Science.gov

Sample records for absorber mirrors sesams

  1. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hader, J.; Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2016-02-01

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  2. Timing stability enhancement of an Erbium Doped mode locked Fiber Laser using SESAM mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, G.; Khedr, M. Atta; Badr, Y.; Danailov, M.; Sigalotti, P.; Cinquegrana, P.; Alsous, M. B.; Galaly, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    We report on an examination of pulse timing stability of a home built Erbium Doped Fiber Laser (EDFL) passively mode locked via nonlinear polarization rotation by inserting semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) in laser cavity. A very low root mean square (RMS) timing jitter (less than 27 fsec) and faster self-starting mode locking have been established. In order to get clear, low noise signal for time resolving measurements, synchronization of EDFL laser with an external high precision electronic oscillator have been established. Subsequently, it is synchronized and optically cross-correlated with a Ti:Sapphire laser source (Micra). The measured relative timing jitter was found to be less than 65 fsec. In this way, the two, well synchronized Ti:Sapphire and EDFL laser pulses prove to be a powerful tool for time resolving measurements.

  3. All-fiber wavelength-tunable picosecond nonlinear reflectivity measurement setup for characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viskontas, K.; Rusteika, N.

    2016-09-01

    Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is the key component for many passively mode-locked ultrafast laser sources. Particular set of nonlinear parameters is required to achieve self-starting mode-locking or avoid undesirable q-switch mode-locking for the ultra-short pulse laser. In this paper, we introduce a novel all-fiber wavelength-tunable picosecond pulse duration setup for the measurement of nonlinear properties of saturable absorber mirrors at around 1 μm center wavelength. The main advantage of an all-fiber configuration is the simplicity of measuring the fiber-integrated or fiber-pigtailed saturable absorbers. A tunable picosecond fiber laser enables to investigate the nonlinear parameters at different wavelengths in ultrafast regime. To verify the capability of the setup, nonlinear parameters for different SESAMs with low and high modulation depth were measured. In the operating wavelength range 1020-1074 nm, <1% absolute nonlinear reflectivity accuracy was demonstrated. Achieved fluence range was from 100 nJ/cm2 to 2 mJ/cm2 with corresponding intensity from 10 kW/cm2 to 300 MW/cm2.

  4. Modes of resonators with mirror reflectivity modulated by absorbing masks

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; Magni, V.; Svelto, O. )

    1989-09-01

    The modes of a stable laser resonator containing, near one mirror, an absorbing mask with two apertures have been calculated on the basis of scalar diffraction theory and experimentally observed in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The mode structure has been investigated as a function of the mask geometry, and an interpretation in terms of supermodes is provided.

  5. SESAM mode-locked red praseodymium laser.

    PubMed

    Gaponenko, Maxim; Metz, Philip Werner; Härkönen, Antti; Heuer, Alexander; Leinonen, Tomi; Guina, Mircea; Südmeyer, Thomas; Huber, Günter; Kränkel, Christian

    2014-12-15

    We present the first semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode-locked praseodymium solid-state laser. The laser is based on a Pr(3+):LiYF(4) crystal as gain medium and a GaInP-quantum well-based SESAM. Self-starting continuous-wave mode-locked laser operation with an average output power of 16 mW is achieved at a center wavelength of 639.5 nm. The laser operates at a repetition rate of ∼85.55  MHz and emits pulses with a duration of ∼18  ps.

  6. SESAM mode-locked red praseodymium laser.

    PubMed

    Gaponenko, Maxim; Metz, Philip Werner; Härkönen, Antti; Heuer, Alexander; Leinonen, Tomi; Guina, Mircea; Südmeyer, Thomas; Huber, Günter; Kränkel, Christian

    2014-12-15

    We present the first semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode-locked praseodymium solid-state laser. The laser is based on a Pr(3+):LiYF(4) crystal as gain medium and a GaInP-quantum well-based SESAM. Self-starting continuous-wave mode-locked laser operation with an average output power of 16 mW is achieved at a center wavelength of 639.5 nm. The laser operates at a repetition rate of ∼85.55  MHz and emits pulses with a duration of ∼18  ps. PMID:25503035

  7. Optimized SESAMs for kilowatt-level ultrafast lasers.

    PubMed

    Diebold, A; Zengerle, T; Alfieri, C G E; Schriber, C; Emaury, F; Mangold, M; Hoffmann, M; Saraceno, C J; Golling, M; Follman, D; Cole, G D; Aspelmeyer, M; Südmeyer, T; Keller, U

    2016-05-16

    We present a thorough investigation of surface deformation and thermal properties of high-damage threshold large-area semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) designed for kilowatt average power laser oscillators. We compare temperature rise, thermal lensing, and surface deformation of standard SESAM samples and substrate-removed SESAMs contacted using different techniques. We demonstrate that for all cases the thermal effects scale linearly with the absorbed power, but the contacting technique critically affects the strength of the temperature rise and the thermal lens of the SESAMs (i.e. the slope of the linear change). Our best SESAMs are fabricated using a novel substrate-transfer direct bonding technique and show excellent surface flatness (with non-measureable radii of curvature (ROC), compared to astigmatic ROCs of up to 10 m for standard SESAMs), order-of-magnitude improved heat removal, and negligible deformation with absorbed power. This is achieved without altering the saturation behavior or the recovery parameters of the samples. These SESAMs will be a key enabling component for the next generation of kilowatt-level ultrafast oscillators. PMID:27409874

  8. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail. PMID:27225029

  9. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail. PMID:27225029

  10. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-05-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail.

  11. 7.6  W 1342  nm passively mode-locked picosecond composite Nd:YVO4/YVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Zong, Nan; Liu, Ke; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Feng-Feng; Zhang, Shen-Jin; Yang, Feng; Yuan, Lei; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qin-Jun; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2015-04-10

    A high average power 1342 nm passively CW mode-locked picoseconds (ps) composite Nd:YVO4 laser was demonstrated with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The oscillator cavity was carefully designed to optimize the laser beam radii in the crystal and on the SESAM. The combination of composite bonded laser crystal, direct pumping, and dual end-pumped configuration was adopted to reduce the thermal effect and produce high output power with high beam quality. A maximum average output power of 7.63 W was obtained with a repetition rate of 77 MHz and a pulse duration of 24.2 ps under an absorbed pump power of 38.6 W, corresponding to an optical-optical efficiency of 19.7% and a slope efficiency of 25.9%, respectively. The beam quality factor M(2) was measured to be 1.49. PMID:25967328

  12. A switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser based on asymmetric fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity with a SESAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kaiqiang; Li, Qi; Chen, Haiyan

    2016-04-01

    A switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with an asymmetric fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity based a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proof of concept device consists of a FGB laser with an asymmetric FBG-FP cavity, a SESAM as mode loss modulator, and a intracavity FBG as wavelength selector by changing its operation temperature. The results demonstrate the new concept of dual-wavelength fiber laser based SESAM with asymmetric FBG-FP cavity and the technical feasibility.

  13. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Hongyu; He, Yulian; Liu, Yong; Luo, Binbin; Sun, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Lin; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2014-05-01

    A diode-cladding-pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser using a reverse designed broad band semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) was demonstrated. Nonlinear reflectivity of the SESAM was measured using an in-house Yb3+-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 1062 nm. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficient of 12.1% with respect to the launched pump power. Maximum pulse energy of 6.65 μJ with a pulse width of 1.68 μs and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ~50 dB was achieved at a repetition rate of 47.6 kHz and center wavelength of 2.971 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3 μm region SESAM based Q-switched fiber laser with the highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the longest wavelength from mid-infrared passively Q-switched fluoride fiber lasers.

  14. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Luo, H. Y.; He, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, K. M.; Rozhin, A. G.; Turistyn, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    A diode-cladding-pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser using a reverse designed broad band semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) was demonstrated. Nonlinear reflectivity of the SESAM was measured using an in-house Yb3+-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 1062 nm. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficient of 12.1% with respect to the launched pump power. Maximum pulse energy of 6.65 µJ with a pulse width of 1.68 µs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ~50 dB was achieved at a repetition rate of 47.6 kHz and center wavelength of 2.971 µm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3 µm region SESAM-based Q-switched fiber laser with the highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the longest wavelength from mid-infrared passively Q-switched fluoride fiber lasers.

  15. Suppression of nano-absorbing precursors and damage mechanism in optical coatings for 3ω mirrors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Qi, Hongji; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Jian; Chai, Yingjie; Tu, Feifei; Zhao, Jiaoling; Yu, Zhen; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Meiping; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2016-03-15

    Damage precursors in the 3ω (351 nm) mirror for a high-power laser system are investigated as well as the relevant damage mechanisms. The precursors are classified into two ensembles according to the different laser resistance and damage features. The former is nano-absorbing precursors, which are sensitive to the standing wave electric field and vulnerable to the laser irradiation. The latter is submicrometer nodular defects, which have higher laser resistance and are sensitive to the adhesion strength between the fluoride coatings and oxide coatings. The damage due to nano-absorbing precursors is efficiently suppressed with the double stack design that screens the electric field in the oxides. Currently, the nodular seed is major originating from the Al2O3/SiO2 stack. Even for the same defect type and mirror, the final damage features are dependent on the local mechanical properties at the irradiation location. The investigations of the damage mechanisms provide a direction to further improve the laser-induced damage threshold of the 3ω mirror.

  16. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Alexander P.; Kirk, Wiley P.

