a group. Results indicated that the SSCS is independent of trigger mechanism geometry. However, a reduction in the SSCS of 10-25 percent was observed for the full-scale plates as compared with the baseline specimens, indicating a scaling effect in the crushing response.

  5. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Laser radiation could possibly provide a feasible approach for the transmission of energy between stations and vehicles in space and on earth. The transmitted energy could be used for the operational requirements of the receiving space station, lunar base, or spacecraft. In addition, laser energy could also be employed to provide power for the propulsion of vehicles in space. The present status of development regarding the various technological areas involved in an implementation of these objectives is examined, taking into account the possibility of further advances needed to satisfy the technical requirements. Attention is given to laser-induced chemistry for converting the radiation energy into chemical energy. Other subjects considered are related to photovoltaics, optical diodes, thermo-electronics, laser rockets, and photon engines.

  6. Passively Q-switched nd:YAG laser via a WS2 saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yonggang; Duan, Lina; Li, Lu; Sun, Hang

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm by using WS2 solution as the saturable absorber (SA). The WS2 solution with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) were fabricated by the liquid-phase-exfoliated method and injected into quartz cells. Such liquid absorbers have the virtues of adjustable optical absorption, high heat dissipation and non-contact damage. By inserting those WS2 solutions in the laser cavity, stable Q-switched laser operations were obtained. The corresponding pulse duration as short as 922 ns was obtained. The result shows that the WS2 material can be act as absorber for solid-state lasers.

  7. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  8. Energy Deposition and Radiological Studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.; Eidelman, Y. I.

    2015-06-25

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  9. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Suthaskumar, M.; Tiu, Z. C.; Zarei, A.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    A Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser by using MoSe2 thin film as saturable absorber is experimentally demonstrated. The bulk MoSe2 is processed into few layer MoSe2 based on liquid phase exfoliation technique, and further fabricated into thin film by using polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Q-switching operation is obtained from pump power range of 22.4-102.0 mW. The pulse repetition rate shows an increasing trend from 16.9 kHz to 32.8 kHz, whereas the pulse width exhibits a decreasing trend from 59.1 μs to 30.4 μs. The highest pulse energy of 57.9 nJ is obtained at pump power of 102.0 mW.

  10. High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Chen, YuShan; Yin, Jinde; Zhang, Xuejun; Guo, Tuan; Yan, Peiguang

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror (WS2-SAM) fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The WS2-SAM has an all-fiber-integrated configuration and high-damage-resistant merit because the WS2 layer is protected by gold film so as to avoid being oxidized and destroyed at high pump power. Employing the WS2-SAM in an Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with linear cavity, the stable Q-switching operation is achieved at central wavelength of 1560 nm, with the repetition rates ranging from 29.5 kHz to 367.8 kHz and the pulse duration ranging from 1.269 μs to 154.9 ns. For the condition of the maximum pump power of 600 mW, the WS2-SAM still works stably with an output power of 25.2 mW, pulse energy of 68.5 nJ, and signal-noise-ratio of 42 dB. The proposed WS2-SAM configuration provides a promising solution for advanced pulsed fiber lasers with the characteristics of high damage resistance, high output energy, and wide tunable frequency. PMID:27464082

  11. Dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched solid-state laser with multi-layered graphene as saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongguang; Li, Xianlei; Xu, Miaomiao; Yu, Haohai; Wu, Yongzhong; Wang, Zhengping; Hao, Xiaopeng; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-02-11

    Using multilayered graphene as the saturable absorber (SA), Nd:LYSO crystal as the laser material, we demonstrated a laser-diode (LD) pumped, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched solid-state laser. The maximum average output power is 1.8 W, the largest pulse energy and highest peak power is 11.3 μJ, 118 W, respectively. As we have known, they are the best results for passively Q-switched operation of graphene. The pulse laser is strong enough to realize extra-cavity frequency conversions. With a KTP crystal as the sum-frequency generator, the dual wavelengths are proved to be well time overlapped, which manifests the synchronous modulation to the dual-wavelength with multi-layered graphene. PMID:23481809

  12. Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-H.; Lin, G.-R.

    2012-05-01

    The free-standing graphite nano-particle located between two FC/APC fiber connectors is employed as the saturable absorber to passively mode-lock the ring-type Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). The host-solvent-free graphite nano-particles with sizes of 300 - 500 nm induce a comparable modulation depth of 54%. The interlayer-spacing and lattice fluctuations of polished graphite nano-particles are observed from the weak 2D band of Raman spectrum and the azimuth angle shift of -0.32° of {002}-orientation dependent X-ray diffraction peak. The graphite nano-particles mode-locked EDFL generates a 1.67-ps pulsewidth at linearly dispersion-compensated regime with a repetition rate of 9.1 MHz. The time-bandwidth product of 0.325 obtained under a total intra-cavity group-delay-dispersion of -0.017 ps2 is nearly transform-limited. The extremely high stability of the nano-scale graphite saturable absorber during mode-locking is observed at an intra-cavity optical energy density of 7.54 mJ/cm2. This can be attributed to its relatively high damage threshold (one order of magnitude higher than the graphene) on handling the optical energy density inside the EDFL cavity. The graphite nano-particle with reduced size and sufficient coverage ratio can compete with other fast saturable absorbers such as carbon nanotube or graphene to passively mode-lock fiber lasers with decreased insertion loss and lasing threshold.

  13. A novel self-locked energy absorbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuli; Qiao, Chuan; Qiu, Xinming; Zhao, Shougen; Zhen, Cairu; Liu, Bin

    2016-02-01

    Metallic thin-walled round tubes are widely used as energy absorption elements. However, lateral splash of the round tubes under impact loadings reduces the energy absorption efficiency and may cause secondary damage. Therefore, it is necessary to assemble and fasten round tubes together by boundary constraints and/or fasteners between tubes, which increases the time and labor cost and affects the mechanical performance of round tubes. In an effort to break through this limitation, a novel self-locked energy-absorbing system has been proposed in this paper. The proposed system is made up of thin-walled tubes with dumbbell-shaped cross section, which are specially designed to interlock with each other and thus provide lateral constraint under impact loadings. Both finite element simulations and impact experiment demonstrated that without boundary constraints or fasteners between tubes, the proposed self-locked energy-absorbing system can still effectively attenuate impact loads while the round tube systems fail to carry load due to the lateral splashing of tubes. Furthermore, the geometric design for a single dumbbell-shaped tube and the stacking arrangement for the system are discussed, and a general guideline on the structural design of the proposed self-locked energy absorbing system is provided.

  14. Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Chandrashekhar

    Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and

  15. Energy Losses Estimation During Pulsed-Laser Seam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestova, Hana; Havelkova, Martina; Chmelickova, Hana

    2014-06-01

    The finite-element tool SYSWELD (ESI Group, Paris, France) was adapted to simulate pulsed-laser seam welding. Besides temperature field distribution, one of the possible outputs of the welding simulation is the amount of absorbed power necessary to melt the required material volume including energy losses. Comparing absorbed or melting energy with applied laser energy, welding efficiencies can be calculated. This article presents achieved results of welding efficiency estimation based on the assimilation both experimental and simulation output data of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser bead on plate welding of 0.6-mm-thick AISI 304 stainless steel sheets using different beam powers.

  16. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser - Quantification for a narrowband absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brobst, William D.; Allen, John E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors including transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power is presented for a CW dye laser with a narrow-band absorber (NO2). A Beer-Lambert type relationship is found over a small but useful range of these parameters. Quantitative measurement of intracavity absorption from the dye laser spectral profiles showed enhancements up to 12,000 (for pump powers near lasing threshold) when compared to extracavity measurements. The definition of an intracavity absorption coefficient allowed the determination of accurate transition strength ratios, demonstrating the reliability of the method.

  17. Measurement of Raman spectra of single airborne absorbing particles trapped by a single laser beam.

    PubMed

    Ling, Lin; Li, Yong-qing

    2013-02-15

    We demonstrate a method for optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of micron-sized, airborne absorbing particles using a single focused laser beam. A single Gaussian beam at 532 nm is used to trap and precisely manipulate absorbing airborne particles. The fluctuation of the position of the trapped particles is substantially reduced by controlling the power of the laser beam with a position-sensitive detector and a locking circuit. Raman spectra of the position-stabilized particles or clusters are then measured with an objective and CCD spectrograph. PMID:23455087

  18. Functions of laser light, laser-absorbing dye, and immunoadjuvants in photodynamic immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-10-01

    Photo Dynamic Immuno Therapy (PDIT) is a novel approach for treatment of metastatic tumors. It involves an intratumor administration of a laser-absorbing dye and an immunoadjuvant, followed by a non-invasive laser irradiation. Previous studies using a novel immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan, showed the effect of the treatment on a metastatic breast tumor in rats, including the eradication of treated primary tumors, regression of untreated metastases, and the evidence of immune responses induced by the treatment. To further understand the mechanism of PDIT, tumor-bearing rats were treated by different combinations of the three PDIT components. The rat survival rates and profiles of primary and metastatic tumors, after treatment by individual component and different combinations of components, were analyzed. All the experimental groups without using immunoadjuvant showed none or little positive effect. The use of glycated chitosan, either by itself or in combination of other components, has showed that among the concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2%, glycated chitosan was most effective at 1% in PDIT. Another immunoadjuvant, incomplete Freund's adjuvant, was also used and the results were compared with that of using glycated chitosan. PDIT was applied to a different tumor model- Met-Lu, a prostatic tumor with lung metastases in male rats and the preliminary results are reported.

  19. Laser-induced synergistic effects around absorbing nanoclusters in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Letfullin, Renat R.; Galitovskay, Elena

    2005-04-01

    Background and Objective: The application of nanotechnology for laser thermal-based killing of abnormal cells (e.g. cancer cells) targeted with absorbing nanoparticles (e.g. gold solid nanospheres, nanoshells, or rod) is becoming an extensive area of research. We develop an approach to enhance the efficiency of selective nanophotothermolysis of cancer cells through laser-induced synergistic effects around gold nanoparticles aggregated in nanoclusters on cell membrane. Study Design/Materials and Methods: A concept of selective target damages by laser-induced synergistic interaction of optical, thermal, and acoustic fields around clustered nanoparticles is presented with focus on overlapping bubbles from nanoparticles aggregated on cell's membrane. The experimental verification of this concept in vitro was performed by the use a tunable laser pulses (420-570 nm, 8-12 ns, 0.1-300 μJ, laser flux of 0.1-10 J/cm2) for irradiation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells targeted with primary antibodies to which selecttively 40-nm gold nanoparticles were attached by the means of secondary antibodies. The photothermal, electron and atomic force microscopes in combination with viability test (annexin -V-Propidium iodide) were employed to study the nanoparticle's spatial organization, the dynamics of microbubble formations around the particle's clusters, and cells damage. Results: An aggregation of nanoparticles on cell membrane was observed with simultaneous increase bubble formation phenomena, and red-shifted absorption due to plasmon-plasmon resonances into nanoclusters. It led to a significant enhancement, at least two orders of magnitude, of the efficiency of selectively killing cancer cells with nanosecond laser pulses. Conclusion: Described approach allows using relatively small nanoparticles which would be easier delivery to target site with further creation of nanoclusters with larger sizes which provide more profound thermal and related phenomena leading to more

  20. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  1. On the Q-switched operation of Titanium:Sapphire lasers using a graphene-based saturable absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, R.; Pinto, T.; Crespo, H. M.; Guerra, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    We numerically demonstrate Q-switched operation of Titanium:Sapphire lasers using mono and multilayer graphene, deposited on a totally reflecting end mirror as a saturable absorber. Output energies, pulse duration and repetition frequencies of the Q-switched pulse trains are given as a function of the pump intensity for different number of graphene layers and cavity lengths. For the geometries studied, pulses from 17 to 491 ns can be achieved, with energies ranging from 11 to 74 μJ and repetition rates from 0.06 to 2.5 MHz. These results can be useful for designing and building laser cavities for Q-switched and mode-locked operation in laser media with short lifetimes as Titanium:Sapphire.

  2. Improving dye laser efficiency with uv absorbers and wavelength shifters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, K L; Thorne, J M

    1981-01-01

    The nonuniform heating in flashlamp pumped dye lasers forms refractive index gradients in the dye solution. These gradients distort the wavefront of the laser beam resulting in limited output power, limited pulse repetition rate, and limited attainable linewidth. The theorectical bases for using uv absorbers and wavelength shifters to eliminate light of detrimental wavelengths and thereby improve dye laser efficiency are described, and the results of experiments for evaluating 12 uv absorbers and 12 wavelength filters for use as possible pump light filters are presented. These experiments showed that the appropriate uv absorber or wavelength shifter to be used with a given laser dye is based on the absorption spectrum of the dye. If a uv absorber is needed, then the compound should be chosen so that its long wavelength absorption peak is just to the short wavelength side of the absorption peaks of the laser dye. If a wavelength shifter is needed, then the compound should be chosen so that there is maximum overlap between the fluorescence spectrum of the shifter and the absorption spectrum of the dye. Tabulated data are presented which can be used to selected protectors and shifters for specific dyes. (LCL)

  3. Passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers using multiple quantum well saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayduk, Michael Joseph

    1997-09-01

    An experimental study of the mode-locking process in erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFL's) operating at 1.55 μm using multiple quantum well saturable absorbers is presented. The self-starting passively mode-locked laser was constructed in a Fabry-Perot configuration using the saturable absorber as the back reflector of the cavity. Picosecond pulses that ranged from 14.2 to 38.8 ps were generated using a series of saturable absorbers. The pulse widths were dependent upon the optical properties of the saturable absorber used as the mode-locking element. The output power of the EDFL varied from 0.2 to 6.7 mW and was also dependent upon the saturable absorber used in the cavity. Soliton mode-locking using saturable absorbers was the mechanism responsible for the generation of the picosecond pulses by the EDFL. The long-lived carrier lifetime in the quantum wells was the primary optical property of the saturable absorber that determined the final pulse width. The carrier lifetimes of the eight individual saturable absorbers were investigated using time-resolved pump/probe experimental techniques. The lifetimes ranged from 40 to 1757 ps. The soliton mode- locking process allowed pulse widths of up to 45 times shorter than these carrier lifetimes to be produced. A self-starting passively mode-locked solid-state Cr4+:YAG laser was also developed using a novel saturable absorber mirror structure. The laser produced femtosecond pulses that were tunable from 1.488 to 1.535 μm. The average output power of the laser ranged from 40 to 80 mW at a repetition rate of 95 MHz. A minimum pulse width of 120 fs was generated at 1.488 μm. The high peak power of these pulses combined with its tunability in the 1.5 μm region made this laser an ideal spectroscopic source for use in the time-resolved pump/probe experiments.

  4. High-repetition-rate Q-modulation in solid-state laser using fast saturable absorber V:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jia-Sai; Wang, Feng; Li, Pei-Xin; Hu, Wei-Wei; Yin, Chun-Hao; Xu, Jin-Long

    2015-07-01

    A high-repetition-rate Q-modulation operation in a solid-state Nd:GdVO4 laser with a V3+:YAG saturable absorber has been demonstrated in this paper. The V3+:YAG crystal behaves as a fast saturable absorber in this laser because of its very short lifetime of 22 ns. Taking advantage of such fast bleaching recovery and effective cooling of the V:YAG by a home-made copper holder, we realized a pulse repetition rate of 2.4 MHz, which is, to our best knowledge, the maximum among the reported passively Q-switched lasers. The corresponding average output power and pulse width were 1.28 W and 170 ns, respectively, giving a slope efficiency of 15.9% and a pulse energy of 0.53 µJ. This compact high-repetition-rate Q-switched laser offers a potential application in the construction of low-cost, integrated and portable sensing detection equipment which needs a high laser pulse repetition rate.

  5. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  6. Passive Q-switching of Yb bulk lasers by a graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, P. A.; Serres, J. M.; Mateos, X.; Liu, J.; Zhang, H.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Yumashev, K. V.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-04-01

    Compact Yb:KLu(WO4)2 and Yb:LuVO4 lasers diode-pumped at 978 nm are passively Q-switched by a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser generated 165 ns/0.49 μJ pulses at 1030 nm with 170 mW average output power and 12 % slope efficiency. With the Yb:LuVO4 laser, 152 ns/0.83 μJ pulses were achieved. The output power reached 300 mW at 1024 nm, and the slope efficiency was 10 %. Laser operation in a plano-plano cavity is achieved with both crystals with thermal lensing playing a key role in their performance. A model describing graphene Q-switched Yb lasers is developed. Our results indicate the potential of graphene for passive Q-switching of ~1 μm bulk lasers.

  7. Multi-gigahertz repetition rate ultrafast waveguide lasers mode-locked with graphene saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztsov, P. A.; Okhrimchuk, A. G.; Rybin, M. G.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Garnov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of an approach to build compact waveguide lasers that operate in the stable fundamental mode-locking regime with multigigahertz repetition rates. The approach is based on the use of depressed cladding multi- or single-mode waveguides fabricated directly in the active laser crystal using the femtosecond laser inscription method and a graphene saturable absorber. Using this approach we achieve the stable self-starting mode-locking operation of a diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser that delivers picosecond pulses at a repetition rate of up to 11.5 GHz with an average power of 12 mW at a central wavelength of 1064 nm. The saturable absorbers are formed through the chemical vapor deposition of single-layer graphene on the output coupler mirror or directly on the end facet of the laser crystal. The stable self-starting mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with an intracavity interferometer. The method developed for the creation of compact ultrashort pulse laser generators with gigahertz repetition rates can be extended further and applied for the development of compact high-repetition rate lasers that operate at a wide range of IR wavelengths.

  8. Influence of carbon black and indium tin oxide absorber particles on laser transmission welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aden, Mirko; Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    For laser transmission welding of polypropylene carbon black and indium tin oxide (ITO) are used as absorber particles. Additionally, the colorant titanium dioxide is mixed to the absorbing part, while the transparent part is kept in natural state. The absorption coefficients of ITO and carbon black particles are obtained, as well as the scattering properties of polypropylene loaded with titanium dioxide (TiO2). At similar concentrations the absorption coefficient of ITO is an order of magnitude smaller than that of carbon black. Simulations of radiation propagation show that the penetration depth of laser light is smaller for carbon black. Therefore, the density of the released heat is higher. Adding TiO2 changes the distribution of heat in case of ITO, whereas for carbon black the effect is negligible. Thermal simulations reveal the influence of the two absorbers and TiO2 on the heat affected zone. The results of the thermal simulations are compared to tensile test results.

  9. Unprecedented laser action from energy transfer in multichromophoric BODIPY cassettes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Dakui; Qian, Xuhong; Costela, Angel; Garcia-Moreno, Inmaculada; Martin, Virginia; Perez-Ojeda, M Eugenia; Bañuelos, Jorge; Gartzia, Leire; Arbeloa, Iñigo López

    2011-11-01

    A cassette molecule, featuring direct integration of two donor BODIPY units to one acceptor BODIPY unit, was conveniently developed as the first highly "through-bond energy transfer" (TBET) laser dye. This multicolor absorbing dye exhibited highly efficient and photostable laser action under drastic pumping conditions. PMID:21935560

  10. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail. PMID:27225029

  11. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-05-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail.

  12. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail. PMID:27225029

  13. Numerical analysis of fast saturable absorber mode-locked Yb(3+) lasers under large modulation depth.

    PubMed

    Tokurakawa, Masaki; Shirakawa, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Numerical analysis of fast saturable absorber mode-locked Yb(3+)-doped solid state lasers is reported. The analysis includes a special case in which the spectral bandwidth of the short pulse is larger than the fluorescence bandwidth of the gain material. The relationship between the available shortest pulse duration and modulation depth for a standard bulk and thin disk laser geometries with several gain materials are shown. The characteristic phenomena observed in our previous Kerr-lens mode-locked laser experiments were reproduced in the simulation. PMID:26480142

  14. Optimal operating regime of saturable absorbers in mode-locked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Narovlyanskaya, N.M.; Tikhonov, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was made of ultrashort pulse generation by passive mode locking in a rhodamine 6G jet laser with pulsed laser pumping of up to 300 nsec duration. In order to obtain single ultrashort pulses per axial period in these systems, it was essential to reduce their time of formation to several loop passes. It was shown experimentally that the rate of formation of ultrashort pulses is influenced appreciably by the nonlinear absorber dye and, for a given intracavity intensity, the best dyes are those having a purely electronic transition near the lasing frequency. In this case, the critical bleaching intensity and relaxation time are minimized as a result of the increased role of stimulated resonance transitions in the dye modulator. Optimal types of polymethine dyes are suggested for nonlinear absorbers of tunable ultrashort-pulse rhodamine 6G lasers.

  15. Tunable spectral singularities: coherent perfect absorber and laser in an atomic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a scheme for a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) and a laser in an atomic medium with gain and loss, obeying simultaneously a spectral singularity and a time-reversed spectral singularity, both occurring at different wavevectors (or frequencies). We term this system a CPA-and-laser and investigate its features allowing to obtain asymmetric lasing and absorbing properties, switches, etc. We show that the CPA-and-laser can be obtained by modifying characteristics of a CPA-laser of an initial {\\boldsymbol{ Q }}{\\boldsymbol{ T }}-symmetric configuration, provided there are at least three tunable parameters. The physical mechanism of emergence of a CPA-and-laser in this way, is based on splitting of a self-dual spectral singularity of the {\\boldsymbol{ Q }}{\\boldsymbol{ T }}-symmetric CPA-laser into the spectral singularity and time-reversed spectral singularity. After the discussion of a particular example of a bilayer consisting of one active and one passive slabs, we suggest a realistic physical system for implementing a CPA-and-laser. It consists of two adjacent atomic cells filled with isotopes of Λ-type three-level rubidium atoms interacting with probe and control fields, allowing for the required number of tunable parameters.

  16. Improving solar radiation absorbance of high refractory sintered ceramics by fs Ti:sapphire laser surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, E.; Orlando, S.; Sciti, D.; Bellucci, A.; Lettino, A.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2014-05-01

    Samples of high refractory pressure-less sintered carbide ceramics (HfC based), polished by mechanical grinding to a surface roughness Ra ∼ 40 nm, have been surface treated, in vacuum, by fs Ti:sapphire laser, operating at 800 nm wavelength, 1000 Hz repetition rate and 100 fs pulse duration, at fluence varying in the range (∼6-25 J/cm2), to optimize their solar radiation absorbance, in such a way that they could operate as absorber material in an innovative conversion module of solar radiation into electrical energy. To this aim, an area of approximately 9.6 cm2 was treated by the fs laser beam. The beam strikes perpendicular to the sample, placed on a stage set in motion in the x, y, z-directions, thus generating a scanning pattern of parallel lines. The experimental conditions of laser treatment (energy fluence, speed of transition, overlapping and lateral step distance) were varied in order to optimize the radiation absorption properties of the patterned surface. In laser treated samples the absorption value is increased by about 15%, compared to the original untreated surface, up to a value of final absorbance of about 95%, all over the range of solar radiation spectrum (from UV to IR). The morphological and chemical effects of the treatment have been evaluated by SEM-EDS analysis. At very high fluence, we obtained the characteristic ablation craters and local material decomposition, while at lower fluence (in any case above the threshold) typical periodic nano-structures have been obtained, exploitable for their modified optical properties.

  17. 763 fs Passively mode-locked Yb:Y2SiO5 laser with a graphene oxide absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongtong; Cai, Wei; Wei, Jiafeng; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yonggang

    2015-05-01

    Based on a graphene oxide absorber mirror, the laser-diode pumped mode-locked Yb:Y2SiO5 (Yb:YSO) laser was demonstrated for the first time. The laser generated pulses with pulse duration as short as ~763 fs and average output power of 700 mW at the central wavelength of 1059 nm. The corresponding peak power and energy of a single pulse were ~8.6 kW and ~7.4 nJ, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the shortest bulk mode-locked laser based on graphene oxide.

  18. Quantum-dot saturable absorber and Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KGW laser with >450  kW of peak power.

    PubMed

    Akbari, R; Zhao, H; Fedorova, K A; Rafailov, E U; Major, A

    2016-08-15

    The hybrid action of quantum-dot saturable absorber and Kerr-lens mode locking in a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser was demonstrated. Using a quantum-dot saturable absorber with a 0.7% (0.5%) modulation depth, the mode-locked laser delivered 90 fs (93 fs) pulses with 3.2 W (2.9 W) of average power at the repetition rate of 77 MHz, corresponding to 462 kW (406 kW) of peak power and 41 nJ (38 nJ) of pulse energy. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest average and peak powers generated to date from quantum-dot saturable absorber-based mode-locked lasers. PMID:27519085

  19. Crash-Energy Absorbing Composite Structure and Method of Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris (Inventor); Carden, Huey D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A stand-alone, crash-energy absorbing structure and fabrication method are provided. A plurality of adjoining rigid cells are each constructed of resin-cured fiber reinforcement and are arranged in a geometric configuration. The geometric configuration of cells is integrated by means of continuous fibers wrapped thereabout in order to maintain the cells in the geometric configuration. The cured part results in a net shape, stable structure that can function on its own with no additional reinforcement and can withstand combined loading while crushing in a desired direction.

  20. Internal photomechanical fracture of spatially limited absorbers irradiated by short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltauf, Guenther; Schmidt-Kloiber, Heinz

    1998-05-01

    A photomechanical damage mechanism in abosrbing regions or particles surrounded by a non-abosrbing medium after irradiation with a short laser pulse is investigated experimentally and theoretically. In tissue, such absorbers are for example melanosomes, blood vessels or tatoo pigments. It follows from theoretical considerations that the photoacoustic wave caused by irradiation of a spatially limited volume contains both compressive and tensile stress. Experiments were performed to test whether these tensile stresses cause cavitation in absorbers of spherical or cylindrical shape. High-speed video images of liquid spheres or gelatin cylinders (diameters 200 to 300 micrometer) suspended in oil showed that cavitation occurs at the center of the spheres or on the cylinder axis, respectively, shortly after irradiation with a light pulse (6 ns duration) from an optical parametric oscillator. The cavitation effect was observed at maximum temperatures below and above the boiling point and at ratios of the absorber size on the absorption length larger and smaller than one. The experimental findings are supported by theoretical calculations, from which strong tensile stresses are predicted in the interior of the absorbers, even if the values of acoustic impedance inside and outside the absorbing volume are equal. The reported effect is believed to cause damage to absorbers if the pulse duration is short enough to provide stress confinement, that is if the time an acoustic wave needs to cross the abosrbing region is longer than the pulse duration. For small absorbers such as melanosomes with a size of about 1 micrometer this requires a laser pulse duration in the picosecond regime.

  1. Complex group velocity and energy transport in absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Gerasik, Vladimir; Stastna, Marek

    2010-05-01

    Complex group velocity is common in absorbing and active media, yet its precise physical meaning is unclear. While in the case of a nondissipative medium the group velocity of propagating waves Cg=dω/dk is exactly equal to the observable energy velocity (defined as the ratio between the energy flux and the total energy density) Cg=F/E , in a dissipative medium Cg=dω/dk is in general a complex quantity which cannot be associated with the velocity of energy transport. Nevertheless, we find that the complex group velocity may contain information about the energy transport as well as the energy dissipated in the medium. The presented analysis is intended to expound the connection between the complex group velocity and energy transport characteristics for a class of hyperbolic dissipative dynamical systems. Dissipation mechanisms considered herein include viscous and viscoelastic types of damping. Both cases of spatial and temporal decay are discussed. The presented approach stems from the Lagrangian formulation and is illustrated with identities that relate the complex group velocity and energy transport characteristics for the damped Klein-Gordon equation; Maxwell's equations, governing electromagnetic waves in partially conducting media; and Biot's theory, governing acoustic wave propagation in porous solids. PMID:20866345

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of a laser-diode-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4/KTP red laser with V:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Xin; Du, Guolong; Yin, Lei

    2011-09-10

    A laser-diode-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4/KTP red laser with V:YAG saturable absorber is realized in a V-type resonator. The dependences of the pulse repetition rate, pulse width, single-pulse energy, and peak power on the incident pump power are measured and contrasted. By assuming the intracavity photon density and the initial population-inversion density to be Gaussian spatial distributions, the space-dependent rate equations of this laser are given. The numerical solutions of the rate equations are consistent with the experimental results. In order to optimize the described system, the variations of the pulse width, peak power, single-pulse energy, and laser efficiency with the initial transmission of the saturable absorber and the ratio of the laser beam radius to the pump beam radius are also calculated, respectively. PMID:21946991

  3. New Co-containing glass ceramics saturable absorbers for 1.5-μm solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyarevich, Alexander M.; Denisov, Igor A.; Yumashev, Konstantin V.; Chuvaeva, Tamara I.; Dymshits, Olga S.; Onushchenko, Alexei A.; Zhilin, Alexander A.

    2001-03-01

    New saturable absorber Q-switch for 1.54 %mum Er: glass laser is present. The saturable absorber is transparent glass ceramic containing magnesium-aluminum spinel nanocrystallites doped with tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions. Q-switched pulses of up to 5.5 mJ in energy and 80 ns in duration at 1.54 micrometers were achieved. Relaxation time of the 4A2 to 4T1(4F) transition bleaching was measured to be (450+/- 150)ns. Ground-state absorption cross-sections at 1.54 micrometers wavelength were estimated to be (3.2+/- 0.4)*10-19 cm2 and (5.0+/- 0.6)X10-20 cm2, respectively. Results of study absorption and luminescence spectra of different glass ceramics on the base of magnesium-aluminum, zinc-aluminum, lithium-aluminum spinel nanocrystallites doped with tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions are also analyzed.

  4. Energy-absorbing-beam design for composite aircraft subfloors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Kellas, Sotiris

    1993-01-01

    Data have been presented from the design support testing of composite energy absorbing (EA) aircraft subfloor structures. The focus of the current study is the design and testing of subfloor structural concepts that would limit the loads transmitted to occupants to less than 20 g at crush speeds of approximately 30 fps. The EA composite subfloor is being designed to replace an existing noncrashworthy metallic subfloor in a composite aircraft prior to a full-scale crash test. A sandwich spar construction of a sine wave beam was chosen for evaluation and was found to have excellent energy absorbing characteristics. The design objective of obtaining sustained crushing loads of the spar between 200-300 lbf/inch were achieved for potentially limiting occupants loads to around 20 g's. Stroke efficiency of up to 79 percent of the initial spar height under desired sustained crushing loads was obtained which is far greater than the level provided by metal structure. Additionally, a substantial residual spar stiffness was retained after impact, and the flange integrity, which is critical for seat retention, was maintained after crushing of the spars.

  5. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  6. High-power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO(4) laser using SWCNT saturable absorber fabricated by dip coating method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun Yin; Chai, Yang; Long, Hui; Tao, Lili; Zeng, Long Hui; Tsang, Yuen Hong; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xuechun

    2015-02-23

    Passive mode locked laser is typically achieved by the Semiconductor Saturable absorber Mirror, SESAM, saturable absorber, which is produced by expensive and complicated metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. Carbon based single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), saturable absorber, is a promising material which is capable to produce stable passive mode-locking in the high power laser cavity over a wide operational wavelength range. This study has successfully demonstrated the high power mode locking laser system operating at 1 micron by using SWCNT based absorbers fabricated by dip coating method. The proposed fabrication method is practical, simple and cost effective for fabricating SWCNT saturable absorber. The demonstrated high power Nd:YVO(4) mode-locked laser operating at 1064nm have maximum output power up to 2.7W,with the 167MHz repetition rate and 3.1 ps pulse duration, respectively. The calculated output pulse energy and peak power are 16.1nJ and 5.2kW, respectively. PMID:25836523

  7. Lidar remote sensing of laser-induced incandescence on light absorbing particles in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Miffre, Alain; Anselmo, Christophe; Geffroy, Sylvain; Fréjafon, Emeric; Rairoux, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Carbon aerosol is now recognized as a major uncertainty on climate change and public health, and specific instruments are required to address the time and space evolution of this aerosol, which efficiently absorbs light. In this paper, we report an experiment, based on coupling lidar remote sensing with Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII), which allows, in agreement with Planck's law, to retrieve the vertical profile of very low thermal radiation emitted by light-absorbing particles in an urban atmosphere over several hundred meters altitude. Accordingly, we set the LII-lidar formalism and equation and addressed the main features of LII-lidar in the atmosphere by numerically simulating the LII-lidar signal. We believe atmospheric LII-lidar to be a promising tool for radiative transfer, especially when combined with elastic backscattering lidar, as it may then allow a remote partitioning between strong/less light absorbing carbon aerosols. PMID:25836102

  8. Laser measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. [airborne oil spill monitoring application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Kincaid, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He-Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

  9. High power L-band mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yichang; Semaan, Georges; Salhi, Mohamed; Niang, Alioune; Guesmi, Khmaies; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Sanchez, Francois

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a passive mode-locked Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (Bi(2)Se(3)) saturable absorber (TISA). By optimizing the cavity loss and output coupling ratio, the mode-locked fiber laser can operate in L-band with high average output power. With the highest pump power of 5 W, 91st harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches with average output power of 308 mW was obtained. This is the first report that the TISA based erbium-doped fiber laser operating above 1.6 μm and is also the highest output power yet reported in TISA based passive mode-locked fiber laser. PMID:26368409

  10. 980-nm Q-switched photonic crystal fiber laser by MoS2 saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pingxue; Liang, Boxing; Su, Meng; Zhang, Yuefei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mengmeng; Ma, Chunmei; Su, Ning

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a 980-nm Q-switch Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser by a multilayer molybdenum sulfide polymer composite as the broadband saturable absorber which is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition method. We achieve passively Q-switching operations at 978 nm with the pulse width of 2.7 and 0.63 μs, corresponding to the repetition rate of 212 and 221 kHz, respectively. The maximum output power is 127 mW. It is the first time that MoS2 Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser at 980 nm is demonstrated. The experimental results show that few-layer MoS2 is a promising broadband saturable absorber material.

  11. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser: quantification for a narowband absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Brobst, W.D.; Allen J.E. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    Although it is recognized as a very sensitive detection technique, the general application of intracavity absorption to areas such as chemical kinetics and photochemistry has been somewhat limited. Concerns are frequently expressed about the nonlinear nature, experimental difficulty, and reliability of the technique. To allay some of these objections, the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors such as transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power has been investigated experimentally for a cw dye laser with a narrowband absorber (NO/sub 2/). For this case a Beer-Lambert type relationship has been confirmed over a useful range of these parameters. The extent of intracavity absorption was quantitatively measured directly from the dye laser spectral profiles and, when compared to extracavity measurements, indicated enhancements as high as 12,000 for pump powers near lasing threshold. By defining an intracavity absorption coefficient, it was possible to demonstrate the reliability of the method by obtaining accurate transition strength ratios.

