Science.gov

Sample records for absorbed shortwave radiation

  1. Shortwave Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassen, Steve; Bugbee, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Accurate shortwave radiation data is critical to evapotranspiration (ET) models used for developing irrigation schedules to optimize crop production while saving water, minimizing fertilizer, herbicide, and pesticide applications, reducing soil erosion, and protecting surface and ground water quality. Low cost silicon cell pyranometers have proven to be sufficiently accurate and robust for widespread use in agricultural applications under unobstructed daylight conditions. More expensive thermopile pyranometers are required for use as calibration standards and measurements under light with unique spectral properties (electric lights, under vegetation, in greenhouses and growth chambers). Routine cleaning, leveling, and annual calibration checks will help to ensure the integrity of long-term data.

  2. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  3. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  4. Slope effects on shortwave radiation components and net radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions.' The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1978-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Analysis since our last report has focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989.

  5. Shortwave Spectral Radiative Forcing of Cumulus Clouds from Surface Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Connor J.

    2011-04-02

    The spectral changes of the total cloud radiative forcing (CRF) and its diffuse and direct components are examined by using spectrally resolved (visible spectral range) all-sky surface irradiances measured by Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. We demonstrate: (i) the substantial contribution of the diffuse component to the total CRF, (ii) the well-defined spectral variations of total CRF in the visible spectral region, and (iii) the strong statistical relationship between spectral (500 nm) and shortwave broadband values of total CRF. Our results suggest that the framework based on the visible narrowband fluxes can provide important radiative quantities for rigorous evaluation of radiative transfer parameterizations and can be applied for estimation of the shortwave total CRF.

  6. First global WCRP shortwave surface radiation budget dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.; Staylor, W. F.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Ohmura, A.; Gilgen, H.; Konzelman, T.; Dipasquale, R. C.; Moats, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Shortwave radiative fluxes that reach the earth's surface are key factors that influence atmospheric and oceanic circulations as well as surface climate. Yet, information on these fluxes is meager. Surface site data are generally available from only a limited number of observing stations over land. Much less is known about the large-scale variability of the shortwave radiative fluxes over the oceans, which cover most of the globe. Recognizing the need to produce global-scale fields of such fluxes for use in climate research, the World Climate Research Program has initiated activities that led to the establishment of the Surface Radiation Budget Climatology Project with the ultimate goal to determine various components of the surface radiation budget from satellite data. In this paper, the first global products that resulted from this activity are described. Monthly and daily data on a 280-km grid scale are available. Samples of climate parameters obtainable from the dataset are presented. Emphasis is given to validation and limitations of the results. For most of the globe, satellite estimates have bias values between +/- 20 W/sq m and root mean square (rms) values are around 25 W/sq m. There are specific regions with much larger uncertainties however.

  7. First global WCRP shortwave surface radiation budget dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.; Staylor, W. F.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Ohmura, A.; Gilgen, H.; Konzelman, T.; DiPasquale, R. C.; Moats, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Shortwave radiative fluxes that reach the Earth's surface are key factors that influence atmospheric and oceanic circulations as well as surface climate. Yet, information on these fluxes is meager. Surface site data are generally available from only a limited number of observing stations over land. Much less is known about the large-scale variability of the shortwave radiative fluxes over the oceans, which cover most of the globe. Recognizing the need to produce global-scale fields of such fluxes for use in climate research, the World Climate Research Program has initiated activities that led to the establishment of the Surface Radiation Budget Climatology Project with the ultimate goal to determine various components of the surface radiation budget from satellite data. In this paper, the first global products that resulted from this activity are described. Monthly and daily data on a 280-km grid scale are available. Samples of climate parameters obtainable from the dataset are presented. Emphasis is given to validation and limitations of the results. For most of the globe, satellite estimates have bias values between +/- 20 W/sq m and rms values are around 25 W/sq m. There are specific regions with much larger uncertainties however.

  8. Angular radiation models for Earth-atmosphere system. Volume 1: Shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Staylor, W. F.; Wielicki, B. A.; Walker, I. J.; Young, D. F.; Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are shortwave angular radiation models which are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those fro the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The models consist of both bidirectional and directional parameters. The bidirectional parameters are anisotropic function, standard deviation of mean radiance, and shortwave-longwave radiance correlation coefficient. The directional parameters are mean albedo as a function of Sun zenith angle and mean albedo normalized to overhead Sun. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data sets is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the bidirectional and directional modes.

  9. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    SciTech Connect

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  10. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-Cloud Aerosols Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Yu, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It accounts for the overlapping of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure. Effects of sub-grid scale cloud and aerosol variations on DRE are accounted for. It is computationally efficient through using grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table in radiative transfer calculations. We verified that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous shortwave DRE that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4. We have also computed the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global ocean based on 4 yr of CALIOP and MODIS data. We found that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds.

  11. Characterising cloud regimes associated with the Southern Ocean shortwave radiation bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, S.; Jakob, C.; Protat, A.

    2013-12-01

    The high-latitude Southern Ocean is the site of persistent cloud biases in GCMs. A deficit of shortwave cloud radiative effect especially between 50-65S causes an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation, which has been associated with other biases in the global circulation. Recent model evaluation studies have found that the shortwave radiation bias is potentially associated with low- and mid-level clouds in the cold-air part of extratropical cyclones and ahead of transient ridges. However a coherent description of the cloud properties and cloud processes most associated with the bias has not yet emerged. This study focuses on three cloud regimes that are most frequent in the area of the shortwave radiation bias during the austral summer. They are selected from the cloud regimes derived for the Southern Ocean from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud observations. We characterise the selected cloud regimes in terms of their meteorological conditions using the ECMWF Interim reanalysis. We also study their vertical macrophysical structure and microphysical properties based on active satellite observations using the DARDAR (raDAR/liDAR) combined CloudSat and CALIPSO data product. We find that two cloud regimes identified as mid-topped in the ISCCP based data set are associated with distinct meteorological processes. An optically thin mid-level top cloud regime is related to cold mid-levels, cold-air advection and moderate subsidence, while an optically thicker cloud regime is associated with a broader range of conditions resembling weak to moderate frontal events, with warm and moist mid-levels, moderate ascent and warm-air advection. The vertical cloud structure derived from DARDAR profiles show that both these regimes contain mostly low clouds, but both also include frequent occurrences of mid-level cloud. We use a clustering method to quantify the differences in microphysical properties between the regimes. We find that the optically

  12. Spectral Signature of Column Solar Radiation Absorption During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE). Revision

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hirok, William; Gautier, Catherine; Ricchiazzi, Paul

    1999-11-01

    Spectral and broadband shortwave radiative flux data obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) are compared with 3-D radiative transfer computations for the cloud field of October 30, 1995. Because the absorption of broadband solar radiation in the cloudy atmosphere deduced from observations and modeled differ by 135 Wm{sup -2}, we performed a consistency analysis using spectral observations and the model to integrate for wavelengths between the spectral observations. To match spectral measurements, aerosols need a reduction in both single scattering albedo (from 0.938 to 0.82) and asymmetry factor (from 0.67 to 0.61), and cloud droplets require a three-fold increase in co-albedo. Even after modifying the model inputs and microphysics the difference in total broadband absorption is still of the order of 75Wm{sup -2}. Finally, an unexplained absorber centered around 1.06 {micro}m appears in the comparison that is much too large to be explained by dimers.

  13. The Spectral Signature of Cloud Spatial Structure in Shortwave Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shi

    In this thesis, we aim to systematically understand the relationship between cloud spatial structure and its radiation imprints, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) cloud effects, with the ultimate goal of deriving accurate radiative energy budget estimates from space, aircraft, or ground-based observations under spatially inhomogeneous conditions. By studying the full spectral information in the measured and modeled shortwave radiation fields of heterogeneous cloud scenes sampled during aircraft field experiments, we find evidence that cloud spatial structure reveals itself through spectral signatures in the associated irradiance and radiance fields in the near-ultraviolet and visible spectral range. The spectral signature of 3D cloud effects in irradiances is apparent as a domain- wide, consistent correlation between the magnitude and spectral dependence of net horizontal photon transport. The physical mechanism of this phenomenon is molecular scattering in conjunction with cloud heterogeneity. A simple parameterization with a single parameter epsilon is developed, which holds for individual pixels and the domain as a whole. We then investigate the impact of scene parameters on the discovered correlation and find that it is upheld for a wide range of scene conditions, although the value of epsilon varies from scene to scene. The spectral signature of 3D cloud effects in radiances manifests itself as a distinct relationship between the magnitude and spectral dependence of reflectance, which cannot be reproduced in the one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer framework. Using the spectral signature in radiances and irradiances, it is possible to infer information on net horizontal photon transport from spectral radiance perturbations on the basis of pixel populations in sub-domains of a cloud scene. We show that two different biases need to be considered when attempting radiative closure between measured and modeled irradiance fields below inhomogeneous cloud fields: the

  14. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  15. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Aaron; Armour, Kyle C; Pendergrass, Angeline G; Battisti, David S

    2014-11-25

    In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR.

  16. Shortwave and longwave radiative forcings of aerosols depending on the vertical stratification of aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Nishizawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    We investigate four scenarios for estimating shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) using the global data set of the vertical distributions for aerosols and clouds of CALIPSO and CloudSat Level 2 products. One scenario is clear-sky (cloud-free) condition and three scenarios are cloudy-sky condition: the case that aerosols exists above clouds (AAC case), and the case that aerosols exist below high clouds such as cirrus, but without clouds below the aerosol layers (ABC case), and the case that aerosols are not observed in cloudy-sky condition. In clear-sky and ABC cases, aerosols mainly scatter sunlight and SWDARFs show negative values, except for bright surfaces, such as desert regions and the North and South Poles. In AAC case, aerosols absorb the reflected light from underlying low-level clouds to TOA, so that SWDARF at TOA shows positive value. Mineral dust absorbs the Earth's radiation and LWDARF indicates strong positive over Saharan and Arabian deserts. The global mean values of SW plus LW DARFs are -2.77, -0.77, and -1.40 Wm-2 under clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky conditions.

  17. Control of Shortwave Radiation Parameterization on Tropical Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, J.; Masson, S. G.; Berthet, S.; Samson, G.; Terray, P.; Dudhia, J.; Pinsard, F.; Hourdin, C.

    2015-12-01

    SST-forced tropical-channel simulations are used to quantify the control of shortwave (SW) parameterization on the mean tropical climate compared to other major model settings (convection, boundary layer turbulence, vertical and horizontal resolutions). The physical mechanisms whereby this control manifests are explored by the means of a large set of simulations with two widely used SW schemes. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution and magnitude of the net SW radiation budget at the surface (SWnet_SFC), latent heat fluxes, and rainfall at the annual timescale. The model skill and sensitivity to the settings tested are quantified relative to observations and reanalyses and using an ensemble approach. Model skill is mainly controlled by SW parameterization, especially the magnitude of SWnet_SFC and rainfall and both the spatial distribution and magnitude of latent heat fluxes over ocean. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of continental rainfall (SWnet_SFC) is mainly influenced by convection parameterization and horizontal resolution (boundary layer parameterization and orography). Physical understanding of both the control of SW parameterization and sensitivity to SW schemes is addressed by analyzing the thermal structure of the atmosphere and conducting sensitivity experiments to O3 absorption and SW scattering coefficient. SW parameterization shapes the stability of the atmosphere in two different ways according to whether surface is coupled to atmosphere or not, while O3 absorption has minor effects in our simulations. Over SST-prescribed regions, increasing the amount of SW absorption warms the atmosphere only because surface temperatures are fixed, resulting in increased atmospheric stability. Over surface-atmosphere coupled regions (i.e., land points in our simulations), increasing SW absorption warms both atmospheric and surface temperatures, leading to a shift towards a warmer state and a more intense hydrological cycle. This turns in reversal

  18. A database on downward shortwave radiation for Africa and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, M.; Cros, S.; Albuisson, M.; Wald, L.

    2003-04-01

    Shortwave (SW) radiation is an element of the radiation budget, an essential component in climate studies. The network of stations measuring radiation is very scarce in the ocean and coastal areas.[1] and [2] demonstrate that a proper processing of satellite data provides better results than interpolation techniques. Several methods are available for the conversion of spaceborne observations made in the visible range by geostationnary satellites into SW radiation available at ocean level. Our concern is the series of Meteosat satellites that observe Africa, Europe and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean for several years. When operated on a routine basis, many of these methods exhibit several drawbacks, one of them being the poor accuracy in irradiance [3]. We designed a new method that is capable of processing long time-series of images acquired by the series of sensors aboard the Meteosat satellites. The method is using the same principle than several methods of proven quality: [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. With respect to these methods, the new one, called Heliosat-II, offers several improvements in operation and accuracy. These improvements are due to several causes: (i) the Meteosat data are calibrated and converted into radiances [12]; (ii) we use a new database of monthly values of the atmospheric optical turbidity for clear skies available on cells of 5’ of arc angle in size (SoDa Web site: http://www.soda-is.com); (iii) we use terrain elevation TerrainBase database using the same cell size (useful for land / ocean separation); (iv) a better modelling of the irradiation under clear-skies and overcast skies was performed [13]; (v) more physical description of the optical processes was made possible by the calibration step; known proven models are implemented in the method; (vi) observations of [14] were used to model the spatial distribution of radiances of the very thick clouds; (vii) changes in ocean albedo due to sun glitter are taken into account. We made

  19. Satellite estimates of shortwave surface radiation and atmospheric meteorology for the BOREAS experiment region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moats, C. D.; Whitlock, C. H.; Lecroy, S. R.; Dipasquale, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides background data for the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) sites, including daily, seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability of shortwave (SW) radiation at the Earth's surface. This background data, from the Version 1.1 SW data set, was provided by the Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Climatology Project established by the World Climate Research Program (WCRP).

  20. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2011-12-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the top (TOA) and at the bottom of atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. In this study we have considered six main types of atmospheric aerosols: desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere. The ΔF averages obtained vary from -148 ± 44 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in Central Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.86 ± 0.51) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system, contributing to the greenhouse gas effect.

  1. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the Top (TOA) and at the Bottom Of Atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. Six main types of atmospheric aerosols have been compared (desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere) in similar observational conditions (i.e., for solar zenith angles between 55° and 65°) in order to compare the nearly same solar geometry. The instantaneous ΔF averages obtained vary from -122 ± 37 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in West Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.9 ± 0.5) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  2. Intercomparison of Models Representing Direct Shortwave Radiative Forcing by Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, O.; Schwartz, S. E.; Ackerman, T. P.; Anderson, T. L.; Bergstrom, B.; Bonnel, B.; Dahlback, A.; Fouquart, Y.; Chylek, P.; Fu, Q.; Halthore, R. N.; Haywood, J. M.; Iversen, T.; Kato, S.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevag, A.; Knapp, K. R.; Lacis, A.; Laszlo, I.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of aerosols as agents of climate change has recently been highlighted. However, the magnitude of aerosol forcing by scattering of shortwave radiation (direct forcing) is still very uncertain even for the relatively well characterized sulfate aerosol. A potential source of uncertainty is in the model representation of aerosol optical properties and aerosol influences on radiative transfer in the atmosphere. Although radiative transfer methods and codes have been compared in the past, these comparisons have not focused on aerosol forcing (change in net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere). Here we report results of a project involving 12 groups using 15 models to examine radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol for a wide range of values of particle radius, aerosol optical depth, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle. Among the models that were employed were high and low spectral resolution models incorporating a variety of radiative transfer approximations as well as a line-by-line model. The normalized forcings (forcing per sulfate column burden) obtained with the several radiative transfer models were examined, and the discrepancies were characterized. All models simulate forcings of comparable amplitude and exhibit a similar dependence on input parameters. As expected for a non-light-absorbing aerosol, forcings were negative (cooling influence) except at high surface albedo combined with small solar zenith angle. The relative standard deviation of the zenith-angle-averaged normalized broadband forcing for 15 models-was 8% for particle radius near the maximum in this forcing (approx. 0.2 microns) and at low surface albedo. Somewhat greater model-to-model discrepancies were exhibited at specific solar zenith angles. Still greater discrepancies were exhibited at small particle radii and much greater discrepancies were exhibited at high surface albedos, at which the forcing changes sign; in these situations, however, the normalized forcing is

  3. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-cloud Aerosols over Ocean Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It accounts for the overlapping of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure. Effects of sub-grid scale cloud and aerosol variations on DRE are accounted for. It is computationally efficient through using grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table in radiative transfer calculations. We verified that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous shortwave DRE that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4%. We have also computed the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global ocean based on 4 yr of CALIOP and MODIS data. We found that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds.

  4. Toward Improved Solar Irradiance Forecasts: Derivation of Downwelling Surface Shortwave Radiation in Arizona from Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Holmgren, William F.; Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few decades, substantial progress has been made in the retrieval of surface shortwave radiation from satellite measurements for the Earth's energy budget as well as solar energy applications. We present a new algorithm to derive the downwelling surface shortwave radiation for the Southwestern US using geostationary satellite products. A look-up table generated by the Goddard Space Flight Center Radiative Transfer Model is employed to derive the shortwave radiation at the ground by comparing observed and modeled top of atmosphere shortwave albedo. The algorithm was compared to ground observation stations at three locations, such as the University of Arizona, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and Desert Rock, NV. For all sky conditions, the average values of root-mean-square error between the instantaneous estimates and in situ measurements ranged from 84.2 to 89.4 W m-2 and were 30 W m-2 when evaluated on daily time scales. The error statistics were considerably better for clear sky than for cloudy sky. The average values of instantaneous root-mean-square error for the clear-sky conditions range from 39.4 to 43.7 W m-2, while average root-mean-square error for the cloudy-sky conditions is between 137.0 and 141.2 W m-2.

  5. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-Cloud Aerosols Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin; Yu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It addresses the overlap of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure while also accounting for subgrid-scale variations of aerosols. The method is computationally efficient because of its use of grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table based on radiative transfer calculations. We verify that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous (approximately 1:30PM local time) shortwave DRE of above cloud aerosol (ACA) that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4 percent. We also estimate the impact of potential CALIOP aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval bias of ACA on DRE. We find that the regional and seasonal mean instantaneous DRE of ACA over southeast Atlantic Ocean would increase, from the original value of 6.4 W m(-2) based on operational CALIOP AOD to 9.6 W m(-2) if CALIOP AOD retrieval are biased low by a factor of 1.5 (Meyer et al., 2013) and further to 30.9 W m(-2) if CALIOP AOD retrieval are biased low by a factor of 5 as suggested in (Jethva et al., 2014). In contrast, the instantaneous ACA radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) remains relatively invariant in all cases at about 53 W m(-2) AOD(-1), suggesting a near linear relation between the instantaneous RFE and AOD. We also compute the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global oceans based on 4 years of CALIOP and MODIS data. We find that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds. While we demonstrate our method using CALIOP and MODIS

  6. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E Façanha

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as R(abs) = 640.0 +/- 3.1 W .m(-2). Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 +/- 2.7 W m(-2); long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 +/- 1.5 W m(-2). It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature (T*(mr)). Average T*(mr) was 101.4 +/- 1.2 degrees C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, T(mr) = 65.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Estimates of T*(mr) were considered as more reliable than those of T (mr) in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T (mr) is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  7. Estimation of shortwave radiation using MODIS products under all sky conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, K.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Shortwave radiation (Rs) is one of key components in the surface energy budget and is vitally important for climate study and many other applications such as hydrological modeling, climate monitoring, weather prediction, agricultural meteorology and air-sea-ice interaction study. The accurate monitoring of Rs is a fundamental process in various meteorological and ecological studies including estimations of net radiation, evapotranspiration, and vegetation productivity. Among numerous methods for estimating Rs, satellite remote sensing data such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradometer (MODIS) offers a promising technique for estimating Rs with 1-km pixel resolution and is useful to monitor regional or global energy balance and land surface biophysical processes. But it is hampered by frequent cloud contamination. The missing data due to cloud contamination in some pixels identified as a major factor contributing to the low retrieval rate of Rs. The objective of this study, therefore, is estimation of Rs using MODIS atmosphere and land products under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Under clear sky condition, Rs is estimated using a combination of MODIS04, MODIS06, MODIS07, and MODIS43 products. To estimate Rs under cloudy sky condition, MODIS06 cloud product and MODIS04 aerosol product are utilized. Incoming shortwave radiation (Rsd) is estimated by using cloud fraction and cloud optical thickness with potential clear sky shortwave radiation, which can be calculated by using atmospheric transmittance and extraterrestrial shortwave radiation. Outgoing shortwave radiation (Rsup) is calculated by applying MODIS43 albedo data to the Rsd. Incoming shortwave radiation derived from MODIS products for cloudy condition is validated by both 22 National Weather Stations (NWS), which showed good agreements. Also we compared MODIS-based Rsd and Rsup with two flux tower observations for 2006 in Korea. The results showed good accuracy with +12.60 (112.81) W m-2 of bias

  8. Thirty-Five Year Record of Shortwave TOA radiative cloud forcing from SBUV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, C. J.; Herman, J. R.; Labow, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    A thirty-five year record (1980-2014) of Shortwave TOA radiative cloud forcing is derived from UV Lambertian-Equivalent (LER) reflectivity data constructed using measured upwelling radiances from Nimbus-7 SBUV and seven NOAA SBUV/2 polar orbiting instruments. The approach is to scale the dimensionless UV LER data to match the CERES Shortwave Cloud radiative forcing when they are concurrent (2000-2014). The derived scaling factors are then used to produces a CERES-proxy of SW cloud forcing back to 1980. The good agreement between trends and anomalies of the CERES-proxy and CERES Shortwave Cloud forcing records during the overlapping data period supports using this new data set for extended climate studies.During 1980-2000 period of globally warming surface temperatures, our record of shortwave cloud forcing shows a widespread global increase in forcing from reduced cloudiness. However, during the more recent pause in global warming 2000-2012, our record shows a reduction in SW cloud forcing from increased cloudiness.Historical CMIP5 AMIP simulations from eight models do not capture the 1980-2000 reduction in cloudiness. Twenty-year segments of future RCP45 long-term runs with comparable surface temperature warming to that observed from 1980-2000, also do not simulate our observed reduction in cloud amount. This suggests that the climate sensitivity in the tested CMIP5 models is too low.

  9. Enhanced shortwave cloud radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.; Slingo, A.

    1995-05-01

    It has been suggested that anthropogenic aerosols in the troposphere can influence the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their reflectivity, thereby exerting a radiative influence on climate. This article presents the theoretical basis for of this so-called indirect forcing and reviews pertinent observational evidence and climate model calculations of its magnitude and geographical distribution. We restrict consideration to liquid-water clouds.

  10. WCRP surface radiation budget shortwave data product description, version 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.; Staylor, W. F.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Dipasquale, R. C.; Ritchey, N. A.

    1993-01-01

    Shortwave radiative fluxes which reach the Earth's surface are key elements that influence both atmospheric and oceanic circulation. The World Climate Research Program has established the Surface Radiation Budget climatology project with the ultimate goal of determining the various components of the surface radiation budget from satellite data on a global scale. This report describes the first global product that is being produced and archived as part of that effort. The interested user can obtain the monthly global data sets free of charge using e-mail procedures.

  11. Spectral transmission and short-wave absorbing pigments in the fish lens--I. Phylogenetic distribution and identity.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, A; Douglas, R H; Truscott, R J

    1993-02-01

    Fish lens transmission was found to vary depending on the type and concentration of short-wave absorbing compounds present within the lens. Pigments extracted from lenses of ten species were identified as mycosporine-like amino acids (mainly palythine, palythene and asterina-330, lambda maxs around 320-360 nm) which are also thought to be present in the majority of the 120 species examined here. A novel mycosporine-like pigment with lambda max 385 nm was isolated from the lens of the flying fish, Exocoetus obtusirostris, while lenses of several closely related tropical freshwater species were found to have high concentrations of the tryptophan catabolite 3-hydroxykynurenine (lambda max 370 nm). The type of lens pigment a species possesses and its concentration depends upon both the animal's phylogenetic group and its "optical niche".

  12. First Monthly CERES Global Longwave and Shortwave Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, CERES, monitors solar energy reflected from the Earth and heat energy emitted from the Earth. In this image, heat energy radiated from the earth is shown in varying shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest yellow areas, such as the Sahara Desert and Arabian Peninsula, are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue polar regions and bright white clouds are the coldest areas on Earth, and are emitting the least energy. The animation (1.5MB) (high-res (4MB)) shows roughly a week of CERES data. For more information: CERES images through Visible Earth. CERES web site Image courtesy of the CERES instrument team

  13. The Impact of Clouds on the Shortwave Radiation Budget of the Surface-Atmosphere System: Interfacing Measurements and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, Robert D.; Nemesure, Seth; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; DeLuisi, John J.; Potter, Gerald L.; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Two datasets have been combined to demonstrate how the availability of more comprehensive datasets could serve to elucidate the shortwave radiative impact of clouds on both the atmospheric column and the surface. These datasets consist of two measurements of net downward shortwave radiation: one of near-surface measurements made at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower, and the other of collocated top-of-the-atmosphere measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Output from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts General Circulation Model also has been used as an aid in interpreting the data, while the data have in turn been employed to validate the model's shortwave radiation code as it pertains to cloud radiation properties. Combined, the datasets and model demonstrate a strategy for determining under what conditions the shortwave radiative impact of clouds leads to a heating or cooling of the atmospheric column. The datasets also show, in terms of a linear slope-offset algorithm for retrieving the net downward shortwave radiation at the surface from satellite measurements, that the clouds present during this study produced a modest negative bias in the retrieved surface flux relative to that inferred from a clear-sky algorithm.

  14. The impact of clouds on the shortwave radiation budget of the surface-atmosphere system - Interfacing measurements and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, Robert D.; Nemesure, Seth; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Deluisi, John J.; Potter, Gerald L.; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Two datasets have been combined to demonstrate how the availability of more comprehensive datasets could serve to elucidate the shortwave radiative impact of clouds on both the atmospheric column and the surface. These datasets consist of two measurements of net downward shortwave radiation: one of near-surface measurements made at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower, and the other of collocated top-of-the-atmosphere measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Output from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts General Circulation Model also has been used as an aid in interpreting the data, while the data have in turn been employed to validate the model's shortwave radiation code as it pertains to cloud radiation properties. Combined, the datasets and model demonstrate a strategy for determining under what conditions the shortwave radiative impact of clouds leads to a heating or cooling of the atmospheric column. The datasets also show, in terms of a linear slope-offset algorithm for retrieving the net downward shortwave radiation at the surface from satellite measurements, that the clouds present during this study produced a modest negative bias in the retrieved surface flux relative to that inferred from a clear-sky algorithm.

  15. The impact of vegetation type on the shortwave radiation balance of the Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszak, Inge; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Profound changes in vegetation composition in the Arctic tundra have been observed and are predicted in a warmer future climate. Shrub expansion may positively feed back to climate warming by decreasing the shortwave albedo. On the other hand, permafrost protection through soil shading by shrubs has been discussed in literature. Several studies compared the average radiation balance across vegetation zones. However, variation within vegetation zones may be as important as differences between vegetation zones. The lowland tundra ecosystem at the Kytalyk research site (NE Siberia) is dominated by two vegetation types (dwarf shrub (Betula nana) and wet sedge (Eriophorum angustifolium)) organised in patches at a scale of about 10m. We investigated the shortwave radiation balance of both types separately and related it to the 11 year data set of the fluxtower with a mixed footprint. In addition to canopy albedo, we measured canopy transmittance below dwarf shrubs and wet sedges to quantify the often discussed effect of soil shading. Our results show that at our field site, wet sedge vegetation is shading the soil more efficiently than dwarf shrubs due to multi-year standing litter. While we measured an average transmission of 36% of the incoming shortwave radiation below dwarf shrubs, the transmission of wet sedge was 28%. Wet sedge summer albedo was on average 16% higher than dwarf shrub albedo. Additionally, the snow melted 10 days later in the sedge patches, leading to large albedo differences in the second half of May 2014. Our analysis shows, that cloud cover is the second most important control on albedo and transmittance of both vegetation types. Clouds reduced the summer albedo of both vegetation types across all zenith angles. On average, the growing season albedo was about 11% higher on clear sky days as compared to overcast days whereas the transmittance was about 23% lower. As cloud cover is expected to change with climate change, field studies of the cloud

  16. Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment: Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2012-01-01

    The main theme for our research is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars, shortwave spectrometers, and microwave radiometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools developed by our group. In particular, we define first a large number of cloudy test cases spanning all 3D possibilities not just the customary uniform-overcast ones. Second, for each case, we define a "Best Estimate of Clouds That Affect Shortwave Radiation" using all relevant ARM instruments, notably the new scanning radars, and contribute this to the ARM Archive. Third, we test the ASR-signature radiative transfer model RRTMG_SW for those cases, focusing on the near-IR because of long-standing problems in this spectral region, and work with the developers to improve RRTMG_SW in order to increase its penetration into the modeling community.

  17. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  18. An evaluation of the schemes of ocean surface albedo parameterization in shortwave radiation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hailin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Liu, Qiang; Feng, Youbin; Li, Xiuhong; Zhang, Jialin; Cai, Erli

    2015-12-01

    The ocean surface albedo (OSA) is a deciding factor on ocean net surface shortwave radiation (ONSSR) estimation. Several OSA schemes have been proposed successively, but there is not a conclusion for the best OSA scheme of estimating the ONSSR. On the base of analyzing currently existing OSA parameterization, including Briegleb et al.(B), Taylor et al.(T), Hansen et al.(H), Jin et al.(J), Preisendorfer and Mobley(PM86), Feng's scheme(F), this study discusses the difference of OSA's impact on ONSSR estimation in condition of actual downward shortwave radiation(DSR). Then we discussed the necessity and applicability for the climate models to integrate the more complicated OSA scheme. It is concluded that the SZA and the wind speed are the two most significant effect factor to broadband OSA, thus the different OSA parameterizations varies violently in the regions of both high latitudes and strong winds. The OSA schemes can lead the ONSSR results difference of the order of 20 w m-2. The Taylor's scheme shows the best estimate, and Feng's result just following Taylor's. However, the accuracy of the estimated instantaneous OSA changes at different local time. Jin's scheme has the best performance generally at noon and in the afternoon, and PM86's is the best of all in the morning, which indicate that the more complicated OSA schemes reflect the temporal variation of OWA better than the simple ones.

  19. Shortwave radiative heating rate profiles in hazy and clear atmosphere: a sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doppler, Lionel; Fischer, Jürgen; Ravetta, François; Pelon, Jacques; Preusker, René

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols have an impact on shortwave heating rate profiles (additional heating or cooling). In this survey, we quantify the impact of several key-parameters on the heating rate profiles of the atmosphere with and without aerosols. These key-parameters are: (1) the atmospheric model (tropical, midlatitude summer or winter, US Standard), (2) the integrated water vapor amount (IWV ), (3) the ground surface (flat and rough ocean, isotropic surface albedo for land), (4) the aerosol composition (dusts, soots or maritimes mixtures with respect to the OPAC-database classification), (5) the aerosol optical depth and (6) vertical postion, and (7) the single-scattering albedo (?o) of the aerosol mixture. This study enables us to evaluate which parameters are most important to take into account in a radiative energy budget of the atmosphere and will be useful for a future study: the retrieval of heating rates profiles from satellite data (CALIPSO, MODIS, MERIS) over the Mediterranean Sea. All the heating rates are computed by using the vector irradiances computed at each pressure level in the spectral interval 0.2 - 3.6μm (shortwave) by the 1D radiative transfer model for atmosphere and ocean: MOMO (Matrix-Operator MOdel) of the Institute for Space Science, FU Berlin 1

  20. The Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) for Surface Radiation Budget Studies. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Shashi K.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Wilber, Anne C.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient algorithm was developed during the late 1980's and early 1990's by W. F. Staylor at NASA/LaRC for the purpose of deriving shortwave surface radiation budget parameters on a global scale. While the algorithm produced results in good agreement with observations, the lack of proper documentation resulted in a weak acceptance by the science community. The primary purpose of this report is to develop detailed documentation of the algorithm. In the process, the algorithm was modified whenever discrepancies were found between the algorithm and its referenced literature sources. In some instances, assumptions made in the algorithm could not be justified and were replaced with those that were justifiable. The algorithm uses satellite and operational meteorological data for inputs. Most of the original data sources have been replaced by more recent, higher quality data sources, and fluxes are now computed on a higher spatial resolution. Many more changes to the basic radiation scheme and meteorological inputs have been proposed to improve the algorithm and make the product more useful for new research projects. Because of the many changes already in place and more planned for the future, the algorithm has been renamed the Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA).

  1. Comparison of Surface Radiation Budget Satellite algorithms for downwelled shortwave irradiance with Wisconsin Fire/SRB surface-truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Staylor, W. F.; Darnell, W. L.; Chou, M. D.; Dedieu, G.; Deschamps, P. Y.; Ellis, J.; Gautier, C.; Frouin, R.; Rossow, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Surface radiation instruments were operated at various locations during the Wisconsin First ISSCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) and Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) experiment in October 1986. Satellite data were distributed to scientists who had previously developed satellite algorithms to estimate downwelled shortwave irradiance. Results of intercomparison of ground-truth values with the satellite-derived estimates are described.

  2. Observed instantaneous cirrus radiative effect on surface-level shortwave and longwave irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial

    2008-11-01

    Data collected at the SIRTA Observatory, 20 km south of Paris, are analyzed to determine the instantaneous surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) induced by cirrus clouds. CRE is here defined as the difference between overcast-sky and clear-sky surface radiative fluxes obtained by ground-based measurement of broadband fluxes and clear-sky parametric models, respectively. Clear-sky periods detected by a double threshold based on lidar and radiative fluxes analysis show a root mean square error for clear-sky models smaller than 6.5 W m-2 for shortwave flux and 4 W m-2 for longwave flux. Over 100 h in 2003-2006 characterized by homogeneous overcast cirrus clouds are analyzed. Fifty percent of this cirrus population is subvisible and semitransparent, that is, with optical thickness less than 0.3. The mean surface shortwave cirrus cloud radiative effect (CRESW) is found near -50 W m-2. We establish the relationship between CRESW and cirrus optical thickness (COT) to be about -90 W m-2 per unit of COT. This SW sensitivity ranges from -80 W m-2 COT-1 to -100 W m-2 COT-1 for turbid to pristine atmospheres, respectively. We also establish the relationship between surface longwave cloud radiative effect (CRELW) and the irradiance emitted by the cirrus cloud derived from cloud infrared emissivity and cloud temperature. The average surface CRELW is about +5 W m-2. CRELW is found to be about 10% of the cloud irradiance. This LW effect ranges from 5 to 15% of the cirrus irradiance depending on atmospheric humidity for the wet and dry atmosphere, respectively.

  3. Modeling shortwave solar radiation using the JGrass-NewAge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formetta, G.; Rigon, R.; Chávez, J. L.; David, O.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents two new modeling components based on the object modeling system v3 (OMS3) for the calculation of the shortwave incident radiation (Rsw↓) on complex topography settings, and the implementation of several ancillary tools. The first component, NewAGE-SwRB, accounts for elevation slope, aspect, shadow of the sites, and uses suitable parameterization for obtaining the cloudless irradiance. A second component, NewAGE-DEC-MOD's is implemented to estimate the irradiance reduction due to the presence of clouds according to three parameterizations. To obtain a working modeling composition that is comparable with ground data at measurement stations the two components are connected to a kriging component. With the help of an additional component, NewAGE-V (verification package), the performance of modeled (Rsw↓) is quantitatively evaluated. The two components (and the various parameterizations they contain) are tested using the data from three basins, and some simple verification tests were carried out to assess the goodness of the methods used. Moreover, a raster mode test is performed in order to show the capability of the system in providing solar radiation raster maps. The components are part of a larger system, JGrass-NewAGE, their input and outputs are geometrical objects immediately displayed in a geographical information system (GIS). They can be used seamlessly with the various modeling solutions available in JGrass-NewAGE for the estimation of long wave radiation, evapotranspiration, and snow melting, as well as standalone components to just estimate shortwave radiation for various uses. The modularity of the approach leads to more accurate physical-statistical studies aimed to assess in depth the components' performances and extends their results spatially, without the necessity of recoding any part of the component.

  4. Effects of clouds on the surface shortwave radiation at a rural inland mid-latitude site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgueiro, Vanda; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Bortoli, Daniele

    2016-09-01

    Seven years (2003-2010) of measured shortwave (SW) irradiances were used to obtain estimates of the 10 min averaged effective cloud optical thickness (ECOT) and of the shortwave cloud radiative effect (CRESW) at the surface in a mid-latitude site (Évora - south of Portugal), and its seasonal variability is presented. The ECOT, obtained using transmittance measurements at 415 nm, was compared with the correspondent MODIS cloud optical thickness (MODIS COT) for non-precipitating water clouds and cloud fractions higher than 0.25. This comparison showed that the ECOT represents well the cloud optical thickness over the study area. The CRESW, determined for two SW broadband ranges (300-1100 nm; 285-2800 nm), was normalized (NCRESW) and related with the obtained ECOT. A logarithmic relation between NCRESW and ECOT was found for both SW ranges, presenting lower dispersion for overcast-sky situations than for partially cloudy-sky situations. The NCRESW efficiency (NCRESW per unit of ECOT) was also related with the ECOT for overcast-sky conditions. The relation found is parameterized by a power law function showing that NCRESW efficiency decreases as the ECOT increases, approaching one for ECOT values higher than about 50.

  5. Stabilized platform for tethered balloon soundings of broadband long- and short-wave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the composition of trace gases in the earth`s atmosphere have been reported by many observers, and a general concern has been expressed regarding possible changes to the earth`s climate that may be caused by radiatively active gases introduced into the earth`s atmosphere by man`s activities. Radiatively active trace gases produce temperature changes in the earth`s atmosphere through changes in radiative flux divergence. Our knowledge of and means of measuring radiative flux divergence is very limited. A few observations of vertical radiative flux divergences have been reported from aircraft from radiometersondes from towers and from large tethered balloons. These measurement techniques suffers from one or more drawbacks, including shallow sounding depths (towers), high cost (aircraft), complicated logistics (large tethered balloons), and limitation to nighttime hours (radiometersondes). Changes in radiative flux divergence caused by anthropogenic trace gases are expected to be quite small, and will be difficult to measure with existing broadband radiative flux instruments. The emphasis of present research in global climate change is thus being focused on improving radiative transfer algorithms in global climate models. The radiative parameterizations in these models are at an early stage of development and information is needed regarding their performance, especially in cloudy conditions. The impetus for the research reported in this paper is the need for a device that can supplement existing means of measuring vertical profiles of long- and short-wave irradiance and radiative flux divergence. We have designed a small tethered-balloon-based system that can make radiometric soundings through the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper discusses the concept, the design considerations, and the design and construction of this sounding system. The performance of the system will be tested in a series of balloon flights scheduled for the fall and winter of 1992.

  6. Stabilized platform for tethered balloon soundings of broadband long- and short-wave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the composition of trace gases in the earth's atmosphere have been reported by many observers, and a general concern has been expressed regarding possible changes to the earth's climate that may be caused by radiatively active gases introduced into the earth's atmosphere by man's activities. Radiatively active trace gases produce temperature changes in the earth's atmosphere through changes in radiative flux divergence. Our knowledge of and means of measuring radiative flux divergence is very limited. A few observations of vertical radiative flux divergences have been reported from aircraft from radiometersondes from towers and from large tethered balloons. These measurement techniques suffers from one or more drawbacks, including shallow sounding depths (towers), high cost (aircraft), complicated logistics (large tethered balloons), and limitation to nighttime hours (radiometersondes). Changes in radiative flux divergence caused by anthropogenic trace gases are expected to be quite small, and will be difficult to measure with existing broadband radiative flux instruments. The emphasis of present research in global climate change is thus being focused on improving radiative transfer algorithms in global climate models. The radiative parameterizations in these models are at an early stage of development and information is needed regarding their performance, especially in cloudy conditions. The impetus for the research reported in this paper is the need for a device that can supplement existing means of measuring vertical profiles of long- and short-wave irradiance and radiative flux divergence. We have designed a small tethered-balloon-based system that can make radiometric soundings through the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper discusses the concept, the design considerations, and the design and construction of this sounding system. The performance of the system will be tested in a series of balloon flights scheduled for the fall and winter of 1992.

  7. Final Report – Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan

    2015-09-14

    ARM set out 20 years ago to “close” the radiation problem, that is, to improve radiation models to the point where they could routinely predict the observed spectral radiation fluxes knowing the optical properties of the surface and of gases, clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. Only then could such radiation models form a proper springboard for global climate model (GCM) parameterizations of spectral radiation. Sustained efforts have more or less achieved that goal with regard to longwave radiation; ASR models now routinely predict ARM spectral longwave radiances to 1–2%. Similar efforts in the shortwave have achieved far less; the successes are mainly for carefully selected 1D stratiform cloud cases. Such cases amount, even with the most optimistic interpretation, to no more than 30% of all cases at SGP. The problem has not been lack of effort but lack of appropriate instruments.The new ARM stimulus-funded instruments, with their new capabilities, will dramatically improve this situation and once again make progress possible on the shortwave problem. The new shortwave spectrometers will provide a reliable, calibrated record including the near infrared – and for other climatic regimes than SGP. The new scanning radars will provide the 3D cloud view, making it possible to tackle fully 3D situations. Thus, our main theme for the project is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars and shortwave spectrometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools.

  8. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of reflected shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Direskeneli, Haldun; Halyo, Nesim

    1992-01-01

    An information theory approach to examine the temporal nonuniform sampling characteristics of shortwave (SW) flux for earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements is suggested. The information gain is computed by computing the information content before and after the measurements. A stochastic diurnal model for the SW flux is developed, and measurements for different orbital parameters are examined. The methodology is applied to specific NASA Polar platform and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) orbital parameters. The information theory approach, coupled with the developed SW diurnal model, is found to be promising for measurements involving nonuniform orbital sampling characteristics.

  9. Methods of calculating radiation absorbed dose.

    PubMed

    Wegst, A V

    1987-01-01

    The new tumoricidal radioactive agents being developed will require a careful estimate of radiation absorbed tumor and critical organ dose for each patient. Clinical methods will need to be developed using standard imaging or counting instruments to determine cumulated organ activities with tracer amounts before the therapeutic administration of the material. Standard MIRD dosimetry methods can then be applied.

  10. Global climate impacts of fixing the Southern Ocean shortwave radiation bias in the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. E.; Medeiros, B.; Yettella, V. K. R.; Hannay, C.; Caldwell, P.; Wall, C.; Bitz, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    A large, long-standing, and pervasive climate model bias is excessive absorbed shortwave radiation (ASR) over the mid-latitude oceans, especially the Southern Ocean. We investigate both the underlying mechanisms for and climate impacts of this bias within the Community Earth System Model with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CESM-CAM5). Excessive Southern Ocean ASR in CESM-CAM5 results in part because low-level clouds contain insufficient amounts of supercooled liquid. In a present-day atmosphere-only run, an observationally motivated modification to the shallow convection detrainment increases supercooled cloud liquid, brightens low-level clouds, and substantially reduces the Southern Ocean ASR bias. Tuning to maintain global energy balance enables reduction of a compensating tropical ASR bias. In the resulting pre-industrial fully coupled run with a brighter Southern Ocean and dimmer Tropics, the Southern Ocean cools and the Tropics warm. As a result of the enhanced meridional temperature gradient, poleward heat transport increases in both hemispheres (especially the Southern Hemisphere) and the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric jet strengthens. Cross-equatorial heat transport increases in the ocean, but not in the atmosphere. As a result, a proposed atmospheric teleconnection that links Southern Ocean ASR bias reduction and cooling with northward shifts in the Intertropical Convergence Zone is not found. All results discussed above are for the transient response. Ongoing work to assess the equilibrium response and the impact of the fix climate change experiments results will also be presented.

  11. Cloud radiative forcing on surface shortwave fluxes: A case study based on Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.

    1994-12-20

    Shortwave downward fluxes for selected stratus, cirrus, and mixed phase cloud cases are analyzed based on cloud and surface radiation measurements from the Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test conducted in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado during September-October, 1989. A medium resolution, discrete-ordinate shortwave radiative transfer model is used to provide clear-sky conditions and to examine the cloud shortwave radiative forcing. The model simulation indicates that for stratus clouds the effective radius increases with increasing liquid water path. For cirrus cloud simulation, the model results are within 10% agreement with the surface flux measurements. However, using the one-dimensional plane-parallel model, the model results are in poor agreement for the inhomogeneous mixed phase cloud case. Over the elevated observation site, the reduction in shortwave downward flux by clouds can be as large as 40% for a small cloud water path value of 20 g m{sup {minus}2}. The variation in observed cloud shortwave forcing is highly correlated with the integrated cloud water path. The normalized (by the clear-sky value) cloud shortwave forcing increases rapidly when the cloud water path is small. The rate of increase decreases, and the normalized cloud forcing approaches saturation when cloud water path becomes large. The magnitude of the saturation value depends on cloud optical properties. The variation in observed cloud forcing is consistent with the theoretical curve for cloudy atmospheric albedo variation. At a constant value of cloud water path, the normalized cloud forcing increases with solar zenith angle. The solar zenith angle effect is less significant for larger value of cloud water path. 44 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Multiyear Statistics of 2-D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the importance of horizontal photon transport effects, which are not considered in the 1-D calculations of solar radiative heating used by most atmospheric dynamical models. In particular, the paper analyzes the difference between 2-D and 1-D radiative calculations for 2-D vertical cross-sections of clouds that were observed at three sites over 2- to 3-year periods. The results show that 2-D effects increase multiyear 24-hour average total solar absorption by about 4.1 W/sq m, 1.2 W/sq m, and 0.3 W/sq m at a tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic site, respectively. However, 2-D effects are often much larger than these average values, especially for high sun and for convective clouds. The results also reveal a somewhat unexpected behavior, that horizontal photon transport often enhances solar heating even for oblique sun. These findings underscore the need for fast radiation calculation methods that can allow atmospheric dynamical simulations to consider the inherently multidimensional nature of shortwave radiative processes.

  13. Three-dimensional Effects and Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Associated with Shallow Cumuli Over Central North America

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills, Jr., David

    2009-09-30

    Shallow cumuli are ubiquitous over large areas of the globe, including both the interior of continents and the trade wind regions over the oceans. Measurements made at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, located in central North America, provide a unique long-term data set that can be used to investigate the influence that these clouds have on the shortwave surface energy budget at a continental location. Using data collected for the summers of 2000 through 2007, inclusive, over 900 hours with fair-weather cumuli were identified using data from a Total Sky Imager, cloud-radar and lidar. Data from a suite of surface radiometers was used to determine the shortwave forcing. This analysis estimates the three-dimensional effects of shallow cumuli by examining the occurrences of both positive and negative shortwave forcing. We show that the average surface shortwave forcing is approximately -45.5 W m-2. When the data are adjusted to account for periods without shallow clouds, the shortwave forcing over the entire summer (defined as May through August) are reduced in magnitude, with forcings of -2.1 W m-2.

  14. Estimation of daily average downward shortwave radiation from MODIS data using principal components regression method: Fars province case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzin, Razieh; Shirvani, Amin; Lotfi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Downward shortwave radiation is a key quantity in the land-atmosphere interaction. Since the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data has a coarse temporal resolution, which is not suitable for estimating daily average radiation, many efforts have been undertaken to estimate instantaneous solar radiation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data. In this study, the principal components analysis technique was applied to capture the information of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer bands, extraterrestrial radiation, aerosol optical depth, and atmospheric water vapour. A regression model based on the principal components was used to estimate daily average shortwave radiation for ten synoptic stations in the Fars province, Iran, for the period 2009-2012. The Durbin-Watson statistic and autocorrelation function of the residuals of the fitted principal components regression model indicated that the residuals were serially independent. The results indicated that the fitted principal components regression models accounted for about 86-96% of total variance of the observed shortwave radiation values and the root mean square error was about 0.9-2.04 MJ m-2 d-1. Also, the results indicated that the model accuracy decreased as the aerosol optical depth increased and extraterrestrial radiation was the most important predictor variable among all.

  15. Secondary inorganic aerosol formation and its shortwave direct radiative forcing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA), including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, is an important part of fine particle. SIA plays a significant role in shortwave radiation transfer. Numerical simulation is usually used to study SIA formation and its climate effect. In this work, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to study SIA formation and its direct radiative forcing (DRF) over China. SO2 oxidation pathways related to mineral aerosol, including transition metal-catalyzed oxidation in aqueous phase and heterogeneous reactions, play an important role in sulfate production, but they are not well treated in current atmospheric models. In this work, we improved the WRF-Chem model by simulating the enhancement role of mineral aerosol in sulfate production. Firstly, we estimated mineral cations based on local measurements in order to well represent aqueous phase acidity. Secondly, we scaled the transition metal concentration to the mineral aerosol levels according to the existing observations and improved transition metal-catalyzed oxidation calculation. Lastly, heterogeneous reactions of acid gases on the surface of mineral aerosol were included in this simulation. Accuracy in the prediction of sulfate by the model was significantly improved and we concluded that mineral aerosol can facilitate SO2 oxidation and subsequent sulfate formation. It was demonstrated that, over China, mineral aerosol was responsible for 21.8% of annual mean sulfate concentration. The enhanced aqueous oxidation was more significant compared to the heterogeneous reactions. In winter, mineral aerosol was responsible for 39.6% of sulfate production. In summer, gaseous oxidation and aqueous oxidation of SO2 by hydrogen peroxide and ozone were the dominant pathways of sulfate formation. Mineral aerosol only contributed 11.9% to the total sulfate production. The increase in annual mean sulfate concentration due to mineral aerosol could reach up to over 6

  16. A comparison to schemes of ocean surface albedo parameterization and their impact on shortwave radiatation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, H.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, X.; Feng, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Cai, E.