    2013-11-07

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  17. Continuously tunable Yb:KYW femtosecond oscillator based on a tunable highly dispersive semiconductor mirror.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, P; Wasylczyk, P; Zinkiewicz, Ł; Dems, M; Hejduk, K; Regiński, K; Wójcik-Jedlińska, A; Jasik, A

    2014-07-28

    The optimized nonuniform growth process was used to achieve spatially dependent reflectivity and dispersions characteristics in a highly dispersive semiconductor mirror. The mirror, together with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), was used to demonstrate a tunable femtosecond Yb:KYW oscillator. In the passive modelocking regime the laser could be continuously tuned over 3.5 nm spectral band around 1032 nm with high resolution, maintaining the average output power above 140 mW. PMID:25089448

  18. Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Lu, Shunbin; Guo, Zhinan; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Han; Tang, Dingyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-08-24

    We experimentally demonstrated that few-layer black phosphorus (BP) could be used as an optical modulator for solid-state lasers to generate short laser pulses. The BP flakes were fabricated by the liquid phase exfoliation method and drop-casted on a high-reflection mirror to form a BP-based saturable absorber mirror (BP-SAM). Stable Q-switched pulses with a pulse width of 620 ns at the wavelength of 1046 nm were obtained in a Yb:CaYAlO(4) (Yb:CYA) laser with the BP-SAM. The generated pulse train has a repetition rate of 113.6 kHz and an average output power of 37 mW. Our results show that the BP-SAMs could have excellent prospective for ultrafast photonics applications.

  19. 980-nm all-fiber mode-locked Yb-doped phosphate fiber oscillator based on semiconductor saturable absorber mirror and its amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping-Xue; Yao, Yi-Fei; Chi, Jun-Jie; Hu, Hao-Wei; Zhang, Guang-Ju; Liang, Bo-Xing; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Ma, Chun-Mei; Su, Ning

    2016-08-01

    A 980-nm semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode-locked Yb-doped phosphate fiber laser is demonstrated by using an all-fiber linear cavity configuration. Two different kinds of cavity lengths are introduced into the oscillator to obtain a robust and stable mode-locked seed source. When the cavity length is chosen to be 6 m, the oscillator generates an average output power of 3.5 mW and a pulse width of 76.27 ps with a repetition rate of 17.08 MHz. As the cavity length is optimized to short, 4.4-mW maximum output power and 61.15-ps pulse width are produced at a repetition rate of 20.96 MHz. The output spectrum is centered at 980 nm with a narrow spectral bandwidth of 0.13 nm. In the experiment, no undesired amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) nor harmful oscillation around 1030 nm is observed. Moreover, through a two-stage all-fiber-integrated amplifier, an output power of 740 mW is generated with a pulse width of 200 ps. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205047).

  20. 980-nm all-fiber mode-locked Yb-doped phosphate fiber oscillator based on semiconductor saturable absorber mirror and its amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping-Xue; Yao, Yi-Fei; Chi, Jun-Jie; Hu, Hao-Wei; Zhang, Guang-Ju; Liang, Bo-Xing; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Ma, Chun-Mei; Su, Ning

    2016-08-01

    A 980-nm semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode-locked Yb-doped phosphate fiber laser is demonstrated by using an all-fiber linear cavity configuration. Two different kinds of cavity lengths are introduced into the oscillator to obtain a robust and stable mode-locked seed source. When the cavity length is chosen to be 6 m, the oscillator generates an average output power of 3.5 mW and a pulse width of 76.27 ps with a repetition rate of 17.08 MHz. As the cavity length is optimized to short, 4.4-mW maximum output power and 61.15-ps pulse width are produced at a repetition rate of 20.96 MHz. The output spectrum is centered at 980 nm with a narrow spectral bandwidth of 0.13 nm. In the experiment, no undesired amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) nor harmful oscillation around 1030 nm is observed. Moreover, through a two-stage all-fiber-integrated amplifier, an output power of 740 mW is generated with a pulse width of 200 ps. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205047).

  1. Passively mode-locked pulse generation in a c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1086 nm with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Yang, Pao-Keng; Lin, Wei-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a diode-pumped passively mode-locked (ML) c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser with central wavelength at 1086 nm by shifting the reflectance band of the SESAM into a longer wavelength to result in larger loss around 1068 nm. At 15 W absorbed pump power, the highest output power of the ML pulse was about 2.6 W that corresponded to the 17.3% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency and the slope efficiency of laser was about 22.9%. Using our ML laser as the light source, we have also successfully measured the saturation fluence of the SESAM at 1086 nm.

  2. Mirror-backed Dark Alumina: A Nearly Perfect Absorber for Thermoelectronics and Thermophotovotaics

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Le, Khai. Q.; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng; Bağcı, Hakan; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2016-01-01

    We present here a broadband, wide-angle, and polarization-independent nearly perfect absorber consisting of mirror-backed nanoporous alumina. By electrochemically anodizing the disordered multicomponent aluminum and properly tailoring the thickness and air-filling fraction of nanoporous alumina, according to the Maxwell-Garnet mixture theory, a large-area dark alumina can be made with excellent photothermal properties and absorption larger than 93% over a wide wavelength range spanning from near-infrared to ultraviolet light, i.e. 250 nm–2500 nm. The measured absorption is orders of magnitude greater than other reported anodized porous alumina, typically semi-transparent at similar wavelengths. This simple yet effective approach, however, does not require any lithography, nano-mixture deposition, pre- and post-treatment. Here, we also envisage and theoretically investigate the practical use of proposed absorbers and/or photothermal converters in integrated thermoelectronic and/or thermophotovoltaic energy conversion devices, which make efficient use of the entire spectrum of ambient visible to near-infrared radiation. PMID:26817710

  3. Mode locking in a bismuth fibre laser by using a SESAM

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, A A; Dvoirin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Kryukov, P G; Okhotnikov, O G; Guina, M

    2008-03-31

    By using a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror (SESAM) optimised for operation in the spectral range from 1100 to 1200 nm, passive mode locking is obtained in a cw bismuth-doped fibre laser. Pumping was performed by a cw ytterbium-doped fibre laser at a wavelength of 1075 nm. The operation of the laser is studied by using either a fibre Bragg grating or a loop fibre Sagnac mirror as the output resonator mirror. Stable laser pulses of duration from 50 ps to 3.5 ns, depending on the output mirror type, were generated. The pulse repetition rate was 11 MHz at a wavelength of {approx}1160 nm and the maximum spectral width of 2.1 nm. The maximum average output power was 7.8 mW upon pumping by 1140 mW. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  4. High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Chen, YuShan; Yin, Jinde; Zhang, Xuejun; Guo, Tuan; Yan, Peiguang

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror (WS2-SAM) fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The WS2-SAM has an all-fiber-integrated configuration and high-damage-resistant merit because the WS2 layer is protected by gold film so as to avoid being oxidized and destroyed at high pump power. Employing the WS2-SAM in an Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with linear cavity, the stable Q-switching operation is achieved at central wavelength of 1560 nm, with the repetition rates ranging from 29.5 kHz to 367.8 kHz and the pulse duration ranging from 1.269 μs to 154.9 ns. For the condition of the maximum pump power of 600 mW, the WS2-SAM still works stably with an output power of 25.2 mW, pulse energy of 68.5 nJ, and signal-noise-ratio of 42 dB. The proposed WS2-SAM configuration provides a promising solution for advanced pulsed fiber lasers with the characteristics of high damage resistance, high output energy, and wide tunable frequency. PMID:27464082

  5. A 12.1-W SESAM mode-locked Yb:YAG thin disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingnan, Peng; Zhaohua, Wang; Dehua, Li; Jiangfeng, Zhu; Zhiyi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Pumped by a 940 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, a passively mode-locked Yb:YAG thin disk oscillator was demonstrated with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). 12.1 W mode-locked pulses were obtained with pulse duration of 698 fs at the repetition rate of 57.43 MHz. Measurement showed that the beam quality was close to the diffraction limit. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922402), the National Major Instrument Program of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61210017).

  6. 1.22 {mu}m GaInNAs Saturable Absorber Mirrors with Tailored Recovery Time

    SciTech Connect

    Puustinen, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Korpijaervi, Ville-Markus; Tukiainen, Antti; Kivistoe, Samuli; Pessa, Markus; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2010-11-10

    The effect of in-situ N-ion irradiation on the recombination dynamics of GaInNAs/GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors has been studied. The samples were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy using a radio frequency plasma source for nitrogen incorporation in the absorber layers as well as for the irradiation. The recombination dynamics of irradiated samples were studied by pump-probe measurements. The recombination time of the absorbers could be reduced by increasing the irradiation time. The effect of the reduced recombination time on the pulse dynamics of a mode-locked laser setup was studied with a Bi-doped fibre laser. The pulse quality was found to improve with increased irradiation time and reduced recombination time, demonstrating the potential of the in-situ irradiation method for device applications.