  12. Optical trap for both transparent and absorbing particles in air using a single shaped laser beam.

    PubMed

    Redding, Brandon; Pan, Yong-Le

    2015-06-15

    Optical trapping of airborne particles is emerging as an essential tool in applications ranging from online characterization of living cells and aerosols to particle transport and delivery. However, existing optical trapping techniques using a single laser beam can trap only transparent particles (via the radiative pressure force) or absorbing particles (via the photophoretic force), but not particles of either type-limiting the utility of trapping-enabled aerosol characterization techniques. Here, we present the first optical trapping technique capable of trapping both transparent and absorbing particles with arbitrary morphology using a single shaped laser beam. Such a general-purpose optical trapping mechanism could enable new applications such as trapping-enabled aerosol characterization with high specificity. PMID:26076265

  13. Laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics using dynamic beam superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; van der Straeten, Kira; Engelmann, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    So far, the main approach to weld absorber-free thermoplastics is exploiting their intrinsic absorption by choosing a proper wavelength of the laser. In order to melt the joining partners spatially restricted at the interface usually optics with a high numerical aperture are used. However, practice shows that the heat affected zone (HAZ) extends over a large area along the beam axis regardless of the optics used. Without clamping or convective cooling thermally induced expansion of the material can cause blowholes or deformation of the irradiated surface. To reduce the thermal stress on the part surface a dynamic beam superposition is investigated with the laser beam performing a precession movement.

  14. Laser nanostructured Co nanocylinders-Al2O3 cermets for enhanced & flexible solar selective absorbers applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoro, A.; Nuru, Z. Y.; Kotsedi, L.; Bouziane, Kh.; Mothudi, B. M.; Maaza, M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of laser surface structured Co nanocylinders-Al2O3 cermets on flexible Aluminium substrate for enhanced solar selective absorbers applications. This new family of solar selective absorbers coating consisting of Co nanocylinders embedded into nanoporous alumina template which were produced by standard electrodeposition and thereafter submitted to femtosecond laser surface structuring. While their structural and chemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and atomic force microscopy, their optical characteristics were investigated by specular & diffuse reflectance. The optimized samples exhibit an elevated optical absorptance α(λ) above 98% and an emittance ɛ(λ) ∼0.03 in the spectral range of 200-1100 nm. This set of values was suggested to be related to several surface and volume phenomena such as light trapping, plasmon surface effect as well as angular dependence of light reflection induced by the ultrafast laser multi-scale structuring.

  15. Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr{sup 4+}:YAG saturable absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Shimony, Y.; Burshtein, Z.; Ben-Amar Baranga, A.; Kalisky, Y.; Strauss, M.

    1996-02-01

    Repetitive Q-switching of a CW pumped Nd:YAG laser using a Cr{sup 4+}:YAG saturable absorber was achieved for the first time, providing pulses 80--300 ns wide (FWHM) with repetition rates ranging between 2 and 29 kHz. Different ranges of repetition rates and pulse widths are obtained by using absorbers of different optical densities. Satisfactory quantitative description of the experimental results is obtained by a full numerical solution of the system rate equations according to the theory of Powell and Wolga. These equations involve the dynamics of the laser population inversion, the absorber state population, and the photon density in the laser cavity.

  16. Instabilities and chaos in an infrared laser with saturable absorber: experiments and vibrorotational model

    SciTech Connect

    de Tomasi, F.; Hennequin, D.; Zambon, B.; Arimondo, E.

    1989-01-01

    The instabilities and chaos in a CO/sub 2/ laser containing SF/sub 6/ and /sup 15/NH/sub 3/ absorbers have been studied as a function of the laser-control parameters. By making use of a phase-portrait analysis, the instabilities have been classified through their orbits in the phase space around the laser-with-saturable-absorber (LSA) fixed points. A chaotic regime, reached through a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations, has been observed for an instability of limit cycles around one fixed point. The transition between different instability operations presents an intermediate regime, which we have defined as the hesitation regime and have characterized through the fluctuations in the return times. The observed phenomena have been reproduced within a model, including the rotational--vibrational structure of the amplifier and absorber media. The numerical analysis has shown that the LSA time evolution, as described through homoclinic orbits in the LSA phase space, depends on the relative attractions of the saddle point and the saddle focus fixed points.

  17. Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuekun; Mou, Chengbo; Xu, Luxi; Wang, Shaofei; Pu, Shengli; Zeng, Xianglong

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) operation using a saturable absorber (SA) based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FONPs). As a type of transition metal oxide, the FONPs have a large nonlinear optical response and fast response time. The FONP-based SA possesses a modulation depth of 8.2% and nonsaturable absorption of 56.6%. Stable passively Q-switched EDFL pulses with an output pulse energy of 23.76 nJ, a repetition rate of 33.3 kHz, and a pulse width of 3.2 µs were achieved when the input pump power was 110 mW. The laser features a low threshold pump power of ∼15 mW.

  18. Experimental and theoretical study of passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser with GaAs saturable absorber near 1050 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Yuefei; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Xu, Xiaodong; Di, Juqing; Zheng, Lihe; Xu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    A diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser with gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer as saturable absorber has been realized. In the experiment, two pieces of GaAs wafers with respective thicknesses of 400 and 700 μm were used respectively. The output laser characteristics such as the pulse duration, single pulse energy and peak power, have been measured. By using thicker GaAs wafer as saturable absorber, a minimum pulse duration of 3.5 ns was obtained with an average output power of 361 mW and a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of 25 kHz, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 19.6 μJ and a peak power of 5.7 kW. With a 400 μm-thick GaAs wafer as saturable absorber, a maximum output power of 469 mW was achieved. The central wavelength of the laser was measured to be 1050.4 nm at pump power of 7.8 W and dual wavelength operation peaked at 1049.3 nm and 1051.6 nm was observed at a high pump power of 10 W. By considering Gaussian spatial distribution and the thermal effects in the gain medium, the coupled rate equations for passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser with GaAs saturable absorber were given.

  19. Laser measurement of the spectral extinction coefficients of fluorescent, highly absorbing liquids. [crude petroleum oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual method is developed to deduce rapidly the spectral extinction coefficient of fluorescent, highly absorbing liquids, such as crude or refined petroleum oils. The technique offers the advantage of only requiring one laser wavelength and a single experimental assembly and execution for any specific fluorescent liquid. The liquid is inserted into an extremely thin wedge-shaped cavity for stimulation by a laser from one side and flurescence measurement on the other side by a monochromator system. For each arbitrarily selected extinction wavelength, the wedge is driven slowly to increasing thicknesses until the fluorescence extinguishes. The fluorescence as a function of wedge thickness permits a determination of the extinction coefficient using an included theoretical model. When the monochromator is set to the laser emission wavelength, the extinction coefficient is determined using the usual on-wavelength signal extinction procedure.

  20. Laser Writing Block Copolymer Self-Assembly on Graphene Light-Absorbing Layer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ju Young; Son, Seung-Woo; Kim, Bong Hoon; Lee, Hwan Keon; Mun, Jeong Ho; Cha, Seung Keun; Kim, Jun Soo; Nealey, Paul F; Lee, Keon Jae; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-03-22

    Recent advance of high-power laser processing allows for rapid, continuous, area-selective material fabrication, typically represented by laser crystallization of silicon or oxides for display applications. Two-dimensional materials such as graphene exhibit remarkable physical properties and are under intensive development for the manufacture of flexible devices. Here we demonstrate an area-selective ultrafast nanofabrication method using low intensity infrared or visible laser irradiation to direct the self-assembly of block copolymer films into highly ordered manufacturing-relevant architectures at the scale below 12 nm. The fundamental principles underlying this light-induced nanofabrication mechanism include the self-assembly of block copolymers to proceed across the disorder-order transition under large thermal gradients, and the use of chemically modified graphene films as a flexible and conformal light-absorbing layers for transparent, nonplanar, and mechanically flexible surfaces. PMID:26871736

  1. Fundamental-frequency-absorbed oxyfluoride glass in a high-power laser.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chaoqi; Li, Weinan; Wang, Pengfei; Lu, Min; Peng, Bo; Guo, Haitao; Gao, Fei; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-04-01

    A high-power third-harmonic laser faces challenges in the filtering remnant unconverted fundamental frequency, which is from the frequency converting crystal. In this work, a novel fundamental-frequency-absorbed oxyfluoride glass has been prepared, which provides a possible option to solve the problem. By being doped with Fe2+ ion, the glass shows strong absorption property at 1053 nm, and the glass's transmittances at 351 and 1053 nm are stable with changing the laser power or increasing the irradiation times under high-power laser irradiation. Meanwhile, the laser-induced damage threshold of the glass is 12.5  J/cm2 at 351 nm, which is two times higher than that of fused silica whose threshold is 6.2  J/cm2 in the same testing condition. The glass also exhibits a higher laser-induced damage threshold as well as 36.6  J/cm2 at its absorption wavelength of 1053 nm. The results indicate that this glass is promising as a color-separation optic, thus allowing a novel design for the final optics assembly in an inertial confinement fusion laser system. PMID:27139668

  2. Absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer of fungi (Trichoderma conidia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Smausz, T.; Antal, Zs.; Kresz, N.; Bor, Zs.; Chrisey, D.

    2004-09-01

    We present an investigation on absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer (AFA-LIFT) of fungus (Trichoderma) conidia. A KrF excimer laser beam [λ =248nm,FWHM=30ns (FWHM, full width at half maximum)] was directed through a quartz plate and focused onto its silver coated surface where conidia of the Trichoderma strain were uniformly spread. The laser fluence was varied in the range of 0-2600mJ/cm2 and each laser pulse transferred a pixel of target material. The average irradiated area was 8×10-2mm2. After the transfer procedure, the yeast extract medium covered glass slide and the transferred conidia patterns were incubated for 20 h and then observed using an optical microscope. The transferred conidia pixels were germinated and the areas of the culture medium surfaces covered by the pixels were evaluated as a function of laser fluence. As the laser fluence was increased from 0 to 355mJ/cm2 the transferred and germinated pixel area increased from 0 to 0.25mm2. Further increase in fluence resulted in a drastic decrease down to an approximately constant value of 0.06mm2. The yield of successful transfer by AFA-LIFT and germination was as much as 75% at 355mJ/cm2. The results prove that AFA-LIFT can successfully be applied for the controlled transfer of biological objects.

  3. Can silicon carbide serve as a saturable absorber for passive mode-locked fiber lasers?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ting-Hui; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Leeb, Chao-Kuei; Wua, Chih-I; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a novel demonstration of a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) that is based on a silicon carbide (SixC1-x) saturable absorber. When the C/Si composition ratio is increased to 1.83, the SixC1-x film transforms from two-photon absorption to nonlinear saturable absorption, and the corresponding value reaches -3.9 × 10(-6) cm/W. The Si-rich SixC1-x film cannot mode lock the EDFL because it induced high intracavity loss through two-photon absorption. Even when a stoichiometric SiC is used, the EDFL is mode locked, similar to an EDFL operating under weak nonlinear-polarization-rotation condition. A C-rich SixC1-x film containing sp(2)-orbital C-C bonds with a linear absorbance of 0.172 and nonlinear absorbance of 0.04 at a 181 MW/cm(2) saturation intensity demonstrates nonlinear transmittance. The C-rich SixC1-x saturable absorber successfully generates a short mode-locked EDFL pulse of 470 fs. The fluctuation of the pulse-train envelope dropps considerably from 11.6% to 0.8% when a strong saturable-absorption-induced self-amplitude modulation process occurs in the C-rich SixC1-x film. PMID:26558531

  4. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-González, C.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Ocaña, J. L.; Molpeceres, C.; Banderas, A.; Porro, J.; Morales, M.

    2006-07-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm 2 with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy.

  5. Passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing-Hui, Liu; Jin-Rong, Tian; He-Yang, Guoyu; Run-Qin, Xu; Ke-Xuan, Li; Yan-Rong, Song; Xin-Ping, Zhang; Liang-Bi, Su; Jun, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a passively Q-switched Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide (WS2) saturable absorber operating at 1034 nm and 1056 nm simultaneously. The saturable absorbers were fabricated by spin coating method. With low speed, the WS2 nanoplatelets embedded in polyvinyl alcohol could be coated on a BK7 glass substrate coated with high-refractive-index thin polymer. The shortest pulse width of 1.6 μs with a repetition rate of 76.9 kHz is obtained. As the pump power increases to 9 W, the maximum output power is measured to be 250 mW, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 3.25 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain dual-wavelength Q-switched solid-state laser using few-layer WS2 nanoplatelets. Project supported by the National Scientific Research Project of China (Grant No. 61177047), Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1102005), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing University of Technology, China (Grant No. X3006111201501).

  6. Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at 1331 nm by CVD graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yongjie; Yang, Han; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    We report on a nanosecond pulse generation in a diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at the low-gain transition line of 1331 nm. A three-layer CVD graphene thin film was transferred from Cu foil to a BK7 glass substrate for the use of saturable absorber. A stable Q-switching laser operation was obtained with maximum average output power of 0.69 W and slope efficiency of about 11.0% with respect to the absorbed pump power. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum repetition rate of the pulse trains were registered to be 556 ns and 166.7 kHz with corresponding maximum pulse energy 4.14 μJ and pulse peak power 7.45 W. This is the first demonstration of CVD-graphene-based Q-switched laser operation at 1.3 μm, to the best of our knowledge.

  7. Absorbing TiOx thin film enabling laser welding of polyurethane membranes and polyamide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amberg, Martin; Haag, Alexander; Storchenegger, Raphael; Rupper, Patrick; Lehmeier, Frederike; Rossi, René M.; Hegemann, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    We report on the optical properties of thin titanium suboxide (TiOx) films for applications in laser transmission welding of polymers. Non-absorbing fibers were coated with TiOx coatings by reactive magnetron sputtering. Plasma process parameters influencing the chemical composition and morphology of the deposited thin films were investigated in order to optimize their absorption properties. Optical absorption spectroscopy showed that the oxygen content of the TiOx coatings is the main parameter influencing the optical absorbance. Overtreatment (high power plasma input) of the fiber surface leads to high surface roughness and loss of mechanical stability of the fiber. The study shows that thin substoichiometric TiOx films enable the welding of very thin polyurethane membranes and polyamide fibers with improved adhesion properties.

  8. Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of Yb-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kexuan; Tian, Jinrong; Song, Yanrong; Liu, Jinghui; Guoyu, Heyang; Xu, Runqin; Wang, Meng; Fang, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a Q-switched mode-locked (QML) and a continuous-wave mode-locked (CWML) ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber (SA) in all normal dispersion regime. The Bi2Se3-SA is conventionally composited by embedding Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets into polyvinyl alcohol thin film, which provides a modulation depth of 7.6% and a saturation intensity of 38.9 MW/cm2. Based on this SA, with different cavity length, ytterbium-doped fiber laser can be operated at QML and CWML state, respectively. In the QML operation, a Q-switched envelope has the shortest pulse width of 1.12 μs and the tunable repetition rate from 96 to 175 kHz. The largest pulse envelope energy is 39.6 nJ, corresponding to average output power of 6.93 mW. In the CWML operation, an environmentally stable dissipative soliton laser pulse with pulse duration of ˜210 ps is obtained. The single pulse energy is 0.83 nJ with the repetition rate of 11.38 MHz at the wavelength of 1037 nm.

  9. Evaluation of a commercially available passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF:F-2 saturable absorber for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Cantwell; Goueguel, Christian; Sanghapi, Herve; Jinesh, Jain; McIntyre, Dustin

    2015-12-11

    Interest in passively Q-switched microchip lasers as a means for miniaturization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) apparatus has rapidly grown in the last years. To explore the possibility of using a comparatively UV–vis transparent absorber, we herein present the first report on the evaluation of a commercially available flash lamp-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF: saturable absorber as an excitation source in LIBS. Quantitative measurements of barium, strontium, rubidium and lithium in granite, rhyolite, basalt and syenite whole-rock glass samples were performed. Using a gated intensified benchtop spectrometer, limits of detection of 0.97, 23, 37, and 144 ppm were obtained for Li, Sr, Rb, and Ba, respectively. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using such a laser unit for LIBS applications in terms of ablation efficiency, analytical performances, output energy, and standoff capabilities.

  10. Semiconductor laser having a non-absorbing passive region with beam guiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botez, Dan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A laser comprises a semiconductor body having a pair of end faces and including an active region comprising adjacent active and guide layers which is spaced a distance from the end face and a passive region comprising adjacent non-absorbing guide and mode control layers which extends between the active region and the end face. The combination of the guide and mode control layers provides a weak positive index waveguide in the lateral direction thereby providing lateral mode control in the passive region between the active region and the end face.

  11. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing

    2014-03-01

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4-20 kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ˜20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  12. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20 kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ∼20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  13. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.

  14. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J.

    1989-01-01

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism.

  15. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Swahlan, D.J.

    1989-04-18

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism. 6 figs.

  16. Space inhomogeneity and detuning effects in a laser with a saturable absorber: a first-order approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, P.; Velarde, M.G.

    1988-05-01

    To a first approximation the effects of detuning and/or space inhomogeneity on the stability domain of a model for a laser with a saturable absorber are presented. It appears that the space dependence increases the domain of the emissionless state, thus delaying the laser action.

  17. Phase transition in photo-absorbing single microemulsion droplets during the laser photophoretic migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanaka, Makiko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2005-08-01

    Laser-photophretic behavior of the micrometer-sized single droplets of photo-absorbing microemulsion was observed in water by irradiating a cw Ar+ ion laser. We have made an unexpected observation that the droplets repeated the expansion and the sudden contraction motion during the laser photophoretic migration. The period of the expansion-contraction cycle was decreased as the irradiated laser power was increased and was independent of the initial size of the droplet. The origin of the cyclical motion is the temperature rise of the droplet due to the photo-thermal conversion. The three-step mechanism for the periodic motion of the droplet was proposed. The first step is the phase separation of the bicontinuous microemulsion droplet into the normal w/o microemulsion outer phase and the aqueous inner phase in the droplet, which was caused by the laser-induced temperature gradient inside the droplet. In the second step, an expansion of the inner aqueous phase was induced by the percolation of the external water by thermo-osmosis, which was caused by the laser-induced temperature gradient between inside and outside of the microemulsion liquid membrane of the droplet. In the third step, the liquid membrane became thinner to a critical thickness which induced its break and the droplet shrank into the original shape. The proposed mechanism for the expansion process was confirmed by the numerical simulation of the volume change of the droplet during the laser irradiation, taking account of the heat evolution in the droplet, the heat transfer from the droplet, and the percolation of the external water by thermo-osmosis and by the high-speed CCD imaging of the contraction motion of the droplet.

  18. Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhai; Ozygus, Bernd; Yang, Suhui; Erhard, Jürgen; Seelig, Ute; Ding, Adalbert; Weber, Horst; Meng, Xianlin; Zhu, Li; Qin, Lianjie; Du, Chenlin; Xu, Xinguang; Shao, Zongshu

    2003-04-01

    A diode-pumped highly efficient Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser formed by a plano-concave resonator has been demonstrated. At the highest attainable absorbed pump power of 11.4 W, 4.05 W of average output power, which was two thirds of the maximum corresponding cw output, was achieved with an optical conversion efficiency of 35.5%, and the slope efficiency was determined to be 46.8%, reaching 85% of the magnitude of its cw counterpart. The resulting shortest pulse duration, single-pulse energy, and peak power were found to be 13 ns, 90 μJ, and 7 kW, respectively, with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 45 kHz. Two particularly modified resonator configurations were employed; the largest pulse energy and the highest peak power reached were, respectively, 154 μJ and 11.2 kW at 8.5 W of absorbed pump power. An analytical relation between the PRF and the absorbed pump power is given for a passively Q-switched laser, showing good consistency with experiment with a Nd:GdVO4 laser. The dependence of the operational parameters on the pump power and on the output coupling was also investigated experimentally. Issues involving the criterion for passive Q switching are discussed in some detail for Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched neodymium-doped vanadate lasers.

  19. Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xu-De; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Hao; Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2014-10-20

    We reported on the femtosecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using microfiber-based gold nanorods (GNRs) as saturable absorber (SA). By virtue of the geometric characteristic of microfiber-based GNRs, the optical damage threshold of GNRs-SA could be greatly enhanced. The microfiber-based GNRs-SA shows a modulation depth of 4.9% and a nonsaturable loss of 21.1%. With the proposed GNRs-SA, the fiber laser emitted a mode-locked pulse train with duration of ∼887 fs. The obtained results demonstrated that the GNRs deposited microfiber could indeed serve as a high-performance SA towards the practical applications in the field of ultrafast photonics.

  20. Sound-absorbing slabs and structures based on granular materials (bound and unbound). [energy absorbing efficiency of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre-Lazar, S.; Popeea, G.

    1974-01-01

    Sound absorbing slabs and structures made up of bound or unbound granular materials are considered and how to manufacture these elements at the building site. The raw material is a single grain powder (sand, expanded blast furnace slag, etc.) that imparts to the end products an apparent porosity of 25-45% and an energy dissipation within the structure leading to absorption coefficients that can be compared with those of mineral wool and urethane.

  1. Mode-locking of solid-state lasers by single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Rotermund, F; Cho, W B; Choi, S Y; Baek, I H; Yim, J H; Lee, S; Schmidt, A; Steinmeyer, G; Griebner, U; Yeom, D I; Kim, K; Petrov, V

    2012-08-31

    Universal use of single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorber devices for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers between 0.8 and 2 {mu}m is discussed. The advantages in comparison to semiconductor saturable absorbers are emphasised. We briefly describe the manufacturing process and the essential optical properties, and review experimental results obtained with various types of femtosecond and picosecond solid-state lasers in the steady-state regime. We also demonstrate that a single hybrid saturable absorber used in transmission can be used to mode-lock four different types of lasers operating between 1 and 2 {mu}m. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Control of laser absorbing efficiency and proton quality by a specific double target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Qu, J. F.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.

    2016-08-01

    The micro-structured double-layer target is an efficient method to improve proton quality. However, the laser absorption efficiency is low due to strong reflection at the front surface of such targets. Moreover, the proton charge is limited by the driving laser radius. To overcome these shortcomings, a specific double-layer (SDL) target with a vacuum gap in the center of the heavy ion layer is proposed in this paper. In this specified target, the laser reflection effect is significantly weakened and the absorption and penetration efficiencies are greatly enhanced. The high-energy electrons from Breakout afterburner regime efficiently transfer their energy to the protons. Both the energy of the spectral peaks and maximum proton energy are greatly increased. The periodic structure of the longitudinal electric field makes the force applied on the protons becomes homogeneous in time average and therefore reduce the energy spread. In these SDL targets, the proton layer radius and the accelerated proton charge are not limited by the laser radius. With a larger-radius proton layer, the protons can be accelerated to high energy with small energy spread. When the proton layer radius is reduced to the laser radius, the SDL target is still an effective structure to improve the proton quality. The mechanism is proved by a series of particle-in-cell simulations.

  3. Absolute and relative refractory periods in a micropillar laser with saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmi, F.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Barbay, S.

    2014-05-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor micropillar lasers with intracavity saturable absorber in the excitable regime. The excitable regime is characterized by an all-or-none type of response to an input perturbation: when the perturbation amplitude is below the excitable threshold, the system remains in its quiet, stable state; when the perturbation exceeds the excitable threshold, a calibrated response pulse is emitted. It is believed to have great potential for fast neuromorphic optical processing, in addition to being also interesting for the study of nonlinear wave propagation. Fast excitable, neuron-like, dynamics is experimentally evidenced with response times in the 200ps range. We also show the presence of an absolute and a relative refractory periods in this system, analog to what is found in biological neurons but with several orders of magnitude faster response times. The absolute refractory period is the amount of time after a first excitable pulse has been emitted during which it is not possible to excite the system anymore. The relative refractory period is the time after a first excitable pulse during which an inhibited response is emitted and has been often overlooked in optical systems. Both these times are of fundamental importance regarding the propagation of stable excitable waves, and in view of designing spike-time based optical signal processing systems. The experimental results are well described qualitatively by a simple model of a laser with saturable absorber.

  4. Moving body velocity arresting line. [stainless steel cables with energy absorbing sleeves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, R. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The arresting of a moving body is improved through the use of steel cables that elongate to absorb the kinetic energy of the body. A sleeve surrounds the cables, protecting them from chafing and providing a failsafe energy absorbing system should the cables fail.

  5. Features of the extreme events observed in an all-solid-state laser with a saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonazzola, Carlos R.; Hnilo, Alejandro A.; Kovalsky, Marcelo G.; Tredicce, Jorge R.

    2015-11-01

    Extreme events in the form of pulses of extraordinary intensity (sometimes also called optical rogue waves) are easily observed in the chaotic regime of an all-solid-state laser with a saturable absorber if the Fresnel number of the cavity is high. This result suggests that the nonlinear interaction among transverse modes is an essential ingredient in the formation of extreme events in this type of laser, but there is no theoretical description of the phenomenon yet. We report here a set of experimental results on the regularities of these extreme events in order to provide a basis for the development of such a description. Among these results, we point out here (i) the decay of the correlation across the transversal section of the laser beam, and (ii) the appearance of extreme events even if the time elapsed since the previous pulse is relatively short (in terms of the average interpulse time interval), which indicates the existence of some unknown mechanism of energy storage. We hypothesize that this mechanism is related to the imperfect depletion of the gain by some of the transversal modes. We also present evidence in support of this hypothesis.

  6. WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Li, Xing; Chen, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, especially the transition metal sulfide semiconductors, have drawn great interests due to their potential applications in viable photonic and optoelectronic devices. In this work, 2D tungsten disulfide (WS2) based saturable absorber (SA) for ultrafast photonic applications was demonstrated. WS2 nanosheets were prepared using liquid-phase exfoliation method and embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film for the practical usage. Saturable absorption was discovered in the WS2-PVA SA at the telecommunication wavelength near 1550 nm. By incorporating WS2-PVA SA into a fiber laser cavity, both stable mode locking operation and Q-switching operation were achieved. In the mode locking operation, the laser obtained femtosecond output pulse width and high spectral purity in the radio frequency spectrum. In the Q-switching operation, the laser had tunable repetition rate and output pulse energy of a few tens of nano joule. Our findings suggest that few-layer WS2 nanosheets embedded in PVA thin film are promising nonlinear optical materials for ultrafast photonic applications as a mode locker or Q-switcher. PMID:25969240

  7. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  8. Reprint of : Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  9. Characterization of cobalt doped ZnSe and ZnS crystals as saturable absorbers for alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Robert A.; Kernal, John; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Mirov, Sergey B.

    2006-02-01

    Cobalt doped ZnSe and ZnS crystals have been studied to determine their effectiveness for passive Q-switching for 700-800nm spectral range (Alexandrite laser). Samples were prepared using Bridgeman technique for single-step growth of Co doped crystals as well as after growth thermal diffusion of Co in undoped crystals. ZnS:Co:Cr crystals, which have been produced using the Bridgeman technique, show maximum initial absorption coefficients of 17 cm -1 at 725nm. Experimental results are reported on effective thermal diffusion of Co 2+ in ZnSe and ZnS polycrystals and thermal diffusion constants of cobalt ions in ZnSe and ZnS are estimated. The nonlinear saturation properties of cobalt doped ZnSe and ZnS crystals have been investigated experimentally. The induced transparency measurements were performed using electro-optically Q-switched, alexandrite laser radiation at 731, 741, and 778 nm with a pulse duration of about 70 ns. The induced transmission measurements were analyzed using a four-level absorber model and the absorption cross sections have been estimated at both 731nm and 741nm to be 9.5 × 10 -18 cm2 and 8.2 × 10 -18 cm2, respectively. Absorption cross sections calculated from saturation measurements at 4A II--> 4T I(4P) transition are in agreement with results earlier reported for mid-infrared spectral region 4A II--> 4T II of Co 2+ ions. The described Co-doped crystals are very promising as passive Q-switches for alexandrite laser resonators. Co 2+ centers feature high cross section of saturation and their absorption bands are nicely matched to the spectral emission of the tunable alexandrite laser. An efficient ZnS:Co:Cr passive Q-switching of the alexandrite laser cavity was realized with output energy of 15 mJ and 50 ns pulse duration.

  10. Generation of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Harith; Aidit, Siti Nabila; Hassan, Nor Ahya; Ismail, Mohd Faizal; Tiu, Zian Cheak

    2016-07-01

    Mode-locked generation of erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with MoSe2 thin film as saturable absorber is practically demonstrated. Bulk MoSe2 is exfoliated into few-layer MoSe2, which is achieved based on the liquid phase exfoliation technique. The few-layer MoSe2 is mixed with polyvinyl alcohol to become a thin film. Mode-locked occurs between pump powers of 65 and 218 mW. The mode-locked is operated at fundamental frequency of 8.8 MHz, and the spectrum is centered at 1560 nm. The SNR of mode-locked EDFL is more than 50 dB. At pump power of 218 mW, 91.3 pJ of pulse energy is achieved.

  11. Can silicon carbide serve as a saturable absorber for passive mode-locked fiber lasers?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ting-Hui; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Leeb, Chao-Kuei; Wua, Chih-I; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a novel demonstration of a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) that is based on a silicon carbide (SixC1−x) saturable absorber. When the C/Si composition ratio is increased to 1.83, the SixC1−x film transforms from two-photon absorption to nonlinear saturable absorption, and the corresponding value reaches −3.9 × 10−6 cm/W. The Si-rich SixC1−x film cannot mode lock the EDFL because it induced high intracavity loss through two-photon absorption. Even when a stoichiometric SiC is used, the EDFL is mode locked, similar to an EDFL operating under weak nonlinear-polarization-rotation condition. A C-rich SixC1−x film containing sp2-orbital C–C bonds with a linear absorbance of 0.172 and nonlinear absorbance of 0.04 at a 181 MW/cm2 saturation intensity demonstrates nonlinear transmittance. The C-rich SixC1−x saturable absorber successfully generates a short mode-locked EDFL pulse of 470 fs. The fluctuation of the pulse-train envelope dropps considerably from 11.6% to 0.8% when a strong saturable-absorption-induced self-amplitude modulation process occurs in the C-rich SixC1−x film. PMID:26558531

  12. Diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 946 nm passively Q-switched with a Cr 4+:YAG saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Huanian; Chen, Xiaohan; Wang, Qingpu

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with emission at 946 nm that is passively Q-switched by single-crystal Cr 4+:YAG saturable absorber. An average output power of 1.7 W is measured under 18.4 W of incident power using an output mirror with transmission T=4%. The corresponding optical-to-optical efficiency is 9.2%. The laser runs at a pulse repetition rate of 120 kHz and delivers pulses with energy of 14 μJ and duration of 80 ns, which corresponds to a peak power of 175 W.

  13. High power dissipative soliton in an Erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked with a high modulation depth saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Cabasse, A; Martel, G; Oudar, J L

    2009-06-01

    We report on a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser, using a high nonlinear modulation depth saturable absorber mirror, in a Fabry-Perot cavity. A segment of dispersion compensation fiber is added inside the cavity in order to build a high-positive dispersion regime. The setup produced highly chirped pulses with an energy of 1.8 nJ at a repetition rate of 33.5 MHz. Numerical simulations accurately reflect our experimental results and show that pulse-shaping in this laser could be interpreted as producing 'dissipative solitons'. PMID:19506601

  14. Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Chujun; Yuan, Peng; Wen, Shuangchun; Qian, Liejia

    2015-09-21

    Black phosphorus, a newly emerged two-dimensional material, has attracted wide attention as novel photonic material. Here, multilayer black phosphorus is successfully fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation method. By employing black phosphorus as saturable absorber, we demonstrate a passively Q-switched Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at the wavelength of 2.8 μm. The modulation depth and saturation fluence of the black phosphorus saturable absorber are measured to be 15% and 9 μJ/cm(2), respectively. The Q-switched fiber laser delivers a maximum average power of 485 mW with corresponding pulse energy of 7.7 μJ and pulse width of 1.18 μs at repetition rate of 63 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate that black phosphorus can realize Q-switching of 2.8-μm fiber laser. Our research results show that black phosphorus is a promising saturable absorber for mid-infrared pulsed lasers. PMID:26406672

  15. Performance of chemical vapor deposition fabricated graphene absorber mirror in Yb3+ : Sc2SiO5 mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yaqi; Zhu, Hongtong; Jiang, Shouzhen; Xu, Shicai; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun

    2014-12-01

    A reflective graphene saturable absorber mirror (SAM) was successfully fabricated by chemical vapor deposition technology. A stable diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb3+:Sc2SiO5 laser using a graphene SAM as a saturable absorber was accomplished for the first time. The measured average output power amounts to 351 mW under the absorbed pump power of 12.5 W. Without prisms compensating for dispersion, the minimum pulse duration of 7 ps with a repetition rate of 97 MHz has been obtained at the central wavelength of 1063 nm. The corresponding peak power and the maximum pulse energy were 516 W and 3.6 nJ, respectively.

  16. Compact, high energy gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stapleton, Robert E.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1976-08-03

    An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

  17. Mode-locked ytterbium fiber lasers using a large modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber without an additional spectral filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y. Z.; Miao, J. G.; Liu, W. J.; Huang, X. J.; Wang, Y. B.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a higher modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber (CNT-SA) based on an evanescent field interaction scheme. The laser cavity consists of pure normal dispersion fibers without dispersion compensation and an additional spectral filter. It is exhibited that the higher modulation depth CNT-SA could contribute to stabilize the mode-locking operation within a limited range of pump power and generate the highly chirped pulses with a high-energy level in the cavity with large normal dispersion and strong nonlinearity. Stable mode-locked pulses with a maximal energy of 29 nJ with a 5.59 MHz repetition rate at the operating wavelength around 1085 nm have been obtained. The maximal time-bandwidth product is 262.4. The temporal and spectral characteristics of pulses versus pump power are demonstrated. The experimental results suggest that the CNT-SA provides a sufficient nonlinear loss to compensate high nonlinearity and catch up the gain at a different pump power and thus leads to the stable mode locking.

  18. Passively Q-switched 1617-nm polycrystalline ceramic Er:YAG laser using a Cr:ZnSe saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqi; Shen, Deyuan; Huang, Haitao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-08-01

    We report on a passively Q-switched polycrystalline ceramic Er:YAG laser by using a Cr:ZnSe crystal as a saturable absorber. When pumped by a 1532-nm Er-, Yb-doped fiber laser with the maximum power of 12.4 W, the laser yielded pulses of 28.8 ns duration at 1617 nm by using a saturable absorber with an initial transmission of 80 %. The corresponding peak power was up to 11.3 kW at a repetition rate of 2.17 kHz. The dependence of the pulse duration and repetition rate on the pump power was experimentally studied. The numerical and experimental results both show that the pulse duration was mainly determined by the initial transmission of the saturable absorber and slightly affected by the transmission of the output coupler. At last, we give some prospects for further narrowing down the pulse duration.

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd,Y:SrF2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Cai, Wei; Liu, Jie; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Ma, Fengkai; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    A reflective single-walled carbon nanotube as saturable absorber has been firstly adopted to a passively mode-locked Nd,Y:SrF2 crystal. Without any dispersion compensation, the stably mode-locked laser delivers pulses with pulse width as short as 1.7 ps, repetition rate of 107.8 MHz and center wavelength of 1056 nm. The oscillator produces maximum average output power of 319 mW corresponding with a high slope efficiency of 20.2%. The single pulse energy and the peak power are 2.96 nJ and 1.74 kW, respectively. The experimental results show that single-walled carbon nanotube is an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locked lasers.

  20. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  1. Impact resistance of fiber composites: Energy absorbing mechanisms and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    Energy absorbing mechanisms were identified by several approaches. The energy absorbing mechanisms considered are those in unidirectional composite beams subjected to impact. The approaches used include: mechanic models, statistical models, transient finite element analysis, and simple beam theory. Predicted results are correlated with experimental data from Charpy impact tests. The environmental effects on impact resistance are evaluated. Working definitions for energy absorbing and energy releasing mechanisms are proposed and a dynamic fracture progression is outlined. Possible generalizations to angle-plied laminates are described.

