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Sample records for absorbed optical energy

  1. Point-by-point near-field optical energy deposition around plasmonic nanospheres in absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R K; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2015-08-01

    Here we investigate the effects of absorbing media on plasmon-enhanced near-field optical energy deposition. We find that increasing absorption by the medium results in increased particle scattering at the expense of particle absorption, and that much of this increased particle scattering is absorbed by the medium close to the particle surface. We present an analytical method for evaluating the spatial distribution of near-field enhanced absorption surrounding plasmonic metal nanospheres in absorbing media using a new point-by-point method. We propose criteria to define relevant near-field boundaries and calculate the properties of the local absorption enhancement, which redistributes absorption to the near-field and decays asymptotically as a function of the distance from the particle to background levels. Using this method, we performed a large-scale parametric study to understand the effect of particle size and wavelength on the near-field absorption for gold nanoparticles in aqueous media and silicon, and identified conditions that are relevant to enhanced local infrared absorption in silicon. The presented approach provides insight into the local energy transfer around plasmonic nanoparticles for predicting near-field effects for advanced concepts in optical sensing, thin-film solar cells, nonlinear imaging, and photochemical applications. PMID:26367296

  2. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  3. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  4. A new thermal radiation detector using optical heterodyne detection of absorbed energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. C.; Petuchowski, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The operating principles of a new kind of room-temperature thermal radiation detector are described. In this device modulated light heats a gas, either directly or by conduction from a thin absorbing membrane, and the resultant change in density of the gas is detected by optical heterodyning. The performance of a membrane device of this kind agrees well with the predictions of theory.

  5. Metal shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A metal shearing energy absorber is described. The absorber is composed of a flat thin strip of metal which is pulled through a slot in a cutter member of a metal, harder than the metal of the strip. The slot's length, in the direction perpendicular to the pull direction, is less than the strip's width so that as the strip is pulled through the slot, its edges are sheared off, thereby absorbing some of the pulling energy. In one embodiment the cutter member is a flat plate of steel, while in another embodiment the cutter member is U-shaped with the slot at its base.

  6. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-05-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  7. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  8. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  9. Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyou; Fan, Pengyu; Vasudev, Alok P; White, Justin S; Yu, Zongfu; Cai, Wenshan; Schuller, Jon A; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L

    2010-02-10

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells can serve as a virtually unlimited clean source of energy by converting sunlight into electrical power. Their importance is reflected in the tireless efforts that have been devoted to improving the electrical and structural properties of PV materials. More recently, photon management (PM) has emerged as a powerful additional means to boost energy conversion efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new PM strategy that capitalizes on strong broad band optical antenna effects in one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures to dramatically enhance absorption of sunlight. We show that the absorption of sunlight in Si nanowires (Si NWs) can be significantly enhanced over the bulk. The NW's optical properties also naturally give rise to an improved angular response. We propose that by patterning the silicon layer in a thin film PV cell into an array of NWs, one can boost the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250% increase in the light absorption per unit volume of material). These results significantly advance our understanding of the way sunlight is absorbed by one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures and provide a clear, intuitive guidance for the design of efficient NW solar cells. The presented approach is universal to any semiconductor and a wide range of nanostructures; as such, it provides a new PV platform technology. PMID:20078065

  10. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  11. Optically absorbing nanoparticle mediated cell membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Mehta, Smit; Viator, John

    2012-11-01

    Membrane permeabilization is imperative for gene and drug delivery systems, along with other cell manipulation methods, since the average eukaryotic cell membrane is not permeable to polar and large nonpolar molecules. Antibody conjugated optically absorbing gold nanospheres are targeted to the cell membrane of T47D breast cancer cell line and irradiated with 5 ns pulse, 20 Hz, 532 nm light to increase membrane permeability. Up to 90% permeabilization with less than 6% death is reported at radiant exposures up to 10 times lower than those of other comparable studies. PMID:23114334

  12. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.

  13. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Energy Absorbing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellas, S.; Maddock, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    A critical element of a passive EEV performance is the energy absorbing system required to attenuate the dynamic landing loads. Two design approaches are described and the pros and cons based on particular mission requirements are discussed.

  14. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  15. Self-Resetting Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Nagy, Kornel; Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1992-01-01

    Device uses friction to dissipate kinetic energy. When moving mass pushes in one direction, it offers substantial friction. Pushed in opposite direction, it offers negligible friction. Built-in spring resets for another shock-absorption cycle. Used in industrial machinery, automobile bumpers and suspensions, and parachute lanyards.

  16. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap without glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Absorber efficiency can be improved to 90% by removing glass plates and using infrared traps. Absorber configuration may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

  17. Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo

    2015-01-26

    Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.

  18. Absorbing Boundary Conditions For Optical Pulses In Dispersive, Nonlinear Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that provides absorbing boundary conditions for optical pulses in dispersive, nonlinear materials. A new numerical absorber at the boundaries has been developed that is responsive to the spectral content of the pulse. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of "light bullet" like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. Comparisons will be shown of calculations that use the standard boundary conditions and the new ones.

  19. Lightweight Energy Absorbers for Blast Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald L.; Ingram, Thomas M.; Novak, Howard L.; Schricker, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic-energy-absorbing liners made of aluminum foam have been developed to replace solid lead liners in blast containers on the aft skirt of the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle. The blast containers are used to safely trap the debris from small explosions that are initiated at liftoff to sever frangible nuts on hold-down studs that secure the spacecraft to a mobile launch platform until liftoff.

  20. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  1. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-30

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  2. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-06-17

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  3. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-07-15

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  4. Load limiting energy absorbing lightweight debris catcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor); Schneider, William C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In the representative embodiment of the invention disclosed, a load limiting, energy absorbing net is arranged to overlay a normally-covered vent opening in the rear bulkhead of the space orbiter vehicle. Spatially-disposed flexible retainer straps are extended from the net and respectively secured to bulkhead brackets spaced around the vent opening. The intermediate portions of the straps are doubled over and stitched together in a pattern enabling the doubled-over portions to progressively separate at a predicable load designed to be well below the tensile capability of the straps as the stitches are successively torn apart by the forces imposed on the retainer members whenever the cover plate is explosively separated from the bulkhead and propelled into the net. By arranging these stitches to be successively torn away at a load below the strap strength in response to forces acting on the retainers that are less than the combined strength of the retainers, this tearing action serves as a predictable compact energy absorber for safely halting the cover plate as the retainers are extended as the net is deployed. The invention further includes a block of an energy-absorbing material positioned in the net for receiving loose debris produced by the explosive release of the cover plate.

  5. Development of optical tools for the characterization of selective solar absorber at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Philemon; Braillon, Julien; Delord, Christine; Raccurt, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for characterization of this solar absorber in condition of use that is to say in air and at elevated temperature. In this paper we present two new optical test benches developed for optical characterization of solar absorbers in condition of use up to 800°C. The first equipment is an integrated sphere with heated sample holder which measures the hemispherical reflectance between 280 and 2500 nm to calculate the solar absorbance at high temperature. The second optical test bench measures the emittance of samples up to 1000°C in the range of 1.25 to 28.57 µm. Results of high temperature measurements on a series of metallic absorbers with selective coating and refractory material for high thermal receiver are presented.

  6. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Efficiency of solar-energy absorbers may be improved to 95% by actively cooling their intermediate glass plates. This approach may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

  7. Energy harvesting from an autoparametric vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhimiao; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2015-11-01

    The combined control and energy harvesting characteristics of an autoparametric vibration absorber consisting of a base structure subjected to the external force and a cantilever beam with a tip mass are investigated. The piezoelectric sheets are attached to the cantilever beam to convert the vibrations of the base structure into electrical energy. The coupled nonlinear representative model is developed by using the extended Hamiton’s principle. The effects of the electrical load resistance on the frequency and damping ratio of the cantilever beam are analyzed. The impacts of the external force and load resistance on the structural displacements of the base structure and the beam and on the level of harvested energy are determined. The results show that the initial conditions have a significant impact on the system’s response. The relatively high level of energy harvesting is not necessarily accompanied with the minimum displacements of the base structure.

  8. Optical tomography by the temporally extrapolated absorbance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro; Eda, Hideo; Tsunazawa, Yoshio; Takada, Michinosuke; Yamada, Yukio; Nishimura, Goro; Tamura, Mamoru

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the temporally extrapolated absorbance method (TEAM) for optical tomography of turbid media has been verified by fundamental experiments and image reconstruction. The TEAM uses the time-resolved spectroscopic data of the reference and object to provide projection data that are processed by conventional backprojection. Optical tomography images of a phantom consisting of axisymmetric double cylinders were experimentally obtained with the TEAM and time-gating and continuous-wave (CW) methods. The reconstructed TEAM images are compared with those obtained with the time-gating and CW methods and are found to have better spatial resolution.

  9. Thermally Resilient, Broadband Optical Absorber from UV to IR Derived from Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Optical absorber coatings have been developed from carbon-based paints, metal blacks, or glassy carbon. However, such materials are not truly black and have poor absorption characteristics at longer wavelengths. The blackness of such coatings is important to increase the accuracy of calibration targets used in radiometric imaging spectrometers since blackbody cavities are prohibitively large in size. Such coatings are also useful potentially for thermal detectors, where a broadband absorber is desired. Au-black has been a commonly used broadband optical absorber, but it is very fragile and can easily be damaged by heat and mechanical vibration. An optically efficient, thermally rugged absorber could also be beneficial for thermal solar cell applications for energy harnessing, particularly in the 350-2,500 nm spectral window. It has been demonstrated that arrays of vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), specifically multi-walled-carbon- nanotubes (MWCNTs), are an exceptional optical absorber over a broad range of wavelengths well into the infrared (IR). The reflectance of such arrays is 100x lower compared to conventional black materials, such as Au black in the spectral window of 350-2,500 nm. Total hemispherical measurements revealed a reflectance of approximately equal to 1.7% at lambda approximately equal to 1 micrometer, and at longer wavelengths into the infrared (IR), the specular reflectance was approximately equal to 2.4% at lambda approximately equal to 7 micrometers. The previously synthesized CNTs for optical absorber applications were formed using water-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which yields CNT lengths in excess of 100's of microns. Vertical alignment, deemed to be a critical feature in enabling the high optical absorption from CNT arrays, occurs primarily via the crowding effect with thermal CVD synthesized CNTs, which is generally not effective in aligning CNTs with lengths less than 10 m. Here it has been shown that the

  10. A study on snubber elimination using energy absorbers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khalafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.; Dong, M.Y.; Wilkenson, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a snubber elimination study performed by Bechtel Power Corporation (Bechtel) using energy absorbers. Energy absorbers are used here as one of three separate snubber elimination/optimization methods evaluated by independent contractors in a coordinated EPRI program. As a starting baseline, each method considers systems selected from existing operating plants, which were originally designed with snubbers. Energy absorbers used in this study were developed by Bechtel based on earlier success in experimentally demonstrating the concept of energy absorbing restraints on the shaker table at the University of California at Berkeley. ASME code Case N-420 provides rules for construction of energy absorbers under the provisions of Section III of the code. First applications of energy absorbers to nuclear plants are currently being reviewed by the NRC on the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and the Point Beach Atomic Plant.

  11. The optical properties of using graphene as a saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keschl, Nathan; Schibli, Thomas; Lee, Chien-Chung; Xie, Wanyan

    2012-10-01

    Graphene, a single-atom layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, has been on the forefront of research since it's discovery in 2005 [1]. Although it has many applications, my research is specialized in the field of utilizing the graphene as a saturable absorber for mode-locking lasers. Currently, the most common method to mode-lock a laser is by using a Semi-conductor Saturable Absorber Mirror (SESAM). Graphene is a substitute for SESAMs with pulse generation as low as 260 fs [2]. However, graphene will begin to ``burn'' as the laser approaches the intensity it needs to mode-lock. We have experimented with various methods of protecting the graphene from burning so it can be used at higher intensity domains.[4pt] [1] A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, ``The rise of graphene.'' Nat Mater. 2007/03//print[0pt] [2] G. Acosta, J.S. Bunch, C.C. Lee, T.R. Schibli, ``Ultra-Short Optical Pulse Generation with Single-Layer Graphene.'' Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials, Volume 19, Issue 04, pp. 767-771. 00/2010.

  12. Optical absorbance measurements and photoacoustic evaluation of freeze-thawed polyvinyl-alcohol vessel phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabul, M. U.; Heres, H. M.; Rutten, M.; van de Vosse, F.; Lopata, R.

    2015-03-01

    Multispectral photoacoustic (MPA) imaging is a promising tool for the diagnosis of atherosclerotic carotids. Excitation of different constituents of a plaque with different wavelengths of the light may provide morphological information to evaluate plaque vulnerability. Preclinical validation of in vivo photoacoustic (PA) imaging requires a comprehensive phantom study. In this study, the design of optically realistic vessel phantoms for photoacoustics was examined by characterizing their optical properties for different dye concentrations, and comparing those to PA measurements. Four different concentrations of Indian ink and molecular dye were added to a 15 wt% PVA and 1 wt% orgasol mixture. Next, the homogeneously mixed gels were subjected to five freeze - thaw cycles to increase the stiffness of vessel phantoms (rinner = 2:5mm, router = 4mm). For each cycle, the optical absorbance was measured between 400 nm 990 nm using a plate reader. Additionally, photoacoustic responses of each vessel phantom at 808 nm were tested with a novel, hand-held, integrated PA probe. Measurements show that the PA signal intensity increases with the optical absorber concentration (0.3 to 0.9) in close agreement with the absorbance measurements. The freeze - thaw process has no significant effect on PA intensity. However, the total attenuation of optical energy increases after each freeze-thaw cycle, which is primarily due to the increase in the scattering coefficient. In future work, the complexity of these phantoms will be increased to examine the feasibility of distinguishing different constituents with MPA imaging.

  13. The changes in optical absorbance of ZrO2 thin film with the rise of the absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayli, D.; Baydogan, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, zirconium oxide (ZrO2) thin film samples prepared by sol-gel method were irradiated using Co-60 radioisotope as gamma source. Then, it was investigated the ionizing effect on optical properties of ZrO2 thin film samples with the rise of the absorbed dose. The changes in the optical absorbance of ZrO2 thin films were determined by using optical transmittance and the reflectance measurements in the range between 190 - 1100 nm obtained from PG Instruments T80 UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  14. Exchanging Ohmic Losses in Metamaterial Absorbers with Useful Optical Absorption for Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Ankit; Gwamuri, Jephias; Pala, Nezih; Kulkarni, Anand; Pearce, Joshua M.; Güney, Durdu Ö.

    2014-01-01

    Using metamaterial absorbers, we have shown that metallic layers in the absorbers do not necessarily constitute undesired resistive heating problem for photovoltaics. Tailoring the geometric skin depth of metals and employing the natural bulk absorbance characteristics of the semiconductors in those absorbers can enable the exchange of undesired resistive losses with the useful optical absorbance in the active semiconductors. Thus, Ohmic loss dominated metamaterial absorbers can be converted into photovoltaic near-perfect absorbers with the advantage of harvesting the full potential of light management offered by the metamaterial absorbers. Based on experimental permittivity data for indium gallium nitride, we have shown that between 75%–95% absorbance can be achieved in the semiconductor layers of the converted metamaterial absorbers. Besides other metamaterial and plasmonic devices, our results may also apply to photodectors and other metal or semiconductor based optical devices where resistive losses and power consumption are important pertaining to the device performance. PMID:24811322

  15. Integrated optical NIR-evanescent wave absorbance sensorfor chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Bürck, J; Zimmermann, B; Mayer, J; Ache, H J

    1996-01-01

    A new, long-path integrated optical (IO) sensor for the detection of non-polar organic substances is described. The sensing layer deposited on a planar multimode IO structure is built by a suitable silicone polymer with lower refractive index (RI). It acts as a hydrophobic matrix for the reversible enrichment of non-polar organic contaminants from water or air. Light from the near-infrared (NIR) range is coupled into the planar structure and the evanescent wave part of the light field penetrating into the silicone layer interacts with the enriched organic species. As a result, light is absorbed at the characteristic frequencies of the corresponding C-H, N-H or O-H overtone and combination band vibrations of the analytes. To perform evanescent field absorbance (EFA) measurements, the arc-shaped strip waveguide structure of 172 mm interaction length was adapted to a tungsten-halogen lamp and an InGaAs diode array spectrograph over gradient index fibers. Dimethyl-co-methly(phenyl)polysiloxanes with varying degrees of phenylation were prepared and used as sensitive coating materials for the IO structure. Light attenuation in the arc-shaped waveguides is high and typical insertion losses in the range of 14-18 dB were obtained. When the coated sensors were brought in contact with aqueous samples, the light transmission decreases, which is due to the formation of H(2)O micro-emulsions in the silicone superstrates. Nevertheless, after reaching constant light transmissions, absorbance spectra of aqueous trichloroethene samples were successfully collected. For gas measurements, where water cross sensitivity problems are absent, the sensitivity of the IO device for trichloroethene was tested as a function of the RI of the silicone superstrate. The slope of the TCE calibration function increases by a factor of 10 by using a poly(methylphenylsiloxane) layer with a RI of 1.449 instead of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (RI: 1.41). A comparison of the IO-EFA and an earlier developed fiber-optic

  16. Development of optical tool for the characterization of selective solar absorber tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braillon, Julien; Stollo, Alessio; Delord, Christine; Raccurt, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    In the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies, selective solar absorbers, which have a cylindrical geometry, are submitted to strong environmental constraints. The degradation of their optical properties (total solar absorbance and total emittance) has a direct impact on the performances. In order to know optical properties of absorber tubes, we present in this article a new optical tool developed by our laboratory which fit onto commercial spectrometers. Total solar absorbance and total emittance are calculated from total reflectance spectra measured by UV-Vis and IR spectrophotometry. To verify and validate the measurement method, we performed a comparative study between flat and cylindrical samples with same surface properties.

  17. Delayed-feedback vibration absorbers to enhance energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, Ayhan S.; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-02-01

    Recovering energy from ambient vibrations has recently been a popular research topic. This article is conceived as a concept study that explores new directions to enhance the performance of such energy harvesting devices from base excitation. The main idea revolves around the introduction of delayed feedback sensitization (or tuning) of an active vibration absorber setup. To clarify the concept, the Delayed Resonator theory is reviewed and its suitability for energy harvesting purposes is studied. It is recognized that an actively tuned and purely resonant absorber is infeasible for such applications. The focus is then shifted to alternative tuning schemes that deviate from resonance conditions. Also called Delayed Feedback Vibration Absorbers, these devices may indeed provide significant enhancements in energy harvesting capacity. Analytical developments are presented to study energy generation and consumption characteristics. Effects of excitation frequency and absorber damping are investigated. The influences of time-delayed feedback on the stability and the transient performance of the system are also treated. The analysis starts from a stand-alone absorber, emulating seismic mass type harvesters. The work is then extended to vibration control applications, where an absorber/harvester is coupled with a primary structure. The results are demonstrated with numerical simulations on a case study.

  18. Iodide-capped PbS quantum dots: full optical characterization of a versatile absorber.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Philipp; Mohamed, Shaimaa A; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Yakunin, Sergii; Scharber, Markus C; Enengl, Christina; Enengl, Sandra; Egbe, Daniel A M; El-Mansy, Mabrouk K; Obayya, Salah S A; Sariciftci, N Serdar; Hingerl, Kurt; Heiss, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Lead sulfide quantum dots represent an emerging photovoltaic absorber material. While their associated optical qualities are true for the colloidal solution phase, they change upon processing into thin-films. A detailed view to the optical key-parameters during solid-film development is presented and the limits and outlooks for this versatile and promising absorber are discussed. PMID:25612163

  19. Optical architecture design for detection of absorbers embedded in visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Robert; Florence, James; MacFarlane, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Optically absorbing ducts embedded in scattering adipose tissue can be injured during laparoscopic surgery. Non-sequential simulations and theoretical analysis compare optical system configurations for detecting these absorbers. For absorbers in deep scattering volumes, trans-illumination is preferred instead of diffuse reflectance. For improved contrast, a scanning source with a large area detector is preferred instead of a large area source with a pixelated detector. PMID:24877008

  20. Optical architecture design for detection of absorbers embedded in visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Francis, Robert; Florence, James; MacFarlane, Duncan

    2014-05-01

    Optically absorbing ducts embedded in scattering adipose tissue can be injured during laparoscopic surgery. Non-sequential simulations and theoretical analysis compare optical system configurations for detecting these absorbers. For absorbers in deep scattering volumes, trans-illumination is preferred instead of diffuse reflectance. For improved contrast, a scanning source with a large area detector is preferred instead of a large area source with a pixelated detector. PMID:24877008

  1. Self-stabilizing optical clock pulse-train generator using SOA and saturable absorber for asynchronous optical packet processing.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Ryo

    2013-05-01

    We propose a novel, self-stabilizing optical clock pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free, asynchronous optical packets with variable lengths. The generator is based on an optical loop that includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a high-extinction spin-polarized saturable absorber (SA), with the loop being self-stabilized by balancing out the gain and absorption provided by the SOA and SA, respectively. The optical pulse train is generated by tapping out a small portion of a circulating seed pulse. The convergence of the generated pulse energy is enabled by the loop round-trip gain function that has a negative slope due to gain saturation in the SOA. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the SOA is effectively suppressed by the SA, and a backward optical pulse launched into the SOA enables overcoming the carrier-recovery speed mismatch between the SOA and SA. Without external control for the loop gain, a stable optical pulse train consisting of more than 50 pulses with low jitter is generated from a single 10-ps seed optical pulse even with a variation of 10 dB in the seed pulse intensity. PMID:23669927

  2. Fabrication of hard-coated optical absorbers with microstructured surfaces using etched ion tracks: Toward broadband ultra-low reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Kuniaki; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Yasunari; Shitomi, Hiroshi; Numata, Takayuki; Kinoshita, Kenichi; Tanabe, Minoru; Fukuda, Daiji

    2015-08-01

    Broadband low reflectance materials have various applications in the field of optical energy management; however, materials with ultra-low reflectance (below 0.1%) have been considered as mechanically delicate. We have developed a novel hard-surface optical absorber with microstructured, diamond-like carbon coated ion tracks on CR-39 plastic substrate. The spectral reflectance of the first prototype was below 2% for wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 1400 nm; moreover, the optical absorber had mechanically hard surface and exhibited temporal durability. Choosing the appropriate design of the surface structure and coating layer is likely to reduce the reflectance to the order of 0.1%. This technique yields easy-to-handle broadband ultra-low reflectance absorbers.

  3. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  4. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Guddala, Sriram Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-16

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Failure mechanisms in energy-absorbing composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; David, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Quasi-static tests are described for determination of the energy-absorption properties of composite crash energy-absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens were used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. These mechanisms are important for selecting composite materials for energy-absorbing structures, such as helicopter and aircraft sub-floors. Finite element models of the failure processes are described that could be the basis for materials selection and future design procedures for crashworthy structures.

  6. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-29

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  7. Novel Ultraviolet Light Absorbing Polymers For Optical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddi, Namassivaya; Yamada, Akira; Dunks, Gary B.

    1988-07-01

    Ultraviolet light absorbing monomers have been developed that can be copolymerized with acrylates. The composition of the resultant stable copolymers can be adjusted to totally block the transmission of light below about 430 nm. Fabrication of lenses from the materials is accomplished by lathe cutting and injection molding procedures. These ultraviolet light absorbing materials are non-mutagenic and non-toxic and are currently being used in intraocular lenses.

  8. Energy absorber for sodium-heated heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-12-01

    A heat exchanger is described in which water-carrying tubes are heated by liquid sodium and in which the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes is minimized. An energy absorbing chamber contains a compressible gas and is connected to the body of flowing sodium by a channel so that, in the event of a sodium-water reaction, products of the reaction will partially fill the energy absorbing chamber to attenuate the rise in pressure within the heat exchanger.

  9. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.

    2016-02-01

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams.

    PubMed

    Granville, Dal A; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O

    2016-02-21

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements. PMID:26859539

  11. Scaling of energy absorbing composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen; Lavoie, J. Andre; Morton, John

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorption response and crushing characteristics of geometrically scaled graphite-Kevlar epoxy composite plates were investigated. Two different trigger mechanisms including notch, and steeple geometries were incorporated into the plate specimens to initiate crushing. Sustained crushing was achieved with a new test fixture which provided lateral support to prevent global buckling. Values of specific sustained crushing stress (SSCS) were obtained which were lower than values reported for tube specimens from previously published data. Two sizes of hybrid plates were fabricated; a baseline or model plate, and a full-scale plate with inplane dimensions scaled by a factor of two. The thickness dimension of the full-scale plates was increased using two different techniques: the ply-level method in which each ply orientation in the baseline laminate stacking sequence is doubled, and the sublaminate technique in which the baseline laminate stacking sequence is repeated as a group. Results indicated that the SSCS has a small dependence on trigger mechanism geometry. However, a reduction in the SSCS of 10-25% was observed for the full-scale plates as compared with the baseline specimens, indicating a scaling effect in the crushing response.

  12. Scaling of energy absorbing composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen; Morton, John; Traffanstedt, Catherine; Boitnott, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The energy absorption response and crushing characteristics of geometrically scaled graphite-Kevlar epoxy composite plates were investigated. Three different trigger mechanisms including chamfer, notch, and steeple geometries were incorporated into the plate specimens to initiate crushing. Sustained crushing was achieved with a simple test fixture which provided lateral support to prevent global buckling. Values of specific sustained crushing stress (SSCS) were obtained which were comparable to values reported for tube specimens from previously published data. Two sizes of hybrid plates were fabricated; a baseline or model plate, and a full-scale plate with in-plane dimensions scaled by a factor of two. The thickness dimension of the full-scale plates was increased using two different techniques; the ply-level method in which each ply orientation in the baseline laminate stacking sequence is doubled, and the sublaminate technique in which the baseline laminate stacking sequence is repeated as a group. Results indicated that the SSCS is independent of trigger mechanism geometry. However, a reduction in the SSCS of 10-25 percent was observed for the full-scale plates as compared with the baseline specimens, indicating a scaling effect in the crushing response.

  13. Energy Deposition and Radiological Studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.; Eidelman, Y. I.

    2015-06-25

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  14. Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 2: experimental implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Ninni, Paola Di; Zaccanti, Giovanni; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Macdonald, Rainer; Sassaroli, Angelo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    We present the experimental implementation and validation of a phantom for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects for which, in the previous paper [J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066014, (2013)], we have provided the basic theory. Totally absorbing objects have been manufactured as black polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinders and the phantom is a water dilution of intralipid-20% as the diffusive medium and India ink as the absorber, filled into a black scattering cell made of PVC. By means of time-domain measurements and of Monte Carlo simulations, we have shown the reliability, the accuracy, and the robustness of such a phantom in mimicking typical absorbing perturbations of diffuse optical imaging. In particular, we show that such a phantom can be used to generate any absorption perturbation by changing the volume and position of the totally absorbing inclusion.

  15. Extrinsic chirality: Tunable optically active reflectors and perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plum, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three-dimensional (3D) chiral media can exhibit optical activity for transmitted waves, but optical activity for reflected waves is negligible. This work shows that mirror asymmetry of the experimental arrangement—extrinsic 3D chirality—leads to giant optical activity for reflected waves with fundamentally different characteristics. It is demonstrated experimentally that extrinsically 3D-chiral illumination of a lossy metasurface backed by a mirror enables tunable circular dichroism and circular birefringence as well as perfect absorption of circularly polarized waves. In contrast, such polarization phenomena vanish for conventional optically active media backed by a mirror.

  16. A novel self-locked energy absorbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuli; Qiao, Chuan; Qiu, Xinming; Zhao, Shougen; Zhen, Cairu; Liu, Bin

    2016-02-01

    Metallic thin-walled round tubes are widely used as energy absorption elements. However, lateral splash of the round tubes under impact loadings reduces the energy absorption efficiency and may cause secondary damage. Therefore, it is necessary to assemble and fasten round tubes together by boundary constraints and/or fasteners between tubes, which increases the time and labor cost and affects the mechanical performance of round tubes. In an effort to break through this limitation, a novel self-locked energy-absorbing system has been proposed in this paper. The proposed system is made up of thin-walled tubes with dumbbell-shaped cross section, which are specially designed to interlock with each other and thus provide lateral constraint under impact loadings. Both finite element simulations and impact experiment demonstrated that without boundary constraints or fasteners between tubes, the proposed self-locked energy-absorbing system can still effectively attenuate impact loads while the round tube systems fail to carry load due to the lateral splashing of tubes. Furthermore, the geometric design for a single dumbbell-shaped tube and the stacking arrangement for the system are discussed, and a general guideline on the structural design of the proposed self-locked energy absorbing system is provided.

  17. Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Chandrashekhar

    Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and

  18. Massive Dirac quasiparticles in the optical absorbance of graphene, silicene, germanene, and tinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthes, Lars; Pulci, Olivia; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2013-10-01

    We present first-principles studies of the optical absorbance of the group IV honeycomb crystals graphene, silicene, germanene, and tinene. We account for many-body effects on the optical properties by using the non-local hybrid functional HSE06. The optical absorption peaks are blueshifted due to quasiparticle corrections, while the influence on the low-frequency absorbance remains unchanged and reduces to a universal value related to the Sommerfeld fine structure constant. At the Dirac points spin-orbit interaction opens fundamental band gaps; parabolic bands with a very small effective mass emerge. Consequently, the low-frequency absorbance is modified with a spin-orbit-induced transparency region and an increase of the absorbance at the fundamental absorption edge.

  19. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  20. Optical tomograph optimized for tumor detection inside highly absorbent organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet, Jérôme; Koenig, Anne; Hervé, Lionel; Berger, Michel; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Josserand, Véronique; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a tomograph for small animal fluorescence imaging. The compact and cost-effective system described in this article was designed to address the problem of tumor detection inside highly absorbent heterogeneous organs, such as lungs. To validate the tomograph's ability to detect cancerous nodules inside lungs, in vivo tumor growth was studied on seven cancerous mice bearing murine mammary tumors marked with Alexa Fluor 700. They were successively imaged 10, 12, and 14 days after the primary tumor implantation. The fluorescence maps were compared over this time period. As expected, the reconstructed fluorescence increases with the tumor growth stage.

  1. Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Yuechun; Lou, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Yan, Min; Wosinski, Lech; Qiu, Min

    2014-10-20

    An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 μs following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 μs) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits. PMID:25401557

  2. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  3. Partial Pressures for Several In-Se Compositions from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3-60.99 at.% Se and 673-1418 K was measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gauge measurements for compositions between 50-61 at.%, but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Knudsen-torsion cell measurements. It is found that 60.99 at.% Se lies outside the sesquiselenide homogeneity range and 59.98 at.% Se lies inside and is the congruently melting composition. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000-1300 K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 to -38 kJ per g atomic weight for 50 and 56% Se at 1200 and 1300 K.

  4. Partial Pressures of In-Se from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3 and 61 atomic percent and 673 and 1418K has been measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gage measurements for compositions between 50 and 61 atomic percent but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Torsion-Knudsen cell measurements. The sequiselenide is found to sublime incongruently. Congruent vaporization occurs for the liquid above 1000 K between 50.08 and 56 at. percent Se. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000 and 1300K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 and -38 kJ per gram atomic weight for 50 and 56 percent Se at 1200 and 1300K.

  5. Pulsed photothermal radiometry in optically transparent media containing discrete optical absorbers.

    PubMed

    Vitkin, I A; Wilson, B C; Anderson, R R; Prahl, S A

    1994-10-01

    A description of heat transport by conduction and radiation in inhomogeneous materials following absorption of a brief optical pulse is presented, and investigated experimentally using pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR). The model indicates that the role of radiation as an intramedium heat transfer modality increases with increasing temperatures and decreasing infrared (IR) absorption of the medium. However, for the range of conditions analysed in this study, conductive transfer dominates. Thus, the inclusion of radiation does not significantly perturb the internal temperature profiles, although it does influence the radiometric emission from the sample, and hence the PPTR signal. The thermal confinement effects described in this study may be relevant in photomedicine, for example in pulsed laser irradiation of tissues containing small absorbing targets. PMID:15551541

  6. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D; Simons, Rainee N; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q

    2014-01-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor. PMID:25200005

  7. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-09-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor.

  8. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor. PMID:25200005

  9. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, Randy R.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  10. Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters, a mid infrared metamaterial absorber and a terahertz metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, James; McCrindle, Iain J H; Cumming, David R S

    2016-02-22

    Multi-spectral imaging systems typically require the cumbersome integration of disparate filtering materials and detectors in order to operate simultaneously in multiple spectral regions. Each distinct waveband must be detected at different spatial locations on a single chip or by separate chips optimised for each band. Here, we report on a single component that optically multiplexes visible, Mid Infrared (4.5 μm) and Terahertz (126 μm) radiation thereby maximising the spectral information density. We hybridise plasmonic and metamaterial structures to form a device capable of simultaneously filtering 15 visible wavelengths and absorbing Mid Infrared and Terahertz. Our synthetic multi-spectral component could be integrated with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology where Si photodiodes are available to detect the visible radiation and micro-bolometers available to detect the Infrared/Terahertz and render an inexpensive, mass-producible camera capable of forming coaxial visible, Infrared and Terahertz images. PMID:26907004

  11. Crash-Energy Absorbing Composite Structure and Method of Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris (Inventor); Carden, Huey D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A stand-alone, crash-energy absorbing structure and fabrication method are provided. A plurality of adjoining rigid cells are each constructed of resin-cured fiber reinforcement and are arranged in a geometric configuration. The geometric configuration of cells is integrated by means of continuous fibers wrapped thereabout in order to maintain the cells in the geometric configuration. The cured part results in a net shape, stable structure that can function on its own with no additional reinforcement and can withstand combined loading while crushing in a desired direction.

  12. Optical design of nanowire absorbers for wavelength selective photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Mokkapati, S.; Saxena, D.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the optical design for the absorptive element of photodetectors to achieve wavelength selective photo response based on resonant guided modes supported in semiconductor nanowires. We show that the waveguiding properties of nanowires result in very high absorption efficiency that can be exploited to reduce the volume of active semiconductor compared to planar photodetectors, without compromising the photocurrent. We present a design based on a group of nanowires with varying diameter for multi-color photodetectors with small footprint. We discuss the effect of a dielectric shell around the nanowires on the absorption efficiency and present a simple approach to optimize the nanowire diameter-dielectric shell thickness for maximizing the absorption efficiency. PMID:26469227

  13. Complex group velocity and energy transport in absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Gerasik, Vladimir; Stastna, Marek

    2010-05-01

    Complex group velocity is common in absorbing and active media, yet its precise physical meaning is unclear. While in the case of a nondissipative medium the group velocity of propagating waves Cg=dω/dk is exactly equal to the observable energy velocity (defined as the ratio between the energy flux and the total energy density) Cg=F/E , in a dissipative medium Cg=dω/dk is in general a complex quantity which cannot be associated with the velocity of energy transport. Nevertheless, we find that the complex group velocity may contain information about the energy transport as well as the energy dissipated in the medium. The presented analysis is intended to expound the connection between the complex group velocity and energy transport characteristics for a class of hyperbolic dissipative dynamical systems. Dissipation mechanisms considered herein include viscous and viscoelastic types of damping. Both cases of spatial and temporal decay are discussed. The presented approach stems from the Lagrangian formulation and is illustrated with identities that relate the complex group velocity and energy transport characteristics for the damped Klein-Gordon equation; Maxwell's equations, governing electromagnetic waves in partially conducting media; and Biot's theory, governing acoustic wave propagation in porous solids. PMID:20866345

  14. Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu; Shankar, Raji; Kats, Mikhail A; Song, Yi; Kong, Jing; Loncar, Marko; Capasso, Federico

    2014-11-12

    Dynamically reconfigurable metasurfaces open up unprecedented opportunities in applications such as high capacity communications, dynamic beam shaping, hyperspectral imaging, and adaptive optics. The realization of high performance metasurface-based devices remains a great challenge due to very limited tuning ranges and modulation depths. Here we show that a widely tunable metasurface composed of optical antennas on graphene can be incorporated into a subwavelength-thick optical cavity to create an electrically tunable perfect absorber. By switching the absorber in and out of the critical coupling condition via the gate voltage applied on graphene, a modulation depth of up to 100% can be achieved. In particular, we demonstrated ultrathin (thickness < λ0/10) high speed (up to 20 GHz) optical modulators over a broad wavelength range (5-7 μm). The operating wavelength can be scaled from the near-infrared to the terahertz by simply tailoring the metasurface and cavity dimensions. PMID:25310847

  15. Optical trap for both transparent and absorbing particles in air using a single shaped laser beam.

    PubMed

    Redding, Brandon; Pan, Yong-Le

    2015-06-15

    Optical trapping of airborne particles is emerging as an essential tool in applications ranging from online characterization of living cells and aerosols to particle transport and delivery. However, existing optical trapping techniques using a single laser beam can trap only transparent particles (via the radiative pressure force) or absorbing particles (via the photophoretic force), but not particles of either type-limiting the utility of trapping-enabled aerosol characterization techniques. Here, we present the first optical trapping technique capable of trapping both transparent and absorbing particles with arbitrary morphology using a single shaped laser beam. Such a general-purpose optical trapping mechanism could enable new applications such as trapping-enabled aerosol characterization with high specificity. PMID:26076265

  16. Detection of Organic Compounds in Water by an Optical Absorbance Method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chihoon; Eom, Joo Beom; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optical method which allows determination of the organic compound concentration in water by measurement of the UV (ultraviolet) absorption at a wavelength of 250 nm~300 nm. The UV absorbance was analyzed by means of a multiple linear regression model for estimation of the total organic carbon contents in water, which showed a close correlation with the UV absorbance, demonstrating a high adjusted coefficient of determination, 0.997. The comparison of the TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations for real samples (tab water, sea, and river) calculated from the UV absorbance spectra, and those measured by a conventional TOC analyzer indicates that the higher the TOC value the better the agreement. This UV absorbance method can be easily configured for real-time monitoring water pollution, and built into a compact system applicable to industry areas. PMID:26742043

  17. Detection of Organic Compounds in Water by an Optical Absorbance Method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chihoon; Eom, Joo Beom; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optical method which allows determination of the organic compound concentration in water by measurement of the UV (ultraviolet) absorption at a wavelength of 250 nm~300 nm. The UV absorbance was analyzed by means of a multiple linear regression model for estimation of the total organic carbon contents in water, which showed a close correlation with the UV absorbance, demonstrating a high adjusted coefficient of determination, 0.997. The comparison of the TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations for real samples (tab water, sea, and river) calculated from the UV absorbance spectra, and those measured by a conventional TOC analyzer indicates that the higher the TOC value the better the agreement. This UV absorbance method can be easily configured for real-time monitoring water pollution, and built into a compact system applicable to industry areas. PMID:26742043

  18. Energy-absorbing-beam design for composite aircraft subfloors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Kellas, Sotiris

    1993-01-01

    Data have been presented from the design support testing of composite energy absorbing (EA) aircraft subfloor structures. The focus of the current study is the design and testing of subfloor structural concepts that would limit the loads transmitted to occupants to less than 20 g at crush speeds of approximately 30 fps. The EA composite subfloor is being designed to replace an existing noncrashworthy metallic subfloor in a composite aircraft prior to a full-scale crash test. A sandwich spar construction of a sine wave beam was chosen for evaluation and was found to have excellent energy absorbing characteristics. The design objective of obtaining sustained crushing loads of the spar between 200-300 lbf/inch were achieved for potentially limiting occupants loads to around 20 g's. Stroke efficiency of up to 79 percent of the initial spar height under desired sustained crushing loads was obtained which is far greater than the level provided by metal structure. Additionally, a substantial residual spar stiffness was retained after impact, and the flange integrity, which is critical for seat retention, was maintained after crushing of the spars.

  19. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  20. Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Mikhail A.; Blanchard, Romain; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, which consist of one or more films of dielectric or metallic materials, are widely used in applications ranging from mirrors to eyeglasses and photography lenses. Many conventional dielectric coatings rely on Fabry-Perot-type interference, involving multiple optical passes through transparent layers with thicknesses of the order of the wavelength to achieve functionalities such as anti-reflection, high-reflection and dichroism. Highly absorbing dielectrics are typically not used because it is generally accepted that light propagation through such media destroys interference effects. We show that under appropriate conditions interference can instead persist in ultrathin, highly absorbing films of a few to tens of nanometres in thickness, and demonstrate a new type of optical coating comprising such a film on a metallic substrate, which selectively absorbs various frequency ranges of the incident light. These coatings have a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence and require minimal amounts of absorbing material that can be as thin as 5-20 nm for visible light. This technology has the potential for a variety of applications from ultrathin photodetectors and solar cells to optical filters, to labelling, and even the visual arts and jewellery.

  1. Energy loss by resonance line photons in an absorbing medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Kunasz, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mean path length of photons undergoing repeated scatterings in media of large optical thickness is calculated from accurate numerical solutions of the transfer equation including the effect of frequency redistribution characteristic of combined Doppler and natural broadening. Energy loss by continuous absorption processes, such as ionization or dust absorption, is discussed, and asymptotic scaling laws for the energy loss, the mean path length, and the mean number of scatterings are inferred from the numerical data.

  2. Optical properties of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nonlinear absorbers.

    PubMed

    Butler, James J; Bowcock, Alec S; Sueoka, Stacey R; Montgomery, Steven R; Flom, Steven R; Friebele, E Joseph; Wright, Barbara M; Peele, John R; Pong, Richard G S; Shirk, James S; Hu, Jonathan; Menyuk, Curtis R; Taunay, T F

    2013-09-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the transmission of solid-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) filled with nonlinear absorbers shows a sharp change in the threshold for optical limiting and in leakage loss as the refractive index of the material in the holes approaches that of the glass matrix. Theoretical calculations of the mode profiles and leakage loss of the PCF are in agreement with experimental results and indicate that the change in limiting response is due to the interaction of the evanescent field of the guided mode with the nonlinear absorbers in the holes. PMID:24103943

  3. Reverse-absorbance-modulation-optical lithography for optical nanopatterning at low light levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Apratim; Wan, Xiaowen; Masid, Farhana; Pollock, Benjamin J.; Andrew, Trisha L.; Soppera, Olivier; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Absorbance-Modulation-Optical Lithography (AMOL) has been previously demonstrated to be able to confine light to deep sub-wavelength dimensions and thereby, enable patterning of features beyond the diffraction limit. In AMOL, a thin photochromic layer that converts between two states via light exposure is placed on top of the photoresist layer. The long wavelength photons render the photochromic layer opaque, while the short-wavelength photons render it transparent. By simultaneously illuminating a ring-shaped spot at the long wavelength and a round spot at the short wavelength, the photochromic layer transmits only a highly confined beam at the short wavelength, which then exposes the underlying photoresist. Many photochromic molecules suffer from a giant mismatch in quantum yields for the opposing reactions such that the reaction initiated by the absorption of the short-wavelength photon is orders of magnitude more efficient than that initiated by the absorption of the long-wavelength photon. As a result, large intensities in the ring-shaped spot are required for deep sub-wavelength nanopatterning. In this article, we overcome this problem by using the long-wavelength photons to expose the photoresist, and the short-wavelength photons to confine the "exposing" beam. Thereby, we demonstrate the patterning of features as thin as λ/4.7 (137nm for λ = 647nm) using extremely low intensities (4-30 W/m2, which is 34 times lower than that required in conventional AMOL). We further apply a rigorous model to explain our experiments and discuss the scope of the reverse-AMOL process.