    2015-12-01

    The ocean covers 71% of the Earth's surface and plays a pivotal role in the earth radiation energy balance. The ocean surface albedo(OSA) is a deciding factor on ocean net surface shortwave radiation(ONSSR) estimation. Several OSA schemes have been proposed successively, but there is not a conclusion for the best OSA scheme of estimating the ONSSR. This study, on the base of analyzing currently existing OSA parameterization, including Briegleb et al.(B), Taylor et al.(T), Hansen et al.(H), Jin et al.(J), Preisendorfer and Mobley(PM86), Feng's scheme(F), discusses the difference of OSA's impact on ONSSR estimation in condition of actual downward shortwave radiation(DSR). Then we evaluate the necessity and applicability for the climate models to integrate the more complicated OSA scheme. We got some conclusions: The SZA and the wind speed are the two most significant effect factor to broadband OSA, thus the different OSA parameterizations varies violently in the regions of both high latitudes and strong winds. In the summer, the Northern Hemisphere(NH) is high ONSSR, but small deviations compared with Northern Hemisphere(SH),and contrary in the winter. The OSA schemes can lead the ONSSR results difference of the order of 20 w m-2 by the analysis of the ONSSR reanalysis dataset, the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA).The simple scheme of Taylor and the more complicate schemes of Jin and Feng is very similar, and the scheme B and H is close to each other, the PM86 is more close to MERRA. We use the COVE ocean platform observation data to validate the several scheme result, and the RMSE is 10.96 w m-2, 5.24 w m-2, 12.88 w m-2, 6.52 w m-2, 6.33 w m-2, 6.30 w m-2 for B,T,H,J,PM86,F, respectively. The Taylor's scheme shows the best estimate, and Feng's result just following Taylor's. However, the accuracy of the estimated instantaneous OSA changes at different local time. Jin's scheme has the best performance generally at noon and in

  17. Measurement-based estimates of direct radiative effects of absorbing aerosols above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2015-07-01

    The elevated layers of absorbing smoke aerosols from western African (e.g., Gabon and Congo) biomass burning activities have been frequently observed above low-level stratocumulus clouds off the African coast, which presents an excellent natural laboratory for studying the effects of aerosols above clouds (AAC) on regional energy balance in tropical and subtropical environments. Using spatially and temporally collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System data sets, the top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol direct shortwave radiative effects (ARE) of absorbing aerosols above low-level water clouds in the southeast Atlantic Ocean was examined in this study. The regional averaged instantaneous ARE has been estimated to be 36.7 ± 20.5 Wm-2 (regional mean ± standard deviation) along with a mean positive OMI Aerosol Index at 1.3 in August 2006 based on multisensors measurements. The highest magnitude of instantaneous ARE can even reach 138.2 Wm-2. We assess that the 660 nm cloud optical depth (COD) values of 8-12 is the critical value above (below) which aerosol absorption (scattering) effect dominates and further produces positive (negative) ARE values. The results further show that ARE values are more sensitive to aerosols above lower COD values than cases for higher COD values. This is among the first studies to provide quantitative estimates of shortwave ARE due to AAC events from an observational perspective.

  18. Shortwave radiative forcing efficiency of urban aerosols--a case study using ground based measurements.

    PubMed

    Latha, K Madhavi; Badarinath, K V S

    2005-01-01

    Aerosols reduce the surface reaching solar flux by scattering the incoming solar radiation out to space. Various model studies on climate change suggest that surface cooling induced by aerosol scattering is the largest source of uncertainty in predicting the future climate. In the present study measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its direct radiative forcing efficiency has been presented over a typical tropical urban environment namely Hyderabad during December, 2003. Measurements of AOD have been carried out using MICROTOPS-II sunphotometer, black carbon aerosol mass concentration using Aethalometer, total aerosol mass concentration using channel Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Impactor Particle analyser and direct normal solar irradiance using Multifilter Rotating Shadow Band Radiometer (MFRSR). Diurnal variation of AOD showed high values during afternoon hours. The fraction of BC estimated to be approximately 9% in the total aerosol mass concentration over the study area. Results of the study suggest -62.5 Wm(-2) reduction in the ground reaching shortwave flux for every 0.1 increase in aerosol optical depth. The results have been discussed in the paper.

  19. Variability in global top-of-atmosphere shortwave radiation between 2000 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.

    2007-02-01

    Measurements from various instruments and analysis techniques are used to directly compare changes in Earth-atmosphere shortwave (SW) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation between 2000 and 2005. Included in the comparison are estimates of TOA reflectance variability from published ground-based Earthshine observations and from new satellite-based CERES, MODIS and ISCCP results. The ground-based Earthshine data show an order-of-magnitude more variability in annual mean SW TOA flux than either CERES or ISCCP, while ISCCP and CERES SW TOA flux variability is consistent to 40%. Most of the variability in CERES TOA flux is shown to be dominated by variations global cloud fraction, as observed using coincident CERES and MODIS data. Idealized Earthshine simulations of TOA SW radiation variability for a lunar-based observer show far less variability than the ground-based Earthshine observations, but are still a factor of 4-5 times more variable than global CERES SW TOA flux results. Furthermore, while CERES global albedos exhibit a well-defined seasonal cycle each year, the seasonal cycle in the lunar Earthshine reflectance simulations is highly variable and out-of-phase from one year to the next. Radiative transfer model (RTM) approaches that use imager cloud and aerosol retrievals reproduce most of the change in SW TOA radiation observed in broadband CERES data. However, assumptions used to represent the spectral properties of the atmosphere, clouds, aerosols and surface in the RTM calculations can introduce significant uncertainties in annual mean changes in regional and global SW TOA flux.

  20. Variability in Global Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave Radiation Between 2000 and 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loebe, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements from various instruments and analysis techniques are used to directly compare changes in Earth-atmosphere shortwave (SW) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation between 2000 and 2005. Included in the comparison are estimates of TOA reflectance variability from published ground-based Earthshine observations and from new satellite-based CERES, MODIS and ISCCP results. The ground-based Earthshine data show an order-of-magnitude more variability in annual mean SW TOA flux than either CERES or ISCCP, while ISCCP and CERES SW TOA flux variability is consistent to 40%. Most of the variability in CERES TOA flux is shown to be dominated by variations global cloud fraction, as observed using coincident CERES and MODIS data. Idealized Earthshine simulations of TOA SW radiation variability for a lunar-based observer show far less variability than the ground-based Earthshine observations, but are still a factor of 4-5 times more variable than global CERES SW TOA flux results. Furthermore, while CERES global albedos exhibit a well-defined seasonal cycle each year, the seasonal cycle in the lunar Earthshine reflectance simulations is highly variable and out-of-phase from one year to the next. Radiative transfer model (RTM) approaches that use imager cloud and aerosol retrievals reproduce most of the change in SW TOA radiation observed in broadband CERES data. However, assumptions used to represent the spectral properties of the atmosphere, clouds, aerosols and surface in the RTM calculations can introduce significant uncertainties in annual mean changes in regional and global SW TOA flux.

  1. Microphysical and compositional influences on shortwave radiative forcing of climate by sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.; Wagener, R.; Nemesure, S.

    1995-02-01

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols scatter shortwave (solar) radiation iincident upon the atmosphere, thereby exerting a cooling influence on climate relative to pre-industrial times. Previous estimates of this forcing place its global and annual average value at about {minus}1 W M{sup {minus}2}, uncertain to a factor of somewhat more than 2, comparable in magnitude to greenhouse gas forcing over the same period but opposite in sign and much more uncertain. Key sources of uncertainty are atmospheric chemistry factors (yield, residence time), and microphysical factors (scattering efficiency, upscatter fraction, and the dependence of these quantities on particle size and relative humidity, RH). This paper examines these microphysical influences to indentify properties required to obtain more a accurate description of this forcing. The mass scattering efficiency exhibits a maximum at a particle diameter ({approximately}0.5 {mu}m) roughly equal to the wavelength of maximum power in the solar spectrum and roughly equal to diameter typical of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Particle size, and hence mass scattering efficiency, increase with increasing on RH because of accretion of water by deliquescent salt aerosols.

  2. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-2 GOES-7 Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Gu, Jiujing; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. This data set contains images of shortwave and longwave radiation at the surface and top of the atmosphere derived from collected GOES-7 data. The data cover the time period of 05-Feb-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The images missing from the temporal series were zero-filled to create a consistent sequence of files. The data are stored in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  3. Toward Improved Solar Irradiance Forecasts: Comparison of Downwelling Surface Shortwave Radiation in Arizona Derived from Satellite with the Gridded Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Holmgren, William F.; Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.

    2016-08-01

    The downwelling surface shortwave radiation derived from geostationary satellite imagery was compared with the available datasets for the Southwestern United States. The averaged root mean square errors for our instantaneous estimates ranged from 95.0 to 122.7 W m-2, which is lower than those derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) products were used to compare the hourly mean solar insolation. The three hourly mean downwelling surface shortwave radiation was evaluated by comparing the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. Our estimates show the better performance than MERRA, NARR and CERES datasets because of coarse resolution that limits determining the solar dimming due to small clouds.

  4. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Bue, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust nonventing system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. This water vapor is then captured by solid LiCl in the LCAR with a high enthalpy of absorption, resulting in sufficient temperature lift to reject heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the LCAR would be heated up and dried in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A engineering development prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The LCAR was able to stably reject 75 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

  5. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  6. Microphysical and compositional influences on shortwave radiative forcing of climate by sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S F; Wagener, Richard; Nemesure, S

    1995-01-01

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols scatter shortwave (solar) radiation incident upon the atmosphere, thereby exerting a cooling influence on climate relative to pre-industrial times. Previous estimates of this forcing place its global and annual average value at about -1 W m{sup -2}, uncertain to a factor of somewhat more than 2, comparable in magnitude to greenhouse gas forcing over the same period but opposite in sign and much more uncertain. Key sources of uncertainty are atmospheric chemistry factors (yield, residence time), and microphysical factors (scattering efficiency, upscatter fraction, and the dependence of these quantities on particle size and relative humidity, RH). This paper examines these microphysical influences to identify properties required to obtain more a accurate description of this forcing. The mass scattering efficiency exhibits a maximum at a particle diameter ({approximately}0.5 M) roughly equal to the wavelength of maximum power in the solar spectrum and roughly equal to diameter typical of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Particle size, and hence mass scattering efficiency, increase with increasing on RH because of accretion of water by deliquescent salt aerosols. For example the scattering efficiency of aqueous (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} (dry radius 0.2 {mu}m) increases from 8 to 80 m{sup 2}/g (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) as RH increases from 39 to 97%. The sensitivity of forcing to particle dry mass and relative humidity suggest the need to explicitly represent these properties if the sulfate aerosol forcing is to be accurately described in climate models.

  7. Control of shortwave radiation parameterization on tropical climate SST-forced simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, Julien; Masson, Sébastien; Berthet, Sarah; Samson, Guillaume; Terray, Pascal; Dudhia, Jimy; Pinsard, Françoise; Hourdin, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    SST-forced tropical-channel simulations are used to quantify the control of shortwave (SW) parameterization on the mean tropical climate compared to other major model settings (convection, boundary layer turbulence, vertical and horizontal resolutions), and to pinpoint the physical mechanisms whereby this control manifests. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution and magnitude of the net SW radiation budget at the surface (SWnet_SFC), latent heat fluxes, and rainfall at the annual timescale. The model skill and sensitivity to the tested settings are quantified relative to observations and using an ensemble approach. Persistent biases include overestimated SWnet_SFC and too intense hydrological cycle. However, model skill is mainly controlled by SW parameterization, especially the magnitude of SWnet_SFC and rainfall and both the spatial distribution and magnitude of latent heat fluxes over ocean. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of continental rainfall (SWnet_SFC) is mainly influenced by convection parameterization and horizontal resolution (boundary layer parameterization and orography). Physical understanding of the control of SW parameterization is addressed by analyzing the thermal structure of the atmosphere and conducting sensitivity experiments to O3 absorption and SW scattering coefficient. SW parameterization shapes the stability of the atmosphere in two different ways according to whether surface is coupled to atmosphere or not, while O3 absorption has minor effects in our simulations. Over SST-prescribed regions, increasing the amount of SW absorption warms the atmosphere only because surface temperatures are fixed, resulting in increased atmospheric stability. Over land-atmosphere coupled regions, increasing SW absorption warms both atmospheric and surface temperatures, leading to a shift towards a warmer state and a more intense hydrological cycle. This turns in reversal model behavior between land and sea points, with the SW scheme that

  8. Shortwave direct radiative effects of above cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from eight years of CALIOP and MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Yu, H.; Platnick, S.; Colarco, P.; Liu, Z.; Oreopoulos, L.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we studied the frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DRE) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans using eight years of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. Similar to previous work, we found high ACA occurrence in four regions: Southeast (SE) Atlantic region where ACAs are mostly light-absorbing aerosols, i.e., smoke and polluted dust according to CALIOP classification, originating from biomass burning over African Savanna; Tropical Northeast Atlantic and Arabian Sea where ACAs are predominantly windblown dust from the Sahara and Arabian desert, respectively; and Northwest Pacific where ACAs are mostly transported smoke and polluted dusts from Asian. From radiative transfer simulations based on CALIOP-MODIS observations and a set of the preselected aerosol optical models, we found the DREs of ACAs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to be positive (i.e., warming) in the SE Atlantic and NW Pacific regions, but negative (i.e., cooling) in TNE Atlantic and Arabian Sea. The cancellation of positive and negative regional DREs results in a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m-2 (range of -0.03 to 0.06 W m-2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within atmosphere are -0.15 W m-2 (range of -0.09 to -0.21 W m-2), and 0.17 W m-2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m-2), respectively. The regional and seasonal mean DREs are much stronger. For example, in the SE Atlantic region the JJA (July ~ August) seasonal mean cloudy-sky DRE is about 0.7 W m-2 (range of 0.2 to 1.2 W m-2) at TOA. The uncertainty in our DRE computations is mainly cause by the uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties, in particular aerosol absorption, and uncertainties in the CALIOP operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval. In situ and remotely sensed measurements of ACA from future field campaigns and satellite missions, and improved lidar retrieval algorithm, in particular vertical feature masking, would help reduce the

  9. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenso, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Cupples, Scott

    2011-01-01

    For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust non-venting system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's lithium chloride Heat Pump Radiator (HPR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. The SEAR is evacuated at the onset of operations and thereafter, the water vapor absorption rate of the HPR maintains a low pressure environment for the SWME to evaporate effectively. This water vapor captured by solid LiCl in the HPR with a high enthalpy of absorption, results in sufficient temperature lift to reject most of the heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the HPR would be heated up in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A one-fourth scale prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The HPR was able to stably reject 60 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

  10. The global land shortwave cryosphere radiative effect during the MODIS era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M. G.; Perket, J.

    2015-11-01

    The shortwave cryosphere radiative effect (CrRE) is the instantaneous influence of snow and ice cover on Earth's top-of-atmosphere (TOA) solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from four different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001-2013. We estimate global annual-mean land CrRE during this period of -2.6 W m-2, with variations from -2.2 to -3.0 W m-2 resulting from use of different kernels and variations of -2.4 to -2.6 W m-2 resulting from different algorithmic determinations of snow presence and surface albedo. Slightly more than half of the global land CrRE originates from perennial snow on Antarctica, whereas the majority of the northern hemispheric effect originates from seasonal snow. Consequently, the northern hemispheric land CrRE peaks at -6.0 W m-2 in April, whereas the southern hemispheric effect more closely follows the austral insolation cycle, peaking at -9.0 W m-2 in December. Mountain glaciers resolved in 0.05° MODIS data contribute about -0.037 W m-2 (1.4 %) of the global effect, with the majority (94 %) of this contribution originating from the Himalayas. Interannual trends in the global annual-mean land CrRE are not statistically significant during the MODIS era, but trends are positive (less negative) over large areas of northern Asia, especially during spring, and slightly negative over Antarctica, possibly due to increased snowfall. During a common overlap period of 2001-2008, our MODIS estimates of the northern hemispheric land CrRE are about 18 % smaller (less negative) than previous estimates derived from coarse-resolution AVHRR data, though interannual variations are well correlated (r = 0.78), indicating that these data are useful in determining longer-term trends in land CrRE.

  11. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR). In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM) in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night. We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD) and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD) of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between -2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations to local conditions

  12. Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Stephan, Ryan; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 m2 radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduces the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  13. Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  14. Changes in shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes as observed at BSRN sites and simulated with CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The high precision Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), established in the early 1990s, allows the monitoring of surface radiative fluxes and their changes with unprecedented accuracy. To investigate changes in the longwave spectrum, the longest records of downward longwave radiation currently available from BSRN have been analyzed. From 25 records covering altogether 353 years, an overall mean increase in downward longwave radiation of +2.0 Wm-2 per decade since the early 1990s was obtained. Thereby, three quarter of these BSRN sites showed increasing trends (19 sites in total, 9 of them significant), while one quarter indicated decreasing trends (6 sites, 3 significant). This change in downward longwave radiation quantitatively agrees very well with the respective change calculated by the latest generation of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). In their simulations, including all known relevant climate forcings the downward longwave radiation shows a very similar increase of currently around +2 Wm-2 per decade. Thus the limited observational evidence on decadal changes in downward longwave radiation matches well with our understanding of the functioning of the greenhouse effect and its representation in climate models. Based on these considerations I argue that the flux of downward longwave radiation at the Earth's surface is currently increasing by around +2 Wm-2 per decade globally, indicative of an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In the shortwave spectrum, substantial multidecadal changes in surface shortwave radiation have become evident in long-term observational records over the past 50 years, known as "dimming" and subsequent "brightening". The BSRN stations, starting not before the 1990s, only cover the more recent "brightening" period. A composite record based on 37 BSRN sites indicates an average increase of +2.0 Wm-2 per decade since the early 1990s. From the 23

  15. Solar shortwave radiation in the Iberian Peninsula along the last six decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; de Miguel, Argimiro; Pérez-Burgos, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The solar total shortwave radiation (SW, 305-2,800 nm) reaching the Earth surface is a key factor in the Earth energy balance and in the climate change. A decrease in SW levels has a cooling effect over the Earth. The SW changes are of interest in order to know the possible climatic effects. However long-term measured SW series are scarce, for example the oldest SW measurements in Spain are from 1973. The main objective of this work is to reconstruct and analyze nine long-term SW series from 1950 to 2011 in nine Spanish places located in the Iberian Peninsula. The data from different satellite retrievals were downloaded at the nine places: Total ozone column from different databases, spectral surface albedo and water vapour column from MODIS instrument, aerosol optical depth at 443 nm and Angström Exponent (between 443 nm and 670 nm) from MISR instrument onboard Terra satellite, and single scattering albedo from OMI instrument onboard Aura satellite. Moreover, sunshine duration records taken in the places were used. The UVSPEC/Libradtran radiative transfer model was run to obtain the daily SW irradiation under cloudless conditions in each location using as inputs monthly climatology tables calculated with the mentioned satellite retrievals. A model to obtain SW irradiation through the cloudless simulations and the sunshine records was developed, finding a great agreement with the monthly averaged SW measurements: a root mean square error of 5% and a mean bias error of 0.7%. The proposed model was used to obtain the daily SW irradiation, and the monthly, seasonal and annual averages, on the nine locations from 1950 to 2011. The homogeneity of these series was tested obtaining that all series are homogeneous. The anomalies of the series were calculated and a new series (Iberian Peninsula) of anomalies were obtained as an average of the nine locations. The annual SW on the Iberian Peninsula (the averaged series) shown a negative and statistically significant (99

  16. Assessment of the effect of air pollution controls on trends in shortwave radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from multiple observation networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term data sets of all-sky and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed together with surface concentrations from several networks (e.g., Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), Clean Air Status an...

  17. Climatology of aerosol properties and clear-sky shortwave radiative effects using Lidar and Sun photometer observations in the Dakar site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, A.; Goloub, P.; Derimian, Y.; Tanré, D.; Podvin, T.; Blarel, L.; Deroo, C.; Marticorena, B.; Diallo, A.; Ndiaye, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis of nearly a decade of continuous aerosol observations performed at the Mbour site (Senegal) with Sun photometer, Lidar, and Tapered Electromagnetic Oscillating Microbalance. This site is influenced all year-round by desert dust and sporadically, in wintertime, by biomass burning particles. Different patterns are revealed for winter and summer, seasons associated to air masses of different origin. The summer (wet season) is characterized by a high aerosol loading (optical thickness, AOT, around 0.57 at 532 nm) composed of large and weakly absorbing particles (Angstrom exponent, α, of 0.23 and single-scattering albedo, ϖ0, of 0.94 at 532 nm). A lower aerosol loading (AOT = 0.32) is observed during winter (dry season) for finer and absorbing particles (α = 0.48 and ϖ0 = 0.87) revealing the presence of biomass burning aerosols and a greater proportion of local emissions. This latter anthropogenic contribution is visible at weekly and daily scales through AOT cycles. A decrease of about 30% in AOT has been featured in autumn since 2003. The derivation of the extinction profiles highlights a dust transport close to the ground during winter and in an aloft layer (up to 5 km) during summer. Accurate calculations of the daily aerosol radiative effect in clear-sky conditions are finally addressed. From spring to winter, seasonal shortwave radiative forcing averages of 14.15, 11.15, 8.92, and 12.06 W m-2 have been found respectively. Up to 38% of the solar clear-sky atmospheric heating can be attributed to the aerosols in this site.

  18. Upscaling instantaneous to daily evapotranspiration using modelled daily shortwave radiation for remote sensing applications: an artificial neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandera, Loise; Mallick, Kaniska; Kiely, Gerard; Roupsard, Olivier; Peichl, Matthias; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Upscaling instantaneous evapotranspiration retrieved at any specific time-of-day (ETi) to daily evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key challenge in mapping regional ET using polar orbiting sensors. Various studies have unanimously cited the shortwave incoming radiation (RS) to be the most robust reference variable explaining the ratio between ETd and ETi. This study aims to contribute in ETi upscaling for global studies using the ratio between daily and instantaneous incoming shortwave radiation (RSd / RSi) as a factor for converting ETi to ETd.This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) machine-learning algorithm first to predict RSd from RSi followed by using the RSd / RSi ratio to convert ETi to ETd across different terrestrial ecosystems. Using RSi and RSd observations from multiple sub-networks of the FLUXNET database spread across different climates and biomes (to represent inputs that would typically be obtainable from remote sensors during the overpass time) in conjunction with some astronomical variables (e.g. solar zenith angle, day length, exoatmospheric shortwave radiation), we developed the ANN model for reproducing RSd and further used it to upscale ETi to ETd. The efficiency of the ANN is evaluated for different morning and afternoon times of day, under varying sky conditions, and also at different geographic locations. RS-based upscaled ETd produced a significant linear relation (R2 = 0.65 to 0.69), low bias (-0.31 to -0.56 MJ m-2 d-1; approx. 4 %), and good agreement (RMSE 1.55 to 1.86 MJ m-2 d-1; approx. 10 %) with the observed ETd, although a systematic overestimation of ETd was also noted under persistent cloudy sky conditions. Inclusion of soil moisture and rainfall information in ANN training reduced the systematic overestimation tendency in predominantly overcast days. An intercomparison with existing upscaling method at daily, 8-day, monthly, and yearly temporal resolution revealed a robust performance of the ANN-driven RS-based ETi

  19. Long-Term Validation and Variability of the Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Data of the GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephan J.; Mikovitz, Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    In this investigation, we make systematic Surface Radiation Budget-Baseline Surface Radiation Network (SRB-BSRN), Surface Radiation Data Centre (SRB-WRDC) and Surface Radiation Budget-Global Energy Balance Archive (SRB-GEBA) comparisons for both shortwave and longwave daily and monthly mean radiation fluxes at the Earth's surface. We first have an overview of all the comparable pairs of data in scatter or scatter density plots. Then we show the time series of the SRB data at grids in which there are ground sites where longterm records of data are available for comparison. An overall very good agreement between the SRB data and ground observations is found. To see the variability of the SRB data during the 21.5 years, we computed the global mean and its linear trend. No appreciable trend is detected at the 5% level. The empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) of the SRB deseasonalized shortwave downward flux are computed over the Pacific region, and the first EOF coefficient is found to be correlated with the ENSO Index at a high value of coefficient of 0.7083.

  20. Attenuating Photostress and Glare Disability in Pseudophakic Patients through the Addition of a Short-Wave Absorbing Filter

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Billy R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of filtering short wavelength light on visual performance under intense light conditions among pseudophakic patients previously implanted with a clear intraocular lens (IOL). This was a patient-masked, randomized crossover study conducted at 6 clinical sites in the United States between September 2013 and January 2014. One hundred fifty-four bilaterally pseudophakic patients were recruited. Photostress recovery time and glare disability thresholds were measured with clip-on blue-light-filtering and placebo (clear; no blue-light filtration) glasses worn over patients' habitual correction. Photostress recovery time was quantified as the time necessary to regain sight of a grating target after intense light exposure. Glare disability threshold was assessed as the intensity of a white-light annulus necessary to obscure a central target. The order of filter used and test eye were randomized across patients. Photostress recovery time and glare disability thresholds were significantly improved (both P < 0.0001) when patients used blue-light-filtering glasses compared with clear, nonfiltering glasses. Compared with a nonfiltering placebo, adding a clip-on blue-absorbing filter to the glasses of pseudophakic patients implanted with clear IOLs significantly increased their ability to cope with glare and to recover normal viewing after an intensive photostress. This result implies that IOL designs with blue-light-filtering characteristics may be beneficial under intense light conditions. PMID:25838942

  1. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  2. Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, Hiroki; Abe, Manabu; Watanabe, Shingo; Sekiya, Takashi; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Cole, Jason N. S.; Kravitz, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback of net shortwave radiation at the surface in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project by analysing outputs from six participating models. G4 involves injection of 5 Tg yr-1 of SO2, a sulfate aerosol precursor, into the lower stratosphere from year 2020 to 2069 against a background scenario of RCP4.5. A single-layer atmospheric model for shortwave radiative transfer is used to estimate the direct forcing of solar radiation management (SRM), and rapid adjustment and feedbacks from changes in the water vapour amount, cloud amount, and surface albedo (compared with RCP4.5). The analysis shows that the globally and temporally averaged SRM forcing ranges from -3.6 to -1.6 W m-2, depending on the model. The sum of the rapid adjustments and feedback effects due to changes in the water vapour and cloud amounts increase the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by approximately 0.4 to 1.5 W m-2 and hence weaken the effect of SRM by around 50 %. The surface albedo changes decrease the net shortwave radiation at the surface; it is locally strong (˜ -4 W m-2) in snow and sea ice melting regions, but minor for the global average. The analyses show that the results of the G4 experiment, which simulates sulfate geoengineering, include large inter-model variability both in the direct SRM forcing and the shortwave rapid adjustment from change in the cloud amount, and imply a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols and clouds.

  3. Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle: Focus on Shortwave and Longwave Radiative Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Ma, Y.; Nussbaumer, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    The overall goal of the MEaSUREs activity titled: "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" is to develop consistent, long-term Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) for the major components of the terrestrial water cycle at a climatic time scale. The shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes at the Earth's surface determine the exchange of energy between the land and the atmosphere are the focus of this presentation. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in assessing the Earth Radiation Balance from satellite observations. Yet, satellite based estimates differ from each other and long term satellite observations at global scale are not readily available. There is a need to utilize existing records of satellite observations and to improve currently available estimates. This paper reports on improvements introduced to an existing methodology to estimate shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes within the atmospheric system, on the development of a new inference scheme for deriving LW fluxes, the implementation of the approach with the ISCCP DX observations and improved atmospheric inputs for the period of 1983-2007, evaluation against ground observations, and comparison with independent satellite methods and numerical models. The resulting ESDRs from the entire MEaSUREs Project are intended to provide a consistent basis for estimating the mean state and variability of the land surface water cycle at a spatial scale relevant to major global river basins. MEaSUREs Project "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" Team Members: E. F. Wood (PI)1, T. J Bohn2, J. L Bytheway3, X. Feng4, H. Gao2, P. R.Houser4 (CO-I), C. D Kummerow3 (CO-I), D. P Lettenmaier2 (CO-I), C. Li5, Y. Ma5, R. F MacCracken4, M. Pan1, R. T Pinker5 (CO-I), A. K. Sahoo1, J. Sheffield1 1. Dept of CEE, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 2. Dept of CEE, University of Washington, Seattle

  4. Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Dogu-Baykut, Esra; Gunes, Gurbuz; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-15

    Thyme is a good source of antioxidant compounds but it can be contaminated by microorganisms. An experimental fluid bed ultraviolet (UV) reactor was designed for microbial decontamination of thyme samples and the effect of shortwave ultraviolet light (UV-C) radiation on antioxidant properties of thyme was studied. Samples were exposed to UV-C radiation for 16 or 64 min. UV-C treatment led to 1.04 and 1.38 log CFU/g reduction of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) counts. Hunter a(∗) value was the most sensitive colour parameter during UV-C treatment. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of extracts was not significantly affected by UV-C. Addition of thyme extracts at 0.15 and 0.3 μmol GAE/ml emulsion delayed the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal in the 5.0%(wt) corn oil-in-water emulsion from 4 to 9 and 14 days, respectively. No significant changes in oxidation rates were observed between UV-C treated and untreated samples at same concentrations.

  5. Atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation derived from Nimbus 7 earth radiation budget data set, November 1985 to October 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Rutan, David; Bess, T. Dale

    1992-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean global contour maps of albedo and absorbed solar radiation is presented for 21 months from Nov. 1985 to Oct. 1987. These data were retrieved from measurements made by the shortwave wide-field-of-view radiometer of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument aboard the Nimbus 7 spacecraft. Profiles of zonal mean albedos and absorbed solar radiation were tabulated. These geographical distributions are provided as a resource for researchers studying the radiation budget of the Earth. The El Nino/Southern Oscillation event of 1986-1987 is included in this data set. This atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation extends to 12 years the period covered by two similar atlases: NASA RP-1230 (Jul. 1975 - Oct. 1978) and NASA RP-1231 (Nov. 1978 - Oct. 1985). These three compilations complement the atlases of outgoing longwave radiation by Bess and Smith in NASA RP-1185, RP-1186, and RP-1261, which were also based on the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB data.

  6. Estimation of net surface shortwave radiation over the tropical Indian Ocean using geostationary satellite observations: Algorithm and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Naveen R.; Thapliyal, Pradeep K.; Sharma, Rashmi; Pal, Pradip K.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology to estimate the net surface shortwave radiation (SWR) over tropical oceans using half-hourly geostationary satellite estimates of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). The collocated data set of SWR measured at 13 buoy locations over the Indian Ocean and a Meteosat-derived OLR for the period of 2002-2009 have been used to derive an empirical relationship. The information from the solar zenith angle that determines the amount of solar radiation received at a particular location is used to normalize the SWR to nadir observation in order to make the empirical relationship location independent. As the relationship between SWR and OLR is valid mostly over the warm-pool regions, the present study restricts SWR estimation in the tropical Indian Ocean domain (30°E-110°E, 30°S-30°N). The SWR estimates are validated with an independent collocated data set and subsequently compared with the SWR estimates from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment-Surface Radiation Budget V3.0 (GEWEX-SRB), International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-Flux Data (ISCCP-FD), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis for the year 2007. The present algorithm provides significantly better accuracy of SWR estimates, with a root-mean-square error of 27.3 W m-2 as compared with the values of 32.7, 37.5, and 59.6 W m-2 obtained from GEWEX-SRB, ISCCP-FD, and NCEP, respectively. The present algorithm also provides consistently better SWR compared with other available products under different sky conditions and seasons over Indian Ocean warm-pool regions.

  7. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  8. Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

  9. Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator- Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 sq ft prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable heat rejection from the LCAR.

  10. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnert, M.; Devasthale, A.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1-1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of different error sources. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably high biases in radiative impact studies. We emphasise that there

  11. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnert, M.; Devasthale, A.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1-1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of differences in the optical cross sections and asymmetry parameters. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably high biases in

  12. Spectral estimators of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Most models of crop growth and yield require an estimate of canopy leaf area index (LAI) or absorption of radiation. Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by corn canopies and the spectral reflectance of the canopies were investigated. Reflectance factor data were acquired with a Landsat MSS band radiometer. From planting to silking, the three spectrally predicted vegetation indices examined were associated with more than 95 percent of the variability in absorbed PAR. The relationships developed between absorbed PAR and the three indices were evaluated with reflectance factor data acquired from corn canopies planted in 1979 through 1982. Seasonal cumulations of measured LAI and each of the three indices were associated with greater than 50 percent of the variation in final grain yields from the test years. Seasonal cumulations of daily absorbed PAR were associated with up to 73 percent of the variation in final grain yields. Absorbed PAR, cumulated through the growing season, is a better indicator of yield than cumulated leaf area index. Absorbed PAR may be estimated reliably from spectral reflectance data of crop canopies.

  13. Spectral estimators of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Most models of crop growth and yield require an estimate of canopy leaf area index (LAI) or absorption of radiation. Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by corn canopies and the spectral reflectance of the canopies were investigated. Reflectance factor data were acquired with a LANDSAT MSS band radiometer. From planting to silking, the three spectrally predicted vegetation indices examined were associated with more than 95% of the variability in absorbed PAR. The relationships developed between absorbed PAR and the three indices were evaluated with reflectance factor data acquired from corn canopies planted in 1979 through 1982. Seasonal cumulations of measured LAI and each of the three indices were associated with greater than 50% of the variation in final grain yields from the test years. Seasonal cumulations of daily absorbed PAR were associated with up to 73% of the variation in final grain yields. Absorbed PAR, cumulated through the growing season, is a better indicator of yield than cumulated leaf area index. Absorbed PAR may be estimated reliably from spectral reflectance data of crop canopies.

  14. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Torabinejad, M.; Danforth, R.; Andrews, K.; Chan, C.

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures.

  15. Shortwave surface radiation budget network for observing small-scale cloud inhomogeneity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, B. L.; Kalisch, J.; Macke, A.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high spatial density network of 99 silicon photodiode pyranometers was set up around Jülich (10 km x 12 km area) from April to July 2013, to capture the variability in the radiation field at the surface induced by small-scale cloud inhomogeneity. Each of these autonomously operated pyranometer stations was equipped with weather sensors for simultaneous measurements of ambient air temperature and relative humidity. In this paper, we provide the details of this unique setup of the pyranometer network and the data analysis with initial quality screening procedure we adopted. We also present some exemplary cases consisting of the days with clear, broken cloudy and overcast skies to assess our spatio-temporal observations from the network, and validate their consistency with other collocated radiation measurements available during the HOPE period.

  16. Shortwave surface radiation network for observing small-scale cloud inhomogeneity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi Madhavan, Bomidi; Kalisch, John; Macke, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    As part of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high-density network of 99 silicon photodiode pyranometers was set up around Jülich (10 km × 12 km area) from April to July 2013 to capture the small-scale variability of cloud-induced radiation fields at the surface. In this paper, we provide the details of this unique setup of the pyranometer network, data processing, quality control, and uncertainty assessment under variable conditions. Some exemplary days with clear, broken cloudy, and overcast skies were explored to assess the spatiotemporal observations from the network along with other collocated radiation and sky imager measurements available during the HOPE period.

  17. Effects of sulfate aerosol on the central Pennsylvania surface shortwave radiation budget. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guimond, P.W.

    1994-12-01

    Surface radiation measurements are taken simultaneously with measurements of meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and visibility to evaluate the impact of sulfate haze on the surface radiation budget. A relationship is sought between flux losses due only to aerosol and relative humidity, visibility or both, with the goal of facilitating parameterization of sulfate hazes by climate modelers. At the same time, a rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) is compared with a more costly sun photometer to determine the feasibility of substituting the former for the latter in future research. It is found that depletion of surface radiation due to aerosol is typically ten to twenty percent of initial insolation, and that the losses can be correlated with zenith angle, relative humidity and optical depth. In the case of flux loss as a function of optical depth, the two are related in a nearly linear fashion. It is also discovered that the RSR has a predictable error owing to a wider field of view than the sun photometer, and can be used as a replacement for the former by correcting for the error.

  18. Spectral unfiltering of ERBE WFOV nonscanner shortwave observations and revisiting its radiation dataset from 1985 to 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; Kato, S.; Wong, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Rose, F.; Miller, W. F.; Bush, K.; Rutan, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D.

    2017-02-01

    Wide-field-of-view (WFOV) nonscanner instruments were onboard NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites, and provided broadband shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) irradiances from 1984 to 1999. However, Lee et al. (2002) noted degradation in the WFOV SW dome transmissivity. To account for this degradation, these SW instruments were calibrated with the spectrally flat gray assumption. More recently, Loeb et al. (2012) showed higher degradation in the transmissivity of shorter wavelengths suggesting a need for both temporal and spectral dependent corrections for better calibration. Such an approach may also eliminate an additional adjustment that was applied to irradiances in the existing products to remove the observed trend of day-minus-night longwave irradiances (Wong et al. 2006). We plan to reprocess the ERBE WFOV nonscanner record by characterizing the spectral degradation of the SW dome transmissivity over time. Solar data observed by the WFOV SW nonscanner during calibration days are used to estimate a time and spectral dependent spectral response function (SRF). Coefficients derived from this SRF are then used to improve the irradiance estimate. In addition, since the spectrum of reflected irradiance depends on scene type, ISCCP-derived cloud properties and surface type are used. Preliminary results indicate that taking account of spectral degradation reduces the observed day-minus-night longwave irradiance trends in the tropics (20ON and 20OS) by ˜34%, while almost all of the trend is removed in the region between 60ON and 60OS. This presentation explains the reprocessing approach and compares the existing and reprocessed ERBE dataset. Once ERBS measurements are calibrated against CERES instruments, this work allows for the generation of a long-term radiation datasets consistent with those provided by CERES.

  19. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-07-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  20. Albedo and flux extinction coefficient of impure snow for diffuse shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Mo, T.; Wang, J. R.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Impurities enter a snowpack as a result of fallout of scavenging by falling snow crystals. Albedo and flux extinction coefficient of soot contaminated snowcovers were studied using a two stream approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The effect of soot was calculated by two methods: independent scattering by ice grains and impurities and average refractive index for ice grains. Both methods predict a qualitatively similar effect of soot; the albedo is decreased and the extinction coefficient is increased compared to that for pure snow in the visible region; the infrared properties are largely unaffected. Quantitatively, however, the effect of soot is more pronounced in the average refractive index method. Soot contamination provides a qualitative explanation for several snow observations.

  1. Sensitivity simulations with direct shortwave radiative forcing by aeolian dust during glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E.; Ganopolski, A.

    2014-07-01

    Possible feedback effects between aeolian dust, climate and ice sheets are studied for the first time with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity over the late Pleistocene period. Correlations between climate and dust deposition records suggest that aeolian dust potentially plays an important role for the evolution of glacial cycles. Here climatic effects from the dust direct radiative forcing (DRF) caused by absorption and scattering of solar radiation are investigated. Key elements controlling the dust DRF are the atmospheric dust distribution and the absorption-scattering efficiency of dust aerosols. Effective physical parameters in the description of these elements are varied within uncertainty ranges known from available data and detailed model studies. Although the parameters can be reasonably constrained, the simulated dust DRF spans a~wide uncertainty range related to the strong nonlinearity of the Earth system. In our simulations, the dust DRF is highly localized. Medium-range parameters result in negative DRF of several watts per square metre in regions close to major dust sources and negligible values elsewhere. In the case of high absorption efficiency, the local dust DRF can reach positive values and the global mean DRF can be insignificantly small. In the case of low absorption efficiency, the dust DRF can produce a significant global cooling in glacial periods, which leads to a doubling of the maximum glacial ice volume relative to the case with small dust DRF. DRF-induced temperature and precipitation changes can either be attenuated or amplified through a feedback loop involving the dust cycle. The sensitivity experiments suggest that depending on dust optical parameters, dust DRF has the potential to either damp or reinforce glacial-interglacial climate changes.

  2. Cirrus cloud radiative forcing on surface-level shortwave and longwave irradiances at regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, J. C.; Haeffelin, M.; Long, C. N.

    2009-04-01

    Cirrus clouds not only play a major role in the energy budget of the Earth-Atmosphere system, but are also important in the hydrological cycle. According to satellite passive remote sensing high-altitude clouds cover as much as 40% of the earth's surface on average and can reach 70% of cloud cover over the Tropics. Hence, given their very large cloud cover, the relatively small instantaneous radiative effects of these cirrus clouds can engender a significant cumulative radiative forcing at the surface. Precise calculations of the cirrus cloud radiative forcing are obtained from the difference between measured radiative fluxes downwelling at the surface in the presence of cirrus clouds (broadband flux measurements) and computed clear sky references (parametric models with RMS error < 5 W m-2). Overcast and clear sky period identification is obtained from a combined analysis of lidar and broadband flux measurements. In this study, we analyze two datasets: ground-based and satellite measurements. The firsts corresponds to solar and infrared irradiance measurements, cloud and aerosol Lidar backscattering profiles, microwave radiometer brightness temperatures, radiosonde profiles, and sun-photometer extinctions monitored at four observatories located in the midlatitudes (SIRTA Observatory and ARM SGP Lamont), the Tropics (ARM TWP Nauru) and the Arctic (ARM NSA Barrow). This dataset permits us to estimate the Cirrus cloud Radiative Forcing (cloud base altitude above 7 km) on surface-level shortwave (CRFSW) and longwave (CRFLW) irradiances. The sensitivity of CRFSW to Cloud Optical Thickness (noted CRFSW*) is established and ranges from 100 W m-2 to 200 W m-2 per unit of cloud optical thickness. The important variability of aerosols and water vapor content obtained in studying the 4 observatories allows us to quantify the combined influence of aerosol optical thickness and integrated water vapor on CRFSW* : 10 to 20 % CRFSW* range for turbid and pristine atmosphere

  3. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  4. An improved methodology for deriving high-resolution surface shortwave radiative fluxes from MODIS in the Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaolei; Pinker, Rachel T.

    2015-03-01

    The Arctic is experiencing an unprecedented increase in surface air temperature and decrease in sea ice extent. The causes of these changes are still being debated; radiative fluxes are believed to play an important role in this warming. The primary motivation for this study is to advance the quality and resolution of currently available information on surface shortwave (solar) irradiance (SWR) for the Arctic. Such information is needed to meet the challenge for accurate estimates of heat input into the open waters. An inference scheme that utilizes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations is optimized for high latitudes and implemented at 5 km for 2007 at an hourly time scale. Evaluation of the 5 km based SWR estimates against hourly ground observations at Barrow site shows a mean bias of 7.9 W m-2 (3% of mean values), a standard deviation of 58.2 W m-2 (23% of mean value), and a high correlation of 0.95. Evaluation of the SWR estimates against daily ground measurements at these latitudes shows good agreement with surface observations at three sites, with a mean bias of 1.9 W m-2 (1.1% of mean values), a standard deviation of 31.5 W m-2 (17.8% of mean value), and a high correlation of 0.96. Information at this high resolution and good quality can lead to improved estimates of heat input into the complex Arctic domain. For the Beaufort Sea domain (70°N-80°N, 120°E-50°E), the differences can amount to 116 MJ m-2 (~7%) of the total solar input of this region.

  5. Reassessment and update of long-term trends in downward surface shortwave radiation over Europe (1939-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Brunetti, M.; Guijarro, J. A.; Hakuba, M. Z.; Calbó, J.; Mystakidis, S.; Bartok, B.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents trends in downward surface shortwave radiation (SSR) over Europe, which are based on the 56 longest series available from the Global Energy Balance Archive that are mainly concentrated in central Europe. Special emphasis has been placed on both ensuring the temporal homogeneity and including the most recent years in the data set. We have generated, for the first time, composite time series for Europe covering the period 1939-2012, which have been studied by means of running trend analysis. The mean annual SSR series shows an increase from the late 1930s to the early 1950s (i.e., early brightening), followed by a reduction until mid-1980s (i.e., global dimming) and a subsequent increase up to the early 2000s (i.e., global brightening). The series ends with a tendency of stabilization since the early 21st century, but the short time period is insufficient with regard to establishing whether a change in the trend is actually emerging over Europe. Seasonal and regional series are also presented, which highlight that similar variations are obtained for most of the seasons and regions across Europe. In fact, due to the strong spatial correlation in the SSR series, few series are enough to capture almost the same interannual and decadal variability as using a dense network of stations. Decadal variations of the SSR are expected to have an impact on the modulation of the temperatures and other processes over Europe linked with changes in the hydrological cycle, agriculture production, or natural ecosystems. For a better dissemination of the time series developed in this study, the data set is freely available for scientific purposes.

  6. Shortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yu, Hongbin; Platnick, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Liu, Zhaoyan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied the frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DREs) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans using 8 years (2007-2014) of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. Similar to previous work, we found high ACA occurrence in four regions: southeastern (SE) Atlantic region, where ACAs are mostly light-absorbing aerosols, i.e., smoke and polluted dust according to CALIOP classification, originating from biomass burning over the African Savanna; tropical northeastern (TNE) Atlantic and the Arabian Sea, where ACAs are predominantly windblown dust from the Sahara and Arabian deserts, respectively; and the northwestern (NW) Pacific, where ACAs are mostly transported smoke and polluted dusts from Asian. From radiative transfer simulations based on CALIOP-MODIS observations and a set of the preselected aerosol optical models, we found the DREs of ACAs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to be positive (i.e., warming) in the SE Atlantic and NW Pacific regions, but negative (i.e., cooling) in the TNE Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea. The cancellation of positive and negative regional DREs results in a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m-2 (range of -0.03 to 0.06 W m-2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within the atmosphere are -0.15 W m-2 (range of -0.09 to -0.21 W m-2), and 0.17 W m-2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m-2), respectively. The regional and seasonal mean DREs are much stronger. For example, in the SE Atlantic region, the JJA (July-August) seasonal mean cloudy-sky DRE is about 0.7 W m-2 (range of 0.2 to 1.2 W m-2) at TOA. All our DRE computations are publicly available1. The uncertainty in our DRE computations is mainly caused by the uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties, in particular aerosol absorption, the uncertainties in the CALIOP operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval, and the ignorance of cloud and potential aerosol diurnal cycle. In situ and remotely sensed

  7. Frequency Integrated Radiation Models for Absorbing and Scattering Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripoll, J. F.; Wray, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to contribute to the simplification of existing radiation models used in complex emitting, absorbing, scattering media. The application in view is the computation of flows occurring in such complex media, such as certain stellar interiors or combusting gases. In these problems, especially when scattering is present, the complexity of the radiative transfer leads to a high numerical cost, which is often avoided by simply neglecting it. The complexity lies partly in the strong dependence of the spectral coefficients on frequency. Models are then needed to capture the effects of the radiation when one cannot afford to directly solve for it. In this work, the frequency dependence will be modeled and integrated out in order retain only the average effects. A frequency-integrated radiative transfer equation (RTE) will be derived.

  8. Building advanced climatology of short-wave solar radiation over the global oceans using a new parameterization of short wave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, M.; Sinitsyn, A.; Gulev, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Short-wave (SW) radiation is one of the key air-sea flux components playing an important role in on the ocean heat balance. Global climatologies of SW radiation are now available from different satellite missions and reanalyses. However, satellite based products cover only the last few decades and in reanalyses SW radiation appears to be one of the most inaccurate diagnostic variables. An alternative way to produce long-term time series of SW radiation is to use Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data and bulk parameterizations of SW radiation. Nevertheless, during the last years there was a little of effort to improve existing parameterizations of SW radiation which are typically based on the radiative flux dependencies on the total cloud cover and solar altitude. We make use a full collection of VOS data from the International Comprehensive Data Set (ICOADS) and a new parameterization of SW radiation developed at the Sea Atmosphere Interaction And Climate Laboratory of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (SAIL) to produce a new generation global gridded data set for SW radiation for the period 1900-2008. The major feature of the SAIL parameterization is the use of the information about cloud types along with the routine information about total cloud cover. This approach allows for derivation of different dependencies of the atmospheric transmission functions onto cloud amount for different types of clouds. Relationships parameterizing these dependencies were developed using 4 years of highly accurate in-situ measurements in the Atlantic. This approach results in a critical improvement of the results for the situations close to complete overcast (6-8 oktas)..Using new parameterization and special approaches to avoid inhomogeneous sampling effect we developed a global monthly climatology of SW radiative fluxes over the global ocean at a 2-degree resolution. Special attention has been paid to the homogenization of fields in the Southern Ocean characterized by extremely

  9. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  10. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  11. Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B; Atwell, W; Beever, R; Hardy, A

    1986-01-01

    In order to make an assessment of radiation risk during manned missions in space, it is necessary first to have as accurate an estimation as possible of the radiation environment within the spacecraft to which the astronauts will be exposed. Then, with this knowledge and the inclusion of body self-shielding, estimations can be made of absorbed doses for various body organs (skin, eye, blood-forming organs, etc.). A review is presented of our present knowledge of the radiation environments and absorbed doses expected for several space mission scenarios selected for our development of the new radiation protection guidelines. The scenarios selected are a 90-day mission at an altitude (450 km) and orbital inclinations (28.5 degrees, 57 degrees and 90 degrees) appropriate for NASA's Space Station, a 15-day sortie to geosynchronous orbit and a 90-day lunar mission. All scenarios chosen yielded dose equivalents between five and ten rem to the blood forming organs if no large solar particle event were encountered. Such particle events could add considerable exposure particularly to the skin and eye for all scenarios except the one at 28.5 degrees orbital inclination.