  2. Impact resistance of fiber composites - Energy-absorbing mechanisms and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Energy absorbing mechanisms were identified by several approaches. The energy absorbing mechanisms considered are those in unidirectional composite beams subjected to impact. The approaches used include: mechanic models, statistical models, transient finite element analysis, and simple beam theory. Predicted results are correlated with experimental data from Charpy impact tests. The environmental effects on impact resistance are evaluated. Working definitions for energy absorbing and energy releasing mechanisms are proposed and a dynamic fracture progression is outlined. Possible generalizations to angle-plied laminates are described.

  3. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  4. Investigation of the laser pumping power impact on the operating regimes of a laser passively Q-switched by a saturated absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benarab, Mustapha; Mokdad, Rabah; Djellout, Hocine; Benfdila, Arezki; Lamrous, Omar; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    We have adapted the point model for the study of an all-fiber laser doped with Nd3+ and Q-switched by a saturable fiber absorber doped with Cr4+. Calculations of the output power of the 1084 nm laser are considered as a function of the pump power supplied by a 790 nm laser diode. The analysis of the simulation results reveals the existence of pulsed, sinusoidal, and dc operating regimes.

  5. Enhancement of the stability of a synchronously excited cw dye laser by insertion of a nonlinear absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Gafurov, K.G.; Krindach, D.P.; Nekhaenko, V.A.; Yakovlev, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    An experimental investigation was made of combined mode locking of a cw laser utilizing a mixture of rhodamine 6G (amplifier) and malachite green (absorber). The action of a saturable absorber shortened the output pulses to 700 fsec, widened the range of existence of the short pulses, and appreciably increased the lasing stability compared with synchronous excitation of pure rhodamine 6G. These characteristics of the radiation of a laser with combined mode locking were associated with the saturation dynamics of the gain and the absorption.

  6. A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peiguang; Lin, Rongyong; Ruan, Shuangchen; Liu, Aijiang; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Yuequn; Chen, Sifan; Guo, Chunyu; Hu, Juguang

    2015-03-01

    A novel saturable absorber (SA) was fabricated by coating the topological insulator (TI) film on microfiber using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The TISA device had an insertion loss of ~1.25 dB, a saturable intensity of 26.7 MW/cm2, a modulation depth of ~5.7%, and a nonsaturable loss of 20.5%. Upon employing this SA device, we established a passively mode-locked EDFL and achieved nearly free-chirped soliton pulse with 286 fs of pulse duration and >73 dB of signal to noise ratio (SNR). This result clearly evidences that the PLD is an effective scheme for practical SA device fabrication.

  7. A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Peiguang; Lin, Rongyong; Ruan, Shuangchen; Liu, Aijiang; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Yuequn; Chen, Sifan; Guo, Chunyu; Hu, Juguang

    2015-01-01

    A novel saturable absorber (SA) was fabricated by coating the topological insulator (TI) film on microfiber using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The TISA device had an insertion loss of ~1.25 dB, a saturable intensity of 26.7 MW/cm2, a modulation depth of ~5.7%, and a nonsaturable loss of 20.5%. Upon employing this SA device, we established a passively mode-locked EDFL and achieved nearly free-chirped soliton pulse with 286 fs of pulse duration and >73 dB of signal to noise ratio (SNR). This result clearly evidences that the PLD is an effective scheme for practical SA device fabrication. PMID:25732598

  8. A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peiguang; Lin, Rongyong; Ruan, Shuangchen; Liu, Aijiang; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Yuequn; Chen, Sifan; Guo, Chunyu; Hu, Juguang

    2015-01-01

    A novel saturable absorber (SA) was fabricated by coating the topological insulator (TI) film on microfiber using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The TISA device had an insertion loss of ~1.25 dB, a saturable intensity of 26.7 MW/cm(2), a modulation depth of ~5.7%, and a nonsaturable loss of 20.5%. Upon employing this SA device, we established a passively mode-locked EDFL and achieved nearly free-chirped soliton pulse with 286 fs of pulse duration and >73 dB of signal to noise ratio (SNR). This result clearly evidences that the PLD is an effective scheme for practical SA device fabrication. PMID:25732598

  9. Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS2 nanosheets saturable absorber

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Peiguang; Liu, Aijiang; Chen, Yushan; Wang, JinZhang; Ruan, Shuangchen; Chen, Hao; Ding, Jinfei

    2015-01-01

    A cell-type saturable absorber has been demonstrated by filling the single mode photonic crystal fiber (SMPCF) with tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets. The modulation depth, saturable intensity, and non-saturable loss of this SA are measured to be 3.53%, 159 MW/cm2 and 23.2%, respectively. Based on this SA, a passively mode-locked EDF laser has been achieved with pulse duration of 808 fs and repetition rate of 19.57 MHz, and signal-noise-ratio (SNR) of 60.5 dB. Our results demonstrate that the cell-type WS2 nanosheets SA can serve as a good candidate for short-pulse mode locker. PMID:26213180

  10. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to

  11. MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xiangling; Qiao, Tian; Hu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zhi; He, Xin; Yu, Yongze; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Strong saturable absorption was observed in MoS2 nanoflowers, which were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. A MoS2 nanoflower-based saturable absorber with a high modulation depth of 51.8% and a large saturable intensity of 275.5 GW cm-2 was introduced to the application of passively Q-switched fiber laser generation. Stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulses at 1.56 μm with a low threshold power of 16.10 mW, high signal-to-noise ratio of 52.5 dB and short pulse duration of 1.9 μs were obtained. More importantly, a high output power of 3.10 mW related to a large pulse energy of about 51.84 nJ can be attained at a very low pump power. The efficiency of the laser reaches 4.71%, which is larger than that of the prepared layered MoS2 and recently reported MoS2-based passively Q-switching operations. Such results imply that the MoS2 nanoflowers are an excellent candidate for a saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber lasers at a low pump intensity.Strong saturable absorption was observed in MoS2 nanoflowers, which were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. A MoS2 nanoflower-based saturable absorber with a high modulation depth of 51.8% and a large saturable intensity of 275.5 GW cm-2 was introduced to the application of passively Q-switched fiber laser generation. Stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulses at 1.56 μm with a low threshold power of 16.10 mW, high signal-to-noise ratio of 52.5 dB and short pulse duration of 1.9 μs were obtained. More importantly, a high output power of 3.10 mW related to a large pulse energy of about 51.84 nJ can be attained at a very low pump power. The efficiency of the laser reaches 4.71%, which is larger than that of the prepared layered MoS2 and recently reported MoS2-based passively Q-switching operations. Such results imply that the MoS2 nanoflowers are an excellent candidate for a saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber lasers at a low pump intensity. Electronic supplementary

  12. Concentration measurements of complex mixtures of broadband absorbers by widely tunable optical parametric oscillator laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruxton, K.; Macleod, N. A.; Weidmann, D.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Maker, G. T.

    2012-11-01

    The ability to obtain accurate vapour parameter information from a compound's absorption spectrum is an essential data processing application in order to quantify the presence of an absorber. Concentration measurements can be required for a variety of applications including environmental monitoring, pipeline leak detection, surface contamination and breath analysis. This work demonstrates sensitive concentration measurements of complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using broadly tunable mid wave infrared (MWIR) laser spectroscopy. Due to the high absorption cross-sections, the MWIR spectral region is ideal to carry out sensitive concentration measurements of VOCs by tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) methods. Absorption spectra of mixtures of VOCs were recorded using a MWIR optical parametric oscillator (OPO), with a tuning range covering 2.5 μm to 3.7 μm. The output of the MWIR OPO was coupled to a multi-pass astigmatic Herriott gas cell, maintained at atmospheric pressure that can provide up to 210 m of absorption path length, with the transmission output from the cell being monitored by a detector. The resulting spectra were processed by a concentration retrieval algorithm derived from the optimum estimation method, taking into account both multiple broadband absorbers and interfering molecules that exhibit narrow multi-line absorption features. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the concentration measurements and assess the capability of the spectral processor, experiments were conducted on calibrated VOCs vapour mixtures flowing through the spectroscopic cell with concentrations ranging from parts per billion (ppb) to parts per million (ppm). This work represents as a first step in an effort to develop and apply a similar concentration fitting algorithm to hyperspectral images in order to provide concentration maps of the spatial distribution of multi-species vapours. The reported functionality of the novel fitting algorithm

  13. Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-lei; Xu, Jin-long; Wu, Yong-zhong; He, Jing-liang; Hao, Xiao-peng

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrated that the graphene could be used as an effective saturable absorber for Q-switched solid-state lasers. A graphene saturable absorber mirror was fabricated with large and high-quality graphene sheets deprived from the liquid phase exfoliation. Using this mirror, 105-ns pulses and 2.3-W average output power are obtained from a passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO(4) laser. The maximum pulse energy is 3.2 μJ. The slope efficiency is as high as 37% approximating to 40% of the continue-wave laser, indicating a low intrinsic loss of the graphene. PMID:21643251

  14. 400 µJ 79 ns amplified pulses from a Q-switched fiber laser using an Yb(3+)-doped fiber saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean W; Soh, Daniel B S; Bisson, Scott E; Patterson, Brian D; Hsu, Wen L

    2012-10-01

    We report a passively Q-switched all-fiber laser using a large mode area (LMA) Yb(3+)-doped fiber cladding-pumped at 915 nm and an unpumped single-mode Yb(3+)-doped fiber as the saturable absorber (SA). The saturable absorber fiber and gain fiber were coupled with a free-space telescope to optimize the coupling efficiency between the disparate fibers, preferentially bleaching the SA fiber before gain depletion in the pumped fiber. Using this scheme we first demonstrate a Q-switched oscillator with 40 μJ 79 ns pulses at 1026 nm, and show that pulses can be generated from 1020 nm to 1040 nm. The associated peak power of the oscillator alone is more than two orders of magnitude larger than that reported in previous experimental studies using an Yb(3+)-doped fiber as a saturable absorber. We further demonstrate an amplified pulse energy of 0.4 mJ using an Yb(3+)-doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier. Experimental studies in which the saturable absorber length, pump times, and wavelengths are independently varied reveal the impact of these parameters on laser performance. PMID:23188343

  15. Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, F. A. A.; Azzuhri, Saaidal R.; Salim, M. A. M.; Shaharuddin, R. A.; Ismail, M. A.; Ismail, M. F.; Razak, M. Z. A.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-08-01

    Using a few-layer black phosphorus (BP) thin film that acts as a saturable absorber (SA) in an ytterbium-doped fiber laser setup, we experimentally demonstrated a passively dual-wavelength Q-switching laser operation. The setup also incorporated a D-shaped polished fiber as a wavelength selective filter. As the SA was used in the ring cavity, a dual-wavelength Q-switch produced consistent outputs at 1038.68 and 1042.05 nm. A maximum pulse energy of 2.09 nJ with a shortest pulse width of 1.16 µs was measured for the achieved pulses. In addition, the repetition rate increased from 52.52 to 58.73 kHz with the increment of the pump level. Throughout the measurement process, the results were obtained consistently and this demonstrates that the BP film is a very good candidate to produce Q-switching pulses for the 1 micron region.

  16. LD-end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser with single wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y.; Bo, Y.; Zong, N.; Wang, Y. G.; Jiang, B. X.; Pan, Y. B.; Niu, G.; Fan, Z. W.; Peng, Q. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    We report on a LD-end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser by using a novel single wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). The SWCNT wafer was fabricated by electric Arc discharge method on quartz substrate with absorption wavelength of 1064 nm. We firstly investigated the continuous wave (CW) laser performance and scattering properties of Nd:YAG ceramic sample. For the case of passively Q-switched operation, a maximum output power of 376 mW was obtained at an incident pump power of 8.68 W at 808 nm, corresponding to an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 4.3%. The repetition rate as the increase of pump power varied from 14 to 95 kHz. The minimum pulse duration of 1.2 μs and maximum pulse energy of 4.5 μJ was generated at a repetition rate of 31.8 kHz.

  17. 1.12-W Q-switched Yb:KGW laser based on transmission-type Bi2Se3 saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Hui; Tian, Jin-Rong; Hu, Meng-Ting; Xu, Run-Qin; Dou, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Zhen-Hua; Song, Yan-Rong

    2015-02-01

    We present a passively Q-switched Yb:KGW laser based on a transmission-type saturable absorber of topological insulator: Bi2Se3. The saturable absorber is prepared on a 0.17-mm glass substrate and can translate intra-cavity for best performance nearly without influence on the laser mode. At a maximum pump power of 13.7 W, the central wavelength, pulse duration, repetition rate, and pulse energy of Q-switched pulse are 1043 nm, 1.5 μs, 175.4 kHz, 6.39 μJ, respectively. The maximum output power is 1.12 W. To our knowledge, this is the highest average output power from passively Q-switched lasers with topological insulator saturable absorbers. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922404), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61177047), and the Beijing Municipal Education Commission Project, China (Grant No. KM201010005007).

  18. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  19. Thermo electronic laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermo electronic laser energy converter (TELEC) is described and compared to the Waymouth converter and the conventional thermionic converter. The electrical output characteristics and efficiency of TELEC operation are calculated for a variety of design variables. Calculations and results are briefly outlined. It is shown that the TELEC concept can potentially convert 25 to 50 percent of incident laser radiation into electric power at high power densities and high waste heat rejection temperatures.

  20. Development of 2 underseat energy absorbers for application to crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrick, J. C.; Desjardins, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a program conducted to develop two underseat energy absorber (E/A) concepts for application to nonadjustable crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft. One concept utilizes an inflated air bag, and the other, a convoluted sheet metal bellows. Prototypes of both were designed, built, and tested. Both concepts demonstrated the necessary features of an energy absorber (load-limiter); however, the air bag concept is particularly encouraging because of its light weight. Several seat frame concepts also were investigated as a means of resisting longitudinal and lateral loads and of guiding the primary vertical stroke of the underseat energy absorber. Further development of a seat system design using the underseat energy absorbers is recommended because they provide greatly enhanced crash survivability as compared with existing general aviation aircraft seats.

  1. Self-starting passively mode-locked tunable femtosecond Cr 4+:YAG laser using a saturable absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayduk, M. J.; Johns, S. T.; Krol, M. F.; Pollock, C. R.; Leavitt, R. P.

    1997-02-01

    We have demonstrated self-starting, passive mode-locking of a Cr 4+:YAG laser using a saturable absorber mirror structure. Highly stable femtosecond pulses tunable from 1488 to 1535 nm were generated with average output powers ranging from 40 to 80 mW. Nearly transform limited pulses of 120 fs duration were obtained at 1488 nm.

  2. Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, S.; Inoue, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Murakami, Y.; Yaguchi, H.; Jablonski, M.; Set, S. Y.

    2004-07-01

    We present novel carbon-nanotube-based saturable absorbers. Using the low-temperature alcohol catalytic chemical-vapor deposition method, high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were directly synthesized on quartz substrates and fiber ends. We successfully applied the SWNTs to mode lock a fiber laser producing subpicosecond pulses at a 50-MHz repetition rate.

  3. Second NASA Conference on Laser Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The possible transmission of high power laser beams over long distances and their conversion to thrust, electricity, or other useful forms of energy is considered. Specific topics discussed include: laser induced chemistry; developments in photovoltaics, including modification of the Schottky barrier devices and generation of high voltage emf'sby laser radiation of piezoelectric ceramics; the thermo electronic laser energy converter and the laser plasmadynamics converters; harmonic conversion of infrared laser radiation in molecular gases; and photon engines.

  4. Room-temperature high-energy Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe laser

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrishchuk, E M; Rodin, S A; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Firsov, K N

    2014-06-30

    The characteristics of a room-temperature laser based on a polycrystalline Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe sample pumped by a non-chain HF laser are studied. The laser energy is E=175 mJ at the efficiencies with respect to the incident and absorbed pump energy η{sub p} ≈ 22% and h{sub abs} ≈ 29%, respectively. (letters)

  5. Thermal damage suppression of a black phosphorus saturable absorber for high-power operation of pulsed fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghyun; Park, Kichul; Debnath, Pulak C; Kim, Inho; Song, Yong-Won

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of black phosphorus (BP) have shown its future potential in the field of photonics. We determined the optical damage threshold of BP at 21.8 dBm in a fiber ring laser cavity, and demonstrated the high-power operation capacity of an evanescent field interaction-based BP saturable absorber. The long-term stability of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a saturable absorber operating at the optical power of 23.3 dBm was verified for 168 h without any significant performance degradation. The center wavelength, spectral width, and pulse width of the laser output are 1558.8 nm, 14.2 nm, and 805 fs, respectively. PMID:27479185

  6. Thermal damage suppression of a black phosphorus saturable absorber for high-power operation of pulsed fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghyun; Park, Kichul; Debnath, Pulak C.; Kim, Inho; Song, Yong-Won

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of black phosphorus (BP) have shown its future potential in the field of photonics. We determined the optical damage threshold of BP at 21.8 dBm in a fiber ring laser cavity, and demonstrated the high-power operation capacity of an evanescent field interaction-based BP saturable absorber. The long-term stability of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a saturable absorber operating at the optical power of 23.3 dBm was verified for 168 h without any significant performance degradation. The center wavelength, spectral width, and pulse width of the laser output are 1558.8 nm, 14.2 nm, and 805 fs, respectively.

  7. Modeling low energy laser ignition of explosive and pyrotechnic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, M.W.; Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laser diode ignition (LDI) of explosives and pyrotechnics is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories as a replacement for low energy hotwire devices. This technology offers significant improvements in device safety due to the insensitivity to electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The LDI system incorporates a laser diode source, a fiber optic cable to transmit the laser energy, and the energetic component. The laser energy is volumetrically absorbed by the explosive component causing its temperature to rise to its auto-ignition temperature. Substantial experimental work characterizing the optical ignition mechanism has been undertaken in support of the LDI development work. This work has primarily been focused on the explosive component, CP, 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato) pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate, doped with a small amount of carbon black to enhance the laser energy absorptance at the 850 nm wavelength of the laser diode. To support the experimental efforts, numerical modeling of the thermal response of CP to a low energy laser input has been undertaken.

  8. Modeling low energy laser ignition of explosive and pyrotechnic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, M.W.; Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.

    1992-07-01

    Laser diode ignition (LDI) of explosives and pyrotechnics is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories as a replacement for low energy hotwire devices. This technology offers significant improvements in device safety due to the insensitivity to electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The LDI system incorporates a laser diode source, a fiber optic cable to transmit the laser energy, and the energetic component. The laser energy is volumetrically absorbed by the explosive component causing its temperature to rise to its auto-ignition temperature. Substantial experimental work characterizing the optical ignition mechanism has been undertaken in support of the LDI development work. This work has primarily been focused on the explosive component, CP, 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato) pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate, doped with a small amount of carbon black to enhance the laser energy absorptance at the 850 nm wavelength of the laser diode. To support the experimental efforts, numerical modeling of the thermal response of CP to a low energy laser input has been undertaken.

  9. MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xiangling; Qiao, Tian; Hu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zhi; He, Xin; Yu, Yongze; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-14

    Strong saturable absorption was observed in MoS2 nanoflowers, which were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. A MoS2 nanoflower-based saturable absorber with a high modulation depth of 51.8% and a large saturable intensity of 275.5 GW cm(-2) was introduced to the application of passively Q-switched fiber laser generation. Stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulses at 1.56 μm with a low threshold power of 16.10 mW, high signal-to-noise ratio of 52.5 dB and short pulse duration of 1.9 μs were obtained. More importantly, a high output power of 3.10 mW related to a large pulse energy of about 51.84 nJ can be attained at a very low pump power. The efficiency of the laser reaches 4.71%, which is larger than that of the prepared layered MoS2 and recently reported MoS2-based passively Q-switching operations. Such results imply that the MoS2 nanoflowers are an excellent candidate for a saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber lasers at a low pump intensity. PMID:26997036

  10. Harnessing snap-through instability for shape-recoverable energy-absorbing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung; Shan, Sicong; Raney, Jordan; Wang, Pai; Candido, Francisco; Lewis, Jennifer; Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Energy absorbing materials and structures are used in numerous areas for maintaining structural integrity, protection and comfort. To absorb/dissipate energy from shock/vibration, one generally relies on processes such as plastic deformation and damping as the case of metal foams and suspensions. Because plastic deformation and damping induce irreversible change in the energy-absorbing systems such as shape changes and degradation of damping elements by heat dissipation, it would be desirable to develop a new energy-absorption mechanism with reversibility. Furthermore, it would be desirable to implement energy-absorption mechanisms whose behavior is not affected by the rate of loading. Here, we report a shape-recoverable system that absorbs energy without degradation by harnessing multistability in elastic structures. Using numerical simulations, we investigate geometrical parameters that determine the onset of the snap-through and multi-stability. We subsequently manufacture structures with different geometrical parameters and sizes using a scalable direct-write 3D printing approach. We experimentally demonstrate reversible energy-absorption in these structures at strain rates over three orders of magnitudes, with reduced peak acceleration under impact by up to one order of magnitude compared with control samples. Our findings can open new opportunities for scalable design and manufacturing of energy-absorbing materials and structures.

  11. Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Meng; Guo, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Yu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-27

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP), as the most alluring graphene analogue owing to its similar structure as graphene and thickness dependent direct band-gap, has now triggered a new wave of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials based photonics and optoelectronics. However, a major obstacle of practical applications for few-layer BPs comes from their instabilities of laser-induced optical damage. Herein, we demonstrate that, few-layer BPs, which was fabricated through the liquid exfoliation approach, can be developed as a new and practical saturable absorber (SA) by depositing few-layer BPs with microfiber. The saturable absorption property of few-layer BPs had been verified through an open-aperture z-scan measurement at the telecommunication band. The microfiber-based BP device had been found to show a saturable average power of ~4.5 mW and a modulation depth of 10.9%, which is further confirmed through a balanced twin detection measurement. By integrating this optical SA device into an erbium-doped fiber laser, it was found that it can deliver the mode-locked pulse with duration down to 940 fs with central wavelength tunable from 1532 nm to 1570 nm. The prevention of BP from oxidation through the "lateral interaction scheme" owing to this microfiber-based few-layer BP SA device might partially mitigate the optical damage problem of BP. Our results not only demonstrate that black phosphorus might be another promising SA material for ultrafast photonics, but also provide a practical solution to solve the optical damage problem of black phosphorus by assembling with waveguide structures such as microfiber. PMID:26367661

  12. Stowable Energy-Absorbing Rocker-Bogie Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses the design of the rocker-bogie suspensions of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. Going beyond the basic requirements regarding mobility on uneven terrain, the design had to satisfy requirements (1) to enable each suspension to contort so that the rover could be stowed within limited space in a tetrahedral lander prior to deployment and (2) that the suspension be able to absorb appreciable impact loads, with limited deflection, during egress from the lander and traversal of terrain. For stowability, six joints (three on the right, three on the left) were added to the basic rocker-bogie mechanism. One of the joints on each side was a yoke-and-clevis joint at the suspension/differential interface, one was a motorized twist joint in the forward portion of the rocker, and one was a linear joint created by modifying a fixed-length bogie member into a telescoping member. For absorption of impact, the structural members were in the form of box beams made by electron-beam welding of machined, thin-walled, C-channel, titanium components. The box beams were very lightweight and could withstand high bending and torsional loads.

  13. Q-switching of a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser by a graphene-based saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serres, J. M.; Loiko, P.; Mateos, X.; Jambunathan, V.; Yumashev, K.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-02-01

    The first Ho microchip laser passively Q-switched using a graphene-based saturable absorber is demonstrated based on a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystal cut along the N g-axis. A maximum average output power of 74 mW is extracted from the diode-pumped laser at 2061 nm with a slope efficiency of 4%. Pulses as short as 200 ns with an energy of ~0.2 μJ are obtained at a repetition rate of 340 kHz. The energy transfer (ET), 3F4 (Tm3+) ↔ 5I7 (Ho3+) is studied, yielding ET parameters of P 28  =  1.69 and P 71  =  0.15  ×  10-22 cm3 μs-1, revealing the strong prevalence of direct ET.

  14. Laser ablation of absorbing liquids under transparent cover: acoustical and optical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhin, A. A.; Il'ichev, N. N.; Pivovarov, P. A.; Sidorin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Phase transition induced with infrared (λ = 2920 nm and λ = 2940 nm) nanosecond laser pulses in strongly absorbing liquids (water, ethanol) under transparent solid cover is investigated with the help of acoustical and optical monitoring. LiNbO3 transducer is used for registration of pressure pulses generated in irradiated liquids. Optical signals due to scattering and specular reflection of probing optical beams are explored with the schemes involving total internal reflection and interference effects. Combination of these two optical diagnostic methods permits for the first time to show that irradiation of covered liquids leads to vapor cavity formation which is divided from the cover with thin (submicron) liquid film despite the fact that radiation intensity maximum is located just at the liquid-plate boundary. The cavity formation is due to explosive boiling which occurs when the superheated liquid reaches its superheating limit in near critical region. After the first acoustical signal, the second signal is observed with several hundreds microseconds time delay which is caused by the vapor cavity collapse. Some results of optical and acoustical diagnostics in the case of free liquid surface are also presented.

  15. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 green laser with a periodically poled KTP and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Dechun

    2006-03-10

    A diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 green laser with a periodically poled KTP and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber is realized. The dependences of pulse repetition rate, pulse energy, pulse width, and peak power on incident pump power are measured for the generated green-light pulses. A rate-equation model is introduced to theoretically analyze the results obtained in the experiment, in which the spatial distribution of the intracavity photon density is taken into account. The numerical solutions of the rate equations agree with the experimental results. PMID:16572700

  16. Radiant energy absorption studies for laser propulsion. [gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Wu, P. K. S.; Pirri, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the energy absorption mechanisms and fluid dynamic considerations for efficient conversion of high power laser radiation into a high velocity flow is presented. The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the most effective absorption mechanisms for converting laser radiation into translational energy, and (2) to examine the requirements for transfer of the absorbed energy into a steady flow which is stable to disturbances in the absorption zone. A review of inverse Bremsstrahlung, molecular and particulate absorption mechanisms is considered and the steady flow and stability considerations for conversion of the laser power to a high velocity flow in a nozzle configuration is calculated. A quasi-one-dimensional flow through a nozzle was formulated under the assumptions of perfect gas.

  17. Solar energy absorption by vertical cylindrical-tube absorbers in sunspace enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, M.E.; Van Migom, M.

    1983-11-01

    Absorption of radiant solar energy in a building sunspace with a south-facing window and a row of opaque vertical cylindrical-tube solar absorbers is considered. A two-dimensional model is formulated for a horizontal, planar enclosure in which a typical cylindrical absorber tube is subdivided into a number of uniform surface elements and the window and sunspace surfaces are each represented as single elements. Matrix expressions are derived for the radiosity, irradiance, and absorbed solar energy at each surface, considering the transmission of beam and diffuse radiant energy by the window and assuming that all interior surfaces reflect diffusely. The matrix expressions are evaluated for incident solar flux conditions for a south vertical surface on a clear winter day and the results are presented as dimensionless ratios of absorbed-to-incident solar flux as a function of the tube spacing ratio L/R. Hourly values of the spatial distribution of absorbed solar flux are presented for the cylindrical-tube. Space and time averaged values of absorbed solar flux are also presented for the cylinder, the window and the room. The potential application of these results for thermal modeling in passive solar applications is discussed.

  18. Energy loss by resonance line photons in an absorbing medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Kunasz, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mean path length of photons undergoing repeated scatterings in media of large optical thickness is calculated from accurate numerical solutions of the transfer equation including the effect of frequency redistribution characteristic of combined Doppler and natural broadening. Energy loss by continuous absorption processes, such as ionization or dust absorption, is discussed, and asymptotic scaling laws for the energy loss, the mean path length, and the mean number of scatterings are inferred from the numerical data.

  19. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  20. MCNP simulation of absorbed energy and dose by iodinated contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenjun; Mah, Eugene; Huda, Walter; Yao, Hai

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the absorbed dose and energy by iodinated contrast medium in diagnostic radiology. A simulation geometry in which an inner sphere (d = 0.2cm, 1cm, 5cm) filled with iodinated contrast medium (or water) is located at the center of a 20cm diameter water sphere was used in simulations performed with MCNP5 codes. Monoenergetic x-rays with energies ranging from 40 to 80keV from a cone beam source were utilized and contrast medium concentration ranged from 100 to 1mg/ml. Absorbed dose ratio (RD) to inner sphere and total absorbed energies ratio (RE) to the whole phantom with and without iodinated contrast medium were investigated. The maximum RD was ~13 for the 0.2cm diameter sphere with 100mg/ml contrast medium. The maximum RE was ~1.05 for the 5cm diameter contrast sphere at 80keV with 100mg/ml contrast medium. Under the same incident photon energy, increasing the inner sphere size from 0.2cm to 5cm caused a ~63% increase in the RD on average. Decreasing the contrast medium concentration from 100 to 10 mg/ml caused a decrease of RD of ~ 76%. A conclusion was reached that although local absorbed dose increase caused by iodinated contrast agent could be high; the increase in total absorbed energy is negligible.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.

    2016-02-01

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements.

  2. Development of a carbonaceous selective absorber for solar thermal energy collection and process for its formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, John D.

    1989-02-01

    The main goal of the US Department of Energy supported part of this project is to develop information about controlling the complicated chemical processes involved in the formation of a carbonaceous selective absorber and learn what equipment will allow production of this absorber commercially. The work necessary to accomplish this goal is not yet complete. Formation of the carbonaceous selective absorber in the conveyor oven tried so far has been unsatisfactory, because the proper conditions for applying the carbonaceous coating in each conveyor oven fabricated, either have been difficult to obtain, or have been difficult to maintain over an extended period of time. A new conveyor oven is nearing completion which is expected to allow formation of the carbonaceous selective absorber on absorber tubes in a continuous operation over many days without the necessity of cleaning the conveyor oven or changing the thickness of the electroplated nickel catalyst to compensate for changes in the coating environment in the oven. Work under this project concerned with forming and sealing glass panels to test ideas on evacuated glass solar collector designs and production have been generally quite satisfactory. Delays in completion of the selective absorber work, has caused postponement of the fabrication of a small prototype evacuated glass solar collector panel. Preliminary cost estimates of the selective absorber and solar collector panel indicate that this collector system should be lower in cost than evacuated solar collectors now on the market.

  3. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams.

    PubMed

    Granville, Dal A; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O

    2016-02-21

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements. PMID:26859539

  4. Tactical high-energy laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwartz, Josef; Wilson, Gerald T.; Avidor, Joel M.

    2002-06-01

    The Nautilus Project was started in 1995 as a joint US-Israel feasibility study for using laser systems to defend against short-range artillery rockets. It has now matured into a successful laser weapon demonstration program - the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) Program. By now the THEL Demonstrator has engaged and destroyed a large number of artillery rockets in mid-flight in an extended series of demonstration tests at the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The THEL ACTD hardware and development process are described in this paper, as well as the major test results. The paper also describes the operational concept for a deployed THEL weapon system and some possible growth paths for the THEL ACTD Program.

  5. Wall paper single-walled carbon nanotubes absorber for passively mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong Gang; Chen, Hou Ren; Wen, Xiao Min; Hsieh, Wen Feng; Tang, Jau

    2012-04-01

    A novel and low-cost wall paper single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) absorber was fabricated by high viscosity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution and vertical evaporation technique. Sandwich structure wall paper SWCNT (SSWA-SWCNT) absorber was constructed by a piece of wall paper SWCNT absorber, a piece of round quartz and an output coupler mirror. We exploited it to realize mode locking operation in a diode-pumped Nd: GdVO4 laser. A pulse duration of 9.6 ps was produced with an average power of 870 mW. The stable mode locking operation was obtained when the average power is less than 300 mW.

  6. Harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons fiber laser based on MoS(2) saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadong; Mao, Dong; Gan, Xuetao; Han, Lei; Ma, Chaojie; Xi, Teli; Zhang, Yi; Shang, Wuyun; Hua, Shijia; Zhao, Jianlin

    2015-01-12

    We present a kind of harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons in a fiber laser based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) saturable absorber (SA). The mode locker is fabricated by depositing MoS(2) nanosheets on a D-shaped fiber (DF). In the fiber laser, two solitons form the bound-state pulses with a temporal separation of 3.4 ps, and the bound-state pulses are equally distributed at a repetition rate of 125 MHz, corresponding to 14th harmonics of fundamental cavity repetition rate (8.968 MHz). Single- and multiple-pulses emissions are also observed by changing the pump power and optimizing the DF based MoS(2) SA. Our experiment demonstrates an interesting operation regime of mode-locked fiber laser, and shows that DF based MoS(2) SA can work as a promising high-power mode locker in ultrafast lasers. PMID:25835667

  7. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

    2007-06-21

    We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

  8. Generation of dark solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers based Sb(2)Te(3) saturable absorbers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Pang, Lihui; Han, Hainian; Tian, Wenlong; Chen, Hao; Lei, Ming; Yan, Peiguang; Wei, Zhiyi

    2015-10-01

    Dark solitons, which have better stability in the presence of noise, have potential applications in optical communication and ultrafast optics. In this paper, the dark soliton formation in erbium-doped fiber lasers based Sb(2)Te(3) saturable absorber (SA) is first experimentally demonstrated. The Sb(2)Te(3) SA is fabricated by using the pulsed laser deposition method. The generated dark solitons are centered at the wavelength of 1530 nm and repetition rate of 94 MHz. Analytic solutions for dark solitons are also obtained theoretically. PMID:26480117

  9. Laser photophoretic migration with periodic expansion-contraction motion of photo-absorbing microemulsion droplets in water.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makiko; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2004-12-01

    When the water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion droplets including the Co(III)-pyridylazo complex as the photo-absorber were irradiated with a continuous-wave Ar(+) ion laser (514.5 nm), we have observed unexpected phenomenon that photo-absorbing microemulsion droplets in water repeated the expansion and the sudden contraction during the laser photophoretic migration. The period of the expansion-contraction cycle was inversely proportional to both the concentration of the complex and the irradiated laser power and was independent of the initial size of the droplet. The mechanism of the periodic motion of the droplet was investigated by local temperature measurement and Raman microscope spectroscopy. It was suggested that the first step was the phase separation of the bicontinuous microemulsion droplet into the normal w/o microemulsion outer phase and the aqueous inner phase in the droplet, which was caused by the laser-induced temperature gradient inside the droplet. Subsequently, an expansion of the inner aqueous phase was induced by the percolation of the external water by thermo-osmosis, which was caused by the laser-induced temperature gradient between the inside and the outside of the microemulsion liquid membrane of the droplet. When the liquid membrane became thinner to a critical thickness, the inner aqueous phase was released and the droplet shrank into the original size. The proposed mechanism can give an account of the unique cyclical motion. PMID:15568826

  10. Nanosecond pulse passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser with Cr4+: YAG as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Pu

    2011-06-01

    We report a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber and get stable nanosecond pulse trains. Three kinds of laser cavity configurations, including a cladding-pumped ring cavity, a cladding-pumped linear cavity and a core-pumped linear cavity were studied, and they all can effectively restrain the generation of Stimulated Brillouin scattering and the generation of self-pulse. Cladding-pumped ring-avity fiber laser with Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber inside is established for the first time to obtain stable 1 μs pulse trains. The amplitude fluctuation and timing jitter are below 5% (rms). Further more, we can also get stable pulse trains by using a high reflective fiber Bragging grating as a resonator mirror in a cladding-pumped linear cavity and a core-pumped linear cavity fiber laser respectively. In the cladding-pumped linear cavity fiber laser, the tunable pulse repetition rate is from 9.1 kHz to 30.3 kHz and the minimum pulse duration is 156 ns. And in the core-pumped linear cavity fiber laser, the tunable pulse repetition rate is from 15 kHz to 33 kHz and the minimum pulse duration is 24 ns which much less than those reported before. Although the average output power is only hundreds milli-Watts now, the laser uses a fiber coupler as the output of pulse trains, it is convinient to boost the power with a stage of fiber amplifier. This kind of pulse laser can be used as a seed source, and amplified to tens of Watts for practical applications in the future.