  4. Experimental verification of reconstructed absorbers embedded in scattering media by optical power ratio distribution.

    PubMed

    Yamaoki, Toshihiko; Hamada, Hiroaki; Matoba, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Experimental investigation to show the effectiveness of the extraction method of absorber information in a scattering medium by taking the output power ratio distribution is presented. In the experiment, two metallic wires sandwiched by three homogeneous scattering media are used as absorbers in transmission geometry. The output power ratio distributions can extract the influence of the absorbers to enhance the optical signal. The peak position of the output power ratio distributions agree with the results suggested by numerical simulation. From the reconstructed results of tomography in the scattering media, we have confirmed that the tomographic image of two wires can distinguish them successfully from 41×21 output power ratio distributions by using continuous-wave light. PMID:27607261

  5. Enhanced optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy via detection of fluorophore absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Martin; Gabi, Michael; Textor, Marcus; Vörös, Janos; Grandin, H. Michelle

    2006-10-01

    A novel technique based on surface sensitive absorbance detection using an optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy (OWLS) instrument is presented. The proof of concept for this extension of a standard technique is demonstrated by painting an increasing number of ink lines on a waveguide, perpendicular to the light path, while monitoring the outcoupled light intensity. Furthermore, by the adsorption of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) as a model system with contents of 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% labeled polymer, the in situ performance is demonstrated, and the absorbance signal is calibrated such that it can be converted into adsorbed mass. The simultaneous detection of labeled and label-free species allows for the study of complex experimental setups whereby monitoring of adsorption, desorption, and even exchange processes becomes possible. The sensitivity of the absorbance detection exceeds standard OWLS by one to two orders of magnitude.

  6. Influence of inhomogeneity of optical absorbers on optoacoustic signals: a comparison between experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, A. G.; Jaeger, M.; Bush, N. L.; Frenz, M.; Bamber, J. C.

    2009-02-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) imaging allows optical absorption contrast to be visualised using thermoelastically generated ultrasound. To date, optoacoustic theory has been applied to homogeneously absorbing tissue models that may describe, for example, large vessels filled with blood, where the whole target will act as a coherent source of sound. Here we describe a new model in which the optical absorbers are distributed inhomogeneously, as appropriate to describe microvasculature, or perhaps the distribution of molecularly targeted OA contrast agents inside a tumour. The degree of coherence over the resulting distributed acoustic source is influenced by parameters that describe the scale of the inhomogeneity, such as the sizes of the absorbers and the distances between them. To investigate the influence of these parameters on OA image appearance, phantoms with homogeneously and imhomogeneously absorbing regions were built and imaged. Simulations of the same situation were conducted using a time domain acoustic propagation method. Both simulations and experiments showed that introducing inhomogeneity of absorption produces more complete images of macroscopic targets than are obtained with a homogeneous absorption. Image improvement and target detectability were found to reach a maximum at an intermediate value of the length-scale of the inhomogeneity that was similar to the axial resolution of the acoustic receiver employed. As the scale of inhomogeneity became finer than this the target's detectability and appearance began to revert to that for homogeneous absorption. Further understanding of this topic is believed to be important for optimising the design of clinical optoacoustic imaging systems.

  7. Efficient graphene saturable absorbers on D-shaped optical fiber for ultrashort pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, J. D.; Steinberg, D.; Saito, L. A. M.; de Oliveira, R. E. P.; Cárdenas, A. M.; de Souza, E. A. Thoroh

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated a method to construct high efficiency saturable absorbers based on the evanescent light field interaction of CVD monolayer graphene deposited on side-polished D-shaped optical fiber. A set of samples was fabricated with two different core-graphene distances (0 and 1 μm), covered with graphene ranging between 10 and 25 mm length. The mode-locking was achieved and the best pulse duration was 256 fs, the shortest pulse reported in the literature with CVD monolayer graphene in EDFL. As result, we find a criterion between the polarization relative extinction ratio in the samples and the pulse duration, which relates the better mode-locking performance with the higher polarization extinction ratio of the samples. This criterion also provides a better understanding of the graphene distributed saturable absorbers and their reproducible performance as optoelectronic devices for optical applications.

  8. The effects of optical scattering on pulsed photoacoustic measurement in weakly absorbing liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllylä, Risto

    2001-12-01

    In this article, a photoacoustic technique, excited by a pulsed diode laser, is used in a study of optically absorbing and scattering liquids. The article discusses the effects of optical scattering on the photoacoustic source and signal. In the empirical part, varying amounts of milk and carbon powder were added to water to control the absorption and scattering coefficients of the resulting liquids. The results showed that scattering increases the duration of the photoacoustic signal while decreasing the signal amplitude to some degree. This paper also shows a quite simple method for measuring the scattering coefficient in weakly absorbing materials using a PZT transducer, which can be used to determine the concentration of highly scattering compositions in some cases.

  9. Efficient graphene saturable absorbers on D-shaped optical fiber for ultrashort pulse generation

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, J. D.; Steinberg, D.; Saito, L. A. M.; de Oliveira, R. E. P.; Cárdenas, A. M.; de Souza, E. A. Thoroh

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a method to construct high efficiency saturable absorbers based on the evanescent light field interaction of CVD monolayer graphene deposited on side-polished D-shaped optical fiber. A set of samples was fabricated with two different core-graphene distances (0 and 1 μm), covered with graphene ranging between 10 and 25 mm length. The mode-locking was achieved and the best pulse duration was 256 fs, the shortest pulse reported in the literature with CVD monolayer graphene in EDFL. As result, we find a criterion between the polarization relative extinction ratio in the samples and the pulse duration, which relates the better mode-locking performance with the higher polarization extinction ratio of the samples. This criterion also provides a better understanding of the graphene distributed saturable absorbers and their reproducible performance as optoelectronic devices for optical applications. PMID:26856886

  10. Optical response of strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials: Application to paper degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missori, M.; Pulci, O.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Kupchak, I.; Bagniuk, J.; Łojewska, J.; Conte, A. Mosca

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new noninvasive and nondestructive approach to recover scattering and absorption coefficients from reflectance measurements of highly absorbing and optically inhomogeneous media. Our approach is based on the Yang and Miklavcic theoretical model of light propagation through turbid media, which is a generalization of the Kubelka-Munk theory, extended to accommodate optically thick samples. We show its applications to paper, a material primarily composed of a web of fibers of cellulose, whose optical properties are strongly governed by light scattering effects. Samples studied were ancient and industrial paper sheets, aged in different conditions and highly absorbing in the ultraviolet region. The recovered experimental absorptions of cellulose fibers have been compared to theoretical ab initio quantum-mechanical computational simulations carried out within time-dependent density functional theory. In this way, for each sample, we evaluate the absolute concentration of different kinds of oxidized groups formed upon aging and acting as chromophores causing paper discoloration. We found that the relative concentration of different chromophores in cellulose fibers depends on the aging temperature endured by samples. This clearly indicates that the oxidation of cellulose follows temperature-dependent reaction pathways. Our approach has a wide range of applications for cellulose-based materials, like paper, textiles, and other manufactured products of great industrial and cultural interest, and can potentially be extended to other strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials.

  11. Determination of the quantum dot band gap dependence on particle size from optical absorbance and transmission electron microscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Segets, Doris; Lucas, J Matthew; Klupp Taylor, Robin N; Scheele, Marcus; Zheng, Haimei; Alivisatos, A Paul; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2012-10-23

    This work addresses the determination of arbitrarily shaped particle size distributions (PSDs) from PbS and PbSe quantum dot (QD) optical absorbance spectra in order to arrive at a relationship between band gap energy and particle size over a large size range. Using a modified algorithm which was previously developed for ZnO, we take only bulk absorption data from the literature and match the PSDs derived from QD absorbance spectra with those from transmission electron microscopical (TEM) image analysis in order to arrive at the functional dependence of the band gap on particle size. Additional samples sized solely from their absorbance spectra with our algorithm show excellent agreement with TEM results. We investigate the influence of parameters of the TEM image analysis such as threshold value on the final result. The band gap versus size relationship developed from analysis of just two samples lies well within the bounds of a number of published data sets. We believe that our methodology provides an attractive shortcut for the study of various novel quantum-confined direct band gap semiconductor systems as it permits the band gap energies of a broad size range of QDs to be probed with relatively few synthetic experiments and without quantum mechanical simulations. PMID:22984808

  12. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from a UV-A absorber butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane to UV-B absorbers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorescence decay of a UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzolymethane (BMDBM) has been observed following a 355 nm laser excitation in the absence and presence of UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC) and octocrylene (OCR) in ethanol at 77 K. The lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T1) state of BMDBM is significantly reduced in the presence of OMC and OCR. The observed quenching of BMDBM triplet by OMC and OCR suggests that the intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer occurs from BMDBM to OMC and OCR. The T1 state of OCR is nonphosphorescent or very weakly phosphorescent. However, we have shown that the energy level of the T1 state of OCR is lower than that of the enol form of BMDBM. Our methodology of energy-donor phosphorescence decay measurements can be applied to the study of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers even if the energy acceptor is nonphosphorescent. In addition, the delayed fluorescence of BMDBM due to triplet-triplet annihilation was observed in the BMDBM-OMC and BMDBM-OCR mixtures in ethanol at 77 K. Delayed fluorescence is one of the deactivation processes of the excited states of BMDBM under our experimental conditions. PMID:24329403

  13. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.

  14. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J.

    1989-01-01

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism.

  15. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Swahlan, D.J.

    1989-04-18

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism. 6 figs.

  16. Sound-absorbing slabs and structures based on granular materials (bound and unbound). [energy absorbing efficiency of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre-Lazar, S.; Popeea, G.

    1974-01-01

    Sound absorbing slabs and structures made up of bound or unbound granular materials are considered and how to manufacture these elements at the building site. The raw material is a single grain powder (sand, expanded blast furnace slag, etc.) that imparts to the end products an apparent porosity of 25-45% and an energy dissipation within the structure leading to absorption coefficients that can be compared with those of mineral wool and urethane.

  17. Moving body velocity arresting line. [stainless steel cables with energy absorbing sleeves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, R. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The arresting of a moving body is improved through the use of steel cables that elongate to absorb the kinetic energy of the body. A sleeve surrounds the cables, protecting them from chafing and providing a failsafe energy absorbing system should the cables fail.

  18. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  19. Reprint of : Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  20. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing

    2014-03-01

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4-20 kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ˜20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  1. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20 kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ∼20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  2. Laser ablation of absorbing liquids under transparent cover: acoustical and optical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhin, A. A.; Il'ichev, N. N.; Pivovarov, P. A.; Sidorin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Phase transition induced with infrared (λ = 2920 nm and λ = 2940 nm) nanosecond laser pulses in strongly absorbing liquids (water, ethanol) under transparent solid cover is investigated with the help of acoustical and optical monitoring. LiNbO3 transducer is used for registration of pressure pulses generated in irradiated liquids. Optical signals due to scattering and specular reflection of probing optical beams are explored with the schemes involving total internal reflection and interference effects. Combination of these two optical diagnostic methods permits for the first time to show that irradiation of covered liquids leads to vapor cavity formation which is divided from the cover with thin (submicron) liquid film despite the fact that radiation intensity maximum is located just at the liquid-plate boundary. The cavity formation is due to explosive boiling which occurs when the superheated liquid reaches its superheating limit in near critical region. After the first acoustical signal, the second signal is observed with several hundreds microseconds time delay which is caused by the vapor cavity collapse. Some results of optical and acoustical diagnostics in the case of free liquid surface are also presented.

  3. Impact resistance of fiber composites: Energy absorbing mechanisms and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    Energy absorbing mechanisms were identified by several approaches. The energy absorbing mechanisms considered are those in unidirectional composite beams subjected to impact. The approaches used include: mechanic models, statistical models, transient finite element analysis, and simple beam theory. Predicted results are correlated with experimental data from Charpy impact tests. The environmental effects on impact resistance are evaluated. Working definitions for energy absorbing and energy releasing mechanisms are proposed and a dynamic fracture progression is outlined. Possible generalizations to angle-plied laminates are described.

  4. Impact resistance of fiber composites - Energy-absorbing mechanisms and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Energy absorbing mechanisms were identified by several approaches. The energy absorbing mechanisms considered are those in unidirectional composite beams subjected to impact. The approaches used include: mechanic models, statistical models, transient finite element analysis, and simple beam theory. Predicted results are correlated with experimental data from Charpy impact tests. The environmental effects on impact resistance are evaluated. Working definitions for energy absorbing and energy releasing mechanisms are proposed and a dynamic fracture progression is outlined. Possible generalizations to angle-plied laminates are described.

  5. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  6. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth (Inventor); Perry, Joseph (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are disclosed. Many of these compositions are compounds satisfying the formulae D-.PI.-D, A-.PI.-A, D-A-D and A-D-A, wherein D is an electron donor group, A is an electron acceptor group and .PI. comprises a bridge of .pi.-conjugated bonds connecting the electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups. In A-D-A and D-A-D compounds, the .pi. bridge is substituted with electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups, respectively. Also disclosed are methods that generate an electronically excited state of a compound, including those satisfying one of these formulae. The electronically excited state is achieved in a method that includes irradiating the compound with light. Then, the compound is converted to a multi-photon electronically excited state upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of light. The sum of the energies of all of the absorbed photons is greater than or equal to the transition energy from a ground state of the compound to the multi-photon excited state. The energy of each absorbed photon is less than the transition energy between the ground state and the lowest single-photon excited state of the compound is less than the transition energy between the multi-photon excited state and the ground state.

  7. Molecules and metals in the distant universe: Sub-mm and optical spectroscopy of quasar absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sean Stephen

    In order to gain a complete understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, knowledge of the atomic and molecular gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) is required. Absorption-line spectroscopy of quasars offer a powerful and luminosity independent probe of gas to high redshifts. The sub-Damped Lyman-alpha systems (sub-DLAs; 19.0 < log NHI < 20.3), and Damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs; 20.3 < log NHI), are the highest neutral hydrogen column density quasar absorbers contain most of the neutral gas available for star formation in the high-redshift Universe. This thesis presents photometric measurements of 10 quasars absorbers with redshifts 0.652 < zabs < 3.104 taken with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) on Herschel. Of these 10 objects, 3 showed fluxes > 1 Jy. In addition spectra for 5 other quasars with DLAs (0.524 < zabs < 1.173) were taken with SPIRE and Heterodyne Instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) on Herschel. These observations, in the far-IR and sub-mm bands, were optimized for detection of molecular lines of CO, 13CO, C 18O, H2O, HCO, and the forbidden transitions of [C II] and [N II]. Two targets, the DLA towards PKS0420-014 at z = 0.633 and the DLA towards AO0235+164 at z = 0.524, had a tentative detection of C18O, and another, the DLA towards TXS0827+243 at z = 0.52476, had a tentative detection of HCO. There were a number of other 3 sigma limits, with at least one limit for each of the 5 systems. In addition to the DLAs, 2 super-DLAs (with z = 2.5036 and z = 2.045) were observed using the echellette mode on Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI). These observations, in the optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, were optimized to detect metal lines. Both absorbers show remarkably similar metallicities of ~ -1.3 to ~ -1.4 dex and comparable, definitive depletion levels, as judged from [Fe/Zn] and [Ni/Zn]. One of the absorbers shows supersolar [S/Zn] and [Si/Zn]. Using potential detections of weak Ly-alpha emission at the

  8. A Titanium Nitride Absorber for Controlling Optical Crosstalk in Horn-Coupled Aluminum LEKID Arrays for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarrick, H.; Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bradford, K.; Bryan, S.; Cantor, R.; Che, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Leduc, H.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Tucker, C.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the design and measured performance of a titanium nitride (TiN) mesh absorber we are developing for controlling optical crosstalk in horn-coupled lumped-element kinetic inductance detector (LEKID) arrays for millimeter wavelengths. This absorber was added to the fused silica anti-reflection coating attached to previously characterized, 20-element prototype arrays of LEKIDs fabricated from thin-film aluminum on silicon substrates. To test the TiN crosstalk absorber, we compared the measured response and noise properties of LEKID arrays with and without the TiN mesh. For this test, the LEKIDs were illuminated with an adjustable, incoherent electronic millimeter-wave source. Our measurements show that the optical crosstalk in the LEKID array with the TiN absorber is reduced by 66 % on average, so the approach is effective and a viable candidate for future kilo-pixel arrays.

  9. A Titanium Nitride Absorber for Controlling Optical Crosstalk in Horn-Coupled Aluminum LEKID Arrays for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarrick, H.; Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bradford, K.; Bryan, S.; Cantor, R.; Che, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Leduc, H.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Tucker, C.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the design and measured performance of a titanium nitride (TiN) mesh absorber we are developing for controlling optical crosstalk in horn-coupled lumped-element kinetic inductance detector (LEKID) arrays for millimeter wavelengths. This absorber was added to the fused silica anti-reflection coating attached to previously characterized, 20-element prototype arrays of LEKIDs fabricated from thin-film aluminum on silicon substrates. To test the TiN crosstalk absorber, we compared the measured response and noise properties of LEKID arrays with and without the TiN mesh. For this test, the LEKIDs were illuminated with an adjustable, incoherent electronic millimeter-wave source. Our measurements show that the optical crosstalk in the LEKID array with the TiN absorber is reduced by 66 % on average, so the approach is effective and a viable candidate for future kilo-pixel arrays.

  10. Development of 2 underseat energy absorbers for application to crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrick, J. C.; Desjardins, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a program conducted to develop two underseat energy absorber (E/A) concepts for application to nonadjustable crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft. One concept utilizes an inflated air bag, and the other, a convoluted sheet metal bellows. Prototypes of both were designed, built, and tested. Both concepts demonstrated the necessary features of an energy absorber (load-limiter); however, the air bag concept is particularly encouraging because of its light weight. Several seat frame concepts also were investigated as a means of resisting longitudinal and lateral loads and of guiding the primary vertical stroke of the underseat energy absorber. Further development of a seat system design using the underseat energy absorbers is recommended because they provide greatly enhanced crash survivability as compared with existing general aviation aircraft seats.

  11. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light–matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the

  12. Harnessing snap-through instability for shape-recoverable energy-absorbing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung; Shan, Sicong; Raney, Jordan; Wang, Pai; Candido, Francisco; Lewis, Jennifer; Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Energy absorbing materials and structures are used in numerous areas for maintaining structural integrity, protection and comfort. To absorb/dissipate energy from shock/vibration, one generally relies on processes such as plastic deformation and damping as the case of metal foams and suspensions. Because plastic deformation and damping induce irreversible change in the energy-absorbing systems such as shape changes and degradation of damping elements by heat dissipation, it would be desirable to develop a new energy-absorption mechanism with reversibility. Furthermore, it would be desirable to implement energy-absorption mechanisms whose behavior is not affected by the rate of loading. Here, we report a shape-recoverable system that absorbs energy without degradation by harnessing multistability in elastic structures. Using numerical simulations, we investigate geometrical parameters that determine the onset of the snap-through and multi-stability. We subsequently manufacture structures with different geometrical parameters and sizes using a scalable direct-write 3D printing approach. We experimentally demonstrate reversible energy-absorption in these structures at strain rates over three orders of magnitudes, with reduced peak acceleration under impact by up to one order of magnitude compared with control samples. Our findings can open new opportunities for scalable design and manufacturing of energy-absorbing materials and structures.

  13. A Phosphorus Phthalocyanine Formulation with Intense Absorbance at 1000 nm for Deep Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Depeng; Zhang, Yumiao; Chitgupi, Upendra; Geng, Jumin; Wang, Yuehang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Cook, Timothy R.; Xia, Jun; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Although photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) operates with high spatial resolution in biological tissues deeper than other optical modalities, light scattering is a limiting factor. The use of longer near infrared wavelengths reduces scattering. Recently, the rational design of a stable phosphorus phthalocyanine (P-Pc) with a long wavelength absorption band beyond 1000 nm has been reported. Here, we show that when dissolved in liquid surfactants, P-Pc can give rise to formulations with absorbance of greater than 1000 (calculated for a 1 cm path length) at wavelengths beyond 1000 nm. Using the broadly accessible Nd:YAG pulse laser emission output of 1064 nm, P-Pc could be imaged through 11.6 cm of chicken breast with PACT. P-Pc accumulated passively in tumors following intravenous injection in mice as observed by PACT. Following oral administration, P-Pc passed through the intestine harmlessly, and PACT could be used to non-invasively observe intestine function. When the contrast agent placed under the arm of a healthy adult human, a PACT transducer on the top of the arm could readily detect P-Pc through the entire 5 cm limb. Thus, the approach of using contrast media with extreme absorption at 1064 nm readily enables high quality optical imaging in vitro and in vivo in humans at exceptional depths. PMID:27022416

  14. A Phosphorus Phthalocyanine Formulation with Intense Absorbance at 1000 nm for Deep Optical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Depeng; Zhang, Yumiao; Chitgupi, Upendra; Geng, Jumin; Wang, Yuehang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Cook, Timothy R; Xia, Jun; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Although photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) operates with high spatial resolution in biological tissues deeper than other optical modalities, light scattering is a limiting factor. The use of longer near infrared wavelengths reduces scattering. Recently, the rational design of a stable phosphorus phthalocyanine (P-Pc) with a long wavelength absorption band beyond 1000 nm has been reported. Here, we show that when dissolved in liquid surfactants, P-Pc can give rise to formulations with absorbance of greater than 1000 (calculated for a 1 cm path length) at wavelengths beyond 1000 nm. Using the broadly accessible Nd:YAG pulse laser emission output of 1064 nm, P-Pc could be imaged through 11.6 cm of chicken breast with PACT. P-Pc accumulated passively in tumors following intravenous injection in mice as observed by PACT. Following oral administration, P-Pc passed through the intestine harmlessly, and PACT could be used to non-invasively observe intestine function. When the contrast agent placed under the arm of a healthy adult human, a PACT transducer on the top of the arm could readily detect P-Pc through the entire 5 cm limb. Thus, the approach of using contrast media with extreme absorption at 1064 nm readily enables high quality optical imaging in vitro and in vivo in humans at exceptional depths. PMID:27022416

  15. Modeling of optically controlled reflective bistability in a vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, L.

    2015-05-01

    Bistability switching between two optical signals has been studied theoretically utilizing the concept of cross absorption modulation in a vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber (VCSSA). The probe beam is fixed at a wavelength other than the low power cavity resonance wavelength, which exhibits bistable characteristic by controlling the power of a pump beam (λpump≠λprobe). The cavity nonlinear effects that arises simultaneously from the excitonic absorption bleaching, and the carrier induced nonlinear index change has been considered in the model. The high power absorption in the active region introduces thermal effects within the nonlinear cavity due to which the effective cavity length changes. This leads to a red-shift of the cavity resonance wavelength, which results a change in phase of the optical fields within the cavity. In the simulation, the phase-change due to this resonance shifting is considered to be constant over time, and it assumes the value corresponding to the maximum input power. Further, an initial phase detuning of the probe beam has been considered to investigate its effect on switching. It is observed from the simulated results that, the output of the probe beam exhibits either clockwise or counter-clockwise bistability, depending on its initial phase detuning.

  16. Stowable Energy-Absorbing Rocker-Bogie Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses the design of the rocker-bogie suspensions of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. Going beyond the basic requirements regarding mobility on uneven terrain, the design had to satisfy requirements (1) to enable each suspension to contort so that the rover could be stowed within limited space in a tetrahedral lander prior to deployment and (2) that the suspension be able to absorb appreciable impact loads, with limited deflection, during egress from the lander and traversal of terrain. For stowability, six joints (three on the right, three on the left) were added to the basic rocker-bogie mechanism. One of the joints on each side was a yoke-and-clevis joint at the suspension/differential interface, one was a motorized twist joint in the forward portion of the rocker, and one was a linear joint created by modifying a fixed-length bogie member into a telescoping member. For absorption of impact, the structural members were in the form of box beams made by electron-beam welding of machined, thin-walled, C-channel, titanium components. The box beams were very lightweight and could withstand high bending and torsional loads.

  17. Resonance energy transfer: Influence of neighboring matter absorbing in the wavelength region of the acceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.; Ford, Jack S.

    2013-07-01

    In many of the materials and systems in which resonance energy transfer occurs, the individual chromophores are embedded within a superstructure of significantly different chemical composition. In accounting for the influence of the surrounding matter, the simplest and most widely used representation is commonly cast in terms of a dependence on local refractive index. However, such a depiction is a significant oversimplification, as it fails to register the electronic and local geometric effects of material specifically in the vicinity of the chromophores undergoing energy transfer. The principal objective of this study is to construct a detailed picture of how individual photon interaction events are modified by vicinal, non-absorbing chromophores. A specific aim is to discover what effects arise when input excitation is located in the neighborhood of other chromophores that have a slightly shorter wavelength of absorption; this involves a passive effect exerted on the transfer of energy at wavelengths where they themselves display no significant absorption. The theory is based on a thorough quantum electrodynamical analysis that allows the identification of specific optical and electronic chromophore attributes to expedite or inhibit electronic energy transfer. The Clausius-Mossotti dispersion relationship is then deployed to elicit a dependence on the bulk refractive index of the surroundings. A distinction is drawn between cases in which the influence on the electromagnetic coupling between the donor and the acceptor is primarily due to the static electric field produced by a polar medium, and converse cases in which the mechanism for modifying the form of energy transfer involves the medium acquiring an induced electric dipole. The results provide insights into the detailed quantum mechanisms that operate in multi-chromophore systems, pointing to factors that contribute to the optimization of photosystem characteristics.

  18. Concentration measurements of complex mixtures of broadband absorbers by widely tunable optical parametric oscillator laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruxton, K.; Macleod, N. A.; Weidmann, D.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Maker, G. T.

    2012-11-01

    The ability to obtain accurate vapour parameter information from a compound's absorption spectrum is an essential data processing application in order to quantify the presence of an absorber. Concentration measurements can be required for a variety of applications including environmental monitoring, pipeline leak detection, surface contamination and breath analysis. This work demonstrates sensitive concentration measurements of complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using broadly tunable mid wave infrared (MWIR) laser spectroscopy. Due to the high absorption cross-sections, the MWIR spectral region is ideal to carry out sensitive concentration measurements of VOCs by tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) methods. Absorption spectra of mixtures of VOCs were recorded using a MWIR optical parametric oscillator (OPO), with a tuning range covering 2.5 μm to 3.7 μm. The output of the MWIR OPO was coupled to a multi-pass astigmatic Herriott gas cell, maintained at atmospheric pressure that can provide up to 210 m of absorption path length, with the transmission output from the cell being monitored by a detector. The resulting spectra were processed by a concentration retrieval algorithm derived from the optimum estimation method, taking into account both multiple broadband absorbers and interfering molecules that exhibit narrow multi-line absorption features. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the concentration measurements and assess the capability of the spectral processor, experiments were conducted on calibrated VOCs vapour mixtures flowing through the spectroscopic cell with concentrations ranging from parts per billion (ppb) to parts per million (ppm). This work represents as a first step in an effort to develop and apply a similar concentration fitting algorithm to hyperspectral images in order to provide concentration maps of the spatial distribution of multi-species vapours. The reported functionality of the novel fitting algorithm

  19. Solar energy absorption by vertical cylindrical-tube absorbers in sunspace enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, M.E.; Van Migom, M.

    1983-11-01

    Absorption of radiant solar energy in a building sunspace with a south-facing window and a row of opaque vertical cylindrical-tube solar absorbers is considered. A two-dimensional model is formulated for a horizontal, planar enclosure in which a typical cylindrical absorber tube is subdivided into a number of uniform surface elements and the window and sunspace surfaces are each represented as single elements. Matrix expressions are derived for the radiosity, irradiance, and absorbed solar energy at each surface, considering the transmission of beam and diffuse radiant energy by the window and assuming that all interior surfaces reflect diffusely. The matrix expressions are evaluated for incident solar flux conditions for a south vertical surface on a clear winter day and the results are presented as dimensionless ratios of absorbed-to-incident solar flux as a function of the tube spacing ratio L/R. Hourly values of the spatial distribution of absorbed solar flux are presented for the cylindrical-tube. Space and time averaged values of absorbed solar flux are also presented for the cylinder, the window and the room. The potential application of these results for thermal modeling in passive solar applications is discussed.

  20. ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

  1. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  2. MCNP simulation of absorbed energy and dose by iodinated contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenjun; Mah, Eugene; Huda, Walter; Yao, Hai

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the absorbed dose and energy by iodinated contrast medium in diagnostic radiology. A simulation geometry in which an inner sphere (d = 0.2cm, 1cm, 5cm) filled with iodinated contrast medium (or water) is located at the center of a 20cm diameter water sphere was used in simulations performed with MCNP5 codes. Monoenergetic x-rays with energies ranging from 40 to 80keV from a cone beam source were utilized and contrast medium concentration ranged from 100 to 1mg/ml. Absorbed dose ratio (RD) to inner sphere and total absorbed energies ratio (RE) to the whole phantom with and without iodinated contrast medium were investigated. The maximum RD was ~13 for the 0.2cm diameter sphere with 100mg/ml contrast medium. The maximum RE was ~1.05 for the 5cm diameter contrast sphere at 80keV with 100mg/ml contrast medium. Under the same incident photon energy, increasing the inner sphere size from 0.2cm to 5cm caused a ~63% increase in the RD on average. Decreasing the contrast medium concentration from 100 to 10 mg/ml caused a decrease of RD of ~ 76%. A conclusion was reached that although local absorbed dose increase caused by iodinated contrast agent could be high; the increase in total absorbed energy is negligible.

  3. Development of a carbonaceous selective absorber for solar thermal energy collection and process for its formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, John D.

    1989-02-01

    The main goal of the US Department of Energy supported part of this project is to develop information about controlling the complicated chemical processes involved in the formation of a carbonaceous selective absorber and learn what equipment will allow production of this absorber commercially. The work necessary to accomplish this goal is not yet complete. Formation of the carbonaceous selective absorber in the conveyor oven tried so far has been unsatisfactory, because the proper conditions for applying the carbonaceous coating in each conveyor oven fabricated, either have been difficult to obtain, or have been difficult to maintain over an extended period of time. A new conveyor oven is nearing completion which is expected to allow formation of the carbonaceous selective absorber on absorber tubes in a continuous operation over many days without the necessity of cleaning the conveyor oven or changing the thickness of the electroplated nickel catalyst to compensate for changes in the coating environment in the oven. Work under this project concerned with forming and sealing glass panels to test ideas on evacuated glass solar collector designs and production have been generally quite satisfactory. Delays in completion of the selective absorber work, has caused postponement of the fabrication of a small prototype evacuated glass solar collector panel. Preliminary cost estimates of the selective absorber and solar collector panel indicate that this collector system should be lower in cost than evacuated solar collectors now on the market.

  4. Thermally-Resilient, Broadband Optical Absorber from UV-to-IR Derived from Carbon Nanostructures and Method of Making the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor); Coles, James B. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic optical absorber and methods of making same. The monolithic optical absorber uses an array of mutually aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown using a PECVD growth process and a structure that includes a conductive substrate, a refractory template layer and a nucleation layer. Monolithic optical absorbers made according to the described structure and method exhibit high absorptivity, high site densities (greater than 10.sup.9 nanotubes/cm.sup.2), very low reflectivity (below 1%), and high thermal stability in air (up to at least 400.degree. C.). The PECVD process allows the application of such absorbers in a wide variety of end uses.

  5. Force reconstruction for impact tests of an energy-absorbing nose

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Garne, T.G.; McCall, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Delivery of a bomb into hard targets at speeds of up to 120 fps required the design of an energy-absorbing nose. The purpose of the nose is to decelerate the projectile and, by absorbing the kinetic energy with deformation, protect the projectile's internal components from high-level (shock) decelerations. A structural simulation of the projectile was designed to test the dynamic deformation characteristics of the energy-absorbing nose. The simulated projectile was instrumented with eight accelerometers mounted with a shock isolation technique. The dynamic force as a function of nose deformation was the desired result from the impact tests because it provides the designer with a performance criterion for the nose design. The dynamic force was obtained by combining the accelerations using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). Results from two field tests are presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  6. A comprehensive simulation model of the performance of photochromic films in absorbance-modulation-optical-lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Apratim; Helms, Phillip L.; Andrew, Trisha L.; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography is the most prevalent method of fabricating micro-and nano-scale structures in the semiconductor industry due to the fact that patterning using photons is fast, accurate and provides high throughput. However, the resolution of this technique is inherently limited by the physical phenomenon of diffraction. Absorbance-Modulation-Optical Lithography (AMOL), a recently developed technique has been successfully demonstrated to be able to circumvent this diffraction limit. AMOL employs a dual-wavelength exposure system in conjunction with spectrally selective reversible photo-transitions in thin films of photochromic molecules to achieve patterning of features with sizes beyond the far-field diffraction limit. We have developed a finite-element-method based full-electromagnetic-wave solution model that simulates the photo-chemical processes that occur within the thin film of the photochromic molecules under illumination by the exposure and confining wavelengths in AMOL. This model allows us to understand how the material characteristics influence the confinement to sub-diffraction dimensions, of the transmitted point spread function (PSF) of the exposure wavelength inside the recording medium. The model reported here provides the most comprehensive analysis of the AMOL process to-date, and the results show that the most important factors that govern the process, are the polarization of the two beams, the ratio of the intensities of the two wavelengths, the relative absorption coefficients and the concentration of the photochromic species, the thickness of the photochromic layer and the quantum yields of the photoreactions at the two wavelengths. The aim of this work is to elucidate the requirements of AMOL in successfully circumventing the far-field diffraction limit.

  7. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  8. Comparison of proton energy loss in thick absorbers in terms of a reduced calibration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyeva, O.; de Assis, J. T.; Evseev, I. G.; Schelin, H. R.; Ahmann, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Milhoretto, E.; Setti, J. A. P.; Diaz, K. S.; Hormaza, J. M.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are essential for the support of particle experiments and developments of novel particle registration systems ranging from detectors developed for high-energy physics experiments at CERN to those for medical tomography. For proton beams, popular Monte Carlo codes like TRIM/SRIM, MCNPX and GEANT4 generate very similar final energy spectra for relatively thin absorbers, with differences unlikely to be detected in experiments. For thick absorbers, however, the disagreement is much larger, even for a moderate energy resolution. The reason for this is unclear because the actual overall accuracy of the proton stopping power in the Bethe-Bloch domain is known to be about 1%. One approach to investigate these differences is to compare, for example, the data from the NIST PSTAR and the SRIM reference data tables with the output of the Monte Carlo codes. When the various codes are validated against these tables, the differences in the simulated spectra mainly reflect the differences in the reference tables. Of more practical interest is the validation of the codes against experimental data for thick absorbers. However, only few experimental data sets are available here, and the existing data have been acquired at different initial proton energies and for different absorber materials. In order to compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations with existing experimental data, we applied the so-called reduced calibration method. This reduced calibration curve represents the range-energy dependence normalizing the range scale to the full projected range (for a given initial proton energy in a given material), and the proton energy scale to the given initial proton energy. The advantage of this approach is that the reduced calibration curve is nearly energy and material independent, and, thus, experimental, simulated and published reference data obtained at different energies and for different materials can be compared in one graph.

  9. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  10. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-08-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  11. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic spectrally selective solar absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Wang, Cheng-Bing; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Theiss, Wolfgang; Liu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Traditional metal-dielectric composite coating has found important application in spectrally selective solar absorbers. However, fine metal particles can easily diffuse, congregate, or be oxidized at high temperature, which causes deterioration in the optical properties. In this work, we report a new spectrally selective solar absorber coating, composed of low Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(L)-WC) layer, high Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(H)-WC layer) and Al2O3 antireflection layer. The features of our work are: 1) compared with the metal-dielectric composites concept, Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic successfully achieves the all-ceramic concept, which exhibits a high solar absorptance of 0.94 and a low thermal emittance of 0.08, 2) Al2O3 and WC act as filler material and host material, respectively, which are different from traditional concept, 3) Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic solar absorber coating exhibits good thermal stability at 600 °C. In addition, the solar absorber coating is successfully modelled by a commercial optical simulation programme, the result of which agrees with the experimental results.

  12. Using optoacoustic imaging for measuring the temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Elena; Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, André; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Grüneisen parameter is a key temperature-dependent physical characteristic responsible for thermoelastic efficiency of materials. We propose a new methodology for accurate measurements of temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions. We use two-dimensional optoacoustic (OA) imaging to improve accuracy of measurements. Our approach eliminates contribution of local optical fluence and absorbance. To validate the proposed methodology, we studied temperature dependence of aqueous cupric sulfate solutions in the range from 22 to 4°C. Our results for the most diluted salt perfectly matched known temperature dependence for the Grüneisen parameter of water. We also found that Grüneisen-temperature relationship for cupric sulfate exhibits linear trend with respect to the concentration. In addition to accurate measurements of Grüneisen changes with temperature, the developed technique provides a basis for future high precision OA temperature monitoring in live tissues. PMID:24150350

  13. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  14. Enhancing the dynamic range of targeted energy transfer in acoustics using several nonlinear membrane absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellet, R.; Cochelin, B.; Côte, R.; Mattei, P.-O.

    2012-12-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and the energy range of efficiency of targeted energy transfer (TET) phenomena in acoustics, we discuss in this paper about the use of multiple nonlinear membrane absorbers (called nonlinear energy sinks or NES) placed in parallel. We show this way, mainly thanks to an experimental set-up with two membranes, that the different absorbers have additional effects that extend the efficiency and the possibilities of observation of TET. More precisely, we present the different behavior of the system under sinusoidal forcing and free oscillations, characterizing the phenomena for all input energies. The frequency responses are also presented, showing successive clipping of the original resonance peak of the system, and strongly modulated regimes (SMR). A model is finally used to generalize these results to more than two NES and to simulate the case of several very similar membranes in parallel which shows how to extend the existence zone of TET.

  15. Optical pulling of airborne absorbing particles and smut spores over a meter-scale distance with negative photophoretic force

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jinda; Hart, Adam G.; Li, Yong-qing

    2015-04-27

    We demonstrate optical pulling of single light-absorbing particles and smut spores in air over a meter-scale distance using a single collimated laser beam based on negative photophoretic force. The micron-sized particles are pulled towards the light source at a constant speed of 1–10 cm/s in the optical pulling pipeline while undergoing transverse rotation at 0.2–10 kHz. The pulled particles can be manipulated and precisely positioned on the entrance window with an accuracy of ∼20 μm, and their chemical compositions can be characterized with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  17. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Mathies, Richard A.; Hung, Su-Chun; Ju, Jingyue

    1998-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  18. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Hung, S.C.; Ju, J.

    1998-12-29

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures. 22 figs.

  19. Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Crushable Energy Absorber for a Passive Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Corliss, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual study was performed to investigate the impact response of a crushable energy absorber for a passive Earth entry vehicle. The spherical energy-absorbing concept consisted of a foam-filled composite cellular structure capable of omni-directional impact-load attenuation as well as penetration resistance. Five composite cellular samples of hemispherical geometry were fabricated and tested dynamically with impact speeds varying from 30 to 42 meters per second. Theoretical crush load predictions were obtained with the aid of a generalized theory which accounts for the energy dissipated during the folding deformation of the cell-walls. Excellent correlation was obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental tests on characteristic cell-web intersections. Good correlation of theory with experiment was also found to exist for the more complex spherical cellular structures. All preliminary design requirements were met by the cellular structure concept, which exhibited a near-ideal sustained crush-load and approximately 90% crush stroke.

  20. The influence of the energy absorbed from microwave pretreatment on biogas production from secondary wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Sólyom, Katalin; Mato, Rafael B; Pérez-Elvira, Sara Isabel; Cocero, María José

    2011-12-01

    In this study, microwave treatment is analyzed as a way to accelerate the hydrolysis in anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge. The influence of the absorbed energy, power and athermal microwave effect on organic matter solubilization and biogas production has been studied. In addition, a novel method that considers the absorbed energy in the microwave system is proposed, in order to obtain comparable experimental results. The absorbed energy is calculated from an energy balance. The highest solubilization was achieved using 0.54 kJ/ml at 1000 W, where an increment of 7.1% was observed in methane production, compared to the untreated sample. Using a higher energy value (0.83 kJ/ml), methane production further increased (to 15.4%), but solubilization decreased. No power influence was found when 0.54 kJ/ml was applied at 1000, 600 and 440 W. Microwave heating was compared to conventional heating in two different experimental setups, providing similar methane yields in all cases. PMID:21993329

  1. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth (Inventor); Perry, Joseph (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are provided. Compounds having a donor-pi-donor or acceptor-pi-acceptor structure are of particular interest, where the donor is an electron donating group, acceptor is an electron accepting group, and pi is a pi bridge linking the donor and/or acceptor groups. The pi bridge may additionally be substituted with electron donating or withdrawing groups to alter the absorptive wavelength of the structure. Also disclosed are methods of generating an excited state of such compounds through optical stimulation with light using simultaneous absorption of photons of energies individually insufficient to achieve an excited state of the compound, but capable of doing so upon simultaneous absorption of two or more such photons. Applications employing such methods are also provided, including controlled polymerization achieved through focusing of the light source(s) used.

  2. The Effects of an Absorbing Smoke Layer on MODIS Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Optical Property Retrievals and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Clouds, aerosols, and their interactions are widely considered to be key uncertainty components in our current understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and radiation budget. The work presented here is focused on the quasi-permanent marine boundary layer . (MBL) clouds off the southern Atlantic coast of Africa and the effects on MODIS cloud optical property retrievals (MOD06) of an overlying absorbing smoke layer. During much of August and September, a persistent smoke layer resides over this region, produced from extensive biomass burning throughout the southern African savanna. The resulting absorption, which increases with decreasing wavelength, potentially introduces biases into the MODIS cloud optical property retrievals of the underlying MBL clouds. This effect is more pronounced in the cloud optical thickness retrievals, which over ocean are derived from the wavelength channel centered near 0.86 micron (effective particle size retrievals are derived from the longer-wavelength near-IR channels at 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 microns). Here, the spatial distributions of the scalar statistics of both the cloud and aerosol layers are first determined from the CALIOP 5 km layer products. Next, the MOD06 look-up tables (LUTs) are adjusted by inserting an absorbing smoke layer of varying optical thickness over the cloud. Retrievals are subsequently performed for a subset of MODIS pixels collocated with the CALIOP ground track, using smoke optical thickness from the CALIOP 5km aerosol layer product to select the appropriate LUT. The resulting differences in cloud optical property retrievals due to the inclusion of the smoke layer in the LUTs will be examined. In addition, the direct radiative forcing of this smoke layer will be investigated from the perspective of the cloud optical property retrieval differences.