  7. All About Sesame Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Phylis

    The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

  8. Wavelength-Versatile Graphene-Gold Film Saturable Absorber Mirror for Ultra-Broadband Mode-Locking of Bulk Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Xie, Guoqiang; Lv, Peng; Gao, Wenlan; Yuan, Peng; Qian, Liejia; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-broadband graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror (GG-SAM) with a spectral coverage exceeding 1300 nm is experimentally demonstrated for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers. Owing to the p-type doping effect caused by graphene-gold film interaction, the graphene on gold-film substrate shows a remarkably lower light absorption relative to pristine graphene, which is very helpful to achieve continuous-wave mode-locking in low-gain bulk lasers. Using the GG-SAM sample, stable mode-locking is realized in a Yb:YCOB bulk laser near 1 μm, a Tm:CLNGG bulk laser near 2 μm and a Cr:ZnSe bulk laser near 2.4 μm. The saturable absorption is characterised at an intermediate wavelength of 1.56 μm by pump-probe measurements. The as-fabricated GG-SAM with ultra-broad bandwidth, ultrafast recovery time, low absorption, and low cost has great potential as a universal saturable absorber mirror for mode-locking of various bulk lasers with unprecedented spectral coverage. PMID:24853072

  9. Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Xie, Guoqiang; Lv, Peng; Gao, Wenlan; Yuan, Peng; Qian, Liejia; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2014-05-23

    An ultra-broadband graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror (GG-SAM) with a spectral coverage exceeding 1300 nm is experimentally demonstrated for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers. Owing to the p-type doping effect caused by graphene-gold film interaction, the graphene on gold-film substrate shows a remarkably lower light absorption relative to pristine graphene, which is very helpful to achieve continuous-wave mode-locking in low-gain bulk lasers. Using the GG-SAM sample, stable mode-locking is realized in a Yb:YCOB bulk laser near 1 μm, a Tm:CLNGG bulk laser near 2 μm and a Cr:ZnSe bulk laser near 2.4 μm. The saturable absorption is characterised at an intermediate wavelength of 1.56 μm by pump-probe measurements. The as-fabricated GG-SAM with ultra-broad bandwidth, ultrafast recovery time, low absorption, and low cost has great potential as a universal saturable absorber mirror for mode-locking of various bulk lasers with unprecedented spectral coverage.

  10. Wavelength-Versatile Graphene-Gold Film Saturable Absorber Mirror for Ultra-Broadband Mode-Locking of Bulk Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Xie, Guoqiang; Lv, Peng; Gao, Wenlan; Yuan, Peng; Qian, Liejia; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2014-05-01

    An ultra-broadband graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror (GG-SAM) with a spectral coverage exceeding 1300 nm is experimentally demonstrated for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers. Owing to the p-type doping effect caused by graphene-gold film interaction, the graphene on gold-film substrate shows a remarkably lower light absorption relative to pristine graphene, which is very helpful to achieve continuous-wave mode-locking in low-gain bulk lasers. Using the GG-SAM sample, stable mode-locking is realized in a Yb:YCOB bulk laser near 1 μm, a Tm:CLNGG bulk laser near 2 μm and a Cr:ZnSe bulk laser near 2.4 μm. The saturable absorption is characterised at an intermediate wavelength of 1.56 μm by pump-probe measurements. The as-fabricated GG-SAM with ultra-broad bandwidth, ultrafast recovery time, low absorption, and low cost has great potential as a universal saturable absorber mirror for mode-locking of various bulk lasers with unprecedented spectral coverage.

  11. 1.55 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dots and high repetition rate quantum dot SESAM mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Oehler, A E H; Resan, B; Kurmulis, S; Zhou, K J; Wang, Q; Mangold, M; Süedmeyer, T; Keller, U; Weingarten, K J; Hogg, R A

    2012-01-01

    High pulse repetition rate (≥ 10 GHz) diode-pumped solid-state lasers, modelocked using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) are emerging as an enabling technology for high data rate coherent communication systems owing to their low noise and pulse-to-pulse optical phase-coherence. Quantum dot (QD) based SESAMs offer potential advantages to such laser systems in terms of reduced saturation fluence, broader bandwidth, and wavelength flexibility. Here, we describe the development of an epitaxial process for the realization of high optical quality 1.55 µm In(Ga)As QDs on GaAs substrates, their incorporation into a SESAM, and the realization of the first 10 GHz repetition rate QD-SESAM modelocked laser at 1.55 µm, exhibiting ∼2 ps pulse width from an Er-doped glass oscillator (ERGO). With a high areal dot density and strong light emission, this QD structure is a very promising candidate for many other applications, such as laser diodes, optical amplifiers, non-linear and photonic crystal based devices.

  12. 1.55 µm InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots and High Repetition Rate Quantum Dot SESAM Mode-locked Laser

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Oehler, A. E. H.; Resan, B.; Kurmulis, S.; Zhou, K. J.; Wang, Q.; Mangold, M.; Süedmeyer, T.; Keller, U.; Weingarten, K. J.; Hogg, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    High pulse repetition rate (≥10 GHz) diode-pumped solid-state lasers, modelocked using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) are emerging as an enabling technology for high data rate coherent communication systems owing to their low noise and pulse-to-pulse optical phase-coherence. Quantum dot (QD) based SESAMs offer potential advantages to such laser systems in terms of reduced saturation fluence, broader bandwidth, and wavelength flexibility. Here, we describe the development of an epitaxial process for the realization of high optical quality 1.55 µm In(Ga)As QDs on GaAs substrates, their incorporation into a SESAM, and the realization of the first 10 GHz repetition rate QD-SESAM modelocked laser at 1.55 µm, exhibiting ∼2 ps pulse width from an Er-doped glass oscillator (ERGO). With a high areal dot density and strong light emission, this QD structure is a very promising candidate for many other applications, such as laser diodes, optical amplifiers, non-linear and photonic crystal based devices. PMID:22745898

  13. Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made between "Sesame Street"…

  14. [Nutritional value of sesame seeds].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N

    2011-01-01

    Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.

  15. Performance of chemical vapor deposition fabricated graphene absorber mirror in Yb3+ : Sc2SiO5 mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yaqi; Zhu, Hongtong; Jiang, Shouzhen; Xu, Shicai; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun

    2014-12-01

    A reflective graphene saturable absorber mirror (SAM) was successfully fabricated by chemical vapor deposition technology. A stable diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb3+:Sc2SiO5 laser using a graphene SAM as a saturable absorber was accomplished for the first time. The measured average output power amounts to 351 mW under the absorbed pump power of 12.5 W. Without prisms compensating for dispersion, the minimum pulse duration of 7 ps with a repetition rate of 97 MHz has been obtained at the central wavelength of 1063 nm. The corresponding peak power and the maximum pulse energy were 516 W and 3.6 nJ, respectively.

  16. Children's Recollections of "Sesame Street."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bempechat, Janine; And Others

    This report presents a pilot study which collected preadolescents' retrospective reports of their preschool experiences with the television program, "Sesame Street." One-hundred-five fifth and sixth graders ranging from 9 to 12 years of age were asked to think back to when they viewed "Sesame Street" in their younger years and to respond to…

  17. Chiral mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-06-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.

  18. 87  fs pulse generation in a diode-pumped semiconductor saturable absorber mirror mode-locked Yb:YLF laser.

    PubMed

    Pirzio, Federico; Fregnani, Luigi; Volpi, Azzurra; Lieto, Alberto Di; Tonelli, Mauro; Agnesi, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    A Yb:YLF crystal has been investigated in a femtosecond oscillator pumped by two 400 mW single-mode fiber-coupled diodes emitting at 976 nm and mode locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. Almost Fourier transform-limited pulses with durations of 87 and 107 fs were demonstrated for extraordinary and ordinary polarizations, respectively. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of sub-100 fs pulses with Yb:YLF, and it proves the potential for ultrashort pulse generation and amplification with this material. PMID:27411196

  19. The optical properties of using graphene as a saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keschl, Nathan; Schibli, Thomas; Lee, Chien-Chung; Xie, Wanyan

    2012-10-01

    Graphene, a single-atom layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, has been on the forefront of research since it's discovery in 2005 [1]. Although it has many applications, my research is specialized in the field of utilizing the graphene as a saturable absorber for mode-locking lasers. Currently, the most common method to mode-lock a laser is by using a Semi-conductor Saturable Absorber Mirror (SESAM). Graphene is a substitute for SESAMs with pulse generation as low as 260 fs [2]. However, graphene will begin to ``burn'' as the laser approaches the intensity it needs to mode-lock. We have experimented with various methods of protecting the graphene from burning so it can be used at higher intensity domains.[4pt] [1] A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, ``The rise of graphene.'' Nat Mater. 2007/03//print[0pt] [2] G. Acosta, J.S. Bunch, C.C. Lee, T.R. Schibli, ``Ultra-Short Optical Pulse Generation with Single-Layer Graphene.'' Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials, Volume 19, Issue 04, pp. 767-771. 00/2010.

  20. SESAME/Environmental Research Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL) have been designated as the basic research group of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ERL performs an integrated program of research and research services directed toward understanding the geophysical environment, protecting the environment, and improving the forecasting ability of NOAA. Twenty-four laboratories located throughout the United States comprise ERL. The Project SESAME (Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment) Planning Office is a project office within ERL. SESAME is conceived as a joint effort involving NOAA, NASA, NSF, and the atmospheric science community to lay the foundation for improved prediction of severe convective storms. The scientific plan for SESAME includes a phased buildup of analysis, modeling, instrumentation development and procurement, and limited-scale observational activities.

  1. SESAME: science for intercultural dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    SESAME is an international research organization located in Jordan, in the Middle-East. Based on a synchrotron radiation source, it will allow scientist from the region to access a world-class research infrastructure to boost their research and scientific knowledge. At the same time its international nature will allow scientists with different cultures, different religions and different experiences to interact with each other. It is therefore an excellent opportunity for the regional development. The talk will introduce synchrotron radiation as a method to study matter, with examples in various disciplines, from physics to life sciences. The organisational structure of SESAME will be described, emphasising how this project is expected to enhance cooperation and mutual comprehension in the Middle East.

  2. Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, C. A. Mangold, M.; Pallmann, W. P.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.; Gronenborn, S.; Moench, H.; Weichmann, U.; Miller, M.