  11. High Energy 2-Micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A master oscillator power amplifier, high energy Q-switched 2-micron laser system has been recently demonstrated. The laser and amplifiers are all designed in side-pumped rod configuration, pumped by back-cooled conductive packaged GaAlAs diode laser arrays. This 2-micron laser system provides nearly transform limited beam quality.

  12. Force reconstruction for impact tests of an energy-absorbing nose

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Garne, T.G.; McCall, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Delivery of a bomb into hard targets at speeds of up to 120 fps required the design of an energy-absorbing nose. The purpose of the nose is to decelerate the projectile and, by absorbing the kinetic energy with deformation, protect the projectile's internal components from high-level (shock) decelerations. A structural simulation of the projectile was designed to test the dynamic deformation characteristics of the energy-absorbing nose. The simulated projectile was instrumented with eight accelerometers mounted with a shock isolation technique. The dynamic force as a function of nose deformation was the desired result from the impact tests because it provides the designer with a performance criterion for the nose design. The dynamic force was obtained by combining the accelerations using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). Results from two field tests are presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Nonlinear laser energy depletion in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.

    2009-04-03

    Energy depletion of intense, short-pulse lasers via excitation of plasma waves is investigated numerically and analytically. The evolution of a resonant laser pulse proceeds in two phases. In the first phase, the pulse steepens, compresses, and frequency red-shifts as energy is deposited in the plasma. The second phase of evolution occurs after the pulse reaches a minimum length at which point the pulse rapidly lengthens, losing resonance with the plasma. Expressions for the rate of laser energy loss and rate of laser red-shifting are derived and are found to be in excellent agreement with the direct numerical solution of the laser field evolution coupled to the plasma response. Both processes are shown to have the same characteristic length-scale. In the high intensity limit, for nearly-resonant Gaussian laser pulses, this scale length is shown to be independent of laser intensity.

  14. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  15. Continuous-Integration Laser Energy Lidar Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karsh, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This circuit design implements an integrator intended to allow digitization of the energy output of a pulsed laser, or the energy of a received pulse of laser light. It integrates the output of a detector upon which the laser light is incident. The integration is performed constantly, either by means of an active integrator, or by passive components.

  16. Low Energy Laser Biostimulation: New Prospects For Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castel, John C.; Abergel, R. Patrick; Willner, Robert E.; Baumann, James G.

    1987-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of light-energy is not a new concept to the modern world. Documented applications from ancient times tell of the therapeutic effects of ordinary sun-light to treat such common ailments as painful body joints, wounds, compound fractures and tetanus. The discovery of laser light in the 1960's, opened up new prospects for the medical use of light. Laser light differs from other forms of electromagnetic spectrum in that a single wavelength rather than a spectrum of wavelengths is emitted. Since the early 1970's, low-energy laser radiation has been reported to enhance wound healing rates, reduce edema, and relieve musculoskeletal pain. There is no detectable thermal effect of this laser on the tissue being treated. The effects are considered to occur as a result of photochemical, non thermal effects of the laser beam. Photons are absorbed by the tissue being treated and, in turn, produce positive therapeutic effects such as reduction of pain and edema. Pre-clinical and clinical evaluations are, presently, underway to document the safety and efficacy of low energy laser therapy, which represents a significant advance in the non-invasive treatment of pain.

  17. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Lewis, Jay; Thomas, David

    2010-10-01

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures. We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  18. Dual-wavelength synchronous mode-locked Yb:LSO laser using a double-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Hou, Wei; Yang, Jimin; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-05-01

    A dual-wavelength, passively mode-locked Yb:LSO laser was demonstrated using a double-walled carbon nanotube as a saturable absorber. The maximum average output power of the laser was 1.34 W at the incident pump power of 9.94 W. The two central wavelengths were 1057 and 1058 nm. The corresponding pulse duration of the autocorrelation interference pattern was about 15 ps, while the beat pulse repetition rate was 0.17 THz and the width of one beat pulse about 2 ps. When the incident pump power was above 10.25 W, a multiwavelength mode-locked oscillation phenomenon was observed. After employing a pair of SF10 prisms, a 1058.7 nm single-wavelength mode-locked laser was obtained with a pulse width of 7 ps. PMID:27140382

  19. 2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Meng; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Xu-Wu; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuang-Chun; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2013-12-15

    We report on the generation of passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) Bi(2)Te(3) saturable absorber (SA). The optical deposition method was employed to fabricate the microfiber-based TISA. By virtue of the excellent nonlinear optical property of the proposed TISA, the fiber laser could operate at the pulse repetition rate of 2.04 GHz under a pump power of 126 mW, corresponding to the 418th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results demonstrate that the microfiber-based TI photonic device can operate as both the high nonlinear optical component and the SA in fiber lasers, and could also find other applications in the related fields of photonics. PMID:24322220

  20. Monolayer graphene saturable absorbers with strongly enhanced evanescent-field interaction for ultrafast fiber laser mode-locking.

    PubMed

    Park, Nam Hun; Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Mi Hye; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate an efficient all-fiber saturable absorber (SA) that evanescently interacts with a graphene monolayer. Strong nonlinear interaction between the graphene sheet and evanescent wave was realized in both experiments and numerical calculations by employing an over-cladding structure on high-quality monolayer graphene that uniformly covered the side-polished fiber. A passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser was built, including our in-line graphene SA, which stably generated ultrashort pulses with pulse duration of 377 fs at a repetition rate of 37.7 MHz. The corresponding 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the laser was measured to be 8.6 nm at the central wavelength of 1607.7 nm. We also experimentally observed that the spectral bandwidth and pulse duration of the laser output could be controlled by proper selection of the refractive index of the over-cladding material on the monolayer-graphene SA. PMID:26367639

  1. WS2 as a saturable absorber for Q-switched 2  micron lasers.

    PubMed

    Luan, Chao; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Zhao, Shengzhi; Song, Lei; Li, Tao; Chu, Hongwei; Qiao, Junpeng; Wang, Chao; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Shouzhen; Man, Baoyuan; Zheng, Lihe

    2016-08-15

    We prepared WS2 nanosheets by using the thermal decomposition method and demonstrated for the first time its nonlinear saturable absorption property at around 2 μm. With the as-prepared WS2 nanosheets as saturable absorber (SA), a passively Q-switched Tm:LuAG laser was realized successfully, and 660 ns laser pulses with an average output power of 1.08 W and pulse peak power of 26 W at a repetition rate of 63 kHz were obtained for an incident pump power of 7 W. Our experimental results definitely demonstrate that WS2 could be a kind of promising SA for solid-state 2 μm lasers. PMID:27519088

  2. Effect of thermal management on the properties of saturable absorber mirrors in high-power mode-locked semiconductor disk lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rantamaeki, Antti; Lyytikaeinen, Jari; Jari Nikkinen; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2011-09-30

    The thermal management of saturable absorbers is shown to have a critical impact on a high-power mode-locked disk laser. The absorber with efficient heat removal makes it possible to generate ultrashort pulses with high repetition rates and high power density.

  3. Comparison of proton energy loss in thick absorbers in terms of a reduced calibration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyeva, O.; de Assis, J. T.; Evseev, I. G.; Schelin, H. R.; Ahmann, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Milhoretto, E.; Setti, J. A. P.; Diaz, K. S.; Hormaza, J. M.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are essential for the support of particle experiments and developments of novel particle registration systems ranging from detectors developed for high-energy physics experiments at CERN to those for medical tomography. For proton beams, popular Monte Carlo codes like TRIM/SRIM, MCNPX and GEANT4 generate very similar final energy spectra for relatively thin absorbers, with differences unlikely to be detected in experiments. For thick absorbers, however, the disagreement is much larger, even for a moderate energy resolution. The reason for this is unclear because the actual overall accuracy of the proton stopping power in the Bethe-Bloch domain is known to be about 1%. One approach to investigate these differences is to compare, for example, the data from the NIST PSTAR and the SRIM reference data tables with the output of the Monte Carlo codes. When the various codes are validated against these tables, the differences in the simulated spectra mainly reflect the differences in the reference tables. Of more practical interest is the validation of the codes against experimental data for thick absorbers. However, only few experimental data sets are available here, and the existing data have been acquired at different initial proton energies and for different absorber materials. In order to compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations with existing experimental data, we applied the so-called reduced calibration method. This reduced calibration curve represents the range-energy dependence normalizing the range scale to the full projected range (for a given initial proton energy in a given material), and the proton energy scale to the given initial proton energy. The advantage of this approach is that the reduced calibration curve is nearly energy and material independent, and, thus, experimental, simulated and published reference data obtained at different energies and for different materials can be compared in one graph.

  4. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  5. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-08-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  6. Soft-tissue removal by the 193-nm excimer laser in a strongly absorbing liquid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Hemo, Itzhak; Turovets, Igor; Lewis, Aaron

    1994-08-01

    The 193 nm excimer laser delivered through special tips into biological liquid environments was applied to two different fields of microsurgery and two mechanism of tissue ablation were found to be operative. In vitreoretinal surgical applications, where the tip exit diameter was about 250 micrometers , the effective cutting regime of retina and vitreoretinal membranes occurred at energy fluences of about 250 - 350 mJ/cm2/pulse with a corresponding cutting depth of 50 - 150 micrometers /pulse. Gas bubbles, formed at the tip exit when it touched the tissue during irradiation, seem to be the driving force underlying the cutting process. This enabled us to achieve a much deeper cut in tissue than a micron-sized laser penetration depth. The system was applied to bovine and rabbit retina and rabbit vitreoretinal membranes and it was found that such tissue removal is fast enough for real vitreoretinal applications and the cut depth control is still good enough for this microsurgery. In the application of this system to drilling of 4 - 8 micrometers diameter holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes the optimal energy fluence is about 40 mJ/cm2/pulse with an ablation depth of about 2 micrometers /pulse. In this case no bubbles are formed and the process seems to be a non-explosive photodissociation of the tissue with subsequent slow dissolution of the products. This mechanism, in contrast to the vitreoretinal tissue removal, was found to be very selective to the type of material being ablated. This process was studied on a model of 20% gelatin gel, which is very close to the ablation properties of the zona pellucida.

  7. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  8. Research on remote sensing of broadband absorbers by using near-infrared diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hui; Liu, Jian-Guo; He, Yabai; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Ruan, Jun; Yao, Lu; Kan, Rui-Feng

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the development of an experimental technique for optical remote sensing of broadband absorbers in ambient air. Broadband absorbers have been difficult to detect due to a lack of narrow absorption features, which makes it hard to separate them from interference with other absorbing species and background. In combination with a multidimensional linear regression procedure, we have developed a further step to correct for water vapor and background influences. Various physical processes limiting the detection sensitivity were studied and solutions were developed to reduce their influences. Although the received optical signal from backscatter was very weak as no corner cube reflector was used, we have demonstrated the technique on remote sensing of broadband absorption of ethanol vapor in ambient air with a moderate detection limit of 200 ppm · m. This portable handheld system is particularly suitable for quick "point-and-measure" applications. The developed technique is also applicable for detection of other broadband absorbers. PMID:25322224

  9. Enhancing the dynamic range of targeted energy transfer in acoustics using several nonlinear membrane absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellet, R.; Cochelin, B.; Côte, R.; Mattei, P.-O.

    2012-12-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and the energy range of efficiency of targeted energy transfer (TET) phenomena in acoustics, we discuss in this paper about the use of multiple nonlinear membrane absorbers (called nonlinear energy sinks or NES) placed in parallel. We show this way, mainly thanks to an experimental set-up with two membranes, that the different absorbers have additional effects that extend the efficiency and the possibilities of observation of TET. More precisely, we present the different behavior of the system under sinusoidal forcing and free oscillations, characterizing the phenomena for all input energies. The frequency responses are also presented, showing successive clipping of the original resonance peak of the system, and strongly modulated regimes (SMR). A model is finally used to generalize these results to more than two NES and to simulate the case of several very similar membranes in parallel which shows how to extend the existence zone of TET.

  10. Energy Absorption Structure of Laser Supported Detonation Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Hatai, Keigo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-01

    In Repetitive Pulsed (RP) laser propulsion, when the high energy laser beam is focused in the thruster, Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) wave is generated. This LSD wave converts the laser energy to the enthalpy of the blast wave, which will then apply impulse to the wall of the thruster. Therefore, the energy absorption structure and sustaining condition of LSD wave are important to be understood, which was still not clear though some visualized experiments have been conducted by Ushio et al. before. In this paper, 2-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometry is brought to investigate the electron density distribution of LSD area. At the same time, the temperature of the laser induced plasma is measured by an emission spectroscopy experiment, and calculated based on the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. The results show that in LSD, the electron density has a peak (as high as 2×1024[m-3]) behind the shock wave. The irradiated laser can be entirely absorbed before reaching the position of this peak. As a result, a new peak is always generating in front of the old one and this propagating has the same velocity as that of the blast wave. In this way, high heating ratio is sustained right after the shock front. However, as the laser pulse energy becomes lower, the propagating peak cannot catch up with the blast wave anymore, which leads to a termination of the LSD wave. From this study, it is found that for sustaining the LSD wave, a sufficiently thin laser absorption layer is necessary.

  11. Thermal smoothing and hydrodynamical compensation of the nonuniformities of laser energy deposition in a direct-driven target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, S.; Rozanov, V.; Lebo, I.; Vergunova, G.; Tishkin, V.; Zmitrenko, N.; Kozubskaya, T.; Popov, I.; Nikishin, V.

    1996-05-01

    Design of the LIGHT target based on an electron heat conductivity smoothing and hydrodynamical compensation of the nonuniformities of energy deposition of a small quantity laser beams is discussed. 2D distribution of absorbed laser energy deposition in an undercritical low-Z absorber of LIGHT target under propagation of a super sonic electron heat conductivity waves and 2D implosion of target with ablator having special initially given distributions of mass are presented. Numerical simulations show the flexibility of LIGHT target ignition at the laser energy of (200-300) kJ and quantity of beams 6.

  12. Generation of soliton and bound soliton pulses in mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using graphene film as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, H.; Harun, S. W.; Anyi, C. L.; Muhammad, A. R.; Ahmad, F.; Tan, S. J.; Nor, R. M.; Zulkepely, N. R.; Ali, N. M.; Arof, H.

    2016-04-01

    We report an observation of soliton and bound-state soliton in passive mode-locked fibre laser employing graphene film as a passive saturable absorber (SA). The SA was fabricated from the graphene flakes, which were obtained from electrochemical exfoliation process. The graphene flakes was mixed with polyethylene oxide solution to form a polymer composite, which was then dried at room temperature to produce a film. The film was then integrated in a laser cavity by attaching it to the end of a fibre ferrule with the aid of index matching gel. The fibre laser generated soliton pulses with a 20.7 MHz repetition rate, 0.88 ps pulse width, 0.0158 mW average output power, 0.175 pJ pulse energy and 18.72 W peak power at the wavelength of 1564 nm. A bound soliton with pulse duration of ~1.04 ps was also obtained at the pump power of 110.85 mW by carefully adjusting the polarization of the oscillating laser. The formation of bound soliton is due to the direct pulse to pulse interaction. The results show that the proposed graphene-based SA offers a simple and cost efficient approach of generating soliton and bound soliton in mode-locked EDFL set-up.

  13. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  14. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Mathies, Richard A.; Hung, Su-Chun; Ju, Jingyue

    1998-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  15. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Hung, S.C.; Ju, J.

    1998-12-29

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures. 22 figs.

  16. Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaowei; Zhao, Ruwei; He, Jingliang; Zhang, Baitao; Ning, Jian; Wang, Yiran; Su, Xiancui; Hou, Jia; Lou, Fei; Yang, Kejian; Fan, Yisong; Bian, Jintian; Nie, Jinsong

    2016-01-25

    A high-quality black phosphorus (BP) saturable-absorber mirror (SAM) was successfully fabricated with the multi-layered BP, prepared by liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) method. The modulation depth and saturation power intensity of BP absorber were measured to be 10.7% and 0.96 MW/cm2, respectively. Using the BP-SAM, we experimentally demonstrated the mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulse generation from a BP Q-switched Cr:ZnSe laser for the first time to our best knowledge. Stable Q-switched pulse as short as 189 ns with an average output power of 36 mW was realized at 2.4 μm, corresponding to a repetition rate of 176 kHz and a single pulse energy of 205 nJ. Our work sufficiently validated that multi-layer BP could be used as an optical modulator for mid-IR pulse laser sources. PMID:26832537

  17. Passive Q-switching of a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser by a Cr:ZnS saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Serres, J M; Loiko, P; Mateos, X; Jambunathan, V; Yasukevich, A S; Yumashev, K V; Petrov, V; Griebner, U; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2016-05-10

    A diode-pumped Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser passively Q-switched with a Cr:ZnS saturable absorber generated an average output power of 131 mW at 2063.6 nm with a slope efficiency of 11% and a Q-switching conversion efficiency of 58%. The pulse characteristics were 14  ns/9  μJ at a pulse repetition frequency of 14.5 kHz. With higher modulation depth of the saturable absorber, 9  ns/10.4  μJ/8.2  kHz pulses were generated at 2061.1 nm, corresponding to a record peak power extracted from a passively Q-switched Tm,Ho laser of 1.15 kW. A theoretical model is presented, predicting the pulse energy and duration. The simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:27168288

  18. Raising the efficiency of intracavity laser pumping of selectively absorbing media

    SciTech Connect

    Aubakirov, R.G.; Murzin, A.G.; Fromzel, V.A.

    1983-09-01

    Conditions providing for maximum efficiency during intracavity laser pumping of active media have been analyzed. It is shown that the occasional parasitic oscillation shift of the pumping laser can be eliminated without any loss of laser pumping efficiency. An experimental study has been made on two possible energetically efficient methods of stabilizing the oscillation spectrum of a neodymium glass laser with an intracavity load of ytterbium-erbium glass: introduction of a small-base Fabry-Perot etalon into the cavity and use of mirrors with a sharp drop of the spectral characteristic as laser cavity mirrors. An optimum variant of the multilayered coating of such mirrors has been selected.

  19. Increasing dust-absorbing equipment operation efficiency using the automatic laser instrument for solid particle concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Vadim V.; Shemanin, Valery G.; Charty, Pavel V.

    2003-06-01

    The technological process of cement production, which side effect is dust generating and its exhausting to atmosphere, is not stopped as a rule when some faults were origin in dust-absorbing equipment (DAE). The analysis in reference one shows that longtime conducting of the technological process at DAE refusal or fault leads to its working efficiency reduction, which reveals itself in significant excess of nominal values of the dust output concentrations. The number of the most typical refusals and damages and algorithms of their searching were analyzed in work in reference 2 for the most wide-spread dust-absorber types: blanch and electrostatic filters. This work goal are the estimation of DAE working efficiency and choosing of the optimum way of its increasing with using of the automatic laser instrument for aerosol particles concentration measuring in the dust-air flows.

  20. High-peak-power flashlamp-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with AlGaInAs quantum wells as a saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H. C.; Huang, J. Y.; Huang, S. C.; Su, K. W.; Chen, Y. F.; Huang, K. F.

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate an AlGaInAs saturable absorber with a periodic quantum wells (QWs)/barrier structure that can be used to achieve an efficient high-peak-power and high-pulse-energy passively flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 um. The barrier layers are designed to locate the QW groups in the region of the nodes of the lasing standing wave to avoid damage. With an incident pump voltage of 14.5 J, a single pulse was generated with a pulse energy of 14 mJ and a Q-switched pulse width of 13 ns. The maximum peak power was greater than 1.08 MW.

  1. Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Crushable Energy Absorber for a Passive Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Corliss, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual study was performed to investigate the impact response of a crushable energy absorber for a passive Earth entry vehicle. The spherical energy-absorbing concept consisted of a foam-filled composite cellular structure capable of omni-directional impact-load attenuation as well as penetration resistance. Five composite cellular samples of hemispherical geometry were fabricated and tested dynamically with impact speeds varying from 30 to 42 meters per second. Theoretical crush load predictions were obtained with the aid of a generalized theory which accounts for the energy dissipated during the folding deformation of the cell-walls. Excellent correlation was obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental tests on characteristic cell-web intersections. Good correlation of theory with experiment was also found to exist for the more complex spherical cellular structures. All preliminary design requirements were met by the cellular structure concept, which exhibited a near-ideal sustained crush-load and approximately 90% crush stroke.

  2. The influence of the energy absorbed from microwave pretreatment on biogas production from secondary wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Sólyom, Katalin; Mato, Rafael B; Pérez-Elvira, Sara Isabel; Cocero, María José

    2011-12-01

    In this study, microwave treatment is analyzed as a way to accelerate the hydrolysis in anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge. The influence of the absorbed energy, power and athermal microwave effect on organic matter solubilization and biogas production has been studied. In addition, a novel method that considers the absorbed energy in the microwave system is proposed, in order to obtain comparable experimental results. The absorbed energy is calculated from an energy balance. The highest solubilization was achieved using 0.54 kJ/ml at 1000 W, where an increment of 7.1% was observed in methane production, compared to the untreated sample. Using a higher energy value (0.83 kJ/ml), methane production further increased (to 15.4%), but solubilization decreased. No power influence was found when 0.54 kJ/ml was applied at 1000, 600 and 440 W. Microwave heating was compared to conventional heating in two different experimental setups, providing similar methane yields in all cases. PMID:21993329

  3. Bound-state fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene-nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. R.; Chen, G. W.; Kong, Y. C.; Li, W. L.

    2015-02-01

    We have experimentally observed the multiple bound states in a linear-cavity fiber laser mode-locked by a mixture of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes. The proposed laser can deliver the fundamental frequency soliton as well as the two and three bound-state solitons at suitable conditions. The numerical simulations confirm the experimental observations. Both the theoretical predictions and experimental results reveal that the spectral filtering effect plays a key role on the lasers.

  4. Control rod absorber section fabrication by square tube configuration and dual laser welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, L.L.; Charnley, J.E.; Mees, J.A.; Dixon, R.C.

    1990-05-15

    This patent describes a process for the assembly of a planar section of a cruciform shaped control rod from tubes. It comprises: providing tubes, the tubes having cylindrical interior volumes for the containment of neutron absorbing poisons and having square external sections for being joined by welding in side-by-side relation; filling the cylindrical interior volumes with neutron absorbing poisons; plugging the tubes to seal the neutron absorbing poisons within the tubes: providing a jig for maintaining the tubes in side-by-side relation to form a planar section of the control rod, the jig having a leading end for holding the ends of the tubes in side-by-side relation and having a trailing end for holding the tubes in side-by-side relation.

  5. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D; Simons, Rainee N; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q

    2014-01-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor. PMID:25200005

  6. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-09-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor.

  7. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor. PMID:25200005

  8. High-power 880-nm diode-directly-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YVO₄ laser at 1342 nm with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Qin; Liu, Ke; Han, Lin; Zong, Nan; Bo, Yong; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Peng, Qin-Jun; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2011-04-15

    A high-power 880-nm diode-directly-pumped passively mode-locked 1342 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser was demonstrated with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The laser mode radii in the laser crystal and on the SESAM were optimized carefully using the ABCD matrix formalism. An average output power of 2.3 W was obtained with a repetition rate of 76 MHz and a pulse width of 29.2 ps under an absorbed pump power of 12.1 W, corresponding to an optical-optical efficiency of 19.0% and a slope efficiency of 23.9%, respectively. PMID:21499398

  9. Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, M.; Hu, Guohua; Hu, Guoqing; Howe, R. C. T.; Chen, L.; Zheng, Z.; Hasan, T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a ytterbium (Yb) and an erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser Q-switched by a solution processed, optically uniform, few-layer tungsten disulfide saturable absorber (WS2-SA). Nonlinear optical absorption of the WS2-SA in the sub-bandgap region, attributed to the edge-induced states, is characterized by 3.1% and 4.9% modulation depths with 1.38 and 3.83 MW/cm2 saturation intensities at 1030 and 1558 nm, respectively. By integrating the optically uniform WS2-SA in the Yb- and Er-doped laser cavities, we obtain self-starting Q-switched pulses with microsecond duration and kilohertz repetition rates at 1030 and 1558 nm. Our work demonstrates broadband sub-bandgap saturable absorption of a single, solution processed WS2-SA, providing new potential efficacy for WS2 in ultrafast photonic applications. PMID:26657601

  10. Q-switched mode-locked and azimuthally polarized Nd:GdVO4 laser with semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Kun-Guei; Hung, Bi-Jin; Lin, Shih-Ting; Wei, Ming-Dar

    2016-06-01

    A Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with azimuthal polarization was generated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. On the basis of the birefringence of the laser crystal inducing different equivalent lengths for ordinary and extraordinary rays, beams were azimuthally polarized around the edge of a stable cavity region. At a pump power of 9 W, the repetition rate and width for the Q-switched envelope were 318 kHz and 0.91 µs, and the mode-locked pulse repetition rate and pulse width were 455 MHz and 65 ps, respectively. The degree of polarization was controllable up to 95.4 ± 1.4%.

  11. Thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by black phosphorus nanoplatelets-based saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Yin, Ke; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    By coupling black phosphorus (BP) nanoplatelets (NPs) with a fiber-taper evanescent light field, a saturable absorber (SA) based on the BP NPs has been successfully fabricated and used in a thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser as the mode locker. The SA had a modulation depth of ∼9.8% measured at 1.93 μm. A stable mode-locking operation at 1898 nm was achieved with a pulse width of 1.58 ps and a fundamental mode-lock repetition rate of 19.2 MHz. By increasing the pump intensity, phenomena of multi-pulsing operations, including harmonic mode-locked states and soliton bunches, were obtained in the experiment, showing that the BP NPs possess an ultrafast optical response time. This work suggests that the BP NPs-based SA is potentially useful for ultrashort, pulsed laser operations in the eye-safe region of 2 μm. PMID:26836690

  12. Generation of bound states of pulses in a soliton laser with complex relaxation of a saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotovskii, I. O.; Korobko, D. A.; Gumenyuk, R. V.; Okhotnikov, O. G.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model of a soliton fibre laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), characterised by the complex dynamics of absorption relaxation, is considered. It is shown that stationary bound states of pulses can be formed in this laser as a result of their interaction via the dispersion-wave field. The stability of stationary bound states of several pulses is analysed. It is shown that an increase in the number of pulses in a stationary bound state leads eventually to its decay and formation of a random bunch. It is found that the bunch stability is caused by the manifestation of nonlinear self-phase modulation, which attracts pulses to the bunch centre. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  13. S-band Q-switched fiber laser using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Harith; Afiq Ismail, Mohd; Suthaskumar, Muneswaran; Cheak Tiu, Zian; Wadi Harun, Sulaiman; Zamani Zulkifli, Mohd; Samikannu, Sathiyan; Sivaraj, Sivabalan

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated using a simple drop cast method to generate Q-switched fiber laser operating in the S-band region (1460 nm-1530 nm). The MoS2 solution was prepared using the liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method where MoS2 crystals were added into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and subsequently sonicated and centrifuged. They were then repeatedly dripped onto fiber ferrules and dried in an oven. The resultant Q-switched fiber laser starts with some physical disturbance when the pump power was set at 40 mW and continues to operate until the pump power reaches 120 mW. The resultant repetition rate varies with pump power between 27.17 to 101.17 kHz while the changes in pulse widths are from 3.0 to 1.4 μs.

  14. All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, N; Seno, Y; Sumimura, K; Sakakibara, Y; Itoga, E; Kataura, H; Itoh, K

    2008-06-23

    We present an all-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using a single-wall carbon nanotube polyimide nanocomposite saturable absorber. The maximum average power for single-pulse operation is 4.8 mW, and the repetition frequency is 41.3 MHz. Self-start and stable mode-locking operation is achieved. The RF amplitude noise is also examined and it is confirmed that the noise figure is as low as that of a solid-state laser. Using a polarization-maintaining anomalous dispersive fiber, a 314 fs output pulse is compressed to 107 fs via higher-order soliton compression. The peak power of the compressed pulse is up to 1.1 kW. PMID:18575508

  15. Generation of bound states of pulses in a soliton laser with complex relaxation of a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G; Gumenyuk, R V

    2015-01-31

    A numerical model of a soliton fibre laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), characterised by the complex dynamics of absorption relaxation, is considered. It is shown that stationary bound states of pulses can be formed in this laser as a result of their interaction via the dispersion-wave field. The stability of stationary bound states of several pulses is analysed. It is shown that an increase in the number of pulses in a stationary bound state leads eventually to its decay and formation of a random bunch. It is found that the bunch stability is caused by the manifestation of nonlinear self-phase modulation, which attracts pulses to the bunch centre. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. An Nd:YLF laser Q-switched by a monolayer-graphene saturable-absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matía-Hernando, Paloma; Guerra, José Manuel; Weigand, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate Q-switched operation of a transversely diode-pumped Nd:YLF (yttrium lithium fluoride) laser using chemical vapour deposition-grown large-area monolayer graphene transferred to a dielectric saturable-absorber mirror (G-SAM). The resulting compact design operates at 1047 nm with 2.5 μs pulses in a 100% modulation Q-switch regime with an average and very stable output power of 0.5 W. Different cavity lengths have been employed and the results are compared against a theoretical model based on rate equations, evidencing the role of transverse pumping in the system. The model also reveals that monolayer graphene effectively leads to shorter and more powerful pulses compared to those with multilayer graphene. These results establish the potential of single-layer graphene for providing a reliable and efficient Q-switch mechanism in solid-state lasers.

  17. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  18. Thermoelectronic laser energy conversion for power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Yuen, C.

    1977-01-01

    Long distance transmission of power in space by means of laser beams is an attractive concept because of the very narrow beam divergence. Such a system requires efficient means to both generate the laser beam and to convert the light energy in the beam into useful electric output at the receiver. A plasma-type device known as a Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) has been studied as a method of converting a 10.6 micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. In the TELEC process, electromagnetic radiation is absorbed directly in the plasma electrons producing a high electron temperature. The energetic electrons diffuse out of the plasma striking two electrodes with different areas. Since more electrons are collected by the larger electrode there is a net transport of current, and an EMF is generated in the external circuit. The smaller electrode functions as an electron emitter to provide continuity of the current. Waste heat is rejected from the large electrode. A design for a TELEC system with an input 1 MW laser beam was developed as part of the study. The calculated performance of the system showed an overall efficiency of about 42%.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of an Energy Absorbing Sub-floor Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Advanced General Aviation Transportation Experiments program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center is conducting tests to design energy absorbing structures to improve occupant survivability in aircraft crashes. An effort is currently underway to design an Energy Absorbing (EA) sub-floor structure which will reduce occupant loads in an aircraft crash. However, a recent drop test of a fuselage specimen with a proposed EA sub-floor structure demonstrated that the effects of sectioning the fuselage on both the fuselage section's stiffness and the performance of the EA structure were not fully understood. Therefore, attempts are underway to model the proposed sub-floor structure on computers using the DYCAST finite element code to provide a better understanding of the structure's behavior in testing, and in an actual crash.

  20. Improving impact resistance of ceramic materials by energy absorbing surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.; Seretsky, J.

    1974-01-01

    Energy absorbing surface layers were used to improve the impact resistance of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics. Low elastic modulus materials were used. In some cases, the low elastic modulus was achieved using materials that form localized microcracks as a result of thermal expansion anisotropy, thermal expansion differences between phases, or phase transformations. In other cases, semi-vitreous or vitreous materials were used. Substantial improvements in impact resistance were observed at room and elevated temperatures.

  1. Methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Kamada, K.; Nakai, Y.

    1981-10-20

    A methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property wherein an organic compound (A) containing cupric ion and a compound (B) having at least one p-o-h bond in a molecule are contained into the methacrylic resin selected from poly(Methyl methacrylate) or methacrylic polymers containing at least 50% by weight of a methyl methacrylate unit. A process for producing said methacrylic resin is also disclosed.

  2. Study the penetration of IR laser radiation in human teeth: determination of the absorbed and scattered parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova, Pepa; Rabadgiiska, Stanislava; Uzunov, Tzonko; Kisov, Hristo; Kaimakanova, Nadejda; Deneva, Margarita; Dinkov, Emil; Nenchev, Marin

    2013-03-01

    By using the developed by us approaches and instrumentation, we have obtained and presented series of systematized data, which are important for the use of the laser light in infrared (IR) spectral region. The obtained data include: 1) reflectivity of the human tooth dentin; 2) the spatial intensity distribution in the cross-section of the light beam penetrating the tooth's dentin; 3) the absorbed and the diffused parts of the laser light that have been determined separately through combination of optical and calorimetric techniques. The last result is the most important because it permits to calculate the dentin absorption and scattering coefficients. The study is performed for the laser light at two easily generated wavelengths - 1.06 μm and 1.36 μm, emitted by the Nd:YAG laser that is well known, commercially available, economical and widely used in many laboratories and medical institutions. The study is made on the basis of fresh in-vitro teeth samples from the persons of Bulgaria, Sofia region.

  3. Research of large energy and high power Nd:Ce:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen-yu; Nie, Jin-song

    2011-06-01

    Currently, the output laser energy was enlarged mostly by using laser application technology and different pump styles were used, which made the laser volume large. In this thesis, the output laser energy was increased by improving the quality of laser crystal and using new style doped laser crystal, which can increase the capacity usage ratio of solid laser, and the beam quality was improved as well. In the paper, a new double-doped Nd:Ce:YAG laser crystal pumped by Xe-lamp and the plane-plane resonant was used as main oscillator of laser. There were two advantages using the method. Firstly, the absorption spectrum and emission band spectrum of Ce3+ were analyzed, which can create energy transition between Ce3+ and Nd3+. The Ce3+ ion in double-doped laser crystal can absorb pump light at ultraviolet band and create stimulated emission, which located at the absorption band of Nd3+ and made more Nd3+ ion create energy level transition. The inverted population increased. As result the capacity usage ratio of pumped energy was increased and the output energy of laser was enlarged. Secondly for the advantage of the limitation of plane-plane resonant to laser beam was strong, the angle of divergence was small at far field and the beam quality was good. Finally the pulsed laser energy was compressed to spike pulse by using passive Q-switched, and the peak power was increased. The experiments were carried out under the condition of passive Q-switched. When the input voltage was 800V, the laser beam was obtained at the oscillator stage, whose output energy was 651.5mJ. The pulse width was 20ns. The slope efficiency was 0.49%. Angle of divergence was better than 1.2 mrad. And peak power was 32.5KW. The experiment result is accordant with theoretical analyses. This solid laser has important potential application.