  3. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  4. Effect of reference spectra in spectral fitting to discriminate enzyme-activatable photoacoustic probe from intrinsic optical absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Iwatate, Ryu J.; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Ishihara, Miya

    2016-03-01

    Multispectral photoacoustic (MS-PA) imaging has been researched to image molecular probes in the presence of strong background signals produced from intrinsic optical absorbers. Spectral fitting method (SFM) discriminates probe signals from background signals by fitting the PA spectra that are calculated from MS-PA images to reference spectra of the probe and background, respectively. Because hemoglobin is a dominant optical absorber in visible to near-infrared wavelength range, absorption spectra of hemoglobin have been widely used as reference background spectra. However, the spectra of background signals produced from heterogeneous biological tissue differ from the reference background spectra due to presence of other intrinsic optical absorbers and effect of optical scattering. Due to the difference, the background signals partly remain in the probe images. To image the probe injected in subcutaneous tumors of mice clearly, we added the melanosome absorption spectrum to the reference background spectra because skin contains nonnegligible concentration of melanosome and the spectrum is very similar to the scattering spectrum of biological tissue. The probe injected in the subcutaneous tumor of mice was an enzyme-activatable probe which show their original colors only in the presence of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, an enzyme associated with cancer. The probes have been successfully used for rapid fluorescence imaging of cancer. As a result of MS-PA imaging, by considering the melanosome absorption spectrum, the background signals were successfully suppressed and then clearer probe image was obtained. Our MS-PA imaging method afforded successful imaging of tumors in mice injected with activatable PA probes.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of an Energy Absorbing Sub-floor Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Advanced General Aviation Transportation Experiments program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center is conducting tests to design energy absorbing structures to improve occupant survivability in aircraft crashes. An effort is currently underway to design an Energy Absorbing (EA) sub-floor structure which will reduce occupant loads in an aircraft crash. However, a recent drop test of a fuselage specimen with a proposed EA sub-floor structure demonstrated that the effects of sectioning the fuselage on both the fuselage section's stiffness and the performance of the EA structure were not fully understood. Therefore, attempts are underway to model the proposed sub-floor structure on computers using the DYCAST finite element code to provide a better understanding of the structure's behavior in testing, and in an actual crash.

  6. Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, M.; Hu, Guohua; Hu, Guoqing; Howe, R. C. T.; Chen, L.; Zheng, Z.; Hasan, T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a ytterbium (Yb) and an erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser Q-switched by a solution processed, optically uniform, few-layer tungsten disulfide saturable absorber (WS2-SA). Nonlinear optical absorption of the WS2-SA in the sub-bandgap region, attributed to the edge-induced states, is characterized by 3.1% and 4.9% modulation depths with 1.38 and 3.83 MW/cm2 saturation intensities at 1030 and 1558 nm, respectively. By integrating the optically uniform WS2-SA in the Yb- and Er-doped laser cavities, we obtain self-starting Q-switched pulses with microsecond duration and kilohertz repetition rates at 1030 and 1558 nm. Our work demonstrates broadband sub-bandgap saturable absorption of a single, solution processed WS2-SA, providing new potential efficacy for WS2 in ultrafast photonic applications. PMID:26657601

  7. Enhancement of Optical Adaptive Sensing by Using a Dual-Stage Seesaw-Swivel Actuator with a Tunable Vibration Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Po-Chien; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Stone

    2011-01-01

    Technological obstacles to the use of rotary-type swing arm actuators to actuate optical pickup modules in small-form-factor (SFF) disk drives stem from a hinge’s skewed actuation, subsequently inducing off-axis aberrations and deteriorating optical quality. This work describes a dual-stage seesaw-swivel actuator for optical pickup actuation. A triple-layered bimorph bender made of piezoelectric materials (PZTs) is connected to the suspension of the pickup head, while the tunable vibration absorber (TVA) unit is mounted on the seesaw swing arm to offer a balanced force to reduce vibrations in a focusing direction. Both PZT and TVA are designed to satisfy stable focusing operation operational requirements and compensate for the tilt angle or deformation of a disc. Finally, simulation results verify the performance of the dual-stage seesaw-swivel actuator, along with experimental procedures and parametric design optimization confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:22163877

  8. Improving impact resistance of ceramic materials by energy absorbing surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.; Seretsky, J.

    1974-01-01

    Energy absorbing surface layers were used to improve the impact resistance of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics. Low elastic modulus materials were used. In some cases, the low elastic modulus was achieved using materials that form localized microcracks as a result of thermal expansion anisotropy, thermal expansion differences between phases, or phase transformations. In other cases, semi-vitreous or vitreous materials were used. Substantial improvements in impact resistance were observed at room and elevated temperatures.

  9. Methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Kamada, K.; Nakai, Y.

    1981-10-20

    A methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property wherein an organic compound (A) containing cupric ion and a compound (B) having at least one p-o-h bond in a molecule are contained into the methacrylic resin selected from poly(Methyl methacrylate) or methacrylic polymers containing at least 50% by weight of a methyl methacrylate unit. A process for producing said methacrylic resin is also disclosed.

  10. Strong enhancement of optical absorbance from ionic self-assembled multilayer thin films of nanocluster Pt and polymer dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjing; Claus, Richard O.

    1999-01-01

    The observation of unusually enhanced optical absorbance spectra of ionic self assembled multilayer (ISAM) thin films composed of alternating layers of Pt nanoclusters (<1 nm dimension) and polymer dye is reported. The first bilayer absorbance is found to be considerably larger than that of several succeeding bilayers even though there is no difference in composition for each bilayer. A layer-by-layer-dependent redshift in maximum wavelength position due to the strong coupling of metals and polymer molecules is observed. The saturation absorption is obtained for the first time when the required thickness of the ISAM film is deposited. The large and unusual enhancement effects are attributed to both the charge-transfer mechanism and very large local fields and collective phenomena near the surface of the small metal clusters/electrolytes and at the interfaces between the cluster/polymer multilayers.

  11. Calculation of the weighting functions for the reconstruction of absorbing inhomogeneities in tissue by time-resolved optical projections

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V

    2014-08-31

    We report a new method for determining the weighting functions to reconstruct absorbing inhomogeneities in tissue by perturbation time-domain diffuse optical tomography using the transmission geometry of a flat layer. The method is based on an analytical approach to the calculation of the weighting functions for a semi-infinite scattering medium and on the use of the original method of an equivalent inverse source in order to obtain weight distributions for the flat layer geometry. The correctness of the proposed method of the weighting function calculation is evaluated by a numerical experiment on the reconstruction of absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that the perturbation reconstruction model based on the proposed weighting function calculation method allows the inhomogeneities smaller than 0.3 cm and ∼0.4 cm, located respectively in the transverse and longitudinal directions to the probe light direction, to be resolved in the centre of an 8-cm-thick object. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Energy-Absorbing Keel Beams for General Aviation Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A lightweight energy-absorbing keel-beam concept was developed and retrofitted in a general aviation type aircraft to improve crashworthiness performance. The energy-absorbing beam consisted of a foam-filled cellular structure with glass fiber and hybrid glass/kevlar cell walls. Design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the keel beams prior to installation and subsequent full-scale crash testing of the aircraft are described. Factors such as material and fabrication constraints, damage tolerance, crush stress/strain response, seat-rail loading, and post crush integrity, which influenced the course of the design process are also presented. A theory similar to the one often used for ductile metal box structures was employed with appropriate modifications to estimate the sustained crush loads for the beams. This, analytical tool, coupled with dynamic finite element simulation using MSC.Dytran were the prime design and analysis tools. The validity of the theory as a reliable design tool was examined against test data from static crush tests of beam sections while the overall performance of the energy-absorbing subfloor was assessed through dynamic testing of 24 in long subfloor assemblies.

  13. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  14. Optical switching in bistable active cavity containing nonlinear absorber on bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, Vladimir Y.; Taranenko, Victor B.; Vasnetsov, Mikhail V.

    1993-04-01

    The transverse nonlinear dynamics of switchings in an active system (laser with nonlinear saturable absorber on bacteriorhodopsin in a self-imaging cavity) is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The soliton-like light field structure formation and continuously cycled self-switching process are investigated.

  15. Evaluating a novel application of optical fibre evanescent field absorbance: rapid measurement of red colour in winegrape homogenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lye, Peter G.; Bradbury, Ronald; Lamb, David W.

    Silica optical fibres were used to measure colour (mg anthocyanin/g fresh berry weight) in samples of red wine grape homogenates via optical Fibre Evanescent Field Absorbance (FEFA). Colour measurements from 126 samples of grape homogenate were compared against the standard industry spectrophotometric reference method that involves chemical extraction and subsequent optical absorption measurements of clarified samples at 520 nm. FEFA absorbance on homogenates at 520 nm (FEFA520h) was correlated with the industry reference method measurements of colour (R2 = 0.46, n = 126). Using a simple regression equation colour could be predicted with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.21 mg/g, with a range of 0.6 to 2.2 mg anthocyanin/g and a standard deviation of 0.33 mg/g. With a Ratio of Performance Deviation (RPD) of 1.6, the technique when utilizing only a single detection wavelength, is not robust enough to apply in a diagnostic sense, however the results do demonstrate the potential of the FEFA method as a fast and low-cost assay of colour in homogenized samples.

  16. Optical properties of light absorbing carbon aggregates mixed with sulfate: assessment of different model geometries for climate forcing calculations.

    PubMed

    Kahnert, Michael; Nousiainen, Timo; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Ebert, Martin

    2012-04-23

    Light scattering by light absorbing carbon (LAC) aggregates encapsulated into sulfate shells is computed by use of the discrete dipole method. Computations are performed for a UV, visible, and IR wavelength, different particle sizes, and volume fractions. Reference computations are compared to three classes of simplified model particles that have been proposed for climate modeling purposes. Neither model matches the reference results sufficiently well. Remarkably, more realistic core-shell geometries fall behind homogeneous mixture models. An extended model based on a core-shell-shell geometry is proposed and tested. Good agreement is found for total optical cross sections and the asymmetry parameter. PMID:22535095

  17. Optical properties of Cu-chalcogenide photovoltaic absorbers from self-consistent G W and the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körbel, Sabine; Kammerlander, David; Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Attaccalite, Claudio; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Botti, Silvana

    2015-02-01

    Self-consistent G W calculations and the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation are to date the best available approaches to simulate electronic excitations in a vast class of materials, ranging from molecules to solids. However, up to now numerical instabilities made it impossible to use these techniques to calculate optical absorption spectra of the best-known thin-film absorbers for solar cells: Cu(In ,Ga )(S ,Se ) 2 chalcopyrites and Cu2ZnSn(S ,Se ) 4 kesterites/stannites. We show here how to solve this problem using a finite-difference method in k space to evaluate the otherwise diverging dipole matrix elements, obtaining an excellent agreement with experiments. Having established the validity of this approach, we use it then to calculate the optical response of the less studied, but promising, Cu2ZnGe(S ,Se ) 4 compounds, opening the way to predictive calculations of still unknown materials.

  18. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: closure between hygroscopic growth and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. M.; Bar-Or, R. Z.; Bluvshtein, N.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Kostinski, A.; Borrmann, S.; Koren, I.; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The extinction coefficient and growth factor of humidified aerosols, at 80% and 90% RH, and at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelengths were measured for size-selected particles for ammonium sulfate, IHSS Pahokee peat (a lightly absorbing humic-like substance proxy), nigrosine (a black dye to model highly absorbing substances), and a mixture of AS and nigrosine. The ratio of the humidified extinction coefficients to the dry (fRHext(%RH, Dry)) was explored. The measured fRHext(%RH, Dry) was compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory, using the measured growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing. The expected complex refractive indices (RIs) using the volume weighted mixing rule were compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements. Moreover, the differences between assuming a core-shell structure or a homogeneous mixing of the substances is examined. The laboratory results were used as a basis to model the change in the total extinction, the single scattering albedo (ω), and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the twilight zone of clouds at 355 nm and 532 nm. We found slightly linear to no dependency of fRH(%RH, Dry) with size for absorbing substances in contrast to the decreasing exponential behavior with size for purely scattering substances. However, no discernable difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 5% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. Moreover, for substances with growth factor less than 1.15 there was, in average, less than 5% difference between the extinction efficiencies calculated using a core-shell model and assuming homogeneous mixing for size parameters less than 2.5. For x>2.5 the differences were greater causing and overestimation of the extinction efficiency (Qext) values if homogenous mixing was assume instead of a core-shell structure. The

  19. Design of energy absorbing materials and composite structures based on porous shape memory alloys (SE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying

    Recently, attention has been paid to porous shape memory alloys. This is because the alloys show large and recoverable deformation, i.e. superelasticity and shape memory effect. Due to their light weight and potential large deformations, porous shape memory alloys have been considered as excellent candidates for energy absorption materials. In the present study, porous NiTi alloy with several different porosities are processed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The compression behavior of the porous NiTi is examined with an aim of using it for a possible high energy absorbing material. Two models for the macroscopic compression behavior of porous shape memory alloy (SMA) are presented in this work, where Eshelby's inhomogeneous inclusion method is used to predict the effective elastic and superelastic behavior of a porous SMA based on the assumption of stress-strain curve. The analytical results are compared with experimental data for porous NiTi with 13% porosity, resulting in a reasonably good agreement. Based on the study upon porous NiTi, an energy absorbing composite structure made of a concentric NiTi spring and a porous NiTi rod is presented in this PhD dissertation. Both NiTi spring and porous NiTi rod are of superelastic grade. Ductile porous NiTi cylindrical specimens are fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The composite structure exhibits not only high reversible force-displacement behavior for small to intermediate loading but also high energy absorbing property when subjected to large compressive loads. A model for the compressive force-displacement curve of the composite structure is presented. The predicted curve is compared to the experimental data, resulting in a reasonably good agreement.

  20. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  1. An APL program for the distribution of energy deposition by charged particles passing through thin absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    An APL program which numerically evaluates the probability density function (PDF) for the energy deposited in a thin absorber by a charged particle is proposed, with application to the construction, pointing, and control of spacecraft. With this program, the PDF of the restricted energy loss distribution of Watts (1973) is derived, and Vavilov's (1957) distribution is obtained by proper parameter selection. The method is demonstrated with the example of the effect of charged particle induced radiation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing accuracy. A Monte Carlo study simulates the photon noise caused by charged particles passing through the photomultiplier tube window, and the stochastic variation of energy loss is introduced into the simulation by generating random energy losses from a power law distribution. The program eliminates annoying loop procedures, and model parameter sensitivity can be studied using the graphical output.

  2. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PMID:27074452

  3. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats is explored. An energy-absorbing test seat was designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions, was conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats were also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing was conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests were conducted. The vertical drop tests were used to obtain comparative data between the energy-absorbing and operational seats. Volume 1 describes the energy absorbing test seat and testing conducted, and evaluates the data from both test series.

  4. An evaluation of energy-absorbing guide rail terminals in New Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esligar, Ryan W.

    2011-12-01

    Energy-absorbing guide rail terminals (EAGRTs) are a form of end treatment designed to absorb energy during a collision and prevent intrusion into the impacting vehicle. After several years of use in New Brunswick there is evidence to suggest these systems may not always perform as expected. This study was conducted to evaluate the real-world performance of EAGRT systems in collisions throughout the Province. A retrospective review of data for 103 collisions that occurred prior to the study was supplemented with an in-depth analysis and reconstruction of 18 collisions that occurred during the study. The study revealed that two types of EAGRTs are used in New Brunswick; the ET-Plus and the SKT-350. Between 2007 and 2010 approximately 80% of all EAGRT collisions were PDO, nearly 19% resulted in injuries, while one collision resulted in a fatality. In most cases the EAGRT absorbed a significant amount of energy (an average of 315 KJ per crash); however, there were several problems identified. It was determined that not all EAGRT systems are being installed in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines. Intrusion into the vehicle was documented in three collisions. It was also discovered that many of the collision configurations were different than the NCHRP Report 350 tests. The major recommendations focused on installation and maintenance issues identified during the study. The study also revealed areas in need of further research. These areas include the feasibility of using the FLEAT system in New Brunswick, the installation of rumble strips on the median shoulder, and whether or not additional crash test configurations should be incorporated into NCHRP Report 350 or Project 22-14(2).

  5. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  6. Optical design and co-sputtering preparation of high performance Mo-SiO2 cermet solar selective absorbing coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liqing; Gao, Fangyuan; Zhao, Shuxi; Zhou, Fuyun; Nshimiyimana, Jean Pierre; Diao, Xungang

    2013-09-01

    In order to optimize and prepare high performance Mo-SiO2 cermet solar selective absorbing coating, a series of Mo-SiO2 cermet films with different metal volume fraction were deposited on optical glass using mid-frequency (MF) and radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) in the wavelength range of 250-2500 nm have been simulated using SCOUT software with different dielectric function models. The optical constants, film thickness, metal volume fraction and other parameters have been deduced from the modeling. The fitted optical constants were then used to simulate and optimize the Mo-SiO2 solar selective coating and samples were prepared based on the optimized parameters. The Maxwell Garnett (MG) and Bruggeman (BR) effective-medium theory have been added in the dielectric function models to describe low metal volume fraction cermet layer (LMVF) and high metal volume fraction cermet layer (HMVF), separately. The optical spectra (R and T) of all single films were in a good agreement with the fitted spectra by dielectric function models. The experimental measured reflectance of the solar selective coating was also in rather good agreement with the optimized result. The solar absorptance of theoretically optimized selective coating was 0.945, while the absorptance of the experimental coating was 0.95. The thermal emittance of 0.15 (at 400 °C) was obtained.

  7. Suppression of nano-absorbing precursors and damage mechanism in optical coatings for 3ω mirrors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Qi, Hongji; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Jian; Chai, Yingjie; Tu, Feifei; Zhao, Jiaoling; Yu, Zhen; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Meiping; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2016-03-15

    Damage precursors in the 3ω (351 nm) mirror for a high-power laser system are investigated as well as the relevant damage mechanisms. The precursors are classified into two ensembles according to the different laser resistance and damage features. The former is nano-absorbing precursors, which are sensitive to the standing wave electric field and vulnerable to the laser irradiation. The latter is submicrometer nodular defects, which have higher laser resistance and are sensitive to the adhesion strength between the fluoride coatings and oxide coatings. The damage due to nano-absorbing precursors is efficiently suppressed with the double stack design that screens the electric field in the oxides. Currently, the nodular seed is major originating from the Al2O3/SiO2 stack. Even for the same defect type and mirror, the final damage features are dependent on the local mechanical properties at the irradiation location. The investigations of the damage mechanisms provide a direction to further improve the laser-induced damage threshold of the 3ω mirror. PMID:26977671

  8. Evidence of bimodal physical properties of intervening, optically thin C III absorbers at z ˜ 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.-S.; Carswell, R. F.; Ranquist, D.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Voigt profile analysis of 132 intervening C IV+C III components associated with optically thin H I absorbers at 2.1 < z < 3.4 in the 19 high-quality UVES/VLT and HIRES/Keck QSO spectra. For log N_{C I} in [11.7, 14.1], N_{C III} ∝ N_{C IV}^{1.42± 0.11} and < N_{C III}/N_{C {IV} > = 1.0± 0.3 with a negligible redshift evolution. For 54 C IV components tied (aligned) with H I at log N_{H I} in [12.2, 16.0] and log N_{C IV} in [11.8, 13.8], the gas temperature Tb estimated from absorption line widths is well approximated to a Gaussian peaking at log Tb ˜ 4.4 ± 0.3 for log Tb ∈ [3.5, 5.5], with a negligible non-thermal contribution. For 32 of 54 tied H I+C IV pairs, also tied with C III at log N_{C {III} in [11.7, 13.8], we ran both photoionization equilibrium (PIE) and non-PIE (using a fixed temperature Tb) CLOUDY models for the Haardt-Madau QSOs+galaxies 2012 UV background. We find evidence of bimodality in observed and derived physical properties. High-metallicity branch absorbers have a carbon abundance [C/H]temp ≥ -1.0, a line-of-sight length Ltemp ≤ 20 kpc and a total (neutral and ionized) hydrogen volume density log nH,temp ∈ [-4.5, -3.3] and log Tb ∈ [3.9, 4.5]. Low-metallicity branch absorbers have [C/H]temp ≤ -1.0, Ltemp ∈ [20, 480] kpc and log nH,temp ∈ [-5.2, -4.3] and log Tb ˜ 4.5. High-metallicity branch absorbers seem to be originated from extended discs, inner haloes or outflowing gas of intervening galaxies, while low-metallicity absorbers are produced by galactic haloes or the surrounding intergalactic medium filament.

  9. Specific absorbed fractions of energy from internal photon sources in brain tumor and cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F. )); Stubbs, J.B. )

    1995-03-01

    Transferrin, radiolabeled with In-111, can be coinjected into glioblastoma multiforme lesions, and subsequent scintigraphic imaging can demonstrate the biokinetics of the cytotoxic transferrin. The administration of [sup 111]In transferrin into a brain tumor results in distribution of radioactivity in the brain, brain tumor, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Information about absorbed radiation doses to these regions, as well as other nearby tissues and organs, is important for evaluating radiation-related risks from this procedure. The radiation dose is usually estimated for a mathematical representation of the human body. We have included source/target regions for the eye, lens of the eye, spinal column, spinal CSF, cranial CSF, and a 100-g tumor within the brain of an adult male phantom developed by Cristy and Eckerman. The spinal column, spinal CSF, and the eyes have not been routinely included in photon transport simulations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) as a function of photon energy were calculated using the ALGAMP computer code, which utilizes Monte Carlo techniques for simulating photon transport. The ALGAMP code was run three times, with the source activity distributed uniformly within the tumor, cranial CSF, and the spinal CSF volumes. These SAFs, which were generated for 12 discrete photon energies ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV, were used with decay scheme data to calculate [ital S]-values needed for estimating absorbed doses. [ital S]-values for [sup 111]In are given for three source regions (brain tumor, cranial CSF, and spinal CSF) and all standard target regions/organs, the eye and lens, as well as to tissues within these source regions. [ital S]-values for the skeletal regions containing active marrow are estimated. These results are useful in evaluating the radiation doses from intracranial administration of [sup 111]In transferrin.

  10. Bistable optical devices with laser diodes coupled to absorbers of narrow spectral bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-06-20

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated with a combination of the following two effects: One is the decrease of the transmission of an Er-doped YAG crystal with increasing red shift of a laser diode resulting from an increase in the injection current, and the other is a negative nonlinear absorption in which the transmission decreases inversely with increasing laser intensity. Because a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of the laser diode, an optical bistability was observed in this system. PMID:20935754

  11. Laser ablation of optically thin absorbing liquid layer predeposited onto a transparent solid substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Lyon, K.; Shukla, S.; Murry, D.; Allen, S. D.

    2006-09-01

    Ablation of optically thin liquid 2-propanol layers of variable thickness on IR-transparent solid Si substrate by a nanosecond CO{sub 2} laser has been experimentally studied using time-resolved optical interferometric and microscopy techniques. Basic ablation parameters - threshold fluences for surface vaporization and explosive homogeneous boiling of the superheated liquid, ablation depths, vaporization (ablation) rates, and characteristic ablation times versus laser fluence - were measured as a function of alcohol layer thickness. The underlying ablation mechanisms, their thermodynamics, and microscopic details are discussed.

  12. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  13. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  14. Two-Photon or Higher-Order Absorbing Optical Materials for Generation of Reactive Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  15. Analytical Simulations of Energy-Absorbing Impact Spheres for a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Marcus Dwight; Fasanella, Edwin L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations were performed to aid in the design of an energy-absorbing impact sphere for a passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that is a possible architecture for the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The MSR EEV concept uses an entry capsule and energy-absorbing impact sphere designed to contain and limit the acceleration of collected samples during Earth impact without a parachute. The spherical shaped impact sphere is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid composite, graphite-epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Collected Martian samples will fit inside a smaller spherical sample container at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons were made of analytical results obtained using MSC.Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center for impact velocities from 30 to 40 m/s. Acceleration, velocity, and deformation results compared well with the test results. The correlated finite element model was then used for simulations of various off-nominal impact scenarios. Off-nominal simulations at an impact velocity of 40 m/s included a rotated cellular structure impact onto a flat surface, a cellular structure impact onto an angled surface, and a cellular structure impact onto the corner of a step.

  16. Impact Test and Simulation of Energy Absorbing Concepts for Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Marcus D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations have been performed to aid in the design of an energy absorbing concept for a highly reliable passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that will directly impact the Earth without a parachute. EEV's are designed to return materials from asteroids, comets, or planets for laboratory analysis on Earth. The EEV concept uses an energy absorbing cellular structure designed to contain and limit the acceleration of space exploration samples during Earth impact. The spherical shaped cellular structure is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid graphite- epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Space samples fit inside a smaller sphere at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons of analytical predictions using MSC,Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center were made for three impact velocities ranging from 32 to 40 m/s. Acceleration and deformation results compared well with the test results. These finite element models will be useful for parametric studies of off-nominal impact conditions.

  17. Absorbable energy monitoring scheme: new design protocol to test vehicle structural crashworthiness.

    PubMed

    Ofochebe, Sunday M; Enibe, Samuel O; Ozoegwu, Chigbogu G

    2016-05-01

    In vehicle crashworthiness design optimization detailed system evaluation capable of producing reliable results are basically achieved through high-order numerical computational (HNC) models such as the dynamic finite element model, mesh-free model etc. However the application of these models especially during optimization studies is basically challenged by their inherent high demand on computational resources, conditional stability of the solution process, and lack of knowledge of viable parameter range for detailed optimization studies. The absorbable energy monitoring scheme (AEMS) presented in this paper suggests a new design protocol that attempts to overcome such problems in evaluation of vehicle structure for crashworthiness. The implementation of the AEMS involves studying crash performance of vehicle components at various absorbable energy ratios based on a 2DOF lumped-mass-spring (LMS) vehicle impact model. This allows for prompt prediction of useful parameter values in a given design problem. The application of the classical one-dimensional LMS model in vehicle crash analysis is further improved in the present work by developing a critical load matching criterion which allows for quantitative interpretation of the results of the abstract model in a typical vehicle crash design. The adequacy of the proposed AEMS for preliminary vehicle crashworthiness design is demonstrated in this paper, however its extension to full-scale design-optimization problem involving full vehicle model that shows greater structural detail requires more theoretical development. PMID:27441279

  18. Full-Scale Crash Test of a MD-500 Helicopter with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    A new externally deployable energy absorbing system was demonstrated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter. The deployable system is a honeycomb structure and utilizes composite materials in its construction. A set of two Deployable Energy Absorbers (DEAs) were fitted on the MD-500 helicopter for the full-scale crash demonstration. Four anthropomorphic dummy occupants were also used to assess human survivability. A demonstration test was performed at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The test involved impacting the helicopter on a concrete surface with combined forward and vertical velocity components of 40-ft/s and 26-ft/s, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of dynamic finite element simulations. Descriptions of this test as well as other component and full-scale tests leading to the helicopter test are discussed. Acceleration data from the anthropomorphic dummies showed that dynamic loads were successfully attenuated to within non-injurious levels. Moreover, the airframe itself survived the relatively severe impact and was retested to provide baseline data for comparison for cases with and without DEAs.

  19. Optical-Fiber-Based, Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectrometer for Thin-Film Absorber Characterization and Analysis of TRPL Data for CdS/CdTe Interface: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, D.; Duenow, J. N.; Kanevce, A.; Li, J. V.; Young, M. R.; Dippo, P.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the design of a time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectrometer for rapid semiconductor absorber characterization. Simplicity and flexibility is achieved by using single optical fiber to deliver laser pulses and to collect photoluminescence. We apply TRPL for characterization of CdS/CdTe absorbers after deposition, CdCl2 treatment, Cu doping, and back contact formation. Data suggest this method could be applied in various stages of PV device processing. Finally, we show how to analyze TRPL data for CdS/CdTe absorbers by considering laser light absorption depth and intermixing at CdS/CdTe interface.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of changes in thickness and refractive index of weakly absorbing self-standing solid films using optical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easwar, N.; Fantini, R.; Willis, E.

    2001-06-01

    A nondestructive optical interferometric method, which enables a direct and simultaneous measurement of small changes in both thickness and refractive index of thin films, is described. Optical interferometric methods are sensitive to the changes in the optical path length (the product of the refractive index and the physical thickness) through the film. Thus, when the film is subjected to changing environmental conditions such as changing temperature or humidity, it is a challenge to determine the change in thickness and the change in refractive index separately, using interferometry. By simultaneously monitoring two different sets of interference fringes, i.e., transmission and reflection fringes, we have been able to successfully address this challenge. Our measurements on well-characterized pedigree glass samples are presented. The results agree well with the expected values for these samples, supporting the feasibility of this characterization technique to new materials. Self-standing, transparent (weakly absorbing) films ranging in thickness from tens to hundreds of microns can be characterized from direct measurements.

  1. Lumbar load attenuation for rotorcraft occupants using a design methodology for the seat impact energy-absorbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Rasoul; Beheshti, Hamid; Lankarani, Hamid

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft occupant crash-safety considerations require a minimum cushion thickness to limit the relative vertical motion of the seat-pelvis during high vertical impact loadings in crash landings or accidents. In military aircraft and helicopter seat design, due to the potential for high vertical accelerations in crash scenarios, the seat system must be provided with an energy absorber to attenuate the acceleration level sustained by the occupants. Because of the limited stroke available for the seat structure, the design of the energy absorber becomes a trade-off problem between minimizing the stroke and maximizing the energy absorption. The available stroke must be used to prevent bottoming out of the seat as well as to absorb maximum impact energy to protect the occupant. In this study, the energy-absorbing system in a rotorcraft seat design is investigated using a mathematical model of the occupant/seat system. Impact theories between interconnected bodies in multibody mechanical systems are utilized to study the impact between the seat pan and the occupant. Experimental responses of the seat system and the occupant are utilized to validate the results from this study for civil and military helicopters according to FAR 23 and 25 and MIL-S-58095 requirements. A model for the load limiter is proposed to minimize the lumbar load for the occupant by minimizing the relative velocity between the seat pan and the occupant's pelvis. The modified energy absorber/load limiter is then implemented for the seat structure so that it absorbs the energy of impact in an effective manner and below the tolerable limit for the occupant in a minimum stroke. Results show that for a designed stroke, the level of occupant lumbar spine injury would be significantly attenuated using this modified energy-absorber system.

  2. An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2008-07-15

    The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Power Generation Performance of Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y.; Epler, J.; Previsic, M.

    2012-04-01

    The extraction of energy from ocean waves has gained interest in recent years. The floating-point absorber (FPA) is one of the most promising devices among a wide variety of wave energy conversion technologies. Early theoretical studies mainly focused on understanding the hydrodynamics of the system and on predicting the maximum power that could be extracted by a heaving body. These studies evolve from the investigation of floating-body interactions in offshore engineering and naval architecture disciplines. To our best knowledge, no systematic study has been reported about the investigation of the power generation performance of an FPA with a close-to-commercial design. A series of experimental tests was conducted to investigate the power extraction performance of an FPA system.

  4. Energy efficiency of optical grooming of QAM optical transmission channels.

    PubMed

    Bhopalwala, Mariya; Rastegarfar, Houman; Kilper, Daniel C; Wang, Michael; Bergman, Keren

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the energy use for optical grooming of quadrature amplitude modulated signals in optical transmission systems is used to determine the potential efficiency benefits. An energy model is developed for both optical and electronic grooming and used to study the relative efficiency for three different network scenarios. The energy efficiency is evaluated considering both coherent and direct detection transceivers including power management strategies. Results indicate efficiency improvements up to an order of magnitude may be possible for 100 GBaud rates and 25-30 GBaud is a critical point at which optical grooming becomes the more efficient approach. These results are further shown to apply for the case of projected efficiency improvements in the underlying device technologies. PMID:26906845

  5. Influence of nanoscale temperature rises on photoacoustic generation: Discrimination between optical absorbers based on thermal nonlinearity at high frequency

    PubMed Central

    Simandoux, Olivier; Prost, Amaury; Gateau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate thermal-based nonlinear photoacoustic generation as a mean to discriminate between different types of absorbing particles. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of dye molecules and gold nanospheres (same optical densities) was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence for an equilibrium temperature around 4 °C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. The photoacoustic amplitude was also studied as a function of the equilibrium temperature from 2 °C to 20 °C. While the photoacoustic amplitude from the dye molecules vanished around 4 °C, the photoacoustic amplitude from the gold nanospheres remained significant over the whole temperature range. Our preliminary results suggest that in the context of high frequency photoacoustic imaging, nanoparticles may be discriminated from molecular absorbers based on nanoscale temperature rises. PMID:25893167

  6. Study on preparation of the core-nanoshell composite absorbers by high-energy ball milling at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Che, Ruxin; Gao, Hong; Yu, Bing; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chunxia

    2012-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave pollution has become the chief physical pollution for environment. In recent years, some researches have been focused on the preparation of nano-composite absorbers at low temperatures or even at room temperature. In this letter, preparation of nanocomposite by using high-energy ball milling at room temperature is reported. The core-nanoshell composite absorbers with magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere (MFHC) as nuclear and nanocrystalline magnetic material as shell were prepared by high-energy ball milling and vacuum-sintering in this paper. The pre-treatment of MFHC, the sintering process and the mol ratio of starting chemicals had a significant impact for property of composite absorbers. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA) analysis indicated that perfect-crystalline nanomagnetic material coating was gotten with a particle size of 12 nm after ball milling. The results show the MFHC is dielectric loss and magnetic loss too; the exchange-coupling interaction happened between ferrite of the MFHC and nanocrystalline magnetic material coating. The exchange-coupling interaction enhances magnetic loss of composite absorbers. They have a perfect EM parameters at low microwave frequency. The core-nanoshell composite absorbers have a higher magnetic loss at low frequencies, and it is consistent with requirements of the microwave absorbing material at the low-frequency absorption. The microwave absorptivity of the core-nanoshell composite absorbers is better than single material. PMID:22630008

  7. Improved T-matrix computations for large, nonabsorbing and weakly absorbing nonspherical particles and comparison with geometrical-optics approximation.

    PubMed

    Wielaard, D J; Mishchenko, M I; Macke, A; Carlson, B E

    1997-06-20

    We show that the use of a matrix inversion scheme based on a special lower triangular-upper triangular factorization rather than on the standard Gaussian elimination significantly improves the numerical stability of T-matrix computations for nonabsorbing and weakly absorbing nonspherical particles. As a result, the maximum convergent size parameter for particles with small or zero absorption can increase by a factor of several and can exceed 100. We describe an improved scheme for evaluating Clebsch-Gordon coefficients with large quantum numbers, which allowed us to extend the analytical orientational averaging method developed by Mishchenko [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 871 (1991)] to larger size parameters. Comparisons of T-matrix and geometrical optics computations for large, randomly oriented spheroids and finite circular cylinders show that the applicability range of the ray-tracing approximation depends on the imaginary part of the refractive index and is different for different elements of the scattering matrix. PMID:18253460

  8. High shear rate flow in a linear stroke magnetorheological energy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.; Hiemenz, G. J.; Ngatu, G. T.

    2014-05-01

    To provide adaptive stroking load in the crew seats of ground vehicles to protect crew from blast or impact loads, a magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) or shock absorber was developed. The MREA provides appropriate levels of controllable stroking load for different occupant weights and peak acceleration because the viscous stroking load generated by the MREA force increases with velocity squared, thereby reducing its controllable range at high piston velocity. Therefore, MREA behavior at high piston velocity is analyzed and validated experimentally in order to investigate the effects of velocity and magnetic field on MREA performance. The analysis used to predict the MREA force as a function of piston velocity squared and applied field is presented. A conical fairing is mounted to the piston head of the MREA in order reduce predicted inlet flow loss by 9% at nominal velocity of 8 m/s, which resulted in a viscous force reduction of nominally 4%. The MREA behavior is experimentally measured using a high speed servo-hydraulic testing system for speeds up to 8 m/s. The measured MREA force is used to validate the analysis, which captures the transient force quite accurately, although the peak force is under-predicted at the peak speed of 8 m/s.

  9. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  10. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  11. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris; Horta, Lucas G.; Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program sponsored the experimental and analytical evaluation of an externally deployable composite honeycomb structure that is designed to attenuate impact energy during helicopter crashes. The concept, which is designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), utilizes an expandable Kevlar honeycomb structure to dissipate kinetic energy through crushing. The DEA incorporates a unique flexible hinge design that allows the honeycomb to be packaged and stowed flat until needed for deployment. A variety of deployment options such as linear, radial, and/or hybrid methods can be used. Experimental evaluation of the DEA utilized a building block approach that included material characterization testing of its constituent, Kevlar -129 fabric/epoxy, and flexural testing of single hexagonal cells. In addition, the energy attenuation capabilities of the DEA were demonstrated through multi-cell component dynamic crush tests, and vertical drop tests of a composite fuselage section, retrofitted with DEA blocks, onto concrete, water, and soft soil. During each stage of the DEA evaluation process, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. This report documents the results of the experimental evaluation that was conducted to assess the energy absorption capabilities of the DEA.

  12. Multi-Wavelength Measurement of Soot Optical Properties: Influence of Non-Absorbing Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Andrew; Renbaum-Wollf, Lindsay; Forestieri, Sara; Lambe, Andrew; Cappa, Christopher; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. Important in quantifying the direct radiative impacts of soot in climate models, and specifically of black carbon (BC), is the assumed BC refractive index and shape-dependent interaction of light with BC particles. The latter assumption carries significant uncertainty because BC particles are fractal-like, being agglomerates of smaller (20-40 nm) spherules, yet many optical models such as Mie theory in particular, typically assume a spherical particle morphology. It remains unclear under what conditions this is an acceptable assumption. To investigate the ability of various optical models to reproduce observed BC optical properties, we obtained measurements of light absorption, scattering and extinction coefficients and thus single scattering albedo (SSA) of size-resolved soot particles. Measurements were made on denuded soot particles produced using both methane and ethylene as fuels. In addition, these soot particles were coated with dioctyl sebacate or sulfuric acid and the enhancement in the apparent mass absorption coefficient determined. Extinction and absorption were measured using a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS) at 405 nm and 532 nm. Scattering and extinction were measured using a CAPS PMssa single scattering albedo monitor (Aerodyne) at 630 nm. Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA, Cambustion), mobility size with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI) and soot concentration with a CPC (Brechtel). The results will be interpreted in light of both Mie theory which assumes spherical and uniform particles and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (RDG) theory, which assumes that the absorption properties of soot are dictated by the individual spherules. For denuded soot, effective refractive indices will be determined.

  13. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively

  14. Study of optical-acoustical phenomena at surface of strongly absorbing clearing fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkin, F. V.; Vodopyanov, K. L.; Kulevskiy, L. A.; Lyakhov, G. A.; Mikhalevich, V. G.; Rodin, A. M.

    1985-11-01

    The clearing of water by laser radiation with a wavelength lambda = 2.94 microns was reported by K. L. Vodop'aynov, et al., (ZhETF, Vol. 82, p 1820, 1982). For further clarification of this problem, the authors studied optical-acoustic phenomena at the surface of a fluid under conditions of strong absorption and optical clearing with emphasis on detection of the characteristics of the thermal and evaporation regimes of generation of acoustic fields by laser radiation. Studies were made of different fluids containing hydroxyl groups (water, ethanol, glycerin, ethylene glycol) with different boundary conditions (free and fixed boundaries). In the case of a free boundary, the laser radiation was directed downward along the normal to the fluid surface, but in the case of a rigid boundary the fluid surface was covered by a backing of transparent material. Experimental results are presented. At the present time there is no certain interpretation of the observed effects. However, it is known that the presence of hydrogen bonds in fluids containing the OH group leads to a strong shift into the region of lesser frequencies of the absorption band. Partial breaking of the hydrogen bonds under the influence of laser radiation can result in a change in the absorption spectrum of the fluid and accordingly a clearing at the laser wavelength.

  15. Capturing the Energy Absorbing Mechanisms of Composite Structures under Crash Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Bonnie

    As fiber reinforced composite material systems become increasingly utilized in primary aircraft and automotive structures, the need to understand their contribution to the crashworthiness of the structure is of great interest to meet safety certification requirements. The energy absorbing behavior of a composite structure, however, is not easily predicted due to the great complexity of the failure mechanisms that occur within the material. Challenges arise both in the experimental characterization and in the numerical modeling of the material/structure combination. At present, there is no standardized test method to characterize the energy absorbing capability of composite materials to aide crashworthy structural design. In addition, although many commercial finite element analysis codes exist and offer a means to simulate composite failure initiation and propagation, these models are still under development and refinement. As more metallic structures are replaced by composite structures, the need for both experimental guidelines to characterize the energy absorbing capability of a composite structure, as well as guidelines for using numerical tools to simulate composite materials in crash conditions has become a critical matter. This body of research addresses both the experimental characterization of the energy absorption mechanisms occurring in composite materials during crushing, as well as the numerical simulation of composite materials undergoing crushing. In the experimental investigation, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of a composite material system is measured using a variety of test element geometries, such as corrugated plates and tubes. Results from several crush experiments reveal that SEA is not a constant material property for laminated composites, and varies significantly with the geometry of the test specimen used. The variation of SEA measured for a single material system requires that crush test data must be generated for a range of

  16. Plasmonic Nanomaterials for Optical-to-Electrical Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Matthew

    High-quality semiconductor solids have been the dominant photovoltaic materials platform for decades. Although several alternative approaches have been proposed, e.g. dye-sensitized cells or polymeric solids, none compete in terms of cost and conversion efficiency, the crucial benchmarks for industrial scale implementation. However, semiconductors suffer from several fundamental limitations relating to the microscopic mechanism of power conversion that preclude them, even theoretically, from achieving conversion efficiency at the Carnot limit of 95%. Indeed, the fundamentally different tasks of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices, both as optical absorbers, and separately, for electron-hole pair separation and collection, often demand opposing trade-offs in materials optimization. Alternatively, recent advances in subwavelength metal optics, e.g. nanophotonics, metamaterials, and plasmonics, provide several new examples where nanostructured metals perform the separate tasks of absorption and charge separation necessary for photovoltaic power conversion. Nanostructured metals are extremely efficient broadband absorbers of radiation, with tailorable optical properties throughout the visible and infrared spectrum. It is traditionally assumed that the lack of a band gap and consequent fast electronic relaxation (fs) and short mean free path (100 nm) hinders efficient carrier collection. However, new phenomena resulting from the remarkable energy concentration and nanoscale collection geometry afforded by plasmonic systems suggest new strategies may be possible that use all metal structures. In this talk, I will describe two ongoing studies in our laboratory that exemplify opportunities for metal-based optical energy conversion: (1) Excitation with circularly polarized illumination can induce strong, persistent electrical drift currents in resonant metal nanostructures via the inverse faraday effect. (2) Plasmonic absorption in metal nanostructures provides an

  17. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  18. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  19. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2007-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  20. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  1. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (A) Lead handling/exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (B) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (C) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; and (D) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  2. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (1) Lead handling / exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (2) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (3) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; (4) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  3. Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter with a Deployable Energy Absorber Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2010-01-01

    On December 2, 2009, a full scale crash test was successfully conducted of a MD-500 helicopter at the NASA Langley Research Center Landing and Impact Research Facility . The purpose of this test was to evaluate a novel composite honeycomb deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept for attenuation of structural and crew loads during helicopter crashes under realistic crash conditions. The DEA concept is an alternative to external airbags, and absorbs impact energy through crushing. In the test, the helicopter impacted the concrete surface with 11.83 m/s (38.8 ft/s) horizontal, 7.80 m/s (25.6 ft/s) vertical and 0.15 m/s (0.5 ft/s) lateral velocities; corresponding to a resultant velocity of 14.2 m/s (46.5 ft/s). The airframe and skid gear were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages to determine structural integrity and load attenuation, while the skin of the airframe was covered with targets for use by photogrammetry to record gross vehicle motion before, during, and after the impact. Along with the collection of airframe data, one Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD), two Hybrid II 50th percentile ATDs and a specialized human surrogate torso model (HSTM) occupant were seated in the airframe and instrumented for the collection of occupant loads. Resultant occupant data showed that by using the DEA, the loads on the Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs were in the Low Risk regime for the injury criteria, while structural data showed the airframe retained its structural integrity post crash. Preliminary results show that the DEA is a viable concept for the attenuation of impact loads.