    2014-03-24

    We present an electrically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (EP-VECSEL) modelocked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with significantly improved performance. In different cavity configurations, we present the shortest pulses (2.5 ps), highest average output power (53.2 mW), highest repetition rate (18.2 GHz), and highest peak power (4.7 W) to date. The simple and low-cost concept of EP-VECSELs is very attractive for mass-market applications such as optical communication and clocking. The improvements result from an optimized gain chip from Philips Technologie GmbH and a SESAM, specifically designed for EP-VECSELs. For the gain chip, we found a better trade-off between electrical and optical losses with an optimized doping scheme in the substrate to increase the average output power. Furthermore, the device's bottom contact diameter (60 μm) is smaller than the oxide aperture diameter (100 μm), which favors electro-optical conversion into a TEM{sub 00} mode. Compared to optically pumped VECSELs we have to increase the field enhancement in the active region of an EP-VECSEL which requires a SESAM with lower saturation fluence and higher modulation depth for modelocking. We therefore used a resonant quantum well SESAM with a 3.5-pair dielectric top-coating (SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub 2}) to enhance the field in the absorber at the lasing wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption bandedge at room temperature is detuned (965 nm) compared to the resonance (980 nm), which enables temperature-tuning of the modulation depth and saturation fluence from approximately 2.5% up to 15% and from 20 μJ/cm{sup 2} to 1.1 μJ/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  3. Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaugg, C. A.; Gronenborn, S.; Moench, H.; Mangold, M.; Miller, M.; Weichmann, U.; Pallmann, W. P.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present an electrically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (EP-VECSEL) modelocked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with significantly improved performance. In different cavity configurations, we present the shortest pulses (2.5 ps), highest average output power (53.2 mW), highest repetition rate (18.2 GHz), and highest peak power (4.7 W) to date. The simple and low-cost concept of EP-VECSELs is very attractive for mass-market applications such as optical communication and clocking. The improvements result from an optimized gain chip from Philips Technologie GmbH and a SESAM, specifically designed for EP-VECSELs. For the gain chip, we found a better trade-off between electrical and optical losses with an optimized doping scheme in the substrate to increase the average output power. Furthermore, the device's bottom contact diameter (60 μm) is smaller than the oxide aperture diameter (100 μm), which favors electro-optical conversion into a TEM00 mode. Compared to optically pumped VECSELs we have to increase the field enhancement in the active region of an EP-VECSEL which requires a SESAM with lower saturation fluence and higher modulation depth for modelocking. We therefore used a resonant quantum well SESAM with a 3.5-pair dielectric top-coating (SiNx and SiO2) to enhance the field in the absorber at the lasing wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption bandedge at room temperature is detuned (965 nm) compared to the resonance (980 nm), which enables temperature-tuning of the modulation depth and saturation fluence from approximately 2.5% up to 15% and from 20 μJ/cm2 to 1.1 μJ/cm2, respectively.

  4. Sesame Street PEP Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This handbook for early childhood educators describes the Sesame Street PEP, an educational enrichment program for 3- to 5-year-olds that makes learning a fun and challenging adventure by using the educational goals of the Sesame Street show, children's books, and developmentally appropriate activities. This program seeks to: (1) stimulate…

  5. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  6. Sesame Street in Sweden: A Study of the Pilot Programme SESAM. 164/72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipson, Leni

    This study designed to measure the audience appeal and teaching effectiveness of television programming in the Sesame Street format for Swedish children was conducted in a nursery school setting. A Swedish pilot program, SESAM, based half on American material, was shown to a total of 79 children between the ages of 4 and 6, and the effects were…

  7. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = −0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = −0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements.

  8. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Lin, Xiaohui; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = -0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = -0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements. PMID:27597975

  9. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = −0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = −0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements. PMID:27597975

  10. Children with Special Needs Are VIPs at Sesame Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldscher, Sharla; Stein, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This article features Sesame Place, the nation's only theme park based entirely on the award-winning television program "Sesame Street" located near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Arranged through the Greater Philadelphia Chapter of Variety--The Children's Charity, Sesame Place has hosted over 200,000 guests associated with Variety and given the…

  11. Generation of bound states of pulses in a soliton laser with complex relaxation of a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G; Gumenyuk, R V

    2015-01-31

    A numerical model of a soliton fibre laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), characterised by the complex dynamics of absorption relaxation, is considered. It is shown that stationary bound states of pulses can be formed in this laser as a result of their interaction via the dispersion-wave field. The stability of stationary bound states of several pulses is analysed. It is shown that an increase in the number of pulses in a stationary bound state leads eventually to its decay and formation of a random bunch. It is found that the bunch stability is caused by the manifestation of nonlinear self-phase modulation, which attracts pulses to the bunch centre. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-05-15

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-{mu}m-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for.

  13. SESAME: Reality or a Parallel Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2007-03-07

    SESAME is a rather unique effort to nurture both high quality research and scientific collaboration in the Middle East. Eliezer Rabinovici of the Racah Institute of Physics will present a personal perspective on how the project came about, where it is now and where it may be heading for.

  14. SESAME- Reality or a Parallel Universe?

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2007-03-07

    SESAME is a rather unique effort to nurture both high quality research and scientific collaboration in the Middle East. Eliezer Rabinovici of the Racah Institute of Physics will present a personal perspective on how the project came about, where it is now and where it may be heading for.

  15. Sesame Street: Developed by Children's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Daniel W.

    A children's television program "Sesame Street," is discussed. The objectives of this program is to promote the intellectual and social and cultural growth of preschool and kindergarten children. Specific goals include: symbolic representation, problem solving and reasoning, and familiarity with the physical and social environment. The target…

  16. "Sesame Street" as a Continuing Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Valeria

    1990-01-01

    Describes research and development work done by the Children's Television Workshop (CTW) for "Sesame Street." Cooperation between producers and researchers is discussed; three mechanisms used to explore new topics and learn more about preschool children are explained; and a case study is presented of how a new geography curriculum was developed.…

  17. Children's Visual Responses to "Sesame Street."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Barbara N.; And Others

    Formative research on the eye movements of children in the older age range of "Sesame Street's" target audience was conducted and results were used to answer a range of formative questions concerning television programing goals and their implementation. Forty-six low-income, black and caucasian children, ranging in age from 4.9 to 6.9 years…

  18. Amended safety assessment of Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, hydrogenated sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and sodium sesameseedate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil and related cosmetic ingredients are derived from Sesamum indicum. Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and hydrogenated sesame seed oil function as conditioning agents. Sodium sesameseedate functions as a cleansing agent, emulsifying agent, and a nonaqueous viscosity increasing agent. These ingredients are neither skin irritants, sensitizers, teratogens, nor carcinogens at exposures that would result from cosmetic use. Both animal and human data relevant to the cosmetic use of these ingredients were reviewed. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

  19. 759  fs pulse generation with Nd3+-doped CNGS ordered crystal based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Tong; He, Jing-Liang; Guo, Shiyi; Ning, Jian; Lou, Fei; Zhao, Ruwei; Su, Xian-Cui; Hou, Jia; Zhang, Bai-Tao

    2016-07-10

    A diode-pumped passively continuous wave mode-locked laser at 1064.2 nm based on an ordered Nd:CNGS crystal has been experimentally investigated (for the first time, to our knowledge). Stable mode-locked pulses with a duration of 759 fs were produced at a repetition rate of 43.2 MHz. It is the shortest pulse generation of mode-locked lasers based on Nd3+-doped ordered crystal, as far as we know. A maximum average mode-locked output power of 133 mW was obtained at the absorbed pumped power of 6.7 W, and corresponding single-pulse energy and peak power were determined to be 3.1 nJ and 4.1 kW, respectively. The results indicate that the Nd:CNGS as an ordered crystal is indeed a potential candidate as a femtosecond laser gain medium. PMID:27409324

  20. Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Stephane; Bucalovic, Nikola; Dolgovskiy, Vladimir; Schori, Christian; Stumpf, Max C; Di Domenico, Gianni; Pekarek, Selina; Oehler, Andreas E H; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula; Thomann, Pierre

    2011-11-21

    We report the first full stabilization of an optical frequency comb generated from a femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) operating in the 1.5-μm spectral region. The stability of the comb is characterized in free-running and in phase-locked operation by measuring the noise properties of the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) beat, of the repetition rate, and of a comb line at 1558 nm. The high Q-factor of the semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM)-modelocked 1.5-µm DPSSL results in a low-noise CEO-beat, for which a tight phase lock can be much more easily realized than for a fiber comb. Using a moderate feedback bandwidth of only 5.5 kHz, we achieved a residual integrated phase noise of 0.72 rad rms for the locked CEO, which is one of the smallest values reported for a frequency comb system operating in this spectral region. The fractional frequency stability of the CEO-beat is 20‑fold better than measured in a standard self-referenced commercial fiber comb system and contributes only 10(-15) to the optical carrier frequency instability at 1 s averaging time.

  1. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated.

  2. SESAME 7363: A new Li(6)D equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Daniel Glen; Kress, Joel David; Crockett, Scott; Collins, Lee A.; Greeff, Carl William

    2015-09-21

    A new Equation of State (EOS) for Lithium 6 Deuteride (6LiD) was created, sesame 7363. This EOS was released to the user community under “eos-developmental” as sesame 97363. The construction of this new EOS is a modification of a previously released EOS, sesame 73601. Sesame 7360 is too stiff (5-10% excess pressure) at high compressions and high temperatures (ρ = 4-110g/cm3, T = 30-10,000 eV) compared to orbital-free density-functional theory. Sesame 7363 is softer and gives a better representation of the physics over this range without compromising the agreement with the experimental and simulation data that sesame 7360 was based on.