  12. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  13. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Badavi, F F; Yang, T C; Cleghorn, T F

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  14. Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the

  15. Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE)

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Minnis, Patrick; Pope, Shelly K.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bush, Brett C.; Doelling, David R.; Smith, William L. Jr.; Dong, Xiquan

    2000-02-27

    Data sets acquired during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) using simultaneous measurements from five independent platforms (GOES 8 geostationary satellite, ER-2, Egrett and Twin Otter aircraft, and surface) are analyzed and compared. A consistent data set can be built for selected days during ARESE on the basis of the observations from these platforms. The GOES 8 albedos agree with the ER 2, Egrett, and Twin Otter measured instantaneous albedos within 0.013{+-}0.016, 0.018{+-}0.032, and 0.006{+-}0.011, respectively. It is found that for heavy overcast conditions the aircraft measurements yield an absorptance of 0.32{+-}0.03 for the layer between the aircraft (0.5-13 km), while the GOES 8 albedo versus surface transmittance analysis gives an absorptance of 0.33{+-}0.04 for the total atmosphere (surface to top). The absorptance of solar radiation estimated by model calculations for overcast conditions varies between 0.16 and 0.24, depending on the model used and on cloud and aerosol implementation. These results are in general agreement with recent findings for cloudy skies, but here a data set that brings together independent simultaneous observations (satellite, surface, and aircraft) is used. Previous ARESE results are reexamined in light of the new findings, and it is concluded that the overcast absorptance in the 0.224-0.68 {mu}m spectral region ranges between 0.04{+-}0.06 and 0.08{+-}0.06, depending on the particular case analyzed. No evidence of excess clear-sky absorption beyond model and experimental errors is found. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  16. Global all-sky shortwave direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols from combined satellite observations and GOCART simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wenying; Loeb, Norman G.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Chin, Mian; Rose, Fred G.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) from satellite measurements is challenging because current satellite sensors do not have the capability of discriminating between anthropogenic and natural aerosols. We combine 3-hourly cloud properties from satellite retrievals with two aerosol data sets to calculate the all-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE), which is the mean radiative perturbation due to the presence of both natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The first aerosol data set is based upon Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Model for Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) assimilation model and is largely constrained by MODIS aerosol optical depth, but it does not distinguish between anthropogenic and natural aerosols. The other aerosol data set is based upon the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, which does not assimilate aerosol observations but predicts the anthropogenic and natural components of aerosols. Thus, we can calculate the aerosol DRF using GOCART classifications of anthropogenic and natural aerosols and the ratio of DRF to DRE. We then apply this ratio to DRE calculated using MODIS/MATCH aerosols to partition it into DRF (MODIS/MATCH DRF) by assuming that the anthropogenic fractions from GOCART are representative. The global (60°N~60°S) mean all-sky MODIS/MATCH DRF is -0.51 Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), 2.51 Wm-2 within the atmosphere, and -3.02 Wm-2 at the surface. The GOCART all-sky DRF is -0.17 Wm-2 at the TOA, 2.02 Wm-2 within the atmosphere, and -2.19 Wm-2 at the surface. The differences between MODIS/MATCH DRF and GOCART DRF are solely due to the differences in aerosol properties, since both computations use the same cloud properties and surface albedo and the same proportion of anthropogenic contributions to aerosol DRE. Aerosol optical depths simulated by the GOCART model are smaller than those in MODIS/MATCH, and aerosols in the GOCART model are

  17. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for 18F-BPA PET.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuzuru; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Yasui, Naoko; Honda, Naoki; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a molecular radiation therapy approach based on the (10)B (n, α) (7)Li nuclear reaction in cancer cells. In BNCT, delivery of (10)B in the form of 4-borono-phenylalanine conjugated with fructose (BPA-fr) to the cancer cells is important. The PET tracer 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) has been used to predict the accumulation of BPA-fr before BNCT. Purpose To determine the biodistribution and dosimetric parameters in 18F-BPA PET/CT studies. Material and Methods Human biokinetic data were obtained during clinical 18F-BPA PET studies between February and June 2015 at one institution. Nine consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The internal radiation dose was calculated on the basis of radioactivity data from blood, urine, and normal tissue of the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, and other parts of the body at each time point using OLINDA/EXM1.1 program. We compared our calculations with published 18F-FDG data. Results Adult patients (3 men, 3 women; age range, 28-68 years) had significantly smaller absorbed doses than pediatric patients (3 patients; age range, 5-12 years) ( P = 0.003). The mean effective dose was 57% lower in adult patients compared with pediatric patients. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were 25% lower than those for 18F-FDG presented in International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) publication 106. Conclusion We found significant differences in organ absorbed doses for 18F-BPA against those for 18F-FDG presented in ICRP publication 106. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were smaller than those for 18F-FDG in the publication by 0.5-38% (mean difference, 25%).

  18. NASA/GEWEX shortwave surface radiation budget: Integrated data product with reprocessed radiance, cloud, and meteorology inputs, and new surface albedo treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2017-02-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current Release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institute Aerosol Climatology (MAC), and temperature and moisture profiles from nnHIRS.

  19. Radiation-induced biomarkers for the detection and assessment of absorbed radiation doses

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sudha; Kumar, Raj; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Radiation incident involving living organisms is an uncommon but a very serious situation. The first step in medical management including triage is high-throughput assessment of the radiation dose received. Radiation exposure levels can be assessed from viability of cells, cellular organelles such as chromosome and different intermediate metabolites. Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation result in carcinogenesis, lowering of the immune response and, ultimately, damage to the hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. Biodosimetry is based on the measurement of the radiation-induced changes, which can correlate them with the absorbed dose. Radiation biomarkers such as chromosome aberration are most widely used. Serum enzymes such as serum amylase and diamine oxidase are the most promising biodosimeters. The level of gene expression and protein are also good biomarkers of radiation. PMID:21829314

  20. Global All-sky Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic Aerosols from Combined Satellite Observations and GOCART Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Loeb, N. G.; Schuster, G. L.; Chin, M.; Rose, F. G.

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) from satellite measurements is challenging because current satellite sensors do not have the capability of discriminating between anthropogenic and natural aerosols. We combine 3-hourly cloud properties from satellite retrievals with two aerosol data sets to calculate the all-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE), which is the mean radiative perturbation due to the presence of both natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The first aerosol data set is based upon MODIS and MATCH assimilation model and is largely constrained by MODIS aerosol optical depth, but it does not distinguish between anthropogenic and natural aerosols. The other aerosol data set is based upon the GOCART model, which does not assimilate aerosol observations but predicts the anthropogenic and natural components of aerosols. Thus, we can calculate the aerosol DRF using GOCART classifications of anthropogenic and natural aerosols and the ratio of DRF to DRE. We then apply this ratio to DRE calculated using MODIS/MATCH aerosols to partition it into DRF (MODIS/MATCH DRF), by assuming that the anthropogenic fractions from GOCART are representative. The global (60oN ˜60oS) mean all-sky MODIS/MATCH DRF is -0.51 Wm-2 at the TOA, 2.51 Wm-2 within the atmosphere, and -3.02 Wm-2 at the surface. The GOCART all-sky DRF is -0.17 Wm-2 at the TOA, 2.02 Wm-2 within the atmosphere, and -2.19 Wm-2 at the surface. The differences between MODIS/MATCH DRF and GOCART DRF are solely due to the differences in aerosol properties, since both computations use the same cloud properties and surface albedo, and the same proportion of anthropogenic contributions to aerosol DRE. Aerosol optical depths simulated by the GOCART model are smaller than those in MODIS/MATCH, and aerosols in the GOCART model are more absorbing than those in MODIS/MATCH. Large difference in all-sky TOA DRF from these two aerosol data sets highlights the complexity in determining the all-sky DRF

  1. Wintertime aerosol properties during foggy and nonfoggy days over urban center Delhi and their implications for shortwave radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Dilip; Jayaraman, A.; Rajesh, T. A.; Gadhavi, H.

    2006-08-01

    We present results from complimentary measurements of physical and optical properties of aerosols carried out at Delhi, as part of the Indian Space Research Organization Geosphere Biosphere Programme's Land Campaign II in December 2004. For the first time we unravel ground truth values of several radiatively important aerosol parameters such as their wavelength dependency in absorption, scattering behavior, single-scattering albedo, number size distribution, and vertical distribution in the atmosphere from this polluted megacity in south Asia. Interesting features are observed in the behavior of aerosol parameters under intermittent foggy, hazy, and clear-sky conditions prevalent during the campaign. All aerosol parameters exhibited a large distribution in their values, with variabilities being particularly higher on hazy and foggy days. The average clear-sky aerosol optical depth (AOD) value is 0.91 ± 0.48, which is higher than the AOD value reported for most other cities in India during this season of the year. Increases in AOD on hazy and foggy days are found to be spectrally nonuniform. The percentage increase in AOD at shorter wavelengths was higher on hazy days compared to clear days. Diurnally averaged BC mass concentration varied from a low of 15 μg/m3 during clear days to a high of about 65 μg/m3 on hazy days. The wavelength dependency of aerosol absorption shows signatures of the presence of a significant amount of absorbing aerosols produced from biofuel/biomass burning. Single-scattering albedo at 525 nm is found to vary between 0.6 and 0.8 with an average value of 0.68 for the entire period. Lidar observations reveal that during a fog event there is a subsidence of aerosols to an extremely dense and shallow atmospheric layer of less than 200 m height from the surface. The presence of an aerosol layer at elevated altitudes is also detected. All the results are combined and used for estimating aerosol radiative forcing using a discrete ordinate

  2. Large atmospheric shortwave radiative forcing by Mediterranean aerosols derived from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne observations and dependence on the aerosol type and single scattering albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Biagio, Claudia; di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties and shortwave irradiance measurements at the island of Lampedusa (central Mediterranean) during 2004-2007 are combined with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System observations of the outgoing shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The measurements are used to estimate the surface (FES), the top of the atmosphere (FETOA), and the atmospheric (FEATM) shortwave aerosol forcing efficiencies for solar zenith angle (θ) between 15° and 55° for desert dust (DD), urban/industrial-biomass burning aerosols (UI-BB), and mixed aerosols (MA). The forcing efficiency at the different atmospheric levels is derived by applying the direct method, that is, as the derivative of the shortwave net flux versus the aerosol optical depth at fixed θ. The diurnal average forcing efficiency at the surface/TOA at the equinox is (-68.9 ± 4.0)/(-45.5 ± 5.4) W m-2 for DD, (-59.0 ± 4.3)/(-19.2 ± 3.3) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (-94.9 ± 5.1)/(-36.2 ± 1.7) W m-2 for MA. The diurnal average atmospheric radiative forcing at the equinox is (+7.3 ± 2.5) W m-2 for DD, (+8.4 ± 1.9) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (+8.2 ± 1.9) W m-2 for MA, suggesting that the mean atmospheric forcing is almost independent of the aerosol type. The largest values of the atmospheric forcing may reach +35 W m-2 for DD, +23 W m-2 for UI-BB, and +34 W m-2 for MA. FETOA is calculated for MA and 25° ≤ θ ≤ 35° for three classes of single scattering albedo (0.7 ≤ ω < 0.8, 0.8 ≤ ω < 0.9, and 0.9 ≤ ω ≤ 1) at 415.6 and 868.7 nm: FETOA increases, in absolute value, for increasing ω. A 0.1 increment in ω determines an increase in FETOA by 10-20 W m-2.

  3. Estimation of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed at the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanqing; Moreau, Louis; Cihlar, Josef

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a validation and application of an algorithm by Li and Moreau [1996] for retrieving photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed at the surface (APARSFC). APARSFC is a key input to estimating PAR absorbed by the green canopy during photosynthesis. Extensive ground-based and space-borne observations collected during the BOREAS experiment in 1994 were processed, colocated, and analyzed. They include downwelling and upwelling PAR observed at three flux towers, aerosol optical depth from ground-based photometers, and satellite reflectance measurements at the top of the atmosphere. The effects of three-dimensional clouds, aerosols, and bidirectional dependence on the retrieval of APARSFC were examined. While the algorithm is simple and has only three input parameters, the comparison between observed and estimated APARSFC shows a small bias error (<10 W m-2) and moderate random error (36 W m-2 for clear, 61 W m-2 for cloudy). Temporal and/or spatial mismatch between satellite and surface observations is a major cause of the random error, especially when broken clouds are present. The algorithm was subsequently employed to map the distribution of monthly mean APARSFC over the 1000×1000 km2 BOREAS region. Considerable spatial variation is found due to variable cloudiness, forest fires, and nonuniform surface albedo.

  4. Radiative transfer effects on reflected shock waves. II - Absorbing gas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, F. Y.; Olfe, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    Radiative cooling effects behind a reflected shock wave are calculated for an absorbing-emitting gas by means of an expansion procedure in the small density ratio across the shock front. For a gray gas shock layer with an optical thickness of order unity or less the absorption integral is simplified by use of the local temperature approximation, whereas for larger optical thicknesses a Rosseland diffusion type of solution is matched with the local temperature approximation solution. The calculations show that the shock wave will attenuate at first and then accelerate to a constant velocity. Under appropriate conditions the gas enthalpy near the wall may increase at intermediate times before ultimately decreasing to zero. A two-band absorption model yields end-wall radiant-heat fluxes which agree well with available shock-tube measurements.

  5. Investigating the impact of the shortwave water vapor continuum upon climate simulations using GFDL global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paynter, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-09-01

    We have added the BPS-MTCKD 2.0 parameterization for the shortwave water vapor continuum to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global model. We find that inclusion of the shortwave continuum in the fixed sea surface temperature case (AM3) results in a similar increase in shortwave absorption and heating rates to that seen for the "benchmark" line-by-line radiative transfer calculations. The surface energy budget adjusts to the inclusion of the shortwave continuum predominantly through a decrease in both surface latent and sensible heat. This leads to a decrease in tropical convection and a subsequent 1% reduction in tropical rainfall. The inclusion of the shortwave continuum in the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (CM3) yields similar results, but a smaller overall reduction of 0.5% in tropical rainfall due to global warming of ~0.1 K linked to enhanced near-infrared absorption. We also investigated the impact of adding a stronger version of BPS-MTCKD (version 1.1) to the global climate model (GCM). In most cases we found that the GCM responds in a similar manner to both continua but that the strength of the response scales with the level of absorbed shortwave radiation. Global warming experiments were run in both AM3 and CM3. The shortwave continuum was found to cause a 7 to 15% increase in clear-sky global dimming depending upon whether the stronger or weaker continuum version was used. Neither version resulted in a significant change to the climate sensitivity.

  6. Comparison of Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Derived from ARM SGP Surface and GOES-8 Satellite Measurements During ARESE I and ARESE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, A. D.; Doelling, D. R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L.; Haeffelin, M. P.; Valero, F. P. J.; Asano, S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the objectives of the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) is to investigate the absorption of solar radiation by clouds over the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility. A variety of techniques employing various combinations Of Surface, aircraft, and satellite data have been used to estimate the absorption empirically. During ARESE-I conducted during fall 1995, conflicting results were produced from different analyses of the combined datasets leading to the need for a more controlled experiment. ARESE-II was conducted during spring 2000. Improved calibrations, different sampling strategies, and broadband satellite data were all available to minimize some of the sources of uncertainty in the data. In this paper, cloud absorption or its parametric surrogates (e.g., Cess et al. 1995) are derived from collocated and coincident surface and satellite radiometer data from both ARESE-I and ARESE-II using the latest satellite and surface instrument calibrations.

  7. Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

    2014-02-14

    Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

  8. A DISCUSSION OF THE WHEELER-FEYNMAN ABSORBER THEORY OF RADIATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Wheeler - Feynman absorber theory of radiation is reviewed. A proof is offered to show that a sum of advanced and retarded effects from the...absorber can provide the origin of radiative reaction. This proof is different from and perhaps simpler than that of Wheeler and Feynman . From arguments

  9. Direct observations of shortwave aerosol radiative forcing at surface and its diurnal variation during the Asian dry season at southwest Indian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj Kumar; Rajeev, K.

    2016-08-01

    The Arabian Sea witnesses consistent occurrence of a large-scale aerosol plume transported by the northerlies from the Asian region during the dry season (December-April). This paper presents direct observations of the diurnal variation (and dependence on solar zenith angle, SZA) of instantaneous aerosol direct radiative forcing efficiency (IADRFE) and aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at surface during the period from December to March of 2010-2013 at Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N, 77°E), an Indian peninsular station adjoining the Arabian Sea coast, which resides well within this aerosol plume. Magnitude of the IADRFE increases with SZA from -75 ± 20 W m-2 τ 500 -1 at SZA of ~80° to attain a peak value of -170 ± 30 W m-2 τ 500 -1 at SZA ~60° in March (~3 h before and after the local noon). Absolute magnitudes and SZA dependence of the observed seasonal mean IADRFE are in agreement (within 16 % of the absolute magnitudes) with those estimated using radiation transfer computations employing an aerosol model with visible band single-scattering albedo of ~0.90 ± 0.03. Observed values of the diurnal mean aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ADRFE) averaged during the season (December-March) vary between -71 and -76.5 W m-2 τ 500 -1 , which is in agreement with the model estimate of -71 W m-2 τ 500 -1 . The present observations show that the seasonal mean ADRF at surface (-25 to -28 W m-2) is about 10 % of the diurnal mean downwelling shortwave flux reaching the surface (in the absence of aerosols) during dry season at this location, indicating the major role of aerosols in regulating surface energetics.

  10. The generation of short-wave UV light in cells under the action of ultrashort pulses of intense visible radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovarsky, V. A.; Philipp, B. S.; Kovarsky, E. V.

    1997-02-01

    The action of intense laser pulses ( λ = 0.53 μm) on E.coli cells is considered (the cells are transparent in this range). The transformation of laser radiation into UV light due to the high-harmonics generation on the protein molecules (the dipole moment is 100-1000 D) leads to the appearance of thymine dimers in bacterial DNA and results in a lethal effect for strains of E.coli which are highly sensitive to UV radiation.

  11. Calculations in the Wheeler-Feynman Absorber Theory of Radiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Kalathur Sreenivasan

    One dimensional computer aided calculations were done to find the self-consistent solutions for various absorber configurations in the context of the Wheeler-Feynman Absorber theory, wherein every accelerating charge is assumed to produce a time symmetric combination of advanced and retarded fields. These calculations picked out the so called "outerface" solution for incomplete absorbers and showed that advanced as well as retarded signals interact with matter in the same manner as in the full retarded theory. Based on these calculations the Partridge experiment and the Schmidt-Newman experiment were ruled out as tests of the Absorber theory. An experiment designed to produce and detect advanced effects is proposed, based on more one-dimensional calculations.

  12. Decadal changes in downward shortwave radiation from a satellite-derived CM SAF product and ground-based observations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Wild, Martin; Trentmann, Jörg; Enriquez-Alonso, Aaron; Pfeifroth, Uwe; Manara, Veronica

    2016-04-01

    Trends of downward shortwave radiation (DSR) from high-spatial resolution satellite-derived data over Europe since 1983 are first presented based on a Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) surface radiation data set, which is derived from the Meteosat geostationary satellites. The results show a widespread brightening in the major part of Europe, especially since the mid-1990s and in springtime. There is a mean increase of SSR of around 2 Wm-2 per decade over the whole Europe, which, taking into account that the satellite-derived product lacks of aerosol variations, can be related to a decrease in the cloud radiative effects over Europe. The reported increase in SSR is slightly lower than the obtained using high-quality ground-based series over Europe. Secondly, residual series have been derived as the result of the difference between ground-based and satellite-derived all-sky SSR data. The residual mean series points to a significant increase during the period 1983-2010, with higher rates of around 2 Wm-2 per decade over central and eastern Europe. The spatial variation of these residual time series seem to be in line with observed clear-sky SSR and anthropogenic aerosol loading trends and are not just explained by inhomogeneities in the satellite-derived product. This increase in the residual series is mainly due to a strong increase from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s, thus possibly linked to a decrease in anthropogenic emissions and a recovery from the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions.

  13. A comparison of cloud albedo and cloud fraction retrievals from long-term surface based shortwave radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Cloud albedo and cloud fraction are intimately related, and separate retrievals often suffer from mutual contamination of errors. Here a new analytical approach is first presented to simultaneously retrieve cloud albedo and cloud fraction from the total and direct SW radiative fluxes measured at the surface and thus eliminate the potential mutual error contamination. The approach is then validated by comparing to the solutions calculated by applying the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) to a variety of combinations of given values of cloud albedo and cloud fraction. We finally apply the approach to obtain cloud albedo and cloud fraction from the long-term surface radiation measurements at the ARM SGP site, and evaluated the newly derived data against the existing ARM products. The potential of using the same framework for evaluating SCMs are also explored.

  14. On the Feasibility of Studying Shortwave Aerosol Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Dual-Wavelength Aerosol Backscatter Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip B.; Winker, David M.; McCormick, M. Patrick; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The current low confidence in the estimates of aerosol-induced perturbations of Earth's radiation balance is caused by the highly non-uniform compositional, spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric aerosols on a global scale owing to their heterogeneous sources and short lifetimes. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that the inclusion of aerosol effects in climate model calculations can improve agreement with observed spatial and temporal temperature distributions. In light of the short lifetimes of aerosols, determination of their global distribution with space-borne sensors seems to be a necessary approach. Until recently, satellite measurements of tropospheric aerosols have been approximate and did not provide the full set of information required to determine their radiative effects. With the advent of active aerosol remote sensing from space (e.g., PICASSO-CENA), the applicability fo lidar-derived aerosol 180 deg -backscatter data to radiative flux calculations and hence studies of aerosol effects on climate needs to be investigated.

  15. Experimental study of acoustic radiation force of an ultrasound beam on absorbing and scattering objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Anastasiia V.; Kryzhanovsky, Maxim A.; Tsysar, Sergey A.; Kreider, Wayne; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic radiation force is a nonlinear acoustic effect caused by the transfer of wave momentum to absorbing or scattering objects. This phenomenon is exploited in modern ultrasound metrology for measurement of the acoustic power radiated by a source and is used for both therapeutic and diagnostic sources in medical applications. To calculate radiation force an acoustic hologram can be used in conjunction with analytical expressions based on the angular spectrum of the measured field. The results of an experimental investigation of radiation forces in two different cases are presented in this paper. In one case, the radiation force of an obliquely incident ultrasound beam on a large absorber (which completely absorbs the beam) is considered. The second case concerns measurement of the radiation force on a spherical target that is small compared to the beam diameter.

  16. Experimental Study of Acoustic Radiation Force of an Ultrasound Beam on Absorbing and Scattering Objects

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaeva, Anastasiia V.; Kryzhanovsky, Maxim A.; Tsysar, Sergey A.; Kreider, Wayne; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force is a nonlinear acoustic effect caused by the transfer of wave momentum to absorbing or scattering objects. This phenomenon is exploited in modern ultrasound metrology for measurement of the acoustic power radiated by a source and is used for both therapeutic and diagnostic sources in medical applications. To calculate radiation force an acoustic hologram can be used in conjunction with analytical expressions based on the angular spectrum of the measured field. The results of an experimental investigation of radiation forces in two different cases are presented in this paper. In one case, the radiation force of an obliquely incident ultrasound beam on a large absorber (which completely absorbs the beam) is considered. The second case concerns measurement of the radiation force on a spherical target that is small compared to the beam diameter. PMID:27147775

  17. Experimental study of acoustic radiation force of an ultrasound beam on absorbing and scattering objects

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaeva, Anastasiia V. Kryzhanovsky, Maxim A.; Tsysar, Sergey A.; Kreider, Wayne; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic radiation force is a nonlinear acoustic effect caused by the transfer of wave momentum to absorbing or scattering objects. This phenomenon is exploited in modern ultrasound metrology for measurement of the acoustic power radiated by a source and is used for both therapeutic and diagnostic sources in medical applications. To calculate radiation force an acoustic hologram can be used in conjunction with analytical expressions based on the angular spectrum of the measured field. The results of an experimental investigation of radiation forces in two different cases are presented in this paper. In one case, the radiation force of an obliquely incident ultrasound beam on a large absorber (which completely absorbs the beam) is considered. The second case concerns measurement of the radiation force on a spherical target that is small compared to the beam diameter.

  18. Quantifying the climatological cloud-free shortwave direct radiative forcing of mineral dust aerosol over the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G. L.; Brindley, H. E.; Osipov, S.; Bantges, R. J.; Smirnov, A.; Prakash, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    While there have been a number of campaigns designed to probe dust-climate interactions over much of the world, relatively little attention has been paid to the Red Sea. Because of the remoteness of the area, satellite retrievals provide a crucial tool for assessing aerosol loading over the Sea. However, agreement between aerosol properties inferred from measurements from different instruments, and even in some cases from the same measurements using different retrieval algorithms can be poor, particularly in the case of mineral dust. Ground based measurements, which can be used to evaluate retrievals, are thus highly desirable. Here we take advantage of ship-based hand-held sun-photometer (microtops) observations gathered within the framework of NASA Aerosol Maritime Network from a series of cruises, which took place across the Red Sea during 2011 and 2013. To our knowledge these data represent the first set of detailed aerosol measurements from the Sea. They thus provide a unique opportunity to assess the performance of satellite retrieval algorithms in this region. Here we used the microtops measurements to evaluate the performance of co-located satellite retrievals from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and the MODerate Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Both algorithms show good agreement with the ship-based measurements and with each other, although it appears that the MODIS cloud detection scheme in particular is rather conservative. The stand alone Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) driven by reanalysis meteorological fields is used to estimate the cloud-free aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface and TOA along the ship tracks. The TOA effects are compared to co-located measurements from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument. Having evaluated both the quality of the retrievals and the ability of the model to capture the associated radiative effect, we will present a climatology of aerosol loading over the

  19. Shortwave Radiative Fluxes, Solar-Beam Transmissions, and Aerosol Properties: TARFOX and ACE-2 Find More Absorption from Flux Radiometry than from Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) made simultaneous measurements of shortwave radiative fluxes, solar-beam transmissions, and the aerosols affecting those fluxes and transmissions. Besides the measured fluxes and transmissions, other obtained properties include aerosol scattering and absorption measured in situ at the surface and aloft; aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from skylight radiances; and aerosol complex refractive index derived by combining profiles of backscatter, extinction, and size distribution. These measurements of North Atlantic boundary layer aerosols impacted by anthropogenic pollution revealed the following characteristic results: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements of aerosols (e.g., optical depth, extinction, and backscattering from sunphotometers, satellites, and lidars) than between remote and in situ measurements; 2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements; (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from other measurements. When the measured relationships between downwelling flux and optical depth (or beam transmission) are used to derive best-fit single scattering albedos for the polluted boundary layer aerosol, both TARFOX and ACE-2 yield midvisible values of 0.90 +/- 0.04. The other techniques give larger single scattering albedos (i.e. less absorption) for the polluted boundary layer, with a typical result of 0.95 +/- 0.04. Although the flux-based results have the virtue of describing the column aerosol unperturbed by sampling, they are subject to questions about representativeness and other uncertainties (e.g., unknown gas absorption). Current uncertainties in aerosol single scattering albedo are large in terms of climate effects. They also have an important influence on aerosol optical depths retrieved from satellite radiances

  20. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities. PMID:26392542

  1. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-10-06

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities.

  2. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Doppler, Lionel; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Ancellet, Gerard; Attié, Jean-Luc; Bucci, Silvia; Dubuisson, Philippe; Fierli, Federico; Mallet, Marc; Ravetta, François

    2016-08-01

    Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω) of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity) airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between ˜ 160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84-0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70-0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84-0.70 between 370 and 950 nm) are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41-1.77 and 0.002-0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE) to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE), i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (-160/-235 W m-2 τ-1 at 60° solar zenith angle) and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (-137/-92 W m-2 τ-1) for ω varying between its maximum and minimum value

  3. Contribution to the ultraviolet metagalactic background from radiative recombination in intervening absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    Recently, Haardt & Madau (HM) showed that QSO absorption-line systems are not only sinks of the ultraviolet metagalactic background (UMB), but also significant sources of the UMB due to recombination radiation within photoionized absorbers. We demonstrate that the contribution to the UMB from H I and He II recombination radiation may be less than Haardt & Madau's by a factor of about 0.4 if intervening absorbers are modeled as a slab illuminated isotropically on two sides and the recombination radiation is assumed to be isotropic. This is the case which most closely approximates QSOs absorption-line systems.

  4. Space Radiation Absorbed Dose Distribution in a Human Phantom Torso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Yang, T.; Atwell, W.

    2000-01-01

    The flight of a human phantom torso with head that containing active dosimeters at 5 organ sites and 1400 TLDs distributed in 34 1" thick sections is described. Experimental dose rates and quality factors are compared with calculations for shielding distributions at the sites using the Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model. The measurements were complemented with those obtained from other instruments. These results have provided the most comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human and to assess the accuracy of radiation transport models and astronaut radiation risk.

  5. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the index of refraction on the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux in semitransparent materials, such as some ceramics, is investigated analytically. In the case considered here, a plane layer of a ceramic material is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces; the material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. It is shown that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained in a simple manner from the results for an index of refraction of unity.

  6. Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than

  7. Microwave radiation absorbers based on corrugated composites with carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychanok, D. S.; Plyushch, A. O.; Gorokhov, G. V.; Bychanok, U. S.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Maksimenko, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A complex analysis of the dependence of the absorption coefficient of polymer composites with nonmagnetic carbon inclusions on the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity, as well as on the material thickness is performed in frequency range 26-37 GHz. The composites containing 0.2 wt % of carbon fibers have been obtained. It has been experimentally found that the corrugation of the composite surface substantially increases the absorbability (from 63 to 92% at a frequency of 30 GHz and a thickness of 4.50 mm) upon a decrease in the sample mass (by 28%). A method has been proposed for calculating the absorptance of corrugated composites in the microwave range.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity in vegetation canopies and remote sensing of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation - A modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Myneni, R. B.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    A 3D radiative transfer model is used to investigate the relationship between spectral indices and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in horizontally heterogeneous vegetation canopies. Canopy reflection at optical wavelengths and PAR absorption are simulated. Data obtained indicate that the leaf area index of a canopy is less of an instructive parameter than the ground cover and clump leaf area index for these canopies. It is found that the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index and fraction of absorbed PAR is almost linear and independent of spatial heterogeneity.

  9. Relationship between acoustic power and acoustic radiation force on absorbing and reflecting targets for spherically focusing radiators.

    PubMed

    Gélat, Pierre; Shaw, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Total acoustic output power is an important parameter required by standards for most ultrasonic medical equipment including high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) systems. Radiation force balances are routinely used; however, radiation force is not strictly dependent on the ultrasound power but, rather, on the wave momentum resolved in one direction. Consequently, measurements based on radiation force become progressively less accurate as the ultrasound wave deviates further from a true plane wave. HIFU transducers can be very strongly focused with F-numbers less than one: under these conditions, the uncertainty associated with use of the radiation force method becomes very significant. International Standards IEC 61161 and IEC 62555 suggest plane-wave correction factors for unfocused transducers radiating onto an ideal absorbing target and focusing corrections for focused transducers radiating onto ideal absorbing targets and onto conical reflecting targets (IEC 61161). Previous models have relied on calculations based on the Rayleigh integral, which is not strictly correct for curved sources. In the work described here, an approach combining finite element methods with a discretization of the Helmholtz equation was developed, making it possible to model the boundary condition at the structure/fluid interface more correctly. This has been used to calculate the relationship between radiation force and total power for both absorbing and conical reflecting targets for transducers ranging from planar to an F-number of 0.5 (hemispherical) and to compare with the recommendations of IEC 61161 and IEC 62555.

  10. Downward shortwave radiation trends in Europe since the 20th century: what we know from direct measurements and sunshine duration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Calbo Angrill, J.; Brunetti, M.; van den Besselaar, E.; Guijarro, J. A.; Sanchez-Romero, A.; Klein Tank, A.; Manara, V.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Palle Bago, E.; Wang, K.; Hakuba, M.; Trentmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    The first part of this work presents results based on the longest series measuring downward shortwave radiation (DSR) available at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) over Europe. Particular emphasis is placed upon the quality control and homogenization of the dataset, which has been checked for temporal homogeneity by means of different relative homogeneity tests. The mean annual DSR series shows an increase from the 1930s to the early 1950s (i.e. early brightening period), followed by a reduction until mid-1980s (i.e., dimming period), and ending with an increase up to the present (i.e., brightening period). Unfortunately, there exists a substantial gap in direct measurements of DSR as only few stations in Europe provide records before the 1960s. To overcome the lack of direct measurements, the analysis can be supported with other proxy variables more widely measured, such as sunshine duration (SD) records. Thus, in this work we also present the reconstructed DSR variations since late 19th century in Europe based on the SD series over Europe with around one century of records, some of them starting in the 1880s. The reconstructed DSR variations have been estimated by using the relationship found between the SD series and a satellite-derived DSR dataset (0.03 x 0.03 of spatial resolution), provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), during the common 1983-2005 subperiod. The reconstructed records have been validated by using the GEBA series described in the first part of this work. The temporal evolution of the mean DSR annual series since the 1950s is characterized by the well-known dimming and brightening periods. Moreover, an early brightening period is also detected during the first half of the 20th century, although regional differences are observed with areas over Europe where the DSR show no increase in this subperiod. Interestingly, the reconstructed DSR also highlight an absolute minimum in 1912, which

  11. Energy deposition through radiative processes in absorbers irradiated by electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuo, Tabata; Pedro, Andreo; Kunihiko, Shinoda; Rinsuke, Ito

    1994-09-01

    The component of energy deposition due to radiative processes (bremsstrahlung component) in absorbers irradiated by electron beams has been computed together with the total energy deposition by using the ITS Monte Carlo system version 3.0. Plane-parallel electron beams with energies from 0.1 to 100 MeV have been assumed to be incident normally on the slab absorber, whose thickness is 2.5 times the continuous slowing-down approximation (csda) range of the incident electrons. Absorber materials considered are elemental solids with atomic numbers between 4 and 92 (Be, C, Al, Cu, Ag, Au and U). An analytic formula is given to express the depth profile of the bremsstrahlung component as a function of scaled depth (depth in units of the csda range), incident-electron energy and absorber atomic number. It is also applicable to compounds.

  12. Horizontal radiative fluxes in clouds and accuracy of the independent pixel approximation at absorbing wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Oreopoulos, L.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Cahalan, R. F.

    For absorbing wavelengths, we discuss the effect of horizontal solar radiative fluxes in clouds on the accuracy of a conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer calculation for a single pixel, known as the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA). Vertically integrated horizontal fluxes can be represented as a sum of three components: the IPA accuracies for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance. We show that IPA accuracy for reflectance always improves with more absorption, while the IPA accuracy for transmittance is less sensitive to the changes in absorption: with respect to the non-absorbing case, it may first deteriorate for weak absorption and then improve again for strongly absorbing wavelengths. IPA accuracy for absorptance always deteriorates with more absorption.

  13. 1999-2003 Shortwave Characterizations of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS)/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Broadband Active Cavity Radiometer Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, George L.; Wong, Takmeng

    2008-01-01

    From October 1984 through May 2005, the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS/ )/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)ERBE nonscanning active cavity radiometers (ACR) were used to monitor long-term changes in the earth radiation budget components of the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), earth-reflected TSI, and earth-emitted outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). From September1984 through September 1999, using on-board calibration systems, the ERBS/ERBE ACR sensor response changes, in gains and offsets, were determined from on-orbit calibration sources and from direct observations of the incoming TSI through calibration solar ports at measurement precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m , at satellite altitudes. On October 6, 1999, the onboard radiometer calibration system elevation drive failed. Thereafter, special spacecraft maneuvers were performed to observe cold space and the sun in order to define the post-September 1999 geometry of the radiometer measurements, and to determine the October 1999-September 2003 ERBS sensor response changes. Analyses of these special solar and cold space observations indicate that the radiometers were pointing approximately 16 degrees away from the spacecraft nadir and on the anti-solar side of the spacecraft. The special observations indicated that the radiometers responses were stable at precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m . In this paper, the measurement geometry determinations and the determinations of the radiometers gain and offset are presented, which will permit the accurate processing of the October 1999 through September 2003 ERBE data products at satellite and top-of-the-atmosphere altitudes.

  14. A selective pyroelectric detector of millimeter-wave radiation with an ultrathin resonant meta-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulish, A. G.; Kuznetsov, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental investigations of spectral and amplitude-frequency characteristics for a discrete wavelength-selective pyroelectric detector operating in the millimetric band are presented. The high spectral selectivity is attained due to integrating the detector with a resonant meta-absorber designed for a close-to-unity absorptivity at 140 GHz. It is demonstrated that the use of this meta-absorber provides an opportunity to construct small-sized and inexpensive multispectral polarization-sensitive systems for radiation detection in the range of millimeter and submillimeter waves.

  15. Traversal of cells by radiation and absorbed fraction estimates for electrons and alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.; Taner, A.C.; Kerr, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of the pathlength which radiation traverses in a cell is central to algorithms for estimating energy deposition on a cellular level. Distinct pathlength distributions occur for radionuclides: (1) uniformly distributed in space about the cell (referred to as -randomness); (2) uniformly distributed on the surface of the cell (S-randomness); and (3) uniformly distributed within the cell volume (I-randomness). For a spherical cell of diameter d, the mean pathlengths are 2/3d, 1/2d, and 3/4d, respectively, for these distributions. Algorithms for simulating the path of radiation through a cell are presented and the absorbed fraction in the cell and its nucleus are tabulated for low energy electrons and alpha particles emitted on the surface of spherical cells. The algorithms and absorbed fraction data should be of interest to those concerned with the dosimetry of radionuclide-labeled monoclonal antibodies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    DOEpatents

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  17. Radiative forcing by light absorbing impurities in snow from MODIS surface reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Bryant, Ann C.; Skiles, S. McKenzie

    2012-09-01

    The episodic deposition of dust and carbonaceous particles to snow decreases snow surface albedo and enhances absorption of solar radiation, leading to accelerated snowmelt, negative glacier mass balance, and the snow-albedo feedback. Until now, no remote sensing retrieval has captured the spatial and temporal variability of this forcing. Here we present the MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) model that retrieves surface radiative forcing by light absorbing impurities in snow cover from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. Validation of MODDRFS with a 7-year record of in situ measurements indicates the radiative forcing retrieval has positive bias at lower values and slight negative bias above 200 W m-2, subject to mixed pixel uncertainties. With bias-correction, MODDRFS has a root mean squared error of 32 W m-2 and mean absolute error of 25 W m-2. We demonstrate MODDRFS in the Upper Colorado River Basin and Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

  18. Novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents in low-flow anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Go; Mitsui, Takanori; Kakinuma, Takayasu; Ogihara, Yukihiko; Matsumoto, Shohei; Isshiki, Atsushi; Yasuo, Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    During long-term low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia, dew formation and the generation of compound A are increased in the anesthesia circuit because of elevated soda lime temperature. The object of this study was to develop a novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents used for long durations of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia. Eleven female swine were divided into two groups comprising a "radiator" group (n = 5) that used a novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents and a "control" group (n = 6) that used a conventional canister. Anesthesia was maintained with N2O, O2, and sevoflurane, and low-flow anesthesia was performed with fresh gas flow at 0.6 L/min for 12 hr. In the "control" group, the soda lime temperature reached more than 40 degrees C and soda lime dried up with severe dew formation in the inspiratory valve. In the "radiator" group, the temperature of soda lime stayed at 30 degrees C, and the water content of soda lime was retained with no dew formation in the inspiratory valve. In addition, compound A concentration was reduced. In conclusion, radiation of soda lime reduced the amounts of condensation formed and the concentration of compound A in the anesthetic circuit, and allowed long term low-flow anesthesia without equipment malfunction.

  19. Sensitivity of scattering and absorbing aerosol direct radiative forcing to physical climate factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocko, Ilissa B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Ginoux, Paul; Ming, Yi; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2012-10-01

    The direct radiative forcing of the climate system includes effects due to scattering and absorbing aerosols. This study explores how important physical climate characteristics contribute to the magnitudes of the direct radiative forcings (DRF) from anthropogenic sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon. For this purpose, we employ the GFDL CM2.1 global climate model, which has reasonable aerosol concentrations and reconstruction of twentieth-century climate change. Sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols constitute the most important anthropogenic aerosol perturbations to the climate system and provide striking contrasts between primarily scattering (sulfate and organic carbon) and primarily absorbing (black carbon) species. The quantitative roles of cloud coverage, surface albedo, and relative humidity in governing the sign and magnitude of all-sky top-of-atmosphere (TOA) forcings are examined. Clouds reduce the global mean sulfate TOA DRF by almost 50%, reduce the global mean organic carbon TOA DRF by more than 30%, and increase the global mean black carbon TOA DRF by almost 80%. Sulfate forcing is increased by over 50% as a result of hygroscopic growth, while high-albedo surfaces are found to have only a minor (less than 10%) impact on all global mean forcings. Although the radiative forcing magnitudes are subject to uncertainties in the state of mixing of the aerosol species, it is clear that fundamental physical climate characteristics play a large role in governing aerosol direct radiative forcing magnitudes.

  20. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) for Thermal Storage on Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future manned exploration spacecraft will need to operate in challenging thermal environments. State-of the- art technology for active thermal control relies on sublimating water ice and venting the vapor overboard in very hot environments. This approach can lead to large loss of water and a significant mass penalty for the spacecraft. This paper describes an innovative thermal control system that uses a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to control spacecraft temperatures in highly variable environments without venting water. SEAR uses heat pumping and energy storage by LiCl/water absorption to enable effective cooling during hot periods and regeneration during cool periods. The LiCl absorber technology has the potential to absorb over 800 kJ per kg of system mass, compared to phase change heat sink systems that typically achieve approx. 50 kJ/kg. The optimal system is based on a trade-off between the mass of water saved and extra power needed to regenerate the LiCl absorber. This paper describes analysis models and the predicted performance and optimize the size of the SEAR system, estimated size and mass of key components, and power requirements for regeneration. We also present a concept design for an ISS test package to demonstrate operation of a subscale system in zero gravity.

  1. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The index of refraction can considerably influence the temperature distribution and radiative heat flow in semitransparent materials such as some ceramics. For external radiant heating, the refractive index influences the amount of energy transmitted into the interior of the material. Emission within a material depends on the square of its refractive index, and hence this emission can be many times that for a biackbody radiating into a vacuum. Since radiation exiting through an interface into a vacuum cannot exceed that of a blackbody, there is extensive reflection at the internal surface of an interface, mostly by total internal reflection. This redistributes energy within the layer and tends to make its temperature distribution more uniform. The purpose of the present analysis is to show that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained very simply from the results for an index of refraction of unity. For the situation studied here, the layer is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces. The material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. For simplicity the index of refraction is unity in the medium surrounding the layer. The surfaces of the layer are assumed diffuse. This is probably a reasonable approximation for a ceramic layer that has not been polished. When transmitted radiation or radiation emitted from the interior reaches the inner surface of an interface, the radiation is diffused and some of it thereby placed into angular directions for which there is total internal reflection. This provides a trapping effect for retaining energy within the layer and tends to equalize its temperature distribution. An analysis of temperature distributions in absorbing-emitting layers, including index of refraction effects, was developed by Gardon (1958) to predict cooling and heat treating of glass plates

  2. Short-wave Diathermy

    PubMed Central

    1935-01-01

    It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrations—transmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107

  3. A hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer in absorbing and scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, M.; Caliot, C.; Crouseilles, N.; Coelho, P. J.

    2014-10-01

    A new multi-scale hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer is proposed in order to improve the efficiency of the calculations close to the diffusive regime, in absorbing and strongly scattering media. In this model, the radiative intensity is decomposed into a macroscopic component calculated by the diffusion equation, and a mesoscopic component. The transport equation for the mesoscopic component allows to correct the estimation of the diffusion equation, and then to obtain the solution of the linear radiative transfer equation. In this work, results are presented for stationary and transient radiative transfer cases, in examples which concern solar concentrated and optical tomography applications. The Monte Carlo and the discrete-ordinate methods are used to solve the mesoscopic equation. It is shown that the multi-scale model allows to improve the efficiency of the calculations when the medium is close to the diffusive regime. The proposed model is a good alternative for radiative transfer at the intermediate regime where the macroscopic diffusion equation is not accurate enough and the radiative transfer equation requires too much computational effort.

  4. Direct MC conversion of absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water for 60Co radiation.

    PubMed

    Lye, J E; Butler, D J; Franich, R D; Harty, P D; Oliver, C P; Ramanathan, G; Webb, D V; Wright, T

    2013-06-01

    The ARPANSA calibration service for (60)Co gamma rays is based on a primary standard graphite calorimeter that measures absorbed dose to graphite. Measurements with the calorimeter are converted to the absorbed dose to water using the calculation of the ratio of the absorbed dose in the calorimeter to the absorbed dose in a water phantom. ARPANSA has recently changed the basis of this calculation from a photon fluence scaling method to a direct Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The MC conversion uses an EGSnrc model of the cobalt source that has been validated against water tank and graphite phantom measurements, a step that is required to quantify uncertainties in the underlying interaction coefficients in the MC code. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 showed an agreement of 0.9973 (53).

  5. Top-of-the-Atmosphere Shortwave Flux Estimation from UV Observations: An Empirical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, P.; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; da Silva, Arlindo

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiation are essential to the understanding of Earth's climate. Clouds, aerosols, and ozone (0,) are among the most important agents impacting the Earth's short-wave (SW) radiation budget. There are several sensors in orbit that provide independent information related to the Earth's SW radiation budget. Having coincident information from these sensors is important for understanding their potential contributions. The A-train constellation of satellites provides a unique opportunity to analyze near-simultaneous data from several of these sensors. They include the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), on the NASA Aura satellite, that makes TOA hyper-spectral measurements from ultraviolet (UV) to visible wavelengths, and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument, on the NASA Aqua satellite, that makes broadband measurements in both the long- and short-wave. OMI measurements have been successfully utilized to derive the information on trace gases (e.g., 0 1, NO" and SO,), clouds, and absorbing aerosols. TOA SW fluxes are estimated using a combination of data from CERES and the Aqua MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this paper, OMI retrievals of cloud/aerosol parameters and 0 1 have been collocated with CERES TOA SW flux retrievals. We use this collocated data to develop a neural network that estimates TOA shortwave flux globally over ocean using data from OMI and meteorological analyses. This input data include the effective cloud fraction, cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP), total-column 0" and sun-satellite viewing geometry from OMI as well as wind speed and water vapor from the Goddard Earth Observing System 5 Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (GEOS-5 MERRA) along with a climatology of chlorophyll content. We train the neural network using a subset of CERES retrievals of TOA SW flux as the target output (truth) and withhold a different subset of

  6. Effects of morphology on the radiative properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with different aging status.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tianhai; Wu, Yu; Chen, Hao

    2014-06-30

    Light absorbing carbon aerosols play a substantial role in climate change through radiative forcing, which is the dominant absorber of solar radiation. Radiative properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols are strongly dependent on the morphological factors and the mixing mechanism of black carbon with other aerosol components. This study focuses on the morphological effects on the optical properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols using the numerically exact superposition T-matrix method. Three types aerosols with different aging status such as freshly emitted BC particles, thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols, heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols are studied. Our study showed that morphological factors change with the aging of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols to result in a dramatic change in their optical properties. The absorption properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols can be enhanced approximately a factor of 2 at 0.67 um, and these enhancements depend on the morphological factors. A larger shell/core diameter ratio of volume-equivalent shell-core spheres (S/C), which indicates the degree of coating, leads to stronger absorption. The enhancement of absorption properties accompanies a greater enhancement of scattering properties, which is reflected in an increase in single scattering albedo (SSA). The enhancement of single scattering albedo due to the morphological effects can reach a factor of 3.75 at 0.67 μm. The asymmetry parameter has a similar yet smaller enhancement. Moreover, the corresponding optical properties of shell-and-core model determined by using Lorenz -Mie solutions are presented for comparison. We found that the optical properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosol can differ fundamentally from those calculated for the Mie theory shell-and-core model, particularly for thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols. Our studies indicate that the complex morphology

  7. Verification of absorbed dose using diodes in cobalt-60 radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Gadhi, Muhammad Asghar; Fatmi, Shahab; Chughtai, Gul M; Arshad, Muhammad; Shakil, Muhammad; Rahmani, Uzma Mahmood; Imran, Malik Younas; Buzdar, Saeed Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to enhance the quality and safety of dose delivery in the practice of radiation oncology. To achieve this goal, the absorbed dose verification program was initiated by using the diode in vivo dosimetry (IVD) system (for entrance and exit). This practice was implemented at BINO, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Diodes were calibrated for making absorbed dose measurements. Various correction factors (SSD, dose non-linearity, field size, angle of incidence, and wedge) were determined for diode IVD system. The measurements were performed in phantom in order to validate the IVD procedure. One hundred and nineteen patients were monitored and 995 measurements were performed. For phantom, the percentage difference between measured and calculated dose for entrance setting remained within ±2% and for exit setting ±3%. For patient measurements, the percentage difference between measured and calculated dose remained within ±5% for entrance/open fields and ±7% for exit/wedge/oblique fields. One hundred and nineteen patients and 995 fields have been monitored during the period of 6 months. The analysis of all available measurements gave a mean percent deviation of ±1.19% and standard deviation of ±2.87%. Larger variations have been noticed in oblique, wedge and exit measurements. This investigation revealed that clinical dosimetry using diodes is simple, provides immediate results and is a useful quality assurance tool for dose delivery. It has enhanced the quality of radiation dose delivery and increased/improved the reliability of the radiation therapy practice in BINO.

  8. fs Laser surface nano-structuring of high refractory ceramics to enhance solar radiation absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, E.; Orlando, S.; Sciti, D.; Bellucci, A.; Lettino, A.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2014-10-01

    High refractory pressure-less sintered ternary composite ceramics of AlN-SiC-MoSi2 (ASMY), polished by mechanical grinding to a surface roughness R a ~40 nm, have been treated in vacuum by fs Ti:sapphire laser, operating at 800 nm wavelength, 100 fs pulse duration, and increasing fluence, to generate a "black ceramic material", able to minimize solar radiation reflectance, in such a way that they could be used as the absorber material in an innovative conversion module of solar radiation into electrical energy. Disk specimens of approximately 3 cm in diameter and 3 mm thick have been treated by normal incident laser beam, generating a scanning pattern of parallel lines, at a lateral distance of about 80 μm, using a stage in motion, in the x, y, z directions, driven by a computer. The experimental conditions of laser treatment (energy fluence, speed of transition and lateral distance of steps) have been optimized to maximize the absorption properties of the patterned surface. In some samples this value was increased by about 15 %, compared to untreated surface, up to a value of final absorbance of about 95 %, all over the range of solar radiation spectrum (from UV to NIR). The morphological and chemical effects have been evaluated by SEM-EDS analysis. At higher fluence, we obtained the characteristic ablation craters and corresponding local material decomposition, while at lower fluence (over the ablation threshold) an ordered periodic nano-structure has been obtained, exploitable for its high capacity of entrapment of visible light. The laser treated ceramic specimen, characterized by very high absorption properties and reflectivity values lower than 4 %, has been used as active absorber material in a conversion module, installed in a solar test platform.