  4. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  5. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Energy-Absorbing Keel Beams for General Aviation Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A lightweight energy-absorbing keel-beam concept was developed and retrofitted in a general aviation type aircraft to improve crashworthiness performance. The energy-absorbing beam consisted of a foam-filled cellular structure with glass fiber and hybrid glass/kevlar cell walls. Design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the keel beams prior to installation and subsequent full-scale crash testing of the aircraft are described. Factors such as material and fabrication constraints, damage tolerance, crush stress/strain response, seat-rail loading, and post crush integrity, which influenced the course of the design process are also presented. A theory similar to the one often used for ductile metal box structures was employed with appropriate modifications to estimate the sustained crush loads for the beams. This, analytical tool, coupled with dynamic finite element simulation using MSC.Dytran were the prime design and analysis tools. The validity of the theory as a reliable design tool was examined against test data from static crush tests of beam sections while the overall performance of the energy-absorbing subfloor was assessed through dynamic testing of 24 in long subfloor assemblies.

  6. Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Xu, Bin; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian

    2014-10-20

    We propose and demonstrate a MoS2-based passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser with a wide tuning range of 1519.6-1567.7 nm. The few-layer MoS2 nano-platelets are prepared by the liquid-phase exfoliation method, and are then made into polymer-composite film to construct the fiber-compatible MoS2 saturable absorber (SA). It is measured at 1560 nm wavelength, that such MoS2 SA has the modulation depth of ∼ 2% and the saturable optical intensity of ∼ 10 MW/cm(2). By further inserting the filmy MoS2-SA into an Er-doped fiber laser, stable Q-switching operation with a 48.1 nm continuous tuning from S- to C-waveband is successfully achieved. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum pulse energy are 3.3 μs and 160 nJ, respectively. The repetition rate and the pulse duration under different operation conditions have been also characterized. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of MoS2 Q-switched, widely-tunable fiber laser. PMID:25401559

  7. Bistable optical devices with laser diodes coupled to absorbers of narrow spectral bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-06-20

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated with a combination of the following two effects: One is the decrease of the transmission of an Er-doped YAG crystal with increasing red shift of a laser diode resulting from an increase in the injection current, and the other is a negative nonlinear absorption in which the transmission decreases inversely with increasing laser intensity. Because a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of the laser diode, an optical bistability was observed in this system. PMID:20935754

  8. Q-switching of a thulium-doped fibre laser using a holmium-doped fibre saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Sadovnikova, Ya E; Kamynin, V A; Kurkov, A S; Medvedkov, O I; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2014-01-31

    We have proposed and demonstrated a new passively Q-switched thulium-doped fibre laser configuration. A distinctive feature of this configuration is the use of a heavily holmium-doped fibre for Q-switching. Lasing was obtained at 1.96 μm, with a pulse energy of 3 μJ and pulse duration of 600 ns. The highest pulse repetition rate was 80 kHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  9. Interaction of laser radiation with a low-density structured absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Barishpol'tsev, D. V.; Vergunova, G. A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ivanov, E. M.; Aristova, E. N.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Limpouch, I.; Ulschmidt, I.

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical model is proposed for computing simulations of laser radiation interaction with inhomogeneous foam materials doped with heavy elements and undoped materials. The model satisfactorily describes many experiments on the interaction of the first and third harmonics of a 200 J pulsed PALS iodine laser with low-density porous cellulose triacetate targets. The model can be used to analyze experimental data and estimate the reality of experimental results.

  10. Limit pulses in passive nonlinear absorbers. [solid-state laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The propagation of coherent pulses in absorbers with nonlinear refractive index is investigated. It is shown that a term neglected by previous authors places an upper limit on the attainable field strength in steady-state pulses. In ruby with a Cr(3+) doping density of 10 to the 17th power per cu cm, for example, this limit is less than 2,000,000 V/cm.

  11. VCSEL end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with adjustable pulse energy.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lew; McIntosh, Chris; Cole, Brian

    2011-02-28

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser utilizing a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber, is end-pumped by the focused emission from an 804 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array. By changing the VCSEL operating current, we demonstrated 2x adjustability in the laser output pulse energy, from 9 mJ to 18 mJ. This energy variation was attributed to changes in the angular distribution of VCSEL emission with drive current, resulting in a change in the pump intensity distribution generated by a pump-light-focusing lens. PMID:21369256

  12. Point-by-point near-field optical energy deposition around plasmonic nanospheres in absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R K; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2015-08-01

    Here we investigate the effects of absorbing media on plasmon-enhanced near-field optical energy deposition. We find that increasing absorption by the medium results in increased particle scattering at the expense of particle absorption, and that much of this increased particle scattering is absorbed by the medium close to the particle surface. We present an analytical method for evaluating the spatial distribution of near-field enhanced absorption surrounding plasmonic metal nanospheres in absorbing media using a new point-by-point method. We propose criteria to define relevant near-field boundaries and calculate the properties of the local absorption enhancement, which redistributes absorption to the near-field and decays asymptotically as a function of the distance from the particle to background levels. Using this method, we performed a large-scale parametric study to understand the effect of particle size and wavelength on the near-field absorption for gold nanoparticles in aqueous media and silicon, and identified conditions that are relevant to enhanced local infrared absorption in silicon. The presented approach provides insight into the local energy transfer around plasmonic nanoparticles for predicting near-field effects for advanced concepts in optical sensing, thin-film solar cells, nonlinear imaging, and photochemical applications. PMID:26367296

  13. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  14. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  15. Plasma diagnostics from self-absorbed doublet lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, C. A.; Garcimuño, M.; Díaz Pace, D. M.; Bertuccelli, G.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a generalized approach is developed and applied for plasma characterization and quantitative purposes in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiences by employing a selected pair of spectral lines belonging to the same multiplet. It is based on the comparison between experimental ratios of line parameters and the theoretical calculus obtained under the framework of a homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The applicability of the method was illustrated by using the atomic resonance transitions 279.55-280.27 nm of Mg II, which are usually detected in laser-induced plasma (LIP) during laser ablation of many kinds of targets. The laser induced plasmas were produced using a Nd:YAG laser from a pressed pellet of powdered calcium hydroxide with a concentration of 300 ppm of Mg. The experimental ratios for peak intensities, total intensities and Stark widths were obtained for different time windows and matched to the theoretical calculus. The temperature and the electron density of the plasma, as well as the Mg columnar density (the atom/ion concentration times the length of the plasma along the line-of-sight), were determined. The results were interpreted under the employed approach.

  16. Effects of laser energy and wavelength on the analysis of LiFePO₄ using laser assisted atom probe tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Perea, Daniel E.; Martens, Richard L.; Janssen, Yuri; Khalifah, Peter; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2014-09-21

    The effects of laser wavelength (355 nm and 532 nm) and laser pulse energy on the quantitative analysis of LiFePO₄ by atom probe tomography are considered. A systematic investigation of ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) and green (532 nm) laser assisted field evaporation has revealed distinctly different behaviors. With the use of a UV laser, the major issue was identified as the preferential loss of oxygen (up to 10 at%) while other elements (Li, Fe and P) were observed to be close to nominal ratios. Lowering the laser energy per pulse to 1 pJ/pulse from 50 pJ/pulse increased the observed oxygenmore » concentration to nearer its correct stoichiometry, which was also well correlated with systematically higher concentrations of ¹⁶O₂⁺ ions. Green laser assisted field evaporation led to the selective loss of Li (33% deficiency) and a relatively minor O deficiency. The loss of Li is likely a result of selective dc evaporation of Li between or after laser pulses. Comparison of the UV and green laser data suggests that the green wavelength energy was absorbed less efficiently than the UV wavelength because of differences in absorption at 355 and 532 nm for LiFePO₄. Plotting of multihit events on Saxey plots also revealed a strong neutral O₂ loss from molecular dissociation, but quantification of this loss was insufficient to account for the observed oxygen deficiency.« less

  17. Effects of laser energy and wavelength on the analysis of LiFePO₄ using laser assisted atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Perea, Daniel E.; Martens, Richard L.; Janssen, Yuri; Khalifah, Peter; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2014-09-21

    The effects of laser wavelength (355 nm and 532 nm) and laser pulse energy on the quantitative analysis of LiFePO₄ by atom probe tomography are considered. A systematic investigation of ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) and green (532 nm) laser assisted field evaporation has revealed distinctly different behaviors. With the use of a UV laser, the major issue was identified as the preferential loss of oxygen (up to 10 at%) while other elements (Li, Fe and P) were observed to be close to nominal ratios. Lowering the laser energy per pulse to 1 pJ/pulse from 50 pJ/pulse increased the observed oxygen concentration to nearer its correct stoichiometry, which was also well correlated with systematically higher concentrations of ¹⁶O₂⁺ ions. Green laser assisted field evaporation led to the selective loss of Li (33% deficiency) and a relatively minor O deficiency. The loss of Li is likely a result of selective dc evaporation of Li between or after laser pulses. Comparison of the UV and green laser data suggests that the green wavelength energy was absorbed less efficiently than the UV wavelength because of differences in absorption at 355 and 532 nm for LiFePO₄. Plotting of multihit events on Saxey plots also revealed a strong neutral O₂ loss from molecular dissociation, but quantification of this loss was insufficient to account for the observed oxygen deficiency.

  18. A Mode-Locked Soliton Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Poly-Ethylene Oxide Film Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z. R. R. Rosdin, R.; F., Ahmad; M. Ali, N.; M. Nor, R.; R. Zulkepely, N.; W. Harun, S.; Arof, H.

    2014-09-01

    We present a simple, compact and low-cost mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded in a poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) thin film as a passive saturable absorber. The film is fabricated by using a prepared homogeneous SWCNT solution, which is mixed with a diluted PEO solution and cast onto a glass Petri dish to form, by evaporation, a thin film. The 50 μm-thick film is sandwiched between two fiber connectors to construct a saturable absorber, which is then integrated in an EDFL cavity to generate self-started stable soliton pulses operating at 1560.8 nm. The soliton pulse starts to lase at a pump power threshold of 12.3 mW with a repetition rate of 11.21 MHz, a pulse width of 1.02 ps, an average output power of 0.65 mW and a pulse energy of 57.98 pJ.

  19. High energy high brightness thin disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Matthew D.; Cates, Michael C.

    2012-11-01

    Boeing has been developing solid state lasers for high energy applications since 2004 using Yb:YAG thin disk lasers as pioneered by A. Giesen1 and commercialized by Trumpf Laser GmbH.2 In this paper, we report results of our second generation design and status of a third generation we are currently developing, which will produce 35 kW and a beam quality <2.

  20. Gratings for High-Energy Petawatt Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H T; Britten, J A; Carlson, T C; Nissen, J D; Summers, L J; Hoaglan, C R; Aasen, M D; Peterson, J E; Jovanovic, I

    2005-11-08

    To enable high-energy petawatt laser operation we have developed the processing methods and tooling that produced both the world's largest multilayer dielectric reflection grating and the world's highest laser damage resistant gratings. We have successfully delivered the first ever 80 cm aperture multilayer dielectric grating to LLNL's Titan Intense Short Pulse Laser Facility. We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings.

  1. Laser ablation of optically thin absorbing liquid layer predeposited onto a transparent solid substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Lyon, K.; Shukla, S.; Murry, D.; Allen, S. D.

    2006-09-01

    Ablation of optically thin liquid 2-propanol layers of variable thickness on IR-transparent solid Si substrate by a nanosecond CO{sub 2} laser has been experimentally studied using time-resolved optical interferometric and microscopy techniques. Basic ablation parameters - threshold fluences for surface vaporization and explosive homogeneous boiling of the superheated liquid, ablation depths, vaporization (ablation) rates, and characteristic ablation times versus laser fluence - were measured as a function of alcohol layer thickness. The underlying ablation mechanisms, their thermodynamics, and microscopic details are discussed.

  2. Design of energy absorbing materials and composite structures based on porous shape memory alloys (SE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying

    Recently, attention has been paid to porous shape memory alloys. This is because the alloys show large and recoverable deformation, i.e. superelasticity and shape memory effect. Due to their light weight and potential large deformations, porous shape memory alloys have been considered as excellent candidates for energy absorption materials. In the present study, porous NiTi alloy with several different porosities are processed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The compression behavior of the porous NiTi is examined with an aim of using it for a possible high energy absorbing material. Two models for the macroscopic compression behavior of porous shape memory alloy (SMA) are presented in this work, where Eshelby's inhomogeneous inclusion method is used to predict the effective elastic and superelastic behavior of a porous SMA based on the assumption of stress-strain curve. The analytical results are compared with experimental data for porous NiTi with 13% porosity, resulting in a reasonably good agreement. Based on the study upon porous NiTi, an energy absorbing composite structure made of a concentric NiTi spring and a porous NiTi rod is presented in this PhD dissertation. Both NiTi spring and porous NiTi rod are of superelastic grade. Ductile porous NiTi cylindrical specimens are fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The composite structure exhibits not only high reversible force-displacement behavior for small to intermediate loading but also high energy absorbing property when subjected to large compressive loads. A model for the compressive force-displacement curve of the composite structure is presented. The predicted curve is compared to the experimental data, resulting in a reasonably good agreement.

  3. Scientific applications for high-energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.W.

    1994-03-01

    The convergence of numerous factors makes the time ripe for the development of a community of researchers to use the high-energy laser for scientific investigations. This document attempts to outline the steps necessary to access high-energy laser systems and create a realistic plan to implement usage. Since an academic/scientific user community does not exist in the USA to any viable extent, we include information on present capabilities at the Nova laser. This will briefly cover laser performance and diagnostics and a sampling of some current experimental projects. Further, to make the future possibilities clearer, we will describe the proposed next- generation high-energy laser, named for its inertial fusion confinement (ICF) goal, the multi-megaJoule, 500-teraWatt National Facility, or NIF.

  4. High-energy room-temperature Fe2+:ZnS laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firsov, K. N.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Ikonnikov, V. B.; Kazantsev, S. Yu; Kononov, I. G.; Rodin, S. A.; Savin, D. V.; Timofeeva, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of a room temperature laser on polycrystalline ZnS:Fe2+ subjected to diffuse doping from two sides were investigated. The sample was pumped by a non-chain electrodischarge HF laser with the FWHM duration of the radiation pulse of ~140 ns. The diameter of the pumping radiation spot on the surface of the crystal was 3.8 mm. Further increases in the size of the pumping spot were limited by parasitic generation arising due to a high concentration of Fe ions in the near-surface layer of the sample at a relatively small depth of doping (short length of active medium). The generation energy of 25.5 mJ was obtained at a slope efficiency of 12% with respect to the energy incident on the sample. Characteristics of lasers on polycrystalline ZnS:Fe2+ and ZnSe:Fe2+ have been compared in equal pumping conditions. The slope efficiencies of ZnSe:Fe2+ and ZnS:Fe2+ lasers with respect to the absorbed energy were 34% and 20%, respectively. At equal pumping energy absorbed in the samples, the duration of the ZnSe:Fe2+ laser radiation pulse was longer than that of the ZnS:Fe2+ laser. Possibilities of increasing the efficiency of ZnS:Fe2+ laser operation at room temperature by improving the technology of sample manufacturing and reducing the duration of the pumping pulse are discussed in this letter.

  5. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  6. An APL program for the distribution of energy deposition by charged particles passing through thin absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    An APL program which numerically evaluates the probability density function (PDF) for the energy deposited in a thin absorber by a charged particle is proposed, with application to the construction, pointing, and control of spacecraft. With this program, the PDF of the restricted energy loss distribution of Watts (1973) is derived, and Vavilov's (1957) distribution is obtained by proper parameter selection. The method is demonstrated with the example of the effect of charged particle induced radiation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing accuracy. A Monte Carlo study simulates the photon noise caused by charged particles passing through the photomultiplier tube window, and the stochastic variation of energy loss is introduced into the simulation by generating random energy losses from a power law distribution. The program eliminates annoying loop procedures, and model parameter sensitivity can be studied using the graphical output.

  7. Numerical Study of Passive Q Switching of a Tm:YAG Laser with a Ho:YLF Solid-State Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Chang, Yi-An

    2003-03-01

    In a previous work [Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 , 3060 (1994) we experimentally demonstrated that passive ]Q switching of a 2017-nm, flashlamp-pumped Tm,Cr:YAG laser with a Ho:YLF saturable absorber could be obtained with an internal focusing lens. We numerically investigate the optical performance of the Ho:YLF Q -switched Tm:YAG laser system by solving the coupled rate equations. The simulation results indicate that the results obtained numerically are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally. With typical laser configuration, a Q -switched laser pulse of 35 mJ in 30 ns is obtained.

  8. Passively Q-switched and mode-locked dual-wavelength Nd:GGG laser with Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Yufei; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao; Feng, Chuansheng; Zhang, Haijuan

    2014-03-01

    By using neodymium-doped gadolinium gallium garnet (Nd:GGG) as a laser medium, a simultaneously passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) dual-wavelength laser with Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber is presented. The laser simultaneously oscillated at 1061 nm and 1063 nm, corresponding to a frequency difference of 0.53 THz. QML pulses with nearly 100% modulation depth were observed. The mode-locked pulse duration underneath the Q-switched envelope was estimated to be about 908 ps. The experimental results indicated that the dual-wavelength QML Nd:GGG laser can be an excellent candidate for the generation of THz waves.

  9. Transcanalicular laser dacryocystorhinostomy using low energy 810 nm diode laser

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjiv K.; Kumar, Ajai; Agarwal, Swati; Pandey, Paritosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic scarring may be a cause of failure after transcanalicular laser dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery. This hypertrophic scarring results from tissue charring and excessive coagulation, which may be caused by the high laser energy. We have evaluated the use of low energy settings to prevent hypertrophic scarring, for a successful outcome. Aims: To perform and evaluate transcanalicular laser DCR using low energy 810 nm diode laser. Design: Interventional, non-comparative, case series. Materials and Methods: Patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and chronic dacryocystitis, who needed DCR, and were fit for surgery under local anesthesia, were recruited to undergo transcanalicular laser DCR using a 810 nm diode laser. The outcome was measured by the patency of the lacrimal passage, as indicated by the relief in the symptoms and the patency on syringing at the last follow-up. The surgical time and surgical complications were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis. Results: The study included 94 patients. The average age was 30.1 years (range 15 - 69 years). Seventy (74.4%) patients were female. Eight patients had failed external DCR. Per-operative patency of the passage was obtained in all the patients. Average surgical time was seven minutes (5 – 18 minutes). At the end of the study period of one year, a successful outcome was seen in 85 patients (90.5%). There were eight patients of previous failed DCR surgeries, and six of them achieved a cure at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Transcanalicular Laser DCR can be safely performed using a low power 810 nm diode laser. The surgery is elegant, minimally invasive, allows fast rehabilitation, and has an excellent success rate. PMID:23439888

  10. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PMID:27074452

  11. Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser at C-band region based on WS₂ saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H; Ruslan, N E; Ismail, M A; Reduan, S A; Lee, C S J; Sathiyan, S; Sivabalan, S; Harun, S W

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate a Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using tungsten disulfide (WS₂) as a saturable absorber. The WS₂ is deposited onto fiber ferrules using a drop-casting method. Passive Q-switched pulses operating in the C-band region with a central wavelength of 1560.7 nm are successfully generated by a tunable pulse repetition rate ranging from 27.2 to 84.8 kHz when pump power is increased from 40 to 220 mW. At the same time, the pulse width decreases from a maximum value of 3.84 μs to a minimum value of 1.44 μs. The signal-to-noise ratio gives a stable value of 43.7 dB. The modulation depth and saturation intensity are measured to be 0.99% and 36.2  MW/cm², respectively. PMID:26906366

  12. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats is explored. An energy-absorbing test seat was designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions, was conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats were also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing was conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests were conducted. The vertical drop tests were used to obtain comparative data between the energy-absorbing and operational seats. Volume 1 describes the energy absorbing test seat and testing conducted, and evaluates the data from both test series.

  13. High energy chemical laser system

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  14. An evaluation of energy-absorbing guide rail terminals in New Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esligar, Ryan W.

    2011-12-01

    Energy-absorbing guide rail terminals (EAGRTs) are a form of end treatment designed to absorb energy during a collision and prevent intrusion into the impacting vehicle. After several years of use in New Brunswick there is evidence to suggest these systems may not always perform as expected. This study was conducted to evaluate the real-world performance of EAGRT systems in collisions throughout the Province. A retrospective review of data for 103 collisions that occurred prior to the study was supplemented with an in-depth analysis and reconstruction of 18 collisions that occurred during the study. The study revealed that two types of EAGRTs are used in New Brunswick; the ET-Plus and the SKT-350. Between 2007 and 2010 approximately 80% of all EAGRT collisions were PDO, nearly 19% resulted in injuries, while one collision resulted in a fatality. In most cases the EAGRT absorbed a significant amount of energy (an average of 315 KJ per crash); however, there were several problems identified. It was determined that not all EAGRT systems are being installed in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines. Intrusion into the vehicle was documented in three collisions. It was also discovered that many of the collision configurations were different than the NCHRP Report 350 tests. The major recommendations focused on installation and maintenance issues identified during the study. The study also revealed areas in need of further research. These areas include the feasibility of using the FLEAT system in New Brunswick, the installation of rumble strips on the median shoulder, and whether or not additional crash test configurations should be incorporated into NCHRP Report 350 or Project 22-14(2).

  15. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  16. Analytical one-dimensional model for laser-induced ultrasound in planar optically absorbing layer.

    PubMed

    Svanström, Erika; Linder, Tomas; Löfqvist, Torbjörn

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound generated by means of laser-based photoacoustic principles are in common use today and applications can be found both in biomedical diagnostics, non-destructive testing and materials characterisation. For certain measurement applications it could be beneficial to shape the generated ultrasound regarding spectral properties and temporal profile. To address this, we studied the generation and propagation of laser-induced ultrasound in a planar, layered structure. We derived an analytical expression for the induced pressure wave, including different physical and optical properties of each layer. A Laplace transform approach was employed in analytically solving the resulting set of photoacoustic wave equations. The results correspond to simulations and were compared to experimental results. To enable the comparison between recorded voltage from the experiments and the calculated pressure we employed a system identification procedure based on physical properties of the ultrasonic transducer to convert the calculated acoustic pressure to voltages. We found reasonable agreement between experimentally obtained voltages and the voltages determined from the calculated acoustic pressure, for the samples studied. The system identification procedure was found to be unstable, however, possibly from violations of material isotropy assumptions by film adhesives and coatings in the experiment. The presented analytical model can serve as a basis when addressing the inverse problem of shaping an acoustic pulse from absorption of a laser pulse in a planar layered structure of elastic materials. PMID:24262676

  17. Selectiveness of laser processing due to energy coupling localization: case of thin film solar cell scribing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Račiukaitis, G.; Grubinskas, S.; Gečys, P.; Gedvilas, M.

    2013-07-01

    Selectiveness of the laser processing is the top-most important for applications of the processing technology in thin-film electronics, including photovoltaics. Coupling of laser energy in multilayered thin-film structures, depending on photo-physical properties of the layers and laser wavelength was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Energy coupling within thin films highly depends on the film structure. The finite element and two-temperature models were applied to simulate the energy and temperature distributions inside the stack of different layers of a thin-film solar cell during a picosecond laser irradiation. Reaction of the films to the laser irradiation was conditioned by optical properties of the layers at the wavelength of laser radiation. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental data achieved in laser scribing of copper-indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on a flexible polymer substrate using picosecond-pulsed lasers. Selection of the right laser wavelength (1064 nm or 1572 nm) enabled keeping the energy coupling in a well-defined volume at the interlayer interface. High absorption at inner interface of the layers triggered localized temperature increase. Transient stress caused by the rapid temperature rise facilitating peeling of the films rather than evaporation. Ultra-short pulses ensured high energy input rate into absorbing material permitting peeling of the layers with no influence on the remaining material.

  18. High order harmonic mode-locking in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser with a graphene oxide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. S.; Wang, Y. G.; Yan, P. G.; Zhang, G. L.; Zhao, J. Q.; Li, H. Q.; Lin, R. Y.

    2014-01-01

    A high order passive harmonic mode-locking (HML) Yb-doped all-normal-dispersion fiber laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber has been experimentally demonstrated. For two different pump powers and different polarization states of the laser cavity, lower order and higher order HML have been achieved. The highest 30th-order harmonic (31.86 MHz) was achieved with subnanosecond pulse duration; this is transitional from a bunched multipulse state.

  19. 1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhengqian; Huang, Yizhong; Weng, Jian; Cheng, Huihui; Lin, Zhiqing; Xu, Bin; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Huiying

    2013-12-01

    Passive Q-switching of an ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF) laser with few-layer topological insulator (TI) is, to the best of our knowledge, experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The few-layer TI: Bi₂Se₃ (2-4 layer thickness) is firstly fabricated by the liquid-phase exfoliation method, and has a low saturable optical intensity of 53 MW/cm² measured by the Z-scan technique. The optical deposition technique is used to induce the few-layer TI in the solution onto a fiber ferrule for successfully constructing the fiber-integrated TI-based saturable absorber (SA). By inserting this SA into the YDF laser cavity, stable Q-switching operation at 1.06 μm is achieved. The Q-switched pulses have the shortest pulse duration of 1.95 μs, the maximum pulse energy of 17.9 nJ and a tunable pulse-repetition-rate from 8.3 to 29.1 kHz. Our results indicate that the TI as a SA is also available at 1 μm waveband, revealing its potential as another broadband SA (like graphene). PMID:24514504

  20. Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser operating at 1940 nm region using a pencil-core as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latiff, A. A.; Shamsudin, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) is demonstrated using pencil-core flakes as a saturable absorber (SA) for the first time. The SA was fabricated by exfoliating pencil-core flakes on adhesive tape surface, then repeatedly folded over the tape until the flakes homogenously deposited on the tape. A small piece of the tape is sandwiched between two ferrules and incorporated in TDFL cavity to realize a stable Q-switching pulse train. By increasing the 1552-nm pump power from 389 to 431 mW, the repetition rate of the TDFL increases from 14.95 to 34.60 kHz while the pulse width decreases from 6.70 to 4.69 μs. The maximum pulse energy of 46.05 nJ is generated with repetition rate and pulse width of 21.25 kHz and 6.27 μs, respectively. To the best our knowledge, this is a first demonstration SA from mundane object as alternative to commercial bulk graphite for Q-switched fiber laser.

  1. Specific absorbed fractions of energy from internal photon sources in brain tumor and cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F. )); Stubbs, J.B. )

    1995-03-01

    Transferrin, radiolabeled with In-111, can be coinjected into glioblastoma multiforme lesions, and subsequent scintigraphic imaging can demonstrate the biokinetics of the cytotoxic transferrin. The administration of [sup 111]In transferrin into a brain tumor results in distribution of radioactivity in the brain, brain tumor, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Information about absorbed radiation doses to these regions, as well as other nearby tissues and organs, is important for evaluating radiation-related risks from this procedure. The radiation dose is usually estimated for a mathematical representation of the human body. We have included source/target regions for the eye, lens of the eye, spinal column, spinal CSF, cranial CSF, and a 100-g tumor within the brain of an adult male phantom developed by Cristy and Eckerman. The spinal column, spinal CSF, and the eyes have not been routinely included in photon transport simulations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) as a function of photon energy were calculated using the ALGAMP computer code, which utilizes Monte Carlo techniques for simulating photon transport. The ALGAMP code was run three times, with the source activity distributed uniformly within the tumor, cranial CSF, and the spinal CSF volumes. These SAFs, which were generated for 12 discrete photon energies ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV, were used with decay scheme data to calculate [ital S]-values needed for estimating absorbed doses. [ital S]-values for [sup 111]In are given for three source regions (brain tumor, cranial CSF, and spinal CSF) and all standard target regions/organs, the eye and lens, as well as to tissues within these source regions. [ital S]-values for the skeletal regions containing active marrow are estimated. These results are useful in evaluating the radiation doses from intracranial administration of [sup 111]In transferrin.

  2. Tm:KLu(WO(4))(2) microchip laser Q-switched by a graphene-based saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Serres, Josep Maria; Loiko, Pavel; Mateos, Xavier; Yumashev, Konstantin; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc

    2015-06-01

    We report on the first Tm-doped double tungstate microchip laser Q-switched with graphene using a Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystal cut along the Ng dielectric axis. This laser generates a maximum average output power of 310 mW with a slope efficiency of 13%. At a repetition rate of 190 kHz the shortest pulses with 285 ns duration and 1.6 µJ energy are achieved. PMID:26072779

  3. Analytical Simulations of Energy-Absorbing Impact Spheres for a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Marcus Dwight; Fasanella, Edwin L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations were performed to aid in the design of an energy-absorbing impact sphere for a passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that is a possible architecture for the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The MSR EEV concept uses an entry capsule and energy-absorbing impact sphere designed to contain and limit the acceleration of collected samples during Earth impact without a parachute. The spherical shaped impact sphere is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid composite, graphite-epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Collected Martian samples will fit inside a smaller spherical sample container at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons were made of analytical results obtained using MSC.Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center for impact velocities from 30 to 40 m/s. Acceleration, velocity, and deformation results compared well with the test results. The correlated finite element model was then used for simulations of various off-nominal impact scenarios. Off-nominal simulations at an impact velocity of 40 m/s included a rotated cellular structure impact onto a flat surface, a cellular structure impact onto an angled surface, and a cellular structure impact onto the corner of a step.

  4. Impact Test and Simulation of Energy Absorbing Concepts for Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Marcus D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations have been performed to aid in the design of an energy absorbing concept for a highly reliable passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that will directly impact the Earth without a parachute. EEV's are designed to return materials from asteroids, comets, or planets for laboratory analysis on Earth. The EEV concept uses an energy absorbing cellular structure designed to contain and limit the acceleration of space exploration samples during Earth impact. The spherical shaped cellular structure is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid graphite- epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Space samples fit inside a smaller sphere at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons of analytical predictions using MSC,Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center were made for three impact velocities ranging from 32 to 40 m/s. Acceleration and deformation results compared well with the test results. These finite element models will be useful for parametric studies of off-nominal impact conditions.

  5. Absorbable energy monitoring scheme: new design protocol to test vehicle structural crashworthiness.

    PubMed

    Ofochebe, Sunday M; Enibe, Samuel O; Ozoegwu, Chigbogu G

    2016-05-01

    In vehicle crashworthiness design optimization detailed system evaluation capable of producing reliable results are basically achieved through high-order numerical computational (HNC) models such as the dynamic finite element model, mesh-free model etc. However the application of these models especially during optimization studies is basically challenged by their inherent high demand on computational resources, conditional stability of the solution process, and lack of knowledge of viable parameter range for detailed optimization studies. The absorbable energy monitoring scheme (AEMS) presented in this paper suggests a new design protocol that attempts to overcome such problems in evaluation of vehicle structure for crashworthiness. The implementation of the AEMS involves studying crash performance of vehicle components at various absorbable energy ratios based on a 2DOF lumped-mass-spring (LMS) vehicle impact model. This allows for prompt prediction of useful parameter values in a given design problem. The application of the classical one-dimensional LMS model in vehicle crash analysis is further improved in the present work by developing a critical load matching criterion which allows for quantitative interpretation of the results of the abstract model in a typical vehicle crash design. The adequacy of the proposed AEMS for preliminary vehicle crashworthiness design is demonstrated in this paper, however its extension to full-scale design-optimization problem involving full vehicle model that shows greater structural detail requires more theoretical development. PMID:27441279

  6. Full-Scale Crash Test of a MD-500 Helicopter with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    A new externally deployable energy absorbing system was demonstrated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter. The deployable system is a honeycomb structure and utilizes composite materials in its construction. A set of two Deployable Energy Absorbers (DEAs) were fitted on the MD-500 helicopter for the full-scale crash demonstration. Four anthropomorphic dummy occupants were also used to assess human survivability. A demonstration test was performed at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The test involved impacting the helicopter on a concrete surface with combined forward and vertical velocity components of 40-ft/s and 26-ft/s, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of dynamic finite element simulations. Descriptions of this test as well as other component and full-scale tests leading to the helicopter test are discussed. Acceleration data from the anthropomorphic dummies showed that dynamic loads were successfully attenuated to within non-injurious levels. Moreover, the airframe itself survived the relatively severe impact and was retested to provide baseline data for comparison for cases with and without DEAs.

  7. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Sotor, J. Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M.; Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L.

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  8. Fundamental and harmonic soliton mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in poly (ethylene oxide) film saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdin, R. Z. R. R.; Zarei, A.; Ali, N. M.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, compact and low cost mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) film as a passive saturable absorber. The film was fabricated using a prepared homogeneous SWCNT solution, which was mixed with a diluted PEO solution and casted onto a glass petri dish to form a thin film by evaporation technique. The film, with a thickness of 50 μm, is sandwiched between two fiber connectors to construct a saturable absorber, which is then integrated in an EDFL cavity to generate a self-started stable soliton pulses operating at 1560.8 nm. The soliton pulse starts to lase at 1480 nm pup power threshold of 12.3 mW to produce pulse train with repetition rate of 11.21 MHz, pulse width of 1.02 ps, average output power of 0.65 mW and pulse energy of 57.98 pJ. Then, we observed the 4th, 7th and 15th harmonic of fundamental cavity frequency start to occur when the pump powers are further increased to 14.9, 17.5 and 20.1 mW, respectively. The 4th harmonic pulses are characterized in detail with a repetition rate of 44.84 MHz, a transform-limited pulse width of 1.19 ps, side-mode suppression ratio of larger than 20 dB and pulse energy of 9.14 pJ.

  9. Lumbar load attenuation for rotorcraft occupants using a design methodology for the seat impact energy-absorbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Rasoul; Beheshti, Hamid; Lankarani, Hamid

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft occupant crash-safety considerations require a minimum cushion thickness to limit the relative vertical motion of the seat-pelvis during high vertical impact loadings in crash landings or accidents. In military aircraft and helicopter seat design, due to the potential for high vertical accelerations in crash scenarios, the seat system must be provided with an energy absorber to attenuate the acceleration level sustained by the occupants. Because of the limited stroke available for the seat structure, the design of the energy absorber becomes a trade-off problem between minimizing the stroke and maximizing the energy absorption. The available stroke must be used to prevent bottoming out of the seat as well as to absorb maximum impact energy to protect the occupant. In this study, the energy-absorbing system in a rotorcraft seat design is investigated using a mathematical model of the occupant/seat system. Impact theories between interconnected bodies in multibody mechanical systems are utilized to study the impact between the seat pan and the occupant. Experimental responses of the seat system and the occupant are utilized to validate the results from this study for civil and military helicopters according to FAR 23 and 25 and MIL-S-58095 requirements. A model for the load limiter is proposed to minimize the lumbar load for the occupant by minimizing the relative velocity between the seat pan and the occupant's pelvis. The modified energy absorber/load limiter is then implemented for the seat structure so that it absorbs the energy of impact in an effective manner and below the tolerable limit for the occupant in a minimum stroke. Results show that for a designed stroke, the level of occupant lumbar spine injury would be significantly attenuated using this modified energy-absorber system.

  10. An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2008-07-15

    The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Power Generation Performance of Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y.; Epler, J.; Previsic, M.

    2012-04-01

    The extraction of energy from ocean waves has gained interest in recent years. The floating-point absorber (FPA) is one of the most promising devices among a wide variety of wave energy conversion technologies. Early theoretical studies mainly focused on understanding the hydrodynamics of the system and on predicting the maximum power that could be extracted by a heaving body. These studies evolve from the investigation of floating-body interactions in offshore engineering and naval architecture disciplines. To our best knowledge, no systematic study has been reported about the investigation of the power generation performance of an FPA with a close-to-commercial design. A series of experimental tests was conducted to investigate the power extraction performance of an FPA system.