  4. Magnetism, optical absorbance, and 19F NMR spectra of nafion films with self-assembling paramagnetic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, E. M.; Chen, Q.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2012-01-15

    Magnetization, optical absorbance, and {sup 19}F NMR spectra of Nafion transparent films as received and doped with Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} ions with and without treatment in 1H-1,2,4-triazole (trz) have been studied. Doping of Nafion with Fe{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} and their bridging to nitrogen of triazole yields a hybrid self-assembling paramagnetic system that exhibits interesting magnetic and optical properties. These include spin crossover phenomena between high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states in Nafion-Fe{sup 2+}-trz and Nafion-Co{sup 2+}-trz accompanied by thermochromic effects in the visible range induced by temperature. A large shift of the magnetization curve induced by a magnetic field in the vicinity of the HS {leftrightarrow} LS, {approx}220 K, observed for Nafion-Fe{sup 2+}-trz has a rate of {approx}6 K/kOe, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that in bulk spin crossover Fe{sup 2+} materials. Selective response of {sup 19}F NMR signals on doping with paramagnetic ions demonstrates that NMR can be used as spatially resolved method to study Nafion film with paramagnetic network. Both chemical shift and width of {sup 19}F NMR signals show that SO groups of Nafion, Fe or Co ions, and nitrogen of triazole are bonded whereas they form a spin crossover system. Based on a model of nanosize cylinders proposed for Nafion [K. Schmidt-Rohr and Q. Chen, Nat Mater (2008), 75], we suggest that paramagnetic ions are located inside these cylinders, forming self-assembling magnetically and optically active nanoscale networks.

  5. Effect of hot rolling on the microstructure and impact absorbed energy of the strip steel by CSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-jing; Wu, Run; Liang, Wen; Xiang, Zhi-dong; Tang, Meng-xia

    2014-07-01

    The microstructures and impact absorbed energies at various temperatures were investigated for steel strips hot rolled to thickness reductions of 95.5%, 96.0%, 96.5%, 97.0%, and 97.5%. Results indicate that grain refinement can be realized with an increase in hot rolling reduction. Besides, finer precipitates can be achieved with an increase in hot rolling reduction from 95.5% to 97.0%. The impact absorbed energy decreases with a decrease in testing temperature for steel strips hot rolled to 95.5%, 96.0%, and 96.5% reductions in thickness. However, in the case of steel strips hot rolled to 97.0% and 97.5% reductions in thickness, the impact absorbed energy remained almost constant with a decrease in testing temperature.

  6. Buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting for electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Chongxiao; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Regenerative semi-active suspensions can capture the previously dissipated vibration energy and convert it to usable electrical energy for powering on-board electronic devices, while achieve both the better ride comfort and improved road handling performance at the same time when certain control is applied. To achieve this objective, the power electronics interface circuit connecting the energy harvester and the electrical loads, which can perform simultaneous vibration control and energy harvesting function is in need. This paper utilized a buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting with electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber, which utilizes a rotational generator to converter the vibration energy to electricity. It has been found that when the circuit works in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the ratio between the input voltage and current is only related to the duty cycle of the switch pulse width modulation signal. Using this property, the buck-boost converter can be used to perform semi-active vibration control by controlling the load connected between the terminals of the generator in the electromagnetic shock absorber. While performing the vibration control, the circuit always draw current from the shock absorber and the suspension remain dissipative, and the shock absorber takes no additional energy to perform the vibration control. The working principle and dynamics of the circuit has been analyzed and simulations were performed to validate the concept.

  7. Analytical one-dimensional model for laser-induced ultrasound in planar optically absorbing layer.

    PubMed

    Svanström, Erika; Linder, Tomas; Löfqvist, Torbjörn

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound generated by means of laser-based photoacoustic principles are in common use today and applications can be found both in biomedical diagnostics, non-destructive testing and materials characterisation. For certain measurement applications it could be beneficial to shape the generated ultrasound regarding spectral properties and temporal profile. To address this, we studied the generation and propagation of laser-induced ultrasound in a planar, layered structure. We derived an analytical expression for the induced pressure wave, including different physical and optical properties of each layer. A Laplace transform approach was employed in analytically solving the resulting set of photoacoustic wave equations. The results correspond to simulations and were compared to experimental results. To enable the comparison between recorded voltage from the experiments and the calculated pressure we employed a system identification procedure based on physical properties of the ultrasonic transducer to convert the calculated acoustic pressure to voltages. We found reasonable agreement between experimentally obtained voltages and the voltages determined from the calculated acoustic pressure, for the samples studied. The system identification procedure was found to be unstable, however, possibly from violations of material isotropy assumptions by film adhesives and coatings in the experiment. The presented analytical model can serve as a basis when addressing the inverse problem of shaping an acoustic pulse from absorption of a laser pulse in a planar layered structure of elastic materials. PMID:24262676

  8. Applications in Energy, Optics and Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the applications of thin films in energy, optics and electronics. The use of thin-film technologies for heat mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, interference filters, solar cells, and metal contacts is included. (HM)

  9. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration

    PubMed Central

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a ‘shock-absorber’ mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle–tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5–1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle–tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length–tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. PMID:25716796

  10. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Jahan, H.; Senger, A.; Adak, R.; Samanta, S.; Prakash, A.; Dey, K.; Lebedev, A.; Kryshen, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Senger, P.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Ghosh, S. K.; Raha, S.; Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N.; Farooq, M.; Singh, B.

    2015-03-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6-45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR).

  11. LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS: BIASES IN THE SWIFT SAMPLE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Thoene, C. C.; Jakobsson, P.; Bjoernsson, G.; De Cia, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Nardini, M.; Chen, H.-W.; Bloom, J. S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present a sample of 77 optical afterglows (OAs) of Swift detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which spectroscopic follow-up observations have been secured. Our first objective is to measure the redshifts of the bursts. For the majority (90%) of the afterglows, the redshifts have been determined from the spectra. We provide line lists and equivalent widths (EWs) for all detected lines redward of Ly{alpha} covered by the spectra. In addition to the GRB absorption systems, these lists include line strengths for a total of 33 intervening absorption systems. We discuss to what extent the current sample of Swift bursts with OA spectroscopy is a biased subsample of all Swift detected GRBs. For that purpose we define an X-ray-selected statistical sample of Swift bursts with optimal conditions for ground-based follow-up from the period 2005 March to 2008 September; 146 bursts fulfill our sample criteria. We derive the redshift distribution for the statistical (X-ray selected) sample and conclude that less than 18% of Swift bursts can be at z > 7. We compare the high-energy properties (e.g., {gamma}-ray (15-350 keV) fluence and duration, X-ray flux, and excess absorption) for three subsamples of bursts in the statistical sample: (1) bursts with redshifts measured from OA spectroscopy; (2) bursts with detected optical and/or near-IR afterglow, but no afterglow-based redshift; and (3) bursts with no detection of the OA. The bursts in group (1) have slightly higher {gamma}-ray fluences and higher X-ray fluxes and significantly less excess X-ray absorption than bursts in the other two groups. In addition, the fractions of dark bursts, defined as bursts with an optical to X-ray slope {beta}{sub OX} < 0.5, is 14% in group (1), 38% in group (2), and >39% in group (3). For the full sample, the dark burst fraction is constrained to be in the range 25%-42%. From this we conclude that the sample of GRBs with OA spectroscopy is not representative for all Swift bursts, most likely due

  12. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  13. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, T.; Balles, D.; Schricker, A.; Novak, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle vehicle (SSV) is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers (BC) are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the SSV and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the BC for two specific reasons; 1. to eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and 2. to reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hangups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with an aluminum foam material. The aluminum foam used as a energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: A. Lead handling/ exposure, and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal will be eliminated; B. Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam over lead; C. The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts thus virtually eliminating chance of foreign object debris (FOD) exiting the HDP, and causing potential damage to the vehicle; D. Potential of using the lighter aluminum liner over lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, also allowing for improvements in safety, operator handling, and efficiency of operations. Six BC firing tests will be required to determine if the new liner material will perform in a way to decrease the chance of stud hangups and enhance the ability of the BC to retain blast debris. Testing will be performed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) facility known as the Launch Equipment Test Facility (LETF), and will simulate the

  14. Vapor shielding models and the energy absorbed by divertor targets during transient events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skovorodin, D. I.; Pshenov, A. A.; Arakcheev, A. S.; Eksaeva, E. A.; Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    The erosion of divertor targets caused by high heat fluxes during transients is a serious threat to ITER operation, as it is going to be the main factor determining the divertor lifetime. Under the influence of extreme heat fluxes, the surface temperature of plasma facing components can reach some certain threshold, leading to an onset of intense material evaporation. The latter results in formation of cold dense vapor and secondary plasma cloud. This layer effectively absorbs the energy of the incident plasma flow, turning it into its own kinetic and internal energy and radiating it. This so called vapor shielding is a phenomenon that may help mitigating the erosion during transient events. In particular, the vapor shielding results in saturation of energy (per unit surface area) accumulated by the target during single pulse of heat load at some level Emax. Matching this value is one of the possible tests to verify complicated numerical codes, developed to calculate the erosion rate during abnormal events in tokamaks. The paper presents three very different models of vapor shielding, demonstrating that Emax depends strongly on the heat pulse duration, thermodynamic properties, and evaporation energy of the irradiated target material. While its dependence on the other shielding details such as radiation capabilities of material and dynamics of the vapor cloud is logarithmically weak. The reason for this is a strong (exponential) dependence of the target material evaporation rate, and therefore the "strength" of vapor shield on the target surface temperature. As a result, the influence of the vapor shielding phenomena details, such as radiation transport in the vapor cloud and evaporated material dynamics, on the Emax is virtually completely masked by the strong dependence of the evaporation rate on the target surface temperature. However, the very same details define the amount of evaporated particles, needed to provide an effective shielding to the target, and

  15. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    SciTech Connect

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-05-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted.

  16. A new optical method coupling light polarization and Vis-NIR spectroscopy to improve the measured absorbance signal's quality of soil samples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Visible - Near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) is now commonly used to measure different physical and chemical parameters of soils, including carbon content. However, prediction model accuracy is insufficient for Vis-NIRS to replace routine laboratory analysis. One of the biggest issues this technique is facing up to is light scattering due to soil particles. It causes departure in the assumed linear relationship between the Absorbance spectrum and the concentration of the chemicals of interest as stated by Beer-Lambert's Law, which underpins the calibration models. Therefore it becomes essential to improve the metrological quality of the measured signal in order to optimize calibration as light/matter interactions are at the basis of the resulting linear modeling. Optics can help to mitigate scattering effect on the signal. We put forward a new optical setup coupling linearly polarized light with a Vis-NIR spectrometer to free the measured spectra from multi-scattering effect. The corrected measured spectrum was then used to compute an Absorbance spectrum of the sample, using Dahm's Equation in the frame of the Representative Layer Theory. This method has been previously tested and validated on liquid (milk+ dye) and powdered (sand + dye) samples showing scattering (and absorbing) properties. The obtained Absorbance was a very good approximation of the Beer-Lambert's law absorbance. Here, we tested the method on a set of 54 soil samples to predict Soil Organic Carbon content. In order to assess the signal quality improvement by this method, we built and compared calibration models using Partial Least Square (PLS) algorithm. The prediction model built from new Absorbance spectrum outperformed the model built with the classical Absorbance traditionally obtained with Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance. This study is a good illustration of the high influence of signal quality on prediction model's performances.

  17. Optical triggering of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser via transverse bleaching of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cole, Brian; Lei, Jonathan; DiLazaro, Tom; Schilling, Bradley; Goldberg, Lew

    2009-11-01

    Optical triggering via direct bleaching of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber was applied to a monolithic Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG laser crystal. The method uses a single laser diode bar to bleach a thin sheet within the saturable absorber from a direction orthogonal to the lasing axis. By placing the Q-switch at the time corresponding to the steepest slope (dT/dt) for change in transmission during bleaching, the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter showed a 13.2x reduction in standard deviation, from 132 ns for free-running operation to 10 ns with optical triggering. We measured that a fluence of 60 kW/cm(2) was sufficient to enable optical triggering, where a diode appropriately sized for the length of the Cr:YAG (approximately 3 mm) would then require only approximately 150 W of optical power over a 1-2 micros duration to enable effective jitter reduction. Additionally, we measured an increase in optical-to-optical efficiency with optical triggering, where the efficiency improved from 12% to 13.5%. PMID:19881668

  18. Stability analysis of the Gyroscopic Power Take-Off wave energy point absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Zhang, Zili; Kramer, Morten M.; Olsen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber consists of a float rigidly connected to a lever. The operational principle is somewhat similar to that of the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exercisers, where the rotation of the float is brought forward by the rotational particle motion of the waves. At first, the equations of motion of the system are derived based on analytical rigid body dynamics. Next, assuming monochromatic waves simplified equations are derived, valid under synchronisation of the ring of the gyro to the angular frequency of the excitation. Especially, it is demonstrated that the dynamics of the ring can be described as an autonomous nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom system, affected by three different types of point attractors. One where the ring vibrations are attracted to a static equilibrium point indicating unstable synchronisation and two types of attractors where the ring is synchronised to the wave angular frequency, either rotating in one or the opposite direction. Finally, the stability conditions and the basins of attraction to the point attractors defining the synchronised motion are determined.

  19. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 2; Full-Scale Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has sponsored research to evaluate an externally deployable composite honeycomb designed to attenuate loads in the event of a helicopter crash. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), is an expandable Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) honeycomb. The DEA has a flexible hinge that allows the honeycomb to be stowed collapsed until needed during an emergency. Evaluation of the DEA began with material characterization of the Kevlar(Registered TradeMark)-129 fabric/epoxy, and ended with a full-scale crash test of a retrofitted MD-500 helicopter. During each evaluation phase, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). The paper will focus on simulations of two full-scale impact tests involving the DEA, a mass-simulator and a full-scale crash of an instrumented MD-500 helicopter. Isotropic (MAT24) and composite (MAT58) material models, which were assigned to DEA shell elements, were compared. Based on simulations results, the MAT58 model showed better agreement with test.

  20. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to (137)Cs dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  1. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to 137Cs) dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  2. Synthesis and properties of polyamide-Ag2S composite based solar energy absorber surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, Valentina; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    Silver sulfide (Ag2S), an efficient solar light absorber, was synthesized using a modified chemical bath deposition (CBD) method and polyamide 6 (PA) as a host material via solution phase reaction between AgNO3 and Na2S2O3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed a single, α-Ag2S (acanthite), crystalline phase present while surface and bulk chemical analyses, performed using X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy dispersive (EDS) spectroscopies, showed 2:1 Ag:S ratio. Direct and indirect bandgaps obtained from Tauc plots were 1.3 and 2.3 eV, respectively. Detailed surface chemical analysis showed the presence of three distinct sulfur species with majority component due to the Ag2S chemical bonds and minority components due to two types of oxygen-sulfur bonds. Conductivity of the resulting composite material was shown to change with the reaction time thus enabling to obtain controlled conductivity composite material. The synthesis method presented is based on the low solubility of Ag2S and is potentially green, no by-product producing, as all Ag2S nucleated outside the host material can be recycled into the process via dissolving it in HNO3.

  3. Soft Landing of Spacecraft on Energy-Absorbing Self-Deployable Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes the use of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) foam structures to cushion impacts of small (1 to 50 kg) exploratory spacecraft on remote planets. Airbags, which are used on larger (800 to 1,000 kg) spacecraft have been found to (1) be too complex for smaller spacecraft; (2) provide insufficient thermal insulation between spacecraft and ground; (3) bounce on impact, thereby making it difficult to land spacecraft in precisely designated positions; and (4) be too unstable to serve as platforms for scientific observations. A CHEM foam pad according to the proposal would have a glass-transition temperature (Tg) well above ambient temperature. It would be compacted, at a temperature above Tg, to about a tenth or less of its original volume, then cooled below Tg, then installed on a spacecraft without compacting restraints. Upon entry of the spacecraft into a planetary atmosphere, the temperature would rise above Tg, causing the pad to expand to its original volume and shape. As the spacecraft decelerated and cooled, the temperature would fall below Tg, rigidifying the foam structure. The structure would absorb kinetic energy during ground impact by inelastic crushing, thus protecting the payload from damaging shocks. Thereafter, this pad would serve as a mechanically stable, thermally insulating platform for the landed spacecraft.

  4. Experimental validation of a magnetorheological energy absorber design optimized for shock and impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.; Glass, William

    2014-12-01

    A linear stroke adaptive magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m s-1. The performance of the MREA was characterized using dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of maximum on-state MREA force to the off-state MREA force. Design optimization techniques were employed in order to maximize the dynamic range at high impact velocities such that MREA maintained good control authority. Geometrical parameters of the MREA were optimized by evaluating MREA performance on the basis of a Bingham-plastic analysis incorporating minor losses (BPM analysis). Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to verify the performance of passive and controllable MREA force, respectively. Subsequently, high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m s-1 at 0 A) was conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Refinements to the nonlinear BPM analysis were carried out to improve prediction of MREA performance.

  5. A Computational Approach for Model Update of an LS-DYNA Energy Absorbing Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2008-01-01

    NASA and its contractors are working on structural concepts for absorbing impact energy of aerospace vehicles. Recently, concepts in the form of multi-cell honeycomb-like structures designed to crush under load have been investigated for both space and aeronautics applications. Efforts to understand these concepts are progressing from tests of individual cells to tests of systems with hundreds of cells. Because of fabrication irregularities, geometry irregularities, and material properties uncertainties, the problem of reconciling analytical models, in particular LS-DYNA models, with experimental data is a challenge. A first look at the correlation results between single cell load/deflection data with LS-DYNA predictions showed problems which prompted additional work in this area. This paper describes a computational approach that uses analysis of variance, deterministic sampling techniques, response surface modeling, and genetic optimization to reconcile test with analysis results. Analysis of variance provides a screening technique for selection of critical parameters used when reconciling test with analysis. In this study, complete ignorance of the parameter distribution is assumed and, therefore, the value of any parameter within the range that is computed using the optimization procedure is considered to be equally likely. Mean values from tests are matched against LS-DYNA solutions by minimizing the square error using a genetic optimization. The paper presents the computational methodology along with results obtained using this approach.

  6. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 6, Newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fraction (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a newborn or 3.4-kg person. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. A New HOM Water Cooled Absorber for the PEP-II B-factory Low Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Kosovsky, Michael; Kurita, Nadine; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2006-09-05

    At high currents and small bunch lengths beam line components in the PEP-II B-factory experience RF induced heating from higher order RF modes (HOMs) produced by scattered intense beam fields. A design for a passive HOM water cooled absorber for the PEP-II low energy ring is presented. This device is situated near HOM producing beamline components such as collimators and provide HOM damping for dipole and quadrupole modes without impacting beam impedance. We optimized the impedance characteristics of the device through the evaluation of absorber effectiveness for specific modes using scattering parameter and wakefield analysis. Operational results are presented and agree very well with the predicted effectiveness.

  8. Chemistry away from local equilibrium: shocking high-energy and energy absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    In this presentation I will describe reactive molecular dynamics and coarse grain simulations of shock induced chemistry. MD simulations of the chemical reactions following the shock-induced collapse of cylindrical pores in the high-energy density material RDX provide the first atomistic picture of the shock to deflagration transition in nanoscale hotspots. We find that energy localization during pore collapse leads to ultra-fast, multi-step chemical reactions that occur under non-equilibrium conditions. The formation of exothermic products during the first few picoseconds of the process prevents the hotspot from quenching, and within 30 ps a deflagration wave develops. Quite surprisingly, an artificial hot-spot matching the shock-induced one in size and thermodynamic conditions quenches; providing strong evidence that the dynamic nature of the loading plays a role in determining the criticality of the hotspot. To achieve time and lengths beyond what is possible in MD we developed a mesoscale model that incorporates chemical reactions at a coarse-grained level. We used this model to explore shock propagation on materials that can undergo volume-reducing, endothermic chemical reactions. The simulations show that such chemical reactions can attenuate the shockwave and characterize how the characteristics of the chemistry affect this behavior. We find that the amount of volume collapse and the activation energy are critical to weaken the shock, whereas the endothermicity of the reactions plays only a minor role. As in the reactive MD simulations, we find that the non-equilibrium state following the shock affects the nucleation of chemistry and, thus, the timescales for equilibration between various degrees of freedom affect the response of the material.

  9. A Bottom-Up Engineered Broadband Optical Nanoabsorber for Radiometry and Energy Harnessing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2013-01-01

    Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to Au-black from wavelength lamba approximately 350 nm - 2.5 micron. A bi-metallic Co/Ti layer was shown to catalyze a high site density of MWCNTs on metallic substrates and the optical properties of the absorbers were engineered by controlling the bottom-up synthesis conditions using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Reflectance measurements on the MWCNT absorbers after heating them in air to 400deg showed negligible changes in reflectance which was still low, approximately 0.022 % at lamba approximately 2 micron. In contrast, the percolated structure of the reference Au-black samples collapsed completely after heating, causing the optical response to degrade at temperatures as low as 200deg. The high optical absorption efficiency of the MWCNT absorbers, synthesized on metallic substrates, over a broad spectral range, coupled with their thermal ruggedness, suggests they have promise in solar energy harnessing applications, as well as thermal detectors for radiometry.

  10. Photoelectrochemical cells - Conversion of intense optical energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Ellis, A. B.; Kaiser, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    Conversion of optical energy to chemical energy and/or electrical energy using wet photoelectrochemical cells is described. Emphasis is on (1) the photoelectrolysis of H2O to H2 and O2 using cells having n-type semiconductor photoelectrodes fabricated from TiO2, SnO2, SrTiO3, KTaO3, and KTa(0.77)Nb(0.23)O3, and (2) the conversion of light to electrical energy using CdSe- and CdS-based cells with polysulfide electrolytes.

  11. Development and testing of a dynamic absorber with corrugated piezoelectric spring for vibration control and energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harne, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    Vibrational energy harvesting devices are often designed in a manner analogous to classical dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs). An electromechanical mass-spring system is devised so as to resonate at the frequency most dominant in the environmental vibration spectrum; the consequent device oscillation is converted to a electrical signal which is harnessed for immediate usage or as a charging mechanism for a battery. The DVA is likewise designed but with the intention of inducing substantial inertial influence upon a host structure for vibration control purposes, either to globally dampen the vibration of the main body or, in an undamped configuration to "absorb" the primary system vibration at a single frequency. This paper describes the development of an electromechanical mass-spring-damper which seeks to serve both goals of passive vibration control and energy harvesting. The device utilizes a piezoelectric film spring and a distributed mass layer so as to be suitable for the attenuation of surface vibrations and to convert a portion of the absorbed energy into electric power. The development and design of the device are presented and the results of realistic tests are provided to show both the potentials and the challenges encountered when attempting to superpose the goals of vibration control and energy harvesting.

  12. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  13. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft. diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  14. A high-energy cladding-pumped 80 nanosecond Q-switched fiber laser using a tapered fiber saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sean W.; Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E.; Patterson, Brian D.; Hsu, Wen L.

    2013-02-01

    We report a passively Q-switched all-fiber laser using a large mode area (LMA) Yb3+-doped fiber cladding-pumped at 915 nm and an unpumped single-mode Yb3+-doped fiber as the saturable absorber (SA). The saturable absorber and gain fibers were first coupled with a free-space telescope to better study the composite system, and then fusion spliced with fiber tapers to match the mode field diameters. ASE generated in the LMA gain fiber preferentially bleaches the SA fiber before depleting the gain, thereby causing the SA fiber to act as a passive saturable absorber. Using this scheme we first demonstrate a Q-switched oscillator with 40 μJ 79 ns pulses at 1026 nm using a free-space taper, and show that pulses can be generated from 1020 nm to 1040 nm. We scale the pulse energy to 0.40 mJ using an Yb3+-doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier. Experimental studies in which the saturable absorber length, pump times, and wavelengths are independently varied reveal the impact of these parameters on laser performance. Finally, we demonstrate 60 μJ 81 ns pulses at 1030 nm in an all fiber architecture using tapered mode field adaptors to match the mode filed diameters of the gain and SA fibers.

  15. Low-resolution Spectroscopy of Gamma-ray Burst Optical Afterglows: Biases in the Swift Sample and Characterization of the Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.; Prochaska, J. X.; Malesani, D.; Ledoux, C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Nardini, M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wiersema, K.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Chen, H.-W.; Thöne, C. C.; Björnsson, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Christensen, L.; De Cia, A.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gorosabel, J.; Graham, J. F.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Jensen, B. L.; Kann, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Levan, A. J.; Maund, J.; Masetti, N.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Palazzi, E.; Perley, D. A.; Pian, E.; Rol, E.; Schady, P.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; Watson, D. J.; Xu, D.; Augusteijn, T.; Grundahl, F.; Telting, J.; Quirion, P.-O.

    2009-12-01

    We present a sample of 77 optical afterglows (OAs) of Swift detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which spectroscopic follow-up observations have been secured. Our first objective is to measure the redshifts of the bursts. For the majority (90%) of the afterglows, the redshifts have been determined from the spectra. We provide line lists and equivalent widths (EWs) for all detected lines redward of Lyα covered by the spectra. In addition to the GRB absorption systems, these lists include line strengths for a total of 33 intervening absorption systems. We discuss to what extent the current sample of Swift bursts with OA spectroscopy is a biased subsample of all Swift detected GRBs. For that purpose we define an X-ray-selected statistical sample of Swift bursts with optimal conditions for ground-based follow-up from the period 2005 March to 2008 September; 146 bursts fulfill our sample criteria. We derive the redshift distribution for the statistical (X-ray selected) sample and conclude that less than 18% of Swift bursts can be at z > 7. We compare the high-energy properties (e.g., γ-ray (15-350 keV) fluence and duration, X-ray flux, and excess absorption) for three subsamples of bursts in the statistical sample: (1) bursts with redshifts measured from OA spectroscopy; (2) bursts with detected optical and/or near-IR afterglow, but no afterglow-based redshift; and (3) bursts with no detection of the OA. The bursts in group (1) have slightly higher γ-ray fluences and higher X-ray fluxes and significantly less excess X-ray absorption than bursts in the other two groups. In addition, the fractions of dark bursts, defined as bursts with an optical to X-ray slope βOX < 0.5, is 14% in group (1), 38% in group (2), and >39% in group (3). For the full sample, the dark burst fraction is constrained to be in the range 25%-42%. From this we conclude that the sample of GRBs with OA spectroscopy is not representative for all Swift bursts, most likely due to a bias against the

  16. Large-Scale Nanophotonic Solar Selective Absorbers for High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Liu, Baoan; Ni, Yizhou; Liew, Kaiyang Kevin; Sze, Jeff; Chen, Shuo; Shen, Sheng

    2015-08-19

    An omnidirectional nanophotonic solar selective absorber is fabricated on a large scale using a template-stripping method. The nanopyramid nickel structure achieves an average absorptance of 95% at a wavelength range below 1.3 μm and a low emittance less than 10% at wavelength >2.5 μm. PMID:26134928

  17. In situ aerosol optics in Reno, NV, USA during and after the summer 2008 California wildfires and the influence of absorbing and non-absorbing organic coatings on spectral light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Lewis, K.; Moosmüller, H.

    2009-10-01

    Hundreds of wildfires in Northern California were sparked by lightning during the summer of 2008, resulting in downwind smoke for the months of June and July. Comparisons are reported for aerosol optics measurements in Reno, Nevada made during the very smoky month of July and the relatively clean month of August. Photoacoustic instruments equipped with integrating nephelometers were used to measure aerosol light scattering and absorption coefficients at wavelengths of 405 nm and 870 nm, revealing a strong variation of aerosol light absorption with wavelength. Insight on fuels burned is gleaned from comparison of Ångström exponents of absorption (AEA) versus single scattering albedo (SSA) of the ambient measurements with laboratory biomass smoke measurements for many fuels. Measurements during the month of August, which were largely unaffected by fire smoke, exhibit surprisingly low AEA for aerosol light absorption when the SSA is highest, again likely as a consequence of the underappreciated wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption by particles coated with non-absorbing organic and inorganic matter. Coated sphere calculations were used to show that AEA as large as 1.6 are possible for wood smoke even with non-absorbing organic coatings on black carbon cores, suggesting care be exercised when diagnosing AEA.

  18. Study of light-absorbing crystal birefringence and electrical modulation mechanisms for coupled thermal-optical effects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; He, Zhihong; Ma, Yu; Dong, Shikui

    2014-09-20

    This paper discusses Gaussian laser transmission in double-refraction crystal whose incident light wavelength is within its absorption wave band. Two scenarios for coupled radiation and heat conduction are considered: one is provided with an applied external electric field, the other is not. A circular heat source with a Gaussian energy distribution is introduced to present the crystal's light-absorption process. The electromagnetic field frequency domain analysis equation and energy equation are solved to simulate the phenomenon by using the finite element method. It focuses on the influence of different values such as wavelength, incident light intensity, heat transfer coefficient, ambient temperature, crystal thickness, and applied electric field strength. The results show that the refraction index of polarized light increases with the increase of crystal temperature. It decreases as the strength of the applied electric field increases if it is positive. The mechanism of electrical modulation for the thermo-optical effect is used to keep the polarized light's index of refraction constant in our simulation. The quantitative relation between thermal boundary condition and strength of applied electric field during electrical modulation is determined. Numerical results indicate a possible approach to removing adverse thermal effects such as depolarization and wavefront distortion, which are caused by thermal deposition during linear laser absorption. PMID:25322104

  19. Simultaneous monitoring of electrical resistance and optical absorbance signals of a fiber optoelectrode for multiple gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shaui; Hung, Yu; Tao, Shiquan

    2013-04-01

    An electrically conductive polyaniline (PANi) membrane has been coated on the end of an optical fiber to form a fiber optoelectrode for simultaneously monitoring electrical and optical responses of the polymer membrane exposed to gas samples. Two electrodes were glued on the side of the optical fiber for measuring the membrane's electrical resistance. In the same time a light beam was delivered to the membrane coated on the end of the optical fiber by using an 1x2 optical fiber coupler. The light reflected back from the PANi membrane to the optical fiber coupler was delivered with the second arm of the optical fiber coupler to an optical fiber compatible spectrometer. The responses of the fiber optoelectrode to trace ammonia and water vapor in air samples have been investigated. It was found that the electrical resistance of the fiber optoelectrode changes when exposed to ammonia or water vapor. However, the fiber optoelectrode showed optical spectrometric response to trace ammonia in air, but did not show optical spectrometric response to water vapor in air in the tested concentration range (relative humidity from <1% to 83%). The nature of electrical and optical spectrometric responses of this fiber optoelectrode gives an opportunity to design a sensor to simultaneously monitor both trace ammonia and relative humidity in air.

  20. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  1. Absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examination of velopharyngeal function during speech

    SciTech Connect

    Isberg, A.; Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Henrikson, C.O. )

    1989-04-01

    Absorbed doses of radiation were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) using a skull phantom during simulated cinefluorographic and videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function in frontal and lateral projections. Dosages to the thyroid gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, and ocular lens were measured. Radiation dosage was found to be approximately 10 times less for videofluoroscopy when compared with that of cinefluoroscopy. In addition, precautionary measures were found to reduce further the exposure of radiation-sensitive tissues. Head fixation and shielding resulted in dose reduction for both video- and cinefluoroscopy. Pulsing exposure for cinefluoroscopy also reduced the dosage.

  2. Experimental evidence of an incomplete thermalization of the energy in an x-ray microcalorimeter with a TaAu absorber.

    PubMed

    Perinati, E; Barbera, M; Varisco, S; Silver, E; Beeman, J; Pigot, C

    2008-05-01

    We have conducted an experimental test at our XACT facility using an x-ray microcalorimeter with TaAu absorber and neutron transmutation doped germanium thermal sensor. The test was aimed at measuring the percentage of energy effectively thermalized after absorption of x-ray photons in superconducting tantalum. Moreover, in general, possible formation of long living quasiparticles implies that by using a superconducting absorber, a fraction of the deposited energy could not be thermalized on the useful time scale of the thermal sensor. To investigate this scenario, we exploited an absorber made of gold, where no energy trapping is expected, with a small piece of superconducting tantalum attached on top. We obtained evidence that the thermalization of photons absorbed in tantalum is delayed by energy trapping from quasiparticles. We compare the experimental results with numerical simulations and derive a value for the intrinsic lifetime of quasiparticles. PMID:18513077

  3. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  4. The Development of a Conical Composite Energy Absorber for Use in the Attenuation of Crash/Impact Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    A design for a novel light-weight conical shaped energy absorbing (EA) composite subfloor structure is proposed. This composite EA is fabricated using repeated alternating patterns of a conical geometry to form long beam structures which can be implemented as aircraft subfloor keel beams or frame sections. The geometrical features of this conical design, along with the hybrid composite materials used in the manufacturing process give a strength tailored to achieve a constant 25-40 g sustained crush load, small peak crush loads and long stroke limits. This report will discuss the geometrical design and fabrication methods, along with results from static and dynamic crush testing of 12-in. long subcomponents.

  5. Big optics for astronomy and solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Aden Meinel came from the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory and the Department of Astronomy to found the Optical Sciences Center (OSC). Aden conceived and made at the Center of the optics for the revolutionary Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), which greatly influenced the design of future large research telescopes and the technology needed to make them. The Steward Observatory Mirror Lab was built to make honeycomb mirrors up to 8.4 m diameter, and with much faster focal ratio. In use in the current Large Binocular Telescope and future Giant Magellan Telescope, these mirrors provide powerful astronomical research capabilities with unique sensitivity for exoplanet observations in the infrared. The solar energy field can also benefit from Aden's legacy, by using multiple large solar mirrors configured like the MMT to power very high efficiency photovoltaic cells at each focus.

  6. Towards energy aware optical networks and interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, Ivan; Osadola, Tolulope; Idris, Siti

    2013-10-01

    In a today's world, information technology has been identified as one of the major factors driving economic prosperity. Datacenters businesses have been growing significantly in the past few years. The equipments in these datacenters need to be efficiently connected to each other and also to the outside world in order to enable effective exchange of information. This is why there is need for highly scalable, energy savvy and reliable network connectivity infrastructure that is capable of accommodating the large volume of data being exchanged at any time within the datacenter network and the outside network in general. These devices that can ensure such effective connectivity currently require large amount of energy in order to meet up with these increasing demands. In this paper, an overview of works being done towards realizing energy aware optical networks and interconnects for datacenters is presented. Also an OCDMA approach is discussed as potential multiple access technique for future optical network interconnections. We also presented some challenges that might inhibit effective implementation of the OCDMA multiplexing scheme.

  7. Absorbing and scattering aerosols over the source region of biomass burning emissions: Implications in the assessment of optical and radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Atinderpal; Srivastava, Rohit; Rastogi, Neeraj; Singh, Darshan

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the assessment of model simulated optical and radiative properties of aerosols incorporating the measured chemical composition of aerosol samples collected at Patiala during October, 2011-February, 2012. Monthly average mass concentration of PM2.5, elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), water-soluble (WS) and insoluble (INS) aerosols ranged from 120 to 192, 6.2 to 7.2, 20 to 39, 59 to 111 and 35 to 90 μg m-3, respectively. Mass concentration of different components of aerosols was further used for the assessment of optical properties derived from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model simulations. Microtops based measured aerosol optical depth (AOD500) ranged from 0.47 to 0.62 showing maximum value during November and December, and minimum during February. Ångström exponent (α380-870) remained high (>0.90) throughout the study period except in February (0.74), suggesting predominance of fine mode particles over the study region. The observed ratio of scattering to absorbing aerosols was incorporated in OPAC model simulations and single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) so obtained ranged between 0.80 and 0.92 with relatively low values during the period of extensive biomass burning. In the present study, SBDART based estimated values of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface (SRF) and top of the atmosphere (TOA) ranged from -31 to -66 Wm-2 and -2 to -18 W m-2 respectively. The atmospheric ARF, ranged between + 18 and + 58 Wm-2 resulting in the atmospheric heating rate between 0.5 and 1.6 K day-1. These results signify the role of scattering and absorbing aerosols in affecting the magnitude of aerosol forcing.

  8. Characteristics of exhaust air facades as solar absorbers for saving of heating energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voncube, H. L.; Ludwig, E.

    1982-12-01

    The solar radiation exploited by solar exhaust air windows was measured at a building facing four main directions. The windows were not constructed as optimal radiation absorbers and the heat gain stood in a range of 3 to 10% of the heat consumption, depending on time of year. Optimal windows (chiefly clear glass with Venetian blinds) were found by a computer program simulating the process of radiation in an exhaust air-window and heat gains up to 50% can be obtained. Relation to air flow rate and others were found. The calculated results were proved by measurements. With a suitable heating systems in the building (heat transport form south side to north side, heat storage) up to 50% of the annual consumption can be saved.

  9. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VII; Proceedings of the Meeting, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Sept. 19-21, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.; Lampert, Carl M.

    Various papers on optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion are presented. Individual topics addressed include: nonlinear optical effects in organic molecules and polymers, optical and electrical properties of amorphous Li(x)WO3 films, electrochromism in sputtered vanadium pentoxide, characterization of nickel oxide electrochromic films, radiative cooling with pigmented polyethylene foils, plasma-film interactions in RF sputtered a-Si:H and a-Ge:H, metal oxyfluoride coatings for energy-efficient windows, fatigue-resistant photochromic plastics, evaporated VO(x) thin films, electrochromism in nickel oxide films, system design for high-rate deposition of indium oxide solar coatings, performance and bandwidth analysis of holographic solar reflectors, laser and spectroscopic characterization of thin films, high-efficiency collectors for solar energy applications, influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of cermet coatings, and sputtered aluminum composite selective absorbing surfaces.

  10. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VII; Proceedings of the Meeting, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Sept. 19-21, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion are presented. Individual topics addressed include: nonlinear optical effects in organic molecules and polymers, optical and electrical properties of amorphous Li(x)WO3 films, electrochromism in sputtered vanadium pentoxide, characterization of nickel oxide electrochromic films, radiative cooling with pigmented polyethylene foils, plasma-film interactions in RF sputtered a-Si:H and a-Ge:H, metal oxyfluoride coatings for energy-efficient windows, fatigue-resistant photochromic plastics, evaporated VO(x) thin films, electrochromism in nickel oxide films, system design for high-rate deposition of indium oxide solar coatings, performance and bandwidth analysis of holographic solar reflectors, laser and spectroscopic characterization of thin films, high-efficiency collectors for solar energy applications, influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of cermet coatings, and sputtered aluminum composite selective absorbing surfaces.

  11. Thermally stable J-type phthalocyanine dimers as new non-linear absorbers for low-threshold optical limiters.

    PubMed

    Tolbin, Alexander Yu; Savelyev, Mikhail S; Gerasimenko, Alexander Yu; Tomilova, Larisa G; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2016-06-21

    The possibility of developing new advanced optical limiters of laser radiation at 532 nm with low limiting thresholds has been demonstrated on thermally stable phthalocyanine J-type dimeric complexes of Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co. A new "threshold" model based on radiative transfer phenomena in nonlinear optical media was suggested for the exact definition of nonlinear absorption coefficient β and optical limiting threshold Ic. This model allows the determination of the optical characteristics of the limiter in the same active material with layers of different thicknesses, as well as the use of different parameters of laser radiation, such as cross-sectional spatial profiles of the laser beam and shapes of the laser pulse over time. The maximum value of the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β = 360 cm GW(-1)) and the lowest limiting threshold (Ic = 0.03 J cm(-2)) were estimated for a J-type zinc phthalocyanine dimer. PMID:27241278

  12. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature.

  13. PHITS simulations of absorbed dose out-of-field and neutron energy spectra for ELEKTA SL25 medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    2015-06-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) based calculation methods for modeling photon and particle transport, have several potential applications in radiotherapy. An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. It is also essential to minimize the dose to radiosensitive and critical organs. With MC technique, the dose distributions from both the primary and scattered photons can be calculated. The out-of-field radiation doses are of particular concern when high energy photons are used, since then neutrons are produced both in the accelerator head and inside the patients. Using MC technique, the created photons and particles can be followed and the transport and energy deposition in all the tissues of the patient can be estimated. This is of great importance during pediatric treatments when minimizing the risk for normal healthy tissue, e.g. secondary cancer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate 3D general purpose PHITS MC code efficiency as an alternative approach for photon beam specification. In this study, we developed a model of an ELEKTA SL25 accelerator and used the transport code PHITS for calculating the total absorbed dose and the neutron energy spectra infield and outside the treatment field. This model was validated against measurements performed with bubble detector spectrometers and Boner sphere for 18 MV linacs, including both photons and neutrons. The average absolute difference between the calculated and measured absorbed dose for the out-of-field region was around 11%. Taking into account a simplification for simulated geometry, which does not include any potential scattering materials around, the obtained result is very satisfactorily. A good agreement between the simulated and measured neutron energy spectra was observed while comparing to data found in the literature. PMID:26057186

  14. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  15. Electronic structures and optical properties of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys for solar absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu; Zhang, Qiming

    2015-05-01

    The band structures and optical properties of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys are studied by means of first-principles methods, considering different Se contents x. Numerical results show that Se content has an obvious influence on band structures and optical properties of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys. The band gap values of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys decrease monotonically when Se concentrations increase, resulting in an obvious increase of the optical absorption edge in the visible range. In particular, our results show that α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys have the direct band gap properties with band gap values when Se content x ≈ 0.17, which is beneficial to solar cell applications.