  9. Unidirectional radiative heat transfer with a spectrally selective planar absorber/emitter for high-efficiency solar thermophotovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohiyama, Asaka; Shimizu, Makoto; Yugami, Hiroo

    2016-11-01

    A high-efficiency solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system has been demonstrated using spectrally selective planar absorber/emitter systems and a GaSb TPV cell. In this study, a novel approach for designing the STPV system based on the efficiency of unidirectional radiative heat transfer has been introduced. To achieve high extraction and photovoltaic conversion efficiencies, the spectrally selective absorber/emitter based on a coherent perfect absorber composed of a thin molybdenum layer sandwiched between hafnium layers was applied. The extraction efficiency was further investigated with respect to the absorber/emitter area ratio. The experimental efficiency of STPV reached 5.1% with the area ratio of 2.3.

  10. Shortwave flux profile analysis at the Cabauw BSRN site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Baltink, H. Klein; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2013-05-01

    The vertical distribution of the shortwave flux in the atmosphere is important for understanding the energy budget and the validation of climate models. We calculated shortwave flux profiles for cloudy cases by using the Doubling-Adding KNMI radiative transfer model with water vapour and cloud liquid water profiles derived from the Integrated Profiling Technique (IPT). As an example, we will show the approach for 3 March 2012. The calculated downward flux at the surface for this day compares well with measurements made at the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site (51.97°N, 4.93°E), the Netherlands.

  11. Atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation derived from Nimbus 7 Earth radiation budget data set, November 1978 to October 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Rutan, David; Bess, T. Dale

    1990-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean global contour maps of albedo and absorbed solar radiation is presented. This atlas contains 7 years of continuous data from November 1978 through October 1985. The data were retrieved from measurements made by the second Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) wide field-of-view instrument, which flew on the Nimbus 7 spacecraft in 1978. The deconvolution method used to produce these data is briefly discussed here so that the user may understand their generation and limitations. These geographical distributions of albedo and absorbed solar radiation are provided as a resource for researchers studying the radiation budget of the Earth. This atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation complements the atlases of outgoing longwave radiation by Bess and Smith, also based on the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB data.

  12. A study of fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation characteristics based on SAIL model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Du, Yongming; Tang, Yong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2012-10-01

    The photosynthetically Active Radiation reached to plant canopy could be divided into two parts that are direct radiation and diffuse radiation. The paths into the vegetation canopy are different of these two kinds of radiation. It makes Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) different. So this difference between direct FPAR and diffuse FPAR must be determined to decide whether it should be considered into the FPAR inversion model. In this study, the SAIL model was modified which could output direct FPAR and diffuse FPAR. Then with the change of input parameters such as solar zenith angle, visiblity and LAI, the direct FPAR and diffuse FPAR would be change. When the visibility is set as 5km, 15km and 30km, the contribution of scattering of FPAR on the total FPAR is 52.6%, 29.3% and 21.7%. The error between whole FPAR and direct FPAR is reduced with the increasing of visibility and increased with the reducing of LAI. The maximum relative error is 13.2%. From the simulation analyses, we could see that direct and diffuse FPAR are different with the changes of environment variables. So when modeling of FPAR, the diffuse part cannot be ignored. Direct FPAR and diffuse FPAR must be modeled respectively. This separation will help improve the accuracy of FPAR inversion.

  13. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) for Thermal Storage on Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future manned exploration spacecraft will need to operate in challenging thermal environments. State-of-the-art technology for active thermal control relies on sublimating water ice and venting the vapor overboard in very hot environments, and or heavy phase change material heat exchangers for thermal storage. These approaches can lead to large loss of water and a significant mass penalties for the spacecraft. This paper describes an innovative thermal control system that uses a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to control spacecraft temperatures in highly variable environments without venting water. SEAR uses heat pumping and energy storage by LiCl/water absorption to enable effective cooling during hot periods and regeneration during cool periods. The LiCl absorber technology has the potential to absorb over 800 kJ per kg of system mass, compared to phase change heat sink systems that typically achieve approx. 50 kJ/kg. This paper describes analysis models to predict performance and optimize the size of the SEAR system, estimated size and mass of key components, and an assessment of potential mass savings compared with alternative thermal management approaches. We also describe a concept design for an ISS test package to demonstrate operation of a subscale system in zero gravity.

  14. Protection from radiation enteritis by an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh sling

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, D.F.; Thompson, D.; Sandhaus, L.; Sweeney, W.; Haas, A.

    1987-02-01

    Patients with malignant tumors of the pelvis who cannot be cured surgically often are treated with radiation after surgery. A devastating side effect of this treatment is radiation-associated small bowel injury (RASBI). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that removal of the small bowel from the radiation field would protect it against RASBI. Twenty cebus monkeys underwent low anterior resection. In 10 animals an absorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was sewn circumferentially around the interior of the abdominal cavity as a supporting apron, which prevented the small bowel's descent into the pelvis. The other 10 monkeys did not receive the mesh. All animals received 2000 rads by linear acceleration in a single dose. Twenty-four-hour stool fat, serum vitamin B12, and other serum values were obtained during the study. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months, and the small bowel and rectum were examined histologically in a blind manner. Two monkeys who did not undergo surgery, or exposure to radiation served as controls. At all sacrifice periods, the animals with PGA mesh slings demonstrated normal small bowel function and histologic structure. Animals without mesh slings had abnormal stool and blood values at 1 month, and by 2 months all had died of small bowel necrosis. The animals that received the slings had no evidence of infection or obstruction, and by 6 months all evidence of the mesh was gone. Support of the small bowel out of the pelvis by an absorbable PGA mesh sling protects against RASBI and is without apparent complications.

  15. The interplay between assumed morphology and the direct radiative effect of light-absorbing organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Rawad; Adams, Peter J.; Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2016-08-01

    Mie theory is widely employed in aerosol top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative effect (DRE) calculations and to retrieve the absorptivity of light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA) from measurements. However, when OA is internally mixed with black carbon, it may exhibit complex morphologies whose optical behavior is imperfectly predicted by Mie theory, introducing bias in the retrieved absorptivities. We performed numerical experiments and global radiative transfer modeling (RTM) to investigate the effect of this bias on the calculated absorption and thus the DRE. We show that using true OA absorptivity, retrieved with a realistic representation of the complex morphology, leads to significant errors in DRE when the RTM employs the simplified Mie theory. On the other hand, when Mie theory is consistently applied in both OA absorptivity retrieval and the RTM, the errors largely cancel out, yielding accurate DRE. As long as global RTMs use Mie theory, they should implement parametrizations of light-absorbing OA derived from retrievals based on Mie theory.

  16. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: Measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Reynaldo, S R; Benavente, J A; Da Silva, T A

    2016-11-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (BSS 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, the reliability of the CDTN BSS2 system was verified through measurements in the (90)Sr/(90)Y and (85)Kr beta radiation fields. Absorbed dose rates and their angular variation were measured with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. The feasibility of using both methods was analyzed.

  17. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation of steppe vegetation and sun-view geometry effects on APAR estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, E. A.; Blad, B. L.; Mesarch, M. A.; Hays, C. J.; Deering, D. W.; Eck, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Instantaneous fractions of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) were measured at the Streletskaya Steppe Reserve in conjunction with canopy bidirectional-reflected radiation measured at solar zenith angles ranging between 37 and 74 deg during the Kursk experiment (KUREX-91). APAR values were higher for KUREX-91 than those for the first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE-89) and the amount of APAR of a canopy was a function of solar zenith angle, decreasing as solar zenith angle increased at the resrve. Differences in absorption are attributed to leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution and subsequently transmitted radiation interactions. LAIs were considerably higher at the reserve than those at the FIFE site. Leaf angle distributions of the reserve approach a uniform distribution while distributions at the FIFE site more closely approximate erectophile distributions. Reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) components at KUREX-91 and FIFE-89 were similar in magnitude and in their response to solar zenith angle. Transmitted PAR increased with increasing solar zenith angle at KUREX-91 and decreased with increasing solar zenith angle at FIFE-89. Transmitted PAR at FIFE-89 was considerably larger than those at KUREX-91.

  18. Spatial and spectral distributions of thermal radiation emitted by a semi-infinite body and absorbed by a flat film

    SciTech Connect

    Blandre, Etienne Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    We analyze the radiative power emitted by a semi-infinite medium and absorbed by a flat film located in its vicinity. In the near-field regime, if the film is thin enough, the surface waves at the rear interface of the film can contribute to the heat transfer. As a result, the absorbed power can be enhanced farther from the front surface. In the near-to-far field transition regime, temporal coherence of thermal radiation and the associated interferences can be used to shape the spectrum of the transferred radiative heat flux by selecting approriate geometrical parameters. These results highlight possibilities to control both the location where the radiative power is absorbed in the film and the spectral distribution, which are of paramount importance for applications such as near-field thermophotovoltaics.

  19. Determination of the absorbed dose and the average LET of space radiation in dependence on shielding conditions.

    PubMed

    Vana, N; Schoner, W; Noll, M; Fugger, M; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V

    1999-01-01

    The HTR method, developed for determination of absorbed dose and average LET of mixed radiation fields in space, was applied during several space missions on space station MIR, space shuttles and satellites. The method utilises the changes of peak height ratios in the glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer LET. Due to the small size of the dosemeters the evaluation of the variation of absorbed dose and average LET in dependence on the position of the dosemeters inside the space station is possible. The dose and LET distribution was determined during the experiment ADLET where dosemeters were exposed in two positions with different shielding conditions and during two following experiments (MIR-95, MIR-96) using six positions inside the space station. The results were compared with the shielding conditions of the positions. Calculations of the absorbed dose were carried out for comparison. Results have shown that the average LET increases with increasing absorbing thickness while the absorbed dose decreases.

  20. A model for forecasting solr short-wave UV emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachevskaya, T. V.; Nusinov, A. A.

    Variations of short-wave (10 - 105 nm) solar ultraviolet emission are generally caused by changes in two components - background emisson of undisturbed solar surface and emission from active regions. These components vary nonlinearly with the corresponding components of radioemission at 10.7 cm. Model computations were compared to direct measurements of short-wave emission. Mean diurnal data on the integral flux obtained from Prognoz-7 in 1978 - 1979 were used, relative precision being 1.5%. Model calculatons are in good agreement (within 10%) with the observed day-to-day variations of UV radiation.

  1. Absorbed dose determination in kilovoltage X-ray synchrotron radiation using alanine dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Butler, D J; Lye, J E; Wright, T E; Crossley, D; Sharpe, P H G; Stevenson, A W; Livingstone, J; Crosbie, J C

    2016-12-01

    Alanine dosimeters from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK were irradiated using kilovoltage synchrotron radiation at the imaging and medical beam line (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. A 20 × 20 mm(2) area was irradiated by scanning the phantom containing the alanine through the 1 mm × 20 mm beam at a constant velocity. The polychromatic beam had an average energy of 95 keV and nominal absorbed dose to water rate of 250 Gy/s. The absorbed dose to water in the solid water phantom was first determined using a PTW Model 31014 PinPoint ionization chamber traceable to a graphite calorimeter. The alanine was read out at NPL using correction factors determined for (60)Co, traceable to NPL standards, and a published energy correction was applied to correct for the effect of the synchrotron beam quality. The ratio of the doses determined by alanine at NPL and those determined at the synchrotron was 0.975 (standard uncertainty 0.042) when alanine energy correction factors published by Waldeland et al. (Waldeland E, Hole E O, Sagstuen E and Malinen E, Med. Phys. 2010, 37, 3569) were used, and 0.996 (standard uncertainty 0.031) when factors by Anton et al. (Anton M, Büermann L., Phys Med Biol. 2015 60 6113-29) were used. The results provide additional verification of the IMBL dosimetry.

  2. Radiation absorbed doses from iron-52, iron-55, and iron-59 used to study ferrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.S.; Price, R.R.; Budinger, T.F.; Fairbanks, V.F.; Pollycove, M.

    1983-04-01

    Biological data obtained principally with Fe-59 citrate are used with physical data to calculate radiation absorbed doses for ionic or weak chelate forms of Fe-52, Fe-55, and Fe-59, administered by intravenous injection. Doses are calculated for normal subjects, primary hemochromatosis (also called idiopathic or hereditary hemochromatosis), pernicious anemia in relapse, iron-deficiency anemia, and polycythemia vera. The Fe-52 doses include the dose from the Mn-52m daughter generated after injection of Fe-52. Special attention has been given to the dose to the spleen, which has a relatively high concentration of RBCs and therefore of radioiron, and which varies significantly in size in both health and disease.

  3. A multi-satellite analysis of the direct radiative effects of absorbing aerosols above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Christopher, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative effects of absorbing aerosols above liquid water clouds in the southeast Atlantic as a function of fire sources are investigated using A-Train data coupled with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP). Both the VIIRS Active Fire product and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Thermal Anomalies product (MYD14) are used to identify the biomass burning fire origin in southern Africa. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) are used to assess the aerosol type, aerosol altitude, and cloud altitude. We use back trajectory information, wind data, and the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) product to infer the transportation of aerosols from the fire source to the CALIOP swath in the southeast Atlantic during austral winter.

  4. Radiative effects of absorbing aerosols over northeastern India: Observations and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Pathak, Binita; Subba, Tamanna; Chutia, Lakhima; Kundu, Shyam Sundar; Bharali, Chandrakala; Borgohain, Arup; Guha, Anirban; De, Barin Kumar; Singh, Brajamani; Chin, Mian

    2017-01-01

    Multiyear measurements of spectral properties of aerosol absorption are examined over four geographically distinct locations of northeastern India. Results indicated significant spatiotemporal variation in aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with highest values in winter and lowest in monsoon. The western parts of the region, close to the outflow of Indo-Gangetic Plains, showed higher values of σabs and black carbon (BC) concentration—mostly associated with fossil fuel combustion. But, the eastern parts showed higher contributions from biomass-burning aerosols, as much as 20-25% to the total aerosol absorption, conspicuously during premonsoon season. This is attributed to a large number of burning activities over the Southeast Asian region, as depicted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer fire count maps, whose spatial extent and magnitude peaks during March/April. The nearly consistent high values of aerosol index (AI) and layer height from Ozone Monitoring Instrument indicate the presence of absorbing aerosols in the upper atmosphere. The observed seasonality has been captured fairly well by Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) as well as Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations. The ratio of column-integrated optical depths due to particulate organic matter and BC from GOCART showed good coincidence with satellite-based observations, indicating the increased vertical dispersion of absorbing aerosols, probably by the additional local convection due to higher fire radiative power caused by the intense biomass-burning activities. In the WRF-Chem though underperformed by different magnitude in winter, the values are closer or overestimated near the burnt areas. Atmospheric forcing due to BC was highest ( 30 Wm-2) over the western part associated with the fossil fuel combustion.

  5. Radioimmunotherapy treatment planning based on radiation absorbed dose or patient size

    SciTech Connect

    Eary, J.F.; Krohn, K.A.; Press, O.W. |

    1996-05-01

    Several approaches have been used to plan treatment doses for patients undergoing radioimmunotherapy. Investigators often use fixed doses, or doses based on patient size (mCi/kg or mCi/m{sup 2}). Our treatment protocols for lymphoma and leukemia involved calculation of tissue radiation absorbed dose based on images from a trace labeled infusion of antibody prior to treatment. In a recent analysis of patients treated in the Phase I and II dose escalation trial for treatment of non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma with I-131 anti-CD20 antibody (B1), we investigated the relationship between our dosimetry based treatment and dose based on patient size. Tissue radiation dose for several normal organs and for tumors were plotted versus the mCi administered per kg or m{sup 2} of the patient to evaluate the relationship between the two treatment approaches. These graphs showed correlation coefficients ranging from 0.021 to 0.684, demonstrating the variability in antibody catabolism between patients. This means that fixed doses or administrations based on patient size do not deliver consistent radiation doses to normal organs or tumors. This finding was extrapolated to show that toxicity from doses based on patient size di not correlate with treatment dose; those based on calculated rad/organ did. Phase I clinical trials using treatment doses based on patient size where there are likely to be variations in patient antibody catabolism will result in confounding toxicities at apparently similar mCi dose levels. Use of pre-treatment scans for treatment dose planning are worth the additional effort by normalizing the normal tissue toxicity.

  6. Photothermal evaluation of the influence of nicotine, antitumor drugs, and radiation on cellular absorbing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Galitovsky, Valentin; Chowdhury, Parimal; Chambers, Timothy

    2004-07-01

    This short review presents findings from a recent evaluation of the diagnostic capabilities of a new experimental design of the advanced photothermal (PT) imaging system; specifically, its performance in studying the impact of nicotine, a combination of antitumor drugs, and radiation on the absorbing structures of various cells. We used this imaging system to test our hypothesis that low doses of chemicals or drugs lead to changes in cell metabolism, that these changes are accompanied by the shrinking of cellular absorbing zones (e.g. organelles), and that these reactions cause increased local absorption. Conversely, high (toxic) doses may lead to swelling of organelles or release of chromophores into the intracellular space, causing decreased local absorption. In this study, we compared PT images and PT responses of the pancreatic exocrine tumor cell line AR42J resulting from exposure to various concentrations of nicotine versus those of control cells. We found that responses were almost proportional to the drug concentration in concentrations ranging from 1 nM-100 μM, reached saturation at a maximum of approximately 100 μM-1 mM, and then fell rapidly at concentrations ranging from 1-50 mM. We also examined the influence of antitumor drugs (vinblastine and paclitaxel) on KB3 carcinoma cells, with drug concentrations ranging from 10-10 nM to 10 nM. In this instance, exposure initially led to slight cell activation, which was then followed by decreased cellular PT response. Drug administration led to corresponding changes in the amplitude and spatial intracellular localization of PT responses, including bubble formation, as an indicator of local absorption level. Additionally, it was shown that, depending on cell type, x-ray radiation may produce effects similar to those resulting from exposure to drugs. Independent verification with a combined PT-fluorescence assay and conventional staining kits (trypan blue, Annexin V-propidium iodide [PI]) revealed that this

  7. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q.

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  8. Influence of Aerosols on the Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing from North Pacific Oceanic Clouds: Results from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Roberts, Greg; Ramanathan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols over the Northeastern Pacific Ocean enhance the cloud drop number concentration and reduce the drop size for marine stratocumulus and cumulus clouds. These microphysical effects result in brighter clouds, as evidenced by a combination of aircraft and satellite observations. In-situ measurements from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX) indicate that the mean cloud drop number concentration in low clouds over the polluted marine boundary layer is greater by 53 cm(sup -3) compared to clean clouds, and the mean cloud drop effective radius is smaller by 4 micrometers. We link these in-situ measurements of cloud modification by aerosols, for the first time, with collocated satellite broadband radiative flux observations from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System to show that these microphysical effects of aerosols enhance the top-of-atmosphere cooling by -.9.9 plus or minus 4.3 W m(sup -2) for overcast conditions.

  9. The Influence of Aerosols on the Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing from North Pacific Oceanic Clouds: Results from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Roberts, Greg; Ramanathan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols over the Northeastern Pacific Ocean enhance the cloud drop number concentration and reduce the drop size for marine stratocumulus and cumulus clouds. These microphysical effects result in brighter clouds, as evidenced by a combination of aircraft and satellite observations. In-situ measurements from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX) indicate that the mean cloud drop number concentration in low clouds over the polluted marine boundary layer is greater by 53/cu cm compared to clean clouds, and the mean cloud drop effective radius is smaller by 4 microns. We link these in-situ measurements of cloud modification by aerosols, for the first time, with collocated satellite broadband radiative flux observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to show that these microphysical effects of aerosols enhance the top-of-atmosphere cooling by -9.9+/-4.3 W/sq m for overcast conditions.

  10. Vertical distribution of aerosols and shortwave radiative forcing over the Indo-Gangetic Basin during three major dust storms of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    Abstract: The present study aims to analyze the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) and vertical distribution of aerosols over Kanpur (located in central Indo-Gangetic Basin; IGB) during the three (20 April, 28 May and 2 June, 2010) intense dust-storm events in the pre-monsoon season, using the synergy of ground and satellite observations and SBDART simulation. The analysis reveals considerable changes in the aerosol vertical profiles and ARF during the dust-storm events highlighting the important role of dust in the aerosol load and ARF properties over the IGB. The CALIOP-derived aerosol properties show vertically elevated aerosol profiles (up to 4 km altitude), majorly consisting of dust particles during the dust event. The maximum daily average top of the atmosphere (TOA), atmosphere (ATM) and surface (SRF) forcing is found to be -40.95, 60.65 W/m2 and -101.59W/m2 during the dust events respectively. A strong correlation is found between AOD at 500 nm and the ARF. The correlation coefficient (R2) between AOD and ARF is found to be 0.74, 0.46 and 0.84 at TOA, ATM and SRF respectively. The slope of the regression line gives the aerosol forcing efficiency at 500nm of about 24.29, -19.85 and -44.15 W/m2 at the ATM, TOA and SRF respectively. The ARF is found to increase with the advance of the dry season. Keywords: Dust Storms, Aerosol properties, AERONET, Satellites, Indo-Gangetic Basin, Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF).

  11. Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Om P; Morgan, L Lloyd; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto; Han, Yueh-Ying; Herberman, Ronald B; Davis, Devra Lee

    2012-03-01

    The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.

  12. Estimation of the absorbed dose in radiation-processed food. 4. EPR measurements on eggshell

    SciTech Connect

    Desrosiers, M.F.; Le, F.G. ); Harewood, P.M.; Josephson, E.S. ); Montesalvo, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Fresh whole eggs treated with ionizing radiation for Salmonellae control testing. The eggshell was then removed and examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine if EPR could be used to (1) distinguish irradiated from unirradiated eggs and (2) assess the absorbed dose. No EPR signals were detected in unirradiated eggs, while strong signals were measurable for more than 200 days after irradiation. Although a number of EPR signals were measured, the most intense resonance (g = 2.0019) was used for dosimetry throughout the study. This signal was observed to increase linearly with dose (up to [approximately]6 kGy), which decayed [approximately]20% within the first 5 days after irradiation and remained relatively constant thereafter. The standard added-dose method was used to assess, retrospectively, the dose to eggs processed at 0.2, 0.7, and 1.4 kGy. Relatively good results were obtained when measurement was made on the day the shell was reirradiated; with this procedure estimates were better for shell processed at the lower doses.

  13. The use of high spectral resolution bands for estimating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (A par)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Chappelle, E. W.; Mcmurtrey, J. E.; Walthall, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    Most remote sensing estimations of vegetation variables such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (APAR), and phytomass are made using broad band sensors with a bandwidth of approximately 100 nm. However, high resolution spectrometers are available and have not been fully exploited for the purpose of improving estimates of vegetation variables. A study directed to investigate the use of high spectral resolution spectroscopy for remote sensing estimates of APAR in vegetation canopies in the presence of nonphotosynthetic background materials such as soil and leaf litter is presented. A high spectral resolution method defined as the Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index (CARI) was developed for minimizing the effects of nonphotosynthetic materials in the remote estimates of APAR. CARI utilizes three bands at 550, 670, and 700 nm with bandwidth of 10 nm. Simulated canopy reflectance of a range of LAI were generated with the SAIL model using measurements of 42 different soil types as canopy background. CARI obtained from the simulated canopy reflectance was compared with the broad band vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and Simple Ratio (SR)). CARI reduced the effect of nonphotosynthetic background materials in the assessment of vegetation canopy APAR more effectively than broad band vegetation indices.

  14. Estimating solar radiation absorbed by live phytoplankton from satellite ocean-color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert J.; Ruddorff, Natalia M.; Kampel, Milton

    2014-11-01

    Primary production, PP, or the quantity of organic matter synthesized by phytoplankton per unit of surface and time, depends on the photo-synthetically available radiation absorbed by live phytoplankton, APAR. Computing APAR requires knowledge of the absorption coefficient of live phytoplankton and the total absorption coefficient, quantities that are difficult to retrieve accurately from satellite ocean-color data. In the proposed approach, APAR is estimated directly from a linear combination of marine reflectance in the PAR spectral range. Feasibility is demonstrated theoretically from simulations using a marine reflectance model, and experimentally using data collected at 19 biooptical stations during the February-March 2011 R/V Melville oceanographic cruise in the Southern Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific. Improvements in APAR accuracy are quantified in comparisons with estimates obtained from absorption coefficients or chlorophyll concentration determined from marine reflectance via standard satellite algorithms. The linear combination of marine reflectance is fairly robust to atmospheric correction errors. Due to the linear nature of the algorithm, their impact may be further reduced when using space- or time-averaged reflectance. The methodology is applied to actual MODIS imagery over the Southern Atlantic, and variability in the resulting APAR field is analyzed. The study suggests that determining APAR directly from marine reflectance has the potential to improve PP estimates from space.

  15. Extending the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to short-wave infrared radiation (SWIR) (1- to 2.5-μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon R.; Scribner, Dean A.

    2002-11-01

    There is increasing interest in using wide-area standoff airborne hyperspectral sensors to detect potential targets at large oblique viewing angles. Under such conditions, the intervening atmosphere between the targets and the imager can attenuate and alter the detected signal. To help compensate for the reduced signal for long range viewing, recent efforts have focused on using hyperspectral sensors to collect imagery derived from short wave radiation SWIR (1-2.5 μm) rather than the more standard visible-near infrared radiation Vis-NIR (0.4-1.0 μm). However, unlike imagery collected using Vis-NIR, there is currently a relative dearth of analytical and classification algorithms that only use SWIR. To enhance the ability to detect spectral features confined to the SWIR regime, this study has examined extracting vegetation features in the SWIR. Visible-near infrared hyperspectral imagery has successfully extracted vegetation within a scene through computation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The Visible NDVI computes a normalized difference of two bands corresponding to the chlorophyll absorption (0.67 μm) and IR edge (0.80 μm). This work extended and examined schemes for extracting vegetation within SWIR imagery. Specifically, this study examined the HYDICE data collect (0.4-2.5 μm) and the visible NDVI was used as the standard for determining the vegetation within the scene. A SWIR derived NDVI was generated using pairs of SWIR bands (1.08, 1.46 μm), (1.08, 1.57 μm), (1.08, 1.66 μm), and (1,08, 2.18 μm). All SWIR paired bands exhibited large (> 0.92) correlation coefficients with the Vis-NIR NDVI. Vis-NIR NDVI preferentially detects the greenest vegetation but the SWIR NDVI tends to favor vegetation residing in shadows. Water has large SWIR NDVI but has low reflectance throughout the SWIR. By setting a threshold, water can be eliminated from consideration and only vegetation is detected. In addition, minimizing the mean squared error

  16. Development of statistical seasonal prediction models of Arctic Sea Ice concentration using CERES absorbed solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoojin; Kim, Ha-Rim; Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, WonMoo; Kim, Hye-Sil

    2016-11-01

    Statistical seasonal prediction models for the Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) were developed for the late summer (August-October) when the downward trend is dramatic. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) at the top of the atmosphere in June has a significant seasonal leading role on the SIC. Based on the lagged ASR-SIC relationship, two simple statistical models were established: the Markovian stochastic and the linear regression models. Crossvalidated hindcasts of SIC from 1979 to 2014 by the two models were compared with each other and observation. The hindcasts showed general agreement between the models as they share a common predictor, ASR in June and the observed SIC was well reproduced, especially over the relatively thin-ice regions (of one- or multi-year sea ice). The robust predictability confirms the functional role of ASR in the prediction of SIC. In particular, the SIC prediction in October was quite promising probably due to the pronounced icealbedo feedback. The temporal correlation coefficients between the predicted SIC and the observed SIC were 0.79 and 0.82 by the Markovian and regression models, respectively. Small differences were observed between the two models; the regression model performed slightly better in August and September in terms of temporal correlation coefficients. Meanwhile, the prediction skills of the Markovian model in October were higher in the north of Chukchi, the East Siberian, and the Laptev Seas. A strong non-linear relationship between ASR in June and SIC in October in these areas would have increased the predictability of the Markovian model.

  17. Surface-engineered nanomaterials as X-ray absorbing adjuvant agents for Auger-mediated chemo-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Tsai, De-Hao; Hackley, Vincent A.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Cook, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    We report a prototype approach to formulate gold nanoparticle-based X-ray absorbing agents through surface-engineering of a cisplatin pharmacophore with modified polyacrylate. The resulting agents exhibit both chemo-therapeutic potency to cancer cells and Auger-mediated secondary electron emission, showing great potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy of chemo-radiation.We report a prototype approach to formulate gold nanoparticle-based X-ray absorbing agents through surface-engineering of a cisplatin pharmacophore with modified polyacrylate. The resulting agents exhibit both chemo-therapeutic potency to cancer cells and Auger-mediated secondary electron emission, showing great potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy of chemo-radiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00333g

  18. Are sea-ice driven increases of absorbed solar radiation in the Arctic offset by increasing sea ice extent in the Antarctic?: A bipolar comparison of satellite-derived estimates of absorbed solar radiation and sea ice area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W.; Ahlert, A.; Loeb, N. G.; Stewart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its high surface albedo, sea ice reflects a substantial amount of incoming solar radiation relative to an ice-free ocean surface. Thus the presence of sea ice results in less absorption of energy during the long days of the polar summers. AS expected, the dramatic decline in Arctic summer sea ice area over the past decades has been accompanied by an increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR). This has been observed by in situ measurements as well as satellite observations. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on the NASA EOS Terra platform has provided global coverage of solar radiation since late 1999, providing a large-scale indicator of changes in absorbed solar radiation. These data show that the dramatic decrease in Arctic summer sea ice has been accompanied an increase in absorbed solar radiation during the boreal summer, with the largest gains corresponding to regions of the most notable summer ice loss. While overall there is good correlation, the relationship is far from perfect. This is not unexpected since other factors - particularly clouds - play a role in the amount of ASR. In contrast to the decreasing sea ice in the Arctic, the Antarctic has seen a trend of increasing coverage. The increases are smaller, in both absolute and relative terms. However, the southern hemisphere sea ice cover is at a higher average latitude than in the north due to the presence of the Antarctic continent and is thus is potentially exposed to higher incoming solar radiation. Here we investigate the relationship between changes in sea ice and changes in ASR (estimated from CERES data) in the Arctic and Antarctic during their respective summer seasons. To first order, both hemispheres show an expected relationship between sea ice and absorbed solar radiation in the Arctic (sea ice decrease, ASR increase) and the Antarctic (sea ice increase, ASR decrease). However, the correlation in the Antarctic is not nearly as clear in the Arctic and the

  19. Radiation absorbed from dental implant radiography: a comparison of linear tomography, CT scan, and panoramic and intra-oral techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Danforth, R.A.; Barnes, R.W.; Burtch, M.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Absorbed radiation dose in bone marrow, thyroid, salivary gland, eye, and skin entrance was determined by placement of lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) at selected anatomical sites within and on a human-like x-ray phantom. The phantom was exposed to radiation from linear tomographic and computer-assisted tomographic (CT) simulated dental implant radiographic examinations. The mean dose was determined for each anatomical site. Resulting dose measurements from linear tomography and computer-assisted tomography are compared with reported panoramic and intra-oral doses. CT examination delivered the greatest dose, while linear tomography was generally lowest. Panoramic and intra-oral doses were similar to those of linear tomography.

  20. In-flight shortwave calibrations of the active cavity radiometers using tungsten lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Susan; Lee, Robert B.; Gibson, Michael A.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bolden, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) active cavity radiometers are used to measure the incoming solar, reflected shortwave solar, and emitted longwave radiations from the Earth and atmosphere. The radiometers are located on the NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft platforms. Two of the radiometers, one wide field of view (WFOV) and one medium field of view (MFOV), measure the total radiation in the spectral region of 0.2 to 50 microns and the other two radiometers (WFOV and MFOV) measure the shortwave radiation in the spectral region of 0.2 to 5.0 microns. For the in-flight calibrations, tungsten lamp and the sun are used as calibration sources for shortwave radiometers. Descriptions of the tungsten lamp and solar calibration procedures and mechanisms are presented. The tungsten lamp calibration measurements are compared with the measurements of solar calibration for ERBS and NOAA-9 instruments.

  1. Stratocumulus to Cumulus Transition Capped by a Light-Absorbing Smoke Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Feingold, G.; Kazil, J.; McComiskey, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol emitted from Africa seasonally advects over the eastern Atlantic and forms a layer of light-absorbing smoke above stratocumulus clouds, which influences heating profiles, dynamics, and cloud microphysics. In this study, large-eddy simulation is used to investigate the effect of the absorbing smoke layer on the stratocumulus to cumulus transition (SCT). A prognostic absorbing smoke model incorporates humidity effects on optical properties, and is coupled with a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme and an interactive radiation code. Smoke both absorbs shortwave radiation and acts as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Simulations are of three day duration. The simulations assess sensitivity of the SCT to distance of the smoke layer from the cloud top, aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo, and precipitation. Our simulations show that 1) As a shortwave absorber, the smoke stabilizes the free atmosphere and strengthens the temperature jump at the boundary layer top, which limits entrainment; 2) Smoke helps evaporate cloud during daytime, which amplifies the diurnal cycle of cloud cover; 3) As a source of CCN, the entrained smoke suppresses rain formation, which inhibits precipitation-generated cloud breakup. The net effect of smoke is modification of heating profiles to limit the deepening of the planetary boundary layer, and suppression of precipitation. This leads to enhancement of the diurnal cycle of cloudiness but a delay in the SCT.

  2. Productivity, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and light use efficiency in crops: implications for remote sensing of crop primary production.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Suyker, Andrew E

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation productivity metrics such as gross primary production (GPP) at the canopy scale are greatly affected by the efficiency of using absorbed radiation for photosynthesis, or light use efficiency (LUE). Thus, close investigation of the relationships between canopy GPP and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation is the basis for quantification of LUE. We used multiyear observations over irrigated and rainfed contrasting C3 (soybean) and C4 (maize) crops having different physiology, leaf structure, and canopy architecture to establish the relationships between canopy GPP and radiation absorbed by vegetation and quantify LUE. Although multiple LUE definitions are reported in the literature, we used a definition of efficiency of light use by photosynthetically active "green" vegetation (LUE(green)) based on radiation absorbed by "green" photosynthetically active vegetation on a daily basis. We quantified, irreversible slowly changing seasonal (constitutive) and rapidly day-to-day changing (facultative) LUE(green), as well as sensitivity of LUE(green) to the magnitude of incident radiation and drought events. Large (2-3-fold) variation of daily LUE(green) over the course of a growing season that is governed by crop physiological and phenological status was observed. The day-to-day variations of LUE(green) oscillated with magnitude 10-15% around the seasonal LUE(green) trend and appeared to be closely related to day-to-day variations of magnitude and composition of incident radiation. Our results show the high variability of LUE(green) between C3 and C4 crop species (1.43 g C/MJ vs. 2.24 g C/MJ, respectively), as well as within single crop species (i.e., maize or soybean). This implies that assuming LUE(green) as a constant value in GPP models is not warranted for the crops studied, and brings unpredictable uncertainties of remote GPP estimation, which should be accounted for in LUE models. The uncertainty of GPP estimation due to facultative and

  3. Optimum combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podaire, Alain; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Frouin, R.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1991-01-01

    A useful parameter to estimate terrestrial primary productivity, that can be sensed from space, is the daily averaged fraction of Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants. To evaluate this parameter, investigators have relied on the fact that the relative amount of radiation reflected by a vegetated surface in the visible and near infrared depends on the fraction of the surface covered by the vegetation and therefore, correlates with absorbed PAR. They have used vegetation indices, namely normalized difference and simple ratio, to derive absorbed PAR. The problem with normalized difference and simple ratio is first, they are non linear functions of radiance or reflectance and therefore, cannot be readily applied to heterogeneous targets, second, they are used in generally nonlinear relationships, which make time integrals of the indices not proportional to primary productivity, and third, the relationships depend strongly on the type of canopy and background. To remove these limitations, linear combinations of visible and near infrared reflectances at optimum (one or two) viewing zenith angles are proposed.

  4. Improved estimates of the radiation absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin; Minarik, David; Johansson, Lennart; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-05-07

    Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have been calculated as a function of the content in the urinary bladder in order to allow more realistic calculations of the absorbed dose to the bladder wall. The SAFs were calculated using the urinary bladder anatomy from the ICRP male and female adult reference computational phantoms. The urinary bladder and its content were approximated by a sphere with a wall of constant mass, where the thickness of the wall depended on the amount of urine in the bladder. SAFs were calculated for males and females with 17 different urinary bladder volumes from 10 to 800 mL, using the Monte Carlo computer program MCNP5, at 25 energies of mono-energetic photons and electrons ranging from 10 KeV to 10 MeV. The decay was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the urinary bladder content and the urinary bladder wall, and the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall was calculated. The Monte Carlo simulations were validated against measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters. The SAFs obtained for a urine volume of 200 mL were compared to the values calculated for the urinary bladder wall using the adult reference computational phantoms. The mean absorbed dose to the urinary wall from (18)F-FDG was found to be 77 µGy/MBq formales and 86 µGy/MBq for females, while for (99m)Tc-DTPA the mean absorbed doses were 80 µGy/MBq for males and 86 µGy/MBq for females. Compared to calculations using a constant value of the SAF from the adult reference computational phantoms, the mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were 60% higher for (18)F-FDG and 30% higher for (99m)Tc-DTPA using the new SAFs.

  5. A robust method for determining the absorbed dose to water in a phantom for low-energy photon radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, T.

    2011-06-01

    The application of more and more low-energy photon radiation in brachytherapy—either in the form of low-dose-rate radioactive seeds such as Pd-103 or I-125 or in the form of miniature x-ray tubes—has induced greater interest in determining the absorbed dose to water in water in this energy range. As it seems to be hardly feasible to measure the absorbed dose with calorimetric methods in this low energy range, ionometric methods are the preferred choice. However, the determination of the absorbed dose to water in water by ionometric methods is difficult in this energy range. With decreasing energy, the relative uncertainty of the photon cross sections increases and as the mass energy transfer coefficients show a steep gradient, the spectra of the radiation field must be known precisely. In this work two ionometric methods to determine the absorbed dose to water are evaluated with respect to their sensitivity to the uncertainties of the spectra and of the atomic database. The first is the measurement of the air kerma free in air and the application of an MC-based conversion factor to the absorbed dose to water. The second is the determination of the absorbed dose to water by means of an extrapolation chamber as an integral part of a phantom. In the complementing MC-calculations, two assortments of spectra each of which is based on a separate unfolding procedure were used as well as two kinds of databases: the standard PEGS and the recently implemented NIST database of EGSnrc. Experimental results were obtained by using a parallel-plate graphite extrapolation chamber and a free-air chamber. In the case when the water kerma in a phantom is determined from the measurements of air kerma free in air, differences in the order of 10% were found, according to which the database or the kind of spectrum is used. In contrast to this, for the second method, the differences found were about 0.5%.

  6. Conversion of recoilless γ radiation into a periodic sequence of short intense pulses in a set of several sequentially placed resonant absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeonychev, Y. V.; Antonov, V. A.; Vagizov, F. G.; Shakhmuratov, R. N.; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2015-10-01

    An efficient technique for producing a periodic sequence of short nearly bandwidth-limited pulses of recoilless γ radiation via its transmission through an optically thick vibrating resonant absorber was demonstrated recently [Nature (London) 508, 80 (2014), 10.1038/nature13018]. In this paper we extend the theoretical analysis to a case of multiple absorbers. We analyze a simple physical model describing control of spectral content of a frequency modulated γ radiation by adjusting the amplitudes and initial phases of spectral components, using the resonant absorption and dispersion in a set of several sequentially placed resonant absorbers. On the basis of analytical solutions, we determine the ultimate possibilities of the proposed technique.

  7. Photosynthesis, Growth, and Ultraviolet Irradiance Absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. Leaves Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Radiation (280-315 nm).

    PubMed

    Sisson, W B

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of UV-B irradiation and a UV-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other UV-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of UV-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of UV-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, UV-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective UV-B radiation but not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both UV-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by UV-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity.

  8. Photosynthesis, Growth, and Ultraviolet Irradiance Absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. Leaves Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Radiation (280-315 nm) 1

    PubMed Central

    Sisson, William B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of UV-B irradiation and a UV-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other UV-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of UV-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of UV-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, UV-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective UV-B radiation but not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both UV-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by UV-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity. PMID:16661610

  9. Photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet irradiance absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 315 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (uv) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of uv-B irradiation and a uv-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other uv-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of uv-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of uv-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, uv-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective uv-B radiation by not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both uv-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by uv-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity.

  10. Light Absorbing Impurities in Snow in the Western US: Partitioning Radiative Impacts from Mineral Dust and Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiles, M.; Painter, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Melt of annual mountain snow cover dominates water resources in the western United States. Recent studies in the Upper Colorado River Basin have shown that radiative forcing by light absorbing impurities (LAIs) in mountain snow cover has accelerated snowmelt, impacted runoff timing and magnitude, and reduced annual flow. However, these studies have assumed that LAIs are primarily mineral dust, and have not quantified the radiative contribution by carbonaceous particles from bio and fossil fuel (industrial and urban) sources. Here we quantify both dust and black carbon (BC) content and assess the unique BC radiative forcing contribution in this dust dominated impurity regime using a suite of advanced field, lab, and modeling techniques. Daily measurements of surface spectral albedo and optical grain radius were collected with a field spectrometer over the 2013 spring melt season in Senator Beck Basin Study Area in the San Juan Mountains, CO, Southwestern US. Coincident snow samples were collected daily and processed for; (1) dust and BC content (2) impurity particle size, and (3) impurity optical properties. Measured snow and impurity properties were then used to drive the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model. Partitioning the unique radiative contribution from each constituents is achieved through unique model runs for clean snow, dust only, and BC only.

  11. Radiation Transfer in the Atmosphere: Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, M.; Travis, L.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Sunlight illuminating the Earth's atmosphere is scattered by gas molecules and suspended particles, giving rise to blue skies, white clouds, and optical displays such as rainbows and halos. By scattering and absorbing the shortwave solar radiation and the longwave radiation emitted by the underlying surface, cloud and aerosol particles strongly affect the radiation budget of the terrestrial climate system. As a consequence of the dependence of scattering characteristics on particle size, morphology, and composition, scattered light can be remarkably rich in information on particle properties and thus provides a sensitive tool for remote retrievals of macro- and microphysical parameters of clouds and aerosols.

  12. Measurement of surface physical properties and radiation balance for KUREX-91 study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Hays, Cynthia J.

    1992-01-01

    Biophysical properties and radiation balance components were measured at the Streletskaya Steppe Reserve of the Russian Republic in July 1991. Steppe vegetation parameters characterized include leaf area index (LAI), leaf angle distribution, mean tilt angle, canopy height, leaf spectral properties, leaf water potential, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), and incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation. Research results, biophysical parameters, radiation balance estimates, and sun-view geometry effects on estimating APAR are discussed. Incoming and outgoing radiation streams are estimated using bidirectional spectral reflectances and bidirectional thermal emittances. Good agreement between measured and modeled estimates of the radiation balance were obtained.

  13. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for oxygen-15 radiopharmaceuticals (H2( V)O, C VO, O VO) in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J.; Stabin, M.; Howse, D.; Eichling, J.O.; Herscovitch, P.

    1988-12-01

    In preparation for measurement of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography, radiation absorbed dose estimates for 19 internal organs, blood, and total body were calculated for newborn infants following bolus intravenous administration of H2( V)O and brief inhalation of C VO and O VO. Cumulated activity for each radiopharmaceutical was calculated from a compartmental model based on the known biologic behavior of the compound. Values for mean absorbed dose/unit cumulated activity (S) for internal organs and total body were based on a newborn phantom. S was separately calculated for blood. Total radiopharmaceutical absorbed dose estimates necessary to measure cerebral oxygen metabolism in a 3.51-kg infant based on 0.7 mCi/kg H2( V)O and 1 mCi/kg C VO and O VO were determined to be 1.6 rad to the lung (maximum organ dose), 0.28 rad to the marrow, 0.46 rad to the gonads, and 0.22 rad to total body. These values are similar to those for current clinical nuclear medicine procedures employing /sup 99m/Tc in newborn infants.

  14. Go International! Build a Simplified Shortwave Receiver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homoly, Clarke

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plan for building a shortwave receiver that is doable, educational and has reasonable performance. The project, says the author, can give students years of listening fun without a major financial investment. Potential project improvements are included.

  15. The Investigation of Property of Radiation and Absorbed of Infrared Lights of the Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Xiao, He-Lan; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2010-04-01

    The properties of absorption of infrared light for collagen, hemoglobin, bivine serum albumen (BSA) protein molecules with α- helix structure and water in the living systems as well as the infrared transmission spectra for person’s skins and finger hands of human body in the region of 400-4000 cm-1 (i.e., wavelengths of 2-20 μm) have been collected and determined by using a Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrometer, a Perkin Elmer GX FT-IR spectrometer, an OMA (optical multichannel analysis) and an infrared probe systems, respectively. The experimental results obtained show that the protein molecules and water can all absorb the infrared lights in the ranges of 600-1900 cm-1 and 2900-3900 cm-l, but their properties of absorption are somewhat different due to distinctions of their structure and conformation and molecular weight. We know from the transmission spectra of person’s finger hands and skin that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm can not only transmit over the person’s skin and finger hands, but also be absorbed by the above proteins and water in the living systems. Thus, we can conclude from this study that the human beings and animals can absorb the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm.

  16. Water absorbency studies of γ-radiation crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid) hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadaǧ, Erdener; Saraydin, Dursun; Güven, Olgun

    2004-10-01

    Water absorbency behavior of acrylamide (AAm)/2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid (DBA) hydrogels synthesized by γ-radiation crosslinking of AAm and DBA in an aqueous solution was investigated. Different amounts of DBA containing AAm/DBA hydrogels were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in water at 25 °C, gravimetrically. The influence of absorbed dose and DBA content of the hydrogels on swelling properties were examined. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in an aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics which were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetic parameters were investigated. The values of the weight swelling ratio of AAm/DBA hydrogels were between 8.34 and 15.16, while the values of the weight swelling ratio of pure AAm hydrogels were between 7.58 and 8.28. Water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8681 and 0.9340.

  17. Competing Atmospheric and Surface-Driven Impacts of Absorbing Aerosols on the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persad, G.; Paynter, D.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols, by attenuating shortwave radiation within the atmosphere and reemitting it as longwave radiation, redistribute energy both vertically within the surface-atmosphere column and horizontally between polluted and unpolluted regions. East Asia has the largest concentrations of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols globally, and these, along with the region's scattering aerosols, have both reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface regionally ("solar dimming") and increased shortwave absorption within the atmosphere, particularly during the peak months of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). We here analyze how atmospheric absorption and surface solar dimming compete in driving the response of EASM circulation to anthropogenic absorbing aerosols, which dominates, and why—issues of particular importance for predicting how the EASM will respond to projected changes in absorbing and scattering aerosol emissions in the future. We probe these questions in a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM) using a combination of realistic and idealized aerosol perturbations that allow us to analyze the relative influence of absorbing aerosols' atmospheric and surface-driven impacts on EASM circulation. In combination, our results make clear that, although absorption-driven dimming has a less detrimental effect on EASM circulation than purely scattering-driven dimming, aerosol absorption is still a net impairment to EASM strength when both its atmospheric and surface effects are considered. Because atmospheric heating is not efficiently conveyed to the surface, the surface dimming and associated cooling from even a pure absorber is sufficient to counteract its atmospheric heating, resulting in a net reduction in EASM strength. These findings elevate the current understanding of the impacts of aerosol absorption on the EASM, improving our ability to diagnose EASM responses to current and future regional changes in aerosol emissions.

  18. IPR 1.0: an efficient method for calculating solar radiation absorbed by individual plants in sparse heterogeneous woody plant communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change may alter the spatial distribution, composition, structure, and functions of plant communities. Transitional zones between biomes, or ecotones, are particularly sensitive to climate change. Ecotones are usually heterogeneous with sparse trees. The dynamics of ecotones are mainly determined by the growth and competition of individual plants in the communities. Therefore it is necessary to calculate solar radiation absorbed by individual plants for understanding and predicting their responses to climate change. In this study, we developed an individual plant radiation model, IPR (version 1.0), to calculate solar radiation absorbed by individual plants in sparse heterogeneous woody plant communities. The model is developed based on geometrical optical relationships assuming crowns of woody plants are rectangular boxes with uniform leaf area density. The model calculates the fractions of sunlit and shaded leaf classes and the solar radiation absorbed by each class, including direct radiation from the sun, diffuse radiation from the sky, and scattered radiation from the plant community. The solar radiation received on the ground is also calculated. We tested the model by comparing with the analytical solutions of random distributions of plants. The tests show that the model results are very close to the averages of the random distributions. This model is efficient in computation, and is suitable for ecological models to simulate long-term transient responses of plant communities to climate change.

  19. IPR 1.0: an efficient method for calculating solar radiation absorbed by individual plants in sparse heterogeneous woody plant communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, J.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change may alter the spatial distribution, composition, structure and functions of plant communities. Transitional zones between biomes, or ecotones, are particularly sensitive to climate change. Ecotones are usually heterogeneous with sparse trees. The dynamics of ecotones are mainly determined by the growth and competition of individual plants in the communities. Therefore it is necessary to calculate the solar radiation absorbed by individual plants in order to understand and predict their responses to climate change. In this study, we developed an individual plant radiation model, IPR (version 1.0), to calculate solar radiation absorbed by individual plants in sparse heterogeneous woody plant communities. The model is developed based on geometrical optical relationships assuming that crowns of woody plants are rectangular boxes with uniform leaf area density. The model calculates the fractions of sunlit and shaded leaf classes and the solar radiation absorbed by each class, including direct radiation from the sun, diffuse radiation from the sky, and scattered radiation from the plant community. The solar radiation received on the ground is also calculated. We tested the model by comparing with the results of random distribution of plants. The tests show that the model results are very close to the averages of the random distributions. This model is efficient in computation, and can be included in vegetation models to simulate long-term transient responses of plant communities to climate change. The code and a user's manual are provided as Supplement of the paper.