  3. Transesterified sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Saydut, Abdurrahman; Duz, M Zahir; Kaya, Canan; Kafadar, Aylin Beycar; Hamamci, Candan

    2008-09-01

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil was extracted from the seeds of the sesame that grows in Diyarbakir, SE Anatolia of Turkey. Sesame seed oil was obtained in 58wt/wt%, by traditional solvent extraction. The methylester of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil. Transesterification shows improvement in fuel properties of sesame seed oil. This study supports the production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel.

  4. SESAME equation of state number 7740: Polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    An equation of state (EOS) for polycarbonate (a widely used polymer) has been generated with the computer code GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7740. Although a number of the input parameter used in the calculations are based on rough estimates. 7740 provides a good match to experimental Hugoniot data and should be reliable on or near the principal Hugoniot. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Virtual Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The multiple-reflection photograph in Fig. 1 was taken in an elevator on board the cruise ship Norwegian Jade in March 2008. Three of the four walls of the elevator were mirrored, allowing me to see the combination of two standard arrangements of plane mirrors: two mirrors set at 90 degrees to each other and two parallel mirrors. Optical phenomena…

  6. High-power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO(4) laser using SWCNT saturable absorber fabricated by dip coating method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun Yin; Chai, Yang; Long, Hui; Tao, Lili; Zeng, Long Hui; Tsang, Yuen Hong; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xuechun

    2015-02-23

    Passive mode locked laser is typically achieved by the Semiconductor Saturable absorber Mirror, SESAM, saturable absorber, which is produced by expensive and complicated metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. Carbon based single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), saturable absorber, is a promising material which is capable to produce stable passive mode-locking in the high power laser cavity over a wide operational wavelength range. This study has successfully demonstrated the high power mode locking laser system operating at 1 micron by using SWCNT based absorbers fabricated by dip coating method. The proposed fabrication method is practical, simple and cost effective for fabricating SWCNT saturable absorber. The demonstrated high power Nd:YVO(4) mode-locked laser operating at 1064nm have maximum output power up to 2.7W,with the 167MHz repetition rate and 3.1 ps pulse duration, respectively. The calculated output pulse energy and peak power are 16.1nJ and 5.2kW, respectively. PMID:25836523

  7. AVE-SESAME program for the REEDA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDA system software was modified and improved to process the AVE-SESAME severe storm data. A random access file system for the AVE storm data was designed, tested, and implemented. The AVE/SESAME software was modified to incorporate the random access file input and to interface with new graphics hardware/software now available on the REEDA system. Software was developed to graphically display the AVE/SESAME data in the convention normally used by severe storm researchers. Software was converted to AVE/SESAME software systems and interfaced with existing graphics hardware/software available on the REEDA System. Software documentation was provided for existing AVE/SESAME programs underlining functional flow charts and interacting questions. All AVE/SESAME data sets in random access format was processed to allow developed software to access the entire AVE/SESAME data base. The existing software was modified to allow for processing of different AVE/SESAME data set types including satellite surface and radar data.

  8. SESAME equation of state number 8020: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-12-01

    A new SESAME equation of state (EOS) for the polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been generated using the computer program GRIZZLY. This new EOS has been added to the SESAME EOS library as material number 8020. A few general guidelines for estimating the thermodynamic parameters for polymers needed to generate an EOS with GRIZZLY are suggested.

  9. Voluntarias De Sesame Street: Manual Para Conducir Las Sesiones "Sesame Street" Con Ninos De Edad Pre-Escolar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid Spanish-speaking volunteers working with preschool children before, during, and after viewing the television program, "Sesame Street". The text is written in Spanish. Suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the Sesame Mother Pilot Project conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational…

  10. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  11. Einstein's Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  12. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  13. Effects of Sesame Butter (Ardeh) versus Sesame Oil on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Zarei, Mehdi; Gorji, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is related to oxidative-stress-induced diseases. Given the role of dietary antioxidants in the control and prevention of diabetes, this study aimed to examine the effects of sesame butter versus sesame oil on the serum levels of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rats. Methods: Forty male albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 4 groups (i.e., nondiabetic control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with sesame butter, and diabetic rats treated with sesame oil). Experimental diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Sesame butter (1.25 g/kg) and sesame oil (0.5 g/kg) were given by oral gavage to the diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Finally, serum glucose, lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured and analyzed statistically. Results: Our data showed that the diabetic groups treated with sesame butter and sesame oil had significantly lower levels of glucose and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein than did the diabetic control group at the end of the study (P<0.05). Sesame butter supplementation also increased TAC and decreased MDA concentrations significantly in the diabetic rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and partly lipid-lowering effects of sesame butter make it an excellent candidate for future human studies on diabetes, although further research is needed to determine the exact dose and duration of supplementation. PMID:26989280

  14. The pattern of sesame sensitivity among infants and children.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Ilan; Binson, Inga; Levine, Arie; Somekh, Eli; Ballin, Ami; Reifen, Ram

    2003-08-01

    Recently, we found sesame to be a major cause of severe IgE-mediated food allergic reactions among infants and young children in Israel. The purpose of this study was to describe the different patterns of sesame sensitivity. We have identified three subgroups among our patients (n = 32). Group I (n = 23, M/F; 14/9) consisted of cases with IgE-mediated sesame allergy. The mean age of the first allergic reaction was 11.7 months. Although the main clinical manifestation was urticaria/angiedema (n = 14, 60%), anaphylaxis was the presenting symptom in seven (30%) patients; all of them were younger than 1 year. Sixteen (70%) were found to be allergic to other foods, and other atopic diseases were identified in 18 (78%) patients. Three patients 'outgrew' their allergy within 1-2 years. Group II (n = 2) included cases in whom sesame allergy was ruled out based on a negative skin prick test (SPT) together with a negative open oral challenge. Group III (n = 7) consisted of patients that were found to be SPT positive for sesame as part of a screening for other food allergies. Although sesame products have become fashionable in westernized countries, early exposure may cause sesame to share eventually the same 'noteriety and fate' as peanut - a major cause of severe food allergic reactions.

  15. Effect of sesame seed flour on millet biscuit characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alobo, A P

    2001-01-01

    Defatted sesame seed flour replaced millet flour at 30, 40, and 50% and was used to prepare biscuits. Protein content of the biscuits was significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased by replacement with sesame seed flour. Millet flour biscuits were heavier than those from the blends. Diameters and weights of biscuits were reduced and thicknesses and spread factors were increased with increasing level of sesame replacement. Sensory evaluation results showed that the biscuits were highly rated for flavor and crispiness but considered poor in color.

  16. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  17. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  18. Sesame Street Around the World: The Educational Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Conner, Ross F.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates seven studies concerned with the influence of Sesame Street on the development of learning skills in preschool children and provides a balance sheet of achievements, limitations and unanswered questions. (MH)

  19. Magic Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    "Magic mirrors" were so named because, when they were positioned to throw a reflected patch of sunlight on a nearby wall, this area contained an outline of a design cast on the back of the (bronze) mirror. Investigations begun in the 19th century showed that this was a response to heavy localized pressures exerted on the face of the thin mirror…

  20. Slumped mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pteancu, Mircea; Dragan, Dorin; Dragan, Olivier; Miron, Andrei; Stanescu, Octavian

    2008-02-01

    The authors discusse the construction of slumped mirrors, their fabrication and testing (polishing and lapping). An important topic of the discussion is thermal fabrication of mirrors by using of matrixes. One of the authors of the entry is combining astronomy and aquariums construction.

  1. Consumption of sesame oil muffins decreases the urinary excretion of gamma-tocopherol metabolites in humans.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jan; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Traber, Maret G

    2004-12-01

    Sesame seed and oil consumption previously increased human plasma gamma-tocopherol (gamma-T) concentrations. This was attributed to the sesame lignans sesamin and sesamolin. Here, we studied the inhibition of vitamin E metabolism by a single dose of sesame oil lignans coingested with deuterated alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human volunteers. The urinary excretion of gamma-T metabolites was significantly lower in sesame oil treated than in control subjects. Concentrations of tocopherols in blood were not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, a single dose of sesame oil, containing 136 mg sesame lignans (sesamin and sesamolin), reduces the urinary excretion of co-administered gamma-T in humans.

  2. Mirror, Mirror on the Wall...?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflaster, Gail

    1979-01-01

    The study determined the value of using a mirror for speech teaching by recording manner, place, voicing, and blend errors produced by 27 hearing-impaired children (5-13 years old) while imitating consonant-vowel syllables under three conditions (audition alone, audition plus direct vision, and audition plus vision using a mirror). (Author)

  3. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 2 conducted on 19-20 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary information on data collected, synoptic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the AVE-SESAME 2 period is presented. The information provides researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 2 period.

  4. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  5. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  6. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  7. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

  8. Genetic discovery for oil production and quality in sesame

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Yanxin; Feng, Qi; Wang, Linhai; Zhao, Yan; Li, Donghua; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenjun; Fan, Danlin; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Yiqi; Zhang, Xianmei; Tang, Xiumei; Zhou, Congcong; Zhu, Chuanrang; Liu, Lifeng; Zhong, Ruichun; Tian, Qilin; Wen, Ziruo; Weng, Qijun; Han, Bin; Huang, Xuehui; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed crops are used to produce vegetable oil. Sesame (Sesamum indicum), an oilseed crop grown worldwide, has high oil content and a small diploid genome, but the genetic basis of oil production and quality is unclear. Here we sequence 705 diverse sesame varieties to construct a haplotype map of the sesame genome and de novo assemble two representative varieties to identify sequence variations. We investigate 56 agronomic traits in four environments and identify 549 associated loci. Examination of the major loci identifies 46 candidate causative genes, including genes related to oil content, fatty acid biosynthesis and yield. Several of the candidate genes for oil content encode enzymes involved in oil metabolism. Two major genes associated with lignification and black pigmentation in the seed coat are also associated with large variation in oil content. These findings may inform breeding and improvement strategies for a broad range of oilseed crops. PMID:26477832

  9. Teilchenphysik SESAME - Forschung für den Frieden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopper, Herwig

    2002-01-01

    Unter der Schirmherrschaft der UNESCO entsteht in den kommenden Jahren in Jordanien ein internationales Forschungszentrum, dessen wichtigste Forschungsanlage eine Quelle für Synchrotronstrahlung sein wird. Die SESAME (Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) genannte Anlage soll auch dazu beitragen, Vertrauen und Toleranz zwischen Wissenschaftlern und Politikern aus verschiedenen Kulturkreisen und Traditionen zu fördern. Das europäische Teilchenlabor CERN diente hier in mancher Hinsicht als Vorbild. Technische Grundlage für SESAME wird das 1999 stillgelegte Berliner Synchrotron BESSY I sein.