  16. Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepshire, Dax S.; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2007-04-01

    Subsurface tomography with diffuse light has been investigated with a noncontact approach to characterize the performance of absorption and fluorescence imaging. Using both simulations and experiments, the reconstruction of local subsurface heterogeneity is demonstrated, but the recovery of target size and fluorophore concentration is not linear when changes in depth occur, whereas the mean position of the object for experimental fluorescent and absorber targets is accurate to within 0.5 and 1.45 mm when located within the first 10 mm below the surface. Improvements in the linearity of the response with depth appear to remain challenging and may ultimately limit the approach to detection rather than characterization applications. However, increases in tissue curvature and/or the addition of prior information are expected to improve the linearity of the response. The potential for this type of imaging technique to serve as a surgical guide is highlighted.

  17. Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Previsic, M.; Epler, J.; Lou, J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy established a reference model project to benchmark a set of marine and hydrokinetic technologies including current (tidal, open-ocean, and river) turbines and wave energy converters. The objectives of the project were to first evaluate the status of these technologies and their readiness for commercial applications. Second, to evaluate the potential cost of energy and identify cost-reduction pathways and areas where additional research could be best applied to accelerate technology development to market readiness.

  18. Estimating absorbing black carbon and organic carbon optical properties from AERONET and MISR data over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Ramanathan, V.; Huang, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The radiative forcing due to carbonaceous aerosols is one of the largest source of uncertainties in global and regional climate change. Black carbon and organic carbon from biomass and fossil fuel are two major types of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study we use available ground based and satellite observations to infer the optical properties of black and organic carbon. NASA's AERONET and MISR data over East Asia provide the observational basis. We use the spectral variations in the observed aerosol extinction optical depth and absorption optical depth to categorize the optical properties including their mixing state with other aerosols such as dust and other inorganic aerosols. We create 8 different categories of aerosol mixtures: Dust, Biomass Burning, Fossil Fuel, Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Dust with Biomass Burning, Mixed Dust with Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Biomass Burning with Fossil Fuel, and Mixed Dust, Biomass Burning, with Fossil Fuel, over the following 6 regions of East Asia: Nepal, Gobi, North Industrial China, South Industrial China, Southeast Asia, and Korea/Japan. Our results are compared with independent surface observations over China using Aethalometers and Single Particle Soot Photometers.

  19. Photoprotection of reaction centers: thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy vs charge separation in lichens.

    PubMed

    Heber, Ulrich; Soni, Vineet; Strasser, Reto J

    2011-05-01

    During desiccation, fluorescence emission and stable light-dependent charge separation in the reaction centers (RCs) of photosystem II (PSII) declined strongly in three different lichens: in Parmelia sulcata with an alga as the photobiont, in Peltigera neckeri with a cyanobacterium and in the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. Most of the decline of fluorescence was caused by a decrease in the quantum efficiency of fluorescence emission. It indicated the activation of photoprotective thermal energy dissipation. Photochemical activity of the RCs was retained even after complete desiccation. It led to light-dependent absorption changes and found expression in reversible increases in fluorescence or in fluorescence quenching. Lowering the temperature changed the direction of fluorescence responses in P. sulcata. The observations are interpreted to show that reversible light-induced increases in fluorescence emission in desiccated lichens indicate the functionality of the RCs of PSII. Photoprotection is achieved by the drainage of light energy to dissipating centers outside the RCs before stable charge separation can take place. Reversible quenching of fluorescence by strong illumination is suggested to indicate the conversion of the RCs from energy conserving to energy dissipating units. This permits them to avoid photoinactivation. On hydration, re-conversion occurs to energy-conserving RCs. PMID:21029105

  20. Force, torque, and absorbed energy for a body of arbitrary shape and constitution in an electromagnetic radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsund, Ø.; Felderhof, B. U.

    1996-02-01

    The force and torque exerted on a body of arbitrary shape and constitution by a stationary radiation field are in principle given by integrals of Minkowski's stress tensor over a surface surrounding the body. Similarly the absorbed energy is given by an integral of the Poynting vector. These integrals are notoriously difficult to evaluate, and so far only spherical bodies have been considered. It is shown here that the integrals may be cast into a simpler form by use of Debye potentials. General expressions for the integrals are derived as sums of bilinear expressions in the coefficients of the expansion of the incident and scattered waves in terms of vector spherical waves. The expressions are simplified for small particles, such as atoms, for which the electric dipole approximation may be used. It is shown that the calculation is also relevant for bodies with nonlinear electromagnetic response.

  1. Cylinder light concentrator and absorber: theoretical description.

    PubMed

    Kildishev, Alexander V; Prokopeva, Ludmila J; Narimanov, Evgenii E

    2010-08-01

    We present a detailed theoretical description of a broadband omnidirectional light concentrator and absorber with cylinder geometry. The proposed optical "trap" captures nearly all the incident light within its geometric cross-section, leading to a broad range of possible applications--from solar energy harvesting to thermal light emitters and optoelectronic components. We have demonstrated that an approximate lamellar black-hole with a moderate number of homogeneous layers, while giving the desired ray-optical performance, can provide absorption efficiencies comparable to those of ideal devices with a smooth gradient in index. PMID:20721056

  2. Photothermal microscopy for studying the role of nano-sized absorbing precursors in laser-induced damage of optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commandré, M.; Natoli, J.-Y.; Gallais, L.

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced damage in optical components has long been acknowledged as a localized phenomenon linked to the presence of defects. Destructive investigations combined to optical characterizations have led to the conclusion that in high quality components the damage initiators are typically a few nanometers in size and have low densities. The understanding of damage phenomena requires the development of non destructive evaluation techniques with both high spatial resolution and sensitivity to detect these defects. In this context, a High Resolution Photothermal Deflection microscope (HRPD) has been developed and coupled with a damage facility at the same wavelength 1.064 μm. The behavior under irradiation of model defects such as gold inclusions (3 to 250 nm) has been studied. We show how HRPD gives determining information about damage mechanisms.

  3. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  4. Quantitation of absorbed or deposited materials on a substrate that measures energy deposition

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick G.; Bakajin, Olgica; Vogel, John S.; Bench, Graham

    2005-01-18

    This invention provides a system and method for measuring an energy differential that correlates to quantitative measurement of an amount mass of an applied localized material. Such a system and method remains compatible with other methods of analysis, such as, for example, quantitating the elemental or isotopic content, identifying the material, or using the material in biochemical analysis.

  5. All-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with 6 nJ pulse energy based on evanescent field interaction with monoloayer graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Mi Hye; Rotermund, Fabian; Cha, Yong-Ho; Jeong, Do-Young; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate an all-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser with high power by using a monolayer graphene saturable absorber (SA). Large area, uniform monolayer graphene was transferred to the surface of the side-polished fiber (SPF) to realize an in-line graphene SA that operates around 2 μm wavelength. To increase the nonlinear interaction with graphene, we applied an over-cladding onto the SPF, where enhanced optical absorption at monolayer graphene was observed. All-fiber Tm-doped mode-locked laser was built including our in-line graphene SA, which stably delivered the soliton pulses with 773 fs pulse duration. The measured 3-dB spectral bandwidth was 5.14 nm at the wavelength of 1910 nm. We obtained the maximum average output power of 115 mW at a repetition rate of 19.31 MHz. Corresponding pulse energy was estimated to be 6 nJ, which is the highest value among all-fiber Tm-doped soliton oscillators using carbon-material-based SAs. PMID:27410573

  6. Estimate of the Impact of Absorbing Aerosol Over Cloud on the MODIS Retrievals of Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Using Two Independent Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Harshvardhan; Platnick, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Two independent satellite retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP) from the NASA Aqua satellite are used to diagnose the impact of absorbing biomass burning aerosol overlaying boundary-layer marine water clouds on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical thickness (tau) and cloud droplet effective radius (r(sub e)). In the MODIS retrieval over oceans, cloud reflectance in the 0.86-micrometer and 2.13-micrometer bands is used to simultaneously retrieve tau and r(sub e). A low bias in the MODIS tau retrieval may result from reductions in the 0.86-micrometer reflectance, which is only very weakly absorbed by clouds, owing to absorption by aerosols in cases where biomass burning aerosols occur above water clouds. MODIS LWP, derived from the product of the retrieved tau and r(sub e), is compared with LWP ocean retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E), determined from cloud microwave emission that is transparent to aerosols. For the coastal Atlantic southern African region investigated in this study, a systematic difference between AMSR-E and MODIS LWP retrievals is found for stratocumulus clouds over three biomass burning months in 2005 and 2006 that is consistent with above-cloud absorbing aerosols. Biomass burning aerosol is detected using the ultraviolet aerosol index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. The LWP difference (AMSR-E minus MODIS) increases both with increasing tau and increasing OMI aerosol index. During the biomass burning season the mean LWP difference is 14 g per square meters, which is within the 15-20 g per square meter range of estimated uncertainties in instantaneous LWP retrievals. For samples with only low amounts of overlaying smoke (OMI AI less than or equal to 1) the difference is 9.4, suggesting that the impact of smoke aerosols on the mean MODIS LWP is 5.6 g per square meter. Only for scenes with OMI aerosol index greater than 2 does the

  7. Spider orb webs rely on radial threads to absorb prey kinetic energy.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Lorentz, Kimberly A; Kelly, Sean P; Blackledge, Todd A

    2012-08-01

    The kinetic energy of flying insect prey is a formidable challenge for orb-weaving spiders. These spiders construct two-dimensional, round webs from a combination of stiff, strong radial silk and highly elastic, glue-coated capture spirals. Orb webs must first stop the flight of insect prey and then retain those insects long enough to be subdued by the spiders. Consequently, spider silks rank among the toughest known biomaterials. The large number of silk threads composing a web suggests that aerodynamic dissipation may also play an important role in stopping prey. Here, we quantify energy dissipation in orb webs spun by diverse species of spiders using data derived from high-speed videos of web deformation under prey impact. By integrating video data with material testing of silks, we compare the relative contributions of radial silk, the capture spiral and aerodynamic dissipation. Radial silk dominated energy absorption in all webs, with the potential to account for approximately 100 per cent of the work of stopping prey in larger webs. The most generous estimates for the roles of capture spirals and aerodynamic dissipation show that they rarely contribute more than 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the total work of stopping prey, respectively, and then only for smaller orb webs. The reliance of spider orb webs upon internal energy absorption by radial threads for prey capture suggests that the material properties of the capture spirals are largely unconstrained by the selective pressures of stopping prey and can instead evolve freely in response to alternative functional constraints such as adhering to prey. PMID:22431738

  8. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 1; Dynamic Crushing of Components and Multi-Terrain Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and analytical evaluation of an externally deployable composite honeycomb structure that is designed to attenuate impact energy during helicopter crashes. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), utilizes an expandable Kevlar (Registered Trademark) honeycomb to dissipate kinetic energy through crushing. The DEA incorporates a unique flexible hinge design that allows the honeycomb to be packaged and stowed until needed for deployment. Experimental evaluation of the DEA included dynamic crush tests of multi-cell components and vertical drop tests of a composite fuselage section, retrofitted with DEA blocks, onto multi-terrain. Finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the transient dynamic code, LSDYNA (Registered Trademark). In each simulation, the DEA was represented using shell elements assigned two different material properties: Mat 24, an isotropic piecewise linear plasticity model, and Mat 58, a continuum damage mechanics model used to represent laminated composite fabrics. DEA model development and test-analysis comparisons are presented.

  9. The Development of Two Composite Energy Absorbers for Use in a Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 2) Full-Scale Crash Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45deg/-45deg/-45deg/+45deg] with respect to the vertical direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soft soil. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  10. Quantification of the absorbed dose in 3D by means of advanced optical diagnostics based on structured illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensson, Elias; Ceberg, Sofie; Bäck, Sven; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a novel optical diagnostic tool that corrects for undesired contribution of multiply scattered light, thus opening up for e.g. quantitative optical CT measurements of opaque samples. The approach is based on a technique called Structured Illumination (SI), which is commonly employed within microscopic imaging to enhance the depth-resolution. The concept of SI applies for many types of source-detector arrangements and the configuration employed in this paper relies on side-scattering detection. A nPAG polymer gel phantom was irradiated using 6 MV beam. Three-dimensional information was obtained by translating the sample perpendicular to the direction of light, thus sequentially probing different sections. These were then stacked together to form a 3D representation of the sample. By altering the polarization of the laser light during the data acquisition it was discovered that the aggregates responsible for the scattering of light followed Rayleigh scattering, implying that their individual sizes are smaller than, or in the order of, 500 nm.

  11. Optimisation of an integrated optical evanescent wave absorbance sensor for the determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water.

    PubMed

    Mayer, J; Bürck, J; Ache, H J

    1996-03-01

    The suitability of an integrated optical chemical sensor for the determination of highly volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in aqueous solutions has been proven. The analytes are detected by NIR absorption spectrometry in the evanescent field of an integrated optical strip waveguide generated in a BGG31 (Schott, Germany) glass substrate, which is coated with a hydrophobic polymer superstrate as sensing layer. It has been shown that the sensitivity increases when the refractive index of the superstrate is increased from 1.333 up to 1.46. Different UV-cured polysiloxanes with low cross sensitivity to water have been prepared. Due to the good light transmission properties of the IO-sensors prepared by this method, quantitative measurements have been performed with the model system trichloroethene (TCE) in water. A detection limit of 22 ppm has been found and the sensor response times (t(90)-value) are between five and fourteen minutes for a coating thickness of around 30 microm. The sensor response is totally reversible. The analyte desorbes in air within 2 min. The enrichment of trichloroethene in the polysiloxane coating can be described by film diffusion through the aqueous boundary layer as rate determining step. PMID:15048399

  12. Monte Carlo MCNP-4B energy absorbed fractions in Head and Brain calculated in "The ORNL mathematical phantom series" and in "MIRD 15" mathematical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Saúl H.; Lorenzo, Daniel M.; Gual, Maritza R.

    2002-08-01

    Due to the use of many new radiopharmaceuticals in Brain imaging there exists the need of predicting absorbed energy and doses during the irradiation process within the head specificity in brain. In order to evaluate the MCNP-4b capability of calculating absorbed energy in Brain and Head we calculated it first using the geometrical data from "The ORNL mathematical phantom series" and subsequently a more anthropomorphic model "current MIRD 15". The results are compared with validated data and the conclusions are shown at the end.

  13. Derivation of optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols by monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangtao; Crozier, Peter A; Ercius, Peter; Anderson, James R

    2014-06-01

    Monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is employed to determine the optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from the infrared to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. It is essential to determine their optical properties to understand their accurate contribution to radiative forcing for climate change. The influence of surface and interface plasmon effects on the accuracy of dielectric data determined from EELS is discussed. Our measurements show that the standard thin film formulation of Kramers-Kronig analysis can be employed to make accurate determination of the dielectric function for carbonaceous particles down to about 40 nm in size. The complex refractive indices of graphitic and amorphous carbon spherules found in the atmosphere were determined over the wavelength range 200-1,200 nm. The graphitic carbon was strongly absorbing black carbon, whereas the amorphous carbon shows a more weakly absorbing brown carbon profile. The EELS approach provides an important tool for exploring the variation in optical properties of atmospheric carbon. PMID:24735494

  14. Optical emission generated by collisions of 5 eV O(3P) atoms with surface-absorbed hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Martus, K. E.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1992-01-01

    Optical emission has been observed corresponding to vibrational bands in the NH (A 3Pi - X 3Sigma(-)) electronic transition during collisions of 5 eV, ground-state oxygen O(3P) atoms with MgF2 and Ni surfaces continuously exposed to a beam of hydrazine (N2H4). The NH emission intensity is observed to be about five times greater for MgF2 than for Ni. No dependence on temperature was observed for either surface in the range 240 - 340 K, implying that the NH-producing intermediate species is tightly bound. The half-lifetime for desorption of hydrazine from each surface was measured. This was found to be 120 min for the MgF2 surface at 240 K, and less than 20 min for Ni. After exposure, the surface composition was measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the exposed and unexposed areas of both targets.

  15. Influence of coherent optical phonon on ultrafast energy relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Guo, L.; Liu, C. H.; Xu, X.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast energy relaxation process in Bi2Te3 thin films is studied using a collinear two color pump-probe technique. The coherent optical phonon is enhanced and destroyed by changing the separation times of double pump pulses. The non-oscillatory component of the reflectivity trace after the second pump pulse shows a distinct difference with and without the presence of coherent optical phonons, thus providing a direct evidence of the effect of optical phonon on the hot carrier relaxation process. The deduced characteristic times are systematically smaller when coherent optical phonons are involved in the energy transfer process. Comparatively, the conventional relaxation process is relatively slow, which is explained by the screening effect of the incoherent optical phonon. This work suggests that the energy relaxation can be manipulated through the excitation of coherent optical phonons.

  16. Dependence of Yb-169 absorbed dose energy correction factors on self-attenuation in source material and photon buildup in water

    SciTech Connect

    Medich, David C.; Munro, John J. III

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Absorbed dose energy correction factors, used to convert the absorbed dose deposited in a LiF thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) into the clinically relevant absorbed dose to water, were obtained for both spherical volumetric sources and for the model 4140 HDR Yb-169 source. These correction factors have a strong energy dependence below 200 keV; therefore, spectral changes were quantified as Yb-169 photons traveled through both source material (Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and water with the corresponding absorbed dose energy correction factors, f(r,{theta}), calculated as a function of location in a phantom. Methods: Using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation program, the Yb-169 spectrum emerging from spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources (density 6.9 g/cm{sup 3}) with radii between 0.2 and 0.9 mm were analyzed and their behavior compared against those for a point-source. The absorbed dose deposited to both LiF and H{sub 2}O materials was analyzed at phantom depths of 0.1-10 cm for each source radius and the absorbed dose energy correction factor calculated as the ratio of the absorbed dose to water to that of LiF. Absorbed dose energy correction factors for the Model 4140 Yb-169 HDR brachytherapy source similarly were obtained and compared against those calculated for the Model M-19 Ir-192 HDR source. Results: The Yb-169 average spectral energy, emerging from Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} spherical sources 0.2-0.9 mm in radius, was observed to harden from 7% to 29%; as these photons traveled through the water phantom, the photon average energy softened by as much as 28% at a depth of 10 cm. Spectral softening was dependent on the measurement depth in the phantom. Energy correction factors were found to vary both as a function of source radius and phantom depth by as much as 10% for spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources. The Model 4140 Yb-169 energy correction factors depended on both phantom depth and reference angle and were found to vary by more than 10% between

  17. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, M.; Pimpinella, M.; Quini, M.; D'Arienzo, M.; Astefanoaei, I.; Loreti, S.; Guerra, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm-2, and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min-1, results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D w, were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D w and D wK were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D w uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D w, it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  18. First international comparison of primary absorbed dose to water standards in the medium-energy X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, Ludwig; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Pimpinella, Maria; Pinto, Massimo; de Pooter, Jacco; de Prez, Leon; Jansen, Bartel; Denoziere, Marc; Rapp, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first international comparison of primary measurement standards of absorbed dose to water for the medium-energy X-ray range. Three of the participants (VSL, PTB, LNE-LNHB) used their existing water calorimeter based standards and one participant (ENEA) recently developed a new standard based on a water-graphite calorimeter. The participants calibrated three transfer chambers of the same type in terms of absorbed dose to water (NDw) and in addition in terms of air kerma (NK) using the CCRI radiation qualities in the range 100 kV to 250 kV. The additional NK values were intended to be used for a physical analysis of the ratios NDw/NK. All participants had previously participated in the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of air kerma standards. Ratios of pairs of NMI's NK results of the current comparison were found to be consistent with the corresponding key comparison results within the expanded uncertainties of 0.6 % - 1 %. The NDw results were analysed in terms of the degrees of equivalence with the comparison reference values which were calculated for each beam quality as the weighted means of all results. The participant's results were consistent with the reference value within the expanded uncertainties. However, these expanded uncertainties varied significantly and ranged between about 1-1.8 % for the water calorimeter based standards and were estimated at 3.7 % for the water-graphite calorimeter. It was shown previously that the ratios NDw/NK for the type of ionization chamber used as transfer chamber in this comparison were very close (within less than 1 %) to the calculated values of (bar muen/ρ)w,ad, the mean values of the water-to-air ratio of the mass-energy-absorption coefficients at the depth d in water. Some of the participant's results deviated significantly from the expected behavior. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of

  19. A patient-specific aperture system with an energy absorber for spot scanning proton beams: Verification for clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Keisuke; Toshito, Toshiyuki; Omachi, Chihiro; Kibe, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Kensuke; Shibata, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Nikawa, Eiki; Asai, Kumiko; Shimomura, Akira; Kinou, Hideto; Isoyama, Shigeru; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Fujii, Yusuke; Takayanagi, Taisuke; Hirayama, Shusuke; Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Shibamoto, Yuta; Komori, Masataka

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: In the authors’ proton therapy system, the patient-specific aperture can be attached to the nozzle of spot scanning beams to shape an irradiation field and reduce lateral fall-off. The authors herein verified this system for clinical application. Methods: The authors prepared four types of patient-specific aperture systems equipped with an energy absorber to irradiate shallow regions less than 4 g/cm{sup 2}. The aperture was made of 3-cm-thick brass and the maximum water equivalent penetration to be used with this system was estimated to be 15 g/cm{sup 2}. The authors measured in-air lateral profiles at the isocenter plane and integral depth doses with the energy absorber. All input data were obtained by the Monte Carlo calculation, and its parameters were tuned to reproduce measurements. The fluence of single spots in water was modeled as a triple Gaussian function and the dose distribution was calculated using a fluence dose model. The authors compared in-air and in-water lateral profiles and depth doses between calculations and measurements for various apertures of square, half, and U-shaped fields. The absolute doses and dose distributions with the aperture were then validated by patient-specific quality assurance. Measured data were obtained by various chambers and a 2D ion chamber detector array. Results: The patient-specific aperture reduced the penumbra from 30% to 70%, for example, from 34.0 to 23.6 mm and 18.8 to 5.6 mm. The calculated field width for square-shaped apertures agreed with measurements within 1 mm. Regarding patient-specific aperture plans, calculated and measured doses agreed within −0.06% ± 0.63% (mean ± SD) and 97.1% points passed the 2%-dose/2 mm-distance criteria of the γ-index on average. Conclusions: The patient-specific aperture system improved dose distributions, particularly in shallow-region plans.

  20. Calculation of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent induced by medium energy neutrons and protons and comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Bishop, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to determine the absorbed dose and dose equivalent for 592-MeV protons incident on a cylindrical phantom and for neutrons from 580-MeV proton-Be collisions incident on a semi-infinite phantom. For both configurations, the calculated depth dependence of the absorbed dose is in good agreement with experimental data.

  1. High-power, efficient, semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked Yb:KGW bulk laser.

    PubMed

    Kisel, V E; Rudenkov, A S; Pavlyuk, A A; Kovalyov, A A; Preobrazhenskii, V V; Putyato, M A; Rubtsova, N N; Semyagin, B R; Kuleshov, N V

    2015-06-15

    A high-power, diode-pumped, semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked Yb(5%):KGW bulk laser was demonstrated with high optical-to-optical efficiency. Average output power as high as 8.8 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 37.5% was obtained for Nm-polarized laser output with 162 fs pulse duration and 142 nJ pulse energy at a pulse repetition frequency of 62 MHz. For Np polarization, 143 fs pulses with pulse energy of 139 nJ and average output power of up to 8.6 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 31% were generated. PMID:26076242

  2. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 18, 19, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in optical materials for energy conversion are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to transparent IR reflectors and large-area deposition technology; optical switching materials; holographic films and reflector technology; and absorbers, photovoltaics, and solar materials. Topics addressed include bendable Ag-based low-emissivity coating on glass, plasma oxidation of Ag and Zn in low-emissivity stacks, smart window coatings, improved colored-state reflectivity in lithiated WO3 films, photochromic and thermochromic pigments for solar absorbing-reflecting coatings, the design and optimization of holographic solar concentrators, the properties of black cobalt coatings, and interface states and Fermi-level pinning in CdSe thin-film solar cells.

  3. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft. Volume 2: Data from seat testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    The unacceptably high injury rate during the escape sequence (including the ejection and ground impact) of the crew module for F/FB-111 aircraft is reviewed. A program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats is presented. An energy absorbing test seat is designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions is conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats are also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing is conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests are conducted. The vertical drop tests are used to obtain comparative data between the energy absorbing and operational seats. Volume 1 describes the energy absorbing test seat and testing conducted, and evaluates the data from both test series. Volume 2 presents the data obtained during the seat test series, while Volume 3 presents the data from the crew module test series.

  4. System-Integrated Finite Element Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26-ft/sec and 40-ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test predictions and continuing through post-test validation.

  5. Optical self-energy in graphene due to correlations.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J; LeBlanc, J P F; Carbotte, J P

    2012-06-20

    In highly correlated systems one can define an optical self-energy in analogy to its quasiparticle (QP) self-energy counterpart. This quantity provides useful information on the nature of the excitations involved in inelastic scattering processes. Here we calculate the self-energy of the intraband optical transitions in graphene originating in the electron-electron interaction (EEI) as well as electron-phonon interaction (EPI). Although optics involves an average over all momenta (k) of the charge carriers, the structure in the optical self-energy is nevertheless found to mirror mainly that of the corresponding quasiparticles for k equal to or near the Fermi momentum k(F). Consequently, plasmaronic structures which are associated with momenta near the Dirac point at k = 0 are not important in the intraband optical response. While the structure of the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) reflects the sharp peaks of the phonon density of states, the excitation spectrum associated with the electron-electron interaction is in comparison structureless and flat and extends over an energy range which scales linearly with the value of the chemical potential. We introduce a method whereby detailed quantitative information on such excitation spectra can be extracted from optical data. Modulations seen on the edge of the interband optical conductivity as it rises towards its universal background value are traced to structure in the quasiparticle self-energies around k(F) of the lower Dirac cone associated with the occupied states. PMID:22609689

  6. High energy laser optics manufacturing: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, E.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents concepts and methods, major conclusions, and major recommendations concerning the fabrication of high energy laser optics (HELO) that are to be machined by the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of concepts and methods proposed for metrological operations, polishing of reflective surfaces, mounting of optical components, construction of mirror substrates, and applications of coatings are included.

  7. Electron absorbed fractions of energy and S-values in an adult human skeleton based on µCT images of trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Richardson, R. B.; Cassola, V. F.; Vieira, J. W.; Khoury, H. J.; Lira, C. A. B. de O.; Robson Brown, K.

    2011-03-01

    When the human body is exposed to ionizing radiation, among the soft tissues at risk are the active marrow (AM) and the bone endosteum (BE) located in tiny, irregular cavities of trabecular bone. Determination of absorbed fractions (AFs) of energy or absorbed dose in the AM and the BE represent one of the major challenges of dosimetry. Recently, at the Department of Nuclear Energy at the Federal University of Pernambuco, a skeletal dosimetry method based on µCT images of trabecular bone introduced into the spongiosa voxels of human phantoms has been developed and applied mainly to external exposure to photons. This study uses the same method to calculate AFs of energy and S-values (absorbed dose per unit activity) for electron-emitting radionuclides known to concentrate in skeletal tissues. The modelling of the skeletal tissue regions follows ICRP110, which defines the BE as a 50 µm thick sub-region of marrow next to the bone surfaces. The paper presents mono-energetic AFs for the AM and the BE for eight different skeletal regions for electron source energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV. The S-values are given for the beta emitters 14C, 59Fe, 131I, 89Sr, 32P and 90Y. Comparisons with results from other investigations showed good agreement provided that differences between methodologies and trabecular bone volume fractions were properly taken into account. Additionally, a comparison was made between specific AFs of energy in the BE calculated for the actual 50 µm endosteum and the previously recommended 10 µm endosteum. The increase in endosteum thickness leads to a decrease of the endosteum absorbed dose by up to 3.7 fold when bone is the source region, while absorbed dose increases by ~20% when the beta emitters are in marrow.

  8. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S. Rohani, M. S. Sahar, M. R. Arifin, R. Ghoshal, S. K. Hamzah, K.

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  9. A buckling region in locust hindlegs contains resilin and absorbs energy when jumping or kicking goes wrong.

    PubMed

    Bayley, T G; Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

    2012-04-01

    If a hindleg of a locust slips during jumping, or misses its target during kicking, energy generated by the two extensor tibiae muscles is no longer expended in raising the body or striking a target. How, then, is the energy in a jump (4100-4800 μJ) or kick (1700 μJ) dissipated? A specialised buckling region found in the proximal hind-tibia where the bending moment is high, but not present in the other legs, buckled and allowed the distal part of the tibia to extend. In jumps when a hindleg slipped, it bent by a mean of 23±14 deg at a velocity of 13.4±9.5 deg ms(-1); in kicks that failed to contact a target it bent by 32±16 deg at a velocity of 32.9±9.5 deg ms(-1). It also buckled 8.5±4.0 deg at a rate of 0.063±0.005 deg ms(-1) when the tibia was prevented from flexing fully about the femur in preparation for both these movements. By experimentally buckling this region through 40 deg at velocities of 0.001-0.65 deg ms(-1), we showed that one hindleg could store about 870 μJ on bending, of which 210 μJ was dissipated back to the leg on release. A band of blue fluorescence was revealed at the buckling region under UV illumination that had the two key signatures of the elastic protein resilin. A group of campaniform sensilla 300 μm proximal to the buckling region responded to imposed buckling movements. The features of the buckling region show that it can act as a shock absorber as proposed previously when jumping and kicking movements go wrong. PMID:22399660

  10. Selective optical coatings for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    For best performance, energy-absorbing surface of solar collector should be characterized by high ratio of solar absorptance to thermal emitance. Report on optical characteristics of several chemical treatments and electrodeposited coatings for metal solar-absorbing surfaces should interest designers and users of solar-energy systems. Moisture resistance of some coatings is also reported.

  11. Can precursors improve the transmission of energy at optical frequencies?

    PubMed Central

    Lukofsky, David; Bessette, Jonathan; Jeong, Heejeong; Garmire, Elsa; Österberg, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    The recent interest in precursors has been fuelled by the possibility of using them for the efficient transmission of information through absorbing media at radio or optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate that the low attenuation experienced by the Brillouin precursor is attributed to the inherently low absorption of dispersive media near DC, a characteristic already exploited with communications systems using the extremely low frequency (ELF) band. Pulses, regardless of their temporal width and carrier frequency, always obey Beer's law as long as they propagate in the linear time invariant regime. We conclude with an FDTD simulation of the Maxwell–Bloch equations that shows how optical coherent bleaching effects, which take place in the linear time variant regime of the Lorentz oscillator model, can cause sustained deviations from Beer's law over relatively long distances of water. PMID:19639054

  12. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  13. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  14. Optical and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance studies of the excited states of a UV-B absorber (4-methylbenzylidene)camphor.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Shibata, Kenji; Kumasaka, Ryo; Yagi, Mikio

    2013-02-21

    The excited states of UV-B absorber (4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (MBC) have been studied through measurements of UV absorption, phosphorescence, triplet-triplet (T-T) absorption, and steady-state and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in ethanol. The energy level and lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T(1)) state of MBC were determined. The energy level of the T(1) state of MBC is much lower than that of photolabile 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane. The weak phosphorescence and strong time-resolved EPR signals, and T-T absorption band of MBC were observed. These facts suggest that the significant proportion of the lowest excited singlet (S(1)) molecules undergoes intersystem crossing to the T(1) state and the deactivation process from the T(1) state is predominantly radiationless. The quantum yields of singlet oxygen production by MBC determined by time-resolved near-IR luminescence measurements are 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.01 in ethanol and in acetonitrile, respectively. The photostability of MBC arises from the (3)ππ* character in the T(1) state. The zero-field splitting parameters in the T(1) state are D = 0.0901 cm(-1) and E = -0.0498 cm(-1). The sublevel preferentially populated by intersystem crossing is T(y) (y close to in-plane short axis and to the C═O direction). PMID:23320917

  15. Crash compatibility between cars and light trucks: benefits of lowering front-end energy-absorbing structure in SUVs and pickups.

    PubMed

    Baker, Bryan C; Nolan, Joseph M; O'Neill, Brian; Genetos, Alexander P

    2008-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are designed to absorb crash energy in frontal crashes through deformation or crush of energy-absorbing structures forward of the occupant compartment. In collisions between cars and light trucks (i.e., pickups and SUVs), however, the capacity of energy-absorption structures may not be fully utilized because mismatches often exist between the heights of these structures in the colliding vehicles. In 2003 automakers voluntarily committed to new design standards aimed at reducing the height mismatches between cars and light trucks. By September 2009 all new light trucks will have either the primary front structure (typically the frame rails) or a secondary structure connected to the primary structure low enough to interact with the primary structures in cars, which for most cars is about the height of the front bumper. To estimate the overall benefit of the voluntary commitment, the real-world crash experience of light trucks already meeting the height-matching criteria was compared with that of light trucks not meeting the criteria for 2000-2003 model light trucks in collisions with passenger cars during calendar years 2001-2004. The estimated benefits of lower front energy-absorbing structure were a 19 percent reduction (p<0.05) in fatality risk to belted car drivers in front-to-front crashes with light trucks and a 19 percent reduction (p<0.05) in fatality risk to car drivers in front-to-driver-side crashes with light trucks. PMID:18215539

  16. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO{sub 2}-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.

    1995-05-15

    The absorption of three lines [{ital P}(20), 944.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; {ital P}(14), 949.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; and {ital R}(24), 978.5 cm{sup {minus}1}] of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (00{sup 0}1--10{sup 0}0 transition) by SiH{sub 4} was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials.

  17. Optical and thermal energy discharge from tritiated solid hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Magnotta, F.; Mapoles, E.R.; Collins, G.W.; Souers, P.C.

    1991-04-02

    The authors are investigating mechanisms of energy storage and release in tritiated solid hydrogens, by a variety of techniques including ESR, NMR and thermal and optical emission. The nuclear decay of a triton in solid hydrogen initiates the conversion of nuclear energy into stored chemical energy by producing unpaired hydrogen atoms which are trapped within the molecular lattice. The ability to store large quantities of atoms in this manner has been demonstrated and can serve as a basis for new forms of high energy density materials. This paper presents preliminary results of a study of the optical emission from solid hydrogen containing tritium over the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral regions. Specifically, they have studied optical emission from DT and T{sub 2} using CCD, silicon diode and germanium diode arrays. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  18. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams. PMID:26841127

  19. Optical limiting materials

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  20. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O.

    2016-03-01

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  1. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VIII; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 10, 11, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.; Lampert, Carl M.

    1989-12-01

    The preparation, properties, and applications of advanced optical materials are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to optical switching materials, wavelength-selective surfaces, photovoltaic technology, and solar optical materials. Particular attention is given to the IR properties of electrochromic (EC) materials, the anomalous EC behavior of Ag-WO3 and Au-WO3 cermets, EC WO3 films prepared at room temperature by chemical deposition, the multilayered structure of silicon oxynitrides and oxides for radiative cooling, and light trapping in solar cells and the determination of the absorbed energy by calorimetry. Also considered are hydrogenated a-Si/Ge films prepared by reactive sputtering, electrodeposition of CdTe thin films, a PC-based test system for on-line characterization of solar cells and modules, chromatic-dispersion compensation in a Fresnel lens using a diffraction grating, stretched-membrane heliostats for solar central-receiver power plants, and angular-selective window coatings.

  2. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. H.; Gallacher, J. G.; Brussaard, G. J. H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z. X.; Dias, J. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2009-11-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz electromagnetic pulse can be determined by directly measuring the absolute electric field amplitude and beam energy density distribution using electro-optic detection. This method has potential use as a routine method of measuring the energy density of terahertz pulses that could be applied to evaluating future high power terahertz sources, terahertz imaging, and spatially and temporarily resolved pump-probe experiments.

  3. Synthesis of novel fluorene-based two-photon absorbing molecules and their applications in optical data storage, microfabrication, and stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanez, Ciceron

    2009-12-01

    Two-photon absorption (2PA) has been used for a number of scientific and technological applications, exploiting the fact that the 2PA probability is directly proportional to the square of the incident light intensity (while one-photon absorption bears a linear relation to the incident light intensity). This intrinsic property of 2PA leads to 3D spatial localization, important in fields such as optical data storage, fluorescence microscopy, and 3D microfabrication. The spatial confinement that 2PA enables has been used to induce photochemical and photophysical events in increasingly smaller volumes and allowed nonlinear, 2PA-based, technologies to reach sub-diffraction limit resolutions. The primary focus of this dissertation is the development of novel, efficient 2PA, fluorene-based molecules to be used either as photoacid generators (PAGs) or fluorophores. A second aim is to develop more effective methods of synthesizing these compounds. As a third and final objective, the new molecules were used to develop a write-once-read many (WORM) optical data storage system, and stimulated emission depletion probes for bioimaging. In Chapter I, the microwave-assisted synthesis of triarylsulfonium salt photoacid generators (PAGs) from their diphenyliodonium counterparts is reported. The microwave-assisted synthesis of these novel sulfonium salts afforded reaction times 90 to 420 times faster than conventional thermal conditions, with photoacid quantum yields of new sulfonium PAGs ranging from 0.01 to 0.4. These PAGs were used to develop a fluorescence readout-based, nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage system (Chapter II). In this system, writing was achieved by acid generation upon two-photon absorption (2PA) of a PAG (at 710 or 730 nm). Readout was then performed by interrogating two-photon absorbing dyes, after protonation, at 860 nm. Two-photon recording and readout of voxels was demonstrated in five and eight consecutive, crosstalk-free layers within a

  4. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  5. An all-fiber high-energy cladding-pumped 93 nanosecond Q-switched fiber laser using an Y 3+-doped fiber saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sean W.; Patterson, Brian D.; Soh, Daniel B.; Bisson, Scott E.

    2014-03-01

    We report an all-fiber passively Q-switched laser using a large mode area (LMA) Yb3+ -doped fiber claddingpumped at 915 nm and an unpumped single-mode (SM) Yb3+-doped fiber as the saturable absorber (SA). The saturable absorber SM fiber and LMA gain fiber were coupled with a fiber taper designed to match the fundamental spatial mode of the LMA fiber and the expanded LP01 mode of the single mode fiber. The amplified spontaneous (ASE) intensity propagating in the single mode SA saturates the absorption before the onset of gain depletion in the pumped fiber, switching the fiber cavity to a high Q-state and producing a pulse. Using this scheme we demonstrate a Q-switched all-fiber oscillator with 32 μJ 93 ns pulses at 1030 nm. The associated peak power is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than that reported in previous experimental studies using a single Yb+3 saturable absorber fiber. The pulse energy was amplified to 0.230 mJ using an Yb3+-doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier fusion spliced to the fiber oscillator, increasing the energy by eight fold while preserving the all-fiber architecture.

  6. thin films as absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. O.; Shaji, S.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Krishnan, B.

    2014-09-01

    Photovoltaic structures were prepared using AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 as absorber and CdS as window layer at various conditions via a hybrid technique of chemical bath deposition and thermal evaporation followed by heat treatments. Silver antimony sulfo selenide thin films [AgSb(S x Se1- x )2] were prepared by heating multilayers of sequentially deposited Sb2S3/Ag dipped in Na2SeSO3 solution, glass/Sb2S3/Ag/Se. For this, Sb2S3 thin films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3. Then, Ag thin films were thermally evaporated on glass/Sb2S3, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na2SeSO3. The duration of dipping was varied as 3, 4 and 5 h. Two different heat treatments, one at 350 °C for 20 min in vacuum followed by a post-heat treatment at 325 °C for 2 h in Ar, and the other at 350 °C for 1 h in Ar, were applied to the multilayers of different configurations. X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 thin films as the primary phase and AgSb(S,Se)2 and Sb2S3 as secondary phases. Morphology and elemental detection were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed the depthwise composition of the films. Optical properties were determined by UV-vis-IR transmittance and reflection spectral analysis. AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 formed at different conditions was incorporated in PV structures glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(S x Se1- x )2/C/Ag. Chemically deposited post-annealed CdS thin films of various thicknesses were used as window layer. J- V characteristics of the cells were measured under dark and AM1.5 illumination. Analysis of the J- V characteristics resulted in the best solar cell parameters of V oc = 520 mV, J sc = 9.70 mA cm-2, FF = 0.50 and η = 2.7 %.

  7. Separable representation of energy-dependent optical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from a separable, energy-independent representation of global optical potentials based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme, a further generalization is needed to take into account the energy dependence. Applications to n +48Ca ,n +208Pb , and p +208Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV with special emphasis on fulfilling reciprocity. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological optical potentials fulfills reciprocity exactly. In addition, taking into account the explicit energy dependence slightly improves the description of the S matrix elements.

  8. Antimony sulphide, an absorber layer for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, Arshad; Ahmed, R.; Shamsuri, W. N. Wan; Shaari, A.; Ahmad, N.; Abbas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of the toxic, expensive and scarce materials with nontoxic, cheap and earth-abundant one, in solar cell absorber layer, is immensely needed to realize the vision of green and sustainable energy. Two-micrometre-thin antimony sulphide film is considered to be adequate as an absorbing layer in solar cell applications. In this paper, we synthesize antimony sulphide thin films on glass substrate by physical vapour deposition technique, and the obtained films were then annealed at different temperatures (150-250 °C). The as-deposited and annealed samples were investigated for structural and optoelectronic properties using different characterization techniques. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the annealed samples were polycrystalline with Sb2S3 phase, while the as-deposited sample was amorphous in nature. The optical properties are measured via optical ellipsometric techniques. The measured absorbance of the film is adequately high, and every photon is found to be absorbed in visible and NIR range. The conductivity type of the films measured by hot-point probe technique is determined to be p-type. The optical band gap of the resulted samples was in the range (2.4-1.3 eV) for the as-deposited and annealed films.

  9. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  10. The Calculation Of Absorbing Thin Film Optical Constants And Electronic Structure From Photometric Measures On Domain IR-VIS-UV Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bourouis, Chahrazed; Meddour, Ahcene; Moussaoui, Abdelkrim

    2008-09-23

    In this paper a new method using the combination of Neural Networks and the Newton-Raphson algorithm is developped. The technique consists of the use of the solution obtained by Newton-Raphson algorithm between 0.5 and 2.1eV for pure manganese (Mn) and for the amorphous metallic alloy Al{sub 88}Mn{sub 12}, to construct two parts of datasets; the first one is used for training the neural network and the second one for the validation tests. The validated neural network model is applied to the determination of optical constants of the two materials Mn and Al{sub 88}Mn{sub 12} in the range of 0.5 and 6.2eV (IR-VIS-UV). The results obtained over all the studied energy range are used to trace back to dielectric function, optical absorption and electronic structure of the same material. By using the partial solution obtained by Newton-Raphson as a database of the neural network prediction model, it is shown that the obtained results are in accordance with those of the literature which consolidate the efficiency of the suggested approach.