  20. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  1. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow.

    PubMed

    Ichimaru, M; Ishimaru, T; Mikami, M; Matsunaga, M

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  2. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  3. The Effects of an Absorbing Smoke Layer on MODIS Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Optical Property Retrievals and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Clouds, aerosols, and their interactions are widely considered to be key uncertainty components in our current understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and radiation budget. The work presented here is focused on the quasi-permanent marine boundary layer . (MBL) clouds off the southern Atlantic coast of Africa and the effects on MODIS cloud optical property retrievals (MOD06) of an overlying absorbing smoke layer. During much of August and September, a persistent smoke layer resides over this region, produced from extensive biomass burning throughout the southern African savanna. The resulting absorption, which increases with decreasing wavelength, potentially introduces biases into the MODIS cloud optical property retrievals of the underlying MBL clouds. This effect is more pronounced in the cloud optical thickness retrievals, which over ocean are derived from the wavelength channel centered near 0.86 micron (effective particle size retrievals are derived from the longer-wavelength near-IR channels at 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 microns). Here, the spatial distributions of the scalar statistics of both the cloud and aerosol layers are first determined from the CALIOP 5 km layer products. Next, the MOD06 look-up tables (LUTs) are adjusted by inserting an absorbing smoke layer of varying optical thickness over the cloud. Retrievals are subsequently performed for a subset of MODIS pixels collocated with the CALIOP ground track, using smoke optical thickness from the CALIOP 5km aerosol layer product to select the appropriate LUT. The resulting differences in cloud optical property retrievals due to the inclusion of the smoke layer in the LUTs will be examined. In addition, the direct radiative forcing of this smoke layer will be investigated from the perspective of the cloud optical property retrieval differences.

  4. [An investigation of ionizing radiation dose in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W F; Tang, S H; Tan, Q; Liu, Y M

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate radioactive source term dose monitoring and estimation results in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore and the possible ionizing radiation dose received by its workers. Methods: Ionizing radiation monitoring data of the posts in the control area and supervised area of workplace were collected, and the annual average effective dose directly estimated or estimated using formulas was evaluated and analyzed. Results: In the control area and supervised area of the workplace for this rare earth ore, α surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 0.35 Bq/cm(2) and a minimum value of 0.01 Bq/cm(2); β radioactive surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 18.8 Bq/cm(2) and a minimum value of 0.22 Bq/cm(2). In 14 monitoring points in the workplace, the maximum value of the annual average effective dose of occupational exposure was 1.641 mSv/a, which did not exceed the authorized limit for workers (5 mSv/a) , but exceeded the authorized limit for general personnel (0.25 mSv/a) . The radionuclide specific activity of ionic mixed rare earth oxides was determined to be 0.9. Conclusion: The annual average effective dose of occupational exposure in this enterprise does not exceed the authorized limit for workers, but it exceeds the authorized limit for general personnel. We should pay attention to the focus of the radiation process, especially for public works radiation.

  5. Tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate conjugated to gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Vega, E P; Zambrano-Ramírez, O D; Rojas-Calderón, E L; Ocampo-García, B E; Ferro-Flores, G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of the radiopharmaceuticals (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate (monomeric) and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate-gold nanoparticles (multimeric) using an experimental HeLa cells tumoral model and the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Experimental and computer micro-environment models with or without fibrosis were constructed. Results showed that fibrosis increases up to 33% the tumor radiation absorbed dose, although the major effect on the dose was produced by the type of radiopharmaceutical (112Gy-multimeric vs. 43Gy-monomeric).

  6. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to 137Cs) dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  7. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to (137)Cs dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  8. Estimating scattered and absorbed radiation in plant canopies by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, G. S. T.; Ranson, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    Several research avenues are summarized. The relationships of canopy characteristics to multispectral reflectance factors of vegetation are reviewed. Several alternative approaches for incorporating spectrally derived information into plant models are discussed, using corn as the main example. A method is described and evaluated whereby a leaf area index is estimated from measurements of radiation transmitted through plant canopies, using soybeans as an example. Albedo of a big bluestem grass canopy is estimated from 60 directional reflectance factor measurements. Effects of estimating albedo with substantially smaller subsets of data are evaluated.

  9. Results from the first ARM diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J J.; Dolce, R; Dutton, E. G.; Haeffelin, Martial; Major, G; Schlemmer, J A.; Slater, Donald W. ); Hickey, J R.; Jeffries, W Q.; Los, A; Mathias, D; McArthur, LJ B.; Philipona, R; Reda, I; Stoffel, T

    2003-02-07

    The first intensive observation period (IOP) dedicated exclusively to the measurement of diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance was held in the Fall 2001 at the central facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site with the cooperation of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) community. Fourteen simultaneous measurements were obtained over a two-week period under mostly clear skies with low to moderate aerosol loading. Overcast data were obtained during the morning of one day. The purpose of the comparison was to assess the level of agreement in diffuse irradiance measurements among most commercial pyranometers and a few prototypes calibrated independently using current practices. The hope was to achieve a consensus for this measurement with the goal of improving the uncertainty of shortwave diffuse irradiance measurements. All diffuse broadband measurements were made using the same type of two-axis tracker with the direct beam blocked by shading balls. Tracking was very good during the IOP with no outages associated with tracker problems. Five of the measurements are reproducible to about 2 W/m2 at the 95% confidence level. Four more agree with the most consistent group to about 4 W/m2 at the 95% confidence level after correction for thermal offsets. The prototypes agree less well with the most consistent group.

  10. Absorbed dose measurements for kV-cone beam computed tomography in image-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Kazunari; Araki, Fujio; Ohno, Takeshi; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Yuuki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we develope a novel method to directly evaluate an absorbed dose-to-water for kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Absorbed doses for the kV-CBCT systems of the Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) and the Elekta X-ray Volumetric Imager (XVI) were measured by a Farmer ionization chamber with a 60Co calibration factor. The chamber measurements were performed at the center and four peripheral points in body-type (30 cm diameter and 51 cm length) and head-type (16 cm diameter and 33 cm length) cylindrical water phantoms. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water by using a 60Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for 60Co to kV-CBCT. The irradiation for OBI and XVI was performed with pelvis and head modes for the body- and the head-type phantoms, respectively. In addition, the dose distributions in the phantom for both kV-CBCT systems were calculated with MC method and were compared with measured values. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated at the center in the water phantom and compared with measured doses at four peripheral points. The measured absorbed doses at the center in the body-type phantom were 1.96 cGy for OBI and 0.83 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 2.36-2.90 cGy for OBI and 0.83-1.06 cGy for XVI. The doses for XVI were lower up to approximately one-third of those for OBI. Similarly, the measured doses at the center in the head-type phantom were 0.48 cGy for OBI and 0.21 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 0.26-0.66 cGy for OBI and 0.16-0.30 cGy for XVI. The calculated peripheral doses agreed within 3% in the pelvis mode and within 4% in the head mode with measured doses for both kV-CBCT systems. In addition, the absorbed dose determined in this study was approximately 4% lower than that in TG-61 but the absorbed dose by both methods was in agreement within their combined

  11. Hydrogen Absorbing Materials for Use as Radiation Shielding During Extended Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Minimizing radiation exposure from the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment during extended space missions is particularly crucial to crew health and safety. Here, an ideal candidate for shielding would be pure solid or liquid hydrogen, a material that effectively fragments heavy ions into ones of lower mass and energy that are more easily attenuated. Unfortunately, utilizing pure hydrogen is not presently feasible. It is, however, known that the hydrogen content of other materials (for example, metal hydrides, palladium alloys, and organic compounds) can exceed that of pure solid hydrogen and thus merit consideration as shielding candidates. This presentation will discuss an ongoing effort to develop novel shielding from such materials in concert with a coordinated testing/evaluation and modeling effort.

  12. Use of narrow-band spectra to estimate the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for using high-spectral resolution imagers to estimate the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation adsorbed, f(apar), by vegetated land surfaces. In comparison to approaches using broad-band vegetation indices, the proposed method appears to be relatively insensitive to the reflectance of nonphotosynthetically active material beneath the canopy, such as leaf litter or soil. The method is based on a relationship between the second derivative of the reflectance vs wavelength function for terrestrial vegetation and f(apar). The relationship can be defined by the second derivatives in either of two windows, one in the visible region centered at 0.69 micron, another in the near-infrared region centered at 0.74 micron.

  13. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models.

    PubMed

    Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura

    2015-07-13

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state.

  14. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Marika M.; Landrum, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. PMID:26032318

  15. 21 CFR 890.5290 - Shortwave diathermy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5290 - Shortwave diathermy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5290 - Shortwave diathermy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5290 - Shortwave diathermy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5290 - Shortwave diathermy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...

  20. The development of early pediatric models and their application to radiation absorbed dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation will review and describe the development of pediatric phantoms for use in radiation dose calculations . The development of pediatric models for dose calculations essentially paralleled that of the adult. In fact, Snyder and Fisher at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reported on a series of phantoms for such calculations in 1966 about two years before the first MIRD publication on the adult human phantom. These phantoms, for a newborn, one-, five-, ten-, and fifteen-year old, were derived from the adult phantom. The pediatric'' models were obtained through a series of transformations applied to the major dimensions of the adult, which were specified in a Cartesian coordinate system. These phantoms suffered from the fact that no real consideration was given to the influence of these mathematical transformations on the actual organ sizes in the other models nor to the relation of the resulting organ masses to those in humans of the particular age. Later, an extensive effort was invested in designing individual'' pediatric phantoms for each age based upon a careful review of the literature. Unfortunately, the phantoms had limited use and only a small number of calculations were made available to the user community. Examples of the phantoms, their typical dimensions, common weaknesses, etc. will be discussed.

  1. The development of early pediatric models and their application to radiation absorbed dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    This presentation will review and describe the development of pediatric phantoms for use in radiation dose calculations . The development of pediatric models for dose calculations essentially paralleled that of the adult. In fact, Snyder and Fisher at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reported on a series of phantoms for such calculations in 1966 about two years before the first MIRD publication on the adult human phantom. These phantoms, for a newborn, one-, five-, ten-, and fifteen-year old, were derived from the adult phantom. The ``pediatric`` models were obtained through a series of transformations applied to the major dimensions of the adult, which were specified in a Cartesian coordinate system. These phantoms suffered from the fact that no real consideration was given to the influence of these mathematical transformations on the actual organ sizes in the other models nor to the relation of the resulting organ masses to those in humans of the particular age. Later, an extensive effort was invested in designing ``individual`` pediatric phantoms for each age based upon a careful review of the literature. Unfortunately, the phantoms had limited use and only a small number of calculations were made available to the user community. Examples of the phantoms, their typical dimensions, common weaknesses, etc. will be discussed.

  2. Geometrical gradients in the distribution of temperature and absorbed ultraviolet radiation in ocular tissues.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H

    2002-01-01

    The geographical variations in the incidence of age-related ocular changes such as presbyopia and cataracts and diseases such as pterygium and droplet keratopathies have led to theories pointing to sunlight, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and ambient temperature as potential etiological factors. Some epidemiological evidence also points to an association of age-related macular degeneration to sunlight exposure. The actual distribution of sunlight exposure and the determination of temperature variations of different tissues within the anterior segment of the eye are difficult to assess. Of greatest importance are the geometrical factors that influence selective UVR exposures to different segments of the lens, cornea and retina. Studies show that the temperature of the lens and cornea varies by several degrees depending upon climate, and that the incidence of nuclear cataract incidence is greater in areas of higher ambient temperature (i.e., in the tropics). Likewise, sunlight exposure to local areas of the cornea, lens and retina varies greatly in different environments. However, epidemiological studies of the influence of environmental UVR in the development of cataract, pterygium, droplet keratopathies and age-related macular degeneration have produced surprisingly inconsistent findings. The lack of consistent results is seen to be due largely to either incomplete or erroneous estimates of outdoor UV exposure dose. Geometrical factors dominate the determination of UVR exposure of the eye. The degree of lid opening limits ocular exposure to rays entering at angles near the horizon. Clouds redistribute overhead UVR to the horizon sky. Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect little UVR. The result is that highest UVR exposure occurs during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley (lower ambient temperature) with

  3. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  4. A radiochromic folm dosimeter for gamma radiation in the absorbed-dose range 0.1-10 kGy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Hasan M.; Farahani, Mahnaz; William L., McLaughlin

    A commercially available leuco-dye film (FWT-63-02), having a thickness of 0.55 mm, has been investigated spectrophotometrically for its characteristics as a radiochromic dosimeter and for its potential use in food-irradiation applications. The γ-ray irradiation of the nearly colorless, transparent film induces blue color with an absorption maximum at 600 nm. The increase in absorbance at 600 nm per unit thickness of film (Δ A mm -1) is linear with dose in the dose range up to 8 kGy, with a slope of 0.91 mm -1·kGy -1. After a modest additional increase during the first day following irradiation, the radiation-induced color is stable when stored at room temperature at least for 5 weeks. The response slope is 16% higher when stored at 60°C, however, after the initial 1-day increase it is stable for several weeks when stored at that temperature. The response of the dosimeter is independent of dose rate in the range 0.5-170 Gy min -1.

  5. Efficient and robust method for simultaneous reconstruction of the temperature distribution and radiative properties in absorbing, emitting, and scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chun-Yang; Qi, Hong; Huang, Xing; Ruan, Li-Ming; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-11-01

    A rapid computational method called generalized sourced multi-flux method (GSMFM) was developed to simulate outgoing radiative intensities in arbitrary directions at the boundary surfaces of absorbing, emitting, and scattering media which were served as input for the inverse analysis. A hybrid least-square QR decomposition-stochastic particle swarm optimization (LSQR-SPSO) algorithm based on the forward GSMFM solution was developed to simultaneously reconstruct multi-dimensional temperature distribution and absorption and scattering coefficients of the cylindrical participating media. The retrieval results for axisymmetric temperature distribution and non-axisymmetric temperature distribution indicated that the temperature distribution and scattering and absorption coefficients could be retrieved accurately using the LSQR-SPSO algorithm even with noisy data. Moreover, the influences of extinction coefficient and scattering albedo on the accuracy of the estimation were investigated, and the results suggested that the reconstruction accuracy decreased with the increase of extinction coefficient and the scattering albedo. Finally, a non-contact measurement platform of flame temperature field based on the light field imaging was set up to validate the reconstruction model experimentally.

  6. Assessing Spectral Shortwave Cloud Observations at the Southern Great Plains Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, P. J.; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Flynn, C. J.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program (now Atmospheric System Research) was established, in part, to improve radiation models so that they could be used reliably to compute radiation fluxes through the atmosphere, given knowledge of the surface albedo, atmospheric gases, and the aerosol and cloud properties. Despite years of observations, discrepancies still exist between radiative transfer models and observations, particularly in the presence of clouds. Progress has been made at closing discrepancies in the spectral region beyond 3 micron, but the progress lags at shorter wavelengths. Ratios of observed visible and near infrared cloud albedo from aircraft and satellite have shown both localized and global discrepancies between model and observations that are, thus far, unexplained. The capabilities of shortwave surface spectrometry have been improved in recent years at the Southern Great Plains facility (SGP) of the ARM Climate Research Facility through the addition of new instrumentation, the Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer, and upgrades to existing instrumentation, the Shortwave Spectroradiometer and the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer. An airborne-based instrument, the HydroRad Spectroradiometer, was also deployed at the ARM site during the Routine ARM Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. Using the new and upgraded spectral observations along with radiative transfer models, cloud scenes at the SGP are presented with the goal of characterizing the instrumentation and the cloud fields themselves.

  7. Dynamic response of UV-absorbing compounds, quantum yield and the xanthophyll cycle to diel changes in UV-B and photosynthetic radiations in an aquatic liverwort.

    PubMed

    Fabón, Gabriel; Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We studied the diel responses of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to radiation changes under laboratory conditions. The samples were exposed to three radiation regimes: P (only PAR), PA (PAR+UV-A), and PAB (PAR+UV-A+UV-B). The day was divided in four periods: darkness, a first low-PAR period, the high-PAR plus UV period, and a second low-PAR period. After 15 days of culture, we measured photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence and UV-absorbing compounds in the four periods of the day on two consecutive days. With respect to UV-absorbing compounds, we analyzed their global amount (as the bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts) and the concentration of seven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, both in the soluble (mainly vacuolar) and insoluble (cell wall-bound) fractions of the plant extracts. PAB samples increased the bulk UV absorbance of the soluble and insoluble fractions, and the concentrations of p-coumaroylmalic acid in the soluble fraction and p-coumaric acid in the cell wall. Most of these variables showed significant diel changes and responded within a few hours to radiation changes (more strongly to UV-B), increasing at the end of the period of high-PAR plus UV. F(v)/F(m), Φ(PSII), NPQ and the components of the xanthophyll cycle showed significant and quick diel changes in response to high PAR, UV-A and UV-B radiation, indicating dynamic photoinhibition and protection of PSII from excess radiation through the xanthophyll cycle. Thus, the liverwort showed a dynamic protection and acclimation capacity to the irradiance level and spectral characteristics of the radiation received.

  8. Silicon-based shortwave differential photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrushko, V. V.; Ionov, A. S.; Kadriev, O. R.; Lastkin, V. A.

    2017-02-01

    The silicon-based photodetector that contains two n +- p photodiode with equal areas has been described. One of the photodiodes had a wide spectral characteristic with high sensitivity in the UV range. The sensitivity of the second photodiode was decreased in the shortwave range via the formation of additional recombination centers in the near-surface region using the implantation of As ions. The study of the spectral sensitivity of the differential signal obtained by photocurrent subtraction has revealed a profound shortwave spectral characteristic. The boundaries of spectral range at λ0.5 were in the limits of 0.27-0.44 μm. The maximum sensitivity corresponded to λmax = 0.36 μm. The sensitivity of the differential channel at this wavelength reached 83% of that of the wide-range channel.

  9. PROPERTIES OF QSO METAL-LINE ABSORPTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: NATURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE ABSORBERS AND NEW EVIDENCE ON ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Boksenberg, Alec; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2015-05-15

    Using Voigt-profile-fitting procedures on Keck High Resolution Spectrograph spectra of nine QSOs, we identify 1099 C IV absorber components clumped in 201 systems outside the Lyman forest over 1.6 ≲ z ≲ 4.4. With associated Si IV, C II, Si II  and N V where available, we investigate the bulk statistical and ionization properties of the components and systems and find no significant change in redshift for C IV and Si IV while C II, Si II  and N V change substantially. The C IV components exhibit strong clustering, but no clustering is detected for systems on scales from 150 km s{sup –1} out to 50,000 km s{sup –1}. We conclude that the clustering is due entirely to the peculiar velocities of gas present in the circumgalactic media of galaxies. Using specific combinations of ionic ratios, we compare our observations with model ionization predictions for absorbers exposed to the metagalactic ionizing radiation background augmented by proximity radiation from their associated galaxies and find that the generally accepted means of radiative escape by transparent channels from the internal star-forming sites is spectrally not viable for our stronger absorbers. We develop an active scenario based on runaway stars with resulting changes in the efflux of radiation that naturally enable the needed spectral convergence, and in turn provide empirical indicators of morphological evolution in the associated galaxies. Together with a coexisting population of relatively compact galaxies indicated by the weaker absorbers in our sample, the collective escape of radiation is sufficient to maintain the intergalactic medium ionized over the full range 1.9 < z ≲ 4.4.

  10. Properties of QSO Metal-line Absorption Systems at High Redshifts: Nature and Evolution of the Absorbers and New Evidence on Escape of Ionizing Radiation from Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boksenberg, Alec; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2015-05-01

    Using Voigt-profile-fitting procedures on Keck High Resolution Spectrograph spectra of nine QSOs, we identify 1099 C IV absorber components clumped in 201 systems outside the Lyman forest over 1.6 <~ z <~ 4.4. With associated Si IV, C II, Si II and N V where available, we investigate the bulk statistical and ionization properties of the components and systems and find no significant change in redshift for C IV and Si IV while C II, Si II and N V change substantially. The C IV components exhibit strong clustering, but no clustering is detected for systems on scales from 150 km s-1 out to 50,000 km s-1. We conclude that the clustering is due entirely to the peculiar velocities of gas present in the circumgalactic media of galaxies. Using specific combinations of ionic ratios, we compare our observations with model ionization predictions for absorbers exposed to the metagalactic ionizing radiation background augmented by proximity radiation from their associated galaxies and find that the generally accepted means of radiative escape by transparent channels from the internal star-forming sites is spectrally not viable for our stronger absorbers. We develop an active scenario based on runaway stars with resulting changes in the efflux of radiation that naturally enable the needed spectral convergence, and in turn provide empirical indicators of morphological evolution in the associated galaxies. Together with a coexisting population of relatively compact galaxies indicated by the weaker absorbers in our sample, the collective escape of radiation is sufficient to maintain the intergalactic medium ionized over the full range 1.9 < z <~ 4.4. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck

  11. Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are presented. Topics covered include: radiative transfer model validation; calibration of VISSR and AVHRR solar channels; development and refinement of algorithms to estimate downward solar and terrestrial irradiances at the surface, including photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and surface albedo; verification of these algorithms using in situ measurements; production of maps of shortwave irradiance, surface albedo, and related products; analysis of the temporal variability of shortwave irradiance over the FIFE site; development of a spectroscopy technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amount; and study of optimum linear combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of PAR absorbed by plants.

  12. From Anti-greenhouse Effect of Solar Absorbers to Cooling Effect of Greenhouse Gases: A 1-D Radiative Convective Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shia, R.

    2012-12-01

    The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al

  13. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose for intraperitoneally administered iodine-131 radiolabeled B72. 3 monoclonal antibody in patients with peritoneal carcinomatoses

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Colcher, D.C.; Yokoyama, K.; Reynolds, J.C.; Bacharach, S.A.; Raubitchek, A.; Pace, L.; Finn, R.D.; Rotman, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Using a newly available model for determining estimates of radiation absorbed dose of radioisotopes administered intraperitoneally, the authors have calculated absorbed dose to tumor and normal tissues based on a surgically controlled study of radiolabeled antibody distribution. Ten patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis received intraperitoneal injections of the murine monoclonal antibody B72.3 radiolabeled with 131I. Biodistribution studies were performed using nuclear medicine methods until laparotomy at 4-14 days after injection. Surgical biopsies of normal tissues and tumor were obtained. The marrow was predicted to be the critical organ, with maximum tolerated dose (200 rad (2 Gy) to marrow) expected at about 200 mCi (7.4 GBq). In patients with large intraperitoneal tumor deposits, the tumor itself is an important source tissue for radiation exposure to normal tissues. Local hot-spots for tumor-absorbed dose were observed, with maximum tumor-absorbed dose calculated at 11,000 rad (11 Gy) per 100 mCi (3.7 GBq) administered intraperitoneal; however, tumor rad dose varied considerably. This may pose serious problems for curative therapy, especially in patients with large tumor burdens.

  14. Electromagnetic power absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaki, R. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A structure is presented with a surface portion of dielectric material which passes electromagnetic radiation and with a portion below the surface which includes material that absorbs the radiation, the face of the structure being formed with numerous steep ridges. The steepness of the dielectric material results in a high proportion of the electromagnetic energy passing through the surface for absorption by the absorbing material under the surface. A backing of aluminum or other highly heat-conductive and reflective material lies under the face and has very steep protuberances supporting the absorbing and dielectric materials.

  15. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  16. Effect of UV-B radiation on UV absorbing compounds and pigments of moss and lichen of Schirmacher oasis region, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Gautam, S; Bhushan Pant, A

    2012-12-22

    The survival of Antarctic flora under ozone depletion depends on their ability to acclimate against increasing UV—B radiation by employing photo protective mechanisms either by avoiding or repairing UV—B damage. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study moss (Bryum argenteum) and lichen (Umbilicaria aprina) under natural UV—B exposure and under UV filter frames at the Maitri region of Schirmacher oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, phenolics, carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied for continuous fifteen days and significant changes were observed in the UV exposed plants of B. argenteum and U. aprina. The change in the UV absorbing compounds was more significant in B. argenteum (P<0.0001) than U. aprina (P<0.0002). The change in phenolic contents and total carotenoid content was significant (P<0.0001) in both B. argenteum and lichen U. aprina indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, phenolic contents and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV—B radiations.

  17. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E.

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  18. Shortwave Radio: A Tool for Integrating the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Irvin L.

    Because of their geographical isolation from major population centers, many of the islands of Micronesia are without live television or daily newspapers. However, the skies of the Pacific are alive with radio broadcasts that can be received with shortwave radios. This presentation explains the nature of shortwave radio and describes how teachers…

  19. Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase.

    PubMed

    De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E; Blanford, Christopher F; Garman, Elspeth F; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

    2012-05-01

    X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O(2). In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O(2) reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account.

  20. Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase

    PubMed Central

    De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E.; Blanford, Christopher F.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O2. In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-­ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O2 reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account. PMID:22525754

  1. Lévy/Anomalous Diffusion as a Mean-Field Theory for 3D Cloud Effects in Shortwave Radiative Transfer: Empirical Support, New Analytical Formulation, and Impact on Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, S.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-12-01

    Two-stream radiation transport models, as used in all current GCM parameterization schemes, are mathematically equivalent to ``standard'' diffusion theory where the physical picture is a slow propagation of the diffuse radiation by Gaussian random walks. The space/time spread (technically, the Green function) of this diffusion process is described exactly by a Gaussian distribution; from the statistical physics viewpoint, this follows from the convergence of the sum of many (rescaled) steps between scattering events with a finite variance. This Gaussian picture follows directly from first principles (the radiative transfer equation) under the assumptions of horizontal uniformity and large optical depth, i.e., there is a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud somewhere in the column. The first-order effect of 3D variability of cloudiness, the main source of scattering, is to perturb the distribution of single steps between scatterings which, modulo the ``1-g'' rescaling, can be assumed effectively isotropic. The most natural generalization of the Gaussian distribution is the 1-parameter family of symmetric Lévy-stable distributions because the sum of many zero-mean random variables with infinite variance, but finite moments of order q < α (0 < α < 2), converge to them. It has been shown on heuristic grounds that for these Lévy-based random walks the typical number of scatterings is now (1-g)τ α for transmitted light. The appearance of a non-rational exponent is why this is referred to as ``anomalous'' diffusion. Note that standard/Gaussian diffusion is retrieved in the limit α = 2-. Lévy transport theory has been successfully used in the statistical physics literature to investigate a wide variety of systems with strongly nonlinear dynamics; these applications range from random advection in turbulent fluids to the erratic behavior of financial time-series and, most recently, self-regulating ecological systems. We will briefly survey the state

  2. Estimating the Direct Radiative Effect of Absorbing Aerosols Overlying Marine Boundary Layer Clouds in the Southeast Atlantic Using MODIS and CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin

    2013-01-01

    Absorbing aerosols such as smoke strongly absorb solar radiation, particularly at ultraviolet and visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) wavelengths, and their presence above clouds can have considerable implications. It has been previously shown that they have a positive (i.e., warming) direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) when overlying bright clouds. Additionally, they can cause biased passive instrument satellite retrievals in techniques that rely on VIS/NIR wavelengths for inferring the cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (re) of underlying clouds, which can in turn yield biased above-cloud DARE estimates. Here we investigate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical property retrieval biases due to overlying absorbing aerosols observed by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and examine the impact of these biases on above-cloud DARE estimates. The investigation focuses on a region in the southeast Atlantic Ocean during August and September (2006-2011), where smoke from biomass burning in southern Africa overlies persistent marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds. Adjusting for above-cloud aerosol attenuation yields increases in the regional mean liquid COT (averaged over all ocean-only liquid clouds) by roughly 6%; mean re increases by roughly 2.6%, almost exclusively due to the COT adjustment in the non-orthogonal retrieval space. It is found that these two biases lead to an underestimate of DARE. For liquid cloud Aqua MODIS pixels with CALIOP-observed above-cloud smoke, the regional mean above-cloud radiative forcing efficiency (DARE per unit aerosol optical depth (AOD)) at time of observation (near local noon for Aqua overpass) increases from 50.9Wm(sup-2)AOD(sup-1) to 65.1Wm(sup-2)AOD(sup -1) when using bias-adjusted instead of nonadjusted MODIS cloud retrievals.

  3. Effects of clouds on the Earth radiation budget; Seasonal and inter-annual patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variations of clouds and their effects on the climatological parameters were studied. The climatological parameters surface temperature, solar insulation, short-wave absorbed, long wave emitted, and net radiation were considered. The data of climatological parameters consisted of about 20 parameters of Earth radiation budget and clouds of 2070 target areas which covered the globe. It consisted of daily and monthly averages of each parameter for each target area for the period, Jun. 1979 - May 1980. Cloud forcing and black body temperature at the top of the atmosphere were calculated. Interactions of clouds, cloud forcing, black body temperature, and the climatological parameters were investigated and analyzed.

  4. Absorbed radiation dosimetry of the D3-specific PET radioligand [18F]FluorTriopride estimated using rodent and nonhuman primate

    PubMed Central

    Laforest, Richard; Karimi, Morvarid; Moerlein, Stephen M; Xu, Jinbin; Flores, Hubert P; Bognar, Christopher; Li, Aixiao; Mach, Robert H; Perlmutter, Joel S; Tu, Zhude

    2016-01-01

    [18F]FluorTriopride ([18F]FTP) is a dopamine D3-receptor preferring radioligand with potential for investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson disease, dystonia and schizophrenia. Here we estimate human radiation dosimetry for [18F]FTP based on the ex-vivo biodistribution in rodents and in vivo distribution in nonhuman primates. Biodistribution data were generated using male and female Sprague-Dawley rats injected with ~370 KBq of [18F]FTP and euthanized at 5, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. Organs of interest were dissected, weighed and assayed for radioactivity content. PET imaging studies were performed in two male and one female macaque fascicularis administered 143-190 MBq of [18F]FTP and scanned whole-body in sequential sections. Organ residence times were calculated based on organ time activity curves (TAC) created from regions of Interest. OLINDA/EXM 1.1 was used to estimate human radiation dosimetry based on scaled organ residence times. In the rodent, the highest absorbed radiation dose was the upper large intestines (0.32-0.49 mGy/MBq), with an effective dose of 0.07 mSv/MBq in males and 0.1 mSv/MBq in females. For the nonhuman primate, however, the gallbladder wall was the critical organ (1.81 mGy/MBq), and the effective dose was 0.02 mSv/MBq. The species discrepancy in dosimetry estimates for [18F]FTP based on rat and primate data can be attributed to the slower transit of tracer through the hepatobiliary track of the primate compared to the rat, which lacks a gallbladder. Out findings demonstrate that the nonhuman primate model is more appropriate model for estimating human absorbed radiation dosimetry when hepatobiliary excretion plays a major role in radiotracer elimination. PMID:28078183

  5. Absorbed radiation dosimetry of the D3-specific PET radioligand [(18)F]FluorTriopride estimated using rodent and nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Laforest, Richard; Karimi, Morvarid; Moerlein, Stephen M; Xu, Jinbin; Flores, Hubert P; Bognar, Christopher; Li, Aixiao; Mach, Robert H; Perlmutter, Joel S; Tu, Zhude

    2016-01-01

    [(18)F]FluorTriopride ([(18)F]FTP) is a dopamine D3-receptor preferring radioligand with potential for investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson disease, dystonia and schizophrenia. Here we estimate human radiation dosimetry for [(18)F]FTP based on the ex-vivo biodistribution in rodents and in vivo distribution in nonhuman primates. Biodistribution data were generated using male and female Sprague-Dawley rats injected with ~370 KBq of [(18)F]FTP and euthanized at 5, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. Organs of interest were dissected, weighed and assayed for radioactivity content. PET imaging studies were performed in two male and one female macaque fascicularis administered 143-190 MBq of [(18)F]FTP and scanned whole-body in sequential sections. Organ residence times were calculated based on organ time activity curves (TAC) created from regions of Interest. OLINDA/EXM 1.1 was used to estimate human radiation dosimetry based on scaled organ residence times. In the rodent, the highest absorbed radiation dose was the upper large intestines (0.32-0.49 mGy/MBq), with an effective dose of 0.07 mSv/MBq in males and 0.1 mSv/MBq in females. For the nonhuman primate, however, the gallbladder wall was the critical organ (1.81 mGy/MBq), and the effective dose was 0.02 mSv/MBq. The species discrepancy in dosimetry estimates for [(18)F]FTP based on rat and primate data can be attributed to the slower transit of tracer through the hepatobiliary track of the primate compared to the rat, which lacks a gallbladder. Out findings demonstrate that the nonhuman primate model is more appropriate model for estimating human absorbed radiation dosimetry when hepatobiliary excretion plays a major role in radiotracer elimination.

  6. The role of surface albedo in the parameterization of the relationship between system and surface absorbed solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Major, G.

    1994-12-31

    The radiation budget of the atmosphere, its layers and the surface is one of the basic forces in the climate and weather processes. A surface solar radiation budget database could be derived from satellite measurements using different parameterization between the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface solar radiation budget values. The proposed parameterizations suggest that the role of surface albedo is not significant; therefore it should not be taken into account. In this paper an empirical validation is made of the proposed model-based parameterizations using Nimbus-7 and ERBE satellites and the corresponding surface data. It is shown that the role of surface albedo cannot be neglected.

  7. New estimates of the Earth radiation budget under cloud-free conditions and cloud radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Folini, Doris; Schär, Christoph; Long, Charles

    2017-02-01

    In previous studies1, 2 we derived new estimates for the magnitude of the components of the global mean energy budget using to the extent possible the information contained in direct observations from surface and space. Here we establish complementary estimates for the global mean energy budget specifically under cloud-free conditions. The energy fluxes under cloud-free conditions at the Top of Atmosphere (TOA) can be determined with high accuracy from satellite measurements (CERES-EBAF). For the estimation of their counterparts at the Earth's surface we follow the approach presented in our recent studies, based on an analysis of 39 state of the art global climate models from CMIP5 and their bias structure compared to a comprehensive set of high quality surface observations from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). Thereby we infer a best estimate of 249 Wm-2 for the global mean clear-sky downward shortwave radiation at the surface, and a corresponding clear-sky surface shortwave absorption of 216 Wm-2, considering a global mean surface albedo of 13 %. Combined with a best estimate for the global mean net shortwave influx at the TOA under cloud-free skies from CERES-EBAF of 287 Wm-2, this leaves an amount of 71 Wm-2 absorbed shortwave radiation in the cloud-free atmosphere. The 71 Wm-2 coincide with our earlier estimate for this quantity in Wild et al. (2006)3 based on older models and fewer direct observations, suggesting that this estimate is fairly robust. For the clear-sky downward longwave radiation at the Earth surface we obtain a best estimate of 314 Wm-2. A comparison of the clear-sky global energy balance diagram presented here with the corresponding all-sky diagram established in our previous studies enables a quantification of the global mean shortwave, longwave and net cloud-radiative effects at the TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as an assessment of their representation in climate models.

  8. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A < 370 nm; (3) attenuate UV-B and UV-A; (4) attenuate UV-B, UV-A and blue light; and (5) as a control not attenuating these wavebands. Attenuation of blue light significantly reduced the flavonoid content in leaf adaxial epidermis and reduced the whole-leaf concentrations of quercetin derivatives relative to kaempferol derivatives. In contrast, UV-B responses were not significant. These results show that pea plants regulate epidermal UV-A absorbance and accumulation of individual flavonoids by perceiving complex radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors.

  9. The Shortwave Spectroradiometer as a Versatile Sensor for Observation of Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Flynn, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have seen the advent of shortwave spectroradiometers covering the ultraviolet through near-infrared parts of the spectrum. With multiple linear-array detectors, spectral coverage as wide as 350-2200 nanometers is possible. In this wide spectral interval, the downwelling irradiance is sensitive - in contrasting atmospheric windows - to surface albedo, cloud optical depth, cloud thermodynamic phase, and effective droplet/particle size. For climatological studies relevant to climate model improvement, a shortwave spectroradiometer offers four significant advantages. First, full spectral observations can be made at high time resolution, often in one-minute averages. This enables study of cloud formation, evolution, and dissipation, in response to meteorological and aerosol forcing. Second, with shortwave spectral data cloud properties can be derived for a wide range of liquid water content; in contrast to the middle-infrared window where only optically thin clouds can be studied. Third, commercial technology is now available - including some instruments nearly entirely ready for atmospheric application - that make the acquisition cost of a spectroradiometer relatively modest compared to other types of advanced atmospheric instrumentation. This offers the possibility of developing ground-based networks for geographically distributed measurements. Fourth, measurement of the downwelling spectral irradiance enables direct empirical interpretation of cloud properties' influence on the surface radiation budget. We have experience with shortwave spectroradiometer deployment in the high Arctic, at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, and at Ross Island, Antarctica. These measurements reveal a great diversity in cloud properties, including extensive Arctic mixed-phase cloud during springtime, rapidly evolving liquid water cloud at SGP, and ice-dominated cloud in response to moisture traversing

  10. High-Dose 131I-Tositumomab (Anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Adjusting Radiation Absorbed Dose to Actual Organ Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, A K.; Durack, L. D.; Press, O. W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-06-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab has been used successfully to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgin's lymphoma (NHL). Our approach to treatment planning has been to determine limits on radiation absorbed close to critical nonhematopoietic organs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using CT to adjust for actual organ volumes in calculating organ-specific absorbed dose estimates. Methods: Records of 84 patients who underwent biodistribution studies after a trace-labeled infusion of 131I-tositumomab for RIT (January 1990 and April 2003) were reviewed. Serial planar -camera images and whole-body Nal probe counts were obtained to estimate 131I-antibody source-organ residence times as recommended by the MIRD Committee. The source-organ residence times for standard man or woman were adjusted by the ratio of the MIRD phantom organ mass to the CT-derived organ mass. Results: The mean radiation absorbed doses (in mGy/MBq) for our data using the MIRD model were lungs= 1.67; liver= 1.03; kidneys= 1.08; spleen= 2.67; and whole body= 0.3; and for CT volume-adjusted organ volumes (in mGy/MBq) were lungs= 1.30; liver= 0.92; kidneys= 0.76; spleen= 1.40; and whole body= 0.22. We determined the following correlation coefficients between the 2 methods for the various organs; lungs, 0.49; (P= 0.0001); liver, 0.64 (P= 0.004); kidneys, 0.45 (P= 0.0001), for the residence times. For therapy, patients received mean 131I administered activities of 19.2 GBq (520 mCi) after adjustment for CT-derived organ mass compared with 16.0 GBq (433 mCi) that would otherwise have been given had therapy been based only using standard MIRD organ volumes--a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: We observed large variations in organ masses among our patients. Our treatments were planned to deliver the maximally tolerated radiation dose to the dose-limiting normal organ. This work provides a simplified method for calculating patient-specific radiation

  11. Cirrus Infrared Parameters and Shortwave Reflectance Relations from Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Hart, William D.; Hlavka, Dennis L.

    1996-05-01

    A summary of experimental observations and analysis of cirrus from high-altitude aircraft remote sensing is presented. The vertical distribution of cirrus optical and infrared cross-section parameters and the relative effective emittance and visible reflectance are derived from nadir-viewing lidar and multispectral radiometer data for observations during the 1986 and 1991 FIRE cirrus experiments. Statistics on scattering and absorption cross sections in relation to altitude and temperature are given. The emittance and reflectance results are considered as a function of solar zenith angle. Comparative radiative transfer calculations based on the discrete-ordinate method were carried out for three representative cloud phase function models: a spherical water droplet, an ice column crystal cloud, and a Henyey-Greenstein function. The agreements between observations of the effective emittance and shortwave reflectance and the model calculations were a function of the solar zenith angle. At angles between 54° and 60° a Henyey-Greenstein (HG) function with an asymmetry factor of 0.6-0.7 produced the best comparison. At 66°-72° the ice column model was equally comparable to observations. Comparisons to the water cloud model wore poor in all cases. The effects of ice crystal microphysical variations on the observed results were not generally apparent, but one dramatic example of difference was found. In order to explain the variations noted for solar zenith angle, an instrument-the Tilt Scan CCD Camera radiometer-was developed to directly observe the shortwave bidirectional reflectance function for 1991 measurements. The results indicate a characteristic angular function of the visible reflectance of cirrus that is flatter than predicted by the ice column scattering model, but the overall asymmetry factor is comparable. The good agreement with values from an HG function at some angles is not generally applicable. The characteristics of the observed cirrus angular

  12. Carbon monoxide total column retrievals from TROPOMI shortwave infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Jochen; aan de Brugh, Joost; Scheepmaker, Remco; Borsdorff, Tobias; Hu, Haili; Houweling, Sander; Butz, Andre; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto

    2016-10-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) spectrometer is the single payload of the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission. It measures Earth radiance spectra in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 2.3 µm with a dedicated instrument module. These measurements provide carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities over land, which for clear sky conditions are highly sensitive to the tropospheric boundary layer. For cloudy atmospheres over land and ocean, the column sensitivity changes according to the light path through the atmosphere. In this study, we present the physics-based operational S5P algorithm to infer atmospheric CO columns satisfying the envisaged accuracy ( < 15 %) and precision ( < 10 %) both for clear sky and cloudy observations with low cloud height. Here, methane absorption in the 2.3 µm range is combined with methane abundances from a global chemical transport model to infer information on atmospheric scattering. For efficient processing, we deploy a linearized two-stream radiative transfer model as forward model and a profile scaling approach to adjust the CO abundance in the inversion. Based on generic measurement ensembles, including clear sky and cloudy observations, we estimated the CO retrieval precision to be ≤ 11 % for surface albedo ≥ 0.03 and solar zenith angle ≤ 70°. CO biases of ≤ 3 % are introduced by inaccuracies in the methane a priori knowledge. For strongly enhanced CO concentrations in the tropospheric boundary layer and for cloudy conditions, CO errors in the order of 8 % can be introduced by the retrieval of cloud parameters of our algorithm. Moreover, we estimated the effect of a distorted spectral instrument response due to the inhomogeneous illumination of the instrument entrance slit in the flight direction to be < 2 % with pseudo-random characteristics when averaging over space and time. Finally, the CO data exploitation is demonstrated for a TROPOMI orbit of simulated shortwave infrared

  13. Shortwave infrared camera with extended spectral sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Martin; Achtner, Bertram; Kraus, Michael; Neumann, Tanja; Münzberg, Mario

    2012-06-01

    The shortwave infrared spectral range (SWIR) has certain advantages for the observation during day under fog and haze weather conditions. Due to the longer wavelength compared to the visible spectrum the range performances in the SWIR is here considerably extended. In addition cooled SWIR focal plane arrays reach in the meantime sensitivities to be useable for night viewing under twilight or moon light conditions. The presented SWIR camera system combines the color imaging in the visible spectrum with the imaging in the SWIR spectrum. The 20x zoom optics is fully corrected between 440 nm and 1700 nm. A dichroic beam splitter projects the visible spectrum on a color chip with HDTV resolution and the SWIR spectrum on a 640x512 InGaAs focal plane array. The open architecture of the camera system allows the use of different SWIR sensors and CMOS sensors. A universal designed interface electronic operates the used cameras and provides standard video outputs and compressed video streams on an ethernet interface. The camera system is designed to be integrated in various stabilized platforms. The camera concept is described and the comparison with pure SWIR or combined SWIR / MWIR dual band cameras are discussed from an application and system point of view.

  14. Predicting the biological effects of mobile phone radiation absorbed energy linked to the MRI-obtained structure.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Dejan; Zigar, Darko; Petković, Dejan; Sokolović, Dušan; Dinđić, Boris; Cvetković, Nenad; Jovanović, Jovica; Dinđić, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    The nature of an electromagnetic field is not the same outside and inside a biological subject. Numerical bioelectromagnetic simulation methods for penetrating electromagnetic fields facilitate the calculation of field components in biological entities. Calculating energy absorbed from known sources, such as mobile phones when placed near the head, is a prerequisite for studying the biological influence of an electromagnetic field. Such research requires approximate anatomical models which are used to calculate the field components and absorbed energy. In order to explore the biological effects in organs and tissues, it is necessary to establish a relationship between an analogous anatomical model and the real structure. We propose a new approach in exploring biological effects through combining two different techniques: 1) numerical electromagnetic simulation, which is used to calculate the field components in a similar anatomical model and 2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which is used to accurately locate sites with increased absorption. By overlapping images obtained by both methods, we can precisely locate the spots with maximum absorption effects. This way, we can detect the site where the most pronounced biological effects are to be expected. This novel approach successfully overcomes the standard limitations of working with analogous anatomical models.

  15. Continuous short-wave (radio-frequency) diathermy.

    PubMed

    Goats, G C

    1989-06-01

    Continuous shortwave diathermy is the technique of choice when uniform marked elevation of temperature is required in the deep tissues. This heating can be targeted accurately by using an appropriate applicator positioned correctly. SWD also allows superficial structures to be heated selectively, although for this the various methods of surface heating are usually preferable. Sub-acute or chronic conditions respond best to continuous shortwave diathermy which, when used properly, can be as effective as ultrasound. Acute lesions are better treated with pulsed shortwave diathermy. Continuous shortwave diathermy can help to relieve pain and muscle spasm, resolve inflammatory states and reduce swelling, promote vasodilation, increase the compliance of connective tissue, increase joint range and decrease joint stiffness.

  16. Surface Irradiances Consistent With CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents amethod to determine surface irradiances using observational constraints of TOA irradiance from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA irradiance is consistent with CERES-derived irradiance to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface irradiance adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, andModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthlymean irradiances calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W/sq m for downward shortwave and 22.5 (7.1) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over ocean and 21.7 (7.8) W m22 for downward shortwave and 21.0 (7.6) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over land. The bias andRMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave irradiances over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES,MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface irradiance computations.

  17. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind,Joel

    2009-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used by the AIRS Science Team in preparation for the AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both

  18. Analysis of radiation parameters derived from the multisatellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, G. G.; Denn, F. M.; Young, D. F.; Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.; Barkstrom, B. R.; Wielicki, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    To quantify the diurnal radiative heating and cooling cycles of the earth and the atmosphere, data from instruments on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) spacecraft and NOAA-9 satellites obtained from February 1985 through January 1986 were used to investigate longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) flux as well as albedo for each month of the year. Seasonal variations of radiative parameters and their diurnal cycles are examined for the deserts, vegetated land, and oceans over the globe. The results show significant seasonal variations in both the outgoing LW and the absorbed SW flux, and a pronounced difference was found between oceanic and continental surfaces. Over much of the globe, LW warming is balanced by SW cooling, and clouds have a net cooling effect on the earth. Many areas of the earth were found to exhibit significant diurnal variations in both the LW flux and albedo.

  19. Investigation on the effect of MR elastomer based adaptive vibration absorbers on the radiated sound from circular elastic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatian, M.; Sedaghati, R.

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of using magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based adaptive tuned vibration absorbers (ATVA) on the sound transmission in an elastic plate. Sound transmission loss (STL) of an elastic circular thin plate is analytically studied. The plate is excited by a plane acoustic wave as an incident sound and the displacement of the plate is calculated using corresponding mode shapes of the system for clamped boundary condition. Rayleigh integral approach is used to express the transmitted sound pressure in terms of the plate's displacement modal amplitude. In order to increase sound transmission loss of the plate, the MRE-based ATVA is considered. The basic idea is to be able to change the stiffness of the ATVA by varying magnetic field in order to reduce the transmitted acoustic energy of the host structure in a wide frequency range. Here, a MRE-based ATVA under the shear mode consisting of an oscillator mass, magnetic conductor, coils and MRE is investigated. In order to predict the viscoelastic characteristics of the field-dependent MRE based on the applied magnetic field, the double pole model is used. Finally, MRE-based ATVAs are integrated with the plate to absorb the plate energy with the aim of decreasing the transmitted sound power. Results show that plate with integrated MRE-based ATVAs suppresses the axisymmetric vibration of the plate and thus considerably improves the STL. Parametric studies on the influence of the position of MRE-based ATVAs and the effects of applied current on their performance are also presented.

  20. Remote sensing of snowpack density using shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, M. C.; Smith, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Albedo or satellite radiance measurements can be used to estimate average snowpack density by means of a multiple linear equation. The in situ data equation predicted density with a correlation (sq r) of 0.79 and a standard error of 0.027 gm/cu cm. The data from LANDSAT-1 were not as significant in a similar equation, possibly because of the large field of view.

  1. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 of the absorbed dose to water standards of the PTB, Germany and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Krauss, A.

    2016-01-01

    An indirect comparison has been made of the standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co radiation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), Germany and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The measurements at the BIPM were carried out in October 2015. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and evaluated as a ratio of the PTB and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9977 with a combined standard uncertainty of 3.8 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Sun-View-Target Geometry Effects on Spectrally-Derived Vegetative Index Estimates of Absorbed Radiation and Leaf Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    major differences in reflection among six full cover spring wheat cultivar canopies despite similarities in green leaf area, biomass, and measured leaf...largest diurnal variation. Differences in reflectance between the different cultivars varied with both solar zenith angle and wavelength of sensed...radiation. Maximum differences among cultivars occurred near solar noon in the NIR while, in the visible waveband, cultivar differences in reflectance were

  3. STUDENT AWARD FINALIST: Study of Self-Absorbed Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation during Pulsed Atmospheric Breakdown in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laity, George; Fierro, Andrew; Hatfield, Lynn; Neuber, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes recent experiments to investigate the role of self-produced vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in the physics of pulsed atmospheric breakdown. A unique apparatus was constructed which enables the detailed exploration of VUV light in the range 115-135 nm, which is emitted from breakdown between two point-point electrodes in an air environment at atmospheric pressure. Time-resolved diagnostics include VUV sensitive photomultipliers, intensified CCD imaging, optically isolated high voltage probes, and fast rise-time Rogowski current monitors. Temporally resolved spectroscopy from air breakdowns revealed VUV emission is released during the initial streamer phase before voltage collapse, with the majority of the emission lines identified from various atmospheric gases or surface impurities. Imaging of VUV radiation was performed which conserved the spatial emission profile, and distinct differences between nitrogen and oxygen VUV emission during onset of breakdown have been observed. Specifically, the self-absorption of HI, OI, and NI lines is addressed which elucidates the role of radiation transport during the photon-dominated streamer breakdown process. Supported by AFOSR, NASA / TSGC, DEPS, and IEEE DEIS.