  12. Dual wavelength laser damage testing for high energy lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, Briggs W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

    2010-05-01

    As high energy laser systems evolve towards higher energies, fundamental material properties such as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the optics limit the overall system performance. The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories uses a pair of such kiljoule-class Nd:Phosphate Glass lasers for x-ray radiography of high energy density physics events on the Z-Accelerator. These two systems, the Z-Beamlet system operating at 527nm/ 1ns and the Z-Petawatt system operating at 1054nm/ 0.5ps, can be combined for some experimental applications. In these scenarios, dichroic beam combining optics and subsequent dual wavelength high reflectors will see a high fluence from combined simultaneous laser exposure and may even see lingering effects when used for pump-probe configurations. Only recently have researchers begun to explore such concerns, looking at individual and simultaneous exposures of optics to 1064 and third harmonic 355nm light from Nd:YAG [1]. However, to our knowledge, measurements of simultaneous and delayed dual wavelength damage thresholds on such optics have not been performed for exposure to 1054nm and its second harmonic light, especially when the pulses are of disparate pulse duration. The Z-Backlighter Facility has an instrumented damage tester setup to examine the issues of laser-induced damage thresholds in a variety of such situations [2] . Using this damage tester, we have measured the LIDT of dual wavelength high reflectors at 1054nm/0.5ps and 532nm/7ns, separately and spatially combined, both co-temporal and delayed, with single and multiple exposures. We found that the LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps can be significantly lowered, from 1.32J/cm{sup 2} damage fluence with 1054/0.5ps only to 1.05 J/cm{sup 2} with the simultaneous presence of 532nm/7ns laser light at a fluence of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2}. This reduction of LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps continues as the fluence of 532nm/7ns laser light simultaneously

  13. Study on preparation of the core-nanoshell composite absorbers by high-energy ball milling at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Che, Ruxin; Gao, Hong; Yu, Bing; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chunxia

    2012-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave pollution has become the chief physical pollution for environment. In recent years, some researches have been focused on the preparation of nano-composite absorbers at low temperatures or even at room temperature. In this letter, preparation of nanocomposite by using high-energy ball milling at room temperature is reported. The core-nanoshell composite absorbers with magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere (MFHC) as nuclear and nanocrystalline magnetic material as shell were prepared by high-energy ball milling and vacuum-sintering in this paper. The pre-treatment of MFHC, the sintering process and the mol ratio of starting chemicals had a significant impact for property of composite absorbers. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA) analysis indicated that perfect-crystalline nanomagnetic material coating was gotten with a particle size of 12 nm after ball milling. The results show the MFHC is dielectric loss and magnetic loss too; the exchange-coupling interaction happened between ferrite of the MFHC and nanocrystalline magnetic material coating. The exchange-coupling interaction enhances magnetic loss of composite absorbers. They have a perfect EM parameters at low microwave frequency. The core-nanoshell composite absorbers have a higher magnetic loss at low frequencies, and it is consistent with requirements of the microwave absorbing material at the low-frequency absorption. The microwave absorptivity of the core-nanoshell composite absorbers is better than single material. PMID:22630008

  14. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Luo, H. Y.; He, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, K. M.; Rozhin, A. G.; Turistyn, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    A diode-cladding-pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser using a reverse designed broad band semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) was demonstrated. Nonlinear reflectivity of the SESAM was measured using an in-house Yb3+-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 1062 nm. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficient of 12.1% with respect to the launched pump power. Maximum pulse energy of 6.65 µJ with a pulse width of 1.68 µs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ~50 dB was achieved at a repetition rate of 47.6 kHz and center wavelength of 2.971 µm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3 µm region SESAM-based Q-switched fiber laser with the highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the longest wavelength from mid-infrared passively Q-switched fluoride fiber lasers.

  15. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Hongyu; He, Yulian; Liu, Yong; Luo, Binbin; Sun, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Lin; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2014-05-01

    A diode-cladding-pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser using a reverse designed broad band semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) was demonstrated. Nonlinear reflectivity of the SESAM was measured using an in-house Yb3+-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 1062 nm. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficient of 12.1% with respect to the launched pump power. Maximum pulse energy of 6.65 μJ with a pulse width of 1.68 μs and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ~50 dB was achieved at a repetition rate of 47.6 kHz and center wavelength of 2.971 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3 μm region SESAM based Q-switched fiber laser with the highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the longest wavelength from mid-infrared passively Q-switched fluoride fiber lasers.

  16. Passively mode-locked pulse generation in a c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1086 nm with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Yang, Pao-Keng; Lin, Wei-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a diode-pumped passively mode-locked (ML) c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser with central wavelength at 1086 nm by shifting the reflectance band of the SESAM into a longer wavelength to result in larger loss around 1068 nm. At 15 W absorbed pump power, the highest output power of the ML pulse was about 2.6 W that corresponded to the 17.3% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency and the slope efficiency of laser was about 22.9%. Using our ML laser as the light source, we have also successfully measured the saturation fluence of the SESAM at 1086 nm.

  17. Carbon nanostructure-based saturable absorber mirror for a diode-pumped 500-MHz femtosecond Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Jun Wan; Kim, Mi Hye; Yeom, Dong-Il; Hong, Byung Hee; Mateos, Xavier; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Petrov, Valentin; Griebner, Uwe; Rotermund, Fabian

    2014-06-30

    We report a diode-pumped Yb:KLu(WO(4))(2) (Yb:KLuW) laser passively mode-locked by employing a carbon nanostructure-based multi-functional saturable absorber mirror. Two types of carbon nanostructures, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene, were deposited on a single dielectric mirror and applied both for stable mode-locking of the Yb:KLuW laser near 1050 nm in a compact cavity configuration. The carbon nanostructure mode-locked laser delivers 157-fs pulses with output powers of up to 85 mW at a repetition rate of 500 MHz. PMID:24977821

  18. Experimental study on the multisoliton pattern formation in an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Chujun; Li, Ying; Wen, Jianguo; Zhang, Han

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by few layers of graphene prepared by the mechanical exfoliation of the high oriented pyrolytic graphite through the Scotch-tape method. This all-fiber ring cavity delivered a pulse train with a repetition rate of 1.646 MHz and pulse duration of 1.656 ps. By continuously adjusting the laser cavity parameters, one can observe various soliton patterns, such as ordered-, chaotic-, bunched-, and harmonic-multisoliton state. This evidenced that a mode-locked fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber indeed provided a well-controlled nonlinear optics platform for soliton dynamics study.

  19. Generation of stretched pulses and dissipative solitons at 2  μm from an all-fiber mode-locked laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Obraztsova, Elena D; Pozharov, Anatoly S; Set, Sze Y; Yamashita, Shinji

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a thulium-doped, all-fiber, mode-locked laser using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber, operating in the dissipative-soliton regime and the stretched-pulse-soliton regime. The net dispersion of the laser cavity is adjusted by inserting different lengths of normal dispersion fiber, resulting in different mode-locking regimes. These results could serve as a foundation for the optimization of mode-locked fiber-laser cavity design at the 2 μm wavelength region. PMID:27519109

  20. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams.

    PubMed

    Metzkes, J; Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Karsch, L; Sobiella, M; Rehwald, M; Obst, L; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Schramm, U

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source. PMID:27587116

  1. Investigation of the crater-like microdefects induced by laser shock processing with aluminum foil as absorbent layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y. X.; Xuan, T.; Lian, Z. C.; Feng, Y. Y.; Hua, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports that 3D crater-like microdefects form on the metal surface when laser shock processing (LSP) is applied. LSP was conducted on pure copper block using the aluminum foil as the absorbent material and water as the confining layer. There existed the bonding material to attach the aluminum foil on the metal target closely. The surface morphologies and metallographs of copper surfaces were characterized with 3D profiler, the optical microscopy (OM) or the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature increases of metal surface due to LSP were evaluated theoretically. It was found that, when aluminum foil was used as the absorbent material, and if there existed air bubbles in the bonding material, the air temperatures within the bubbles rose rapidly because of the adiabatic compression. So at the locations of the air bubbles, the metal materials melted and micromelting pool formed. Then under the subsequent expanding of the air bubbles, a secondary shock wave was launched against the micromelting pool and produced the crater-like microdefects on the metal surface. The temperature increases due to shock heat and high-speed deformation were not enough to melt the metal target. The temperature increase induced by the adiabatic compression of the air bubbles may also cause the gasification of the metal target. This will also help form the crater-like microdefects. The results of this paper can help to improve the surface quality of a metal target during the application of LSP. In addition, the results provide another method to fabricate 3D crater-like dents on metal surface. This has a potential application in mechanical engineering.

  2. Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, C. A. Mangold, M.; Pallmann, W. P.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.; Gronenborn, S.; Moench, H.; Weichmann, U.; Miller, M.

    2014-03-24

    We present an electrically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (EP-VECSEL) modelocked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with significantly improved performance. In different cavity configurations, we present the shortest pulses (2.5 ps), highest average output power (53.2 mW), highest repetition rate (18.2 GHz), and highest peak power (4.7 W) to date. The simple and low-cost concept of EP-VECSELs is very attractive for mass-market applications such as optical communication and clocking. The improvements result from an optimized gain chip from Philips Technologie GmbH and a SESAM, specifically designed for EP-VECSELs. For the gain chip, we found a better trade-off between electrical and optical losses with an optimized doping scheme in the substrate to increase the average output power. Furthermore, the device's bottom contact diameter (60 μm) is smaller than the oxide aperture diameter (100 μm), which favors electro-optical conversion into a TEM{sub 00} mode. Compared to optically pumped VECSELs we have to increase the field enhancement in the active region of an EP-VECSEL which requires a SESAM with lower saturation fluence and higher modulation depth for modelocking. We therefore used a resonant quantum well SESAM with a 3.5-pair dielectric top-coating (SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub 2}) to enhance the field in the absorber at the lasing wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption bandedge at room temperature is detuned (965 nm) compared to the resonance (980 nm), which enables temperature-tuning of the modulation depth and saturation fluence from approximately 2.5% up to 15% and from 20 μJ/cm{sup 2} to 1.1 μJ/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  3. Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaugg, C. A.; Gronenborn, S.; Moench, H.; Mangold, M.; Miller, M.; Weichmann, U.; Pallmann, W. P.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present an electrically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (EP-VECSEL) modelocked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with significantly improved performance. In different cavity configurations, we present the shortest pulses (2.5 ps), highest average output power (53.2 mW), highest repetition rate (18.2 GHz), and highest peak power (4.7 W) to date. The simple and low-cost concept of EP-VECSELs is very attractive for mass-market applications such as optical communication and clocking. The improvements result from an optimized gain chip from Philips Technologie GmbH and a SESAM, specifically designed for EP-VECSELs. For the gain chip, we found a better trade-off between electrical and optical losses with an optimized doping scheme in the substrate to increase the average output power. Furthermore, the device's bottom contact diameter (60 μm) is smaller than the oxide aperture diameter (100 μm), which favors electro-optical conversion into a TEM00 mode. Compared to optically pumped VECSELs we have to increase the field enhancement in the active region of an EP-VECSEL which requires a SESAM with lower saturation fluence and higher modulation depth for modelocking. We therefore used a resonant quantum well SESAM with a 3.5-pair dielectric top-coating (SiNx and SiO2) to enhance the field in the absorber at the lasing wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption bandedge at room temperature is detuned (965 nm) compared to the resonance (980 nm), which enables temperature-tuning of the modulation depth and saturation fluence from approximately 2.5% up to 15% and from 20 μJ/cm2 to 1.1 μJ/cm2, respectively.

  4. Reduction of timing jitter in a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser by direct bleaching of a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cole, Brian; Goldberg, Lew; Trussell, C Ward; Hays, Alan; Schilling, Bradley W; McIntosh, Chris

    2009-02-01

    A method for optical triggering of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser by direct bleaching of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber is described. This method involves the bleaching of a thin sheet of the saturable absorber from a direction orthogonal to the lasing axis using a single laser diode bar, where the Cr:YAG transmission increased from a non-bleached value of 47% to a bleached value of 63%. For steady state operation of a passively Q-switched laser (PRF=10 Hz), the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter showed approximately 12X reduction in standard deviation, from 241 nsec for free running operation to 20 nsec with optical triggering. PMID:19189006

  5. Broadband wavelength tunable mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser operating in the 2 μm region by using a graphene saturable absorber on microfiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Liu, Yan-ge; Wang, Zhi; Lou, Jiachang; Wang, Zhenhong; Liu, Zhibo

    2016-06-01

    A broadband wavelength tunable mode-locked Tm3+-doped fiber laser operating in the 2 μm region based on a graphene saturable absorber is experimentally investigated. A section of graphene film is transferred on a microfiber, which allows light-graphene interaction via evanescent field. The microfiber based graphene not only acts as an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking, but also induces a polarizing effect to form an artificial birefringent filter for wavelength selection. By tuning the polarization states in the laser cavity, the laser exhibits tunable wavelength mode-locked pulses over a wide range from 1880 to 1940 nm. Such a system provides a compact, user friendly and low cost wavelength tunable ultrashort pulse source in the 2 μm region.

  6. High shear rate flow in a linear stroke magnetorheological energy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.; Hiemenz, G. J.; Ngatu, G. T.

    2014-05-01

    To provide adaptive stroking load in the crew seats of ground vehicles to protect crew from blast or impact loads, a magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) or shock absorber was developed. The MREA provides appropriate levels of controllable stroking load for different occupant weights and peak acceleration because the viscous stroking load generated by the MREA force increases with velocity squared, thereby reducing its controllable range at high piston velocity. Therefore, MREA behavior at high piston velocity is analyzed and validated experimentally in order to investigate the effects of velocity and magnetic field on MREA performance. The analysis used to predict the MREA force as a function of piston velocity squared and applied field is presented. A conical fairing is mounted to the piston head of the MREA in order reduce predicted inlet flow loss by 9% at nominal velocity of 8 m/s, which resulted in a viscous force reduction of nominally 4%. The MREA behavior is experimentally measured using a high speed servo-hydraulic testing system for speeds up to 8 m/s. The measured MREA force is used to validate the analysis, which captures the transient force quite accurately, although the peak force is under-predicted at the peak speed of 8 m/s.

  7. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  8. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  9. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris; Horta, Lucas G.; Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program sponsored the experimental and analytical evaluation of an externally deployable composite honeycomb structure that is designed to attenuate impact energy during helicopter crashes. The concept, which is designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), utilizes an expandable Kevlar honeycomb structure to dissipate kinetic energy through crushing. The DEA incorporates a unique flexible hinge design that allows the honeycomb to be packaged and stowed flat until needed for deployment. A variety of deployment options such as linear, radial, and/or hybrid methods can be used. Experimental evaluation of the DEA utilized a building block approach that included material characterization testing of its constituent, Kevlar -129 fabric/epoxy, and flexural testing of single hexagonal cells. In addition, the energy attenuation capabilities of the DEA were demonstrated through multi-cell component dynamic crush tests, and vertical drop tests of a composite fuselage section, retrofitted with DEA blocks, onto concrete, water, and soft soil. During each stage of the DEA evaluation process, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. This report documents the results of the experimental evaluation that was conducted to assess the energy absorption capabilities of the DEA.

  10. Capturing the Energy Absorbing Mechanisms of Composite Structures under Crash Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Bonnie

    As fiber reinforced composite material systems become increasingly utilized in primary aircraft and automotive structures, the need to understand their contribution to the crashworthiness of the structure is of great interest to meet safety certification requirements. The energy absorbing behavior of a composite structure, however, is not easily predicted due to the great complexity of the failure mechanisms that occur within the material. Challenges arise both in the experimental characterization and in the numerical modeling of the material/structure combination. At present, there is no standardized test method to characterize the energy absorbing capability of composite materials to aide crashworthy structural design. In addition, although many commercial finite element analysis codes exist and offer a means to simulate composite failure initiation and propagation, these models are still under development and refinement. As more metallic structures are replaced by composite structures, the need for both experimental guidelines to characterize the energy absorbing capability of a composite structure, as well as guidelines for using numerical tools to simulate composite materials in crash conditions has become a critical matter. This body of research addresses both the experimental characterization of the energy absorption mechanisms occurring in composite materials during crushing, as well as the numerical simulation of composite materials undergoing crushing. In the experimental investigation, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of a composite material system is measured using a variety of test element geometries, such as corrugated plates and tubes. Results from several crush experiments reveal that SEA is not a constant material property for laminated composites, and varies significantly with the geometry of the test specimen used. The variation of SEA measured for a single material system requires that crush test data must be generated for a range of

  11. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  12. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  13. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2007-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  14. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  15. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (A) Lead handling/exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (B) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (C) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; and (D) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  16. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (1) Lead handling / exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (2) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (3) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; (4) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  17. Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter with a Deployable Energy Absorber Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2010-01-01

    On December 2, 2009, a full scale crash test was successfully conducted of a MD-500 helicopter at the NASA Langley Research Center Landing and Impact Research Facility . The purpose of this test was to evaluate a novel composite honeycomb deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept for attenuation of structural and crew loads during helicopter crashes under realistic crash conditions. The DEA concept is an alternative to external airbags, and absorbs impact energy through crushing. In the test, the helicopter impacted the concrete surface with 11.83 m/s (38.8 ft/s) horizontal, 7.80 m/s (25.6 ft/s) vertical and 0.15 m/s (0.5 ft/s) lateral velocities; corresponding to a resultant velocity of 14.2 m/s (46.5 ft/s). The airframe and skid gear were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages to determine structural integrity and load attenuation, while the skin of the airframe was covered with targets for use by photogrammetry to record gross vehicle motion before, during, and after the impact. Along with the collection of airframe data, one Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD), two Hybrid II 50th percentile ATDs and a specialized human surrogate torso model (HSTM) occupant were seated in the airframe and instrumented for the collection of occupant loads. Resultant occupant data showed that by using the DEA, the loads on the Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs were in the Low Risk regime for the injury criteria, while structural data showed the airframe retained its structural integrity post crash. Preliminary results show that the DEA is a viable concept for the attenuation of impact loads.

  18. High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

    2009-10-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored

  19. Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingchen; Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Yuan, Peng; Qian, Liejia

    2016-04-01

    Universal saturable absorbers covering wavelengths from near-infrared to mid-infrared bands have attracted widespread interest. In this contribution, we experimentally demonstrated the broadband saturable absorption of multilayer black phosphorus from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelengths. With liquid-phase-exfoliated black phosphorus nanoflakes as the saturable absorber, the Q-switching operation of bulk lasers at 1.03 μm, 1.93 μm, and 2.72 μm was realized, respectively. This work will open up promising optoelectronic applications of black phosphorus for the mid-infrared spectral region.

  20. Effect of laser shock peening without absorbent coating on the mechanical properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunhu; Fu, Jie; Zheng, Chao; Ji, Zhong

    2015-12-01

    In this work, laser shock peening without absorbent coating (LSPwC) was employed to Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (vit1) bulk metallic glass in order to improve its mechanical properties. The phase structure and thermal properties of the as-cast and LSPwC treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and differential scanning calorimeter. Three-point bending fracture tests of vit1 were performed on universal testing machine at room temperature with loading rate of 0.1 mm/min. The results showed that LSPwC enhanced the plasticity of vit1, and the plastic deflection increased by 23%. This enhancement could be attributed to the generation of crystalline phase and more free volume as well as the complex residual stresses induced by LSPwC. The optical profiling test showed that the LSPwC increased the surface roughness of vit1. Scanning electron microscope measurements on the fracture surface of vit1 revealed that high dense vein patterns were formed on cross section of the LSPwC treated sample.

  1. A Q-switched multi-wavelength Brillouin erbium fiber laser with a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. J.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, F.; Nor, R. M.; Zulkepely, N. R.; Ahmad, H.

    2013-05-01

    A Q-switched multi-wavelength Brillouin erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) is demonstrated using a single-walled carbon nanotube-polyethylene oxide (SWCNT-PEO) saturable absorber (SA). The SA is fabricated by cutting off a small part of the developed SWCNT-PEO film and sandwiching it in between two FC/PC (fiber connector/physical contact) fiber connectors. Multi-wavelength combs with ten lasing lines and spacing of 0.158 nm are obtained by the use of 2 km long dispersion compensating fiber as the Brillouin gain medium and a four-port circulator to isolate and circulate the odd-order Stokes signals. Q-switched pulse trains with a repetition rate of 105.2 kHz and a pulse width of 0.996 μs are obtained in the proposed MWBEFL at a 1480 nm pump power of 120 mW and a Brillouin pump power of 5.4 dBm.

  2. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, R J

    2011-01-03

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  3. Prospects for lasers for fusion energy assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, N. G.; Rozanov, V.

    1985-06-01

    The authors assess the status of laser thermonuclear fusion research in the USSR and abroad, reviewing some of its major advances as well as current objectives of scientists working in this field. The possible development of an experimental laser thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Such a laser must operate with a pulse repetition frequency of 1 to 10 pulses per second, and it must have a service life of about 100 million pulses. It will be made up of individual modules (10 to 20 modules) with an overall energy of 2 to 3 megajoules, and it will ensure stable focusing of radiation on a target about 1 centimeter in size from a distance of about 50 meters. Its efficiency will be adequate and its cost low enough. Lasers of several types (including carbon-dioxide lasers and chemical and excimer lasers based on a mixture of noble gases with halogen) can meet these requirements, but incorporating them in a single unit is quite difficult from the engineering standpoint. The development of modules of such lasers is also an important task.

  4. Using Gold Nanoparticles as Artificial Defects in Thin Films: What Have We Learned About Laser-Induced Damage Driven by Localized Absorbers?

    SciTech Connect

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2007-03-14

    There is general agreement that localized absorbing defects are a major factor affecting thin-film performance, and laser-induced damage in films designed for UV, nanosecond-scale, pulsed-laser applications is driven by nanoscale absorbers. Low number densities and size (few nanometer), however, prevent any characterization of these defects and, consequently, deterministic film improvement. This situation also hampers further development of localized defect-driven damage theory, since initial conditions for modeling remain uncertain. Recently, a new approach for studying laser interaction with thin-film nanoscale defects was implemented in which well-characterized, isolated artificial absorbing defects (gold nanoparticles) were introduced inside the thin film. This work is a review in which we discuss main findings from experiments with gold nanoparticles, such as delocalization of absorption during the laser pulse, importance of the defect boundary conditions (contact with the matrix), and competition of pure thermal and stress-driven mechanisms of damage-crater formation. These experimental results will be compared with theoretical results of damage-crater formation in such model thin films using both phenomenological modeling and detailed calculations of the kinetics of the damage process. An outlook on future thin-film-damage studies using model systems with artificial defects is also presented.

  5. Effect of hot rolling on the microstructure and impact absorbed energy of the strip steel by CSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-jing; Wu, Run; Liang, Wen; Xiang, Zhi-dong; Tang, Meng-xia

    2014-07-01

    The microstructures and impact absorbed energies at various temperatures were investigated for steel strips hot rolled to thickness reductions of 95.5%, 96.0%, 96.5%, 97.0%, and 97.5%. Results indicate that grain refinement can be realized with an increase in hot rolling reduction. Besides, finer precipitates can be achieved with an increase in hot rolling reduction from 95.5% to 97.0%. The impact absorbed energy decreases with a decrease in testing temperature for steel strips hot rolled to 95.5%, 96.0%, and 96.5% reductions in thickness. However, in the case of steel strips hot rolled to 97.0% and 97.5% reductions in thickness, the impact absorbed energy remained almost constant with a decrease in testing temperature.

  6. Buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting for electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Chongxiao; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Regenerative semi-active suspensions can capture the previously dissipated vibration energy and convert it to usable electrical energy for powering on-board electronic devices, while achieve both the better ride comfort and improved road handling performance at the same time when certain control is applied. To achieve this objective, the power electronics interface circuit connecting the energy harvester and the electrical loads, which can perform simultaneous vibration control and energy harvesting function is in need. This paper utilized a buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting with electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber, which utilizes a rotational generator to converter the vibration energy to electricity. It has been found that when the circuit works in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the ratio between the input voltage and current is only related to the duty cycle of the switch pulse width modulation signal. Using this property, the buck-boost converter can be used to perform semi-active vibration control by controlling the load connected between the terminals of the generator in the electromagnetic shock absorber. While performing the vibration control, the circuit always draw current from the shock absorber and the suspension remain dissipative, and the shock absorber takes no additional energy to perform the vibration control. The working principle and dynamics of the circuit has been analyzed and simulations were performed to validate the concept.

  7. High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Waxer, L.J.; Maywar, D.N.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2005-07-25

    The 60-beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) has been a workhorse on the frontier of laser fusion and high-energy-density physics for more than a decade. LLE scientists are currently extending the performance of this unique, direct-drive laser system by adding high-energy petawatt capabilities.

  8. Resonance energy transfer: Influence of neighboring matter absorbing in the wavelength region of the acceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.; Ford, Jack S.

    2013-07-01

    In many of the materials and systems in which resonance energy transfer occurs, the individual chromophores are embedded within a superstructure of significantly different chemical composition. In accounting for the influence of the surrounding matter, the simplest and most widely used representation is commonly cast in terms of a dependence on local refractive index. However, such a depiction is a significant oversimplification, as it fails to register the electronic and local geometric effects of material specifically in the vicinity of the chromophores undergoing energy transfer. The principal objective of this study is to construct a detailed picture of how individual photon interaction events are modified by vicinal, non-absorbing chromophores. A specific aim is to discover what effects arise when input excitation is located in the neighborhood of other chromophores that have a slightly shorter wavelength of absorption; this involves a passive effect exerted on the transfer of energy at wavelengths where they themselves display no significant absorption. The theory is based on a thorough quantum electrodynamical analysis that allows the identification of specific optical and electronic chromophore attributes to expedite or inhibit electronic energy transfer. The Clausius-Mossotti dispersion relationship is then deployed to elicit a dependence on the bulk refractive index of the surroundings. A distinction is drawn between cases in which the influence on the electromagnetic coupling between the donor and the acceptor is primarily due to the static electric field produced by a polar medium, and converse cases in which the mechanism for modifying the form of energy transfer involves the medium acquiring an induced electric dipole. The results provide insights into the detailed quantum mechanisms that operate in multi-chromophore systems, pointing to factors that contribute to the optimization of photosystem characteristics.

  9. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration

    PubMed Central

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a ‘shock-absorber’ mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle–tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5–1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle–tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length–tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. PMID:25716796

  10. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Jahan, H.; Senger, A.; Adak, R.; Samanta, S.; Prakash, A.; Dey, K.; Lebedev, A.; Kryshen, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Senger, P.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Ghosh, S. K.; Raha, S.; Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N.; Farooq, M.; Singh, B.

    2015-03-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6-45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR).

  11. Atmospheric applications of high-energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joung R.

    2005-03-01

    It has been over forty years since the invention of the laser, which has inspired the imagination of scientists and science fiction writers alike. Many ideas have been realized, many still remain as dreams, and new ones are still being conceived. The High Energy Laser (HEL) has been associated with weapon applications during the past three decades. Much of the same technology can be directly applied to power beaming, laser propulsion, and other potential remote energy and power transfer applications. Economically, these application areas are becoming increasingly more viable. This paper reviews the evolutionarey history of the HEL device technologies. It points out the basic system components and layouts with associated key technologies that drive the effectiveness and efficiency of the system level performance. It describes the fundamental properties and wavelength dependencies of atmospheric propagation that in turn have become the prescription for wavelength properties that are desired from the device.

  12. Synthesis of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles with blue-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance by pulsed laser ablation in water with CO2 absorbers.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, T; Rey, N A; Rosado, T; Landi, S; Larrude, D G; Romani, E C; Junior, F L Freire; Quinteiro, S M; Cremona, M; Aucelio, R Q; Margheri, G; Pandoli, O

    2016-06-24

    Colloidal suspensions of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a one-step procedure by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) at 532 nm of a solid gold target placed in aqueous solution containing CO2 absorbers, but without any stabilizing agent. Multi-wavelength surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows the identification of adsorbed amorphous carbon and graphite, Au-carbonyl, Au coordinated CO2-derived bicarbonates/carbonates and hydroxyl groups around the AuNPs core. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy highlight the organic shell structure around the crystalline metal core. The stability of the colloidal solution of nanocomposites (NCs) seems to be driven by solvation forces and is achieved only in neutral or basic pH using monovalent hydroxide counter-ions (NaOH, KOH). The NCs are characterized by a blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band typical of metal-ligand stabilization by terminal π-back bonding, attributed to a core charging effect caused by Au-carbonyls. Total organic carbon measurements detect the final content of organic carbon in the colloidal solution of NCs that is about six times higher than the value of the water solution used to perform PLA. The colloidal dispersions of NCs are stable for months and are applied as analytical probes in amino glycoside antibiotic LSPR based sensing. PMID:27171728

  13. Synthesis of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles with blue-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance by pulsed laser ablation in water with CO2 absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rosso, T.; Rey, N. A.; Rosado, T.; Landi, S.; Larrude, D. G.; Romani, E. C.; Freire Junior, F. L.; Quinteiro, S. M.; Cremona, M.; Aucelio, R. Q.; Margheri, G.; Pandoli, O.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal suspensions of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a one-step procedure by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) at 532 nm of a solid gold target placed in aqueous solution containing CO2 absorbers, but without any stabilizing agent. Multi-wavelength surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows the identification of adsorbed amorphous carbon and graphite, Au-carbonyl, Au coordinated CO2-derived bicarbonates/carbonates and hydroxyl groups around the AuNPs core. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy highlight the organic shell structure around the crystalline metal core. The stability of the colloidal solution of nanocomposites (NCs) seems to be driven by solvation forces and is achieved only in neutral or basic pH using monovalent hydroxide counter-ions (NaOH, KOH). The NCs are characterized by a blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band typical of metal-ligand stabilization by terminal π-back bonding, attributed to a core charging effect caused by Au-carbonyls. Total organic carbon measurements detect the final content of organic carbon in the colloidal solution of NCs that is about six times higher than the value of the water solution used to perform PLA. The colloidal dispersions of NCs are stable for months and are applied as analytical probes in amino glycoside antibiotic LSPR based sensing.

  14. Mode-locked soliton erbium-doped fiber laser using a single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in polyethylene oxide thin film saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, F.; Harun, S. W.; Nor, R. M.; Zulkepely, N. R.; Muhammad, F. D.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple, compact, and low cost mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded in polyethylene oxide (PEO) thin film as a passive saturable absorber (SA). The film with a thickness of 50 μm was fabricated using a prepared homogeneous SWCNT solution with 0.1% loading percentage, which was mixed with a diluted PEO solution and casted onto a glass Petri dish to form a thin film by evaporation technique. The film is sandwiched between two fiber connectors to construct a SA, which is then integrated in an EDFL cavity to generate a self-started stable soliton pulses operating at 1558 nm. The soliton pulse starts to lase at pump power threshold of 17.6 mW with a repetition rate of 50 MHz, pulse width of 0.67 ps, average output power of 0.158 mW, pulse energy of 3.16 pJ, and peak power of 4.43 W.

  15. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  16. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, T.; Balles, D.; Schricker, A.; Novak, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle vehicle (SSV) is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers (BC) are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the SSV and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the BC for two specific reasons; 1. to eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and 2. to reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hangups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with an aluminum foam material. The aluminum foam used as a energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: A. Lead handling/ exposure, and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal will be eliminated; B. Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam over lead; C. The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts thus virtually eliminating chance of foreign object debris (FOD) exiting the HDP, and causing potential damage to the vehicle; D. Potential of using the lighter aluminum liner over lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, also allowing for improvements in safety, operator handling, and efficiency of operations. Six BC firing tests will be required to determine if the new liner material will perform in a way to decrease the chance of stud hangups and enhance the ability of the BC to retain blast debris. Testing will be performed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) facility known as the Launch Equipment Test Facility (LETF), and will simulate the

  17. 10  GHz pulse repetition rate Er:Yb:glass laser modelocked with quantum dot semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Resan, B; Kurmulis, S; Zhang, Z Y; Oehler, A E H; Markovic, V; Mangold, M; Südmeyer, T; Keller, U; Hogg, R A; Weingarten, K J

    2016-05-10

    Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) modelocked high pulse repetition rate (≥10  GHz) diode-pumped solid-state lasers are proven as an enabling technology for high data rate coherent communication systems owing to their low noise and high pulse-to-pulse optical phase-coherence. Compared to quantum well, quantum dot (QD)-based SESAMs offer potential advantages to such laser systems in terms of reduced saturation fluence, broader bandwidth, and wavelength flexibility. Here, we describe the first 10 GHz pulse repetition rate QD-SESAM modelocked laser at 1.55 μm, exhibiting 2 ps pulse width from an Er-doped glass oscillator (ERGO). The 10 GHz ERGO laser is modelocked with InAs/GaAs QD-SESAM with saturation fluence as low as 9  μJ/cm2. PMID:27168291

  18. Switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on one polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating incorporating saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Chen, Ming; Jian, Shuisheng

    2009-08-01

    Switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser at room temperature is demonstrated. One fiber Bragg grating (FBG) directly written in a polarization-maintaining and photosensitive erbiumdoped fiber (PMPEDF) as the wavelength-selective component is used in a linear laser cavity. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) enhanced by the polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG), the laser can be designed to operate in stable dual-wavelength or wavelength-switching modes with a wavelength spacing of 0.202 nm by adjusting a polarization controller (PC). The stable SLM operation is guaranteed by a saturable absorber (SA). The optical signal-tonoise ratio (OSNR) of the laser is over 40 dB. The amplitude variation in nearly one and half an hour is less than 0.5 dB for both wavelengths.

  19. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  20. Gold nanorods as the saturable absorber for a diode-pumped nanosecond Q-switched 2  μm solid-state laser.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haitao; Li, Min; Liu, Pian; Jin, Lin; Wang, Hui; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-06-15

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) with an average aspect ratio of 15 were experimentally exploited as the 2 μm saturable absorber in a laser diode pumped Tm:YAG laser for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Q-switched pulses with a maximum average output power of 380 mW, a minimum pulse width of 796 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of 77 kHz were achieved under the LD pump power of 6.2 W. Our results indicate that GNRs with a large aspect ratio are promising saturable absorbers in the 2 μm wavelength region. PMID:27304267

  1. The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Man; Tang, Pinghua; Chen, Shuqing; Du, Juan; Jiang, Guobao; Li, Ying; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-05-01

    We experimentally investigated the formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like (NL) pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by a new type of saturable absorber: topological insulator. With the increase of pump power, various multi-soliton operation states—ordered, chaotic and bunched multiple-soliton—were subsequently obtained. Once the pump power exceeds 401 mW, an NL pulse state emerged, with a maximum 3 dB bandwidth of about 9.3 nm. This systematic study clearly demonstrated that a topological insulator could be an effective saturable absorber for the formation of various soliton operation states in a fiber laser cavity.