  10. Mirror Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Under a NASA contract, MI-CVD developed a process for producing bulk silicon carbide by means of a chemical vapor deposition process. The technology allows growth of a high purity material with superior mechanical/thermal properties and high polishability - ideal for mirror applications. The company employed the technology to develop three research mirrors for NASA Langley and is now marketing it as CVD SILICON CARBIDE. Its advantages include light weight, thermal stability and high reflectivity. The material has nuclear research facility applications and is of interest to industrial users of high power lasers.

  11. [Mirror neurons].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  12. Conicoid Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castano, Diego J.; Hawkins, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The first-order equation relating object and image location for a mirror of arbitrary conic-sectional shape is derived. It is also shown that the parabolic reflecting surface is the only one free of aberration and only in the limiting case of distant sources. (Contains 3 figures.)

  13. Mirror Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method of making a mirror support comprising a composite, the composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes, wherein at least two of the plurality of carbon nanotubes are bonded to each other through a bridging moiety bound to each of the two carbon nanotubes, and a laminate comprising the composite.

  14. "Shalom Sesame": Using Media to Promote Jewish Education and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M.; Lemish, Dafna; Spezia, Elizabeth; Siegel, Deborah; Fisch, Susan R. D.; Aladé, Fashina; Kasdan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A family survey, ethnographic study, and quasi-experimental study investigated "Shalom Sesame's" potential to enhance understanding of Jewish culture and identity among preschool families. Preschoolers demonstrated significant learning, recognizing that people who looked different could be Jewish, and in knowledge about Hebrew…

  15. The Impact of "Sesame Street" on Primary Pupils in Vancouver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. N.; And Others

    The extent to which pupils at the primary level view Sesame Street and The Electric Company television programs and their impact on learning were studied. Questionnaires were directed to parents of children in eight kindergartens and to principals of the 34 elementary schools in Vancouver. At their homes, 95% of the kindergarten pupils had watched…

  16. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  17. Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers.

    PubMed

    Emaury, Florian; Diebold, Andreas; Klenner, Alexander; Saraceno, Clara J; Schilt, Stéphane; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

    2015-08-24

    We present a detailed study of the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers (TDLs) pumped by kW-class highly transverse multimode pump diodes with a typical M(2) value of 200-300, and give guidelines for future frequency stabilization of multi-100-W oscillators. We demonstrate CEO frequency detection with > 30 dB signal-to-noise ratio with a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz from a SESAM modelocked Yb:YAG TDL delivering 140 W average output power with 748-fs pulses at 7-MHz pulse repetition rate. We compare with a low-power CEO frequency stabilized Yb:CALGO TDL delivering 2.1 W with 77-fs pulses at 65 MHz. For both lasers, we perform a complete noise characterization, measure the relevant transfer functions (TFs) and compare them to theoretical models. The measured TFs are used to determine the propagation of the pump noise step-by-step through the system components. From the noise propagation analysis, we identify the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the pump diode as the main contribution to the CEO frequency noise. The resulting noise levels are not excessive and do not prevent CEO frequency stabilization. More importantly, the laser cavity dynamics are shown to play an essential role in the CEO frequency dynamics. The cavity TFs of the two lasers are very different which explains why at this point a tight CEO frequency lock can be obtained with the Yb:CALGO TDL but not with the Yb:YAG TDL. For CEO stabilization laser cavities should exhibit high damping of the relaxation oscillations by nonlinear intra-cavity elements, for example by operating a SESAM in the roll-over regime. Therefore the optimum SESAM operation point is a trade-off between enough damping and avoiding multiple pulsing instabilities. Additional cavity components could be considered for supplementary damping independent of the SESAM operation point.

  18. Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Behnaz; Bidgoli, Soroor Rabbani; Moattar, Fariborz; Hassani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background: High level of semen reactive oxygen species is considered as an important factor in male infertility. Sesame has antioxidant properties, which could be effective on improvement of semen parameters. This study was designed to determine the effects of sesame on sperm quality. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five infertile men entered this clinical trial. They were treated with a 3-months course of taking 0.5 mg/kg sesame. The pre intervention sperm analysis (sperm count, motile sperm percentage and normal morphology sperm percentage) was compared with post treatment sperm analysis. Based on the post intervention seamen analysis, patients were advised to undergo either IVF or ICSI to assess their fertility status. Results: There was significant improvement in the sperm count (10.56 ± 5.25 vs. 22.71 ± 30.14 million per ml) and motility (15.32 ± 13.58 vs. 23.32 ± 20.61 percent) after treatment with sesame (P value: 0.04 and <0.0001 respectively), but there was no significant improvement in sperm morphology after the treatment (10.72 ± 6.66 vs. 13.20 ± 11.14 percent, P value: 0.10). Three patients (12%) underwent IUI, which resulted in 1 successful pregnancy. Two patients (8%) underwent ICSI, which was not successful; however 2 (8%) patients had spontaneous pregnancy. Fortunately, all pregnancies led to live birth. Except 1 case of diarrhea, no other major side effect was reported. Conclusion: Sesame improved sperm count and motility, and can be prescribed as an effective and safe method for male factor infertility. PMID:23930112

  19. Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers.

    PubMed

    Emaury, Florian; Diebold, Andreas; Klenner, Alexander; Saraceno, Clara J; Schilt, Stéphane; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

    2015-08-24

    We present a detailed study of the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers (TDLs) pumped by kW-class highly transverse multimode pump diodes with a typical M(2) value of 200-300, and give guidelines for future frequency stabilization of multi-100-W oscillators. We demonstrate CEO frequency detection with > 30 dB signal-to-noise ratio with a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz from a SESAM modelocked Yb:YAG TDL delivering 140 W average output power with 748-fs pulses at 7-MHz pulse repetition rate. We compare with a low-power CEO frequency stabilized Yb:CALGO TDL delivering 2.1 W with 77-fs pulses at 65 MHz. For both lasers, we perform a complete noise characterization, measure the relevant transfer functions (TFs) and compare them to theoretical models. The measured TFs are used to determine the propagation of the pump noise step-by-step through the system components. From the noise propagation analysis, we identify the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the pump diode as the main contribution to the CEO frequency noise. The resulting noise levels are not excessive and do not prevent CEO frequency stabilization. More importantly, the laser cavity dynamics are shown to play an essential role in the CEO frequency dynamics. The cavity TFs of the two lasers are very different which explains why at this point a tight CEO frequency lock can be obtained with the Yb:CALGO TDL but not with the Yb:YAG TDL. For CEO stabilization laser cavities should exhibit high damping of the relaxation oscillations by nonlinear intra-cavity elements, for example by operating a SESAM in the roll-over regime. Therefore the optimum SESAM operation point is a trade-off between enough damping and avoiding multiple pulsing instabilities. Additional cavity components could be considered for supplementary damping independent of the SESAM operation point. PMID:26368160

  20. Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim; Rose, M. Annette

    1998-01-01

    Students use tables of anthropometric data, their own measurements, underlying principles of physics, and math to solve a problem. The problem is to determine the height of a wall mirror, and where to mount it, so that 90% of the clientele can view their entire length without stretching or bending. (Author)

  1. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  2. Mirror monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam

  3. Identification of Sesame Genomic Variations from Genome Comparison of Landrace and Variety

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the main oilseed crops, providing vegetable oil and protein to human. Landrace is the gene source of variety, carrying many desire alleles for genetic improvement. Despite the importance of sesame landrace, genome of sesame landrace remains unexplored and genomic variations between landrace and variety still is not clear. To identify the genomic variations between sesame landrace and variety, two representative sesame landrace accessions, “Baizhima” and “Mishuozhima,” were selected and re-sequenced. The genome sequencing and de novo assembling of the two sesame landraces resulted in draft genomes of 267 Mb and 254 Mb, respectively, with the contig N50 more than 47 kb. Totally, 1,332,025 SNPs and 506,245 InDels were identified from the genome of “Baizhima” and “Mishuozhima” by comparison of the genome of a variety “Zhongzhi13.” Among the genomic variations, 70,018 SNPs and 8311 InDels were located in the coding regions of genes. Genomic variations may contribute to variation of sesame agronomic traits such as flowering time, plant height, and oil content. The identified genomic variations were successfully used in the QTL mapping and the black pigment synthesis gene, PPO, was found to be the candidate gene of sesame seed coat color. The comprehensively compared genomes of sesame landrace and modern variety produced massive useful genomic information, constituting a powerful tool to support genetic research, and molecular breeding of sesame. PMID:27536315