  4. Absorbing and scattering aerosols over the source region of biomass burning emissions: Implications in the assessment of optical and radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Atinderpal; Srivastava, Rohit; Rastogi, Neeraj; Singh, Darshan

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the assessment of model simulated optical and radiative properties of aerosols incorporating the measured chemical composition of aerosol samples collected at Patiala during October, 2011-February, 2012. Monthly average mass concentration of PM2.5, elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), water-soluble (WS) and insoluble (INS) aerosols ranged from 120 to 192, 6.2 to 7.2, 20 to 39, 59 to 111 and 35 to 90 μg m-3, respectively. Mass concentration of different components of aerosols was further used for the assessment of optical properties derived from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model simulations. Microtops based measured aerosol optical depth (AOD500) ranged from 0.47 to 0.62 showing maximum value during November and December, and minimum during February. Ångström exponent (α380-870) remained high (>0.90) throughout the study period except in February (0.74), suggesting predominance of fine mode particles over the study region. The observed ratio of scattering to absorbing aerosols was incorporated in OPAC model simulations and single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) so obtained ranged between 0.80 and 0.92 with relatively low values during the period of extensive biomass burning. In the present study, SBDART based estimated values of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface (SRF) and top of the atmosphere (TOA) ranged from -31 to -66 Wm-2 and -2 to -18 W m-2 respectively. The atmospheric ARF, ranged between + 18 and + 58 Wm-2 resulting in the atmospheric heating rate between 0.5 and 1.6 K day-1. These results signify the role of scattering and absorbing aerosols in affecting the magnitude of aerosol forcing.

  5. Study the penetration of IR laser radiation in human teeth: determination of the absorbed and scattered parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova, Pepa; Rabadgiiska, Stanislava; Uzunov, Tzonko; Kisov, Hristo; Kaimakanova, Nadejda; Deneva, Margarita; Dinkov, Emil; Nenchev, Marin

    2013-03-01

    By using the developed by us approaches and instrumentation, we have obtained and presented series of systematized data, which are important for the use of the laser light in infrared (IR) spectral region. The obtained data include: 1) reflectivity of the human tooth dentin; 2) the spatial intensity distribution in the cross-section of the light beam penetrating the tooth's dentin; 3) the absorbed and the diffused parts of the laser light that have been determined separately through combination of optical and calorimetric techniques. The last result is the most important because it permits to calculate the dentin absorption and scattering coefficients. The study is performed for the laser light at two easily generated wavelengths - 1.06 μm and 1.36 μm, emitted by the Nd:YAG laser that is well known, commercially available, economical and widely used in many laboratories and medical institutions. The study is made on the basis of fresh in-vitro teeth samples from the persons of Bulgaria, Sofia region.

  6. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  7. Cryogenic optical mounting for short-wave infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J.; Wood, T.; Bhatti, I.; Cañas, A.; Reddick, P.; van Wyk, P.; Bharadia, S.; Storey, T.; Potterton, T.; Rits, W.; Meijer, H.

    2014-07-01

    In order to measure atmospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane, water and carbon dioxide from spaceborne platforms, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) immersed grating spectrometers are employed. Due to the need to minimise detector dark current and internal black body radiation from the spectrometer's own structure, these instruments are operated at cryogenic temperatures. ESA's Sentinel 5-Precursor is a small satellite science mission; the platform comprises the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which includes a SWIR module. Optical mounts have been developed for the SWIR module which meet the requirements to cope with the differences in thermal expansion between the optical elements and their structural mounts over cryogenic temperature ranges, be robust against the mechanical environment during launch, and maintain optical alignment stability with a tight volume constraint. Throughout the design of the SWIR spectrometer, flexures were deployed to control deformations due to thermal expansion, the design of interfaces between materials of differing coefficient of thermal expansion was carefully managed, and the geometry of adhesive pads was tightly controlled. Optical mounting concepts were evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). A breadboard programme was undertaken to verify these concepts. FEA and breadboard results were correlated to provide confidence in the design. The breadboard programme consisted of thermal cycling and pull-testing of adhesive joints, as well as environmental and optical testing of representative subsystems. Analysis and breadboarding demonstrated that the optical mounting design will survive the mechanical and thermal environments, and verified the stability of the optical alignment requirements. Novel optical mounting structures have been designed, analysed, assembled, tested and integrated into the optical assemblies of the TROPOMI SWIR spectrometer, creating a compact and robust state of the art instrument

  8. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO2-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bl/aŻejowski, Jerzy; Gruzdiewa, Ludwika; Rulewski, Jacek; Lampe, Frederick W.

    1995-05-01

    The absorption of three lines [P(20), 944.2 cm-1; P(14), 949.2 cm-1; and R(24), 978.5 cm-1] of the pulsed CO2 laser (0001-1000 transition) by SiH4 was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO2 laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer-Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer-Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials.

  9. On the use of flux limiters in the discrete ordinates method for 3D radiation calculations in absorbing and scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, William F.; DesJardin, Paul E.

    2010-05-01

    The application of flux limiters to the discrete ordinates method (DOM), SN, for radiative transfer calculations is discussed and analyzed for 3D enclosures for cases in which the intensities are strongly coupled to each other such as: radiative equilibrium and scattering media. A Newton-Krylov iterative method (GMRES) solves the final systems of linear equations along with a domain decomposition strategy for parallel computation using message passing libraries in a distributed memory system. Ray effects due to angular discretization and errors due to domain decomposition are minimized until small variations are introduced by these effects in order to focus on the influence of flux limiters on errors due to spatial discretization, known as numerical diffusion, smearing or false scattering. Results are presented for the DOM-integrated quantities such as heat flux, irradiation and emission. A variety of flux limiters are compared to "exact" solutions available in the literature, such as the integral solution of the RTE for pure absorbing-emitting media and isotropic scattering cases and a Monte Carlo solution for a forward scattering case. Additionally, a non-homogeneous 3D enclosure is included to extend the use of flux limiters to more practical cases. The overall balance of convergence, accuracy, speed and stability using flux limiters is shown to be superior compared to step schemes for any test case.

  10. Role of cardiac ultrafast cameras with CZT solid-state detectors and software developments on radiation absorbed dose reduction to the patients.

    PubMed

    Gunalp, Bengul

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is one the most contributing nuclear medicine technique to the annual population dose. The purpose of this study is to compare radiation-absorbed doses to the patients examined by conventional cardiac SPECT (CSPECT) camera and ultrafast cardiac (UFC) camera with cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors. Total injected activity was reduced by 50 % when both stress and rest images were acquired and by 75 % when only stress images were taken with UFC camera. As a result of this, the mean total effective dose was found significantly lower with UFC camera (2.2 ± 1.2 mSv) than CSPECT (7.7 ± 3.8 mSv) (p < 0.001). Further dose reduction was obtained by reducing equivocal test results and unnecessary additional examinations with UFC camera. Using UFC camera, MPI can be conveniently used for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) much less increasing annual population radiation dose as it had been before.

  11. Quantification of the aerosol direct radiative effect from smoke over clouds using passive space-borne spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, M.; Stammes, P.; Tilstra, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    The solar radiative absorption by smoke layers above clouds is quantified, using the unique broad spectral range of the space-borne spectrometer Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) from the ultraviolet (UV) to the shortwave infrared (SWIR). Aerosol radiative effects in the UV are separated from cloud radiative effects in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). In the UV, aerosol absorption from smoke is strong, creating a strong signal in the measured reflectance. In the SWIR, absorbing and scattering effects from smoke are negligible, allowing the retrieval of cloud parameters from the measured spectrum using existing retrieval techniques. The spectral signature of the cloud can be modelled using a radiative transfer model (RTM) and the cloud parameters retrieved in the SWIR. In this way, the aerosol effects can be determined from the measured aerosol-polluted cloud shortwave spectrum and the modelled aerosol-unpolluted cloud shortwave spectrum. This can be used to derive the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over marine clouds, independent of aerosol parameter retrievals, significantly improving the current accuracy of aerosol DRE estimates. Only cloud parameters are needed to model the aerosolunpolluted cloud reflectance, while the effects of the aerosol absorption are in the aerosol-polluted cloud reflectance measurements. In this paper we present a case study of the above method using SCIAMACHY data over the South Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on 13 August 2006, when a huge plume of smoke was present over persistent cloud fields. The aerosol DRE over clouds was as high as 128 ± 8 Wm-2 for this case, while the aerosol DRE over clouds averaged through August 2006 was found to be 23 ± 8 Wm-2 with a mean variation over the region in this month of 22 Wm-2.

  12. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  13. APMP supplementary comparison report of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (BIPM KCDB: APMP.RI(I)-S2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.; Kadni, T. B.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, B. C.; Yi, C.-Y.; Pungkun, V.; Chu, C.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (APMP.RI(I)-S2) was performed with five national metrology institutes in 2013 and 2014. Two commercial thin window ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. Two of the NMIs measured the calibration coefficients of the chambers in reference fields produced from Pm-147, Kr-85 and Sr-90/Y-90, while the other three measured those only in Sr-90/Y-90 beta-particle field. The degree of equivalence for the participants was determined and this comparison verifies the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. In addition, most of the results of this comparison are consistent with another international comparison (EUROMET.RI(I)-S2) reported before this work. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Monte Carlo estimation of radiation dose in organs of female and male adult phantoms due to FDG-F18 absorbed in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Silva, Rogério M. V.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of dose conversion factors (S values) for the radionuclide fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) absorbed in the lungs during a positron emission tomography (PET) procedure was calculated using the Monte Carlo method (MCNPX version 2.7.0). For the obtained dose conversion factors of interest, it was considered a uniform absorption of radiopharmaceutical by the lung of a healthy adult human. The spectrum of fluorine was introduced in the input data file for the simulation. The simulation took place in two adult phantoms of both sexes, based on polygon mesh surfaces called FASH and MASH with anatomy and posture according to ICRP 89. The S values for the 22 internal organs/tissues, chosen from ICRP No. 110, for the FASH and MASH phantoms were compared with the results obtained from a MIRD V phantoms called ADAM and EVA used by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD). We observed variation of more than 100% in S values due to structural anatomical differences in the internal organs of the MASH and FASH phantoms compared to the mathematical phantom.

  15. Short-Wave Radio: An Aid to Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutcavage, Charles P.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses use of short-wave radio broadcasts as method for expanding students' appreciation of practical advantages of language learning. Suggests use of news broadcasts and gives guidelines for using broadcasts such as level of aural comprehension in class. (Author/BK)

  16. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  17. An Analysis of the Regular Shortwave Listener in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James L.; McDaniel, Drew O.

    Many of the more than 140 shortwave broadcasting services currently in operation have programing specifically intended for an audience in the United States, yet relatively little is known about the shortwave listening audience in the United States. This study focuses upon the shortwave listeners who regularly monitor international broadcasts. A…

  18. Communications Corner: Tune in News and Science with Your Shortwave Receiver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Information on how a shortwave radio can be used to make empirical observations about solar activity and the Earth's geomagnetic field is provided. How to interpret transmissions of shortwave propagation information, weather conditions, and highly accurate time signals from shortwave stations is discussed. (KR)

  19. The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems--an experimental and functional analysis of the evolution of UV-absorbing compounds.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Björn, L O; Bornman, J F; Gaberscik, A; Häder, D-P; Trost, T; Germ, M; Klisch, M; Gröniger, A; Sinha, R P; Lebert, M; He, Y-Y; Buffoni-Hall, R; de Bakker, N V J; van de Staaij, J; Meijkamp, B B

    2002-02-01

    Gyrodinium dorsum, the green algal species Prasiola stipitata and in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. While visible (400-700 nm) and long wavelength UV-A (315-400 nm) showed only a slight effect, MAAs were effectively induced by UV-B (280-315 nm). The growth of the lower land organisms studied, i.e. the lichens Cladina portentosa, Cladina foliacaea and Cladonia arbuscula, and the club moss Lycopodiumannotinum, was not significantly reduced when grown under elevated UV-B radiation (simulating 15% ozone depletion). The growth in length of the moss Tortula ruralis was reduced under elevated UV-B. Of the aquatic plants investigated the charophytes Chara aspera showed decreased longitudinal growth under elevated UV-B. In the 'aquatic higher plants' studied, Ceratophyllum demersum, Batrachium trichophyllum and Potamogeton alpinus, there was no such depressed growth with enhanced UV-B. In Chara aspera, neither MAAs nor flavonoids could be detected. Of the terrestrial higher plants studied, Fagopyrum esculentum, Deschampsia antarctica, Vicia faba, Calamagrostis epigejos and Carex arenaria, the growth of the first species was depressed with enhanced UV-B, in the second species length growth was decreased, but the shoot number was increased, and in the latter two species of a dune grassland there was no reduced growth with enhanced UV-B. In the dune grassland species studied outdoors, at least five different flavonoids appeared in shoot tissue. Some of the flavonoids in the monocot species, which were identified and quantified with HPLC, included orientin, luteolin, tricin and apigenin. A greenhouse study with Vicia faba showed that two flavonoids (aglycones) respond particularly to enhanced UV-B. Of these, quercetin is UV-B inducible and mainly located in epidermal cells, while kaempferol occurs constitutively. In addition to its UV-screening function, quercetin may also act as an antioxidant. Polychromatic action spectra were determined for induction of the UV-absorbing pigments in

  20. Spontaneous emission and absorber theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, David T.

    1997-01-01

    One of the long term interests of George Series was the construction of a theory of spontaneous emission which does not involve field quantisation. His approach was written in terms of atomic operators only and he drew a parallel with the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation. By making a particular extra postulate, he was able to obtain the correct spontaneous emission rate and the Lamb shift reasonably simply and directly. An examination of his approach indicates that this postulate is physically reasonable and the need for it arises because quantisation in his theory occurs after the response of the absorber has been accounted for by means of the radiative reaction field. We review briefly an alternative absorber theory approach to spontaneous emission based on the direct action between the emitting atom and a quantised absorber, and outline some applications to more recent effects of interest in quantum optics.

  1. Efficacy of a Radiation Absorbing Shield in Reducing Dose to the Interventionalist During Peripheral Endovascular Procedures: A Single Centre Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Power, S.; Mirza, M.; Thakorlal, A.; Ganai, B.; Gavagan, L. D.; Given, M. F.; Lee, M. J.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures.Materials and MethodsA commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used to measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated.ResultsTLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142).ConclusionInitial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator’s body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.

  2. Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Smith, G. Louis; Cess, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) has been observing the earth during the past 4 years from three satellites. Numerous validation procedures have been applied to the data. Particularly important have been intercomparisons between three channels of scanning radiometers and wide and medium field-of-view radiometers. These intercomparisons and onboard calibration targets have provided assurance of high data quality. In addition to the classic radiation budget parameters: global absorbed and emitted energy, ERBE is producing fluxes on scales of 250 km that can significantly increase understanding of the earth's climate. Of particular interest are ERBE measurements of clear-sky albedos and longwave fluxes, which are part of the ERBE data products. Use of data from the precessing ERBE satellite together with data from the sun-synchronous NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites also provides information on the diurnal cycle of shortwave and longwave fluxes.

  3. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-03-14

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (<520 nm), which contains much of the surplus energy that is not used for photosynthesis and is dissipated as heat. The PAR absorptance of a whole leaf shows no substantial difference based on the spectra of direct or diffuse solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density

  4. Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of ARM spectral short-wave data. Technical progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1995-04-26

    The authors goal in the ARM program is the improvement of radiation models used in GCMs, especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. They are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that they combined with surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. They have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifolter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR). However, the major objective of the program has been the development of two spectral versions of the rotating shadowband radiometer. The MFRSR, has become a workhose at the CART site in Oklahoma and Kansas, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. They have spent most of their effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, they have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, they have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, they have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. In each case the authors have attempted to validate the approach using independent measurements or retrievals of the parameters under investigation. With the exception of the ozone intercomparison, the corroborative measurements have been made at the SGP CART site. This report highlights these results.

  5. Effect of Clouds on the Calculated Vertical Distribution of Shortwave Absorption in the Tropics

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, James H.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Liu, Zheng

    2008-09-23

    High vertical resolution profiles of cloud properties were obtained from cloud radars operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program on the islands of Nauru and Manus in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). Broadband flux calculations using a correlated k-distribution model were performed to estimate the effect of clouds on the total column and vertical distribution of shortwave absorption at these tropical sites. Sensitivity studies were performed to examine the role of precipitable water vapor, cloud vertical location, optical depth, and particle size on the SW column absorption. On average, observed clouds had little impact on the calculated total SW column absorption at the two sites, but a significant impact on the vertical distribution of SW absorption. Differences in the column amount, vertical profiles, and diurnal cycle of SW absorption at the two sites were due primarily to differences in cirrus cloud frequency.

  6. Apparent Multi-Decadal Trend in Shortwave Cloud Forcing Over the Tropical Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R C J; Potter, G L; Kanamitsu, M; Hnilo, J J; Woolen, J

    2000-10-03

    The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (Kalnay et al. 1996) of atmospheric data beginning in 1948 has provided an opportunity to study a consistent half-century record of assimilated weather observations. Through the examination of several fields, we find an apparent long-term decrease in relative humidity, and hence a decrease in inferred cloud amount, in a large region in the central tropical Pacific. As a result, the apparent short-wave cloud radiative forcing in that region decreased by nearly 15 Wm{sup -2} Over the duration of the period. Two major questions arise from these preliminary results. The first question involves the extent to which the apparent trend over the 50-year period is a real phenomenon rather than an artifact, either of the reanalysis methodology or of observing system evolution. The second question is, if the phenomenon is not entirely an artifact, but is at least partially real, what is its cause?

  7. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  8. Shortwave cloud feedback derived from a 32 year record of satellite UV reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, C. J.; Herman, J. R.; Labow, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    A thirty-two year record (1980-2011) of Shortwave TOA radiative cloud forcing (Rcloud) is derived from UV reflectivity data constructed using measured upwelling radiances from Nimbus-7 SBUV and seven NOAA SBUV/2 instruments. The record of Rcloud derived from CERES is used to scale the UV reflectivity to TOA cloud forcing. The estimated linear trend for the shortwave TOA radiative forcing due to clouds from 60S to 60N is +1.1 Watts m-2 over the 32 year period. Shortwave (SW) cloud feedback parameters are estimated using anomalies of local observed surface temperatures (Ts.) from NASA GISS. Zonal mean values of our cloud feedback parameter are similar to those derived from other data sets such as CERES, FD-ISCCP and MERRA. Over land our SW cloud feedback parameter is positive and SW Rcloud is highly correlated with Ts . However, over ocean the sign of the feedback parameters are controlled by strong negative values over equatorial latitudes balanced by positive values over subtropical and midlatitude oceans. Over ocean, the SW Rcloud response to Ts perturbations is about one month, but over land the cloud response time is less than one month. SW cloud feedbacks estimated from all (n=384) monthly anomalies over the 32 year period are driven by ENSO variability as well as long-term warming from CO2. In an attempt to isolate the cloud feedback due to long-term global warming, we re-derive maps of the feedback but only use those months where the absolute value of the ENSO index is less than 0.5 (n=116). We compare maps of these results with SW cloud feedback estimates from CMIP5 multi-model runs that simulate an abrupt 4x increase in CO2 concentrations. Global fields from these CMIP5 model runs have many of same spatial features seen in our estimates of SW cloud feedback from long-term warming. Both show negative feedback over equatorial oceans and positive feedback over land masses.

  9. Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Shortwave Diathermy for All Other Uses, Henceforth To Be Known as Nonthermal Shortwave Therapy. Final order; technical correction.

    PubMed

    2015-10-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify shortwave diathermy (SWD) for all other uses, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to rename the device "nonthermal shortwave therapy'' (SWT). FDA is also making a technical correction in the regulation for the carrier frequency for SWD and SWT devices.

  10. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  11. In-situ measurements of light-absorbing impurities in snow of glacier on Mt. Yulong and implications for radiative forcing estimates.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Shi, Xiaofei; Paudyal, Rukumesh; He, Yuanqing; Li, Gang; Wang, Shijin; Pu, Tao; Shi, Xiaoyi

    2017-03-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) or the third polar cryosphere borders geographical hotspots for discharges of black carbon (BC). BC and dust play important roles in climate system and Earth's energy budget, particularly after they are deposited on snow and glacial surfaces. BC and dust are two kinds of main light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow and glaciers. Estimating concentrations and distribution of LAIs in snow and glacier ice in the TP is of great interest because this region is a global hotspot in geophysical research. Various snow samples, including surface aged-snow, superimposed ice and snow meltwater samples were collected from a typical temperate glacier on Mt. Yulong in the snow melt season in 2015. The samples were determined for BC, Organic Carbon (OC) concentrations using an improved thermal/optical reflectance (DRI Model 2001) method and gravimetric method for dust concentrations. Results indicated that the LAIs concentrations were highly elevation-dependent in the study area. Higher contents and probably greater deposition at relative lower elevations (generally <5000masl) of the glacier was observed. Temporal difference of LAIs contents demonstrated that LAIs in snow of glacier gradually increased as snow melting progressed. Evaluations of the relative absorption of BC and dust displayed that the impact of dust on snow albedo and radiative forcing (RF) is substantially larger than BC, particularly when dust contents are higher. This was verified by the absorption factor, which was <1.0. In addition, we found the BC-induced albedo reduction to be in the range of 2% to nearly 10% during the snow melting season, and the mean snow albedo reduction was 4.63%, hence for BC contents ranging from 281 to 894ngg(-1) in snow of a typical temperate glacier on Mt. Yulong, the associated instantaneous RF will be 76.38-146.96Wm(-2). Further research is needed to partition LAIs induced glacial melt, modeling researches in combination with long-term in

  12. EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison of alanine dosimetry systems for absorbed dose to water measurements in gamma- and x-radiation at radiotherapy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Tristan; Anton, Mathias; Sharpe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) are involved in the European project 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', a project of the European Metrology Research Programme. Within this project, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetric method has been chosen for performing measurements in small fields such as those used in IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). In this context, these three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) wished to compare the result of their alanine dosimetric systems (detector, modus operandi etc) at radiotherapy dose levels to check their consistency. This EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison has been performed with the support of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) which collected and distributed the results as a neutral organization, to ensure the comparison was 'blind'. Irradiations have been made under reference conditions by each laboratory in a 60Co beam and in an accelerator beam (10 MV or 12 MV) in a water phantom of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm in a square field of 10 cm × 10 cm at the reference depth. Irradiations have been performed at known values of absorbed dose to water (Dw) within 10% of nominal doses of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, i.e. between 4.5 Gy and 5.5 Gy and between 9 Gy and 11 Gy, respectively. Each participant read out their dosimeters and assessed the doses using their own protocol (calibration curve, positioning device etc) as this comparison aims at comparing the complete dosimetric process. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the EPR/alanine dosimetry systems operated by National Metrology Institutes as a method of assuring therapy level doses with the accuracy required. The maximum deviation in the ratio of measured to applied dose is less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key

  13. The Validation of the GEWEX SRB Surface Shortwave Flux Data Products Using BSRN Measurements: A Systematic Quality Control, Production and Application Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous record of global shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 11 latitude11 longitude. The inputs of the latest version (Release 3.0) include the GEOS Version 4.0.3 meteorological information and cloud properties derived from ISCCP DX data. The SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly time scales. To assess the quality of the product, we extensively validated the SRB data against 5969 site-months of groundbased measurements from 52 Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations. This paper describes first the characteristics of the BSRN data and the GEWEX SRB data, the methodology for quality control and processing of the shortwave BSRN data, and then the systematic SRB-BSRN comparisons. It is found that, except for occasional extreme outliers as seen in scatter plots, the satellite-based surface radiation data generally agree very well with BSRN measurements. Specifically, the bias/RMS for the daily and monthly mean shortwave fluxes are, respectively, -3.6/35.5 and -5.2/23.3W1 m2 under all-sky conditions.

  14. Heat Distribution in the Lower Leg from Pulsed Short-Wave Diathermy and Ultrasound Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Candi L.; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare tissue temperature rise and decay after 20-minute diathermy and ultrasound treatments. Design and Setting: We inserted 3 26-gauge thermistor microprobes into the medial aspect of the anesthetized triceps surae muscle at a depth of 3 cm and spaced 5 cm apart. Eight subjects received the diathermy treatment first, followed by the ultrasound treatment. This sequence was reversed for the remaining 8 subjects. The diathermy was applied at a frequency of 27.12 MHz at the following settings: 800 bursts per second, 400-microsecond burst duration, 850-microsecond interburst interval, peak root mean square amplitude of 150 W per burst, and an average root mean square output of 48 W per burst. The ultrasound was delivered at a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 1.5 W/cm2 in the continuous mode for 20 minutes over an area of 40 times the effective radiating area. The study was performed in a ventilated research laboratory. Subjects: Sixteen (11 men, 5 women) healthy subjects (mean age = 23.56 ± 4.73 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: We recorded baseline, final, and decay temperatures for each of the 3 sites. Results: The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after pulsed short-wave diathermy were 3.02°C ± 1.02°C in site 1, 4.58°C ± 0.87°C in site 2, and 3.28°C ± 1.64°C in site 3. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after ultrasound were only 0.17°C ± 0.40°C, 0.09°C ± 0.56°C, and -0.43°C ± 0.41°C in sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The temperature dropped only 1°C in 7.65 ± 4.96 minutes after pulsed short-wave diathermy. Conclusions: We conclude that pulsed short-wave diathermy was more effective than 1-MHz ultrasound in heating a large muscle mass and resulted in the muscles' retaining heat longer. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:16558608

  15. Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing in the Pacific Warm Pool Estimated Using TOGA COARE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong

    1999-01-01

    The energy budget of the tropical western Pacific (TWP) is particularly important because this is one of the most energetic convection regions on the Earth. Nearly half of the solar radiation incident at the top of atmosphere is absorbed at the surface and only about 22% absorbed in the atmosphere. A large portion of the excess heat absorbed at the surface is transferred to the atmosphere through evaporation, which provides energy and water for convection and precipitation. The western equatorial Pacific is characterized by the highest sea surface temperature (SST) and heaviest rainfall in the world ocean. A small variation of SST associated with the eastward shift of the warm pool during El-Nino/Souther Oscillation changes the atmospheric circulation pattern and affects the global climate. In a study of the TWP surface heat and momentum fluxes during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) Intensive observing period (IOP) from November 1992 to February have found that the solar radiation is the most important component of the surface energy budget, which undergoes significant temporal and spatial variation. The variations are influenced by the two 40-50 days Madden Julian Oscillations (MJOs) which propagated eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Central Pacific during the IOP. The TWP surface solar radiation during the COARE IOP was investigated by a number of studies. In addition, the effects of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere in the TWP was studied using energy budget analysis. In this study, we present some results of the TWP surface solar shortwave or SW radiation budget and the effect of clouds on the atmospheric solar heating using the surface radiation measurements and Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 4 radiance measurements during COARE IOP.

  16. Plant responses to current solar ultraviolet-B radiation and to supplemented solar ultraviolet-B radiation simulating ozone depletion: an experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, M Cecilia; Flint, Stephan D; Searles, Peter S; Caldwell, Martyn M

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments assessing UV-B effects on plants have been conducted using two contrasting techniques: supplementation of solar UV-B with radiation from fluorescent UV lamps and the exclusion of solar UV-B with filters. We compared these two approaches by growing lettuce and oat simultaneously under three conditions: UV-B exclusion, near-ambient UV-B (control) and UV-B supplementation (simulating a 30% ozone depletion). This permitted computation of "solar UV-B" and "supplemental UV-B" effects. Microclimate and photosynthetically active radiation were the same under the two treatments and the control. Excluding UV-B changed total UV-B radiation more than did supplementing UV-B, but the UV-B supplementation contained more "biologically effective" shortwave radiation. For oat, solar UV-B had a greater effect than supplemental UV-B on main shoot leaf area and main shoot mass, but supplemental UV-B had a greater effect on leaf and tiller number and UV-B-absorbing compounds. For lettuce, growth and stomatal density generally responded similarly to both solar UV-B and supplemented UV-B radiation, but UV-absorbing compounds responded more to supplemental UV-B, as in oat. Because of the marked spectral differences between the techniques, experiments using UV-B exclusion are most suited to assessing effects of present-day UV-B radiation, whereas UV-B supplementation experiments are most appropriate for addressing the ozone depletion issue.

  17. Remote sensing of vegetation water content using shortwave infrared reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Yilmaz, M. Tugrul

    2007-09-01

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. One of the objectives of the Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) were to develop and test algorithms for a vegetation water content data product using shortwave infrared reflectances. SMEX04 studied native vegetation in Arizona, USA, and Sonora, Mexico, while SMEX05 studied corn and soybean in Iowa, USA. The normalized difference infrared index (NDII) is defined as (R 850 - R 1650)/(R 800 + R 1650), where R 850 is the reflectance in the near infrared and R1650 is the reflectance in the shortwave infrared. Simulations using the Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves (SAIL) model indicated that NDII is sensitive to surface moisture content. From Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and other imagery, NDII is linear with respect to foliar water content with R2 = 0.81. The regression standard error of the y estimate is 0.094 mm, which is equivalent to about a leaf area index of 0.5 m2 m -2. Based on modeling the dynamic water flow through plants, the requirement for detection of water stress is about 0.01 mm, so detection of water stress may not be possible. However, this standard error is accurate for input into the tau-omega model for soil moisture. Therefore, NDII may be a robust backup algorithm for MODIS as a standard data product.

  18. MODIS Collection 6 shortwave-derived cloud phase classification algorithm and comparisons with CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, Benjamin; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry; Arnold, G. Thomas; Riedi, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Cloud thermodynamic phase (ice, liquid, undetermined) classification is an important first step for cloud retrievals from passive sensors such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Because ice and liquid phase clouds have very different scattering and absorbing properties, an incorrect cloud phase decision can lead to substantial errors in the cloud optical and microphysical property products such as cloud optical thickness or effective particle radius. Furthermore, it is well established that ice and liquid clouds have different impacts on the Earth's energy budget and hydrological cycle, thus accurately monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of these clouds is of continued importance. For MODIS Collection 6 (C6), the shortwave-derived cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm used by the optical and microphysical property retrievals has been completely rewritten to improve the phase discrimination skill for a variety of cloudy scenes (e.g., thin/thick clouds, over ocean/land/desert/snow/ice surface, etc). To evaluate the performance of the C6 cloud phase algorithm, extensive granule-level and global comparisons have been conducted against the heritage C5 algorithm and CALIOP. A wholesale improvement is seen for C6 compared to C5.

  19. Review of short-wave infrared spectroscopy and imaging methods for biological tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert H.; Nadeau, Kyle P.; Jaworski, Frank B.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a review of short-wave infrared (SWIR, defined here as ∼1000 to 2000 nm) spectroscopy and imaging techniques for biological tissue optical property characterization. Studies indicate notable SWIR absorption features of tissue constituents including water (near 1150, 1450, and 1900 nm), lipids (near 1040, 1200, 1400, and 1700 nm), and collagen (near 1200 and 1500 nm) that are much more prominent than corresponding features observed in the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR, defined here as ∼400 to 1000 nm). Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient has been observed to follow a power-law decay from the VIS-NIR to the SWIR region. Thus, the magnitude of tissue scattering is lower at SWIR wavelengths than that observed at VIS or NIR wavelengths, potentially enabling increased penetration depth of incident light at SWIR wavelengths that are not highly absorbed by the aforementioned chromophores. These aspects of SWIR suggest that the tissue spectroscopy and imaging in this range of wavelengths have the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity (relative to VIS-NIR measurements) to chromophores such as water and lipids, thereby helping to characterize changes in the concentrations of these chromophores due to conditions such as atherosclerotic plaque, breast cancer, and burns. PMID:25803186

  20. MODIS Collection 6 Shortwave-Derived Cloud Phase Discrimination Algorithm and comparisons with CALIOP and POLDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, B.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Meyer, K.; Riedi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud thermodynamic phase (ice or liquid) discrimination is an important first step for cloud retrievals from passive sensors such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Because ice and liquid phase clouds have very different scattering and absorbing properties, an incorrect cloud phase decision can lead to substantial uncertainties in the cloud optical and microphysical property products such as cloud optical thickness or effective particle radius. Furthermore, it is well-established that ice and liquid clouds have different impacts on the Earth's energy budget and hydrological cycle, thus accurately monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of these clouds is of continued importance. For MODIS Collection 6 (C6), the shortwave-derived cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm used by the optical and microphysical property retrievals has been completely rewritten to improve the phase discrimination skill for a variety of cloudy scenes (e.g., thin/thick clouds, over ocean/land/desert/snow/ice surface, etc). To evaluate the performance of the C6 cloud phase algorithm, extensive granule-level and global comparisons have been conducted against the heritage C5 algorithm, CALIOP, and POLDER. A wholesale improvement is seen for C6 compared to C5. We will present an overview of the MODIS C6 cloud phase algorithm updates and their impacts on cloud retrieval statistics, as well as ongoing efforts to continue algorithm improvement.

  1. MODIS Collection 6 shortwave-derived cloud phase classification algorithm and comparisons with CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, B.; Platnick, S.; Meyer, K.; Arnold, G. T.; Riedi, J.

    2015-11-01

    Cloud thermodynamic phase (ice, liquid, undetermined) classification is an important first step for cloud retrievals from passive sensors such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Because ice and liquid phase clouds have very different scattering and absorbing properties, an incorrect cloud phase decision can lead to substantial errors in the cloud optical and microphysical property products such as cloud optical thickness or effective particle radius. Furthermore, it is well established that ice and liquid clouds have different impacts on the Earth's energy budget and hydrological cycle, thus accurately monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of these clouds is of continued importance. For MODIS Collection 6 (C6), the shortwave-derived cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm used by the optical and microphysical property retrievals has been completely rewritten to improve the phase discrimination skill for a variety of cloudy scenes (e.g., thin/thick clouds, over ocean/land/desert/snow/ice surface, etc). To evaluate the performance of the C6 cloud phase algorithm, extensive granule-level and global comparisons have been conducted against the heritage C5 algorithm and CALIOP. A wholesale improvement is seen for C6 compared to C5.

  2. Radiation Dosimetry for (177)Lu-PSMA I&T in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Absorbed Dose in Normal Organs and Tumor Lesions.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shozo; Thieme, Anne; Allmann, Jakob; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Maurer, Tobias; Retz, Margitta; Tauber, Robert; Heck, Matthias M; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Tamaki, Nagara; Fendler, Wolfgang P; Herrmann, Ken; Pfob, Christian H; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle; Eiber, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy is increasingly used in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We aimed to estimate the absorbed doses for normal organs and tumor lesions using (177)Lu-PSMA I&T (I&T is imaging and therapy) in patients undergoing up to 4 cycles of radioligand therapy. Results were compared with pretherapeutic Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[(68)Ga(HBEDCC)] ((68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC) PET. Methods: A total of 34 cycles in 18 patients were analyzed retrospectively. In 15 patients the first, in 9 the second, in 5 the third, and in 5 the fourth cycle was analyzed, respectively. Whole-body scintigraphy was performed at least between 30-120 min, 24 h, and 6-8 d after administration. Regions of interest covering the whole body, organs, and up to 4 tumor lesions were drawn. Organ and tumor masses were derived from pretherapeutic (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. Absorbed doses for individual cycles were calculated using OLINDA/EXM. SUVs from pretherapeutic PET were compared with absorbed doses and with change of SUV. Results: The mean whole-body effective dose for all cycles was 0.06 ± 0.03 Sv/GBq. The mean absorbed organ doses were 0.72 ± 0.21 Gy/GBq for the kidneys; 0.12 ± 0.06 Gy/GBq for the liver; and 0.55 ± 0.14 Gy/GBq for the parotid, 0.64 ± 0.40 Gy/GBq for the submandibular, and 3.8 ± 1.4 Gy/GBq for the lacrimal glands. Absorbed organ doses were relatively constant among the 4 different cycles. Tumor lesions received a mean absorbed dose per cycle of 3.2 ± 2.6 Gy/GBq (range, 0.22-12 Gy/GBq). Doses to tumor lesions gradually decreased, with 3.5 ± 2.9 Gy/GBq for the first, 3.3 ± 2.5 Gy/GBq for the second, 2.7 ± 2.3 Gy/GBq for the third, and 2.4 ± 2.2 Gy/GBq for the fourth cycle. SUVs of pretherapeutic PET moderately correlated with absorbed dose (r = 0.44, P < 0.001 for SUVmax; r = 0.43, P < 0.001 for SUVmean) and moderately correlated with the change of SUV (r = 0.478, P < 0.001 for SUVmax, and r = 0.50, P < 0

  3. Increasing the credibility of regional climate simulations by introducing subgrid-scale cloud – radiation interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The radiation schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model have previously not accounted for the presence of subgrid-scale cumulus clouds, thereby resulting in unattenuated shortwave radiation, which can lead to overly energetic convection and overpredicted surface...

  4. Satellite Estimates of Surface Short-wave Fluxes: Issues of Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H.; Pinker, Rachel; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Surface solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is the primary forcing function of the land surface energy and water cycle. Therefore, there is a need for information on this parameter, preferably, at global scale. Satellite based estimates are now available at accuracies that meet the demands of many scientific objectives. Selection of an approach to estimate such fluxes requires consideration of trade-offs between the use of multi-spectral observations of cloud optical properties that are more difficult to implement at large scales, and methods that are simplified but easier to implement. In this study, an evaluation of such trade-offs will be performed. The University of Maryland Surface Radiation Model (UMD/SRB) has been used to reprocess five years of GOES-8 satellite observations over the United States to ensure updated calibration and improved cloud detection over snow. The UMD/SRB model was subsequently modified to allow input of information on aerosol and cloud optical depth with information from independent satellite sources. Specifically, the cloud properties from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Satellite Data Analysis Program (Minnis et al., 1995) are used to drive the modified version of the model to estimate surface short-wave fluxes over the Southern Great Plain ARM sites for a twelve month period. The auxiliary data needed as model inputs such as aerosol optical depth, spectral surface albedo, water vapor and total column ozone amount were kept the same for both versions of the model. The estimated shortwave fluxes are evaluated against ground observations at the ARM Central Facility and four satellite ARM sites. During summer, the estimated fluxes based on cloud properties derived from the multi-spectral approach were in better agreement with ground measurements than those derived from the UMD/SRB model. However, in winter, the fluxes derived with the UMD/SRB model were in better agreement with ground observations than those

  5. Multilayer Radar Absorbing Non-Woven Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedov, A. V.; Nazarov, V. G.

    2016-06-01

    We study the electrical properties of multilayer radar absorbing materials obtained by adding nonwoven sheets of dielectric fibers with an intermediate layer of electrically conductive carbon fibers. Multilayer materials that absorb electromagnetic radiation in a wide frequency range are obtained by varying the content of the carbon fibers. The carbon-fiber content dependent mechanism of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by sheets and multilayer materials is considered.

  6. Perfect selective metamaterial solar absorbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Liping

    2013-11-04

    In this work, we numerically investigate the radiative properties of metamaterial nanostructures made of two-dimensional tungsten gratings on a thin dielectric spacer and an opaque tungsten film from UV to mid-infrared region as potential selective solar absorbers. The metamaterial absorber with single-sized tungsten patches exhibits high absorptance in the visible and near-infrared region due to several mechanisms such as surface plasmon polaritons, magnetic polaritons, and intrinsic bandgap absorption of tungsten. Geometric effects on the resonance wavelengths and the absorptance spectra are studied, and the physical mechanisms are elucidated in detail. The absorptance could be further enhanced in a broader spectral range with double-sized metamaterial absorbers. The total solar absorptance of the optimized metamaterial absorbers at normal incidence could be more than 88%, while the total emittance is less than 3% at 100°C, resulting in total photon-to-heat conversion efficiency of 86% without any optical concentration. Moreover, the metamaterial solar absorbers exhibit quasi-diffuse behaviors as well as polarization independence. The results here will facilitate the design of novel highly efficient solar absorbers to enhance the performance of various solar energy conversion systems.

  7. "Toward the development of a diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance working standard"

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michalsky; R. Dolce; E.G. Dutton; M. Haeffelin; W. Jeffries; T. Stoffel; J. Hickey; A. Los; D. Mathias; L.J.B. McArthur; D. Nelson; R. Philipona; I. Reda; K. Rutledge; G. Zerlaut; B. Forgan; P. Kiedron; C. Long; and C. Gueymard

    2005-04-01

    The first intensive observation period (IOP) to simultaneously measure diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance (scattered solar radiation that falls on a horizontal surface) with a wide array of shaded pyranometers suggested that a consensus might be reached that would permit the establishment of a standard with a smaller uncertainty than previously achieved. A second IOP has been held to refine the first IOP measurements using a uniform calibration protocol, offset corrections for all instruments and validation of those corrections, improvements in some of the instruments, and better data acquisition. The venue for both IOPs was the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) central facility in northern Oklahoma. The nine days of measurements in October 2003 included a better mixture of clear and overcast conditions than during the first IOP and revealed considerable differences among the instruments responses for different cloud conditions. Four of the 15 instruments were eliminated as candidates to be included in the standard because of noisy signals, inadequate offset correction, or instability with respect to the majority of the measurements. Eight pyranometers agreed to within {+-}2% for clear-sky conditions. Three others have a high bias on clear days relative to these eight, but all eleven agree within {+-}2% on overcast days. The differences and causes of this behavior under clear and cloudy skies are examined.

  8. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  9. Metamaterial absorber with random dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiren; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2010-05-01

    The metamaterial absorber composed of random dendritic cells has been investigated at microwave frequencies. It is found that the absorptivities come to be weaker and the resonant frequency get red shift as the disordered states increasing, however, the random metamaterial absorber still presents high absorptivity more than 95%. The disordered structures can help understanding of the metamaterial absorber and may be employed for practical design of infrared metamaterial absorber, which may play important roles in collection of radiative heat energy and directional transfer enhancement.

  10. Measuring cloud thermodynamic phase with shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David R.; McCubbin, Ian; Gao, Bo Cai; Green, Robert O.; Matthews, Alyssa A.; Mei, Fan; Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Wilcox, Eric

    2016-08-12

    Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy enables accurate remote mapping of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution. We describe a measurement strategy to exploit signatures of liquid and ice absorption in cloud top apparent reflectance spectra from 1.4 to 1.8 μm. This signal is generally insensitive to confounding factors such as solar angles, view angles, and surface albedo. We first evaluate the approach in simulation and then apply it to airborne data acquired in the Calwater-2/ACAPEX campaign of Winter 2015. Here NASA’s “Classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) remotely observed diverse cloud formations while the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Aerial Facility G-1 aircraft measured cloud integral and microphysical properties in situ. Finally, the coincident measurements demonstrate good separation of the thermodynamic phases for relatively homogeneous clouds.

  11. Measuring cloud thermodynamic phase with shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David R.; McCubbin, Ian; Gao, Bo Cai; Green, Robert O.; Matthews, Alyssa A.; Mei, Fan; Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Wilcox, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy enables accurate remote mapping of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution. We describe a measurement strategy to exploit signatures of liquid and ice absorption in cloud top apparent reflectance spectra from 1.4 to 1.8 μm. This signal is generally insensitive to confounding factors such as solar angles, view angles, and surface albedo. We first evaluate the approach in simulation and then apply it to airborne data acquired in the Calwater-2/ACAPEX campaign of Winter 2015. Here NASA's "Classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) remotely observed diverse cloud formations while the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Aerial Facility G-1 aircraft measured cloud integral and microphysical properties in situ. The coincident measurements demonstrate good separation of the thermodynamic phases for relatively homogeneous clouds.

  12. A method for a short-term forecast of the absorbed dose accumulation dynamics on the international space station based on radiation monitoring system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Many papers are devoted to the prediction of radiation conditions on board of a spacecraft (Pichkhadze et al., 2004; Khamidullina et al., 2008; 2012), and a number of software systems for corresponding calculations have been developed: the US information system CREME96 (https://creme.isde.vander-bilt.edu/); European SPENVIS (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/intro.php); Russian SEREIS (Kuznetsov et al., 2001; Model' kosmosa, 2007) and COSRAD (http://cosrad.sinp.msu.ru/manual.html; Kuznetsov et al., 2011) based on the models of the radiation environment in near-Earth space (Bashkirov et al., 1998; Nymmik, 2004; Model' kosmosa, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2011). In this paper we propose a simple calculation algorithm of short-term (for a few days) forecasting of dynamics of the radiation dose on the International Space Station (ISS) in radiation environment undisturbed by solar proton events. This algorithm does not use radiation environment models and detailed ballistic calculations, while it uses data of the onboard radiation monitoring system (RMS) and empirical relations, obtained for ISS orbital motion.

  13. Ground-based remote sensing of aerosol optical properties and their radiative impacts in PRD region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Boru; Deng, XueJiao; Li, Zhanqing; Li, Fei; Zou, Yu; Deng, Tao; Liu, Xiantong

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol direct effects on surface irradiance were explored by using 7 years' ground-based broadband and spectral radiation data at Panyu, the main site of atmospheric composition monitoring in Pearl River Delta (PRD) . Aerosol optical properties were derived from a Sun photometer, and the radiations were calculated by SBDART model. Results demonstrated that in dry seasons(from October to next February), the annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550nm was 0.535, and more than 60% AOD was in a range of 0.2-0.6. Due to the fact that few dust taken place in PRD region, the course mode of weak or strong absorbing aerosol was negligible. However, the proportion of fine mode, weak radiation absorbing particle was about 9.52%, with the Angstrom exponent (α440/470) = 1.30, single scatter co-albedo (ω0) =0.04.Up to 90% of the aerosol was dominated by fine mode, strong absorbing particles, as given by mean α440/470 = 1.35, ω0 =0.14. Because of strong absorption, the variations in aerosol concentration significantly heated the air, and cooled down the surface. The annual mean shortwave direct radiation forcing at the surface (SFC), inside the atmosphere (ATM), and at the top of atmosphere (TOA) was -33.51

  14. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  15. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  16. Soil isoline equation for the range of visible to shortwave infrared in a context of hyperspectral data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kenta; Obata, Kenta; Matsuoka, Masayuki; Yoshioka, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    Information on the relationships between pairs of wavelength bands is useful when analyzing multispectral sensor data. The soil isoline is one such relationship that is obtained under a constant soil spectrum. However, numerical determination of the soil isoline in the red and NIR reflectance subspace is problematic because of singularities encountered during polynomial fitting. In our previous work, this difficulty was effectively overcome by rotating the original red-NIR subspace by an angle identical to a soil line slope. In the context of hyperspectral data analysis, the applicability of this approach should be investigated thoroughly for band combinations other than red-NIR. The objective of the present study was to expand the applicable range of band combinations to 400-2500 nm by conducting a set of numerical simulations of radiative transfer. Soil isolines were determined numerically by varying soil reflectance and biophysical parameters. The results demonstrated that, as shown previously for the red-NIR band combination, singularities can be avoided for most band combinations through use of the rotation approach. However, for some combinations, especially those involving the shortwave infrared range, the rotation approach gave rise to a further numerical singularity. The present findings thus indicate that special caution should be exercised in the numerical determination of soil isoline equations when one of the chosen bands is in the shortwave infrared region.

  17. Radiation flux tables for ICRCCM using the GLA GCM radiation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN

    1986-01-01

    Tabulated values of longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes and also cooling and heating rates in the atmosphere for standard atmospheric profiles are presented. The radiation codes used in the Goddard general circulation model were employed for the computations. These results were obtained for an international intercomparison projected called Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM).

  18. Spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing from fire-induced albedo change in interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Shengli; Dahal, Devendra; Liu, Heping; Jin, Suming; Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The albedo change caused by both fires and subsequent succession is spatially heterogeneous, leading to the need to assess the spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing (SSF) as a component to quantify the climate impacts of high-latitude fires. We used an image reconstruction approach to compare postfire albedo with the albedo assuming fires had not occurred. Combining the fire-caused albedo change from the 2001-2010 fires in interior Alaska and the monthly surface incoming solar radiation, we examined the spatiotemporal variation of SSF in the early successional stage of around 10 years. Our results showed that while postfire albedo generally increased in fall, winter, and spring, some burned areas could show an albedo decrease during these seasons. In summer, the albedo increased for several years and then declined again. The spring SSF distribution did not show a latitudinal decrease from south to north as previously reported. The results also indicated that although the SSF is usually largely negative in the early successional years, it may not be significant during the first postfire year. The annual 2005-2010 SSF for the 2004 fire scars was -1.30, -4.40, -3.31, -4.00, -3.42, and -2.47 Wm-2. The integrated annual SSF map showed significant spatial variation with a mean of -3.15 Wm-2 and a standard deviation of 3.26 Wm-2, 16% of burned areas having positive SSF. Our results suggest that boreal deciduous fires would be less positive for climate change than boreal evergreen fires. Future research is needed to comprehensively investigate the spatiotemporal radiative and non-radiative forcings to determine the effect of boreal fires on climate.