  2. As-grown uniform MoS2/mica saturable absorber for passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Cheng; Ge, Pengguang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Shouzhen; Li, Chun; Man, Baoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted growing attention due to its distinctive properties and potential applications in optoelectronics and electronics. Here, large-area and high-quality MoS2 film with uniform thickness was obtained by thermally decomposing ammonium thiomolybdate. Besides, it is firstly demonstrated that the as-grown MoS2/mica can be directly inserted into Nd:GdVO4 laser cavity as saturable absorber for the output of diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked pulse trains. Using the MoS2 saturable absorbers, the stable Q-switched mode-locked pulse trains with high modulation depth were realized, suggesting that the broadband MoS2 SA could potentially be employed in mode-locking laser system

  3. Vapor shielding models and the energy absorbed by divertor targets during transient events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skovorodin, D. I.; Pshenov, A. A.; Arakcheev, A. S.; Eksaeva, E. A.; Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    The erosion of divertor targets caused by high heat fluxes during transients is a serious threat to ITER operation, as it is going to be the main factor determining the divertor lifetime. Under the influence of extreme heat fluxes, the surface temperature of plasma facing components can reach some certain threshold, leading to an onset of intense material evaporation. The latter results in formation of cold dense vapor and secondary plasma cloud. This layer effectively absorbs the energy of the incident plasma flow, turning it into its own kinetic and internal energy and radiating it. This so called vapor shielding is a phenomenon that may help mitigating the erosion during transient events. In particular, the vapor shielding results in saturation of energy (per unit surface area) accumulated by the target during single pulse of heat load at some level Emax. Matching this value is one of the possible tests to verify complicated numerical codes, developed to calculate the erosion rate during abnormal events in tokamaks. The paper presents three very different models of vapor shielding, demonstrating that Emax depends strongly on the heat pulse duration, thermodynamic properties, and evaporation energy of the irradiated target material. While its dependence on the other shielding details such as radiation capabilities of material and dynamics of the vapor cloud is logarithmically weak. The reason for this is a strong (exponential) dependence of the target material evaporation rate, and therefore the "strength" of vapor shield on the target surface temperature. As a result, the influence of the vapor shielding phenomena details, such as radiation transport in the vapor cloud and evaporated material dynamics, on the Emax is virtually completely masked by the strong dependence of the evaporation rate on the target surface temperature. However, the very same details define the amount of evaporated particles, needed to provide an effective shielding to the target, and

  4. Gold nanobipyramids as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched laser generation in the 1.1  μm region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanian; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-15

    We demonstrated that gold nanobipyramids (Au-NBPs) can be used as saturable absorbers for ultrafast pulsed-laser application, for the first time. Au-NBPs are prepared through a seed-mediated growth method, and performance is investigated in a passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser. In the Q-switched operation the maximum average output power that can be achieved is 151 mW. The minimum pulse width is 396 ns at a pulse repetition rate of 90.6 kHz. PMID:26977656

  5. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    SciTech Connect

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-05-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted.

  6. Study on deposition rate and laser energy efficiency of Laser-Induction Hybrid Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DengZhi; Hu, QianWu; Zheng, YinLan; Xie, Yong; Zeng, XiaoYan

    2016-03-01

    Laser-Induction Hybrid Cladding (LIHC) was introduced to prepare metal silicide based composite coatings, and influence of different factors such as laser type, laser power, laser scan speed and induction preheating temperature on the coating deposition rate and laser energy efficiency was studied systematically. Compared with conventional CO2 laser cladding, fiber laser-induction hybrid cladding improves the coating deposition rate and laser energy efficiency by 3.7 times. When a fiber laser with laser power of 4 kW was combined with an induction preheating temperature of 850 °C, the maximum coating deposition rate and maximum laser energy efficiency reaches 71 g/min and 64% respectively.

  7. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  8. Evaluation of Wavelength Detuning to Mitigate Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marozas, J. A.; Weaver, J.; Obenschain, S.; Schmitt, A.

    2014-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become a serious threat to the overall success of polar-drive-ignition experiments. CBET redirects incident laser light before it can be absorbed into the target, thereby degrading overall target performance. CBET is particularly effective over the equator of the target, which is hydrodynamically very sensitive to such losses. A promising solution uses laser wavelength detuning between beams to break the resonance between them and reduce energy transfer. Testing this process for direct drive has been limited because of the lack of sufficient detuning capabilities. However, the Naval Research Laboratory's Nike laser has the capability of providing a wide range of detuning between its main drive and backlighter beams. This paper explores the design of an experimental platform on Nike to directly evaluate the benefit of frequency detuning in mitigating CBET. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped dispersion compensation free fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ortaç, B; Schmidt, O; Schreiber, T; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Hideur, A

    2007-08-20

    We report on a mode-locked high energy fiber laser operating in the dispersion compensation free regime. The sigma cavity is constructed with a saturable absorber mirror and short-length large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The laser generates positively-chirped pulses with an energy of 265 nJ at a repetition rate of 10.18 MHz in a stable and self-starting operation. The pulses are compressible down to 400 fs leading to a peak power of 500 kW. Numerical simulations accurately reflect the experimental results and reveal the mechanisms for self consistent intracavity pulse evolution. With this performance mode-locked fiber lasers can compete with state-of-the-art bulk femtosecond oscillators for the first time and pulse energy scaling beyond the muJ-level appears to be feasible. PMID:19547427

  10. Passive mode locking of an energy transfer continuous-wave dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    French, P.M.W.; Taylor, J.R.

    1986-08-01

    The first passive mode locking of a continuous-wave energy transfer dye laser is reported. Using an argon ion laser-pumped mixture of rhodamine 6G and sulphur rhodamine 101 as the active medium, pulses of less than 500 fs duration have been generated over the spectral range 652-694 nm using two different saturable absorbers in a simple linear cavity without dispersion optimization. Pulses as short as 120 fs have been measured using standard second-harmonic generation autocorrelation techniques.

  11. Intracavity terahertz generation inside a high-energy ultrafast soliton fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Matthaeus, Gabor; Ortac, Buelend; Limpert, Jens; Nolte, Stefan; Hohmuth, Rico; Voitsch, Martin; Richter, Wolfgang; Pradarutti, Boris; Tuennermann, Andreas

    2008-12-29

    Intracavity terahertz emission inside a high-energy ultrafast Yb-doped fiber laser is presented. The terahertz radiation is generated by a transient photocurrent induced at the surface of a saturable InGaAs multiquantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of a semiconductor Bragg reflector. This device simultaneously works as the saturable absorber mirror for initiating and managing the passive mode locking required for the ultrashort pulse operation of the laser system. The maximum terahertz average power achieved is 4.2 {mu}W, which reveals a net conversion efficiency of 3.1x10{sup -5}.

  12. Crystallographic study of phases present in CuInSe2 absorber layers produced by laser annealing co-electrodeposited precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, H. J.; Bhatia, A.; Stefan, C.; Schorr, S.; Scarpulla, M. A.; Dale, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    For the production of high efficiency thin film, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, absorber layers with grain sizes of a few hundred nanometers and without detrimental secondary phases are favored. Co-electrodeposition offers a low-cost and material efficient synthesis route, where, in a single step, films containing CuInSe2 are formed. However, the material is nanocrystalline, constitutes multiple phases and has poor photovoltaic properties 1. Therefore a subsequent annealing step is required to produce absorber layers suitable for use in photovoltaic devices. Laser annealing has been demonstrated to improve crystallinity, stimulate atomic diffusion and develop opto-electronic properties when compared to the precursor 2. In this work, high resolution X-ray diffraction was used in order to assess the presence of secondary phases in the absorber layer. All diffractograms of laser annealed films exhibited an additional, unknown peak, measurable through the full depth of the material which is independent of precursor composition, annealing time or laser flux. Evaluation of literature on codeposited CuInSe2, combined with Rietveld refinement suggests a number of possible identities for this peak. The candidates in order of most likely to least likely are structural defects, In2Se3, and CuIn3Se5. We consider the impact that each of these would have on a device formed via this process and thus its success as a new manufacturing route for CuInSe2 solar cells.

  13. Laser Energy Monitor for Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer IPDA Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is a remote sensing technique for monitoring different atmospheric species. The technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features normalized to the transmitted energy. 2-micron double-pulsed IPDA lidar is best suited for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. In such case, the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by short interval (200 microseconds), with low repetition rate (10Hz). Conventional laser energy monitors, based on thermal detectors, are suitable for low repetition rate single pulse lasers. Due to the short pulse interval in double-pulsed lasers, thermal energy monitors underestimate the total transmitted energy. This leads to measurement biases and errors in double-pulsed IPDA technique. The design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on a high-speed, extended range InGaAs pin quantum detectors suitable for separating the two pulse events. Pulse integration is applied for converting the detected pulse power into energy. Results are compared to a photo-electro-magnetic (PEM) detector for impulse response verification. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in single-pulsed mode, then comparing the pin and PEM detectors in double-pulsed mode. Energy monitor linearity will be addressed.

  14. Nonlinear ionization mechanism dependence of energy absorption in diamond under femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; Jiang Lan; Li Xin; Wang Feng; Yuan Yanping; Lu Yongfeng

    2013-04-14

    We present first-principles calculations for nonlinear photoionization of diamond induced by the intense femtosecond laser field. A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional theory with the adiabatic local-density approximation is applied to describe the laser-material interactions in the Kohn-Sham formalism with the self-interaction correction. For a certain laser wavelength, the intensity dependence of energy absorption on multiphoton and/or tunnel ionization mechanisms is investigated, where laser intensity regions vary from 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the effect of laser wavelength on energy absorption at certain ionization mechanism is discussed when the Keldysh parameter is fixed. Theoretical results show that: (1) at the fixed laser wavelength, the relationship between the energy absorption and laser intensity shows a good fit of E = c{sub M}I{sup N} (N is the number of photons absorbed to free from the valence band) when multiphoton ionization dominates; (2) while when tunnel ionization becomes significant, the relationship coincides with the expression of E = c{sub T}I{sup n} (n < N).

  15. Stability analysis of the Gyroscopic Power Take-Off wave energy point absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Zhang, Zili; Kramer, Morten M.; Olsen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber consists of a float rigidly connected to a lever. The operational principle is somewhat similar to that of the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exercisers, where the rotation of the float is brought forward by the rotational particle motion of the waves. At first, the equations of motion of the system are derived based on analytical rigid body dynamics. Next, assuming monochromatic waves simplified equations are derived, valid under synchronisation of the ring of the gyro to the angular frequency of the excitation. Especially, it is demonstrated that the dynamics of the ring can be described as an autonomous nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom system, affected by three different types of point attractors. One where the ring vibrations are attracted to a static equilibrium point indicating unstable synchronisation and two types of attractors where the ring is synchronised to the wave angular frequency, either rotating in one or the opposite direction. Finally, the stability conditions and the basins of attraction to the point attractors defining the synchronised motion are determined.

  16. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 2; Full-Scale Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has sponsored research to evaluate an externally deployable composite honeycomb designed to attenuate loads in the event of a helicopter crash. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), is an expandable Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) honeycomb. The DEA has a flexible hinge that allows the honeycomb to be stowed collapsed until needed during an emergency. Evaluation of the DEA began with material characterization of the Kevlar(Registered TradeMark)-129 fabric/epoxy, and ended with a full-scale crash test of a retrofitted MD-500 helicopter. During each evaluation phase, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). The paper will focus on simulations of two full-scale impact tests involving the DEA, a mass-simulator and a full-scale crash of an instrumented MD-500 helicopter. Isotropic (MAT24) and composite (MAT58) material models, which were assigned to DEA shell elements, were compared. Based on simulations results, the MAT58 model showed better agreement with test.

  17. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to (137)Cs dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  18. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to 137Cs) dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  19. Synthesis and properties of polyamide-Ag2S composite based solar energy absorber surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, Valentina; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    Silver sulfide (Ag2S), an efficient solar light absorber, was synthesized using a modified chemical bath deposition (CBD) method and polyamide 6 (PA) as a host material via solution phase reaction between AgNO3 and Na2S2O3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed a single, α-Ag2S (acanthite), crystalline phase present while surface and bulk chemical analyses, performed using X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy dispersive (EDS) spectroscopies, showed 2:1 Ag:S ratio. Direct and indirect bandgaps obtained from Tauc plots were 1.3 and 2.3 eV, respectively. Detailed surface chemical analysis showed the presence of three distinct sulfur species with majority component due to the Ag2S chemical bonds and minority components due to two types of oxygen-sulfur bonds. Conductivity of the resulting composite material was shown to change with the reaction time thus enabling to obtain controlled conductivity composite material. The synthesis method presented is based on the low solubility of Ag2S and is potentially green, no by-product producing, as all Ag2S nucleated outside the host material can be recycled into the process via dissolving it in HNO3.

  20. Soft Landing of Spacecraft on Energy-Absorbing Self-Deployable Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes the use of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) foam structures to cushion impacts of small (1 to 50 kg) exploratory spacecraft on remote planets. Airbags, which are used on larger (800 to 1,000 kg) spacecraft have been found to (1) be too complex for smaller spacecraft; (2) provide insufficient thermal insulation between spacecraft and ground; (3) bounce on impact, thereby making it difficult to land spacecraft in precisely designated positions; and (4) be too unstable to serve as platforms for scientific observations. A CHEM foam pad according to the proposal would have a glass-transition temperature (Tg) well above ambient temperature. It would be compacted, at a temperature above Tg, to about a tenth or less of its original volume, then cooled below Tg, then installed on a spacecraft without compacting restraints. Upon entry of the spacecraft into a planetary atmosphere, the temperature would rise above Tg, causing the pad to expand to its original volume and shape. As the spacecraft decelerated and cooled, the temperature would fall below Tg, rigidifying the foam structure. The structure would absorb kinetic energy during ground impact by inelastic crushing, thus protecting the payload from damaging shocks. Thereafter, this pad would serve as a mechanically stable, thermally insulating platform for the landed spacecraft.

  1. Experimental validation of a magnetorheological energy absorber design optimized for shock and impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.; Glass, William

    2014-12-01

    A linear stroke adaptive magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m s-1. The performance of the MREA was characterized using dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of maximum on-state MREA force to the off-state MREA force. Design optimization techniques were employed in order to maximize the dynamic range at high impact velocities such that MREA maintained good control authority. Geometrical parameters of the MREA were optimized by evaluating MREA performance on the basis of a Bingham-plastic analysis incorporating minor losses (BPM analysis). Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to verify the performance of passive and controllable MREA force, respectively. Subsequently, high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m s-1 at 0 A) was conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Refinements to the nonlinear BPM analysis were carried out to improve prediction of MREA performance.

  2. A Computational Approach for Model Update of an LS-DYNA Energy Absorbing Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2008-01-01

    NASA and its contractors are working on structural concepts for absorbing impact energy of aerospace vehicles. Recently, concepts in the form of multi-cell honeycomb-like structures designed to crush under load have been investigated for both space and aeronautics applications. Efforts to understand these concepts are progressing from tests of individual cells to tests of systems with hundreds of cells. Because of fabrication irregularities, geometry irregularities, and material properties uncertainties, the problem of reconciling analytical models, in particular LS-DYNA models, with experimental data is a challenge. A first look at the correlation results between single cell load/deflection data with LS-DYNA predictions showed problems which prompted additional work in this area. This paper describes a computational approach that uses analysis of variance, deterministic sampling techniques, response surface modeling, and genetic optimization to reconcile test with analysis results. Analysis of variance provides a screening technique for selection of critical parameters used when reconciling test with analysis. In this study, complete ignorance of the parameter distribution is assumed and, therefore, the value of any parameter within the range that is computed using the optimization procedure is considered to be equally likely. Mean values from tests are matched against LS-DYNA solutions by minimizing the square error using a genetic optimization. The paper presents the computational methodology along with results obtained using this approach.

  3. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 6, Newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fraction (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a newborn or 3.4-kg person. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. A New HOM Water Cooled Absorber for the PEP-II B-factory Low Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Kosovsky, Michael; Kurita, Nadine; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2006-09-05

    At high currents and small bunch lengths beam line components in the PEP-II B-factory experience RF induced heating from higher order RF modes (HOMs) produced by scattered intense beam fields. A design for a passive HOM water cooled absorber for the PEP-II low energy ring is presented. This device is situated near HOM producing beamline components such as collimators and provide HOM damping for dipole and quadrupole modes without impacting beam impedance. We optimized the impedance characteristics of the device through the evaluation of absorber effectiveness for specific modes using scattering parameter and wakefield analysis. Operational results are presented and agree very well with the predicted effectiveness.

  5. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, David Emery; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 - 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  6. Chemistry away from local equilibrium: shocking high-energy and energy absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    In this presentation I will describe reactive molecular dynamics and coarse grain simulations of shock induced chemistry. MD simulations of the chemical reactions following the shock-induced collapse of cylindrical pores in the high-energy density material RDX provide the first atomistic picture of the shock to deflagration transition in nanoscale hotspots. We find that energy localization during pore collapse leads to ultra-fast, multi-step chemical reactions that occur under non-equilibrium conditions. The formation of exothermic products during the first few picoseconds of the process prevents the hotspot from quenching, and within 30 ps a deflagration wave develops. Quite surprisingly, an artificial hot-spot matching the shock-induced one in size and thermodynamic conditions quenches; providing strong evidence that the dynamic nature of the loading plays a role in determining the criticality of the hotspot. To achieve time and lengths beyond what is possible in MD we developed a mesoscale model that incorporates chemical reactions at a coarse-grained level. We used this model to explore shock propagation on materials that can undergo volume-reducing, endothermic chemical reactions. The simulations show that such chemical reactions can attenuate the shockwave and characterize how the characteristics of the chemistry affect this behavior. We find that the amount of volume collapse and the activation energy are critical to weaken the shock, whereas the endothermicity of the reactions plays only a minor role. As in the reactive MD simulations, we find that the non-equilibrium state following the shock affects the nucleation of chemistry and, thus, the timescales for equilibration between various degrees of freedom affect the response of the material.

  7. Path toward a high-energy solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Gary L.; Merkle, Larry D.; Dubinskii, Mark; Zandi, Bahram

    2004-04-01

    Lasers have come a long way since the first demonstration by Maiman of a ruby crystal laser in 1960. Lasers are used as scientific tools as well as for a wide variety of applications for both commercial industry and the military. Today lasers come in all types, shapes and sizes depending on their application. The solid-state laser has some distinct advantages in that it can be rugged, compact, and self contained, making it reliable over long periods of time. With the advent of diode laser pumping a ten times increase in overall laser efficiency has been realized. This significant event, and others, is changing the way solid-state lasers are applied and allows new possibilities. One of those new areas of exploration is the high energy laser. Solid-state lasers for welding are already developed and yield energies in the 0.5 to 6 kilojoule range. These lasers are at the forefront of what is possible in terms of high energy solid-state lasers. It is possible to achieve energies of greater than 100 kJ. These sorts of energies would allow applications, in addition to welding, such as directed energy weapons, extremely remote sensing, power transfer, propulsion, biological and chemical agent neutralization and unexploded and mine neutralization. This article will review these new advances in solid-state lasers and the different paths toward achieving a high energy laser. The advantages and challenges of each approach will be highlighted.

  8. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  9. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Weng, Yuxiang; Wu, Xianyou; Yu, Qingxu

    2015-05-15

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm{sup −1} as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I′ region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  10. Femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on MoS2-PVA saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Latiff, A. A.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-08-01

    We fabricate a free-standing few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-polymer composite by liquid phase exfoliation of chemically pristine MoS2 crystals and use this to demonstrate a soliton mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). A stable self-started mode-locked soliton pulse is generated by fine-tuning the rotation of the polarization controller at a low threshold pump power of 25 mW. Its solitonic behavior is verified by the presence of Kelly sidebands in the output spectrum. The central wavelength, pulse width, and repetition rate of the laser are 1573.7 nm, 630 fs, and 27.1 MHz, respectively. The maximum pulse energy is 0.141 nJ with peak power of 210 W at pump power of 170 mW. This result contributes to the growing body of work studying the nonlinear optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides that present new opportunities for ultrafast photonic applications.

  11. Efficient pumping of inertial fusion energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, C.; Rübenach, O.; Hambücker, S.; Sinhoff, V.; Banerjeea, S.; Ertel, K.; Mason, P.

    2013-02-01

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for laser-plasma interaction and have presently been developed for various applications like inertial confinement fusion (ICF) [1], particle acceleration and intense X-ray generation [3]. Viable real world applications like power production at industrial scale will require high laser system efficiency, repetition rate and lifetime which are only possible with semiconductor diode pumping. The paper describes the work conducted with two 20 kW diode laser sources pumping an ytterbium:YAG laser amplifier. The set-up acts as a small scale prototype for the DiPOLE project [2]. This project aims to develop scalable gas cooled cryogenic multi-slab diode pumped solid state lasers capable of producing KJ pulse energy. A scale-down prototype is currently under development at the Central Laser Facility (CLF) designed to generate 10 J at 10 Hz. To secure an efficient pumping process the sources have to fulfill aside power requirement in the spectral and time domain, the claim for high homogenization and low divergence of the spatial and angular beam distribution as well as a minimization of losses within the optical path. The existing diode laser sources designed and built by INGENERIC deliver 20 kW pulsed power, concentrated on a plateau of FWHM dimension of 20 x 20 mm² with a homogeneity of more than 90 %. The center wavelength of 939.5 nm is controlled in a range of ± 0.1 nm. The time and area integrated spectrum of at least 76 % of the total energy is contained within a 6 nm wide wavelength band around the center wavelength. Repetition rates can be adjusted between 0.1 Hz up to 10 Hz with rise and fall times less than 50 μs and pulse durations from 0.2 ms to 1.2 ms. The paper describes the impact of different designs on the performance of pump sources and puts special emphasis on the influence of the optical components on efficiency and performance. In addition the influence of the measuring principle is

  12. A microfiber-based gold nanorod saturable absorber with evanescent field interaction for multi-soliton patterns in a fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xude; Luo, Zhichao; Liu, Meng; Qi, Youli; Tang, Rui; Luo, Aiping; Xu, Wencheng

    2016-06-01

    We report on the generation of various multi-soliton patterns in a fiber laser using a microfiber-based gold nanorod saturable absorber (GNR SA). By depositing GNRs onto a microfiber, the nonlinear effect and photo-thermal stability of the GNR SA are both enhanced due to the evanescent field interacting with the nonlinear material GNRs for a relatively long interaction time. Benefiting from a high third-order nonlinear coefficient and the excellent saturable absorption of GNRs, versatile multi-soliton patterns such as random distribution multi-solitons, soliton clusters, soliton molecules, multiple solitons occupying the whole cavity, and soliton flow can be easily obtained by properly adjusting the laser cavity parameter settings. The experimental results contribute to further understanding the physical mechanisms of multi-soliton dynamics, and demonstrate that the microfiber-based GNR SA is an excellent candidate for investigating the nonlinear phenomena in ultrafast fiber lasers.

  13. Pulse switching for high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A saturable inductor switch for compressing the width and sharpening the rise time of high voltage pulses from a relatively slow rise time, high voltage generator to an electric discharge gas laser (EDGL) also provides a capability for efficient energy transfer from a high impedance primary source to an intermediate low impedance laser discharge network. The switch is positioned with respect to a capacitive storage device, such as a coaxial cable, so that when a charge build-up in the storage device reaches a predetermined level, saturation of the switch inductor releases or switches energy stored in the capactive storage device to the EDGL. Cascaded saturable inductor switches for providing output pulses having rise times of less than ten nanoseconds and a technique for magnetically biasing the saturable inductor switch are disclosed.

  14. Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel

    SciTech Connect

    I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax

    2001-12-12

    The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.

  15. A novel strain energy density algorithm for laser-induced micro-hollows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelen, Serap

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical adaptation and stability of implants are dependent on strain energy density algorithms of their surfaces. These applications are in their early stage, but theoretical predictions show us that we can manufacture very strong, flexible biomaterial surface which has a shock absorbing ability. Laser micro-machining is a clean tool for biomedical industry. The purpose of this manuscript is to consolidate a laser micro-machining method for imitating lotus effect on commercially pure titanium specimen surfaces and to develop a novel strain energy density algorithm. Novel 3D nelumbo leafs were prepared using a fiber laser (λ=1060 nm) with 200-250 ns pulse durations and optimum operation parameters were suggested.

  16. Laser Experiments for High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2010-11-23

    High energy density science probes some of the most basic scientific questions that cut across traditional disciplines. The advent of table top, terawatt, femtosecond lasers promises to revolutionize this area by the use of precise experimental techniques on the one hand and testing of models and computer simulations on the other. In this paper, we present some of our results on hot electron generation, giant magnetic fields and ultrafast plasma dynamics using such experiments and theoretical modeling.

  17. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Y.T.; Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.; Campbell, J.H.; Aston, M.K.; Elder, M.L.

    1996-06-11

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  18. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Yuiko T.; Payne, Stephen A.; Hayden, Joseph S.; Campbell, John H.; Aston, Mary Kay; Elder, Melanie L.

    1996-01-01

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  19. All-normal dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser using MoS2-PVA saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyan, S.; Velmurugan, V.; Senthilnathan, K.; Babu, P. Ramesh; Sivabalan, S.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the generation of a dissipative soliton in an all-normal dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser using few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a saturable absorber. The saturable absorber is prepared by mixing few-layer MoS2 solution with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form a free-standing composite film. The modulation depth and saturation intensity of the MoS2-PVA film are 11% and 5.86 MW cm-2, respectively. By incorporating the MoS2 saturable absorber in the fiber laser cavity, the mode-locked pulses are generated with a pulse width of 1.55 ns and a 3 dB spectral bandwidth of 0.9 nm centered at 1037.5 nm. The fundamental repetition rate and the average power are measured as 15.43 MHz and 1.5 mW, respectively. These results reveal the feasibility of deploying liquid-phase exfoliated few-layer MoS2 nanosheets for dissipative soliton generation in the near-IR region.

  20. Fiber laser front end for high energy petawatt laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H; Mitchell, S; Drobshoff, A; Beach, R J; Siders, C; Lucianetti, A; Crane, J K; Barty, C J

    2006-06-15

    We are developing a fiber laser front end suitable for high energy petawatt laser systems on large glass lasers such as NIF. The front end includes generation of the pulses in a fiber mode-locked oscillator, amplification and pulse cleaning, stretching of the pulses to >3ns, dispersion trimming, timing, fiber transport of the pulses to the main laser bay and amplification of the pulses to an injection energy of 150 {micro}J. We will discuss current status of our work including data from packaged components. Design detail such as how the system addresses pulse contrast, dispersion trimming and pulse width adjustment and impact of B-integral on the pulse amplification will be discussed. A schematic of the fiber laser system we are constructing is shown in figure 1 below. A 40MHz packaged mode-locked fiber oscillator produces {approx}1nJ pulses which are phase locked to a 10MHz reference clock. These pulses are down selected to 100kHz and then amplified while still compressed. The amplified compressed pulses are sent through a non-linear polarization rotation based pulse cleaner to remove background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The pulses are then stretched by a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) and then sent through a splitter. The splitter splits the signal into two beams. (From this point we follow only one beam as the other follows an identical path.) The pulses are sent through a pulse tweaker that trims dispersion imbalances between the final large optics compressor and the CFBG. The pulse tweaker also permits the dispersion of the system to be adjusted for the purpose of controlling the final pulse width. Fine scale timing between the two beam lines can also be adjusted in the tweaker. A large mode area photonic crystal single polarization fiber is used to transport the pulses from the master oscillator room to the main laser bay. The pulses are then amplified a two stage fiber amplifier to 150mJ. These pulses are then launched into the main amplifier

  1. Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, D.; Shu, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Matlis, N. H.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Plateau, G.; Lin, C.; Toth, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10 m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  2. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-09-29

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  3. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  4. Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongrui

    1993-07-01

    This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

  5. Development and testing of a dynamic absorber with corrugated piezoelectric spring for vibration control and energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harne, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    Vibrational energy harvesting devices are often designed in a manner analogous to classical dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs). An electromechanical mass-spring system is devised so as to resonate at the frequency most dominant in the environmental vibration spectrum; the consequent device oscillation is converted to a electrical signal which is harnessed for immediate usage or as a charging mechanism for a battery. The DVA is likewise designed but with the intention of inducing substantial inertial influence upon a host structure for vibration control purposes, either to globally dampen the vibration of the main body or, in an undamped configuration to "absorb" the primary system vibration at a single frequency. This paper describes the development of an electromechanical mass-spring-damper which seeks to serve both goals of passive vibration control and energy harvesting. The device utilizes a piezoelectric film spring and a distributed mass layer so as to be suitable for the attenuation of surface vibrations and to convert a portion of the absorbed energy into electric power. The development and design of the device are presented and the results of realistic tests are provided to show both the potentials and the challenges encountered when attempting to superpose the goals of vibration control and energy harvesting.

  6. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  7. Compact diode-directly-pumped passively mode-locked TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1341 nm using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Li, F. Q.; Liu, Y.; Cao, D.; Bo, Y.; Peng, Q. J.; Cui, D. F.; Zhang, J. Y.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2011-11-01

    We report on a compact 880-nm diode-directly-pumped passively mode-locked TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1341 nm with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) for the first time. Under the absorbed pump power of 14.6 W, the maximum output power of 1.27 W was obtained at the repetition rate of 85.3 MHz with the pulse width of 45.3 ps, corresponding to an optical-optical efficiency of 8.8% and the slope efficiency of 33.3%, respectively. The beam quality factor was measured to be M 2 = 1.18, indicating a TEM00 mode.

  8. Development of A Semiconductor Laser Based High Temperature Fine Thermal Energy Source in an Optical Fiber Tip for Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Imai, Yusuke; Tei, Kazuyoku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    A new technique for generating high temperatures on the surface of an optical fiber is developed for medical applications using lower-power semiconductor lasers with output powers lower than 10 W. Using a power level of 4-6 W semiconductor laser with a pulse duration of 180 ms at a wavelength of 980 nm, a laser-coupled fiber tip was once processed to contain a certain amount of Ti with a depth of 100 µm from the tip surface so that the laser energy could be efficiently absorbed to be transferred to thermal energy. With consecutive laser pulse irradiation, the tip processed fiber (TP fiber) served as a reproducible fine heat source whose temperature was measured to be in excess 3100 K based on two-color thermometry. Processing of ceramic and niobium plate, which are hardly ablated with direct low power (6 W) irradiation, was successfully demonstrated by contacting the TP fiber excited with the same power.

  9. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  10. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft. diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  11. Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

  12. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  13. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-04-01

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

  14. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers. PMID:27126900

  15. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers. PMID:27126900

  16. Space electric power design study. [laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to electrical energy is discussed. Heat engines in which the laser heats the gas inside the engine through a window as well as heat engines in which the gas is heated by a thermal energy storage reservoir which has been heated by laser radiation are both evaluated, as well as the necessary energy storage, transmission and conversion components needed for a full system. Preliminary system concepts are presented and a recommended development program is outlined. It appears possible that a free displacer Stirling engine operating directly a linear electric generator can convert 65% of the incident laser energy into electricity.

  17. Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kuang-Nan; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-04-01

    The passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a medium gain is demonstrated and compared by using three different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) doped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. Nano-scale clay is used to disperse the CNTs doped in the PVA polymer aqueous solution to serve as a fast saturable absorber to initiate passive mode-locking. The three types of CNT based saturable absorbers, namely single-walled (SW), double-walled (DW) and multi-walled (MW), are characterized by Raman scattering and optical absorption spectroscopy. The SW-CNTs with a diameter of 1.26 nm have two absorption peaks located around 1550 ± 70 and 860 ± 50 nm. In contrast, the DW-CNTs with a diameter of 1.33 nm reveal two absorption peaks located at 1580 ± 40 and 920 ± 50 nm. By using the SW-CNT based saturable absorber, the passively mode-locked EDFL exhibits a pulsewidth of 1.28 ps and a spectral linewidth of 1.99 nm. Due to the increased linear absorption of the DW-CNT based saturable absorber, the intra-cavity net gain of the EDFL is significantly attenuated to deliver an incompletely mode-locked pulsewidth of 6.8 ps and a spectral linewidth of 0.62 nm. No distinct pulse-train is produced by using the MW-CNT film as the saturable absorber, which is attributed to the significant insertion loss of the EDFL induced by the large linear absorption of the MW-CNT film.

  18. Mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for iodine laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Space-based laser power systems will require converters to change laser radiation into electricity. Vertical junction photovoltaic converters are promising devices for this use. A promising laser for the laser power station is the t-C4F9I laser which emits radiation at a wavelength of 1.315 microns. This paper describes the results of mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for use with this laser. The material for this photovoltaic converter is Ga(53)In(47)As which has a bandgap energy of 0.94 eV, slightly below the energy of the laser photons (0.943 eV). Results of a study optimizing the converter parameters are presented. Calculated efficiency for a 1000 vertical junction converter is 42.5 percent at a power density of 1 x 10 to the 3d power w/sq cm.

  19. LD-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at 1062 nm with a GaAs saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. N.; Li, P.; Wang, Q. P.; Chen, X. H.

    2011-11-01

    we have experimentally studied the passively Q-switched performance of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser at 1062 nm with a GaAs saturable absorber, in the experiment when the pumped power was 9.8 W, the maximum CW output power of 5.1 W was obtained. The optical conversion efficiency and the slop efficiency were 52 and 53%, respectively. The threshold was 0.9 W. In the passively Q-switched regime, we get the average output power of 0.93 W. The shortest pulse width and pulse repetition rate were 7 ns and 188 kHz, respectively.

  20. A new thermal radiation detector using optical heterodyne detection of absorbed energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. C.; Petuchowski, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The operating principles of a new kind of room-temperature thermal radiation detector are described. In this device modulated light heats a gas, either directly or by conduction from a thin absorbing membrane, and the resultant change in density of the gas is detected by optical heterodyning. The performance of a membrane device of this kind agrees well with the predictions of theory.

  1. Large-Scale Nanophotonic Solar Selective Absorbers for High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Liu, Baoan; Ni, Yizhou; Liew, Kaiyang Kevin; Sze, Jeff; Chen, Shuo; Shen, Sheng

    2015-08-19

    An omnidirectional nanophotonic solar selective absorber is fabricated on a large scale using a template-stripping method. The nanopyramid nickel structure achieves an average absorptance of 95% at a wavelength range below 1.3 μm and a low emittance less than 10% at wavelength >2.5 μm. PMID:26134928

  2. Extended emission wavelength of random dye lasers by exploiting radiative and non-radiative energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Ismail, Wan Zakiah; Goldys, Ewa M.; Dawes, Judith M.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate long-wavelength operation (>700 nm) of random dye lasers (using a methylene blue dye) with the addition of rhodamine 6G and titania, enabled by radiative and non-radiative energy transfer. The pump energy is efficiently absorbed and transferred to the acceptors, to support lasing in random dye lasers in the near infrared. The optimum random laser performance with the highest emission intensity and the lowest lasing threshold was achieved for a concentration of methylene blue as the acceptor equal to 6× the concentration of rhodamine 6G (donor). Excessive levels of methylene blue increased the lasing threshold and broadened the methylene blue emission linewidth due to dye quenching from re-absorption. This is due to competition between the donor emission and energy transfer and between absorption loss and fluorescence quenching. The radiative and non-radiative energy transfer is analyzed as a function of the acceptor concentration and pump energy density, with consideration of the spectral overlap. The dependence of the radiative and non-radiative transfer efficiency on the acceptor concentration is obtained, and the energy transfer parameters, including the radiative and non-radiative energy transfer rate constants ( K R and K NR), are investigated using Stern-Volmer analysis. The analysis indicates that radiative energy transfer is the dominant energy transfer mechanism in this system.