  4. Identification of Sesame Genomic Variations from Genome Comparison of Landrace and Variety.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the main oilseed crops, providing vegetable oil and protein to human. Landrace is the gene source of variety, carrying many desire alleles for genetic improvement. Despite the importance of sesame landrace, genome of sesame landrace remains unexplored and genomic variations between landrace and variety still is not clear. To identify the genomic variations between sesame landrace and variety, two representative sesame landrace accessions, "Baizhima" and "Mishuozhima," were selected and re-sequenced. The genome sequencing and de novo assembling of the two sesame landraces resulted in draft genomes of 267 Mb and 254 Mb, respectively, with the contig N50 more than 47 kb. Totally, 1,332,025 SNPs and 506,245 InDels were identified from the genome of "Baizhima" and "Mishuozhima" by comparison of the genome of a variety "Zhongzhi13." Among the genomic variations, 70,018 SNPs and 8311 InDels were located in the coding regions of genes. Genomic variations may contribute to variation of sesame agronomic traits such as flowering time, plant height, and oil content. The identified genomic variations were successfully used in the QTL mapping and the black pigment synthesis gene, PPO, was found to be the candidate gene of sesame seed coat color. The comprehensively compared genomes of sesame landrace and modern variety produced massive useful genomic information, constituting a powerful tool to support genetic research, and molecular breeding of sesame. PMID:27536315

  5. Detection of sesame seed DNA in foods using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Jennifer L

    2007-04-01

    The detection of potentially allergenic foods, such as sesame seeds, in food products is a major concern for the food-processing industry. A real-time PCR method was designed to determine if sesame seed DNA is present in food products. The PCR reaction amplifies a 66-bp fragment of the sesame seed 2S albumin gene, which is detected with a sesame-specific, dual-labeled TaqMan probe. This reaction will not amplify DNA derived from other seeds present in baked goods, such as pumpkin, poppy, and sunflower seeds. Additionally, this assay will not cross-react with DNA from several tree nut species, such as almond, Brazil nut, cashew, hazelnut, and walnut, as well as four varieties of peanut. This assay is sensitive enough to detect 5 pg of purified sesame seed DNA, as well as sesame seed DNA in a spiked wheat cracker sample.

  6. A kinetic study on sesame cake protein hydrolysis by Alcalase.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Elçin; Apar, Dilek Kılıç; Özbek, Belma

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the hydrolysis of sesame cake protein was performed by Alcalase, a bacterial protease produced by Bacillus licheniformis, to investigate the reaction kinetics of sesame cake hydrolysis and to determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase. The reactions were carried out for 10 min in 0.1 L of aqueous solutions containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 g protein/L at various temperature and pH values. To determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase, a series of inhibition experiments were conducted with the addition of various amounts of hydrolysate. The reaction kinetics was investigated by initial rate approach. The initial reaction rates were determined from the slopes of the linear models that fitted to the experimental data. The kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max), were estimated as 41.17 g/L and 9.24 meqv/L x min. The Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that the type of inhibition for Alcalase determined as uncompetitive, and the inhibition constant, K(i), was estimated as 38.24% (hydrolysate/substrate mixture). Practical Application: Plant proteins are increasingly being used as an alternative to proteins from animal sources to perform functional roles in food formulation. Knowledge of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction is essential for the optimization of enzymatic protein hydrolysis and for increasing the utilization of plant proteins in food products. Therefore, in the present study, the hydrolysis of sesame cake protein was performed by Alcalase, a bacterial protease produced by B. licheniformis, to investigate the reaction kinetics of sesame cake hydrolysis and to determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase.

  7. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame.

  8. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Koppelman, Stef J.; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Taylor, Steve L.

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame. PMID:26783532

  9. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame. PMID:26783532

  10. Ameliorative effect of sesame lignans on nicotine toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Krishna; Mondal, Srinath; Chattopadhyay, Brajadulal; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-11-01

    Nicotine causes oxidative and genotoxic damages in the tissues leading to several diseases. Any strategy through natural diet that prevents or slows the progression and severity of nicotine toxicity has a significant health impact. This work is designed to investigate natural antioxidants that play effective protective role against nicotine-induced toxicity. Experiments were conducted on male albino rats by injecting nicotine tartrate (3.5 mg/kg body wt./day for 15 days) subcutaneously and thereby supplementing sesame lignans (0.1 g/100g diet and 0.2 g/100g diet) orally to them. Significant (P<0.01) increase of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, decrease of HDL-cholesterol, decrease in antioxidant enzymes and increase in concentration of lipid peroxidative product has been observed in plasma due to nicotine toxicity. Significant (P<0.01) decrease of total DNA contents and highly significant (P<0.001) DNA damage of liver tissue is also observed on nicotine treatment. Sesame lignans minimizes the above mentioned effects. The nicotine-induced oxidative and genotoxic damages on the tissues can be effectively attenuated by sesame lignans supplemented diet. PMID:20804815

  11. The formal pace of Sesame Street over 26 years.

    PubMed

    Koolstra, Cees M; van Zanten, Juliette; Lucassen, Nicole; Ishaak, Nazreen

    2004-08-01

    Television producers often use a high rate in the succession of visual and auditory features in their programs to attract the attention of viewers. In this study an attempt was made to measure the formal pace of television programs by scoring the rates of an extensive set of formal visual and auditory characteristics. Sesame Street was chosen as a focal point because this educational program--with its high pace--is very successful in its competition with the majority of commercial programs from which children can choose to watch at home. The analyzed material consisted of 49 Dutch episodes of Sesame Street broadcast between 1977 and 2003. The formal pace characteristics of separate program items from Sesame Street could be reliably established. Factor analysis indicated that clear pace factors were (a) "editing," consisting of a frequent use of different types of shots (total shots, medium shots, and close-ups) combined with a large number of cuts and (b) speech rate. Over a period of 26 years, the pace of editing increased: the mean number of cuts increased from about 4 to 8 per minute. The mean speech rate decreased from 175 to 139 words per minute.

  12. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  13. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOEpatents

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  14. Results of the Study on the Role and Penetration of Sesame Street and the Electric Company in Ghetto Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The findings of a 1973 study covering the performance of Sesame Street and The Electric Company in ghetto communities are reported briefly. The steps taken to repeat the methodology of earlier Sesame Street studies are described. Data are given on: penetration of Sesame Street among preschool children in Bedford Stuyvesant, East Harlem, Chicago,…

  15. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es Salaam. Results offer…

  16. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recent inspection system ...

  17. Characterizing the relationship between sesame, coconut, and nut allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Stutius, Lisa M; Sheehan, William J; Rangsithienchai, Pitud; Bharmanee, Apinya; Scott, Jordan E; Young, Michael C; Dioun, Anahita F; Schneider, Lynda C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-12-01

    Sesame and coconut are emerging food allergens in the United States. We sought to examine whether children allergic to peanuts and tree nuts are at increased risk of having an allergy to sesame or coconut. We performed a retrospective chart review of children who underwent skin prick testing (SPT) to sesame and coconut and identified 191 children who underwent SPT to sesame and 40 to coconut. Sensitization to sesame was more likely in children with positive SPT to peanuts (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.7-16.8], p < 0.001) and tree nuts (OR = 10.5, 95% CI [4.0-27.7], p < 0.001). Children with histories of both peanut and tree nut reaction were more likely to have a history of sesame reaction (OR = 10.2, 95% CI [2.7-38.7], p < 0.001). Children with sensitization or allergy to peanuts or tree nuts were not more likely to be sensitized or allergic to coconut. In conclusion, children with peanut or tree nut sensitization were more likely to be sensitized to sesame but not coconut. Children with clinical histories of both peanut and tree nut allergy were more likely to be allergic to sesame.

  18. Characterizing the Relationship Between Sesame, Coconut, and Nut Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stutius, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Rangsithienchai, Pitud; Bharmanee, Apinya; Scott, Jordan E.; Young, Michael C.; Dioun, Anahita; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Sesame and coconut are emerging food allergens in the US. We sought to examine whether children allergic to peanuts and tree nuts are at increased risk of having an allergy to sesame or coconut. We performed a retrospective chart review of children who underwent skin prick testing (SPT) to sesame and coconut and identified 191 children who underwent SPT to sesame and 40 to coconut. Sensitization to sesame was more likely in children with positive SPT to peanuts (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.7–16.8], P<0.001) and tree nuts (OR = 10.5, 95% CI [4.0–27.7], P<0.001). Children with histories of both peanut and tree nut reaction were more likely to have a history of sesame reaction (OR = 10.2, 95% CI [2.7–38.7], P<0.001). Children with sensitization or allergy to peanuts or tree nuts were not more likely to be sensitized or allergic to coconut. In conclusion, children with peanut or tree nut sensitization were more likely to be sensitized to sesame but not coconut. Children with clinical histories of both peanut and tree nut allergy were more likely to be allergic to sesame. PMID:21073539

  19. Anti-Atherosclerotic and Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Sesame Oil

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Selvarajan, Krithika; Litvinov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis, a major form of cardiovascular disease, has now been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Nonpharmacological means of treating chronic diseases have gained attention recently. We previously reported that sesame oil has anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study, we have determined the mechanisms by which sesame oil might modulate atherosclerosis by identifying genes and inflammatory markers. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) female mice were fed with either an atherogenic diet or an atherogenic diet reformulated with sesame oil (sesame oil diet). Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. Plasma samples were used for cytokine analysis. RNA was extracted from the liver tissue and used for global gene arrays. The sesame oil diet significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDLR−/− mice. Plasma inflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, RANTES, IL-1α, IL-6, and CXCL-16, were significantly reduced, demonstrating an anti-inflammatory property of sesame oil. Gene array analysis showed that sesame oil induced many genes, including ABCA1, ABCA2, APOE, LCAT, and CYP7A1, which are involved in cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. In conclusion, our studies suggest that a sesame oil-enriched diet could be an effective nonpharmacological treatment for atherosclerosis by controlling inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:25562618

  20. Value addition in sesame: A perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Niti; Rai, A.K.; Kumari, Ratna; Bhat, K.V.