  19. Validation of Improved Broadband Shortwave and Longwave Fluxes Derived From GOES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Yi, Yuhong; Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband (BB) shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at TOA (Top of Atmosphere) are crucial parameters in the study of climate and can be monitored over large portions of the Earth's surface using satellites. The VISST (Visible Infrared Solar Split-Window Technique) satellite retrieval algorithm facilitates derivation of these parameters from the Geostationery Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). However, only narrowband (NB) fluxes are available from GOES, so this derivation requires use of narrowband-to-broadband (NB-BB) conversion coefficients. The accuracy of these coefficients affects the validity of the derived broadband (BB) fluxes. Most recently, NB-BB fits were re-derived using the NB fluxes from VISST/GOES data with BB fluxes observed by the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy Budget) instrument aboard Terra, a sun-synchronous polar-orbiting satellite that crosses the equator at 10:30 LT. Subsequent comparison with ARM's (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) BB fluxes revealed that while the derived broadband fluxes agreed well with CERES near the Terra overpass times, the accuracy of both LW and SW fluxes decreased farther away from the overpass times. Terra's orbit hampers the ability of the NB-BB fits to capture diurnal variability. To account for this in the LW, seasonal NB-BB fits are derived separately for day and night. Information from hourly SW BB fluxes from the Meteosat-8 Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) is employed to include samples over the complete solar zenith angle (SZA) range sampled by Terra. The BB fluxes derived from these improved NB-BB fits are compared to BB fluxes computed with a radiative transfer model.

  20. Investigation of conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques to determine the absorbed fetal dose in pregnant patients with breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Öğretici, Akın Akbaş, Uğur; Köksal, Canan; Bilge, Hatice

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the fetal doses of pregnant patients undergoing conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for breast cancers. An Alderson Rando phantom was chosen to simulate a pregnant patient with breast cancer who is receiving radiation therapy. This phantom was irradiated using the Varian Clinac DBX 600 system (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) linear accelerator, according to the standard treatment plans of both three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) and IMRT techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure the irradiated phantom's virtually designated uterus area. Thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements (in the phantom) revealed that the mean cumulative fetal dose for 3-D CRT is 1.39 cGy and for IMRT it is 8.48 cGy, for a pregnant breast cancer woman who received radiation treatment of 50 Gy. The fetal dose was confirmed to increase by 70% for 3-D CRT and 40% for IMRT, if it is closer to the irradiated field by 5 cm. The mean fetal dose from 3-D CRT is 1.39 cGy and IMRT is 8.48 cGy, consistent with theoretic calculations. The IMRT technique causes the fetal dose to be 5 times more than that of 3-D CRT. Theoretic knowledge concerning the increase in the peripheral doses as the measurements approached the beam was also practically proven.

  1. Self-imaging of transparent objects and structures in focusing of spatially phase-modulated laser radiation into a weakly absorbing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bubis, E L

    2011-06-30

    Self-imaging of transparent objects and structures in focusing of a spatially phase-modulated laser beam into an extended weakly absorbing medium is described. The laser power level that is necessary for effective imaging corresponds to the illuminating beam power when thermal self-defocusing starts evolving in the medium. The effect can be described in terms of the ideology of Zernike's classical phase-contrast method. Edge enhancement in visualised images of transparent objects is experimentally demonstrated. Self-imaging of a microscopic object in the form of transparent letters and long-lived refractive-index fluctuations in liquid glycerol is shown. Due to the adaptivity of the process under consideration, unlike the classical case, self-imaging occurs also in the situations where a beam is displaced (undergoes random walk) as a whole in the Fourier plane, for example, in the presence of thermal flows. (image processing)

  2. New Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He): Hyperspectral Design and Initial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J M.; Barnard, James C.; Ermold, Brian D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-10-31

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from hyperspectral measurements can serve as an invaluable input for simultaneous retrievals of particle size distributions and major trace gases. The required hyperspectral measurements are provided by a new ground-based radiometer, the so-called Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He), recently developed with support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The SAS-He has wide spectral coverage (350-1700nm) and high spectral resolution: about 2.4 nm and 6 nm within 350-1000 nm and 970-1700 nm spectral ranges, respectively. To illustrate an initial performance of the SAS-He, we take advantage of integrated dataset collected during the ARM-supported Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) over the US coastal region (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). This dataset includes AODs derived using data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). We demonstrate that, on average, the SAS-He AODs closely match the MFRSR and AERONET AODs in the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges for this area with highly variable AOD. Also, we discuss corrections of SAS-He total optical depth for gas absorption in the near-infrared spectral range and their operational implementation.

  3. New Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He): hyperspectral design and initial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Flynn, Connor; Barnard, James; Ermold, Brian; Berg, Larry

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from hyperspectral measurements can serve as an invaluable input for simultaneous retrievals of particle size distributions and major trace gases. The required hyperspectral measurements are provided by a new ground-based radiometer, the so-called Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He), recently developed with support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The SAS-He has wide spectral coverage (350-1700nm) and high spectral resolution: about 2.4 nm and 6 nm within 350-1000 nm and 970-1700 nm spectral ranges, respectively. To illustrate an initial performance of the SAS-He, we take advantage of integrated dataset collected during the ARM-supported Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) over the US coastal region (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). This dataset includes AODs derived using data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). We demonstrate that, on average, the SAS-He AODs closely match the MFRSR and AERONET AODs in the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges for this area with highly variable AOD. Also, we discuss corrections of SAS-He total optical depth for gas absorption in the near-infrared spectral range and their operational implementation

  4. Shortwave infrared for night vision applications: illumination levels and sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomeit, Uwe; Krieg, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Radiation created by stimulation and recombination/deactivation of atoms and molecules in the higher earth atmosphere is called nightglow. This nightglow can be found in the spectral range from the ultraviolet up to the thermal infrared, with a maximum in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). During moonless nights the illumination in the SWIR is by an order of magnitude higher than the visual one. Within the last years the SWIR sensor technology improved to a level of using the nightglow for night vision applications. This necessitates understanding of the highly variable illumination levels created by the nightglow and the performance assessment of the SWIR detectors in comparison to the image intensifiers respectively Si focal plane array detectors. Whereas the night illumination levels for the visual are standardized, corresponding ones for the SWIR are missing. IOSB started measuring and comparing night illumination levels and camera performance in both spectral ranges based on continuous illumination measurements as well as recording imagery of reflectance reference targets with cameras and analyzing the resulting signal-to-noise ratios. To date the number of illumination measurements are not yet statistically sufficient to standardize the levels, but at least allowed a first comparison of the two technologies for moonless night, clear sky conditions. With comparable F-number, integration time and frame rate, the SWIR sensors available in Europe were found to be inferior to the visual technology. An improvement of at least one magnitude would be necessary to ensure similarity between SWIR and visual technologies for all environmental conditions.

  5. The relationship of boundary layer clouds in the tropical southeast Atlantic to absorbing aerosols, meteorology and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, P.; Adebiyi, A. A.; Ramajiguru, L.

    2015-12-01

    Ascension Island, a remote island located in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean within the trade-wind region oat 8S, 14.5W, experiences the outflow of biomass-burning aerosols from continental Africa, over 2000 km away, from July through November, peaking in August and September. The shortwave-absorbing free-tropospheric aerosols, located in a region of high solar irradiance, provide a climate warming that is poorly represented in global aerosol climate models. The low clouds can respond to the smoke layer in myriad possible ways that are not yet well-documented. The shortwave-warming can stabilize the free-troposphere, enhancing the low cloud fraction. The deepening boundary layer and subsiding smoke layer also increase the likelihood of aerosol-cloud microphysical interactions. Interest in this climate regime is supporting an observational strategy of a year-long DOE ARM Mobile Facility deployment to Ascension (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds, or LASIC), and an NSF aircraft campaign (ObservatioNs of Fire's Impact on the southeast atlantic REgion, or ONFIRE) based on Sao Tome Island. These campaigns will be integrated with NASA, UK and African activities sharing similar goals based further south in Namibia. Initial analysis is distinguishing meteorology from aerosol impacts on the boundary layer cloud fields. The forward trajectories of emissions from over 24,000 fire sources on continental Africa show that a free-tropospheric jet can advect aerosols to above Ascension island in just one-two days. The fast transport time encourages retention of signatures of the fire sources, in particular the radiatively-crucial single-scattering albedo value. Thereafter, a deep land-based anticyclonic high recirculates over one-third of these trajectories back to the African continent, explaining the widespread extent of the aerosol layer. The free-tropospheric jet also reduces the mean atmospheric subsidence independently of shortwave absorption by the aerosols

  6. Alpha particles at energies of 10 MeV to 1 TeV: conversion coefficients for fluence-to-absorbed dose, effective dose, and gray equivalent, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.A.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kyle; Parker, Donald E; Friedberg, Wallace

    2010-03-01

    Conversion coefficients have been calculated for fluence to absorbed dose, fluence to effective dose and fluence to gray equivalent, for isotropic exposure to alpha particles in the energy range of 10 MeV to 1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). The coefficients were calculated using Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.A and BodyBuilder 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms modified to allow calculation of effective dose to a Reference Person using tissues and tissue weighting factors from 1990 and 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Coefficients for effective dose are within 30 % of those calculated using ICRP 1990 recommendations.

  7. Fluence to absorbed dose, effective dose and gray equivalent conversion coefficients for iron nuclei from 10 MeV to 1 TeV, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.A.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kyle; Parker, Donald E; Friedberg, Wallace

    2010-03-01

    Conversion coefficients have been calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent for isotropic exposure of an adult male and an adult female to (56)Fe(26+) in the energy range of 10 MeV to 1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). The coefficients were calculated using Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.A and BodyBuilder 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms modified to allow calculation of effective dose using tissues and tissue weighting factors from either the 1990 or 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Calculations using ICRP 2007 recommendations result in fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients that are almost identical at most energies to those calculated using ICRP 1990 recommendations.

  8. Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

  9. Shortwave Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy for Analysis of Ancient Paintings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Taixia; Li, Guanghua; Yang, Zehua; Zhang, Hongming; Lei, Yong; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Lifu

    2016-11-21

    Spectral analysis is one of the main non-destructive techniques used to examine cultural relics. Hyperspectral imaging technology, especially on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band, can clearly extract information from paintings, such as color, pigment composition, damage characteristics, and painting techniques. All of these characteristics have significant scientific and practical value in the study of ancient paintings and other relics and in their protection and restoration. In this study, an ancient painting, numbered Gu-6541, which had been found in the Forbidden City, served as a sample. A ground-based SWIR imaging spectrometer was used to produce hyperspectral images with high spatial and spectral resolution. Results indicated that SWIR imaging spectral data greatly facilitates the extraction of line features used in drafting, even using a single band image. It can be used to identify and classify mineral pigments used in paintings. These images can detect alterations and traces of daub used in painting corrections and, combined with hyperspectral data analysis methods such as band combination or principal component analysis, such information can be extracted to highlight outcomes of interest. In brief, the SWIR imaging spectral technique was found to have a highly favorable effect on the extraction of line features from drawings and on the identification of colors, classification of paintings, and extraction of hidden information.

  10. Reducing broadband shortwave radiometer calibration-bias caused by longwave irradiance in the reference direct beam

    DOE PAGES

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin; Dooraghi, Mike; ...

    2017-01-13

    Shortwave radiometers such as pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, and measures the extended broadband spectrum of the terrestrial direct solar beam irradiance, unlike shortwave radiometers that cover a limited range of the spectrum. The difference between the two spectral ranges may lead to calibration bias that can exceed 1%. This paper describes a method to reduce the calibration bias resulting from using broadband ACRs to calibrate shortwave radiometers, by using an ACR with Schott glass window to measuremore » the reference broadband shortwave irradiance in the terrestrial direct solar beam from 0.3 um to 3 um.« less

  11. Reducing Broadband Shortwave Radiometer Calibration-Bias Caused by Longwave Irradiance in the Reference Direct Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin; Dooraghi, Mike; Sengupta, Manajit; Habte, Aron; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Shortwave radiometers such as pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, and measures the extended broadband spectrum of the terrestrial direct solar beam irradiance, unlike shortwave radiometers that cover a limited range of the spectrum. The difference between the two spectral ranges may lead to calibration bias that can exceed 1%. This article describes a method to reduce the calibration bias resulting from using broadband ACRs to calibrate shortwave radiometers, by using an ACR with Schott glass window to measure the reference broadband shortwave irradiance in the terrestrial direct solar beam from 0.3 um to 3 um.

  12. Put a Short-Wave Radio in Your Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oksenholt, Svein

    1977-01-01

    Advantages of the short-wave radio as a supplement to foreign language instruction as well as practical hints on wavelength, antenna, and techniques for use are provided. Selective annotated bibliography. (STS)

  13. Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from Global Energy Balance Archive Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.

    2009-05-01

    Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the Global Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5° × 2.5° grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave irradiance decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave irradiance recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.

  14. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  15. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  16. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Efficiency of ablative loading of material upon the fast-electron transfer of absorbed laser energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Kalal, M.; Limpouch, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2006-05-01

    We present the results of experiments on the short-term irradiation of a solid material by a laser beam. The data testify to a rise in efficiency of the energy transfer from the laser pulse to a shock wave due to the fast-electron energy transfer. The experiments were performed with massive aluminium targets on the PALS iodine laser, whose pulse duration (0.4 ns) was much shorter than the time of shock decay and crater formation in the target (50-200 ns). The irradiation experiments were carried out using the fundamental laser harmonic (1.315 μm) with an energy of 360 J. The greater part of the experiments were performed for the radiation intensity exceeding 1015 W cm-2, which corresponded to the efficient generation of fast electrons under the conditions where the relatively long-wavelength iodine-laser radiation was employed. The irradiation intensity was varied by varying the laser beam radius for a specified pulse energy.

  17. Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenson, N.; Doherty, S. J.; Bitz, C. M.; Holland, M. M.; Light, B.; Conley, A. J.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of light-absorbing aerosol particles deposited on arctic snow and sea ice influences the surface albedo, causing greater shortwave absorption, warming, and loss of snow and sea ice, lowering the albedo further. The Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) now includes the radiative effects of light-absorbing particles in snow on land and sea ice and in sea ice itself. We investigate the model response to the deposition of black carbon and dust to both snow and sea ice. For these purposes we employ a slab ocean version of CESM1, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4), run to equilibrium for year 2000 levels of CO2 and fixed aerosol deposition. We construct experiments with and without aerosol deposition, with dust or black carbon deposition alone, and with varying quantities of black carbon and dust to approximate year 1850 and 2000 deposition fluxes. The year 2000 deposition fluxes of both dust and black carbon cause 1-2 °C of surface warming over large areas of the Arctic Ocean and sub-Arctic seas in autumn and winter and in patches of Northern land in every season. Atmospheric circulation changes are a key component of the surface-warming pattern. Arctic sea ice thins by on average about 30 cm. Simulations with year 1850 aerosol deposition are not substantially different from those with year 2000 deposition, given constant levels of CO2. The climatic impact of particulate impurities deposited over land exceeds that of particles deposited over sea ice. Even the surface warming over the sea ice and sea ice thinning depends more upon light-absorbing particles deposited over land. For CO2 doubled relative to year 2000 levels, the climate impact of particulate impurities in snow and sea ice is substantially lower than for the year 2000 equilibrium simulation.

  18. Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenson, N.; Doherty, S. J.; Bitz, C. M.; Holland, M. M.; Light, B.; Conley, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    The presence of light-absorbing aerosol particles deposited on arctic snow and sea ice influences the surface albedo, causing greater shortwave absorption, warming, and loss of snow and sea ice, lowering the albedo further. The Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) now includes the radiative effects of light-absorbing particles in snow on land and sea ice and in sea ice itself. We investigate the model response to the deposition of black carbon and dust to both snow and sea ice. For these purposes we employ a slab ocean version of CESM1, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4), run to equilibrium for year 2000 levels of CO2 and fixed aerosol deposition. We construct experiments with and without aerosol deposition, with dust or black carbon deposition alone, and with varying quantities of black carbon and dust to approximate year 1850 and 2000 deposition fluxes. The year 2000 deposition fluxes of both dust and black carbon cause 1-2 °C of surface warming over large areas of the Arctic Ocean and sub-Arctic seas in autumn and winter and in patches of Northern land in every season. Atmospheric circulation changes are a key component of the surface-warming pattern. Arctic sea ice thins by on average about 30 cm. Simulations with year 1850 aerosol deposition are not substantially different from those with year 2000 deposition, given constant levels of CO2. The climatic impact of particulate impurities deposited over land exceeds that of particles deposited over sea ice. Even the surface warming over the sea ice and sea ice thinning depends more upon light-absorbing particles deposited over land. For CO2 doubled relative to year 2000 levels, the climate impact of particulate impurities in snow and sea ice is substantially lower than for the year 2000 equilibrium simulation.

  19. Deuterons at energies of 10 MeV to 1 TeV: conversion coefficients for fluence-to-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and gray equivalent, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.C.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kyle; Parker, Donald E; Friedberg, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Conversion coefficients were calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-equivalent dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent for isotropic exposure of an adult female and an adult male to deuterons ((2)H(+)) in the energy range 10 MeV-1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). Coefficients were calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.C and BodyBuilder™ 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms. Phantoms were modified to allow calculation of the effective dose to a Reference Person using tissues and tissue weighting factors from 1990 and 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Coefficients for the equivalent and effective dose incorporated a radiation weighting factor of 2. At 15 of 19 energies for which coefficients for the effective dose were calculated, coefficients based on ICRP 1990 and 2007 recommendations differed by <3%. The greatest difference, 47%, occurred at 30 MeV.

  20. A Flexible Parameterization for Shortwave Optical Properties of Ice Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Cairns, Brian; Fridlind, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    A parameterization is presented that provides extinction cross section sigma (sub e), single-scattering albedo omega, and asymmetry parameter (g) of ice crystals for any combination of volume, projected area, aspect ratio, and crystal distortion at any wavelength in the shortwave. Similar to previous parameterizations, the scheme makes use of geometric optics approximations and the observation that optical properties of complex, aggregated ice crystals can be well approximated by those of single hexagonal crystals with varying size, aspect ratio, and distortion levels. In the standard geometric optics implementation used here, sigma (sub e) is always twice the particle projected area. It is shown that omega is largely determined by the newly defined absorption size parameter and the particle aspect ratio. These dependences are parameterized using a combination of exponential, lognormal, and polynomial functions. The variation of (g) with aspect ratio and crystal distortion is parameterized for one reference wavelength using a combination of several polynomials. The dependences of g on refractive index and omega are investigated and factors are determined to scale the parameterized (g) to provide values appropriate for other wavelengths. The parameterization scheme consists of only 88 coefficients. The scheme is tested for a large variety of hexagonal crystals in several wavelength bands from 0.2 to 4 micron, revealing absolute differences with reference calculations of omega and (g) that are both generally below 0.015. Over a large variety of cloud conditions, the resulting root-mean-squared differences with reference calculations of cloud reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are 1.4%, 1.1%, and 3.4%, respectively. Some practical applications of the parameterization in atmospheric models are highlighted.

  1. Using the shortwave infrared to image middle ear pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Tulio A.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing structures deep inside opaque biological tissues is one of the central challenges in biomedical imaging. Optical imaging with visible light provides high resolution and sensitivity; however, scattering and absorption of light by tissue limits the imaging depth to superficial features. Imaging with shortwave infrared light (SWIR, 1–2 μm) shares many advantages of visible imaging, but light scattering in tissue is reduced, providing sufficient optical penetration depth to noninvasively interrogate subsurface tissue features. However, the clinical potential of this approach has been largely unexplored because suitable detectors, until recently, have been either unavailable or cost prohibitive. Here, taking advantage of newly available detector technology, we demonstrate the potential of SWIR light to improve diagnostics through the development of a medical otoscope for determining middle ear pathologies. We show that SWIR otoscopy has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy. We show that in healthy adult human ears, deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows better visualization of middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane, including the ossicular chain, promontory, round window niche, and chorda tympani. In addition, we investigate the potential for detection of middle ear fluid, which has significant implications for diagnosing otitis media, the overdiagnosis of which is a primary factor in increased antibiotic resistance. Middle ear fluid shows strong light absorption between 1,400 and 1,550 nm, enabling straightforward fluid detection in a model using the SWIR otoscope. Moreover, our device is easily translatable to the clinic, as the ergonomics, visual output, and operation are similar to a conventional otoscope. PMID:27551085

  2. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: a case study in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition.

    PubMed

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-06-15

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured Fv/Fm, DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of Fv/Fm and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte-based UV biomonitoring in

  3. Radio-Absorbing Nanocoatings on Corrugated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, V. B.; Potekaev, A. I.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Melentyev, S. V.; Tsyganok, Yu. I.

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of producing protective radio-absorbing shielding materials on the basis of differently shaped surfaces with nanostructured coatings is investigated. Combinations of special nanostructured materials and technical solutions for the shape of the absorbing surface were tested, in order to create efficient nanocoatings. It is shown that the coatings of interest that meet the requirements of low reflection and high attenuation of transmitted radiation combined with low coating thickness can be developed, using corrugated surfaces. Corrugated chicken egg-packing cell samples with nanostructured carbon coatings were examined and found to allow for effective shielding of electromagnetic radiation and to exhibit minimum reflection coefficients as compared to construction materials.

  4. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  5. Shock absorber control system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Y.; Ohira, M.; Ushida, M.; Miyagawa, T.; Shimodaira, T.

    1987-01-13

    A shock absorber control system is described for controlling a dampening force of a shock absorber of a vehicle comprising: setting means for setting a desired dampening force changeable within a predetermined range; drive means for driving the shock absorber to change the dampening force of the shock absorber linearly; control means for controlling the drive means in accordance with the desired dampening force when the setting of the desired dampening force has been changed; detecting means for detecting an actual dampening force of the shock absorber; and correcting means for correcting the dampening force of the shock absorber by controlling the drive means in accordance with a difference between the desired dampening force and the detected actual dampening force.

  6. CPCs with segmented absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Keita, M.; Robertson, H.S. )

    1991-01-01

    One of the most promising means of improving the performance of solar thermal collectors is to reduce the energy lost by the hot absorber. One way to do this, not currently part of the technology, is to recognize that since the absorber is usually not irradiated uniformly, it is therefore possible to construct an absorber of thermally isolated segments, circulate the fluid in sequence from low to high irradiance segments, and reduce loss by improving effective concentration. This procedure works even for ideal concentrators, without violating Winston's theorem. Two equivalent CPC collectors with single and segmented absorber were constructed and compared under actual operating conditions. The results showed that the daily thermal efficiency of the collector with segmented absorber is higher (about 13%) than that of the collector with nonsegmented absorber.

  7. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  8. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  9. Required signal-to-interference ratios for shortwave broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, George

    1997-09-01

    The required signal-to-Interference (RSI) ratio for a specified grade of HF radio service is the hourly median wanted signal power at the input of the receiver needed relative to the sum of the hourly median unwanted signal power and the hourly median radio noise power in the RF bandwidth of the receiver, adjusted so that the hourly median ratio will not fall below the RSI ratio more than a certain percentage of the time due to minute-to-minute fading within the hour. Shortwave listeners are well aware of the deleterious effects of cochannel and adjacent channel interference. This type of interference is especially prevalent in the overcrowded international broadcast bands where it is manifested by cross talk and a beat note produced in the receiver by the carrier of the unwanted signal. Yet little agreement exists as to the magnitude of the amplitude-modulated, double sideband (AM-DSB) interfering signal that can be tolerated by the listener. Numerous protection ratios have been proposed in the literature, as well as by elements of the International Telecommunication Union. These values tend to range from 17 dB [International Frequency Registration Board, 1989] to as high as 50 dB for "good commercial quality," offset in carrier frequency of 500 Hz and 10 dB short-term fade protection [CCIR, 1970]. In this paper, several significant experiments are reviewed for the purpose of normalizing their findings to a common set of parameters. The parameters relate to articulation scoring, type of noise (if used), fading of wanted and unwanted signals, type of interference, listener skill, bandwidth of the receiver, carrier frequency offset, etc. From this compilation of normalized data, RSI values are recommended as they relate to the desired broadcast quality and the signal-to-noise ratio of the wanted signal. The RSI ratios are compatible for use in HF sky wave prediction programs that contain appropriate RF noise and interference combining subroutines. The recommended

  10. Spectralon BRDF and DHR Measurements in Support of Satellite Instruments Operating Through Shortwave Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon*, a common material for laboratory and onorbit flight diffusers. A new measurement setup for BRDF measurements from 900 nm to 2500 nm located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. The GSFC setup employs an extended indium gallium arsenide detector, bandpass filters, and a supercontinuum light source. Comparisons of the GSFC BRDF measurements in the ShortWave InfraRed (SWIR) with those made by the NIST Spectral Trifunction Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) are presented. The Spectralon sample used in this study was 2 inch diameter, 99% white pressed and sintered Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) target. The NASA/NIST BRDF comparison measurements were made at an incident angle of 0 deg and viewing angle of 45 deg. Additional BRDF data not compared to NIST were measured at additional incident and viewing angle geometries and are not presented here The total combined uncertainty for the measurement of BRDF in the SWIR range made by the GSFC scatterometer is less than 1% (k=1). This study is in support of the calibration of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of and other current and future NASA remote sensing missions operating across the reflected solar wavelength region.

  11. Quantitative Comparison of the Variability in Observed and Simulated Shortwave Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Yolanda, L.; Pilewskie, P.; Kindel, B. C.; Feldman, D. R.; Collins, W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a climate observation system that has been designed to monitor the Earth's climate with unprecedented absolute radiometric accuracy and SI traceability. Climate Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) have been generated to simulate CLARREO hyperspectral shortwave imager measurements to help define the measurement characteristics needed for CLARREO to achieve its objectives. To evaluate how well the OSSE-simulated reflectance spectra reproduce the Earth s climate variability at the beginning of the 21st century, we compared the variability of the OSSE reflectance spectra to that of the reflectance spectra measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY). Principal component analysis (PCA) is a multivariate decomposition technique used to represent and study the variability of hyperspectral radiation measurements. Using PCA, between 99.7%and 99.9%of the total variance the OSSE and SCIAMACHY data sets can be explained by subspaces defined by six principal components (PCs). To quantify how much information is shared between the simulated and observed data sets, we spectrally decomposed the intersection of the two data set subspaces. The results from four cases in 2004 showed that the two data sets share eight (January and October) and seven (April and July) dimensions, which correspond to about 99.9% of the total SCIAMACHY variance for each month. The spectral nature of these shared spaces, understood by examining the transformed eigenvectors calculated from the subspace intersections, exhibit similar physical characteristics to the original PCs calculated from each data set, such as water vapor absorption, vegetation reflectance, and cloud reflectance.

  12. Contribution of ultraviolet and shortwave infrared observations to atmospheric correction of PACE ocean-color imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert J.; Gross-Colzy, Lydwine S.

    2016-05-01

    The Pre-Aerosol, Cloud, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission will carry into space a spectrometer measuring at 5 nm resolution in the ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) and at lower resolution in spectral bands in the NIR and shortwave infrared (SWIR). These observations have great potential for improving estimates of marine reflectance in the post-EOS era. In view of this, we evaluate, using simulations with a coupled radiation transfer code, the gain in marine reflectance accuracy expected by including observations in the UV and SWIR compared with just using observations in the visible to NIR. The study is performed for the PACE threshold aggregate bands with respect to the standard set of bands used to generate ocean color products. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) signal measured by the PACE spectrometer is simulated for a variety of realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The TOA reflectance and the marine reflectance of the simulated ensemble are decomposed into principal components, and the components of the TOA reflectance sensitive to the ocean signal identified. Inverse models are constructed to retrieve the principal components of the marine reflectance, allowing a reconstruction, therefore an estimation of the marine reflectance. Theoretical performance is quantified as a function of angular geometry, aerosol properties, and water type, showing a significant improvement in retrieval accuracy when using the extended spectral range. On average over all the situations considered (including sun glint), the RMS error is reduced from 0.0037 to 0.0024 at 412 nm, from 0.0013 to 0.0007 at 665 nm, and from 0.0010 to 0.0004 at 865 nm (Case 2 waters are better handled). The performance is degraded at large zenith angles and aerosol optical thickness, is better at scattering angles around 120-130 degrees, and exhibits little dependence on aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol scale height.

  13. Relationships between MODIS black-sky shortwave albedo and airborne lidar based forest canopy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Lauri; Rautiainen, Miina; Arumäe, Tauri; Lang, Mait; Flewelling, James; Tokola, Timo; Stenberg, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Albedo is one of the essential climate variables affecting the Earth's radiation balance. It is however not well understood how changes in forest canopy structure influence the albedo. Canopy structure can be mapped consistently for fairly large areas using airborne lidar sensors. Our objective was to study the relationships between MODIS shortwave black sky albedo product and lidar-based estimates of canopy structure in different biomes ranging from arctic to tropical. Our study is based on six structurally different forest sites located in Finland, Estonia, USA and Laos. Lidar-based mean height of the canopy, canopy cover and their transformations were used as predictor variables to describe the canopy structure. Tree species composition was also included for the three sites where it was available. We noticed that the variables predicting albedo best were different in open and closed canopy forests. In closed canopy forests, the species information was more important than canopy structure variables (R2=0.31-0.32) and using only structural variables resulted in poor R2 (0.13-0.15). If the 500 m MODIS pixel contained a mixture of forests and other land cover types, the albedo was strongly related to the forest area percent. In open canopy forests, structural variables such as canopy cover or height explained albedo well, but species information still improved the models (R2=0.27-0.52). We obtained the highest R2=0.52 using only structural variables in Laos on a partially degraded tropical forest with large variation in canopy cover. The different canopy structure variables were often correlated and the one that provided the best model changed from site to site.

  14. Nimbus 6 ERB scanner studies for development of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Avis, L. M.; Renfroe, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    The Nimbus 6 ERB scanner data were conducted to support the development of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System project. The ERB data were processed in terms of Earth targets and angular bins and used to evaluate currently available directional radiation models for the longwave and shortwave spectral ranges. Results indicate that available longwave models are adequate for the most part while available shortwave models are inadequate. An effort was initiated to develop improved shortwave models for various cloud conditions and various surface types for cloud free conditions.

  15. Assessment of physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed studies reporting the strength of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in physiotherapists' occupational environment. Studies from academic journals published from January 1990 to June 2010 were identified in nine online bibliographic databases. EMF strength was compared with occupational exposure limits (OELs) recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the reviewed studies, EMFs were measured at different distances (range 0.2 m to 6 m) from the console of diathermy devices, electrodes, and cables. For continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) (27.12 megahertz, MHz), measurements of EMFs at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m reported the maximum E field strength as 8197%, 1639%, 295%, and 69%, respectively, and the maximum H field strength as 6250%, 681%, 213%, and 56%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) (27.12 MHz), EMF measurements at < 1 m, 1 m, and, 1.1-1.5 m showed the maximum E field intensity as 1639%, 175%, and 32%, and the maximum H field strength as 1175%, 968%, and 28%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For microwave diathermy (MWD) (2.45 gigahertz, GHz), the maximum power density measured at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m was 200%, <30%, 0.76%, and 0.82%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limit for occupational exposure. RF EMF emissions measured from continuous and pulsed electrotherapeutic diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD. The reviewed studies did not provide evidence of exceeding the ICNIRP's reference levels for occupational exposure at 1 m from MWD devices.

  16. Pan-spectral observing system simulation experiments of shortwave reflectance and long-wave radiance for climate model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, D. R.; Collins, W. D.; Paige, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectrally resolved shortwave reflectances and long-wave radiances describe the response of the Earth's surface and atmosphere to feedback processes and human-induced forcings. In order to evaluate proposed long-duration spectral measurements, we have projected 21st Century changes from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3.0) conducted for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 Emissions Scenario onto shortwave reflectance spectra from 300 to 2500 nm and long-wave radiance spectra from 2000 to 200 cm-1 at 8 nm and 1 cm-1 resolution, respectively. The radiative transfer calculations have been rigorously validated against published standards and produce complementary signals describing the climate system forcings and feedbacks. Additional demonstration experiments were performed with the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC5) and Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 Earth System (HadGEM2-ES) models for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The calculations contain readily distinguishable signatures of low clouds, snow/ice, aerosols, temperature gradients, and water vapour distributions. The goal of this effort is to understand both how climate change alters reflected solar and emitted infrared spectra of the Earth and determine whether spectral measurements enhance our detection and attribution of climate change. This effort also presents a path forward to understand the characteristics of hyperspectral observational records needed to confront models and inline instrument simulation. Such simulation will enable a diverse set of comparisons between model results from coupled model intercomparisons and existing and proposed satellite instrument measurement systems.

  17. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  18. Leaves of Citrus aurantifolia exhibit a different sensibility to solar UV-B radiation according to development stage in relation to photosynthetic pigments and UV-B absorbing compounds production.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Silvina; Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2008-03-28

    Plants of Citrus aurantifolia grown in a greenhouse without solar UV radiation (UVR) were transferred outdoors to evaluate the effect of solar UV-B radiation (UVBR, 280-315 nm) in prior-developed leaves, constituted by apical bud and those fully expanded before being taken outdoors, and post-developed leaves, formed by those expanded outdoors. Results demonstrated that over a 40 d outdoor period leaf chlorophyll content and distribution pattern were different with and without solar UVBR. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents in both treatments were higher in prior-developed leaves than in post-developed ones. However, highest values were observed in prior-developed leaves under solar UVBR, whereas in post-developed leaves an opposite trend was observed. Carotenoids content in prior-developed leaves was higher with solar UVBR, whereas in post-developed leaves there were no significant differences in both with and without solar UVBR. In addition, prior-developed leaves under solar UVBR accumulated flavonoids, but not anthocyanins. Growth parameters (e.g. DW, DW/FW ratio, LMA, plant height, length and width of foliar lamina) did not show significant differences between plants grown with and without solar UVBR. Thus, our results demonstrated that C. aurantifolia leaves exhibited a different sensibility to solar UVBR according to development stage in relation to photosynthetic pigments and UV-B absorbing compounds production. In addition, the solar UVBR was not necessary as inductor of photosynthetic protection mechanisms in a short-time growth period. On the other hand, our results also demonstrated that solar UVBR acted as an effective feeding deterrent against citrus leafminer.

  19. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging.

  20. Variability of Earth's radiation budget components during 2009 - 2015 from radiometer IKOR-M data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherviakov, Maksim

    2016-04-01

    This report describes a new «Meteor-M» satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite of new generation "Meteor-M» № 1 was put into orbit in September, 2009. The radiometer IKOR-M - «The Measuring instrument of short-wave reflected radiation" was created in Saratov State University. It was installed on Russian hydrometeorological satellites «Meteor-M» № 1 and № 2. Radiometer IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such information can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts, in researches of climate change trends and also in calculation of absorbed solar radiation values and albedo of the Earth-atmosphere system. Satellite «Meteor-M» № 1 and № 2 are heliosynchronous that allows observing from North to South Poles. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation (OSR), albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (http://www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October, 2009 to August, 2014 and second - from August, 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the «Meteor-M» № 1 measurements in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from «Meteor-M» № 2. The seasonal and interannual variations of OSR, albedo and ASR were discussed. The variations between SW radiation

  1. Tritons at energies of 10 MeV to 1 TeV: conversion coefficients for fluence-to-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and gray equivalent, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.C.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kyle; Parker, Donald E; Friedberg, Wallace

    2010-12-01

    Conversion coefficients were calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-equivalent dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent for isotropic exposure of an adult female and an adult male to tritons ((3)H(+)) in the energy range of 10 MeV to 1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). Coefficients were calculated using Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.C and BodyBuilder™ 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms. Phantoms were modified to allow calculation of effective dose to a Reference Person using tissues and tissue weighting factors from 1990 and 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and calculation of gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. At 15 of the 19 energies for which coefficients for effective dose were calculated, coefficients based on ICRP 2007 and 1990 recommendations differed by less than 3%. The greatest difference, 43%, occurred at 30 MeV.

  2. Helions at energies of 10 MeV to 1 TeV: conversion coefficients for fluence-to-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and gray equivalent, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.C.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kyle; Parker, Donald E; Friedberg, Wallace

    2010-12-01

    Conversion coefficients were calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-equivalent dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent, for isotropic exposure of an adult male and an adult female to helions ((3)He(2+)) in the energy range of 10 MeV to 1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). Calculations were performed using Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.C and BodyBuilder™ 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms modified to allow calculation of effective dose using tissues and tissue weighting factors from either the 1990 or 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. At 15 of the 19 energies for which coefficients for effective dose were calculated, coefficients based on ICRP 2007 and 1990 recommendations differed by less than 2%. The greatest difference, 62%, occurred at 100 MeV.

  3. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  4. A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Charles N.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Jonsson, Haf; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, A. M.; Wood, John

    2010-04-14

    Significant errors occur in downwelling shortwave irradiance measurements made on moving platforms due to tilt from horizontal because, when the sun is not completely blocked by overhead cloud, the downwelling shortwave irradiance has a prominent directional component from the direct sun. A-priori knowledge of the partitioning between the direct and diffuse components of the total shortwave irradiance is needed to properly apply a correction for tilt. This partitioning information can be adequately provided using a newly available commercial radiometer that produces reasonable measurements of the total and diffuse shortwave irradiance, and by subtraction the direct shortwave irradiance, with no moving parts and regardless of azimuthal orientation. We have developed methodologies for determining the constant pitch and roll offsets of the radiometers for aircraft applications, and for applying a tilt correction to the total shortwave irradiance data. Results suggest that the methodology is for tilt up to +/-10°, with 90% of the data corrected to within 10 Wm-2 at least for clear-sky data. Without a proper tilt correction, even data limited to 5° of tilt as is typical current practice still exhibits large errors, greater than 100 Wm-2 in some cases. Given the low cost, low weight, and low power consumption of the SPN1 total and diffuse radiometer, opportunities previously excluded for moving platform measurements such as small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and solar powered buoys now become feasible using our methodology. The increase in measurement accuracy is important, given current concerns over long-term climate variability and change especially over the 70% of the Earth’s surface covered by ocean where long-term records of these measurements are sorely needed and must be made on ships and buoys.

  5. Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of ARM spectral short-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1994-07-01

    Our ARM goal is to help improve both longwave and shortwave models used in GCM's by providing improved radiometric shortwave data. The inference of cloud cover and optical properties of clouds is another goal of this research effort. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling shortwave, including direct and diffuse irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling longwave, upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave, and aerosol optical depth that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data as a model test data set for ARM researchers. The major objective of our program has been to develop two spectral versions of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR). The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) contains six filtered, narrow-passband detectors, and one unfiltered silicon detector that serves as a surrogate total shortwave sensor. The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) contains a 256-channel diode array that spans the wavelengths 350-1050 nm with resolution varying between 0.6 nm and 8 nm. With some of the instrument development complete we are devoting more effort to analysis of the MFRSR data. Progress was made on several fronts this year, resulting in conference papers and submissions to refereed journals. Data from the ASRC roof has been used to develop corrections of the MFRSR shortwave sensor. SGP data has been used to develop and validate a retrieval technique for total column water vapor. Total column ozone has been estimated using MFRSR data, but validation at the SGP was not possible for lack of a suitable ozone column standard. Some progress has been made on cloud cover detection, but it is not yet implemented as a routine classification and reporting procedure.

  6. A Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness Using Shortwave Broadband Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, James C.; Long, Charles N.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we present an empirical equation that can be used to estimate shortwave cloud optical thickness from measurements and analysis of shortwave broadband irradiances. When applied to a time series of broadband observations, this method can predict cloud optical thickness distributions that are very similar to those obtained using the Min algorithm (Min and Harrison, 1996). When considering a number of geographically diverse sites, medians of equation-derived distributions and Min-derived distributions differ by less than 10%. The equation is designed for fully overcast skies, surface albedos less than 0.3, and the cosine of the solar zenith angle must be greater than 0.15.

  7. The Santa Barbara Research Center multimodule shortwave IR linear array and scene simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cizdziel, Philip; Merlo, Thomas; Kormos, Karen; Fuquay, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Alignment test results and scene simulator imagery are presented for a 1 x 1280 element linear assembly consisting of 5 end-butted modules. The modules include a Si readout chip, a 256 element photovoltaic HgCdTe detector array, and a Si/sapphire carrier. At 145 K, the operation of the LPE shortwave HgCdTE detector array yielded Resistance Area products of 420,000 ohm-sq cm. The results demonstrate the ability to fabricate high-performance, long linear multimodule shortwave IR focal planes for space applications.

  8. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  9. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  10. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 2: The Earth flux channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Douglas Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Penn, Lanning M.; Groveman, Brian S.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Nine years (November 1978 to October 1987) of Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) products have shown that the global annual mean emitted longwave, absorbed shortwave, and net radiation were constant to within about + 0.5 W/sq m. Further, most of the small annual variations in the emitted longwave have been shown to be real. To obtain this measurement accuracy, the wide-field-of-view (WFOV) Earth-viewing channels 12 (0.2 to over 50 micrometers), 13 (0.2 to 3.8 micrometers), and 14 (0.7 to 2.8 micrometers) have been characterized in their satellite environment to account for signal variations not considered in the prelaunch calibration equations. Calibration adjustments have been derived for (1) extraterrestrial radiation incident on the detectors, (2) long-term degradation of the sensors, and (3) thermal perturbations within the ERB instrument. The first item is important in all the channels; the second, mainly in channels 13 and 14, and the third, only in channels 13 and 14. The Sun is used as a stable calibration source to monitor the long-term degradation of the various channels. Channel 12, which is reasonably stable to both thermal perturbations and sensor degradation, is used as a reference and calibration transfer agent for the drifting sensitivities of the filtered channels 13 and 14. Redundant calibration procedures were utilized. Laboratory studies complemented analyses of the satellite data. Two nearly independent models were derived to account for the thermal perturbations in channels 13 and 14. The global annual mean terrestrial shortwave and longwave signals proved stable enough to act as secondary calibration sources. Instantaneous measurements may still, at times, be in error by as much as a few Wm(exp -2), but the long-term averages are stable to within a fraction of a Wm(exp -2).

  11. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  12. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  13. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  14. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol particles have an important impact on the surface net radiation budget by direct scattering and absorption (direct aerosol effect) of solar radiation, and also by influencing cloud formation processes (semi-direct and indirect aerosol effects). To study the former, a number of multispectral sky- and sunphotometers have been developed at the Institute for Space Sciences of the Free University of Berlin in the past two decades. The latest operational developments were the multispectral aureole- and sunphotometer FUBISS-ASA2, the zenith radiometer FUBISS-ZENITH, and the nadir polarimeter AMSSP-EM, all designed for a flexible use on moving platforms like aircraft or ships. Currently the multiangle, multispectral radiometer URMS/AMSSP (Universal Radiation Measurement System/ Airborne Multispectral Sunphotometer and Polarimeter) is under construction for a Wing-Pod of the high altitude research aircraft HALO operated by DLR. The system is expected to have its first mission on HALO in 2011. The algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol and trace gas properties from the recorded multidirectional, multispectral radiation measurements allow more than deriving standard products, as for instance the aerosol optical depth and the Angstrom exponent. The radiation measured in the solar aureole contains information about the aerosol phasefunction and therefore allows conclusions about the particle type. Furthermore, airborne instrument operation allows vertically resolved measurements. An inversion algorithm, based on radiative transfer simulations and additionally including measured vertical zenith-radiance profiles, allows conclusions about the aerosol single scattering albedo and the relative soot fraction in aerosol layers. Ozone column retrieval is performed evaluating measurements from pixels in the Chappuis absorption band. A retrieval algorithm to derive the water-vapor column from the sunphotometer measurements is currently under development. Of the various airborne

  15. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  16. The arrow of electromagnetic time and the generalized absorber theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, John G.

    1983-09-01

    The problem of the direction of electromagnetic time, i.e., the complete dominance of retarded electromagnetic radiation over advanced radiation in the universe, is considered in the context of a generalized form of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in an open expanding universe with a singularity at T=0. It is shown that the application of a four-vector reflection boundary condition at the singularity leads to the observed dominance of retarded radiation; it also clarifies the role of advanced and retarded waves in the emission of very weakly absorbed radiation such as neutrinos.

  17. Spectral aerosol direct radiative forcing from airborne radiative measurements during CalNex and ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Samuel E.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Hostetler, C.; Ferrare, R.; Hair, J.; Langridge, J. M.; Lack, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    This study presents the aerosol radiative forcing derived from airborne measurements of shortwave spectral irradiance during the 2010 Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex). Relative forcing efficiency, the radiative forcing normalized by aerosol optical thickness and incident irradiance, is a means of comparing the aerosol radiative forcing for different conditions. In this study, it is used to put the aerosol radiative effects of an air mass in the Los Angeles basin in context with case studies from three field missions that targeted other regions and aerosol types, including a case study from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS). For CalNex, we relied on irradiance measurements onboard the NOAA P-3 aircraft during a flight on 19 May 2010 over a ground station. CalNex presented a difficulty for determining forcing efficiency since one of the input parameters, optical thickness, was not available from the same aircraft. However, extinction profiles were available from a nearby aircraft. An existing retrieval algorithm was modified to use those measurements as initial estimate for the missing optical thickness. In addition, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (secondary products of the method), were compared with CalNex in situ measurements. The CalNex relative forcing efficiency spectra agreed with earlier studies that found this parameter to be constrained at each wavelength within 20% per unit of aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm regardless of aerosol type and experiment, except for highly absorbing aerosols sampled near Mexico City. The diurnally averaged below-layer forcing efficiency integrated over the wavelength range of 350-700 nm for CalNex is estimated to be -58.6 ± 13.8 W/m2, whereas for the ARCTAS case it is -48.7 ± 11.5 W/m2.

  18. Testing a Model of IR Radiative Losses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Vignola, F.; Long, C. N.; Reda, I.

    2009-08-01

    Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global and diffuse shortwave measurements made with first class thermopile based instruments. Pyrgeometers can be used to measure the sky temperature and are used to calculate the pyranometer?s IR radiative losses.

  19. Development of rotating shadowband spectral radiometers and GCM radiation code test data sets in support of ARM. Technical progress report, September 15, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1993-04-30

    The ARM goal is to help improve both longwave and shortwave models by providing improved radiometric shortwave data. These data can be used directly to test shortwave model predictions. As will be described below they can also provide inferred values for aerosol and cloud properties that are useful for longwave modeling efforts as well. The current ARM research program includes three tasks all related to the study of shortwave radiation transfer through clouds and aerosol. Two of the tasks involve the assembly of archived and new radiation and meteorological data sets; the third and dominant task has been the development and use of new shortwave radiometric sensors. Archived data from Golden, Colorado, and Albany, New York, were combined with National Weather Service ground and upper air data for testing radiation models for the era when the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) was operational. These data do not include optimum surface radiation measurements; consequently we are acquiring downwelling shortwave, including direct and diffuse irradiance, plus downwelling longwave, upwelling shortwave, and aerosol optical depth, at our own institution, as an additional dataset for ARM modelers.

  20. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  1. Shock absorber servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tool to assist in the servicing of a shock absorber wherein the shock absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the shock absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.

  2. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  3. Prediction and measurement of the electromagnetic environment of high-power medium-wave and short-wave broadcast antennas in far field.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhanghong; Wang, Qun; Ji, Zhijiang; Shi, Meiwu; Hou, Guoyan; Tan, Danjun; Wang, Pengqi; Qiu, Xianbo

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing city size, high-power electromagnetic radiation devices such as high-power medium-wave (MW) and short-wave (SW) antennas have been inevitably getting closer and closer to buildings, which resulted in the pollution of indoor electromagnetic radiation becoming worsened. To avoid such radiation exceeding the exposure limits by national standards, it is necessary to predict and survey the electromagnetic radiation by MW and SW antennas before constructing the buildings. In this paper, a modified prediction method for the far-field electromagnetic radiation is proposed and successfully applied to predict the electromagnetic environment of an area close to a group of typical high-power MW and SW wave antennas. Different from currently used simplified prediction method defined in the Radiation Protection Management Guidelines (H J/T 10. 3-1996), the new method in this article makes use of more information such as antennas' patterns to predict the electromagnetic environment. Therefore, it improves the prediction accuracy significantly by the new feature of resolution at different directions. At the end of this article, a comparison between the prediction data and the measured results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  4. Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A lightweight, inexpensive shock-absorbing system, developed by Langley Research Center 20 years ago, is now in service as safety device for an automated railway at Duke University Medical Center. The transportation system travels at about 25 miles per hour, carrying patients, visitors, staff and cargo. At the end of each guideway of the system are "frangible," (breakable) tube "buffers." If a slowing car fails to make a complete stop at the terminal, it would bump and shatter the tubes, absorbing energy that might otherwise jolt the passengers or damage the vehicle.

  5. Modelling Sub-canopy Shortwave Under Needle-Leaf Forests in Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Snowmelt is one of the most important hydrological events in mountain regions, responsible for soil moisture recharge, vegetation growth, and ecosystem productivity. Mountain snowmelt is also of tremendous importance to the downstream water resource of many North American regions, from where over 80% of river- flows may originate. As mountain regions are covered largely by needle-leaf forests, turbulent energy exchanges are suppressed and snowmelt is driven primarily by shortwave irradiance energy transmitted to the sub-canopy Thus, effective prediction of the timing and magnitude of mountain snowmelt runoff for the purposes reservoir operation, land-use planning, and flood forecasting require accurate estimation of shortwave irradiance transmission through sloping forest-cover. This paper outlines and evaluates a physically-based model requiring minimal calibration designed to estimate shortwave irradiance transmission through needle-leaf forest cover with respect to surface orientation. Transmission was estimated using forest-survey data to calculate the fractions of forest occupied by non-transmitting trunks, partially-transmitting crowns and fully-transmitting gaps with respect to both above-canopy diffuse and beam irradiance. Simulations were conducted for continuous and uniform lodgepole pine forests on level and north-facing slopes and a discontinuous, non-uniform forest on a southeast-facing slope during snowmelt at the Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta, Canada. Mean observed daily transmissivity values were 0.09 at the north-facing forest, 0.21 at the level forest and 0.36 at the southeast-facing forest. Modelled and observed results indicate that sub-canopy shortwave irradiance snowmelt energy exhibited greatest variation with change in sky condition and forest-cover density under south-facing forests and the least variation under north-facing forests. This suggests the timing and rate of snowmelt may vary more for south-facing forests than for forests

  6. Solar concentrator/absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Collector/energy converter, consisting of dual-slope optical concentrator and counterflow thermal energy absorber, is attached to multiaxis support structure. Efficient over wide range of illumination levels, device may be used to generate high temperature steam, serve as solar powered dryer, or power absorption cycle cooler.