  3. Effects of material properties on laser-induced bubble formation in absorbing liquids and on submerged targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, HanQun; Casperson, Lee W.; Shearin, Alan; Paisley, Dennis L.; Prahl, Scott A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of blood clots in a fluid-filled blood vessel is accomplished by an explosive evaporation process. The resulting vapor bubble rapidly expands and collapses to disrupt the thrombus (blood clot). The hydrodynamic pressures following the bubble expansion and collapse can also be used as a driving force to deliver clot-dissolving agents into thrombus for enhancement of laser thrombolysis. Thus, the laser-induced bubble formation plays an important role in the thrombus removal process. In this study the effects of material properties on laser-induced cavitation bubbles formed in liquids and on submerged targets have been visualized with a microsecond strobe or high speed framing camera.

  4. Variable energy, high peak power, passive Q-switching diode end-pumped Yb:LuAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskow, M.; Sulc, J.; Jabczynski, J. K.; Jelinkova, H.

    2014-12-01

    A new method to control the pulse energy in a passively Q-switched laser was proposed and experimentally verified for a diode-end-pumped Yb:LuAG laser. By changing the pumping area parameters it was possible to demonstrate generation of a wide range of output energies with a single laser configuration consisting of a gain medium, passive Q-switch and out-coupling mirror. The range of available energies 0.15-0.51 mJ with maximum peak power of 113 kW in simple Q-switching regime by means of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber and a Yb:LuAG gain medium pumped by a 20 W laser diode emitting at 968 nm was demonstrated.

  5. Self-imaging of transparent objects and structures in focusing of spatially phase-modulated laser radiation into a weakly absorbing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bubis, E L

    2011-06-30

    Self-imaging of transparent objects and structures in focusing of a spatially phase-modulated laser beam into an extended weakly absorbing medium is described. The laser power level that is necessary for effective imaging corresponds to the illuminating beam power when thermal self-defocusing starts evolving in the medium. The effect can be described in terms of the ideology of Zernike's classical phase-contrast method. Edge enhancement in visualised images of transparent objects is experimentally demonstrated. Self-imaging of a microscopic object in the form of transparent letters and long-lived refractive-index fluctuations in liquid glycerol is shown. Due to the adaptivity of the process under consideration, unlike the classical case, self-imaging occurs also in the situations where a beam is displaced (undergoes random walk) as a whole in the Fourier plane, for example, in the presence of thermal flows. (image processing)

  6. High Energy 2-micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows the development of 2-micron solid state lasers. The topics covered include: 1) Overview 2-micron solid state lasers; 2) Modeling and population inversion measurement; 3) Side pump oscillator; and 4) One Joule 2-m Laser.

  7. Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

  8. Heat exchange model in absorption chamber of water-direct-absorption-typed laser energy meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng Wei, Ji; Qun Sun, Li; Zhang, Kai; Hu, XiaoYang; Zhou, Shan

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between laser and water flow is very complicated in the absorption chamber of a high energy laser (HEL) energy meter which directly uses water as an absorbing medium. Therefore, the heat exchange model cannot be studied through traditional methods, but it is the most important factor to improve heat exchange efficiency in the absorption chamber. After the exchanges of heat and mass were deeply analyzed, experimental study and numerical fitting were brought out. The original testing data of laser power and water flow temperature at one moment were utilized to calculate those at the next moment, and then the calculated temperature curve was compared with the measured one. If the two curves matched well, the corresponding coefficient was obtained. Meanwhile, numerous experiments were performed to study the effects of laser power, duration, focal spot scale, and water flow rate on heat exchange coefficient. In addition, the relationship between water phase change and heat exchange was analyzed. The heat exchange coefficient was increased by optimizing the construction of the absorption chamber or increasing water flow rate. The results provide the reference for design of water-direct-absorption-typed HEL energy meters, as well as for analysis of the interaction between other similar lasers and water flow.

  9. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  10. Laser effects research and modeling to support high-energy laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, W. Pete; Beraun, Jorge E.

    2001-09-01

    This paper discuses the DELE lethality assessment methodology and explains requirements for experimental data and algorithm development within the laser lethality and vulnerability area. current applications and data sets cover a broad range of laser parameters and materials properties. In addition, new lasers, new materials, and new applications continue to be rapidly added to the area. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the audience to the formalized process/discipline of formulating vulnerability criteria for different High Energy Laser systems by emphasizing the laser/materials phenomenology. Some of the DELE laser facilities and diagnostic capabilities are reviewed.

  11. A multiple regrowth process for monolithically-integrated InP-based mode-locked laser diodes with uni-travelling carrier absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohe, Hans-Jörg; Scollo, Riccardo; Vogt, Werner; Gini, Emilio; Robin, Franck; Erni, Daniel; Harbers, Rik; Jäckel, Heinz

    2006-04-01

    Progress in photonics by monolithic integration for higher functional density, performance and reduced cost faces challenging hurdles due to technological and functional heterogeneities. Advanced local material growth techniques are enabling concepts towards high-density photonic integration, unprecedented performance and multi-functionality and ultimately optical systems-on-a-chip. For example mode-locked laser diodes (MLLDs) are key devices for ultra-short pulse generation for all-optical Tbit/s communication networks. MLLDs suffer from material compromises and will benefit from the possibility to design the gain, absorber and passive-waveguiding sections independently. We have proposed and demonstrated the integration of a saturable absorber with a fast absorption recovery time based on an InP/InGaAsP uni-traveling-carrier structure (UTC) to achieve pulses below 1 ps with repetition rates up to 40 GHz. The use of the UTC absorber instead of the commonly employed reverse-biased gain material requires however the heterogeneous growth of multiple layer stacks on the same chip with the butt-coupled regrowth technique.Critical for the MLLD performance are the reflections and the optical coupling between the different monolithic integrated layer structures of passive, absorbing and amplifying sections. 2D FDTD simulations of the optical waveguides demonstrate that to minimize reflections an angled interface between the different structures is preferable and can lead to reflection coefficients as low as 10^-6. To obtain an angled interface we used a wet chemical etching process sequence of selective and non-selective etchants, which is sensitive to crystal orientation and yields a 55° tilted interface. In addition we can conclude from our simulations that in order to minimize both, insertion loss and reflections, a bending of the light guiding layers has to be prevented. Bendings can lead to measured losses of 5-7 dB per interface whereas correctly aligned light

  12. Optical triggering of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser via transverse bleaching of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cole, Brian; Lei, Jonathan; DiLazaro, Tom; Schilling, Bradley; Goldberg, Lew

    2009-11-01

    Optical triggering via direct bleaching of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber was applied to a monolithic Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG laser crystal. The method uses a single laser diode bar to bleach a thin sheet within the saturable absorber from a direction orthogonal to the lasing axis. By placing the Q-switch at the time corresponding to the steepest slope (dT/dt) for change in transmission during bleaching, the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter showed a 13.2x reduction in standard deviation, from 132 ns for free-running operation to 10 ns with optical triggering. We measured that a fluence of 60 kW/cm(2) was sufficient to enable optical triggering, where a diode appropriately sized for the length of the Cr:YAG (approximately 3 mm) would then require only approximately 150 W of optical power over a 1-2 micros duration to enable effective jitter reduction. Additionally, we measured an increase in optical-to-optical efficiency with optical triggering, where the efficiency improved from 12% to 13.5%. PMID:19881668

  13. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  14. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO{sub 2}-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.

    1995-05-15

    The absorption of three lines [{ital P}(20), 944.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; {ital P}(14), 949.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; and {ital R}(24), 978.5 cm{sup {minus}1}] of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (00{sup 0}1--10{sup 0}0 transition) by SiH{sub 4} was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials.

  15. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  16. CO2 LASERS IN HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS.

    SciTech Connect

    POGORELSKY,I.V.

    2001-12-03

    Several proof-of-principle laser accelerator experiments turned a long-wavelength of a CO{sub 2} laser to advantage. Ongoing advancement to multi-terawatt femtosecond CO{sub 2} lasers opens new venues for next-generation laser acceleration research.

  17. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  18. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  19. Preliminary results on the conversion of laser energy into electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. W.; Manista, E. J.; Alger, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was performed to investigate conversion of 10.6 micron laser energy to electrical energy via a laser-sustained argon plasma. Short-circuit currents of 0.7 A were measured between a thoriated-tungsten emitter and collector electrodes immersed in the laser-sustained argon plasma. Open-circuit voltages of about 1.5 V were inferred from the current-voltage load characteristics. The dominant mechanism of laser energy conversion is uncertain at this time. Much higher output powers appear possible.

  20. Absorption of a single 500 fs laser pulse at the surface of fused silica: Energy balance and ablation efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Varkentina, N.; Sanner, N.; Lebugle, M.; Sentis, M.; Utéza, O.

    2013-11-07

    Ablation of fused silica by a single femtosecond laser pulse of 500 fs pulse duration is investigated from the perspective of efficiency of incident photons to remove matter. We measure the reflected and transmitted fractions of the incident pulse energy as a function of fluence, allowing us to recover the evolution of absorption at the material surface. At the ablation threshold fluence, 25% of incident energy is absorbed. At high fluences, this ratio saturates around 70% due to the appearance of a self-triggered plasma mirror (or shielding) effect. By using the energy balance retrieved experimentally and measurements of the ablated volume, we show that the amount of absorbed energy is far above the bonding energy of fused silica at rest and also above the energy barrier to ablate the material under non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. Our results emphasize the crucial role of transient plasma properties during the laser pulse and suggest that the major part of the absorbed energy has been used to heat the plasma formed at the surface of the material. A fluence range yielding an efficient and high quality ablation is also defined, which makes the results relevant for femtosecond micromachining processes.

  1. Absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examination of velopharyngeal function during speech

    SciTech Connect

    Isberg, A.; Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Henrikson, C.O. )

    1989-04-01

    Absorbed doses of radiation were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) using a skull phantom during simulated cinefluorographic and videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function in frontal and lateral projections. Dosages to the thyroid gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, and ocular lens were measured. Radiation dosage was found to be approximately 10 times less for videofluoroscopy when compared with that of cinefluoroscopy. In addition, precautionary measures were found to reduce further the exposure of radiation-sensitive tissues. Head fixation and shielding resulted in dose reduction for both video- and cinefluoroscopy. Pulsing exposure for cinefluoroscopy also reduced the dosage.

  2. High energy laser testbed for accurate beam pointing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dojong; Kim, Jae Jun; Frist, Duane; Nagashima, Masaki; Agrawal, Brij

    2010-02-01

    Precision laser beam pointing is a key technology in High Energy Laser systems. In this paper, a laboratory High Energy Laser testbed developed at the Naval Postgraduate School is introduced. System identification is performed and a mathematical model is constructed to estimate system performance. New beam pointing control algorithms are designed based on this mathematical model. It is shown in both computer simulation and experiment that the adaptive filter algorithm can improve the pointing performance of the system.

  3. Experimental evidence of an incomplete thermalization of the energy in an x-ray microcalorimeter with a TaAu absorber.

    PubMed

    Perinati, E; Barbera, M; Varisco, S; Silver, E; Beeman, J; Pigot, C

    2008-05-01

    We have conducted an experimental test at our XACT facility using an x-ray microcalorimeter with TaAu absorber and neutron transmutation doped germanium thermal sensor. The test was aimed at measuring the percentage of energy effectively thermalized after absorption of x-ray photons in superconducting tantalum. Moreover, in general, possible formation of long living quasiparticles implies that by using a superconducting absorber, a fraction of the deposited energy could not be thermalized on the useful time scale of the thermal sensor. To investigate this scenario, we exploited an absorber made of gold, where no energy trapping is expected, with a small piece of superconducting tantalum attached on top. We obtained evidence that the thermalization of photons absorbed in tantalum is delayed by energy trapping from quasiparticles. We compare the experimental results with numerical simulations and derive a value for the intrinsic lifetime of quasiparticles. PMID:18513077

  4. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Yuiko T.; Guesto-Barnak, Donna

    1992-01-01

    A low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-300.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., low emission cross section, .sigma.<2.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2, and a high fluorescence lifetime, .tau.>325 .mu.secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): wherein Ln.sub.2 O.sub.3 is the sum of lanthanide oxides; .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <24 unless .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is 0, then the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B.sub.2 O.sub.3 is 0.48-4.20.

  5. Fiber laser pumped high energy cryogenically cooled Ho:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Espen; Fonnum, Helge; Stenersen, Knut

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we report on a high energy, low repetition rate 2-micron-laser, with high conversion efficiency in terms of output energy per pump power. The laser consists of a Ho3+-doped LiYF4 (YLF) crystal cooled to cryogenic temperatures in an unstable resonator, pumped by a thulium fiber laser. The cooling to 77 K makes Ho:YLF a quasi four level laser system, which greatly enhances the extraction efficiency. We achieved 356 mJ in Q-switched operation at 1 Hz PRF when pumping the laser with 58 W for 36 ms. The high beam quality from the fiber laser and the use of an unstable resonator with a graded reflectivity mirror (GRM) resulted in a high quality laser beam with a M2-value of 1.3.

  6. The Development of a Conical Composite Energy Absorber for Use in the Attenuation of Crash/Impact Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    A design for a novel light-weight conical shaped energy absorbing (EA) composite subfloor structure is proposed. This composite EA is fabricated using repeated alternating patterns of a conical geometry to form long beam structures which can be implemented as aircraft subfloor keel beams or frame sections. The geometrical features of this conical design, along with the hybrid composite materials used in the manufacturing process give a strength tailored to achieve a constant 25-40 g sustained crush load, small peak crush loads and long stroke limits. This report will discuss the geometrical design and fabrication methods, along with results from static and dynamic crush testing of 12-in. long subcomponents.

  7. High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C. M.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Markey, K.; Scott, R. H. H.; Lancaster, K. L.; Musgrave, I. O.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Wyatt, D.; Neely, D.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Deppert, O.; Batani, D.; Davies, J. R.; Hassan, S. M.; Tatarakis, M.; and others

    2014-02-24

    An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5–30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ∼1 ps.

  8. Stable narrow linewidth ring fiber laser with a passive fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot etalon and a fiber saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhiyong; Wu, Bo; Peng, Zengshou; Ou, Zhonghua; Liu, Yongzhi

    2008-12-01

    Narrow linewidth fiber lasers have become more and more necessary in field of coherent communication, fiber optic sensor, and high resolutions optical spectrum analysis, especially long-range distributed fiber sensing system. In this paper, a simple and stable narrow linewidth Er3+ -doped ring fiber laser is first proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the cavity, a passive fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot (FBG F-P) etalon acts as mode-selecting device to greatly reduce the longitudinal-mode density, while a section un-pumped Er3+ -doped fiber serves as a saturable absorber to ensure the single longitudinal-mode (SLM) operation. Meanwhile the stability of lasing frequency is further improved by controlling the temperature of the FBG F-P, and then through varying the temperature the lasing wavelength tuning is achieved also. Finally stable SLM laser at 1550nm with linewidth about 7.5 kHz, maximum output power 39 mW and the corresponding slope efficiency 30% is acquired.

  9. Laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Putre, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The use of an earth-based high-power laser beam to provide energy for earth-launched rocket vehicle is investigated. The laser beam energy is absorbed in an opaque propellant gas and is converted to high-specific-impulse thrust by expanding the heated propellant to space by means of a nozzle. This laser propulsion scheme can produce specific impulses of several thousand seconds. Payload to gross-weight fractions about an order of magnitude higher than those for conventional chemical earth-launched vehicles appear possible. There is a potential for a significant reduction in cost per payload mass in earth orbit.

  10. The TELEC - A plasma type of direct energy converter. [Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) is a high-power density plasma device designed to convert a 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in plasma electrons, creating a high-electron temperature. Energetic electrons diffuse from the plasma and strike two electrodes having different areas. The larger electrode collects more electrons and there is a net transport of current. An electromagnetic field is generated in the external circuit. A computer program has been designed to analyze TELEC performance allowing parametric variation for optimization. Values are presented for TELEC performance as a function of cesium pressure and for current density and efficiency as a function of output voltage. Efficiency is shown to increase with pressure, reaching a maximum over 45%.

  11. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  12. Investigation of variation of energy of laser beam on structural, electrical and optical properties of pulsed laser deposited CuO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dahiya, V. Kumar, A.; Kaur, G.; Mitra, A.

    2014-04-24

    In this paper, copper oxide (CuO) thin films have been deposited successfully by pulsed laser deposition technique using copper metal as target material. Thin films have been prepared under different energy of laser pulses ranging from 100mJ/pulse to 250 mJ/pulse. These films have been characterized for their structural, electrical and optical properties by using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Four probe method and UV spectroscopy. Morphological and structural studies show that there is increase in crystallite size with the increase in energy of laser beam. Thus resulting in improved crystallinity and degree of orientation of the CuO thin films. Optoelectrical properties show direct relation between conductivity and energy of laser beam. Optical analysis of CuO thin films prepared under different energy of laser beam shows good agreement with structural analysis. The prepared CuO thin films show high absorbance in the UV and visible range and thus are suitable candidate for thin films solar cell application.

  13. Characteristics of exhaust air facades as solar absorbers for saving of heating energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voncube, H. L.; Ludwig, E.

    1982-12-01

    The solar radiation exploited by solar exhaust air windows was measured at a building facing four main directions. The windows were not constructed as optimal radiation absorbers and the heat gain stood in a range of 3 to 10% of the heat consumption, depending on time of year. Optimal windows (chiefly clear glass with Venetian blinds) were found by a computer program simulating the process of radiation in an exhaust air-window and heat gains up to 50% can be obtained. Relation to air flow rate and others were found. The calculated results were proved by measurements. With a suitable heating systems in the building (heat transport form south side to north side, heat storage) up to 50% of the annual consumption can be saved.

  14. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations continue of diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes using them as sources. Diode laser array pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:glass lasers have been demonstrated. Theoretical studies of non-planar oscillators have been advanced, producing new designs which should be more resistant to feedback and offer better frequency stability. A monolithic, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator in MgO:LiNbO3 has been operated.

  15. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications.

    PubMed

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman; Ting, Antonio; Fischer, Richard

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we review and discuss the research programs at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications in the atmosphere. Physical processes affecting propagation include absorption/scattering, turbulence, and thermal blooming. The power levels needed for DE applications require combining a number of lasers. In atmospheric turbulence, there is a maximum intensity that can be placed on a target that is independent of the initial beam spot size and laser beam quality. By combining a number of kW-class fiber lasers, scientists at the NRL have successfully demonstrated high-power laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere and wireless recharging. In the NRL experiments, four incoherently combined fiber lasers having a total power of 5 kW were propagated to a target 3.2 km away. These successful high-power experiments in a realistic atmosphere formed the basis of the Navy's Laser Weapon System. We compare the propagation characteristics of coherently and incoherently combined beams without adaptive optics. There is little difference in the energy on target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams for multi-km propagation ranges and moderate to high levels of turbulence. Unlike incoherent combining, coherent combining places severe constraints on the individual lasers. These include the requirement of narrow power spectral linewidths in order to have long coherence times as well as polarization alignment of all the lasers. These requirements are extremely difficult for high-power lasers. PMID:26560609

  16. ND:GLASS LASER DESIGN FOR LASER ICF FISSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J A; Agrawal, V; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Britten, J; Chen, D; Cross, R; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Feit, M; Freitas, B; Ghosh, C; Haefner, C; Homoelle, D; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; Molander, W; Murray, J; Rubenchik, S; Schaffers, K; Siders, C W; Stappaerts, E; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Trenholme, J; Barty, C J

    2008-10-28

    We have developed preliminary conceptual laser system designs for the Laser ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Fission Energy (LIFE) application. Our approach leverages experience in high-energy Nd:glass laser technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with high-energy-class diode-pumped solid-state laser (HEC-DPSSL) technology developed for the DOE's High Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program and embodied in LLNL's Mercury laser system. We present laser system designs suitable for both indirect-drive, hot spot ignition and indirect-drive, fast ignition targets. Main amplifiers for both systems use laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass slabs oriented at Brewster's angle, as in NIF, but the slabs are much thinner to allow for cooling by high-velocity helium gas as in the Mercury laser system. We also describe a plan to mass-produce pump-diode lasers to bring diode costs down to the order of $0.01 per Watt of peak output power, as needed to make the LIFE application economically attractive.

  17. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    DOEpatents

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  18. Isolas of periodic passive Q-switching self-pulsations in the three-level:two-level model for a laser with a saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Doedel, Eusebius J; Pando, Carlos L L

    2011-11-01

    We show that a fundamental feature of the three-level:two-level model, used to describe molecular monomode lasers with a saturable absorber, is the existence of isolas of periodic passive Q-switching (PQS) self-pulsations. A common feature of these closed families of periodic solutions is that they contain regions of stability of the PQS self-pulsation bordered by period-doubling and fold bifurcations, when the control parameter is either the incoherent external pump or the cavity frequency detuning. These findings unveil the fundamental solution structure that is at the origin of the phenomenon known as "period-adding cascades" in our system. Using numerical continuation techniques we determine these isolas systematically, as well as the changes they undergo as secondary parameters are varied. PMID:22181484

  19. a Semiclassical Analysis of a Detuned Ring Laser with a Saturable Absorber: New Results for the Steady States and a Formulation of the Linearized Stability Problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, David Edward

    This dissertation presents new results for the steady states of a detuned ring laser with a saturable absorber. The treatment is based on a semiclassical model which assumes homogeneously broadened two-level atoms. Part 1 presents a solution of the Maxwell-Bloch equations for the longitudinal dependence of the steady states of this system. The solution is then simplified by use of the mean field approximation. Graphical results in the mean field approximation are presented for squared electric field versus operating frequency, and for each of these versus cavity tuning and laser excitation. Various cavity linewidths and both resonant and non-resonant amplifier and absorber line center frequencies are considered. The most notable finding is that cavity detuning breaks the degeneracies previously found in the steady state solutions to the fully tuned case. This lead to the prediction that an actual system will bifurcate from the zero intensity solution to a steady state solution as laser excitation increases from zero, rather than to the small amplitude pulsations found for the model with mathematically exact tuning of the cavity and the media line centers. Other phenomena suggested by the steady state results include tuning-dependent hysteresis and bistability, and instability due to the appearance of another steady state solution. Results for the case in which the media have different line center frequencies suggest non-monotonic behavior of the electric field amplitude as laser excitation varies, as well as hysteresis and bistability. Part 2 presents a formulation of the linearized stability problem for the steady state solutions discussed in the first part. Thus the effects of detuning and the other parameters describing the system is incorporated into the stability analysis. The equations of the system are linearized about both the mean field steady states and about the longitudinally dependent steady states. Expansion in Fourier spatial modes is used in the

  20. Enhancing the light absorbance of polymer solar cells by introducing pulsed laser-deposited CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit current density is improved from 0.77 to 1.20 mA/cm2. The photoluminescence spectra show that the excitons in the polymer are obviously quenched, suggesting that the charge transfer between the P3HT:PCBM and CIGS occurred. The results reveal that the CIGS nanoparticles may exhibit the localized surface plasmon resonance effect just as metallic nanostructures. PACS 61.46. + w; 61.41.e; 81.15.Fg; 81.07.b PMID:24994961

  1. Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed in rat small intestine by phytic-acid-aided matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Min; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Yoshii, Saori; Mine, Yoshinori; Matsui, Toshiro

    2013-11-01

    Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed through a rat intestinal membrane was achieved by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) with the aid of phytic acid as a matrix additive. Penetrants through intestinal peptide transporter 1, i.e., glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar, 147.1 m/z) and antihypertensive dipeptide, Val-Tyr (281.2 m/z), were chosen for MALDI-IMS. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of dipeptides Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr were seen to increase by 2.4- and 8.0-fold, respectively, when using a 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) matrix containing 5.0 mM phytic acid, instead of the THAP matrix alone. Owing to the phytic-acid-aided MALDI-IMS method, Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr absorbed in the rat intestinal membrane were successfully visualized. The proposed imaging method also provided useful information on intestinal peptide absorption; to some extent, Val-Tyr was rapidly hydrolyzed to Tyr by peptidases located at the intestinal microvillus during the absorption process. In conclusion, the strongly acidic additive, phytic acid, is beneficial for enhancing the visualization of small peptides using MALDI-IMS, owing to the suppression of ionization-interfering salts in the tissue. PMID:24063774

  2. Photographic studies of laser-induced bubble formation in absorbing liquids and on submerged targets: implications for drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, HanQun; Casperson, Lee W.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Prahl, Scott A.

    1998-08-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of blood clots in a fluid-filled blood vessel is accompanied by an explosive evaporation process. The resulting vapor bubble rapidly expands and collapses to disrupt the thrombus (blood clot). The hydrodynamic pressures following the bubble expansion and collapse can also be used as a driving force to deliver clot-dissolving agents into thrombus for enhancement of laser thrombolysis. Thus, the laser-induced bubble formation plays an important role in the thrombus removal process. We investigate the effects of boundary configurations and materials on bubble formation with time-resolved flash photography and high- speed photography. Potential applications in drug delivery using microsecond laser pulses are then discussed.

  3. A detector to measure transverse profiles and energy of an H- beam using gas stripping and laser photo neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Raparia, D.

    2012-02-01

    A detector has been developed at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) [1] and installed in the exit beam line of the BNL H- linear accelerator (linac) to measure transverse beam profiles, average beam energy and beam-energy spread. These beam properties are found by deflecting beam electrons, produced by both gas stripping and laser neutralization, into a detector. An H- ion, with a first ionization potential of 0.756 eV, can be neutralized by collisions with background gas and by absorbing the energy of a photon of wavelength shorter than 1.64 m. Free electrons produced by both mechanisms are deflected out of the H- beam by a dipole magnet and into a chamber which measures electron charge vs. energy. Ion-beam profiles are measured by scanning a laser beam across the H- beam and measuring the laser-stripped electron charge vs. laser position. Beam energy is deduced by measuring either the laser-stripped or gas-stripped electron charge which passes through a retarding-voltage grid vs. the grid voltage. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is the electron energy multiplied by mp/me=1836, [E=(γ-1)mc2].

  4. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  5. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature. PMID:26057186

  6. Laser safety research and modeling for high-energy laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter A.; Montes de Oca, Cecilia I.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Keppler, Kenneth S.

    2002-06-01

    The Department of Defense has an increasing number of high-energy laser weapons programs with the potential to mature in the not too distant future. However, as laser systems with increasingly higher energies are developed, the difficulty of the laser safety problem increases proportionally, and presents unique safety challenges. The hazard distance for the direct beam can be in the order of thousands of miles, and radiation reflected from the target may also be hazardous over long distances. This paper details the Air Force Research Laboratory/Optical Radiation Branch (AFRL/HEDO) High-Energy Laser (HEL) safety program, which has been developed to support DOD HEL programs by providing critical capability and knowledge with respect to laser safety. The overall aim of the program is to develop and demonstrate technologies that permit safe testing, deployment and use of high-energy laser weapons. The program spans the range of applicable technologies, including evaluation of the biological effects of high-energy laser systems, development and validation of laser hazard assessment tools, and development of appropriate eye protection for those at risk.

  7. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  8. Laser energy distribution on detector under the different incident angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Chen, Q.; Hao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ren, G.; Zhu, R.

    2015-11-01

    Laser active suppressing jamming is one of the most important technologies in the domain of electro-optical countermeasures. The propagation direction of laser is not always in the same line with the principal axis of electro-optical imaging system, so it is necessary to investigate laser energy distribution on detector under the different incident angle. This paper toke optical system with wide field of view for example. We firstly analyzed the system's structure based on the inverting prism and evaluated image quality. Laser energy distribution caused by diffraction effect of optical system was secondly simulated based on Kirchhoff 's diffraction theory. Thirdly, we built the system's analysis model of stray light, traced a large number of light propagation, and obtained laser energy distribution on detector caused by scattering effect. At last, combine the above two kinds of energy distribution into total laser energy distribution on detector. According to the detector's saturated threshold, we can count up the saturated number and evaluate laser disturbing effect. The research results can provide theoretical reference and technical support for evaluating laser disturbing effect of electro-optical imaging system.

  9. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm is disclosed. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr, is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe/sub M/ to form XeBr.

  10. High-energy transversely pumped alkali vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.

    2011-03-01

    We report on the results from our transversely pumped alkali laser. This system uses an Alexandrite laser to pump a stainless steel laser head. The system uses methane and helium as buffer gasses. Using rubidium, the system produced up to 40 mJ of output energy when pumped with 63 mJ. Slope efficiency was 75%. Using potassium as the lasing species the system produced 32 mJ and a 53% slope efficiency.

  11. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  12. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications. PMID:26560597

  13. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes were investigated. A new generation on nonplanar oscillator was fabricated, and it is anticipated that passive linewidths will be pushed to the kilohertz regime. A number of diode-pumped laser transitions were demonstrated in the rod configuration. Second-harmonic conversion efficiencies as high as 15% are routinely obtained in a servo-locked external resonant doubling crystal at 15 mW cw input power levels at 1064 nm.

  14. Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinho; Lee, Junsu; Koo, Joonhoi; Chung, Hojai; Lee, Ju Han

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a linearly polarized, passively Q-switched, erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser using a saturable absorber (SA) based on a composite consisting of a bulk-structured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator (TI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The SA was constructed on a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber ferrule platform, which had a sandwich structure. Its saturation intensity and modulation depth were measured to be ˜ and ˜4.1%, respectively. Using the prepared Bi2Te3/PVA SA in a PM Er-doped fiber ring laser, stable Q-switched pulses with a degree of polarization of ˜98.6% and an azimuth angle of ˜-0.34 deg were demonstrated. The minimum pulse width was measured to be ˜1.58 μs at a repetition rate of 47.1 kHz. This experimental demonstration verifies that a thin film based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI can fit into a sandwich-structured SA based on PM fiber ferrules.

  15. Passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser via a D-shape-fiber-based MoS2 saturable absorber with a very low nonsaturable loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Na, Duan; Yu-Long, Su; Yong-Gang, Wang; Lu, Li; Xi, Wang; Yi-Shan, Wang

    2016-02-01

    We report on the generation of conventional and dissipative solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers by the evanescent field interaction between the propagating light and a multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film. The MoS2 film is fabricated by depositing the MoS2 water-ethanol mixture on a D-shape-fiber (DF) repetitively. The measured nonsaturable loss, saturable optical intensity, and the modulation depth of this device are 13.3%, 110 MW/cm2, and 3.4% respectively. Owing to the very low nonsaturable loss, the laser threshold of conventional soliton is as low as 4.8 mW. The further increase of net cavity dispersion to normal regime, stable dissipation soliton pulse trains with a spectral bandwidth of 11.7 nm and pulse duration of 116 ps are successfully generated. Our experiment demonstrates that the MoS2-DF device can indeed be used as a high performance saturable absorber for further applications in ultrafast photonics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378024).

  16. Q-switched 2 μm thulium bismuth co-doped fiber laser with multi-walled carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidin, N.; Zen, D. I. M.; Ahmad, F.; Haris, H.; Ahmad, H.; Dimyati, K.; Harun, S. W.; Halder, A.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    We report a passively Q-switched fiber laser operating at 1900 nm region using the newly developed thulium bismuth co-doped lithium-alumino-germano-silicate fiber (TBF) as a gain medium in conjunction with a multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA). The TBF and MWCNTs are fabricated and prepared in-house. By increasing the 802 nm pump power from 106.6 to 160 mW, stable generation of Q-switched TBFL has been obtained at 1857.8 nm wavelength. The pulse repetition rate varies from 12.84 to 29.48 kHz while pulse width is increased from 9.6 to 6.1 μs. The performance of the laser is also compared with the Q-switched TDFL, which was obtained using a similar MWCNTs SA and pump wavelength. The Q-switched TDFL generates an optical pulse train with a repetition rate increasing from 3.8 to 4.6 kHz and pulse width reducing from 22.1 to 18.3 μs when the pump power is tuned from 187.3 to 194.2 mW. This shows that the TBFL performs better than the TDFL in terms of threshold pump power, repetition rate and pulse width.

  17. Applications analysis of high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Mackay, J. S.; Nishioka, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and comparison of laser technology with competing technologies were made to determine possible laser applications. The analysis was undertaken as follows: (1) possible applications were listed and categorized; (2) required components were enumerated and the characteristics of these components were extrapolated; (3) complete system characteristics were calculated parametrically for selected applications using the postulated component characteristics; and (4) where possible and appropriate, comparisons were made with competing systems. It was found that any large scale replacement of existing systems and methods by lasers requires many technological advances in laser and associated systems. However, several applications appear feasible, such as low orbit drag make-up, orbit changing, communications, and illumination applications.

  18. Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Previsic, M.; Epler, J.; Lou, J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy established a reference model project to benchmark a set of marine and hydrokinetic technologies including current (tidal, open-ocean, and river) turbines and wave energy converters. The objectives of the project were to first evaluate the status of these technologies and their readiness for commercial applications. Second, to evaluate the potential cost of energy and identify cost-reduction pathways and areas where additional research could be best applied to accelerate technology development to market readiness.

  19. Fabrication of photovoltaic laser energy converterby MBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Hamilton; Wang, Scott; Chan, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser-energy converter, fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), was developed. This converter is a stack of vertical p-n junctions connected in series by low-resistivity, lattice matched CoSi2 layers to achieve a high conversion efficiency. Special high-temperature electron-beam (e-beam) sources were developed especially for the MBE growth of the junctions and CoSi2 layers. Making use of the small (greater than 1.2 percent) lattice mismatch between CoSi2 and Si layers, high-quality and pinhole-free epilayers were achieved, providing a capability of fabricating all the junctions and connecting layers as a single growth process with one pumpdown. Well-defined multiple p-n junctions connected by CoSi2 layers were accomplished by employing a low growth temperature (greater than 700 C) and a low growth rate (less than 0.5 microns/hour). Producing negligible interdiffusion, the low growth temperature and rate also produced negligible pinholes in the CoSi2 layers. For the first time, a stack of three p-n junctions connected by two 10(exp -5) Ohm-cm CoSi2 layers was achieved, meeting the high conversion efficiency requirement. This process can now be optimized for high growth rate to form a practical converter with 10 p-n junctions in the stack.

  20. High-power Yb:YAG/YAG microchip laser using octagonal-shape waveguide with uniform absorbed power distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmard, S.; Haghparast, A.; Arabgari, S.; Mehrabani, M. T.

    2013-06-01

    An innovative architecture for edge-pumped high power microchip laser is introduced. This geometry consists of a Yb:YAG thin disk gain media surrounded by an irregular octagonal undoped YAG cap as pumping light waveguide. The main advantages of the new geometry are high uniform absorption distribution, high absorption efficiency and simple construction to fabricate. Using the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, the pumping process and absorption profile in active medium are simulated. In addition, considering the impact of Yb+3 doping concentration and temperature on thermal conductivity, and based on the finite-difference method the conduction equation was solved and the temperature distribution in the gain media calculated. Based on these simulations, influence of active medium parameters such as core diameter, doping concentration and octagon side sizes ratio on absorption profile and efficiency as well as maximum temperature in gain medium is investigated. High absorption efficiency (over 94%) with perfect top-hat absorption profile has been predicted to be obtained from the designed microchip with optimized parameters. This microchip has a core diameter of 4 or 5 mm, 9 at% Yb3+ doping concentration and 300 μm thickness. An estimation based on laser rate equations shows that with 960 W pumping power, more than 600 W output power (optical efficiency of 66%) can be extracted from the designed system.