  11. The Calculation Of Absorbing Thin Film Optical Constants And Electronic Structure From Photometric Measures On Domain IR-VIS-UV Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouis, Chahrazed; Meddour, Ahcene; Moussaoui, Abdelkrim

    2008-09-01

    In this paper a new method using the combination of Neural Networks and the Newton-Raphson algorithm is developped. The technique consists of the use of the solution obtained by Newton-Raphson algorithm between 0.5 and 2.1eV for pure manganese (Mn) and for the amorphous metallic alloy Al88Mn12, to construct two parts of datasets; the first one is used for training the neural network and the second one for the validation tests. The validated neural network model is applied to the determination of optical constants of the two materials Mn and Al88Mn12 in the range of 0.5 and 6.2eV (IR-VIS-UV). The results obtained over all the studied energy range are used to trace back to dielectric function, optical absorption and electronic structure of the same material. By using the partial solution obtained by Newton-Raphson as a database of the neural network prediction model, it is shown that the obtained results are in accordance with those of the literature which consolidate the efficiency of the suggested approach.

  12. Packed Alumina Absorbs Hypergolic Vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.; Mauro, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Beds of activated alumina effective as filters to remove hypergolic vapors from gas streams. Beds absorb such substances as nitrogen oxides and hydrazines and may also absorb acetylene, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, benzene, butadiene, butene, styrene, toluene, and xoylene. Bed has no moving parts such as pumps, blowers and mixers. Reliable and energy-conservative. Bed readily adapted to any size from small portable units for use where little vapor release is expected to large stationary units for extensive transfer operations.

  13. Energy challenges in optical access and aggregation networks.

    PubMed

    Kilper, Daniel C; Rastegarfar, Houman

    2016-03-01

    Scalability is a critical issue for access and aggregation networks as they must support the growth in both the size of data capacity demands and the multiplicity of access points. The number of connected devices, the Internet of Things, is growing to the tens of billions. Prevailing communication paradigms are reaching physical limitations that make continued growth problematic. Challenges are emerging in electronic and optical systems and energy increasingly plays a central role. With the spectral efficiency of optical systems approaching the Shannon limit, increasing parallelism is required to support higher capacities. For electronic systems, as the density and speed increases, the total system energy, thermal density and energy per bit are moving into regimes that become impractical to support-for example requiring single-chip processor powers above the 100 W limit common today. We examine communication network scaling and energy use from the Internet core down to the computer processor core and consider implications for optical networks. Optical switching in data centres is identified as a potential model from which scalable access and aggregation networks for the future Internet, with the application of integrated photonic devices and intelligent hybrid networking, will emerge. PMID:26809581

  14. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  15. Merging and energy exchange between optical filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, D. A.; Kovachev, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing Pcr trough the processes of cross-phase modulation (CPM) and degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM). When there is no initial phase difference between the pulses we observe attraction between pulses due to CPM. The final result is merging between the pulses in a single filament with higher power. By method of moments it is found that the attraction depends on the distance between the pulses and has potential character. In the second case we study energy exchange between filaments. This process is described through FPPM scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves.

  16. Merging and energy exchange between optical filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Georgieva, D. A.; Kovachev, L. M.

    2015-10-28

    We investigate nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing P{sub cr} trough the processes of cross-phase modulation (CPM) and degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM). When there is no initial phase difference between the pulses we observe attraction between pulses due to CPM. The final result is merging between the pulses in a single filament with higher power. By method of moments it is found that the attraction depends on the distance between the pulses and has potential character. In the second case we study energy exchange between filaments. This process is described through FPPM scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves.

  17. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  18. Miniature fiber optic sensor based on fluorescence energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, David L.; Schultz, Jerome S.

    1992-04-01

    Optical fiber biosensors based on fluorescence assays have several distinct advantages when measuring biological analytes such as metabolites, cofactors, toxins, etc. Not only are optical signals immune to electronic interferences, but the polychromatic nature of most fluorochemical assays provides more potentially useful data about the system being studied. One of the most common difficulties normally encountered with optical biosensors is the inability to routinely recalibrate the optical and electronic components of the system throughout the life of the sensor. With this in mind, we present an optical fiber assay system for glucose based on a homogeneous singlet/singlet energy transfer assay along with the electronic instrumentation built to support the sensor system. In the sensor probe, glucose concentrations are indirectly measured from the level of fluorescence quenching caused by the homogeneous competition assay between TRITC labeled concanavalin A (receptor) and FITC labeled Dextran (ligand). The FITC signal is used to indicate glucose concentrations and the TRITC signal is used for internal calibration. Data is also presented on a protein derivatization procedure that was used to prevent aggregation of the receptor protein in solution. Also, a molecular model is described for the singlet/singlet energy transfer interactions that can occur in a model system composed of a monovalent ligand (FITC labeled papain) and a monovalent receptor (TRITC labeled concanavalin A).

  19. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. PMID:22627995

  20. Modulation frequency characteristics of the Q-switched envelope in a doubly Q-switched and mode-locked laser with acousto-optic modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao; Chu, Hongwei

    2015-11-01

    The modulation frequency characteristics of the Q-switched envelope in a doubly Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber are given. At a fixed incident pump power, the repetition rates of the Q-switched envelope and the related laser characteristics versus the modulation frequency of AOM for different small signal transmissions of Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers have been measured. The experimental results show that the repetition rates of the Q-switched envelope, the average output power, the average peak power, and the pulse widths of the Q-switched envelopes are subharmonics of the modulation frequency at a fixed incident pump power. Furthermore, the mechanism for these behaviors is discussed.

  1. Energy-efficient hybrid coded modulations enabling terabit optical ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2012-01-01

    Future Internet technologies will be affected not only by limited bandwidth of information infrastructure, but also by its energy consumption. In order to solve both problems simultaneously, in this invited paper, we describe several energy-efficient (EE) hybrid coded-modulation (CM) schemes enabling Terabit optical Ethernet: EE 4D CM, EE generalized- OFDM, and EE spatial-domain-based CM. A common property of these is employment of EE modulations, various degrees of freedom and rate-adaptive coding. These EE schemes are called hybrid as all available degrees of freedom are used for transmission over optical fibers including amplitude, phase, polarization and OAM. Since the channel capacity is a linear function in number of dimensions, by increasing the number of basis functions, we can dramatically improve overall capacity. The EE problem is solved by properly designing multi-dimensional signal constellations such that transinformation is maximized, while taking the energy constraint into account.

  2. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  3. Optical system design for high-energy particle beam diagnostics.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B. X. Y.

    2002-08-29

    Radiation generated by high-energy particle beams is widely used to characterize the beam properties. While the wavelengths of radiation may vary from visible to x-rays, the physics underlying the engineering designs are similar. In this tutorial, we discuss the basic considerations for the optical system design in the context of beam instrumentation and the constraints applied by high-radiation environments. We cover commonly used optical diagnostics: fluorescence flags, visible and x-ray synchrotron radiation imaging. Emphases will be on achieving desired resolution, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  4. Complex absorbing potential based equation-of-motion coupled cluster method for the potential energy curve of CO{sub 2}{sup −} anion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Aryya; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2014-10-28

    The equation-of-motion coupled cluster method employing the complex absorbing potential has been used to investigate the low energy electron scattering by CO{sub 2}. We have studied the potential energy curve for the {sup 2}Π{sub u} resonance states of CO{sub 2}{sup −} upon bending as well as symmetric and asymmetric stretching of the molecule. Specifically, we have stretched the C−O bond length from 1.1 Å to 1.5 Å and the bending angles are changed between 180° and 132°. Upon bending, the low energy {sup 2}Π{sub u} resonance state is split into two components, i.e., {sup 2}A{sub 1}, {sup 2}B{sub 1} due to the Renner-Teller effect, which behave differently as the molecule is bent.

  5. Laser-assisted manufacturing of micro-optical volume elements for enhancing the amount of light absorbed by solar cells in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peharz, Gerhard; Kuna, Ladislav; Leiner, Claude

    2015-03-01

    The laser-generation of micro-optical volume elements is a promising approach to decrease the optical shadowing of front side metal contacts of solar cells. Focusing a femtosecond laser beam into the volume of the encapsulation material causes a local modification its optical constants. Suchlike fabricated micro-optical elements can be used to decrease the optical shadowing of the front side metallization of c-Si solar cells. Test samples comprising of a sandwich structure of a glass sheet with metallic grid-lines, an Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant and another glass sheet were manufactured in order to investigate the optical performance of the volume optics. Transmission measurements show that the shadowing of the metalling grid-lines is substantially decreased by the micro-optical volume elements created in the EVA bulk right above the grid-fingers. A detailed investigation of the optical properties of these volume elements was performed: (i) experimentally on the basis of goniometric measurements, as well as (ii) theoretically by applying optical modelling and optimization procedures. This resulted in a better understanding of the effectiveness of the optical volume elements in decreasing the optical shadowing of metal grid lines on the active cell surfaces. Moreover, results of photovoltaic mini-modules with incorporated micro-optical volume elements are presented. Results of optical simulation and Laser Beam Induced Current (LBIC) experiments show that the losses due to the grid fingers can be reduced by about 50%, when using this fs-laser structuring approach for the fabrication of micro-optical volume elements in the EVA material.

  6. Absorbance detection of amino acids by laser wave mixing in microbore liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Tong, W G

    1998-05-01

    Nonlinear optical phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing is demonstrated as a sensitive "absorbance" detection method for microbore high-performance liquid chromatography. An argon ion laser operating at the 488-nm line is used as the excitation light source to generate the wave-mixing signal for dabsyl-labeled amino acids. Advantages of the nonlinear laser detection method include: virtually 100% optical signal collection efficiency, generation of the signal in the form of a coherent laser beam, signal measurement against a virtually dark background, reliable detection of small absorbance values, excellent detection sensitivity for both fluorescing and non-fluorescing analytes, relatively simple one-color one-laser optical setup, and low power or energy requirements for continuous-wave or pulsed lasers. Using our one-laser one-color nonlinear laser detector for "absorbance" measurements in liquid chromatography, we report a crude preliminary "injected" detection limit of 780 fmol for glycine. PMID:9618915

  7. Optical limiting materials

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  8. Optical transition energies of isolated molecular monomers and weakly interacting two-dimensional aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forker, Roman; Dienel, Thomas; Krause, Andreas; Gruenewald, Marco; Meissner, Matthias; Kirchhuebel, Tino; Gröning, Oliver; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The optical excitation energies of organic dye molecules are often said to depend sensitively on the polarizability of the utilized substrate. To this end, we employ differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to analyze the S0→S1 fundamental transition energies observed for 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) as a function of coverage on various surfaces, such as sp2-bonded insulating layers [graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)], and noble metals pre-covered by a molecular wetting layer which prevents hybridization of the second-layer molecules with the metal states. We elucidate the optical absorbance behavior of PTCDA layers grown on h-BN/Rh(111) and on h-BN/Pt(111) and characterize their structures by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. Surprisingly, although the dielectric properties of the employed substrates differ substantially, only two main transition energies are observed: (i) PTCDAHE essentially mimics the behavior of isolated monomers on surfaces (particularly at submonolayer coverage), while (ii) PTCDALE, red-shifted by ≈70 meV (≈560 cm-1 ), is attributed to two-dimensional densely packed aggregates. This red-shift is in remarkable accordance with previous investigations for PTCDA on NaCl(100) and, therefore, likely arises from the same physical effects, namely the formation of two-dimensional excitonic bands and the polarizability of neighboring molecules within the monolayer. In distinction from earlier studies, we conclude that the polarizabilities of the employed substrates do not constitute the dominant contribution to the molecular S0→S1 transition energies observed here.

  9. High energy, high resolution X-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Joy, Marshall; Kahn, Steven

    1990-01-01

    The scientific goals of X-ray astronomy are considered to evaluate the relative advantages of using classical Wolter-1 optics or using a different approach. The portion of the X-ray band over 10 keV is unexploited in the present X-ray optics technology, and focussing in this portion of the band is crucial because nonfocussed experiments are background limited. The basic design of 'hard' X-ray optics is described theoretically emphasizing the very small angles of incidence in the grazing-incidence optics. Optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio is found to occur at a finite angular resolution. In real applications, the effective area reduced by the efficiency of the two reflections is 80 percent at energies up to 40 keV, and the quality of the reflecting surface can be monitored to minimize scattering. Focussing optics are found to offer improvements in signal-to-noise as well as more effective scientific return because microelectronic focal-plane technology is employed.

  10. Improving the efficiency of cadmium sulfide-sensitized titanium dioxide/indium tin oxide glass photoelectrodes using silver sulfide as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanocrystals are deposited on the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystalline film on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate to prepare CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO photoelectrodes through a new method known as the molecular precursor decomposition method. The Ag2S is interposed between the TiO2 nanocrystal film and CdS nanocrystals as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber. As a consequence, the energy conversion efficiency of the CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrodes is significantly improved. Under AM 1.5 G sunlight irradiation, the maximum efficiency achieved for the CdS(4)/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrode is 3.46%, corresponding to an increase of about 150% as compared to the CdS(4)/TiO2/ITO electrode without the Ag2S layer. Our experimental results show that the improved efficiency is mainly due to the formation of Ag2S layer that may increase the light absorbance and reduce the recombination of photogenerated electrons with redox ions from the electrolyte. PMID:25411566

  11. Optics and beam transport in energy recovery linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg H.; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Owen, Hywel

    2006-02-01

    Here, we report on the working group "Optics and Beam Transport" of the 2005 Energy-Recovery-Linac Workshop. This workshop also had working groups on "Electron Guns and Injector Designs", "Superconducting RF and RF Control", and "Synchronization and Diagnostics/Instrumentation". Here, we are concerned with the many different ERL proposals that international laboratories have been working on. Subjects of concern are optics, accelerator design and modeling, stability requirements, designs of the merger that connects the conventional injector linac with the Energy Recovery Linac, longitudinal phase space manipulations to produce short pulses, beam dynamics and limitations by beam instabilities, and computational aspects of space-charge and synchrotron radiation effects. A coarse grain overview is given and reference is made to more detailed articles that were presented in this working group. Subjects are identified where collaborations should be encouraged and areas of future R&D are prioritized.

  12. Absorber coatings' degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

  13. Intracavity self-induced transparency of a multilevel absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M.; Kalosha, V. P.; Herrmann, J.

    1998-08-01

    Intracavity self-induced transparency of a three-level absorber is studied in the scope of solid-state laser generation of an ultrabroadband electromagnetic pulse that drives the population of all absorber levels through complete Rabi flopping. We show that at sufficient pump rates a Ti:sapphire laser forces an intracavity GaAs single quantum-well absorber, which provides an inter-valence-band transition in the THz domain in addition to two direct optical interband transitions, into the self-induced transparency regime and acts as an all-solid-state ultrabroadband pulse emitter. In dependence on the resonator bandwidth, the intracavity pulse energy and the absorber dipole moments we obtain a multilevel self-induced transparency pulse spectrum which extends from the THz domain up to the ultraviolet. The steady-state sub-10-fs pulse consists of only a few optical cycles with the high-frequency components at its leading edge and a single to subcyclic THz component at its trailing edge.

  14. Plasmonic broadband absorber by stacking multiple metallic nanoparticle layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ting; Peng, Lining; Zhu, Yuntao; Yang, Fan; Cui, Yanxia; Wu, Xueyan; Liu, Liu; He, Sailing; Zhu, Furong; Hao, Yuying

    2015-04-01

    High efficiency, broadband plasmonic absorbers are constructed based on a stack of alternating metallic nanoparticle layers (MNLs) and SiO2 slabs on top of a reflective Ag substrate. Experimental results show that the stacks with thick MNLs absorb light better than those with thin MNLs when the number of MNL/SiO2 cells (N) is small (e.g., 1 or 2), but the situation gets reversed when N is greater than 3. When the nominal thickness of MNL is as thin as 5 nm, the acquired Ag nanoparticles are so small that light penetration through all of the stacked MNLs in the proposed design is possible. Thus, an increase in N leads to a growing number of light trapping elements. Our simulation reveals that the Ag nanoparticles at different layers are hybridized to excite rich localized plasmonic resonances, resulting in multiple absorption peaks at optical frequencies and thus a broader absorption band. The broadband absorbers with an integrated absorption efficiency of 96% over the 300-1100 nm wavelength range were achieved by stacking 18 MNL/SiO2 cells. The proposed absorbers can be used for applications in solar energy harvesting and thermal emission tailoring, due to their easy fabrication procedure and excellent optical properties.

  15. On the miniaturization of polarization insensitive wide angle metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li-Fang; Li, Min-Hua; Zhai, Xiao-Min; Wang, Hui-Bo; Dong, Jian-Feng

    2016-02-01

    We present the design, fabrication and measurement of a perfect miniaturized planar metamaterial absorber based on folded-line structure. The absorber is polarization insensitive, and the absorption remains high even at large incident angles. The simulated and experimental results validate that the ratio between period ( p) and resonant wavelength ( λ) approaches 1/12 at 1.93 GHz. Surface current distributions and energy flow distributions demonstrate that the folded lines, where the absorbing intensity is strongest, play an important role in both perfect absorption and miniaturization design. The ratio p/ λ of the absorber has been further optimized to 1/21 at 550 MHz by increasing the number of folded lines. Besides, a smaller ratio of 1/25 is acquired at 9.6 THz by reducing the dimensions of the structure to nanoscale with careful optimization. This introduced folded-line structure successfully enhances the equivalent inductance and capacitance in a limited volume which has great impact on the design of devices with small size and integration. The proposed metamaterial absorber also has potential applications in wireless communication and optical devices.

  16. Development of energy-absorbing reaction-sintered Si3N4 surface layers on hot-pressed Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-absorbing Si3N4 surface layers on dense Si3N4 substrates were formed by in-place nitridation of fine-grained silicon powder. Ballistic impact tests performed on samples with 1-mm thick layers at room temperature and 1370 C showed up to an eightfold increase in the energy necessary to fracture the substrate. For maximum impact resistance, a small amount (about 20 vol %) of residual Si must be present in the reaction-sintered Si3N4 surface layer. Thermal cycling to 1370 C did not affect impact resistance, even though a considerable amount of SiO2 formed within the reaction-sintered Si3N4 layer during cycling. Erosion testing of samples in a Mach 0.8 burner rig at 1370 C resulted in minimal surface recession of the surface layer. Chemically vapor-deposited SiC-coated material similarly tested exhibited no surface recession.

  17. Energy spectra and optical transitions in germanene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Herath, Thakshila M; Apalkov, Vadym

    2016-04-27

    The band gap of buckled graphene-like materials, such as silicene and germanene, depends on external perpendicular electric field. Then a specially design profile of electric field can produce trapping potential for electrons. We study theoretically the energy spectrum and optical transitions for such designed quantum dots (QDs) in graphene-like materials. The energy spectra depend on the size of the QD and applied electric field in the region of the QD. The number of the states in the QD increases with increasing the size of the dot and the energies of the states have almost linear dependence on the applied electric field with the slope which increases with increasing the dot size. The optical properties of the QDs are characterized by two types of absorption spectra: interband (optical transitions between the states of the valence and conduction bands) and intraband (transitions between the states of conduction/valence band). The interband absorption spectra have triple-peak structure with peak separation around 10 meV, while intraband absorption spectra, which depend on the number of electrons in the dot, have double-peak structure. PMID:27008912

  18. Optical absorbance of P3HT thin films used to estimate simultaneously thin-film thickness and morphology for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallari, Marco R.; Izquierdo, José E. E.; Rodríguez, Estrella F. G.; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2015-08-01

    Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) is suitable for electronic noses and the detection of gaseous biomarkers of human diseases to clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, thin-film properties such as crystallinity and thickness play a major role in overall device performance. Thin-films were obtained from spin coating of 2-20 mg/mL solutions in chloroform, toluene, chlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene to form a thickness from 20 to 160 nm as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Absorbance spectrum fitted by the sum of three Gaussian curves defined the following parameters, which correlate with the film's electronic structure/morphology: (i) the abscissa at the center of the Gaussian from the highest wavelength, which responds for the P3HT band gap, and (ii) the ratio between the area under the Gaussian centered at the lowest wavelength over the one at the highest wavelength, which corresponds to the amount of amorphous and crystalline phase, respectively. Isosbestic point was determined by thermal annealing temperature variation, while keeping the thickness constant. It was observed that absorbance spectrum shape and, consequently, thin-film morphology depend not only on the concentration of the solution, but also on solvent. Finally, the isosbestic point determined at (470 +/- 3) nm provides a linear relationship between absorbance and thickness with y-axis intercept approaching zero. The absorbance spectrum and isosbestic point of P3HT provides a non-destructive, faster and reliable way to estimate thin-film properties as thickness and crystallinity without recurring to AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements.

  19. Solar sustained plasma/absorber conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Krascella, N. L.; Kendall, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    A space power system concept was evaluated which uses concentrated solar energy to heat a working fluid to temperatures as high as 4000 K. The high temperature working fluid could be used for efficient electric power production in advanced thermal or magnetohydrodynamic conversion cycles. Energy absorber configurations utilizing particles or cesium vapor absorber material were investigaed. Results of detailed radiant heat transfer calculations indicated approximately 86 percent of the incident solar energy could be absorbed within a 12-cm-dia flowing stream of gas borne carbon particles. Calculated total energy absorption in the cesium vapor seeded absorber configuration ranged from 34 percent to 64 percent of the incident solar energy. Solar flux concentration ratios of between approximately 3000 and 10,000 will be required to sustain absorber temperatures in the range from 3000 K to 4000 K.

  20. Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) Imaging: A Novel Method for Optical Imaging of PET Isotopes in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dothager, Robin S.; Goiffon, Reece J.; Jackson, Erin; Harpstrite, Scott; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) allows sensitive, non-invasive analysis of the distribution of radiopharmaceutical tracers labeled with positron (β+)-emitting radionuclides in small animals and humans. Upon β+ decay, the initial velocity of high-energy β+ particles can momentarily exceed the speed of light in tissue, producing Cerenkov radiation that is detectable by optical imaging, but is highly absorbed in living organisms. Principal Findings To improve optical imaging of Cerenkov radiation in biological systems, we demonstrate that Cerenkov radiation from decay of the PET isotopes 64Cu and 18F can be spectrally coupled by energy transfer to high Stokes-shift quantum nanoparticles (Qtracker705) to produce highly red-shifted photonic emissions. Efficient energy transfer was not detected with 99mTc, a predominantly γ-emitting isotope. Similar to bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), herein we define the Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) ratio as the normalized quotient of light detected within a spectral window centered on the fluorophore emission divided by light detected within a spectral window of the Cerenkov radiation emission to quantify imaging signals. Optical images of solutions containing Qtracker705 nanoparticles and [18F]FDG showed CRET ratios in vitro as high as 8.8±1.1, while images of mice with subcutaneous pseudotumors impregnated with Qtracker705 following intravenous injection of [18F]FDG showed CRET ratios in vivo as high as 3.5±0.3. Conclusions Quantitative CRET imaging may afford a variety of novel optical imaging applications and activation strategies for PET radiopharmaceuticals and other isotopes in biomaterials, tissues and live animals. PMID:20949021

  1. Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tun; Wei, Chen-wei; Simpson, Robert E; Zhang, Lei; Cryan, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    We report a broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber with wide-angle near unity absorbance in the visible regime. Our structure is composed of an array of thin Au squares separated from a continuous Au film by a phase change material (Ge2Sb2Te5) layer. It shows that the near perfect absorbance is flat and broad over a wide-angle incidence up to 80° for either transverse electric or magnetic polarization due to a high imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of Ge2Sb2Te5. The electric field, magnetic field and current distributions in the absorber are investigated to explain the physical origin of the absorbance. Moreover, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate the temporal variation of temperature in the Ge2Sb2Te5 layer and to show that the temperature of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 can be raised from room temperature to > 433 K (amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition temperature) in just 0.37 ns with a low light intensity of 95 nW/μm(2), owing to the enhanced broadband light absorbance through strong plasmonic resonances in the absorber. The proposed phase-change metamaterial provides a simple way to realize a broadband perfect absorber in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions and is important for a number of applications including thermally controlled photonic devices, solar energy conversion and optical data storage. PMID:24492415

  2. Broadband Polarization-Independent Perfect Absorber Using a Phase-Change Metamaterial at Visible Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Tun; Wei, Chen-wei; Simpson, Robert E.; Zhang, Lei; Cryan, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber with wide-angle near unity absorbance in the visible regime. Our structure is composed of an array of thin Au squares separated from a continuous Au film by a phase change material (Ge2Sb2Te5) layer. It shows that the near perfect absorbance is flat and broad over a wide-angle incidence up to 80° for either transverse electric or magnetic polarization due to a high imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of Ge2Sb2Te5. The electric field, magnetic field and current distributions in the absorber are investigated to explain the physical origin of the absorbance. Moreover, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate the temporal variation of temperature in the Ge2Sb2Te5 layer and to show that the temperature of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 can be raised from room temperature to > 433 K (amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition temperature) in just 0.37 ns with a low light intensity of 95 nW/μm2, owing to the enhanced broadband light absorbance through strong plasmonic resonances in the absorber. The proposed phase-change metamaterial provides a simple way to realize a broadband perfect absorber in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions and is important for a number of applications including thermally controlled photonic devices, solar energy conversion and optical data storage. PMID:24492415

  3. Analytical Calculation of Energy levels of mono- and bilayer Graphene Quantum Dots Used as Light Absorber in Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamandani, Shahryar; Darvish, Ghafar; Faez, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper by solving Dirac equation, we present an analytical solution to calculate energy levels and wave functions of mono- and bilayer graphene quantum dots. By supposing circular quantum dots, we solve Dirac equation and obtain energy levels and band gap with relations in a new closed and practical form. The energy levels are correlated with a radial quantum number and radius of quantum dots. In addition to monolayer quantum dots, AA- and AB-stacked bilayer quantum dots are investigated and their energy levels and band gap are calculated as well. Also, we analyze the influence of the quantum dots size on their energy spectrum. It can be observed that the band gap decreases as quantum dots' radius increases. On the other hand, increase in the band gap is more in AB-stacked bilayer quantum dots. Using the obtained relations, the band gap is obtained in each state. Comparing the energy spectra obtained from the tight-binding approximation with those of our obtained relations shows that the behavior of the energies as function of the dot size is qualitatively similar, but in some cases, quantitative differences can be seen. As quantum dots radius increases, the analytical results approach to the tight-binding method results.

  4. How the optic nerve allocates space, energy capacity, and information

    PubMed Central

    Perge, Janos A.; Koch, Kristin; Miller, Robert; Sterling, Peter; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Fiber tracts should use space and energy efficiently because both resources constrain neural computation. We found for a myelinated tract (optic nerve) that astrocytes use nearly 30% of the space and more than 70% of the mitochondria, establishing the significance of astrocytes for the brain’s space and energy budgets. Axons are mostly thin with a skewed distribution peaking at 0.7µm, near the lower limit set by channel noise. This distribution is matched closely by the distribution of mean firing rates measured under naturalistic conditions, suggesting that firing rate increases proportionally with axon diameter. In axons thicker than 0.7µm mitochondria occupy a constant fraction of axonal volume -- thus, mitochondrial volumes rise as the diameter squared. These results imply a law of diminishing returns: twice the information rate requires more than twice the space and energy capacity. We conclude that the optic nerve conserves space and energy by sending most information at low rates over fine axons with small terminal arbors, and sending some information at higher rates over thicker axons with larger terminal arbors – but only where more bits/s are needed for a specific purpose. Thicker axons seem to be needed, not for their greater conduction velocity (nor other intrinsic electrophysiological purpose), but instead to support larger terminal arbors and more active zones that transfer information synaptically at higher rates. PMID:19535603

  5. Noninvasive emittance and energy spread monitor using optical synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Castronovo, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Di Mitri, S.; Kishek, R.; Tschalaer, C.; Veronese, M.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a design for a minimally perturbing diagnostic minichicane, which utilizes optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) generated from magnetic bends in the chicane, to measure the rms horizontal and vertical beam sizes, divergences, emittances, Twiss parameters and energy spread of a relativistic electron beam. The beam is externally focused to a waist at the first bend and the OSR generated there can be used to measure the rms beam size. Subsequent pairs of bends produce far field OSR interferences (OSRI) whose visibility depends on the beam energy spread and the angular divergence. Under proper conditions, one of these two effects will dominate the OSRI visibility from a particular pair of bends and can be used to diagnose the dominant effect. The properties of different configuration of bends in the chicane have been analyzed to provide an optimum diagnostic design for a given set of beam parameters to: (1) provide a sufficient number of OSR interferences to allow a measurement of the fringe visibility; (2) minimize the effect of coherent synchrotron radiation and space charge forces on the particles motion; and (3) minimize the effect of compression on the bunch length as the beam passes through the chicane. A design for the chicane has been produced for application to the FERMI free electron laser facility and by extension to similar high brightness linear accelerators. Such a diagnostic promises to greatly improve control of the electron beam optics with a noninvasive measurement of beam parameters and allow on-line optics matching and feedback.

  6. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pasquale, G.; Kim, SG; De Pasquale, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%.

  7. Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zongcheng; Gao, Runmei; Ding, Chunfeng; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Yating; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-06-01

    We propose a design and numerical study of an optically switchable metamaterial absorber in the terahertz regime. The metamaterial absorber comprises a periodic array of metallic split-ring resonators sitting back to back with an embedded semiconductor silicon. Filing the gap between the resonator arms with a semiconductor (silicon), leads to easy modification of its optical response through a pump beam which changes conductivity of Si. The conductivity of silicon is a function of incident pump power. Therefore, the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial can be tunable by applying an external pump power. The resonance peak of the absorption spectra shows a shift from 1.17 to 0.68 THz via external optical stimulus, with granting a resonance tuning range on the order of 42%. The optical-tuned absorber has potential applications as a terahertz modulator and switchable device and offer a step forward in filling the "THz gap".

  8. Third-order nonlinear optical response of energy transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mino; Fleming, Graham R.

    1999-07-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical response of energy transfer systems is theoretically investigated. A system composed of two chromophores having the same electronic transition energies is considered. The dynamics of energy transfer between the two chromophores is assumed to occur via a hopping (incoherent) mechanism. We introduce new types of pathways incorporating the hopping processes occurring while the system is in population states and reconstruct a third-order response function which is computationally viable. The nuclear propagators in the electronic population states are written as convolution integrals between those of the nonreactive two-state system weighted by some factors for the energy transfer. The response function is given by multitime correlation functions and these are analyzed by the cumulant expansion method. Based on this approach, the three-pulse photon echo peak shift for several models of energy transfer systems is discussed. It is shown that the rephasing capability of the induced signal is reduced by the memory loss due to resonant energy transfer. A previous model which incorporates resonant energy transfers in an intuitive way is reviewed and modified to supplement the loss of dynamic correlation of nuclear motion within the framework of the theory. The response function obtained by our new approach gives a more accurate description than the existing theory and a comparative discussion is given. The effect of inhomogeneity in rate constants on the third-order signal is discussed and the temperature dependence of the echo signal is examined.

  9. A Computational Investigation on Bending Deformation Behavior at Various Deflection Rates for Enhancement of Absorbable Energy in TRIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hang Thi; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel might have a high energy-absorption characteristic because it could possibly consume impact energy by not only plastic deformation but also strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during deformation. Therefore, TRIP steel is considered to be suitable for automotive structures from the viewpoint of safety. Bending deformation due to buckling is one of the major collapse modes of automotive structures. Thus, an investigation on the bending deformation behavior and energy-absorption characteristic in TRIP steel at high deformation rate is indispensable to clarify the mechanism of better performance. Some past studies have focused on the improvement of mechanical properties by means of SIMT; however, the mechanism through which the energy-absorption characteristic in steel can be improved is still unclear. In this study, the three-point bending deformation behavior of a beam specimen made of type-304 austenitic stainless steel, a kind of TRIP steel, is investigated at various deflection rates by experiments and finite-element simulations based on a constitutive model proposed by one of the authors. After confirming the validity of the computation, the rate-sensitivity of energy absorption from the viewpoint of hardening behavior is examined and the improvement of the energy-absorption characteristic in TRIP steel including its mechanism is discussed.

  10. A Computational Investigation on Bending Deformation Behavior at Various Deflection Rates for Enhancement of Absorbable Energy in TRIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hang Thi; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel might have a high energy-absorption characteristic because it could possibly consume impact energy by not only plastic deformation but also strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during deformation. Therefore, TRIP steel is considered to be suitable for automotive structures from the viewpoint of safety. Bending deformation due to buckling is one of the major collapse modes of automotive structures. Thus, an investigation on the bending deformation behavior and energy-absorption characteristic in TRIP steel at high deformation rate is indispensable to clarify the mechanism of better performance. Some past studies have focused on the improvement of mechanical properties by means of SIMT; however, the mechanism through which the energy-absorption characteristic in steel can be improved is still unclear. In this study, the three-point bending deformation behavior of a beam specimen made of type-304 austenitic stainless steel, a kind of TRIP steel, is investigated at various deflection rates by experiments and finite-element simulations based on a constitutive model proposed by one of the authors. After confirming the validity of the computation, the rate-sensitivity of energy absorption from the viewpoint of hardening behavior is examined and the improvement of the energy-absorption characteristic in TRIP steel including its mechanism is discussed.

  11. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  12. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  13. Development of A Semiconductor Laser Based High Temperature Fine Thermal Energy Source in an Optical Fiber Tip for Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Imai, Yusuke; Tei, Kazuyoku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    A new technique for generating high temperatures on the surface of an optical fiber is developed for medical applications using lower-power semiconductor lasers with output powers lower than 10 W. Using a power level of 4-6 W semiconductor laser with a pulse duration of 180 ms at a wavelength of 980 nm, a laser-coupled fiber tip was once processed to contain a certain amount of Ti with a depth of 100 µm from the tip surface so that the laser energy could be efficiently absorbed to be transferred to thermal energy. With consecutive laser pulse irradiation, the tip processed fiber (TP fiber) served as a reproducible fine heat source whose temperature was measured to be in excess 3100 K based on two-color thermometry. Processing of ceramic and niobium plate, which are hardly ablated with direct low power (6 W) irradiation, was successfully demonstrated by contacting the TP fiber excited with the same power.

  14. Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, T.

    2007-07-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

  15. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  16. Three-dimensional model of zeaxanthin binding PsbS protein associated with nonphotochemical quenching of excess quanta of light energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Haripal, Prafulla K; Raval, Hemant K; Raval, Mukesh K; Rawal, Rakesh M; Biswal, Basanti; Biswal, Udaya C

    2006-09-01

    A three-dimensional model of the PsbS protein was built with the help of homology-modeling methods. This protein is also known as CP22 and is associated with the protection of photosystem II of thylakoid from excess quanta of light energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. PsbS is reported to bind two molecules of zeaxanthin at low pH (<5.0) and is believed to be essential for rapid nonphotochemical quenching (qE) of chlorophyll a fluorescence in photosystem II. An attempt was made to explain the pH modulation of the conformation of protein through salt-bridges Glu(-)(122)-Lys(+)(113) and Glu(-)(226)-Lys(+)(217). Binding of two molecules of zeaxanthin in the three-dimensional model of PsbS is postulated. The molecular mechanism of photoprotection by PsbS is explained through the model. PMID:16538483

  17. Design of a reusable kinetic energy absorber for an astronaut safety tether to be used during extravehicular activities on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borthwick, Dawn E.; Cronch, Daniel F.; Nixon, Glen R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design a reusable safety device for a waist tether which will absorb the kinetic energy of an astronaut drifting away from the Space Station. The safety device must limit the tension of the tether line in order to prevent damage to the astronaut's space suit or to the structure of the spacecraft. The tether currently used on shuttle missions must be replaced after the safety feature has been developed. A reusable tether for the Space Station would eliminate the need for replacement tethers, conserving space and mass. This report presents background information, scope and limitations, methods of research and development, alternative designs, a final design solution and its evaluation, and recommendations for further work.

  18. Dynamics and energy exchanges between a linear oscillator and a nonlinear absorber with local and global potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlemagne, S.; Lamarque, C.-H.; Ture Savadkoohi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamical behavior of a two degree-of-freedom system made up of a linear oscillator and a coupled nonlinear energy sink with nonlinear global and local potentials is studied. The nonlinear global potential of the energy sink performs direct interactions with the linear oscillator, while its local potential depends only on its own behavior during vibratory energy exchanges between two oscillators. A time multiple scale method around 1:1:1 resonance is used to detect slow invariant manifold of the system, its equilibrium and singular points. Detected equilibrium points permit us to predict periodic regime(s) while singular points can lead the system to strongly modulated responses characterized by persistent bifurcations. Several possible scenarios occurring during these strongly modulated regimes are highlighted. All analytical predictions are compared with those which are obtained by direct numerical integration of system equations.

  19. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%). PMID:27131714

  20. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  1. Deep absorbing porphyrin small molecule for high-performance organic solar cells with very low energy losses.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke; Li, Lisheng; Lai, Tianqi; Xiao, Liangang; Huang, Yuan; Huang, Fei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Janssen, René A J; Peng, Xiaobin

    2015-06-17

    We designed and synthesized the DPPEZnP-TEH molecule, with a porphyrin ring linked to two diketopyrrolopyrrole units by ethynylene bridges. The resulting material exhibits a very low energy band gap of 1.37 eV and a broad light absorption to 907 nm. An open-circuit voltage of 0.78 V was obtained in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells, showing a low energy loss of only 0.59 eV, which is the first report that small molecule solar cells show energy losses <0.6 eV. The optimized solar cells show remarkable external quantum efficiency, short circuit current, and power conversion efficiency up to 65%, 16.76 mA/cm(2), and 8.08%, respectively, which are the best values for BHJ solar cells with very low energy losses. Additionally, the morphology of DPPEZnP-TEH neat and blend films with PC61BM was studied thoroughly by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, resonant soft X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy under different fabrication conditions. PMID:26035342

  2. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  3. Application of the ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms to internal dosimetry: calculation of specific absorbed fractions of energy for photons and electrons.

    PubMed

    Hadid, L; Desbrée, A; Schlattl, H; Franck, D; Blanchardon, E; Zankl, M

    2010-07-01

    The emission of radiation from a contaminated body region is connected with the dose received by radiosensitive tissue through the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of emitted energy, which is therefore an essential quantity for internal dose assessment. A set of SAFs were calculated using the new adult reference computational phantoms, released by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) together with the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Part of these results has been recently published in ICRP Publication 110 (2009 Adult reference computational phantoms (Oxford: Elsevier)). In this paper, we mainly discuss the results and also present them in numeric form. The emission of monoenergetic photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV was simulated for three source organs: lungs, thyroid and liver. SAFs were calculated for four target regions in the body: lungs, colon wall, breasts and stomach wall. For quality assurance purposes, the simulations were performed simultaneously at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU, Germany) and at the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France), using the Monte Carlo transport codes EGSnrc and MCNPX, respectively. The comparison of results shows overall agreement for photons and high-energy electrons with differences lower than 8%. Nevertheless, significant differences were found for electrons at lower energy for distant source/target organ pairs. Finally, the results for photons were compared to the SAF values derived using mathematical phantoms. Significant variations that can amount to 200% were found. The main reason for these differences is the change of geometry in the more realistic voxel body models. For electrons, no SAFs have been computed with the mathematical phantoms; instead, approximate formulae have been used by both the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee (MIRD) and the ICRP due to the limitations imposed

  4. Application of the ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms to internal dosimetry: calculation of specific absorbed fractions of energy for photons and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadid, L.; Desbrée, A.; Schlattl, H.; Franck, D.; Blanchardon, E.; Zankl, M.

    2010-07-01

    The emission of radiation from a contaminated body region is connected with the dose received by radiosensitive tissue through the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of emitted energy, which is therefore an essential quantity for internal dose assessment. A set of SAFs were calculated using the new adult reference computational phantoms, released by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) together with the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Part of these results has been recently published in ICRP Publication 110 (2009 Adult reference computational phantoms (Oxford: Elsevier)). In this paper, we mainly discuss the results and also present them in numeric form. The emission of monoenergetic photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV was simulated for three source organs: lungs, thyroid and liver. SAFs were calculated for four target regions in the body: lungs, colon wall, breasts and stomach wall. For quality assurance purposes, the simulations were performed simultaneously at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU, Germany) and at the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France), using the Monte Carlo transport codes EGSnrc and MCNPX, respectively. The comparison of results shows overall agreement for photons and high-energy electrons with differences lower than 8%. Nevertheless, significant differences were found for electrons at lower energy for distant source/target organ pairs. Finally, the results for photons were compared to the SAF values derived using mathematical phantoms. Significant variations that can amount to 200% were found. The main reason for these differences is the change of geometry in the more realistic voxel body models. For electrons, no SAFs have been computed with the mathematical phantoms; instead, approximate formulae have been used by both the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee (MIRD) and the ICRP due to the limitations imposed

  5. Exact and geometrical optics energy trajectories in twisted beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; McDonald, K. T.

    2008-03-01

    Energy trajectories, that is, integral curves of the Poynting (current) vector, are calculated for scalar Bessel and Laguerre-Gauss beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The trajectories for the exact waves are helices, winding on cylinders for Bessel beams and hyperboloidal surfaces for Laguerre-Gauss beams. In the geometrical optics approximations, the trajectories for both types of beam are overlapping families of straight skew rays lying on hyperboloidal surfaces; the envelopes of the hyperboloids are the caustics: a cylinder for Bessel beams and two hyperboloids for Laguerre-Gauss beams.