  7. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  8. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  9. Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, M.; Bang, O.; Zhou, B. B.; Moses, J.; Wise, F. W.

    2010-12-15

    We show through theory and numerics that when few-cycle femtosecond solitons are generated through cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, these broadband solitons can emit optical Cherenkov radiation in the form of linear dispersive waves located in the red part of the spectrum. The beating between the dispersive wave and the soliton generates trailing temporal oscillations on the compressed soliton. Insertion of a simple short-wave pass filter after the crystal can restore a clean soliton. On the other hand, bandpass filtering around the dispersive wave peak results in near-transform-limited ultrashort mid-IR pulses with pulse durations much shorter than the input near-IR pulse. The Cherenkov radiation for the crystal considered ({beta}-barium borate) is found for pump wavelengths in the range {lambda}=0.95-1.45 {mu}m, and is located in the regime {lambda}=1.5-3.5 {mu}m. For shorter pump wavelengths, the phase-matching point is located in the absorption region of the crystal, effectively absorbing the generated dispersive wave. By calculating the phase-matching curves for typically used frequency conversion crystals, we point out that the mid-IR absorption in the crystal in many cases automatically will filter away the dispersive wave. Finally, an investigation of recent experimental results uncovers a four-wave-mixing phenomenon related to Cherenkov radiation that is an additional generation mechanism of long-wavelength radiation that can occur during soliton compression. We discuss the conditions that lead to this alternative dynamics rather than generation of Cherenkov radiation.

  10. Implementation of street trees within the solar radiative exchange parameterization of TEB in SURFEX v8.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Emilie C.; Lemonsu, Aude; Masson, Valéry; Morille, Benjamin; Musy, Marjorie

    2017-01-01

    The Town Energy Balance (TEB) model has been refined and improved in order to explicitly represent street trees and their impacts on radiative transfer: a new vegetated stratum on the vertical plane, which can shade the road, the walls, and the low vegetation has been added. This modification led to more complex radiative calculations, but has been done with a concern to preserve a certain level of simplicity and to limit the number of new input parameters for TEB to the cover fraction of trees, the mean height of trunks and trees, their specific leaf area index, and albedo. Indeed, the model is designed to be run over whole cities, for which it can simulate the local climatic variability related to urban landscape heterogeneity at the neighborhood scale. This means that computing times must be acceptable, and that input urban data must be available or easy to define. This simplified characterization of high vegetation necessarily induces some uncertainties in terms of the solar radiative exchanges, as quantified by comparison of TEB with a high-spatial-resolution solar enlightenment model (SOLENE). On the basis of an idealized geometry of an urban canyon with various vegetation layouts, TEB is evaluated regarding the total shortwave radiation flux absorbed by the elements that compose the canyon. TEB simulations in summer gathered best scores for all configurations and surfaces considered, which is precisely the most relevant season to assess the cooling effect of deciduous trees under temperate climate. Mean absolute differences and biases of 6.03 and +3.50 W m-2 for road, respectively, and of 3.38 and +2.80 W m-2 for walls have been recorded in vegetationless canyons. In view of the important incident radiation flux, exceeding 1000 W m-2 at solar noon, the mean absolute percentage differences of 3 % for both surfaces remain moderate. Concerning the vegetated canyons, we noted a high variability of statistical scores depending on the vegetation layout. The

  11. Reconstruction of six decades of daily total solar shortwave irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula using sunshine duration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Total global solar shortwave (G) irradiation and sunshine duration were recorded at nine Spanish stations located in the Iberian Peninsula. G irradiation under cloudless conditions was simulated by means of a radiative transfer model using satellite data as input. A method based on these cloudless simulations and sunshine duration records was developed to reconstruct G series. This model was validated against experimental data, providing a good agreement for cloudless skies (mean bias error of 0.4% and root mean square error of 5.8%). Monthly averages of modelled and measured G irradiation presented a mean bias error of 0.5% and a root mean square error of 3%. Differences between modelled and measured G irradiation were in agreement within the model uncertainties. The reconstruction model was applied to sunshine duration measurements, giving long-term G series at the nine locations. Monthly, seasonal, and annual G anomalies were calculated and analysed. Averaged series (using the nine locations) showed a statistically significant decrease in annual G from 1950 to the mid 1980s (-1.7%dc-1) together with a significant increase from the mid 1980s to 2011 (1.6%dc-1). The effect of uncertainty in the reconstructed series on statistically significant trends was studied.

  12. Measurement and modeling of shortwave irradiance components in cloud-free atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Halthore, R.N.

    1999-08-04

    Atmosphere scatters and absorbs incident solar radiation modifying its spectral content and decreasing its intensity at the surface. It is very useful to classify the earth-atmospheric solar radiation into several components--direct solar surface irradiance (E{sub direct}), diffuse-sky downward surface irradiance (E{sub diffuse}), total surface irradiance, and upwelling flux at the surface and at the top-of-the atmosphere. E{sub direct} depends only on the extinction properties of the atmosphere without regard to details of extinction, namely scattering or absorption; furthermore it can be accurately measured to high accuracy (0.3%) with the aid of an active cavity radiometer (ACR). E{sub diffuse} has relatively larger uncertainties both in its measurement using shaded pyranometers and in model estimates, owing to the difficulty in accurately characterizing pyranometers and in measuring model inputs such as surface reflectance, aerosol single scattering albedo, and phase function. Radiative transfer model simulations of the above surface radiation components in cloud-free skies using measured atmospheric properties show that while E{sub direct} estimates are closer to measurements, E{sub diffuse} is overestimated by an amount larger than the combined uncertainties in model inputs and measurements, illustrating a fundamental gap in the understanding of the magnitude of atmospheric absorption in cloud-free skies. The excess continuum type absorption required to reduce the E{sub diffuse} model overestimate ({approximately}3--8% absorptance) would significantly impact climate prediction and remote sensing. It is not clear at present what the source for this continuum absorption is. Here issues related to measurements and modeling of the surface irradiance components are discussed.

  13. Estimating Surface Radiation Fluxes in the Arctic from TOVS Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiger, A. J.; Key, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for estimating downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes in the Arctic from TOVS brightness temperatures has been developed. The method employs a neural network to bypass computationally intensive inverse and for-ward radiative transfer calculations, Results from two drifting ice camps (CEAREX, LeadEx) and from one coastal station show that downwelling fluxes can be estimated with r.m.s. errors of 20 W/sq m for longwave radiation and 35 W/sq m for shortwave radiation. Mean errors are less than 4 W/sq m and are well within the bounds required for many climate process studies.

  14. Climate variability and relationships between top-of-atmosphere radiation and temperatures on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Zhang, Yongxin; Fasullo, John T.; Taguchi, Shoichi

    2015-05-01

    The monthly global and regional variability in Earth's radiation balance is examined using correlations and regressions between atmospheric temperatures and water vapor with top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave (OLR), absorbed shortwave (ASR), and net radiation (RT = ASR - OLR). Anomalous global mean monthly variability in the net radiation is surprisingly large, often more than ±1 W m-2, and arises mainly from clouds and transient weather systems. Relationships are strongest and positive between OLR and temperatures, especially over land for tropospheric temperatures, except in the deep tropics where high sea surface temperatures are associated with deep convection, high cold cloud tops and thus less OLR but also less ASR. Tropospheric vertically averaged temperatures (surface = 150 hPa) are thus negatively correlated globally with net radiation (-0.57), implying 2.18 ± 0.10 W m-2 extra net radiation to space for 1°C increase in temperature. Water vapor is positively correlated with tropospheric temperatures and thus also negatively correlated with net radiation; however, when the temperature dependency of water vapor is statistically removed, a significant positive feedback between water vapor and net radiation is revealed globally with 0.87 W m-2 less OLR to space per millimeter of total column water vapor. The regression coefficient between global RT and tropospheric temperature becomes -2.98 W m-2 K-1 if water vapor effects are removed, slightly less than expected from blackbody radiation (-3.2 W m-2 K-1), suggesting a positive feedback from clouds and other processes. Robust regional structures provide additional physical insights. The observational record is too short, weather noise too great, and forcing too small to make reliable estimates of climate sensitivity.

  15. Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

    2011-01-08

    Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

  16. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Robert P.; Olbright, Gregory R.; Brennan, Thomas M.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer.

  17. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.

  18. Heaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Johannes; Hals, Jørgen

    2012-01-28

    Absorption of wave energy may be considered as a phenomenon of interference between incident and radiated waves generated by an oscillating object; a wave-energy converter (WEC) that displaces water. If a WEC is very small in comparison with one wavelength, it is classified as a point absorber (PA); otherwise, as a 'quasi-point absorber'. The latter may be a dipole-mode radiator, for instance an immersed body oscillating in the surge mode or pitch mode, while a PA is so small that it should preferably be a source-mode radiator, for instance a heaving semi-submerged buoy. The power take-off capacity, the WEC's maximum swept volume and preferably also its full physical volume should be reasonably matched to the wave climate. To discuss this matter, two different upper bounds for absorbed power are applied in a 'Budal diagram'. It appears that, for a single WEC unit, a power capacity of only about 0.3 MW matches well to a typical offshore wave climate, and the full physical volume has, unfortunately, to be significantly larger than the swept volume, unless phase control is used. An example of a phase-controlled PA is presented. For a sizeable wave-power plant, an array consisting of hundreds, or even thousands, of mass-produced WEC units is required.

  19. Observational evidence for a negative shortwave cloud feedback in middle to high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Paulo; McCoy, Daniel T.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    2016-02-01

    Exploiting the observed robust relationships between temperature and optical depth in extratropical clouds, we calculate the shortwave cloud feedback from historical data, by regressing observed and modeled cloud property histograms onto local temperature in middle to high southern latitudes. In this region, all CMIP5 models and observational data sets predict a negative cloud feedback, mainly driven by optical thickening. Between 45° and 60°S, the mean observed shortwave feedback (-0.91 ± 0.82 W m-2 K-1, relative to local rather than global mean warming) is very close to the multimodel mean feedback in RCP8.5 (-0.98 W m-2 K-1), despite differences in the meridional structure. In models, historical temperature-cloud property relationships reliably predict the forced RCP8.5 response. Because simple theory predicts this optical thickening with warming, and cloud amount changes are relatively small, we conclude that the shortwave cloud feedback is very likely negative in the real world at middle to high latitudes.

  20. Passive shortwave infrared broadband and hyperspectral imaging in a maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, K. Peter; Nichols, Jonathan M.; Howard, J. Grant; Waterman, James R.; Vilardebo, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    This work offers a comparison of broadband shortwave infrared, defined as the spectral band from 0.9 to 1.7 μm, and hyperspectral shortwave infrared imagers in a marine environment under various daylight conditions. Both imagers are built around a Raytheon Vision Systems large format (1024×1280) indium-gallium-arsenide focal plane array with high dynamic range and low noise electronics. Sample imagery from a variety of objects and scenes indicates roughly the same visual performance between the two systems. However, we show that the more detailed spectral information provided by the hyperspectral system allows for object detection and discrimination. A vessel was equipped with panels coated with a variety of paints that possessed spectral differences in the 0.9 to 1.7 μm waveband. The vessel was imaged at various ranges, states of background clutter, and times of the day. Using a standard correlation receiver, it is demonstrated that image pixels containing the paint can be easily identified. During the exercise, it was also observed that both bow waves and near-field wakes from a wide variety of vessel traffic provide a spectral signature in the shortwave infrared waveband that could potentially be used for object tracking.

  1. Short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy of milk powder for brand identification and component analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Feng, S; He, Y

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present paper was to provide new insight into the short-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis of milk powder. Near-infrared spectra in the 800- to 1,025-nm region of 350 samples were analyzed to determine the brands and quality of milk powders. Brand identification was done by a least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) model coupled with fast fixed-point independent component analysis (ICA). The correct answer rate of the ICA-LS-SVM model reached as high as 98%, which was better than that of the LS-SVM (95%). Contents of fat, protein, and carbohydrate were determined by the LS-SVM and ICA-LS-SVM models. Both processes offered good determination performance for analyzing the main components in milk powder based on short-wave NIR spectra. The coefficients of determination for prediction and root mean square error of prediction of ICA-LS-SVM were 0.983, 0.231, and 0.982, and 0.161, 0.980, and 0.410, respectively, for the 3 components. However, there were less than 10 input variables in the ICA-LS-SVM model compared with 225 in the LS-SVM model. Thus, the processing time was much shorter and the model was simpler. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the short-wave NIR region is promising for fast and reliable determination of the brand and main components in milk powder.

  2. Using laboratory and field measurements to constrain a single habit shortwave optical parameterization for cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen R.; Baran, Anthony J.; Hesse, Evelyn; Hill, Peter G.; Connolly, Paul J.; Webb, Ann

    2016-11-01

    A single habit parameterization for the shortwave optical properties of cirrus is presented. The parameterization utilizes a hollow particle geometry, with stepped internal cavities as identified in laboratory and field studies. This particular habit was chosen as both experimental and theoretical results show that the particle exhibits lower asymmetry parameters when compared to solid crystals of the same aspect ratio. The aspect ratio of the particle was varied as a function of maximum dimension, D, in order to adhere to the same physical relationships assumed in the microphysical scheme in a configuration of the Met Office atmosphere-only global model, concerning particle mass, size and effective density. Single scattering properties were then computed using T-Matrix, Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) and Ray Tracing (RT) for small, medium, and large size parameters respectively. The scattering properties were integrated over 28 particle size distributions as used in the microphysical scheme. The fits were then parameterized as simple functions of Ice Water Content (IWC) for 6 shortwave bands. The parameterization was implemented into the GA6 configuration of the Met Office Unified Model along with the current operational long-wave parameterization. The GA6 configuration is used to simulate the annual twenty-year short-wave (SW) fluxes at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and also the temperature and humidity structure of the atmosphere. The parameterization presented here is compared against the current operational model and a more recent habit mixture model.

  3. Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data sets contain global 3-hourly, daily and monthly averages of surface longwave and shortwave radiative properties, cloud amount, and meteorological properties computed using models. The main input data for these models include cloud information, top-of-atmosphere radiances and profiles of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. Some of the input data include Earth Radiation Budget Energy (ERBE) top-of-atmosphere clear-sky albedo and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiances and cloud amount. SRB parameters derived for the renewable energy community are also available from the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set. Other SRB data are available from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). [Mission Objectives] The objective of the SRB Project is to produce and archive a global data set of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) surface and top of the atmosphere parameters. The data generated in the SRB project may be used in conjunction with other data sets to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources and increase understanding of radiative properties within the meteorological community. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  4. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  5. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  6. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  7. Surface radiation budget for climate applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T. (Editor); Ohring, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) consists of the upwelling and downwelling radiation fluxes at the surface, separately determined for the broadband shortwave (SW) (0 to 5 micron) and longwave (LW) (greater than 5 microns) spectral regions plus certain key parameters that control these fluxes, specifically, SW albedo, LW emissivity, and surface temperature. The uses and requirements for SRB data, critical assessment of current capabilities for producing these data, and directions for future research are presented.

  8. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  9. Apollo couch energy absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, C. J.; Drexel, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Load attenuators for the Apollo spacecraft crew couch and its potential applications are described. Energy absorption is achieved through friction and cyclic deformation of material. In one concept, energy absorption is accomplished by rolling a compressed ring of metal between two surfaces. In another concept, energy is absorbed by forcing a plastically deformed washer along a rod. Among the design problems that had to be solved were material selection, fatigue life, ring slippage, lubrication, and friction loading.

  10. Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2011-03-01

    The radiative forcing of dust and its impact on precipitation over the West Africa monsoon (WAM) region is simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem). During the monsoon season, dust is a dominant contributor to AOD over West Africa. In the standard simulation, on 24-hour domain average, dust has a cooling effect (-6.11 W/m2) at the surface, a warming effect (6.94 W/m2) in the atmosphere, and a relatively small TOA forcing (0.83 W/m2). Dust modifies the surface energy budget and atmospheric diabatic heating and hence causes lower atmospheric cooling in the daytime but warming in the nighttime. As a result, atmospheric stability is increased in the daytime and reduced in the nighttime, leading to a reduction of late afternoon precipitation by up to 0.14 mm/hour (30%) and an increase of nocturnal and early morning precipitation by up to 0.04 mm/hour (23%) over the WAM region. Dust-induced reduction of diurnal precipitation variation improves the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation when compared to measurements. However, daily precipitation is only changed by a relatively small amount (-0.14 mm/day or -4%). On the other hand, sensitivity simulations show that, for weaker-to-stronger absorbing dust, dust longwave warming effect in the nighttime surpasses its shortwave cooling effect in the daytime at the surface, leading to a less stable atmosphere associated with more convective precipitation in the nighttime. As a result, the dust-induced change of daily WAM precipitation varies from a significant reduction of -0.40 mm/day (-12%, weaker absorbing dust) to a small increase of 0.05 mm/day (1%, stronger absorbing dust). This variation originates from the competition between dust impact on daytime and nighttime precipitation, which depends on dust shortwave absorption. Dust reduces the diurnal variation of precipitation regardless of its absorptivity, but more reduction is associated with stronger absorbing dust.

  11. Measurements and modelling of snow particle size and shortwave infrared albedo over a melting Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirazzini, R.; Räisänen, P.; Vihma, T.; Johansson, M.; Tastula, E.-M.

    2015-06-01

    The albedo of a snowpack depends on the single-scattering properties of individual snow crystals, which have a variety of shapes and sizes, and are often bounded in clusters. From the point of view of optical modelling, it is essential to identify the geometric dimensions of the population of snow particles that synthetize the scattering properties of the snowpack surface. This involves challenges related to the complexity of modelling the radiative transfer in such an irregular medium, and to the difficulty of measuring microphysical snow properties. In this paper, we illustrate a method to measure the size distribution of a snow particle parameter, which roughly corresponds to the smallest snow particle dimension, from two-dimensional macro-photos of snow particles taken in Antarctica at the surface layer of a melting ice sheet. We demonstrate that this snow particle metric corresponds well to the optically equivalent effective radius utilized in radiative transfer modelling, in particular when snow particles are modelled with the droxtal shape. The surface albedo modelled on the basis of the measured snow particle metric showed an excellent match with the observed albedo when there was fresh or drifted snow at the surface. In the other cases, a good match was present only for wavelengths longer than 1.4 μm. For shorter wavelengths, our modelled albedo generally overestimated the observations, in particular when surface hoar and faceted polycrystals were present at the surface and surface roughness was increased by millimetre-scale cavities generated during melting. Our results indicate that more than just one particle metric distribution is needed to characterize the snow scattering properties at all optical wavelengths, and suggest an impact of millimetre-scale surface roughness on the shortwave infrared albedo.

  12. Measurements and modelling of snow particle size and shortwave infrared albedo over a melting Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirazzini, R.; Räisänen, P.; Vihma, T.; Johansson, M.; Tastula, E.-M.

    2015-12-01

    The albedo of a snowpack depends on the single-scattering properties of individual snow crystals, which have a variety of shapes and sizes, and are often bounded in clusters. From the point of view of optical modelling, it is essential to identify the geometric dimensions of the population of snow particles that synthesize the scattering properties of the snowpack surface. This involves challenges related to the complexity of modelling the radiative transfer in such an irregular medium, and to the difficulty of measuring microphysical snow properties. In this paper, we illustrate a method to measure the size distribution of a snow particle parameter, which roughly corresponds to the smallest snow particle dimension, from two-dimensional macro photos of snow particles taken in Antarctica at the surface layer of a melting ice sheet. We demonstrate that this snow particle metric corresponds well to the optically equivalent effective radius utilized in radiative transfer modelling, in particular when snow particles are modelled with the droxtal shape. The surface albedo modelled on the basis of the measured snow particle metric showed an excellent match with the observed albedo when there was fresh or drifted snow at the surface. In the other cases, a good match was present only for wavelengths longer than 1.4 μm. For shorter wavelengths, our modelled albedo generally overestimated the observations, in particular when surface hoar and faceted polycrystals were present at the surface and surface roughness was increased by millimetre-scale cavities generated during melting. Our results indicate that more than just one particle metric distribution is needed to characterize the snow scattering properties at all optical wavelengths, and suggest an impact of millimetre-scale surface roughness on the shortwave infrared albedo.

  13. Stratospheric Aerosols for Solar Radiation Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben

    SRM in the context of this entry involves placing a large amount of aerosols in the stratosphere to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface, thereby cooling the surface and counteracting some of the warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The way this is accomplished depends on the specific aerosol used, but the basic mechanism involves backscattering and absorbing certain amounts of solar radiation aloft. Since warming from greenhouse gases is due to longwave (thermal) emission, compensating for this warming by reduction of shortwave (solar) energy is inherently imperfect, meaning SRM will have climate effects that are different from the effects of climate change. This will likely manifest in the form of regional inequalities, in that, similarly to climate change, some regions will benefit from SRM, while some will be adversely affected, viewed both in the context of present climate and a climate with high CO2 concentrations. These effects are highly dependent upon the means of SRM, including the type of aerosol to be used, the particle size and other microphysical concerns, and the methods by which the aerosol is placed in the stratosphere. SRM has never been performed, nor has deployment been tested, so the research up to this point has serious gaps. The amount of aerosols required is large enough that SRM would require a major engineering endeavor, although SRM is potentially cheap enough that it could be conducted unilaterally. Methods of governance must be in place before deployment is attempted, should deployment even be desired. Research in public policy, ethics, and economics, as well as many other disciplines, will be essential to the decision-making process. SRM is only a palliative treatment for climate change, and it is best viewed as part of a portfolio of responses, including mitigation, adaptation, and possibly CDR. At most, SRM is insurance against dangerous consequences that are directly due to increased surface air

  14. Aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions in a regional coupled model: the effects of convective parameterisation and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Lowe, Douglas; Schultz, David M.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) has been used to simulate a region of Brazil heavily influenced by biomass burning. Nested simulations were run at 5 and 1 km horizontal grid spacing for three case studies in September 2012. Simulations were run with and without fire emissions, convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain, and aerosol-radiation interactions in order to explore the differences attributable to the parameterisations and to better understand the aerosol direct effects and cloud responses. Direct aerosol-radiation interactions due to biomass burning aerosol resulted in a net cooling, with an average short-wave direct effect of -4.08 ± 1.53 Wm-2. However, around 21.7 Wm-2 is absorbed by aerosol in the atmospheric column, warming the atmosphere at the aerosol layer height, stabilising the column, inhibiting convection, and reducing cloud cover and precipitation. The changes to clouds due to radiatively absorbing aerosol (traditionally known as the semi-direct effects) increase the net short-wave radiation reaching the surface by reducing cloud cover, producing a secondary warming that counters the direct cooling. However, the magnitude of the semi-direct effect was found to be extremely sensitive to the model resolution and the use of convective parameterisation. Precipitation became organised in isolated convective cells when not using a convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain, reducing both total cloud cover and total precipitation. The SW semi-direct effect varied from 6.06 ± 1.46 with convective parameterisation to 3.61 ± 0.86 Wm-2 without. Convective cells within the 1 km domain are typically smaller but with greater updraft velocity than equivalent cells in the 5 km domain, reducing the proportion of the domain covered by cloud in all scenarios and producing a smaller semi-direct effect. Biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles acted as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), increasing the droplet number

  15. Final report (Grant No. DOE DE-FG02-97ER62366) [Retrieval of cloud fraction and type using broadband diffuse and total shortwave irradiance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clothiaux, Eugene

    2001-05-17

    The primary research effort supported by Grant No. DOE DEFG02-97ER62366 titled ''Retrieval of Cloud Fraction and Type Using Broadband Diffuse and Total Shortwave Irradiance Measurements'' was application of clear-sky identification and cloud fraction estimation algorithms developed by Charles N. Long and Thomas P. Ackerman to the downwelling total, direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance measurements made at all of the central, boundary, and extended facilities of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SOP) site. Goals of the research were finalization and publication of the two algorithms in the peer-reviewed literature and operational application of them to all of aforementioned data streams from the ARM SGP site. The clear-sky identification algorithm was published as Long and Ackerman (2000) in the Journal of Geophysical Research, while a description of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm made it to the scientific literature as Long et al. (1999) in the Proceedings of the 10th American Meteorological Association Conference on Atmospheric Radiation held in Madison, Wisconsin. The cloud fraction estimation algorithm relies on empirical relationships between the outputs of the clear-sky identification algorithm and cloud fraction; as such, the cloud fraction estimation algorithm requires significant amounts of data both to properly develop the empirical relationships and to thoroughly test them. With this perspective in mind the major focus of our research efforts in the later half of the project became the operational implementation of the clear-sky identification algorithm on DOE ARM SGP data so that we could develop the data set necessary for final tuning of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm in research extending beyond the lifetime of the project.

  16. GCM radiation model-to-observation comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Ming; Wang, Wei-Chyung

    1996-12-31

    A general circulation model radiation model is compared to the concurrent meteorological and radiative flux measurement from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program for the purpose of identifying and reducing uncertainties associated with cloud treatment. Three aspects are studied: clear sky condition, single-layer overcast sky condition, and multiple-layer fractional cloud condition. The radiation parameterization used is based on the GENESIS global model with some revisions. Data from the ARM site consists of meteorological observations and radiation measurements at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. Good agreement between the model and observations is found in the outgoing longwave and shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere for the clear sky and single-layer overcast conditions. The model overestimates the downward shortwave flux at the surface under clear sky condition and underestimates under single-layer overcast condition. Under the multiple-layer fractional cloud condition, a large uncertainty in the shortwave radiation calculation is associated with the cloud vertical overlapping assumption. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Validation of cloud forcing simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model using observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the effect of clouds on the top of atmosphere radiative energy budget are used to validate model simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (NCAR CCM). The ability of the NCAR CCM to reproduce the monthly mean global distribution and temporal variability on both daily and seasonal time scales is assessed. The comparison reveals several deficiencies in the CCM cloud representation. Most notable are the difficulties in properly simulating the effect of clouds on the planetary albedo. This problem arises from discrepancies in the model's portrayal of low-level cloudiness and leads to significant errors in the absorbed solar radiation simulated by the model. The CCM performs much better in simulating the effect of clouds on the longwave radiation emitted to space, indicating its relative success in capturing the vertical distribution of cloudiness. The daily variability of the radiative effects of clouds in both the shortwave and longwave spectral regions is systematically overestimated. Analysis of the seasonal variations illustrates a distinct lack of coupling in the seasonal changes in the radiative effects of cloudiness between the tropics and mid-latitudes and between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Much of this problem also arises from difficulties in simulating low-level cloudiness, placing further emphasis on the need for better model parameterizations of boundary layer clouds.

  18. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  19. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  20. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  1. New radiosonde techniques to measure radiation profiles through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Romanens, Gonzague; Levrat, Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Solar and thermal radiation fluxes are usually measured at Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Here we show radiosonde techniques that allow measuring radiation flux profiles and the radiation budget from the Earth's surface to above 30 km in the stratosphere. During two-hour flights solar shortwave and thermal longwave irradiance, downward and upward, is measured with four individual sensors at one-second resolution, along with standard PTU radiosonde profiles. Daytime and nighttime shortwave and longwave radiation measurements, and 24 hours surface measurements, allow determining radiation budget- and total net radiation profiles through the atmosphere. We use a double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the sonde as horizontal as possible. New techniques using auto controlled airplanes are now investigated to retrieve the sonde after release at a certain altitude and to land it if possible at the launch station.

  2. Spectral Invariance Principles Observed in Spectral Radiation Measurements of the Transition Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The main theme for our research is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars, shortwave spectrometers, and microwave radiometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools developed by our group. In particular, we define first a large number of cloudy test cases spanning all 3D possibilities not just the customary uniform-overcast ones. Second, for each case, we define a "Best Estimate of Clouds That Affect Shortwave Radiation" using all relevant ARM instruments, notably the new scanning radars, and contribute this to the ARM Archive. Third, we test the ASR-signature radiative transfer model RRTMG_SW for those cases, focusing on the near-IR because of long-standing problems in this spectral region, and work with the developers to improve RRTMG_SW in order to increase its penetration into the modeling community.

  3. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  4. An observational radiative constraint on hydrologic cycle intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. D.; DeAngelis, A. M.; Qu, X.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic cycle intensification is a key dimension of climate change, with significant impacts on human and natural systems. A basic measure of hydrologic cycle intensification, the increase in global-mean precipitation per unit surface warming, varies by a factor of three in current-generation climate models (~1-3 % K-1). We show that a substantial portion of this spread can be traced to intermodel variations in the atmospheric shortwave absorption response to greenhouse-gas-induced warming. As climate warms, increases in shortwave absorption suppress the precipitation increase by reducing the latent heating required to balance the atmospheric energy budget. Spread in the shortwave absorption response can be explained by differences in the sensitivity of solar absorption to variations in column precipitable water. An observational estimate suggests that in many models, this sensitivity is too small, and that the shortwave absorption response to warming is too weak. Spread in the simulated sensitivity of solar absorption to varying water vapor concentration is linked to differences in radiative transfer parameterizations. Attaining accurate shortwave absorption responses through radiative transfer scheme improvement could reduce spread in global precipitation increase per unit warming at the end of the 21st century by ~35%, and produce an ensemble-mean increase that is almost 40% smaller.

  5. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Guddala, Sriram Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-16

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Thin-film infrared absorber structures for advanced thermal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. D.; Pedder, D. J.

    1988-06-01

    Imaging thermal detector technology is a rapidly advancing field in which the current emphasis is towards the development of very large arrays of very small pyroelectric detector elements. For maximum responsivity, each of the thin pyroelectric elements in an array must be provided with a thermal absorber to convert incoming infrared radiation into heat. This paper describes one such absorber structure, comprising a thin metal film, impedance matched to free space, and a quarter-wave polymer film which offers an acceptably low thermal mass. The structure and properties of this thin-film absorber are compared with those of an electroplated platinum black absorber commonly used in thermal detectors. The theory of the absorber is presented and good agreement is shown between calculated and experimentally derived absorption spectra.

  7. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  8. Absorbed doses from temporomandibular joint radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, S.L.; Lanzetta, M.L.

    1985-06-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in a tissue-equivalent phantom to measure doses of radiation absorbed by various structures in the head when the temporomandibular joint was examined by four different radiographic techniques--the transcranial, transorbital, and sigmoid notch (Parma) projections and the lateral tomograph. The highest doses of radiation occurred at the point of entry for the x-ray beam, ranging from 112 mrad for the transorbital view to 990 mrad for the sigmoid notch view. Only the transorbital projection a radiation dose to the lens of the eye. Of the four techniques evaluated, the lateral tomograph produced the highest doses to the pituitary gland and the bone marrow, while the sigmoid notch radiograph produced the highest doses to the parotid gland.

  9. Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

    2005-08-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

  10. Evaluation of arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Nievergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2011-08-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  11. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  12. Timing the warm absorber in NGC 4051

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. V.; Uttley, P.; Costantini, E.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated, using spectral-timing analysis, the characterization of highly ionized outflows in Seyfert galaxies, the so-called warm absorbers. Here, we present our results of the extensive 600 ks of XMM-Newton archival observations of the bright and highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 whose spectrum has revealed a complex multicomponent wind. Making use of both RGS and EPIC-pn data, we performed a detailed analysis through a time-dependent photoionization code in combination with spectral and Fourier spectral-timing techniques. The source light curves and the warm absorber parameters obtained from the data were used to simulate the response of the gas to variations in the ionizing flux of the central source. The resulting time variable spectra were employed to predict the effects of the warm absorber on the time lags and coherence of the energy dependent light curves. We have found that, in the absence of any other lag mechanisms, a warm absorber with the characteristics of the one observed in NGC 4051, is able to produce soft lags, up to 100 s, on timescales of hours. The time delay is associated with the response of the gas to changes in the ionizing source, either by photoionization or radiative recombination, which is dependent on its density. The range of radial distances that, under our assumptions, yield longer time delays are distances r 0.3-1.0 × 1016 cm, and hence gas densities n 0.4-3.0 × 107 cm-3. Since these ranges are comparable to the existing estimates of the location of the warm absorber in NGC 4051, we suggest that it is likely that the observed X-ray time lags may carry a signature of the warm absorber response time to changes in the ionizing continuum. Our results show that the warm absorber in NGC 4051 does not introduce lags on the short timescales associated with reverberation, but will likely modify the hard continuum lags seen on longer timescales, which in this source have been measured to be on the order of 50 s. Hence, these

  13. Contribution of recoil atoms to irradiation damage in absorber materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, D.; Hablot, O.; Micalet, V.; Bellon, P.; Serruys, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Absorbing materials are used to control the reactivity of nuclear reactors by taking advantage of nuclear reactions (e.g., 10B(n,α) 7Li) where neutrons are absorbed. During such reactions, energetic recoils are produced. As a result, radiation damage in absorbing materials originates both from these nuclear reactions and from elastic collisions between neutrons and atoms. This damage eventually leads to a partial destruction of the materials, and this is the main limitation on their lifetime in nuclear reactors. Using a formalism developed to calculate displacements per atoms (dpa) in a multi atomic target, we have calculated damages in terms of displacements per atom in a (n,α) absorbing material taking into account geometrical effects of 10 boron self shielding and transmutation reactions induced by neutrons inside the absorber. Radiation damage is calculated for boron carbide and hafnium diboride ceramics in a Pressurized Water Reactor environment. It is shown that recoils produced by nuclear reactions account for the main part of the radiation damage created in these ceramics. Damages are calculated as a function of the distance from the center of an absorber pellet. Due to the self-shielding effect, these damage curves exhibit sharp maxima, the position of which changes in time.

  14. The negative shortwave cloud feedback at high latitudes: mechanisms and observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Paulo; McCoy, Daniel; Hartmann, Dennis; Webb, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Climate models agree on a negative shortwave cloud feedback at high latitudes, driven by increases in cloud optical depth and liquid water path (LWP), but the mechanisms remain uncertain. We assess the importance of microphysical processes for the negative optical depth feedback by perturbing temperature in the microphysics schemes of two aquaplanet models, both of which have separate prognostic equations for liquid water and ice. We find that most of the LWP increase with warming is caused by a suppression of ice microphysical processes in mixed-phase clouds, resulting in reduced conversion efficiencies of liquid water to ice and precipitation, and yielding an enhanced reservoir of cloud liquid water. Hence, in climate models, the suppression of ice-phase microphysics that deplete cloud liquid water is a key mechanism of the LWP increase with warming and of the associated negative shortwave cloud feedback in cold clouds. In support of these findings, we show the existence of a very robust positive relationship between monthly-mean LWP and temperature in CMIP5 models and observations in mixed-phase cloud regions only. In models, the historical LWP sensitivity to temperature is a good predictor of the forced global warming response poleward of about 45°, although models appear to overestimate the LWP response to warming compared to observations. Historical cloud optical depth-temperature relationships are shown to provide an observational constraint on the modeled cloud feedback, and support the prediction of a negative cloud feedback at high latitudes. Because optical thickening with warming is supported by simple temperature-dependent mechanisms and dominates over cloud amount changes, we conclude that the shortwave cloud feedback is very likely negative in mid to high latitudes.

  15. Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Turner, A. D.; DelCastillo, H. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Lange, A. E.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitive far infrared and millimeter wave bolometers fabricated from a freestanding membrane of low stress silicon nitride are reported. The absorber, consisting of a metallized silicon nitride micromesh thermally isolated by radial legs of silicon nitride, is placed in an integrating cavity to efficiently couple to single mode or multiple mode infrared radiation. This structure provides low heat capacity, low thermal conduction and minimal cross section to energetic particles. A neutron transmutation doped Ge thermister is bump bonded to the center of the device and read out with evaporated Cr-Au leads. The limiting performance of the micromesh absorber is discussed and the recent results obtained from a 300 mK cold stage are summarized.

  16. High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared.

    PubMed

    Billat, Adrien; Cordette, Steevy; Tseng, Yu-Pei; Kharitonov, Svyatoslav; Brès, Camille-Sophie

    2014-06-16

    We report the design of an all-fiber continuous wave Short-Wave Infrared source capable to output up to 700 mW of power at 1940 nm. The source is tunable over wavelength intervals comprised between 1850 nm and 2070 nm depending on its configuration. The output can be single or multimode while the optical signal to noise ratio ranges from 25 and 40 dB. The architecture is based on the integrated association of a fiber optical parametric amplifier and a Thulium doped fiber amplifier.

  17. X-ray-induced shortwave infrared biomedical imaging using rare-earth nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Naczynski, Dominik Jan; Sun, Conroy; Türkcan, Silvan; Jenkins, Cesare; Koh, Ai Leen; Ikeda, Debra; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-14

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR or NIR-II) light provides significant advantages for imaging biological structures due to reduced autofluorescence and photon scattering. Here, we report on the development of rare-earth nanoprobes that exhibit SWIR luminescence following X-ray irradiation. We demonstrate the ability of X-ray-induced SWIR luminescence (X-IR) to monitor biodistribution and map lymphatic drainage. Our results indicate X-IR imaging is a promising new modality for preclinical applications and has potential for dual-modality molecular disease imaging.

  18. X-ray-Induced Shortwave Infrared Biomedical Imaging Using Rare-Earth Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR or NIR-II) light provides significant advantages for imaging biological structures due to reduced autofluorescence and photon scattering. Here, we report on the development of rare-earth nanoprobes that exhibit SWIR luminescence following X-ray irradiation. We demonstrate the ability of X-ray-induced SWIR luminescence (X-IR) to monitor biodistribution and map lymphatic drainage. Our results indicate X-IR imaging is a promising new modality for preclinical applications and has potential for dual-modality molecular disease imaging. PMID:25485705

  19. Testing Asymmetry in Plasma-Ball Growth Seeded by a Nanoscale Absorbing Defect Embedded in a SiO2 Thin-Film Matrix Subjected to UV Pulsed-Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2008-09-16

    Previous studies of ultraviolet, nanosecond-pulsed-laser damage in thin films revealed nanoscale absorbing defects as a major source of damage initiation. It was also demonstrated that damage (crater formation) is facilitated by plasma-ball formation around absorbing defects. In this work an attempt is made to verify the symmetry of the plasma ball by irradiating SiO2 thin film with embedded gold nanoparticles from the side of either the air/film or substrate/film interfaces. Crater-formation thresholds derived in each case support preferential plasma-ball growth in the direction of the laser-beam source. The strong impact of internal E-field distribution is identified.

  20. Ferroelectrics based absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianping; Sadaune, Véronique; Burgnies, Ludovic; Lippens, Didier

    2014-07-01

    We show that ferroelectrics-based periodic structure made of BaSrTiO3 (BST) cubes, arrayed onto a metal plate with a thin dielectric spacer film exhibit a dramatic enhancement of absorbance with value close to unity. The enhancement is found around the Mie magnetic resonance of the Ferroelectrics cubes with the backside metal layer stopping any transmitted waves. It also involves quasi-perfect impedance matching resulting in reflection suppression via simultaneous magnetic and electrical activities. In addition, it was shown numerically the existence of a periodicity optimum, which is explained from surface waves analysis along with trade-off between the resonance damping and the intrinsic loss of ferroelectrics cubes. An experimental verification in a hollow waveguide configuration with a good comparison with full-wave numerical modelling is at last reported by measuring the scattering parameters of single and dual BST cubes schemes pointing out coupling effects for densely packed structures.

  1. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  2. THz-metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuong Pham, Van; Park, J. W.; Vu, Dinh Lam; Zheng, H. Y.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, Y. P.

    2013-03-01

    An ultrabroad-band metamaterial absorber was investigated in mid-IR regime based on a similar model in previous work. The high absorption of metamaterial was obtained in a band of 8-11.7 THz with energy loss distributed in SiO2, which is appropriate potentially for solar-cell applications. A perfect absorption peak was provided by using a sandwich structure with periodical anti-dot pattern in the IR region, getting closed to visible-band metamaterials. The dimensional parameters were examined for the corresponding fabrication. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  3. The Impact of Diffuse Sunlight and Shortwave Dimming on Canopy Light-use Efficiency and net Carbon Exchange in 3 Forest Biomes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alton, P.; North, P.; Los, S.

    2006-05-01

    The latter half of the 20th century has seen a 5-10% fall in mean global insolation with reductions of up to 20% regionally (Stanhill & Cohen 2001). Anthropogenic aerosols, by their propensity to increase the optical depth of clouds, are cited as the major factor in this trend (Liepert 2002). By evaluating observed carbon flow, we estimate the impact of reduced downwelling shortwave radiation (SW) on 3 forest biomes (sparse Boreal needleleaf, temperate deciduous broadleaf and dense tropical broadleaf). We are careful to account for the increased proportion of diffuse sky radiation that accompanies obscuration by cloud (Roderick et al 2001). We find that canopy light-use efficiency (LUE) is enhanced at all 3 study sites when diffuse rather than direct sunlight predominates. The increase spans 6-33%. Intepretation with the land-surface model JULES, modified to take account of sunfleck penetration, indicates that increased sharing of the radiation-load across the foliage is the primary factor responsible for this LUE-enhancement. The increase in LUE, however, is insufficient to offset the reduction in GPP associated with attenuated SW. Greatest sensitivity is exhibited by the Boreal site, Zotino, where net ecosystem exchange (NEE) falls by 12±6% for a reduction of 20% in SW. (Part of this work has just appeared in JGR (110, D23209) and was accorded very favourable reviews.)

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Stochastic Cloud-radiation Parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Secora, J.; Foster, M.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a stochastic cloud-radiation model accurately represents the domain-averaged shortwave fluxes when compared to observations. Using continuously sampled cloud property observations from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, we run a multiple-layer stochastic model and compare the results to that of the single-layer version of the model used in previous studies. In addition, we compare both to plane parallel model output and independent observations. We will use these results to develop a shortwave cloud-radiation parameterization that will incorporate the influence of the stochastic approach on the calculated radiative fluxes. Initial results using this resulting parameterization in a single-column model will be shown.

  5. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  6. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7 mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple λ/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  8. Performance analysis of a filtered wide field-of-view radiometer for earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. E.; Luther, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) of the 1980's will include a wide field-of-view (WFOV) fixed axes earth radiator discriminator consisting of a shortwave channel and a total (unfiltered) channel. The broadband spectral isolation required for the shortwave channel is achieved by use of a hemispherical fused silica (Suprasil W) dome filter placed in front of a wire wound thermopile radiation detector. A description is presented of the thermal response of the single-fused silica dome filter in the ERBSS WFOV shortwave channel conceptual design and the impact of that response on the channel measurement. Results from design definition and performance analysis studies are included. Problems associated with achieving the desired levels of confidence in a high accuracy filtered, WFOV radiometer are discussed. Design approaches, ground calibration, and data reduction techniques which minimize measurement uncertainties are explained.

  9. DHCAL with minimal absorber: measurements with positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, B.; Neubüser, C.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Dotti, A.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schroeder, S.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Besson, D.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Corriveau, F.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-05-01

    In special tests, the active layers of the CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype, the DHCAL, were exposed to low energy particle beams, without being interleaved by absorber plates. The thickness of each layer corresponded approximately to 0.29 radiation lengths or 0.034 nuclear interaction lengths, defined mostly by the copper and steel skins of the detector cassettes. This paper reports on measurements performed with this device in the Fermilab test beam with positrons in the energy range of 1 to 10 GeV. The measurements are compared to simulations based on GEANT4 and a standalone program to emulate the detailed response of the active elements.

  10. Aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions in a regional coupled model: the effects of convective parameterisation and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Schultz, D. M.; McFiggans, G.

    2015-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) has been used to simulate a region of Brazil heavily influenced by biomass burning. Nested simulations were run at 5 km and 1 km horizontal grid spacing for three case studies in September 2012. Simulations were run with and without fire emissions, convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain and aerosol-radiation interactions in order to explore the differences attributable to the parameterisations and to better understand the aerosol direct effects and cloud responses. Direct aerosol-radiation interactions due to biomass burning aerosol resulted in a net cooling, with an average reduction of downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface of -24.7 W m-2 over the three case studies. However, around 21.7 W m-2 is absorbed by aerosol in the atmospheric column, warming the atmosphere at the aerosol layer height, stabilising the column, inhibiting convection and reducing cloud cover and precipitation. The changes to clouds due to radiatively interacting aerosol (traditionally known as the semi-direct effects) increase net shortwave radiation reaching the surface by reducing cloud cover, producing a secondary warming that largely counters the direct cooling. However, the magnitude of the semi-direct effect was difficult to quantify, being extremely sensitive to the model resolution and use of convective parameterisation. The 1 km domain simulated clouds less horizontally spread, reducing the proportion of the domain covered by cloud in all scenarios and producing a smaller semi-direct effect. Not having a convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain reduced total cloud cover, but also total precipitation. BB aerosol particles acted as CCN, increasing the droplet number concentration of clouds. However, the changes to cloud properties had negligible impact on net radiative balance on either domain, with or without convective parameterisation. Sensitivity to the uncertainties relating to the semi

  11. A Double-Canyon Radiation Scheme for Multi-Layer Urban Canopy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Sebastian; Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Martilli, Alberto

    2012-12-01

    We develop a double-canyon radiation scheme (DCEP) for urban canopy models embedded in mesoscale numerical models based on the Building Effect Parametrization (BEP). The new scheme calculates the incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation for roof, wall and ground surfaces for an urban street canyon characterized by its street and building width, canyon length, and the building height distribution. The scheme introduces the radiative interaction of two neighbouring urban canyons allowing the full inclusion of roofs into the radiation exchange both inside the canyon and with the sky. In contrast to BEP, we also treat direct and diffuse shortwave radiation from the sky independently, thus allowing calculation of the effective parameters representing the urban diffuse and direct shortwave radiation budget inside the mesoscale model. Furthermore, we close the energy balance of incoming longwave and diffuse shortwave radiation from the sky, so that the new scheme is physically more consistent than the BEP scheme. Sensitivity tests show that these modifications are important for urban regions with a large variety of building heights. The evaluation against data from the Basel Urban Boundary Layer Experiment indicates a good performance of the DCEP when coupled with the regional weather and climate model COSMO-CLM.

  12. [Absorbed doses in dental radiology].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, S D; Roccuzzo, M; Albrito, F; Ragona, R; Anglesio, S

    1996-01-01

    The growing use of dento-maxillo-facial radiographic examinations has been accompanied by the publication of a large number of studies on dosimetry. A thorough review of the literature is presented in this article. Most studies were carried out on tissue equivalent skull phantoms, while only a few were in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo absorbed doses during Orthopantomography (OPT). Full Mouth Periapical Examination (FMPE) and Intraoral Tube Panoramic Radiography (ITPR). Measurements were made on 30 patients, reproducing clinical conditions, in 46 anatomical sites, with 24 intra- and 22 extra-oral thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDS). The highest doses were measured, in orthopantomography, at the right mandibular angle (1899 mu Gy) in FMPE on the right naso-labial fold (5640 mu Gy and in ITPR on the palatal surface of the left second upper molar (1936 mu Gy). Intraoral doses ranged from 21 mu Gy, in orthopantomography, to 4494 mu Gy in FMPE. Standard errors ranged from 142% in ITPR to 5% in orthopantomography. The highest rate of standard errors was found in FMPE and ITPR. The data collected in this trial are in agreement with others in major literature reports. Disagreements are probably due to different exam acquisition and data collections. Such differences, presented comparison in several sites, justify lower doses in FMPE and ITPR. Advantages and disadvantages of in vivo dosimetry of the maxillary region are discussed, the former being a close resemblance to clinical conditions of examination and the latter the impossibility of collecting values in depth of tissues. Finally, both ITPR and FMPE required lower doses than expected, and can be therefore reconsidered relative to their radiation risk.

  13. Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra'di, Y.; Simovski, C. R.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    With recent advances in nanophotonics and nanofabrication, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin composite layers designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic radiation, from microwaves to the visible. If the layer is structured at a subwavelength scale, thin perfect absorbers are usually called "metamaterial absorbers," because these composite structures are designed to emulate some material responses not reachable with any natural material. On the other hand, many thin absorbing composite layers were designed and used already in the time of the introduction of radar technology, predominantly as a means to reduce radar visibility of targets. In view of a wide variety of classical and new topologies of optically thin metamaterial absorbers and plurality of applications, there is a need for a general, conceptual overview of the fundamental mechanisms of full absorption of light or microwave radiation in thin layers. Here, we present such an overview in the form of a general theory of thin perfectly absorbing layers. Possible topologies of perfect metamaterial absorbers are classified based on their fundamental operational principles. For each of the identified classes, we provide design equations and give examples of particular realizations. The concluding section provides a summary and gives an outlook on future developments in this field.

  14. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  15. Improvement Of The Helmholtz Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    Helmholtz-resonator system improved to enable it to absorb sound at more than one frequency without appreciable loss of effectiveness at primary frequency. Addition of annular cavities enables absorption of sound at harmonic frequencies in addition to primary frequency. Improved absorber designed for use on structures of high transmission loss. Applied to such machines as fixed-speed engines and fans.

  16. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  17. Microscopic modeling of nitride intersubband absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Ines; Allerman, A. A.; Wierer, J. J.; Moseley, M.; Skogen, E. J.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Vawter, G. A.

    III-nitride intersubband structures have recently attracted much interest because of their potential for a wide variety of applications ranging from electro-optical modulators to terahertz quantum cascade lasers. To overcome present simulation limitations we have developed a microscopic absorbance simulator for nitride intersubband devices. Our simulator calculates the band structure of nitride intersubband systems using a fully coupled 8x8 k.p Hamiltonian and determines the material response of a single period in a density-matrix-formalism by solving the Heisenberg equation including many-body and dephasing contributions. After calculating the polarization due to intersubband transitions in a single period, the resulting absorbance of a superlattice structure including radiative coupling between the different periods is determined using a non-local Green's-function formalism. As a result our simulator allows us to predict intersubband absorbance of superlattice structures with microscopically determined lineshapes and linewidths accounting for both many-body and correlation contributions. This work is funded by Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin.

  18. Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wright, R.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  19. ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

    2002-02-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  20. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conven