  6. Optical and laser spectroscopic diagnostics for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Markandey Mani

    The continuing need for greater energy security and energy independence has motivated researchers to develop new energy technologies for better energy resource management and efficient energy usage. The focus of this dissertation is the development of optical (spectroscopic) sensing methodologies for various fuels, and energy applications. A fiber-optic NIR sensing methodology was developed for predicting water content in bio-oil. The feasibility of using the designed near infrared (NIR) system for estimating water content in bio-oil was tested by applying multivariate analysis to NIR spectral data. The calibration results demonstrated that the spectral information can successfully predict the bio-oil water content (from 16% to 36%). The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on the chemical stability of bio-oil was studied by employing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. To simulate the UV light exposure, a laser in the UV region (325 nm) was employed for bio-oil excitation. The LIF, as a signature of chemical change, was recorded from bio-oil. From this study, it was concluded that phenols present in the bio-oil show chemical instability, when exposed to UV light. A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-based optical sensor was designed, developed, and tested for detection of four important trace impurities in rocket fuel (hydrogen). The sensor can simultaneously measure the concentrations of nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and helium in hydrogen from storage tanks and supply lines. The sensor had estimated lower detection limits of 80 ppm for nitrogen, 97 ppm for argon, 10 ppm for oxygen, and 25 ppm for helium. A chemiluminescence-based spectroscopic diagnostics were performed to measure equivalence ratios in methane-air premixed flames. A partial least-squares regression (PLS-R)-based multivariate sensing methodology was investigated. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R-based multivariate calibration model matched with the

  7. Refractory plasmonics with titanium nitride: broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guler, Urcan; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Guan, Jianguo; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Kildishev, Alexander V

    2014-12-17

    A high-temperature stable broadband plasmonic absorber is designed, fabricated, and optically characterized. A broadband absorber with an average high absorption of 95% and a total thickness of 240 nm is fabricated, using a refractory plasmonic material, titanium nitride. This absorber integrates both the plasmonic resonances and the dielectric-like loss. It opens a path for the interesting applications such as solar thermophotovoltaics and optical circuits. PMID:25327161

  8. A better energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II and less photooxidative damage contribute to acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana young leaves to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Sperdouli, Ilektra; Moustakas, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Water deficit stress promotes excitation pressure and photooxidative damage due to an imbalance between light capture and energy use. Young leaves (YL) of Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimate better to the onset of water deficit (OnsWD) than do mature leaves (ML). To obtain a better understanding of this differential response, we evaluated whether YL and ML of A. thaliana exposed to the OnsWD, mild water deficit (MiWD) and moderate water deficit (MoWD), show differences in their photosynthetic performance, and whether photosynthetic acclimation correlates with leaf developmental stage. Water deficit (WD) resulted in greater photooxidative damage in ML compared to YL, but the latter could not be protected under the OnsWD or MiWD, but only under MoWD. YL of A. thaliana with signs of photosynthetic acclimation under MoWD retained higher maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. YL under MoWD, show a reduced excitation pressure and a better balance between light capture and photochemical energy use, which contributed to their photoprotection, but only under low light intensity (LL, 130μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) and not under high light (HL, 1200μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)). In conclusion, leaf developmental stage was correlated with photo-oxidative damage and a differential allocation of absorbed light energy in photosystem II (PSII) of Arabidopsis leaves under WD. PMID:24709149

  9. Energy spectrum of the optical polaron at finite total momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, B.; Kalina, F.

    1999-10-01

    In the following discussion we are concerned with the standard Fröhlich model for an optical polaron. We clarify the qualitative properties of the energy spectrum for arbitrary total momentum Q. Concerning the ground-state energy, we establish an effective lower bound. Until now, we have to assume that the electron-phonon coupling parameter α does not exceed a specified positive value. Using this bound, we demonstrate that the ground-state energy coincides with the continuum edge for \\|Q\\|>=\\|QC\\|, QC being finite. Consequently, it is only for \\|Q\\|<\\|QC\\| that an isolated ground state exists at all. This behavior is strikingly different from that of the corresponding system in lower dimensions, which has been analyzed previously by other authors, the discussion of the three-dimensional case remaining incomplete. Concerning the overall behavior of the ground-state energy as a function of Q and α, we find an increase (strict decrease) with increasing \\|Q\\|(α). In addition, we present an approach to the excited states. Interestingly enough, this can be based entirely on the knowledge of the ground-state energy and ground-state wave function.

  10. Modelling Absorbent Phenomena of Absorbent Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeb, S.; Ladhari, N.; Ben Hassen, M.; Sakli, F.

    Absorption, retention and strike through time, as evaluating criteria of absorbent structures quality were studied. Determination of influent parameters on these criteria were realized by using the design method of experimental sets. In this study, the studied parameters are: Super absorbent polymer (SAP)/fluff ratio, compression and the porosity of the non woven used as a cover stock. Absorption capacity and retention are mostly influenced by SAP/fluff ratio. However, strike through time is affected by compression. Thus, a modelling of these characteristics in function of the important parameter was established.

  11. Energy-efficient extensions in passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziwilowicz, Robert; Benitez, Jose Gama; Hall, Trevor J.

    2011-08-01

    The rapidly growing popularity of internet-based services has increased the number of end users that are connected to access networks every year. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have to deal with an increasing density of access networks in urban areas and extended reach of the network in remote locations. Existing public network infrastructure requires new energy efficient and cost effective extension technologies to accommodate new subscribers and to provide the required bandwidth for new services such as High Definition TV or Video on Demand. This paper presents a study of the low power Optical Semiconductor Amplifier (SOA). The most important characteristics of the SOA are presented and compared with other technologies such as Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA). Aspects of the energy consumption are discussed and potential problems related to the SOA implementation are presented.

  12. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  13. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  14. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  15. Colloidal particles driven across periodic optical-potential-energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, Michael P. N.; Straube, Arthur V.; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.; Dullens, Roel P. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the motion of colloidal particles driven by a constant force over a periodic optical potential energy landscape. First, the average particle velocity is found as a function of the driving velocity and the wavelength of the optical potential energy landscape. The relationship between average particle velocity and driving velocity is found to be well described by a theoretical model treating the landscape as sinusoidal, but only at small trap spacings. At larger trap spacings, a nonsinusoidal model for the landscape must be used. Subsequently, the critical velocity required for a particle to move across the landscape is determined as a function of the wavelength of the landscape. Finally, the velocity of a particle driven at a velocity far exceeding the critical driving velocity is examined. Both of these results are again well described by the two theoretical routes for small and large trap spacings, respectively. Brownian motion is found to have a significant effect on the critical driving velocity but a negligible effect when the driving velocity is high.

  16. Energy Calibration of the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Chamber (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. C.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T.; Roberts, F. E.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Takahashi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL) detector is designed to make direct measures of the primary cosmic ray spectrum from -200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. The primary particles are resolved into groups according to their charge (p, He, CNO, Medium Z, Heavy Z) using both active and passive components integrated into the detector. The principal part of SOFCAL is a thin ionization calorimeter that measures the electromagnetic cascades that result from these energetic particles interacting in the detector. The calorimeter is divided into two sections: a thin passive emulsion/x-ray film calorimeter, and a fiber calorimeter that uses crossing layers of small scintillating optical fibers to sample the energy deposition of the cascades. The energy determination is made by fitting the fiber data to transition curves generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The fiber data must first be calibrated using the electron counts from the emulsion plates in the calorimeter for a small number of events. The technique and results of this calibration will be presented together with samples of the data from a balloon flight.

  17. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  18. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Isidoro E.

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  19. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  20. Energy-Efficient Next-Generation Passive Optical Networks Based on Sleep Mode and Heuristic Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulai, Luis G. T.; Durand, Fábio R.; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an energy-efficiency mechanism for next-generation passive optical networks is investigated through heuristic particle swarm optimization. Ten-gigabit Ethernet-wavelength division multiplexing optical code division multiplexing-passive optical network next-generation passive optical networks are based on the use of a legacy 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network with the advantage of using only an en/decoder pair of optical code division multiplexing technology, thus eliminating the en/decoder at each optical network unit. The proposed joint mechanism is based on the sleep-mode power-saving scheme for a 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network, combined with a power control procedure aiming to adjust the transmitted power of the active optical network units while maximizing the overall energy-efficiency network. The particle swarm optimization based power control algorithm establishes the optimal transmitted power in each optical network unit according to the network pre-defined quality of service requirements. The objective is controlling the power consumption of the optical network unit according to the traffic demand by adjusting its transmitter power in an attempt to maximize the number of transmitted bits with minimum energy consumption, achieving maximal system energy efficiency. Numerical results have revealed that it is possible to save 75% of energy consumption with the proposed particle swarm optimization based sleep-mode energy-efficiency mechanism compared to 55% energy savings when just a sleeping-mode-based mechanism is deployed.

  1. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Rodriguez, M.; Cramer, A.; Garcia, I.; Gaskin, J.; Chavis, K.; Smith, L.

    2012-12-01

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun (during the day) and astrophysical targets (at night) during a single flight. HEROES will use grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive detectors to make new high energy (>20 keV) observations of the Sun in order to understand particle acceleration in solar flares. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing 110 grazing incidence replicated optics, mounted on a carbon-fiber-Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of focal-plane detectors (high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters). The solar science objectives for HEROES are to (1) investigate electron acceleration in the non-flaring solar corona by searching for the hard X-ray signature of energetic electrons and to (2) investigate the acceleration and transport of energetic electrons in solar flares. HEROES will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec (FWHM) and will have a sensitivity up to ~100 times better than RHESSI at 20 keV. During 6 hours of solar observations (a minimum requirement for a typical balloon flight), HEROES has a ~75% chance of observing at least one flare with a GOES class above C1, and a ~20% chance of at least one flare above M1. HEROES is expected to observe the faint HXR emission from electrons streaming down the legs of magnetic loops or escaping along open magnetic field lines. Information from this flight will be used to design of a new balloon payload (SuperHERO) capable of capable of observing the Sun for 2-4 weeks using a Long Duration Balloon. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering

  2. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, A. Y.; Rodriguez, M.; Cramer, A.; Gregory, K.; Gaskin, J.; Chavis, K.; Smith, L.; HOPE/HEROES Team

    2013-07-01

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun (during the day) and astrophysical targets (at night) during a single flight. HEROES will use grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive detectors to make new high energy 20 keV to 75 keV) observations of the Sun in order to understand particle acceleration in solar flares. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing 109 grazing incidence replicated optics, mounted on a carbon-fiber-Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of focal-plane detectors (high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters). HEROES will investigate electron acceleration and transport in the solar corona both in the solar flares and in the non-flaring quiet Sun. HEROES will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec (FWHM) and will have a sensitivity up to ~50 times better than RHESSI at 20 keV. During 6 hours of solar observations (a minimum requirement for a typical balloon flight), HEROES has a ~75% chance of observing at least one flare with a GOES class above C1, and a ~20% chance of at least one flare above M1. HEROES is expected to observe the faint HXR emission from electrons streaming down the legs of magnetic loops or escaping along open magnetic field lines. Experience on this flight will be used to design of new balloon payload (Super HERO) capable of capable of observing the Sun for 2-4 weeks using a Long Duration Balloon (LDB). This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer, and Office of the Chief

  3. All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Cha, Yong-Ho; Jeong, Do-Young; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate a dissipative soliton fiber laser with high pulse energy (>30 nJ) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). In-line SA that evanescently interacts with the high quality SWCNT/polymer composite film was fabricated under optimized conditions, increasing the damage threshold of the saturation fluence of the SA to 97 mJ/cm(2). An Er-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser operating at net normal intra-cavity dispersion was built including the fabricated in-line SA. The laser stably delivers linearly chirped pulses with a pulse duration of 12.7 ps, and exhibits a spectral bandwidth of 12.1 nm at the central wavelength of 1563 nm. Average power of the laser output is measured as 335 mW at an applied pump power of 1.27 W. The corresponding pulse energy is estimated to be 34 nJ at the fundamental repetition rate of 9.80 MHz; this is the highest value, to our knowledge, reported in all-fiber Er-doped mode-locked laser using an SWCNT-SA. PMID:25321735

  4. Predicting the Dynamic Crushing Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber Using Solid-Element-Based Models in LS-DYNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study that was performed as part of the development of an externally deployable energy absorber (DEA) concept. The concept consists of a composite honeycomb structure that can be stowed until needed to provide energy attenuation during a crash event, much like an external airbag system. One goal of the DEA development project was to generate a robust and reliable Finite Element Model (FEM) of the DEA that could be used to accurately predict its crush response under dynamic loading. The results of dynamic crush tests of 50-, 104-, and 68-cell DEA components are presented, and compared with simulation results from a solid-element FEM. Simulations of the FEM were performed in LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) to compare the capabilities of three different material models: MAT 63 (crushable foam), MAT 26 (honeycomb), and MAT 126 (modified honeycomb). These material models are evaluated to determine if they can be used to accurately predict both the uniform crushing and final compaction phases of the DEA for normal and off-axis loading conditions

  5. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  6. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  7. Effect of high-energy electron-beam irradiation on the optical properties of ion-beam-sputtered silicon oxynitride thin films.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Shivaprasad; Shanbhogue, Ganesh H; Nagendra, C L

    2005-10-10

    Silicon oxynitride thin films are prepared by ion-beam sputtering, and the optical properties and surface chemical composition are studied by spectrophotometric and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. It is seen that the films sputtered by use of nitrogen alone as the sputtering species from a silicon nitride target are completely transparent (k < 0.005) and have a refractive-index dispersion from 1.85 to 1.71 over the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, and the films show distinct spectral lines that are due to silicon, Si(2s), nitrogen, N(1s), and oxygen, O(1s). Sputter deposition of argon and of argon and nitrogen produces silicon-rich silicon oxynitride films that are absorbent and have high refractive indices. These films have a direct electronic transition, with a threshold energy of 1.75 eV. Electron irradiation transforms optically transparent silicon oxynitride films into silicon-rich silicon oxynitride films that have higher refractive indices and are optically absorbing owing to the presence of nonsaturated silicon in the irradiated films. The degradation in current responsivity of silicon photodetectors, under electron irradiation, is within 3% over the wavelength region from 450 to 750 nm, which is entirely due to the degradation of optical properties of silicon oxynitride antireflection coatings. PMID:16237933

  8. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging. PMID:24690713

  9. Small acousto-optic modulation for active mode locking in the iodine photodissociation laser and the effect of supplementary saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.S.; Lee, S.S.

    1985-02-01

    Active, passive, and active--passive mode locking of the iodine photodissociation laser are investigated. The peak-to-background ratio (PBR) of the acousto-optically mode-locked pulse is 85% for rf power of 5 W. Passive mode locking using BDN dye gives PBR of 75% and has inferior reproducibility. The active--passive mode locking using the two methods simultaneously is useful for the pressure broadened iodine laser line and gives a PBR of 91%. In this case the rf power required for complete mode locking is calculated to be 7 W which is much less than the required power of 11 W in using active mode locking alone.

  10. Dynamic model of optically pumped energy storage lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dynamic, complete model of optically pumped, energy storage laser media has been developed. This model predicts stored energy density and heat deposition as a function of both time and space. The relevant physics for solid state and liquid energy storage media has been considered including non-radiative loss mechanisms such as cooperative relaxation and multiphonon relaxation, and radiation loss mechanisms such as spontaneous emission and, for one particular geometry, amplified spontaneous emission. The model was applied to two energy storage media: xenon flashlamp pumped neodymium in glass and resonantly pumped (either xeF or dye) trivalent thulium in glass. For the nonradiative losses in both Nd and Tm systems classical electromagnetic cooperative relaxation theory was used. A concentration squared dependence is predicted and a 3/2 power dependence observed. The linear dependence on concentration of an impurity having a high energy vibration predicted by multiphonon decay theory was observed for Nd in phosphate glasses. This is strong evidence for stimulated phonon emission. Measured zero-doping fluorescence lifetimes were used in the model. Measured zero-doping fluorescence lifetimes were used in the model. Comparisons of predictions with experiment are presented. Finally, the model was applied to a large aperture, active-mirror configuration Nd:glass amplifier. This necessitated including the effect of ASE on the inversion density. Because of the unique geometry of the active mirror amplifier ASE could be approximated as a parasitic oscillation which clamps the inversion at a specific level determined from small signal gain measurements. Comparisons with the measured small signal performance of several active mirrors is shown and agreement is excellent. Consequently, the model has become an on-line design tool for optimization of large aperture amplifiers.

  11. Optical Properties of Mixed Nanofluids Containing Carbon Nanohorns and Silver Nanoparticles for Solar Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Sani, E; Di Ninni, P; Colla, L; Barison, S; Agresti, F

    2015-05-01

    Different kinds of nanofluids show peculiar characteristics. In this work, a mixed nanofluid consisting of single-wall carbon nanohorns and silver nanoparticles aqueous suspensions is prepared and optically characterized, in the perspective to merge the favorable optical characteristics of carbon nanohorn-based nanofluids to the good thermal properties of silver-nanofluids. For the samples, both the spectral extinction and the scattering albedo at discrete wavelengths have been investigated. The silver nanoparticle plasmonic peak in the visible range further improves the overall nanofluid sunlight absorption properties, opening interesting perspectives for using such mixed nanofluids as solar absorber and heat transfer media in solar thermal collectors. PMID:26504978

  12. Light Absorbing Organic Carbon from Wood Pyrolysis: Closure Study between Measured and Modeled Optical Properties at Controlled Relative Humidity between 40 and 95%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, F. C.; Brem, B. T.; Chen, Y.; Bond, T. C.; Rood, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Hygroscopic aerosols uptake water at increased ambient relative humidity (RH), and this changes their size, shape, and composition. This affects their optical properties, and thus their radiative forcing. Organic carbon (OC) is an important component of the aerosol system due to its ubiquity and because its hygroscopic and light absorption properties are not well understood. In this work we have modeled the hygroscopic growth and optical properties (extinction, scattering, absorption, and single scattering albedo) at three wavelengths of OC from wood pyrolysis at increasing RH from 40 to 95%. Our goal was to reproduce laboratory measurements of the optical properties, particularly absorption of OC. Measurements included hygroscopicity with an H-TDMA, extinction with an extinction cell, and scattering with a nephelometer. Absorption was calculated by difference of extinction and scattering. The κ-Köhler model was used to model the hygroscopic growth, and different refractive index mixing rules were used to model the mixing state of OC+water mixtures. The hygroscopic growth factor (κ) for OC was 0.08 ± 0.02 (corresponding to a growth factor (GF) = 1.19 ± 0.03 at 90% RH). The linear volume average mixing rule, Lorentz-Lorenz, Maxwell-Garnett, Bruggeman, and Core-Shell configuration were not able to reproduce the laboratory results. The mixing rule that was able to reproduce the structure of the absorption dependence on RH was the Dynamic Effective Medium Approximation (DEMA). Using refractive indices of m = 1.57 + 0.017i at 467 nm, 1.57 + 0.01i at 530 nm, and 1.57 + 0.002i nm at 660 nm, which were adjusted to obtain absorption measurements at dry conditions, we obtained closure at 467 nm and 530 nm wavelengths at RH from 40 to 95%, within the uncertainties of the model and the measurements. Absorption at 660 nm was very low, and it was not possible to confirm closure due to detection limitations of the measurements. Our results indicate that absorption by OC is

  13. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  14. Effect of refracted light distribution on the photoelastic generation of zero-group velocity Lamb modes in optically low-absorbing plates.

    PubMed

    Raetz, Samuel; Laurent, Jérôme; Dehoux, Thomas; Royer, Daniel; Audoin, Bertrand; Prada, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Zero-group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes are associated with sharp local acoustic resonances and allow, among other features, local measurement of Poisson's ratio. While the thermoelastic generation of Lamb waves in metal plates has been widely studied, the case of materials of low-optical absorption remains unexplored. In materials such as glasses, the generation of bulk elastic waves has been demonstrated to be sensitive to the refracted light distribution. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the effect of light refraction on the laser-based generation of ZGV Lamb modes is presented. Experiments are performed on a bare glass plate without the need for an additional layer for light absorption or reflection. Using an appropriate tilted volume source, it is shown that the laser-ultrasonic technique allows non-contact measurement of the Poisson's ratio. PMID:26723309

  15. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  16. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  17. Optical Diagnostics of Electron Energy Distributions in Low Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Amy

    2011-05-01

    Passive, non-invasive optical emission measurements provide a means of probing important plasma parameters without introducing contaminants into plasma systems. We investigate the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in argon containing inductively-coupled plasmas due to dominant role in rates of gas-phase reactions for processing plasmas. EEDFs are determined using measurements of 3p5 4 p --> 3p5 4 s emissions in the 650-1150 nm wavelength range and measured metastable and resonant level concentrations, in conjunction with a radiation model that includes contributions from often neglected but critical processes such as radiation trapping and electron-impact excitation from metastable and resonant levels. Measurements over a wide range of operating conditions (pressure, RF power, Ar/Ne/N2 gas mixtures) show a depletion of the EEDF relative to the Maxwell- Boltzmann form at higher electron energy, in good agreement with measurements made with Langmuir probes and predictions of a global discharge model. This result is consistent with predictions of electron kinetics and can be explained in terms of reduced life times for energetic electrons due to wall losses and inelastic collisions. This example highlights the potential utility of this method as a tool for probing kinetics of many types of low-temperature plasma systems, which are typically characterized by non-Maxwellian EEDFs. This work was supported by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) and by NSF Grant CBET 0714600.

  18. Enhanced luminescence excitation via efficient optical energy transfer (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, Roy; Nomenyo, Komla D.; Bercu, Bogdan; Couteau, Christophe; Sallet, Vincent; Rogers, David J.; Molinari, Michael; Lérondel, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Luminescent nanoscale materials (LNMs) have received widespread interest in sensing and lighting applications due to their enhanced emissive properties. For sensing applications, LNMs offer improved sensitivity and fast response time which allow for lower limits of detection. Meanwhile, for lighting applications, LNMs, such as quantum dots, offer an improved internal quantum efficiency and controlled color rendering which allow for better lighting performances. Nevertheless, due to their nanometric dimensions, nanoscale materials suffer from extremely weak luminescence excitation (i.e. optical absorption) limiting their luminescence intensity, which in turn results in a downgrade in the limits of detection and external quantum efficiencies. Therefore, enhancing the luminescence excitation is a major issue for sensing and lighting applications. In this work, we report on a novel photonic approach to increase the luminescence excitation of nanoscale materials. Efficient luminescence excitation increase is achieved via a gain-assisted waveguided energy transfer (G-WET). The G-WET concept consists on placing nanoscale materials atop of a waveguiding active (i.e. luminescent) layer with optical gain. Efficient energy transfer is thus achieved by exciting the nanoscale material via the tail of the waveguided mode of the active layer emission. The G-WET concept is demonstrated on both a nanothin layer of fluorescent sensitive polymer and on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots coated on ZnO thin film, experimentally proving up to an 8-fold increase in the fluorescence of the polymer and a 3-fold increase in the luminescence of the CdSe/ZnS depending of the active layer emission regime (stimulated vs spontaneous emission). Furthermore, we will discuss on the extended G-WET concept which consists on coating nanoscale materials on a nanostructured active layer. The nanostructured active layer offers the necessary photonic modulation and a high specific surface which can presumably lead to

  19. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  20. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Liping; Lany, Stephan; Kykyneshi, Robert; Jieratum, Vorranutch; Ravichandran, Ram; Pelatt, Brian; Altschul, Emmeline; Platt, Heather A. S.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Zunger, Alex

    2011-08-10

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS₂ pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe₂SiS₄ and Fe₂GeS₄, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS₂. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  1. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  2. Quantitative analysis of electron energy loss spectra and modelling of optical properties of multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet radiation regime

    SciTech Connect

    Gusenleitner, S.; Hauschild, D.; Reinert, F.; Handick, E.

    2014-03-28

    Ruthenium capped multilayer coatings for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation regime have manifold applications in science and industry. Although the Ru cap shall protect the reflecting multilayers, the surface of the heterostructures suffers from contamination issues and surface degradation. In order to get a better understanding of the effects of these impurities on the optical parameters, reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) measurements of contaminated and H cleaned Ru multilayer coatings were taken at various primary electron beam energies. Experiments conducted at low primary beam energies between 100 eV and 1000 eV are very surface sensitive due to the short inelastic mean free path of the electrons in this energy range. Therefore, influences of the surface condition on the above mentioned characteristics can be appraised. In this paper, it can be shown that carbon and oxide impurities on the mirror surface decrease the transmission of the Ru cap by about 0.75% and the overall reflectance of the device is impaired as the main share of the non-transmitted EUV light is absorbed in the contamination layer.

  3. High-energy passively Q-switched operation of Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser with a GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Han, Wenjuan; Guo, Yunfeng; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-11-16

    High-energy passively Q-switched operation of a Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser is demonstrated, with a GaAs crystal plate acting as saturable absorber. An average output power of 1.31 W at 1027 nm is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 1.92 kHz, the resulting pulse energy, duration, and peak power being respectively 0.68 mJ, 9.0 ns, and 75.6 kW. The shortest pulse duration obtained is 4.9 ns; whereas the maximum pulse energy achievable amounts to 0.83 mJ, which proves to be nearly one order of magnitude higher than ever generated from Yb or Nd lasers passively Q-switched by a GaAs saturable absorber. PMID:26698515

  4. Molecular Structure - Optical Property Relationships for a Series of Non-Centrosymmetric Two-photon Absorbing Push-Pull Triarylamine Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, Marcelo G.; Silva, Daniel L.; Malinge, Jérémy; Boujtita, Mohammed; Zaleśny, Robert; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Ågren, Hans; Canuto, Sylvio; de Boni, Leonardo; Ishow, Eléna; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on a comprehensive study of the two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of six novel push-pull octupolar triarylamine compounds as a function of the nature of the electron-withdrawing groups. These compounds present an octupolar structure consisting of a triarylamine core bearing two 3,3'-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl arms and a third group with varying electron-withdrawing strength (H < CN < CHO < NO2 < Cyet < Vin). The 2PA cross-sections, measured by using the femtosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique, showed significant enhancement from 45 up to 125 GM for the lowest energy band and from 95 up to 270 GM for the highest energy band. The results were elucidated based on the large changes in the transition and permanent dipole moments and in terms of (i) EWG strength, (ii) degree of donor-acceptor charge transfer and (iii) electronic coupling between the arms. The 2PA results were eventually supported and confronted with theoretical DFT calculations of the two-photon transition oscillator strengths.

  5. Molecular Structure – Optical Property Relationships for a Series of Non-Centrosymmetric Two-photon Absorbing Push-Pull Triarylamine Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Marcelo G.; Silva, Daniel L.; Malinge, Jérémy; Boujtita, Mohammed; Zaleśny, Robert; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Ågren, Hans; Canuto, Sylvio; De Boni, Leonardo; Ishow, Eléna; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a comprehensive study of the two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of six novel push-pull octupolar triarylamine compounds as a function of the nature of the electron-withdrawing groups. These compounds present an octupolar structure consisting of a triarylamine core bearing two 3,3′-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl arms and a third group with varying electron-withdrawing strength (H < CN < CHO < NO2 < Cyet < Vin). The 2PA cross-sections, measured by using the femtosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique, showed significant enhancement from 45 up to 125 GM for the lowest energy band and from 95 up to 270 GM for the highest energy band. The results were elucidated based on the large changes in the transition and permanent dipole moments and in terms of (i) EWG strength, (ii) degree of donor-acceptor charge transfer and (iii) electronic coupling between the arms. The 2PA results were eventually supported and confronted with theoretical DFT calculations of the two-photon transition oscillator strengths. PMID:24658327

  6. [Study of new blended chemical absorbents to absorb CO2].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lian; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Yan, Shui-Ping; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2007-11-01

    Three kinds of blended absorbents were investigated on bench-scale experimental bench according to absorption rate and regeneration grade to select a reasonable additive concentration. The results show that, among methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine (PZ) mixtures, comparing MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4 (m : m) with MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.2 (m : m), the absorption rate is increased by about 70% at 0.2 mol x mol(-1). When regeneration lasting for 40 min, regeneration grade of blended absorbents with PZ concentration of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 is decreased to 83.06%, 77.77% and 76.67% respectively while 91.04% for PZ concentration of 0. MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4(m : m) is a suitable ratio for MDEA/PZ mixtures as absorption and regeneration properties of the blended absorbents are all improved. The aqueous blends with 10% primary amines and 2% tertiary amines could keep high CO2 absorption rate, and lower regeneration energy consumption. Adding 2% 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) to 10% diethanolamine (DEA), the blended amine solvents have an advantage in absorption and regeneration properties over other DEA/AMP mixtures. Blended solvents, which consist of a mixture of primary amines with a small amount of tertiary amines, have the highest absorption rate among the three. And mixed absorbents of secondary amines and a small amount of sterically hindered amines have the best regeneration property. To combine absorption and regeneration properties, blends with medium activator addition to tertiary amines are competitive. PMID:18290495

  7. Optical intraday variability studies of 10 low energy peaked blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Bindu; Gupta, Alok C.; Joshi, U. C.; Ganesh, S.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2011-05-01

    We have carried out optical (R band) intraday variability (IDV) monitoring of a sample of 10 bright low energy peaked blazars (LBLs). 40 photometric observations, of an average of ˜4 h each, were made between 2008 September and 2009 June using two telescopes in India. Measurements with good signal-to-noise ratios were typically obtained within 1-3 min, allowing the detection of weak, fast variations using N-star differential photometry. We employed both structure function and discrete correlation function analysis methods to estimate any dominant time-scales of variability and found that in most of the cases any such time-scales were longer than the duration of the observation. The calculated duty cycle of IDV in LBLs during our observing run is ˜52 per cent, which is low compared to many earlier studies; however, the relatively short periods for which each source was observed can probably explain this difference. We briefly discuss possible emission mechanisms for the observed variability.

  8. Energy normalization of TV viewed optical correlation (automated correlation plane analyzer for an optical processor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grumet, A.

    1981-01-01

    An automatic correlation plane processor that can rapidly acquire, identify, and locate the autocorrelation outputs of a bank of multiple optical matched filters is described. The read-only memory (ROM) stored digital silhouette of each image associated with each matched filter allows TV video to be used to collect image energy to provide accurate normalization of autocorrelations. The resulting normalized autocorrelations are independent of the illumination of the matched input. Deviation from unity of a normalized correlation can be used as a confidence measure of correct image identification. Analog preprocessing circuits permit digital conversion and random access memory (RAM) storage of those video signals with the correct amplitude, pulse width, rising slope, and falling slope. TV synchronized addressing of 3 RAMs permits on-line storage of: (1) the maximum unnormalized amplitude, (2) the image x location, and (3) the image y location of the output of each of up to 99 matched filters. A fourth RAM stores all normalized correlations. A normalization approach, normalization for cross correlations, a system's description with block diagrams, and system's applications are discussed.

  9. Photochromic And Thermochromic Pigments For Solar Absorbing-Reflecting Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novinson, Thomas

    1987-11-01

    Both photochromic and thermochromic compounds were synthesized and physical measurements were made to determine coefficients of relectance, absorbance and emission. The most interesting group of thermochromic compounds are related to silver tctraiodomercurate and the most interesting photochromic compounds are substituted benzoindolinopyrospirans. The synthesis and optical reflectance and absorbance properties of other classes of compounds are also reported.

  10. Technical Note: Influence of the phantom material on the absorbed-dose energy dependence of the EBT3 radiochromic film for photons in the energy range 3 keV–18 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hermida-López, M.; Lüdemann, L.; Flühs, A.; Brualla, L.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Water is the reference medium for radiation therapy dosimetry, but for film dosimetry it is more practical to use a solid phantom. As the composition of solid phantoms differs from that of water, the energy dependence of film exposed within solid phantoms may also differ. The energy dependence of a radiochromic film for a given beam quality Q (energy for monoenergetic beams) has two components: the intrinsic energy dependence and the absorbed-dose energy dependence f(Q), the latter of which can be calculated through a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport. The authors used Monte Carlo simulations to study the influence of the phantom material on the f(Q) of the EBT3 radiochromic film (Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Wayne, NJ) for photon beams with energies between 3 keV and 18 MeV. Methods: All simulations were carried out with the general-purpose Monte Carlo code PENELOPE 2011. The geometrical model consisted of a cylindrical phantom, with the film positioned at different depths depending on the initial photon energy. The authors simulated monoenergetic parallel photon beams and x-ray beams from a superficial therapy system. To validate their choice of simulation parameters, they also calculated f(Q) for older film models, EBT and EBT2, comparing with published results. In addition to water, they calculated f(Q) of the EBT3 film for solid phantom materials commonly used for film dosimetry: RW1 and RW3 (PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany), Solid Water (Gammex-RMI, Madison, WI), and PMMA. Finally, they combined their calculated f(Q) with published overall energy response data to obtain the intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film in water. Results: The calculated f(Q) for EBT and EBT2 films was statistically compatible with previously published data. Between 10 keV and 18 MeV, the variation found in f(Q) of the EBT3 film for water was within 2.3%, with a standard statistical uncertainty less than 1%. If the quantity dose-to-water in the phantom is

  11. Engineering optical properties of semiconductor metafilm superabsorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in ultrathin layer of semiconductor has been considerable interests for many years due to its potential applications in various optical devices. In particular, there have been great efforts to engineer the optical properties of the film for the control of absorption spectrums. Whereas the isotropic thin films have intrinsic optical properties that are fixed by materials' properties, metafilm that are composed by deep subwavelength nano-building blocks provides significant flexibilities in controlling the optical properties of the designed effective layers. Here, we present the ultrathin semiconductor metafilm absorbers by arranging germanium (Ge) nanobeams in deep subwavelength scale. Resonant properties of high index semiconductor nanobeams play a key role in designing effective optical properties of the film. We demonstrate this in theory and experimental measurements to build a designing rule of efficient, controllable metafilm absorbers. The proposed strategy of engineering optical properties could open up wide range of applications from ultrathin photodetection and solar energy harvesting to the diverse flexible optoelectronics.

  12. Exciton interactions in reaction centers of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis probed by optical triplet-minus-singlet polarization spectroscopy at 1.2 K monitored through absorbance-detected magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Lous, E J; Hoff, A J

    1987-09-01

    Linear dichroic triplet-minus-singlet [LD-(T - S)] spectra of isolated reaction centers of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis have been measured at 1.2 K with the linear dichroic absorbance-detected magnetic resonance (LD-ADMR) technique for two mutually perpendicular directions of the preferred axis. The LD-(T - S) spectra have been calibrated with respect to the corresponding (T - S) spectra as a function of applied microwave power and quantitatively interpreted using the formalism of photoselection. The transition moment of the optical transition at 1007 nm makes angles of 72 degrees +/- 5 degrees and 15 degrees +/- 5 degrees with the triplet x and y spin axes, respectively. The experimental spectra have been simulated employing exciton theory and using the atomic coordinates of the resolved crystal structure of the reaction center. The spectral interpretation yields the angles between the transition moments of the various absorption bands of the (T - S) spectra and the triplet axes, and between the moments themselves, with the triplet state of the primary donor (3)P localized on the P-bacteriochlorophyll b in the "active" (L) chain. PMID:16578814

  13. Upper bounds for the yearly energy delivery of stationary solar concentrators and the implications for concentrator optical design

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.M.; Lasken, M.; Ries, H.

    1996-10-01

    Compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) type collectors have been viewed as the optimal design for totally stationary concentrators. However the CPC is ideal only for uniform incident solar flux averaged over the energy collection period. The actual yearly-averaged incident flux map turns out to be highly non-uniform, as a function of projected incidence angle, which implies that concentration can be increased markedly if optical collection efficiency is compromised. The question then becomes: what concentrator angular acceptance function is best matched to nature`s radiation flux input, and how much energy can such a concentrator deliver? The recently-invented tailored edge-ray concentrator (TERC) approach could be used to determine optimal reflector contours, given the optimal acceptance angle function. We demonstrate that totally stationary TERCs can have around three times the geometric concentration of corresponding optimized stationary CPCs, with greater energy delivery per absorber area, in particular for applications that are currently being considered for stationary evacuated concentrators with the latest low-emissivity selective coating, e.g., solar-driven double-stage absorption chillers (at around 170{degree}C) and solar thermal power generation (at around 250{degree}C). 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  15. Technology development for high-energy x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Kester, Thomas; Speegle, Chet

    2006-06-01

    We are developing hard-x-ray optics using an electroformed-nickel-replication process off superpolished mandrels. To date, we have fabricated over 100 shells for our HERO balloon payload with typical angular resolutions in the 13-15 arcsec range. This paper discusses the factors currently limiting this resolution and various developments geared towards the production of higher-resolution optics.

  16. Effect of inelastic shear stress at the interfaces in the material with a unidirectional fibrous structure on the SIF for a crack in the fiber and the energy absorbed at fiber fracture.

    PubMed

    Borovik, Alexandra V; Borovik, Valery G

    2014-06-01

    The paper suggests considering the presence of inelastic shear mechanisms in the direction of the maximum tensile stress and the absence of these mechanisms in the other directions as the main feature of a structural material of biological origin. A "cracked fiber in tube" model is used for the study of the effect of interface cohesive strength on the stress intensity factor (SIF) for a crack in the fiber and on the energy absorbed under inelastic shear at the interface of fibers at their fracture. The values of the cohesive strength of the interface between the fibers and the distance between the cracks in the fiber at which the maximum energy is absorbed at material fracture at the stage of the crack growth in the fibers are obtained. This stage precedes the pullout process of the completely fractured fibers. PMID:24566378

  17. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  18. Multiple-layer Radiation Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.; Baker, Bonnie Sue

    A structure is discussed for absorbing incident radiation, either electromagnetic (EM) or sound. Such a surface structure is needed, for example, in a highly sensitive high-frequency gravitational wave or HFGW detector such as the Li-Baker. The multi-layer absorber, which is discussed, is constructed with metamaterial [MM] layer or layers on top. This MM is configured for a specific EM or sound radiation frequency band, which absorbs incident EM or sound radiation without reflection. Below these top MM layers is a substrate of conventional EM-radiation absorbing or acoustical absorbing reflective material, such as an array of pyramidal foam absorbers. Incident radiation is partially absorbed by the MM layer or layers, and then it is more absorbed by the lower absorbing and reflecting substrate. The remaining reflected radiation is even further absorbed by the MM layers on its "way out_ so that essentially all of the incident radiation is absorbed _ a nearly perfect black-body absorber. In a HFGW detector a substrate, such as foam absorbers, may outgas into a high vacuum and reduce the capability of the vacuum-producing equipment, however, the layers above this lowest substrate will seal the absorbing and reflecting substrate from any external vacuum. The layers also serve to seal the absorbing material against air or water flow past the surfaces of aircraft, watercraft or submarines. Other applications for such a multiple-level radiation absorber include stealth aircraft, missiles and submarines.

  19. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Weiland, T L; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Sell, W D; Stanley, J A; Honig, J; Auerbach, J; Hackel, R P; Wegner, P J

    2003-11-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm{sup 2} high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics.

  20. Perfect absorbers on curved surfaces and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Alaee, Rasoul; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

    2012-07-30

    Recently perfect metamaterial absorbers triggered some fascination since they permit the observation of an extreme interaction of light with a nanostructured thin film. For the first time we evaluate here the functionality of such perfect absorbers if they are applied on curved surfaces. We probe their optical response and discuss potential novel applications. Examples are the complete suppression of back-scattered light from the covered objects, rendering it cloaked in reflection, and their action as optical black holes. PMID:23038388

  1. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  2. Modeling the Absorbing Aerosol Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Joyce; Zhang, Sophia

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to model the absorbing aerosol index and improve the biomass carbon inventories by optimizing the difference between TOMS aerosol index (AI) and modeled AI with an inverse model. Two absorbing aerosol types are considered, including biomass carbon and mineral dust. A priori biomass carbon source was generated by Liousse et al [1996]. Mineral dust emission is parameterized according to surface wind and soil moisture using the method developed by Ginoux [2000]. In this initial study, the coupled CCM1 and GRANTOUR model was used to determine the aerosol spatial and temporal distribution. With modeled aerosol concentrations and optical properties, we calculate the radiance at the top of the atmosphere at 340 nm and 380 nm with a radiative transfer model. The contrast of radiance at these two wavelengths will be used to calculate AI. Then we compare the modeled AI with TOMS AI. This paper reports our initial modeling for AI and its comparison with TOMS Nimbus 7 AI. For our follow-on project we will model the global AI with aerosol spatial and temporal distribution recomputed from the IMPACT model and DAO GEOS-1 meteorology fields. Then we will build an inverse model, which applies a Bayesian inverse technique to optimize the agreement of between model and observational data. The inverse model will tune the biomass burning source strength to reduce the difference between modelled AI and TOMS AI. Further simulations with a posteriori biomass carbon sources from the inverse model will be carried out. Results will be compared to available observations such as surface concentration and aerosol optical depth.

  3. Cleanliness and damage measurements of optics in atmospheric sensing high energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, G.A.; Chyba, T.H.; Cimolino, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Langley Research Center has several atmospheric remote sensing programs which utilize, high energy pulsed lasers. These lasers typically have many damaged optics after several million shots. Damage is defined herein as color changes and/or optical flaws seen in microscopic inspection, and does not necessarily relate to measured performance degradation of the optic. Inspections and measurements of some of these optics indicate that energy thresholds for several million shots damage is about an order of magnitude lower than that for single shot damage. Damage initiation is often at micron size areas at the coating interface, which grows and sometimes develops as erosion of the top of the coating. There is a wide range in polish and coating quality of new optics, even on different faces of the same optic. Military Standard 1246C can be used to provide overall particulate, and molecular film, or nonvolatile residue (NTVR) cleanliness scales. Microscopic inspections and photography at I0x to 500x with brightfield (perpendicular) and darkfield (oblique) illumination are useful in assigning cleanliness levels of new and in-service optics. Microextraction (effecting concentration of molecular films to small areas) provides for enhanced optical detection and surface film chemical analysis by electron-microscope energy-dispersive-spectroscopy (EDS). Similar measurement techniques can be used to characterize and document optical damage initiation and optical damage growth. Surface contamination interferes with and complicates measurements of polish and coating quality, and of optical damage. This work indicates ultrasonic cleaning, and packaging of optics in Teflon sleeves or cups is advantageous over conventional cleaning and packaging for characterization of new optics.

  4. Cleanliness and damage measurements of optics in atmospheric-sensing high-energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Cimolino, Marc C.

    1996-05-01

    Langley Research Center has several atmospheric remote sensing programs which utilize high energy pulsed lasers. These lasers typically have many damaged optics after several million shots. Damage is defined herein as color changes and/or optical flaws seen in microscopic inspection, and does not necessarily relate to measured performance degradation of the optic. Inspections and measurements of some of these optics indicate that energy thresholds for several million shots damage is about an order of magnitude lower than that for single shot damage. Damage initiation is often at micron size areas at the coating interface, which grows and sometimes develops as erosion of the top of the coating. There is a wide range in polish and coating quality of new optics, even on different faces of the same optic. Military Standard 1246C can be used to provide overall particulate, and molecular film, or nonvolatile residue cleanliness scales. Microscopic inspections and photography at 10X to 500X with brightfield (perpendicular) and darkfield (oblique) illumination are useful in assigning cleanliness levels of new and in-service optics. Microextraction (effecting concentration of molecular films to small areas) provides for enhanced optical detection and surface film chemical analysis by electron-microscope energy-dispersive-spectroscopy. Similar measurement techniques can be used to characterize and document optical damage initiation and optical damage growth. Surface contamination interferes with and complicated measurements of polish and coating quality, and of optical damage. Our work indicates ultrasonic cleaning, and packaging of optics in Teflon sleeves or cups is advantageous over conventional cleaning and packaging for characterization of new optics.

  5. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. )

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  6. Study on the energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical-network-units for next generation optical access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yunxin; Jiang, Ning; Qiu, Kun; Xue, Chenpeng

    2014-12-01

    An energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical network unit (ONU) is introduced, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption of the low-traffic operation. The energy consumption model for the ONU-interconnected optical access network (OAN) based on the electronic switch (ES) technology is established, and the energy efficiency of the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with that of the OAN using optical switch (OS). The simulation results demonstrate that the ONU-interconnected scheme can efficiently reduce the energy consumption of OAN, and it shows a good energy consumption performance under daily traffic model.

  7. Importance of the energy-dependent geometry in the 16O+ 16O optical model potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantis, G.; Ioannidis, K.; Poirier, P.

    1985-08-01

    Optical model potentials with various forms of energy-dependent geometry have been considered for the description of 16O+ 16O elastic scattering. It is shown that the variation with energy of the imaginary radius leads to a reasonable fit of the cross-section data, throughout the energy range.

  8. Optical power and energy radiated by natural lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Mason G.; Krider, E. Philip

    2013-02-01

    Calibrated measurements of the visible and near-infrared radiation produced by both negative and positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning strokes have been made at distances of 5 to 32 km in southern Arizona (AZ) and the central Great Plains using a photodiode sensor with a flat spectral response between 0.4 and 1.0 µm. Time-correlated video images (60 fps) of the channel development provided information about the types of strokes that were detected and reports from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network indicated their locations, polarities, and estimates of their peak current. In our sample of negative strokes that were suitable for analysis, there were 23 first (or only) strokes (FS), 19 subsequent strokes that created new ground contacts (NGC), and 101 subsequent strokes that re-illuminated a preexisting channel (PEC). We also analyzed 10 positive strokes (in nine flashes), and 73 of the larger impulses that were radiated by intracloud discharges (CPs). Assuming that these events can be approximated as isotropic sources and that the effects of atmospheric extinction are negligible, the peak optical power (Po), total optical energy (Eo), and characteristic widths of the sources (tcw = Eo/Po) have been computed. Median values of Po for negative FS, NGC, and PEC strokes were 1.8 × 1010 W, 1.1 × 1010 W, and 4.4 × 109 W, respectively. Median values of Eo were 3.6 × 106 J, 3.5 × 106 J, and 1.2 × 106 J, respectively. The median characteristic widths of negative FS, NGC, and PEC strokes were 229 µs, 244 µs, and 283 µs, respectively. Positive CG strokes produced a median Po, Eo, and tcw of 1.9 × 1010 W, 9.3 × 106 J, and 497 µs, respectively. Estimates of the space-and-time-average power per unit length (ℓo) in the lower portion of negative FS, NGC, and PEC channels had medians of 2.8 × 106 W/m, 3.2 × 106 W/m, and 1.4 × 106 W/m, respectively, and the median ℓo for four positive strokes was 8.8 × 106 W/m. Median values for the estimated peak

  9. Absorption-induced scattering and surface plasmon out-coupling from absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; O'Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between absorbers and plasmonic metasurfaces can give rise to unique optical properties not present for either of the individual materials and can influence the performance of a host of optical sensing and thin-film optoelectronic applications. Here we identify three distinct mode types of absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces: localized and propagating surface plasmons and a previously unidentified optical mode type called absorption-induced scattering. The extinction of the latter mode type can be tuned by controlling the morphology of the absorber coating and the spectral overlap of the absorber with the plasmonic modes. Furthermore, we show that surface plasmons are backscattered when the crystallinity of the absorber is low but are absorbed for more crystalline absorber coatings. This work furthers our understanding of light–matter interactions between absorbers and surface plasmons to enable practical optoelectronic applications of metasurfaces. PMID:26271900

  10. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya

    2016-05-24

    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  11. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    SciTech Connect

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2013-10-29

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  12. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    SciTech Connect

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2014-11-04

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  13. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  14. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  15. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  16. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  17. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-08-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  18. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  19. On the definition of absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  20. Solar absorber material reflectivity measurements at temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometti, J.A.; Hawk, C.W.

    1999-07-01

    Assessment of absorber shell material properties at high operating temperatures is essential to the full understanding of the solar energy absorption process in a solar thermal rocket. A review of these properties, their application and a new experimental methodology to measure them at high temperatures is presented. The direct application for the research is absorber cavity development for a Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS). High temperature measurements, greater than 1,000 Kelvin, are difficult to obtain for incident radiation upon a solid surface that forms an absorber cavity in a solar thermal engine. The basic material properties determine the amount of solar energy that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected and are dependent upon the material's temperature. This investigation developed a new approach to evaluate the material properties (i.e., reflectivity, absorptive) of the absorber wall and experimentally determined them for rhenium and niobium sample coupons. The secular reflectivity was measured both at room temperature and at temperatures near 1,000 Kelvin over a range of angles from 0 to 90 degrees. The same experimental measurements were used to calculate the total reflectivity of the sample by integrating the recorded intensities over a hemisphere. The test methodology used the incident solar energy as the heating source while directly measuring the reflected light (an integrated value over all visible wavelengths). Temperature dependence on total reflectivity was found to follow an inverse power function of the material's temperature.

  1. Universal empirical formula for optical transition energies of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, G. R. Ahmed; Mominuzzaman, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    A general empirical relation for calculating first seven optical transition energies of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is proposed here for the first time. The proposed formula effectively relates first seven optical transition energies of semiconducting SWCNTs with their chiral indices (n, m) through exponential form containing two specific terms (n+2m) and (2n-m). Both mod 1 and mod 2 types of semiconducting tubes are considered here over a wide diameter range from 0.4 nm to 4.75 nm. It was observed that the proposed empirical relations can predict the recent experimental data of those optical transitions with high accuracy.

  2. Analysis and Design of MEBT Beam Absorber for Project-X

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, Mohamed H.; Lebedev, Valeri; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    A beam absorber is needed for a new high power accelerator to be built in Fermilab. It is called Project-X and should replace the existing linac and the 8 GeV Booster synchrotron. The beam absorber is part of the bunch-by-bunch chopper assigned to create an arbitrary bunch sequence required by experimental program. It will be located in the middle of the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) and has to remove the unnecessary bunches from the initially uniform bunch structure supplied by 2.1 MeV CW RFQ. At nominal RFQ beam current of 5 mA, the maximum power delivered to the beam absorber is about 10 kW. Beam optics requirements result in that the length allocated to the beam absorber is short ({approx}400 mm) and the beam size is small ({sigma}{approx}2mm). That yields high power density of the beam arriving to the absorber. The paper presents the thermal and mechanical analysis of one of proposed designs.

  3. Diamond optical components for high-power and high-energy laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoikin, Eugene; Muhr, Alexander; Bennett, Andrew; Twitchen, Daniel; de Wit, Henk

    2015-02-01

    High-power and high-energy laser systems have firmly established their industrial presence with applications that span materials processing; high - precision and high - throughput manufacturing; semiconductors, and defense. Along with high average power CO2 lasers operating at wavelengths of ~ 10 microns, solid state lasers and fiber lasers operating at ~ 1 micron wavelength are now increasingly being used, both in the high average power and high energy pulse regimes. In recent years, polycrystalline diamond has become the material of choice when it comes to making optical components for multi-kilowatt CO2 lasers at 10 micron, outperforming ZnSe due to its superior thermo-mechanical characteristics. For 1 micron laser systems, fused silica has to date been the most popular optical material owing to its outstanding optical properties. This paper characterizes high - power / high - energy performance of anti-reflection coated optical windows made of different grades of diamond (single crystal, polycrystalline) and of fused silica. Thermo-optical modeling results are also presented for water cooled mounted optical windows. Laser - induced damage threshold tests are performed and analyzed. It is concluded that diamond is a superior optical material for working with extremely high-power and high-energy laser beams at 1 micron wavelength.

  4. Mechanical and electronic energy eigenstates of neutral Rb atoms in deep optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuzner, Andreas; Koerber, Matthias; Morin, Olivier; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Optical lattices allow for tight three-dimensional confinement of neutral atoms in quasi-harmonic potentials and have become a standard tool in experimental quantum optics. Applications range from fundamental topics like metrology to applications in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Here we present an experimental characterization of the motional and internal energy eigenstates of optically trapped 87Rb atoms. We implement different spectroscopy techniques based on non-destructive hyperfine state detection using an optical cavity. Applying these techniques, we observe and explain a series of effects like the decoupling of the hyperfine spin due to a tensor lightshift and mechanical effects associated with a small non-orthogonality of the lattice axes. Furthermore, we succeed to exploit the latter for optical cooling of a single atom into the two-dimensional mechanical groundstate in an environment with restricted optical access.

  5. Magnetic energy harvesting and concentration at a distance by transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Navau, Carles; Prat-Camps, Jordi; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2012-12-28

    Based on transformation optics, we introduce a magnetic shell with which one can harvest magnetic energy and distribute it as desired in space with unprecedented efficiency at an arbitrary scale. It allows a very large concentration of magnetic energy in a free space region, which can be used for increasing the sensitivity of magnetic sensors, and the transfer of magnetic energy from a source to a given distant point separated by empty space, with possible applications in wireless transmission of energy. PMID:23368564

  6. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  7. A high-energy fibre-to-fibre connection for direct optical initiation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, M. D.; Knowles, S. L.

    2012-11-01

    Direct Optical Initiation (DOI), uses a moderate energy laser to shock initiate secondary explosives, via either a flyer plate or exploding metal foil. DOI offers significant performance and safety advantages over conventional electrical initiation. Optical fibres are used to transport the optical energy from the laser to the explosive device. A DOI system comprises of a laser, one or more optical fibres, and one or more laser detonators. Realisation of a DOI system is greatly eased by the use of fibre-to-fibre connections, allowing for easy integration into bulkheads or other interfaces, such as firing tanks and environmental test chambers. Fibres to fibre connectors capable of transmitting the required energy densities are not commercially available. Energy densities in the region of 35 J cm-2 are required for initiation, above the damage threshold of typical optical fibres. Laser-induced damage is typically caused by laser absorption at the input face due to imperfections in the surface polishing. To successfully transmit energy densities for DOI, a high quality fibre end face finish is required. A fibre-to-fibre connection utilizing micro-lens array injection into a large-core, tapered optical fibre, a hermetic fibre bulkhead feedthrough, and a disposable test fibre has been developed. This permits easy connection of test detonators or components, with the complex free-space to fibre injection simplified to a single operation. The damage threshold and transmission losses of the fibre-to-fibre connection have been established for each interface.

  8. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  9. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  10. Investigation of variation of energy of laser beam on structural, electrical and optical properties of pulsed laser deposited CuO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dahiya, V. Kumar, A.; Kaur, G.; Mitra, A.

    2014-04-24

    In this paper, copper oxide (CuO) thin films have been deposited successfully by pulsed laser deposition technique using copper metal as target material. Thin films have been prepared under different energy of laser pulses ranging from 100mJ/pulse to 250 mJ/pulse. These films have been characterized for their structural, electrical and optical properties by using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Four probe method and UV spectroscopy. Morphological and structural studies show that there is increase in crystallite size with the increase in energy of laser beam. Thus resulting in improved crystallinity and degree of orientation of the CuO thin films. Optoelectrical properties show direct relation between conductivity and energy of laser beam. Optical analysis of CuO thin films prepared under different energy of laser beam shows good agreement with structural analysis. The prepared CuO thin films show high absorbance in the UV and visible range and thus are suitable candidate for thin films solar cell application.

  11. Absorber for solar power.

    PubMed

    Powell, W R

    1974-10-01

    A simple, economical absorber utilizing a new principle of operation to achieve very low reradiation losses while generating temperatures limited by material properties of quartz is described. Its performance is analyzed and indicates approximately 90% thermal efficiency and 73% conversion efficiency for an earth based unit with moderately concentrated (~tenfold) sunlight incident. It is consequently compatible with the most economic of concentrator mirrors (stamped) or mirrors deployable in space. Space applications are particularly attractive, as temperatures significantly below 300 K are possible and permit even higher conversion efficiency. PMID:20134700

  12. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Litt, Robert D.; Dongming, Qiu; Silva, Laura J.; Lamont, Micheal Jay; Fanelli, Maddalena; Simmons, Wayne W.; Perry, Steven

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  13. Parabolic Trouogh Optical Characterization at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    Solar parabolic trough power plant projects are soon to be implemented in the United States and internationally. In addition to these new projects, parabolic trough power plants totaling approximately 350 MW already exist within the United States and have operated for close to 20 years. As such, the status of the technology exists within several different phases. Theses phases include R&D, manufacturing and installation, and operations and maintenance. One aspect of successful deployment of this technology is achieving and maintaining optical performance. Different optical tools are needed to assist in improving initial designs, provide quality control during manufacture and assembly, and help maintain performance during operation. This paper discusses several such tools developed at SunLab (a joint project of the National Renewable Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories) for these purposes. Preliminary testing results are presented. Finally, plans for further tool development are discussed.

  14. RadTracker: Optical Imaging of High Energy Radiation Tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Comaskey, B J; Heebner, J E; Kallman, J S; Richards, J B

    2007-03-02

    This project examined the possibility of extending the recently demonstrated radoptic detection approach to gamma imaging. Model simulations of the light scattering process predicted that expected signal levels were small and likely below the detection limit of large area, room-temperature detectors. A series of experiments using pulsed x-ray excitation, modulated gamma excitation and optical pump-probe methods confirmed those theoretical predictions. At present the technique does not appear to provide a viable approach to volumetric radiation detection; however, in principal, orders of magnitude improvement in the SNR can result by using designer materials to concentrate and localize the radiation-absorption induced charge, simultaneously confining the optical mode to increase 'fill' factor and overlap of the probe beam with the affected regions, and employing high speed gated imaging detectors to measure the scattered signal.

  15. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  16. The ROSAT spectrum of 3C 351 - A warm absorber in an X-ray-'quiet' quasar?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio; Elvis, Martin; Mathur, Smita; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.

    1993-01-01

    3C 351 is one of the most X-ray-quiet radio quasars (alpha(ox) about 1.6). We have observed 3C 351 with the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) and find a complex X-ray spectrum which is not well reproduced by a power law plus low-energy cut-off model. Soft excess, partial covering, and 'warm absorber' models can all produce acceptable fits, although only the warm absorber model gives typical values for the high-energy continuum slope. The alpha(ox) measured by using quasi-simultaneous ROSAT, MMT, and HST observations is in the range 1.5-1.6, significantly above the average of 1.37 for a complete sample of 33 3CR quasars. If the soft excess or partial covering models are correct, 3C 351 appears X-ray-quiet in the PSPC band because it has an extremely steep or flat intrinsic high-energy spectral slope. However, if the warm absorber model is correct, the quasar is intrinsically X-ray-quiet; the normalization of the intrinsic (unabsorbed) X-ray emission is unusually low relative to the optical luminosity. We investigate the properties of our warm absorber model in some detail. The apparently complicated behavior of the fit parameters may be understood by considering the effects of changing absorbing column and ionization parameter on intrinsic power-law-spectra of different slopes.

  17. Analysis of optical near-field energy transfer by stochastic model unifying architectural dependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Makoto; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Holmström, Petter; Thylén, Lars; Huant, Serge; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-04-21

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate energy transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions in a multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) structure composed of a single layer of larger dots and N layers of smaller ones. We construct a stochastic model in which optical near-field interactions that follow a Yukawa potential, QD size fluctuations, and temperature-dependent energy level broadening are unified, enabling us to examine device-architecture-dependent energy transfer efficiencies. The model results are consistent with the experiments. This study provides an insight into optical energy transfer involving inherent disorders in materials and paves the way to systematic design principles of nanophotonic devices that will allow optimized performance and the realization of designated functions.

  18. Investigations on laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; Britten, Simon W.; Engelmann, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Within the plastic industry laser transmission welding ranks among the most important joining techniques and opens up new application areas continuously. So far, a big disadvantage of the process was the fact that the joining partners need different optical properties. Since thermoplastics are transparent for the radiation of conventional beam sources (800- 1100 nm) the absorbance of one of the joining partners has to be enhanced by adding an infrared absorber (IR-absorber). Until recently, welding of absorber-free parts has not been possible. New diode lasers provide a broad variety of wavelengths which allows exploiting intrinsic absorption bands of thermoplastics. The use of a proper wavelength in combination with special optics enables laser welding of two optically identical polymer parts without absorbers which can be utilized in a large number of applications primarily in the medical and food industry, where the use of absorbers usually entails costly and time-consuming authorization processes. In this paper some aspects of the process are considered as the influence of the focal position, which is crucial when both joining partners have equal optical properties. After a theoretical consideration, an evaluation is carried out based on welding trials with polycarbonate (PC). Further aspects such as gap bridging capability and the influence of thickness of the upper joining partner are investigated as well.

  19. Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiant Energy (OSPREy): Calibration and Validation of Current and Next-Generation NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Bernhard, Germar; Morrow, John H.; Booth, Charles R.; Comer, Thomas; Lind, Randall N.; Quang, Vi

    2012-01-01

    A principal objective of the Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiance Energy (OSPREy) activity is to establish an above-water radiometer system as a lower-cost alternative to existing in-water systems for the collection of ground-truth observations. The goal is to be able to make high-quality measurements satisfying the accuracy requirements for the vicarious calibration and algorithm validation of next-generation satellites that make ocean color and atmospheric measurements. This means the measurements will have a documented uncertainty satisfying the established performance metrics for producing climate-quality data records. The OSPREy approach is based on enhancing commercial-off-the-shelf fixed-wavelength and hyperspectral sensors to create hybridspectral instruments with an improved accuracy and spectral resolution, as well as a dynamic range permitting sea, Sun, sky, and Moon observations. Greater spectral diversity in the ultraviolet (UV) will be exploited to separate the living and nonliving components of marine ecosystems; UV bands will also be used to flag and improve atmospheric correction algorithms in the presence of absorbing aerosols. The short-wave infrared (SWIR) is expected to improve atmospheric correction, because the ocean is radiometrically blacker at these wavelengths. This report describes the development of the sensors, including unique capabilities like three-axis polarimetry; the documented uncertainty will be presented in a subsequent report.

  20. Absorbed dose measurements and predictions on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. V.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    The overall radiation environment of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was determined in part through the use of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) which were included in several experiments. The results given are from four experiments (A0015 Biostack, M0004 Fiber Optics Data Link, P0004 Seeds in Space, and P0006 Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement) and represent a large fraction of existing absorbed dose data. The TLD's were located on the leading and the trailing edges and the Earth end of the spacecraft under various shielding depths (0.48 to 15.4 g/sq cm). The measured absorbed doses were found to reflect both directional dependence of incident trapped protons and shielding. At the leading edge, doses ranged from 2.10 to 2.58 Gy under shielding of 2.90 to 1.37 g/sq cm Al equivalent (M0004). At the trailing edge, doses varied from 3.04 to 4.49 Gy under shielding of 11.7 to 3.85 g/sq cm (A0015), doses varied from 2.91 to 6.64 Gy under shielding of 11.1 to 0.48 g/sq cm (P0004), and a dose range of 2.66 to 6.48 Gy was measured under shielding of 15.4 to 0.48 g/sq cm (P0006). At the Earth end of the spacecraft, doses from 2.41 to 3.93 Gy were found under shielding of 10.0 to 1.66 g/sq cm (A0015). The effect of the trapped proton anisotropy was such that the western side of LDEF received more than 2 times the dose of the eastern side at shielding depths of approximately 1 g/sq cm. Calculations utilizing a directional model of trapped proton spectra predict smaller doses than those measured, being about 50 percent of measured values at the trailing edge and Earth end, and about 80 percent near the leading edge.

  1. Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

    2005-08-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

  2. Shock-Absorbent Ball-Screw Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirr, Otto A., Jr.; Meneely, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Actuator containing two ball screws in series employs Belleville springs to reduce impact loads, thereby increasing life expectancy. New application of springs increases reliability of equipment in which ball screws commonly used. Set of three springs within lower screw of ball-screw mechanism absorbs impacts that result when parts reach their upper and lower limits of movement. Mechanism designed with Belleville springs as shock-absorbing elements because springs have good energy-to-volume ratio and easily stacked to attain any stiffness and travel.

  3. Wavelength-tunable microbolometers with metamaterial absorbers.

    PubMed

    Maier, Thomas; Brückl, Hubert

    2009-10-01

    Microbolometers are modified by metallic resonant absorber elements, leading to an enhanced responsivity at selectable wavelengths. The dissipative energy absorption of tailored metamaterials allows for engineering the response of conventional bolometer microbridges. The absorption peak position and height are determined by the geometry of the metamaterial. Square-shaped metal/dielectric/metal stacks as absorber elements show spectral resonances at wavelengths between 4.8 and 7.0 microm in accordance with numerical simulations. Total peak absorptions of 0.8 are obtained. The metamaterial modified bolometers are suitable for multispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-IR and terahertz regime. PMID:19794799

  4. No Photon Left Behind: Advanced Optics at ARPA-E for Buildings and Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, Howard M.

    2015-04-01

    Key technology challenges in building efficiency and solar energy utilization require transformational optics, plasmonics and photonics technologies. We describe advanced optical technologies funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy. Buildings technologies include a passive daytime photonic cooler, infra-red computer vision mapping for energy audit, and dual-band electrochromic windows based on plasmonic absorption. Solar technologies include novel hybrid energy converters that combine high-efficiency photovoltaics with concentrating solar thermal collection and storage. Because the marginal cost of thermal energy storage is low, these systems enable generation of inexpensive and dispatchable solar energy that can be deployed when the sun doesn't shine. The solar technologies under development include nanoparticle plasmonic spectrum splitting, Rugate filter interference structures and photovoltaic cells that can operate efficiently at over 400° C.

  5. Electron optics of spheroid charged particle energy analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubric, D.; Kholine, N.; Konishi, I.

    2011-07-01

    A new class of charged particle energy analyzers, spheroid energy analyzers (SEA) that are characterized with very high energy resolution and transmission, is presented. A prototype analyzer was built that has achieved a relative energy resolution of 0.05% at a transmission of 21% out of a 2π steradian. A very high order of focusing of these analyzers is presented via simulation that indicates the existence of 13th order focusing in one of our models. This promises further improvements in energy resolution in future practical analyzer embodiments. A novel geometrical framework is presented, which describes SEA analyzers in general terms within which well known types of analyzers CMA and CHA appear to be only particular examples.

  6. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  7. Large-energy, narrow-bandwidth laser pulse at 1645 nm in a diode-pumped Er:YAG solid-state laser passively Q-switched by a monolayer graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong; Tang, Pinghua; Chen, Yu; Chen, Shuqing; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-01-10

    Nonlinear transmission parameters of monolayer graphene at 1645 nm were obtained. Based on the monolayer graphene saturable absorber, a 1532 nm LD pumped 1645 nm passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser was demonstrated. Under the pump power of 20.8 W, a 1645 nm Q-switched pulse with FWHM of 0.13 nm (without the use of etalon) and energy of 13.5 μJ per pulse can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy for graphene-based passively Q-switched Er:YAG laseroperating at 1645 nm, suggesting the potentials of graphene materials for high-energy solid-state laser applications. PMID:24514058

  8. Efficient Optical Energy Harvesting in Self-Accelerating Beams

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Domenico; Hu, Yi; Wetzel, Benjamin; Robles, Raul A.; Mendoza González, Gregorio; Marti-Panameño, Erwin A.; Chen, Zhigang; Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of energetically confined self-accelerating optical beams propagating along various convex trajectories. We show that, under an appropriate transverse compression of their spatial spectra, these self-accelerating beams can exhibit a dramatic enhancement of their peak intensity and a significant decrease of their transverse expansion, yet retaining both the expected acceleration profile and the intrinsic self-healing properties. We found our experimental results to be in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. We expect further applications in such contexts where power budget and optimal spatial confinement can be important limiting factors. PMID:26299360

  9. Efficient Optical Energy Harvesting in Self-Accelerating Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, Domenico; Hu, Yi; Wetzel, Benjamin; Robles, Raul A.; Mendoza González, Gregorio; Marti-Panameño, Erwin A.; Chen, Zhigang; Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of energetically confined self-accelerating optical beams propagating along various convex trajectories. We show that, under an appropriate transverse compression of their spatial spectra, these self-accelerating beams can exhibit a dramatic enhancement of their peak intensity and a significant decrease of their transverse expansion, yet retaining both the expected acceleration profile and the intrinsic self-healing properties. We found our experimental results to be in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. We expect further applications in such contexts where power budget and optimal spatial confinement can be important limiting factors.

  10. Multimodal optical imaging system for in vivo investigation of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Gorczynska, Iwona; Fujimoto, James G.; Boas, David A.; Sakadžić, Sava

    2015-01-01

    Improving our understanding of brain function requires novel tools to observe multiple physiological parameters with high resolution in vivo. We have developed a multimodal imaging system for investigating multiple facets of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in small animals. The system was custom designed and features multiple optical imaging capabilities, including 2-photon and confocal lifetime microscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser speckle imaging, and optical intrinsic signal imaging. Here, we provide details of the system’s design and present in vivo observations of multiple metrics of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism, including oxygen partial pressure, microvascular blood flow, and NADH autofluorescence. PMID:26713212

  11. Multimodal optical imaging system for in vivo investigation of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Gorczynska, Iwona; Fujimoto, James G; Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava

    2015-12-01

    Improving our understanding of brain function requires novel tools to observe multiple physiological parameters with high resolution in vivo. We have developed a multimodal imaging system for investigating multiple facets of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in small animals. The system was custom designed and features multiple optical imaging capabilities, including 2-photon and confocal lifetime microscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser speckle imaging, and optical intrinsic signal imaging. Here, we provide details of the system's design and present in vivo observations of multiple metrics of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism, including oxygen partial pressure, microvascular blood flow, and NADH autofluorescence. PMID:26713212

  12. High-speed Light Peak optical link for high energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, F. X.; Chiang, F.; Deng, B.; Hou, J.; Hou, S.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Teng, P. K.; Wang, C. H.; Xu, T.; Ye, J.

    2014-11-01

    Optical links provide high speed data transmission with low mass fibers favorable for applications in high energy experiments. We report investigation of a compact Light Peak optical engine designed for data transmission at 4.8 Gbps. The module is assembled with bare die VCSEL, PIN diodes and a control IC aligned within a prism receptacle for light coupling to fiber ferrule. Radiation damage in the receptacle was examined with 60Co gamma ray. Radiation induced single event effects in the optical engine were studied with protons, neutrons and X-ray tests.

  13. Refractive optical elements and optical system for high energy x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Altapova, V.; Baumbach, T.; Kluge, M.; Last, A.; Marschall, F.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Vogt, H.

    2012-05-17

    In material science, X-ray radiation with photon energies above 25 keV is used because of its penetration into high density materials. Research of the inner structure of novel materials, such as electrodes in high power batteries for engines, require X-ray microscopes operating in the hard X-ray energy range. A flexible X-ray microscope for hard X-rays with photon energies higher than 25 keV will be realized at the synchrotron source ANKA in Karlsruhe, Germany. The device will use refractive X-ray lenses as condenser as well as objective lenses.

  14. An extremely wideband and lightweight metamaterial absorber

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Pei, Zhibin; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Zhang, Anxue; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional microwave metamaterial absorber based on the stand-up resistive film patch array. The absorber has wideband absorption, lightweight, and polarization-independent properties. Our design comes from the array of unidirectional stand-up resistive film patches backed by a metallic plane, which can excite multiple standing wave modes. By rolling the resistive film patches as a square enclosure, we obtain the polarization-independent property. Due to the multiple standing wave modes, the most incident energy is dissipated by the resistive film patches, and thus, the ultra-wideband absorption can be achieved by overlapping all the absorption modes at different frequencies. Both the simulated and experimental results show that the absorber possesses a fractional bandwidth of 148.2% with the absorption above 90% in the frequency range from 3.9 to 26.2 GHz. Moreover, the proposed absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.062 g/cm2, which is approximately equivalent to that of eight stacked standard A4 office papers. It is expected that our proposed absorber may find potential applications such as electromagnetic interference and stealth technologies. PMID:26130845

  15. An extremely wideband and lightweight metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pei, Zhibin; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Zhang, Anxue; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional microwave metamaterial absorber based on the stand-up resistive film patch array. The absorber has wideband absorption, lightweight, and polarization-independent properties. Our design comes from the array of unidirectional stand-up resistive film patches backed by a metallic plane, which can excite multiple standing wave modes. By rolling the resistive film patches as a square enclosure, we obtain the polarization-independent property. Due to the multiple standing wave modes, the most incident energy is dissipated by the resistive film patches, and thus, the ultra-wideband absorption can be achieved by overlapping all the absorption modes at different frequencies. Both the simulated and experimental results show that the absorber possesses a fractional bandwidth of 148.2% with the absorption above 90% in the frequency range from 3.9 to 26.2 GHz. Moreover, the proposed absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.062 g/cm2, which is approximately equivalent to that of eight stacked standard A4 office papers. It is expected that our proposed absorber may find potential applications such as electromagnetic interference and stealth technologies.

  16. Energy-efficient WDM-OFDM-PON employing shared OFDM modulation modules in optical line terminal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Kongtao; Su, Yikai

    2012-03-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to improve the energy efficiency of wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). By using an N × M opto-mechanic switch in optical line terminal (OLT), an OFDM modulation module is shared by several channels to deliver data to multiple users with low traffic demands during non-peak hours of the day, thus greatly reducing the number of operating devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. An experiment utilizing one OFDM modulation module to serve three optical network units (ONUs) in a WDM-OFDM-PON is performed to verify the feasibility of our proposal. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation show that the proposed scheme can achieve a saving of 23.6% in the energy consumption of the OFDM modulation modules compared to conventional WDM-OFDM-PON. PMID:22453478

  17. The Ringo2 Optical Polarisation Catalogue of 13 High-Energy Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barres de Almeida, Ulisses; Jermak, Helen; Mundell, Carole; Lindfors, Elina; Nilsson, Kari; Steele, Iain

    2015-08-01

    We present the findings of the Ringo2 3-year survey of 13 blazars (3 FSRQs and 10 BL Lacs) with regular coverage and reasonably fast cadence of one to three observations a week. Ringo2 was installed on the Liverpool Robotic Telescope (LT) on the Canary Island of La Palma between 2009 and 2012 and monitored thirteen high-energy-emitting blazars in the northern sky. The objects selected as well as the observational strategy were tuned to maximise the synergies with high-energy X- to gamma-ray observations. Therefore this sample stands out as a well-sampled, long-term view of high-energy AGN jets in polarised optical light. Over half of the sources exhibited an increase in optical flux during this period and almost a quarter were observed in outburst. We compare the optical data to gamma (Fermi/LAT) and X-ray data during these periods of outburst. In this talk we present the data obtained for all sources over the lifetime of Ringo2 with additional optical data from the KVA telescope and the SkyCamZ wide-field camera (on the LT), we explore the relationship between the change in polarisation angle as a function of time (dEVPA/dMJD), flux and polarisation degree along with cross correlation comparisons of optical and high-energy flux.

  18. Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-01-01

    By using nanoscale energy-transfer dynamics and density matrix formalism, we demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic oscillation and random-number generation occur in a nanoscale system. The physical system consists of a pair of quantum dots (QDs), with one QD smaller than the other, between which energy transfers via optical near-field interactions. When the system is pumped by continuous-wave radiation and incorporates a timing delay between two energy transfers within the system, it emits optical pulses. We refer to such QD pairs as nano-optical pulsers (NOPs). Irradiating an NOP with external periodic optical pulses causes the oscillating frequency of the NOP to synchronize with the external stimulus. We find that chaotic oscillation occurs in the NOP population when they are connected by an external time delay. Moreover, by evaluating the time-domain signals by statistical-test suites, we confirm that the signals are sufficiently random to qualify the system as a random-number generator (RNG). This study reveals that even relatively simple nanodevices that interact locally with each other through optical energy transfer at scales far below the wavelength of irradiating light can exhibit complex oscillatory dynamics. These findings are significant for applications such as ultrasmall RNGs. PMID:25113239

  19. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lamanna, Giuseppe Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-15

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  20. Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Banakh, V A; Smalikho, I N

    2014-09-22

    Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere have been studied based on numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation for the complex spectral amplitude of the wave field by the split-step method. It has been shown that under conditions of strong optical turbulence, the relative variance of energy density fluctuations of pulsed radiation of femtosecond duration becomes much less than the relative variance of intensity fluctuations of continuous-wave radiation. The spatial structure of fluctuations of the energy density with a decrease of the pulse duration becomes more large-scale and homogeneous. For shorter pulses the maximal value of the probability density distribution of energy density fluctuations tends to the mean value of the energy density. PMID:25321700

  1. All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As energy efficiency becomes a paramount issue in this day and age, reversible computing may serve as a critical step towards energy conservation in information technology. The inputs of reversible computing elements define the outputs and vice versa. Some reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate are also universal; that is, they may be used to produce any logic operation. It is possible to find physical representations for the information, so that when processed with reversible logic, the energy of the output is equal to the energy of the input. It is suggested that there may be devices that will do that without applying any additional power. Here, we present a formalism that may be used to produce any reversible logic gate. We implement this method over an optical design of the Fredkin gate, which utilizes only optical elements that inherently conserve energy. PMID:27113510

  2. All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As energy efficiency becomes a paramount issue in this day and age, reversible computing may serve as a critical step towards energy conservation in information technology. The inputs of reversible computing elements define the outputs and vice versa. Some reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate are also universal; that is, they may be used to produce any logic operation. It is possible to find physical representations for the information, so that when processed with reversible logic, the energy of the output is equal to the energy of the input. It is suggested that there may be devices that will do that without applying any additional power. Here, we present a formalism that may be used to produce any reversible logic gate. We implement this method over an optical design of the Fredkin gate, which utilizes only optical elements that inherently conserve energy. PMID:27113510

  3. All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael

    2016-04-01

    As energy efficiency becomes a paramount issue in this day and age, reversible computing may serve as a critical step towards energy conservation in information technology. The inputs of reversible computing elements define the outputs and vice versa. Some reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate are also universal; that is, they may be used to produce any logic operation. It is possible to find physical representations for the information, so that when processed with reversible logic, the energy of the output is equal to the energy of the input. It is suggested that there may be devices that will do that without applying any additional power. Here, we present a formalism that may be used to produce any reversible logic gate. We implement this method over an optical design of the Fredkin gate, which utilizes only optical elements that inherently conserve energy.

  4. Optical and Electrical Measurement of Energy Transfer between Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots and Photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hyeson; Gulis, G.; Gupta, S.; Redding, K.; Gosztola, D. J.; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Stroscio, M. A.; Dutta, M.

    2010-08-31

    In the natural photosynthesis process, light harvesting complexes (LHCs) absorb light and pass excitation energy to photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). In this study, we have used nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) as an artificial LHC by integrating them with PSI to extend their spectral range. We have performed photoluminescence (PL) and ultrafast time-resolved absorption measurements to investigate this process. Our PL experiments showed that emission from the NQDs is quenched, and the fluorescence from PSI is enhanced. Transient absorption and bleaching results can be explained by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the NQDs to the PSI. This nonradiative energy transfer occurs in ~6 ps. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on the composite NQD-PSI samples demonstrate a clear photoresponse.

  5. Glory on Venus cloud tops and the unknown UV absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, W. J.; Petrova, E.; Shalygina, O.; Almeida, M.; Titov, D. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Ignatiev, N.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K. D.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the implications of the observations of the glory phenomenon made recently by Venus Express orbiter. Glory is an optical phenomenon that poses stringent constraints on the cloud properties. These observations thus enable us to constrain two properties of the particles at the cloud tops (about 70 km altitude) which are responsible for a large fraction of the solar energy absorbed by Venus. Firstly we obtain a very accurate estimate of the cloud particles size to be 1.2 μm with a very narrow size distribution. We also find that for the two observations presented here the clouds are homogenous, as far as cloud particles sizes are concerned, on scale of at least 1200 km. This is in contrast to previous estimates that were either local, from entry probes data, or averaged over space and time from polarization data. Secondly we find that the refractive index for the data discussed here is higher than that of sulfuric acid previously proposed for the clouds composition (Hansen, J.E., Hovenier, J.W. [1974]. J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137-1160; Ragent, B. et al. [1985]. Adv. Space Res. 5, 85-115). Assuming that the species contributing to the increase of the refractive index is the same as the unknown UV absorber, we are able to constrain the list of candidates. We investigated several possibilities and argue that either small ferric chloride (FeCl3) cores inside sulfuric acid particles or elemental sulfur coating their surface are good explanations of the observation. Both ferric chloride and elemental sulfur have been suggested in the past as candidates for the as yet unknown UV absorber (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1352-1359; Mills, F.P. et al. [2007]. In: Esposito, L.W., Stofan, E.R., Cravens, T.E. (Eds.), Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, vol. 176. AGU Monogr. Ser., Washington, DC, pp. 73-100).

  6. Photoassisted electrolysis of water - Conversion of optical to chemical energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Bolts, J. M.; Kaiser, S. W.; Ellis, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of devices, termed photoelectrochemical cells, which can, in principle, be used to directly convert light to fuels and/or electricity. The fundamental principles on which the photoelectrochemical cell is based are related to the observation that irradiation of a semiconductor electrode in an electrochemical cell can result in the flow of an electric current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the basic mechanisms involved, the energy conversion efficiency, the advantages of photoelectrochemical cells, and the results of investigations related to the study of energy conversion via photoelectrochemical cells.

  7. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  8. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  9. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7 mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple λ/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  10. Application of magnetorheological fluid in industrial shock absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milecki, Andrzej; Hauke, Mikołaj

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents investigation results of a semi-active industrial shock absorber with magnetorheological (MR) fluid, which is capable of controlling the stopping process of moving objects, e.g. on transportation lines. The proposed solution makes it possible to adjust the braking force (by electronic controller) to the kinetic energy of the moving object. The paper presents an overview of passive shock absorbers. Next, the design concept of a semi-active shock absorber with the MR fluid is proposed. The theoretical model and the simulation model of the MR absorber and the stopping process are presented. The paper reports investigations of a prototype MR shock absorber used to stop a mass moving on an inclined plane. The braking force of the absorber was changed by an electronic control system according to the current position of the moving mass. Finally, the simulation and investigation results are discussed and compared.

  11. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  12. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  13. Ultra-low energy photoreceivers for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Going, Ryan Wayne

    Optical interconnects are increasingly important for our communication and data center systems, and are forecasted to be an essential component of future computers. In order to meet these future demands, optical interconnects must be improved to consume less power than they do today. To do this, both more efficient transmitters and more sensitive receivers must be developed. This work addresses the latter, focusing on device level improvements to tightly couple a low capacitance photodiode with the first stage transistor of the receiver as a single phototransistor device. First I motivate the need for a coupled phototransistor using a simple circuit model which shows how receiver sensitivity is determined by photodiode capacitance and the length of wire connecting it to the first transistor in a receiver amplifier. Then I describe our use of the unique rapid melt growth technique, which is used to integrate crystalline germanium on silicon photonics substrates without an epitaxial reactor. The resulting material quality is demonstrated with high quality (0.95 A/W, 40+ GHz) germanium photodiodes on silicon waveguides. Next I describe two germanium phototransistors I have developed. One is a germanium- gated MOSFET on silicon photonics which has up to 18 A/W gate-controlled responsivity at 1550 nm. Simulations show how MOSFET scaling rules can be easily applied to increase both speed and sensitivity. The second is a floating base germanium bipolar phototransistor on silicon photonics with a 15 GHz gain x bandwidth product. The photoBJT also has a clear scaling path, and it is proposed to create a separate gain and absorption region photoBJT to realize the maximum benefit of scaling the BJT without negatively affecting its absorption and photocarrier collection. Following this design a 120 GHz gain x bandwidth photoBJT is simulated. Finally I present a metal-cavity, which can have over 50% quantum efficiency absorption in sub-100 aF germanium photodiodes, which

  14. Characterizing energy dependence and count rate performance of a dual scintillator fiber-optic detector for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, Matthew R. Stepusin, Elliott J.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage (kV) x-rays pose a significant challenge for radiation dosimetry. In the kV energy range, even small differences in material composition can result in significant variations in the absorbed energy between soft tissue and the detector. In addition, the use of electronic systems in light detection has demonstrated measurement losses at high photon fluence rates incident to the detector. This study investigated the feasibility of using a novel dual scintillator detector and whether its response to changes in beam energy from scatter and hardening is readily quantified. The detector incorporates a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, which has a higher sensitivity to scatter x-rays. Methods: The detector was constructed by coupling two scintillators: (1) small cylindrical plastic scintillator, 500 μm in diameter and 2 mm in length, and (2) 100 micron sheet of gadolinium oxysulfide 500 μm in diameter, each to a 2 m long optical fiber, which acts as a light guide to transmit scintillation photons from the sensitive element to a photomultiplier tube. Count rate linearity data were obtained from a wide range of exposure rates delivered from a radiological x-ray tube by adjusting the tube current. The data were fitted to a nonparalyzable dead time model to characterize the time response. The true counting rate was related to the reference free air dose air rate measured with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Radcal{sup ®} thimble chamber as described in AAPM Report No. 111. Secondary electron and photon spectra were evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques to analyze ionization quenching and photon energy-absorption characteristics from free-in-air and in phantom measurements. The depth/energy dependence of the detector was characterized using a computed tomography dose index QA phantom consisting of nested adult head and body segments. The phantom provided up to 32 cm of acrylic with a compatible 0.6 cm{sup 3} calibrated

  15. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  16. Generation of hyper-entanglement in polarization/energy-time and discrete-frequency/energy-time in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuai; Yu, Lingjie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Junjie; Zhang, Weijun; You, Lixing; Huang, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a generation scheme for telecom band hyper-entanglement is proposed and demonstrated based on the vector spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) processes in optical fibers. Two kinds of two-photon states are generated, one is hyper-entangled in the degree of freedoms (DOFs) of energy-time and polarization, the other is hyper-entangled in DOFs of energy-time and discrete-frequency. Experiments of Franson-type interference, two-photon interference under non-orthogonal polarization bases and spatial quantum beating are realized to demonstrate the entanglement in energy-time, polarization and frequency, respectively. This scheme provides a simple way to realize telecom band hyper-entanglement, which has potential for large geographic-scale applications of quantum communication and quantum information over optical fibers. PMID:25779686

  17. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  18. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  19. FEL and Optical Klystron Gain for an Electron Beam with Oscillatory Energy Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    If the energy spread of a beam is larger then the Pierce parameter, the FEL gain length increases dramatically and the FEL output gets suppressed. We show that if the energy distribution of such a beam is made oscillatory on a small scale, the gain length can be considerably decreased. Such an oscillatory energy distribution is generated by first modulating the beam energy with a laser via the mechanism of inverse FEL, and then sending it through a strong chicane. We show that this approach also works for the optical klystron enhancement scheme. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations.

  20. Exploring Light's Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, John

    2013-12-01

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO3 microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-to-center spacing was 14 μm for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-to-­center spacing was 14 μm. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-­to-­center spacing of 20 μm, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.