    2014-01-01

    Sesame seed is a reservoir of nutritional components with numerous beneficial effects along with health promotion in humans. The bioactive components present in the seed include vital minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and unique class of lignans such as sesamin and sesamolin. The presence of phenylpropanoid compounds namely lignans along with tocopherols and phytosterols provide defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species and increases keeping quality of oil by preventing oxidative rancidity. In this article, we have reviewed the nutraceutical, pharmacological, traditional and industrial value of sesame seeds with respect to bioactive components that hold high antioxidant value. Valuable information on superior functional components of sesame will strongly promote the use of sesame seeds in the daily diet world-wide. In spite of huge repertoire of sesame germplasm collection, limited research efforts on the use of conventional and biotechnological methodologies have resulted in minimal success in developing nutritionally superior cultivars. In consequence, value addition efforts in sesame would enable development of genotypes with high antioxidant activity and subsequently prevention of free radical related diseases. Modification of bioactive components in sesame would enable production of stabilized sesame oil with enhanced shelf life and better market value. PMID:25125886

  1. Anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory actions of sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Selvarajan, Krithika; Litvinov, Dmitry; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a major form of cardiovascular disease, has now been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Nonpharmacological means of treating chronic diseases have gained attention recently. We previously reported that sesame oil has anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study, we have determined the mechanisms by which sesame oil might modulate atherosclerosis by identifying genes and inflammatory markers. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) female mice were fed with either an atherogenic diet or an atherogenic diet reformulated with sesame oil (sesame oil diet). Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. Plasma samples were used for cytokine analysis. RNA was extracted from the liver tissue and used for global gene arrays. The sesame oil diet significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDLR(-/-) mice. Plasma inflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, RANTES, IL-1α, IL-6, and CXCL-16, were significantly reduced, demonstrating an anti-inflammatory property of sesame oil. Gene array analysis showed that sesame oil induced many genes, including ABCA1, ABCA2, APOE, LCAT, and CYP7A1, which are involved in cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. In conclusion, our studies suggest that a sesame oil-enriched diet could be an effective nonpharmacological treatment for atherosclerosis by controlling inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:25562618

  2. Effects of "Sesame Street": A Meta-Analysis of Children's Learning in 15 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Marie-Louise; Pan, Zhongdang

    2013-01-01

    "Sesame Street" is broadcast to millions of children globally, including in some of the world's poorest regions. This meta-analysis examines the effects of children's exposure to international co-productions of "Sesame Street", synthesizing the results of 24 studies, conducted with over 10,000 children in 15 countries. The results indicated…

  3. Solar simulator mirror refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverton, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Solar simulator mirrors were refurbished. Two different refurbishment methods were employed. In the first, the electroformed mirror replica was removed from the casting and replaced with a new mirror replica. In the second, only the aluminized surface, with its protective overcoat, was removed from the mirror and replaced after cleaning of the nickel surface.

  4. GMT primary mirror support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charlie

    2014-07-01

    The GMT primary mirror support draws on the heritage developed for the 3.5 m, 6.5 m, and 8.4 m mirrors from the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. While similar in design philosophy and concept, each successive generation has incorporated refinements based on the experience gained from previous mirrors.

  5. AVE-SESAME IV: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 4 experiment is descirbed and tabulated data at 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 20 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 9, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 10, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  6. AVE-SESAME 6: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 6 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 15 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 h intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on June 7, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on June 8, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  7. AVE-Sesame 3: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. T.; Gerhard, M. L.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 3 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 25, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 26, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  8. AVE-SESAME 2: The 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Gerhard, M. L.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME II experiment is described. Data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 19, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 20, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  9. Sesame street: changing cardiovascular risks for a lifetime.

    PubMed

    Peñalvo, José L; Céspedes, Jaime; Fuster, Valentín

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors continues increasing, as its onset is drifting toward younger populations. The development of these factors is greatly influenced by lifestyle habits. It is known that early behaviors persist during childhood and are perpetuated in the adult. Research has proven that lifelong-acquired behavior is unlikely to change, and therefore acquisition of healthy behaviors should begin as early in life as possible. In this report we described the strategy and first stages of a school-based program aiming at promoting (cardiovascular) health through a multilevel intervention supported by Sesame Street materials and educational background.

  10. Floating mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    Koop, D.E.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a floating mirror mount for a mirror of a laser is described consisting of: a mirror having a front surface and a back surface, a keeper encircling the mirror and having a peripheral flange engaging the front surface of the mirror when the mirror is not installed in a laser, a retainer positioned rearwardly of the back surface of the mirror and connected to the keeper and having a spring seating surface, spring means engageable with the spring seating surface of the retainer for exerting a resilient biasing force on the mirror, and fastening means for connecting the retainer to the mirror positioning structure of the laser on installation of the mirror mount in the laser.

  11. Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; Smirnova, E I; O' Hara, John F

    2009-01-01

    We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance frequencies. However, the downside of these designs is that they all employ resonators of rather complicated shape with many fine parts and so they are not easy to fabricate and are sensitive to distortions.

  12. Hypersensitivities to sesame and other common edible seeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Bahna, S L

    2016-10-01

    Several seeds have been increasingly incorporated in various food items, with consequent risk of hypersensitivity reactions that are often severe. Identification of the specific seed as the culprit is often not explored or is difficult to verify. In this article, we reviewed the English literature from January 1930 to March 2016 using PubMed and Google Scholar searching for publications relevant to hypersensitivity to common edible seeds, namely sesame, sunflower seed, poppy seed, pumpkin seed, flaxseed, and mustard seed. Considering the worldwide consumption of those seeds, the number of published articles on the subject was relatively small and was mainly as case reports rather than large series. Allergy to sesame was more reported than to other seeds, with an estimated prevalence of 0.1-0.2%. In this review, we summarize the information relevant to each of the six seeds and their oils regarding the manifestations, routes of exposure, identified major allergens, and cross-reactivity with other seeds or other foods. We also addressed the important role of a thorough history taking in suspecting seed allergy, the limited reliability of routine diagnostic procedures, and the importance of verification by appropriate challenge tests. At present, management is basically dietary avoidance and the use of symptomatic medications that may include epinephrine auto-injectors. We did not encounter any well-designed studies on immunotherapy for seed allergy, but it is hoped that such a gap be filled by the development of safe effective protocols in the near future. PMID:27332789

  13. A triple-isotope approach for discriminating the geographic origin of Asian sesame oils.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeonjin; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Oh, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Kisung; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the geographic location and climatic characteristics of the sesame-producing sites on the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope ratios of Korean sesame oil. In addition, the study aimed to differentiate Korean sesame oil from Chinese and Indian sesame oils using isotopic data in combination with canonical discriminant analysis. The isotopic data were obtained from 84 roasted oil samples that were prepared from 51 Korean, 19 Chinese, and 14 Indian sesame seeds harvested during 2010-2011 and distributed in Korea during the same period. The δ(13)C, δD, and δ(18)O values of Korean sesame oil were negatively correlated with latitude, distance from the sea, and precipitation (May-September), respectively. By applying two canonical discriminant functions, 89.3% of the sesame oil samples were correctly classified by their geographic origin, indicating that the triple-isotope approach is a useful tool for the traceability of the oils.

  14. Sesame allergy in Britain: a questionnaire survey of members of the Anaphylaxis Campaign.

    PubMed

    Derby, C J; Gowland, M H; Hourihane, J O'B

    2005-03-01

    Sesame is a major allergen in countries where it is a common food. It was noted that an increasing number of members of the UK charity, the anaphylaxis campaign, were reporting allergy to sesame. This study, sought to examine features of sesame allergy among members of the Anaphylaxis Campaign (which supports those at potentially life-threatening risk from allergies) focusing on clinical symptoms and features of the foods implicated. A physician-designed questionnaire was sent by post to 400 members of the Anaphylaxis Campaign who reported avoidance of sesame. Two hundred and eighty replies were received (70%). Twenty-three replies (7%) were excluded and 96 replies (24%) came from subjects who avoided sesame but had never reacted to it. One hundred and fifty people (54%) reported 288 reactions to sesame. 89% of reactive subjects reported other atopic diseases and notably 84% were also nut/peanut allergic. One in six (17%) had suffered potentially life-threatening symptoms, with 65% of severe reactions happening on first known exposure. The age of first reaction ranged from 6 months to 65 yr. The majority of reactions reported (91%) involved foods or dishes which had sesame as a deliberate ingredient, rather than sesame as an accidental contaminant. Respondents represented a well-informed and highly selected group of people at risk from potentially life-threatening allergies. Sesame should be identified clearly as an ingredient and separately from nuts and peanuts when it may be an allergen contaminant. People at potential risk need clear allergy diagnosis and informed guidance to enable them to avoid this key allergen more easily.

  15. Effect of sesame oil on serum and liver lipid profiles in the rat.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, S; Chanderbhan, R; Kharroubi, A T; Calvert, R J; Klurfeld, D; Tepper, S A; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    In our previous study (Satchithanandam, S., Reicks, M., Calvert, R.J., Cassidy, M.M. and Kritchevsky, D. (1993) J. Nutr. 123, 1852-1858), we found that the absorption of lymphatic cholesterol by rats fed diets containing 24% sesame oil was about 50% less than that by rats fed the control diet containing no sesame oil. The effect of sesame oil on serum cholesterol levels was not determined at that time. In the present study, three groups of male Wistar rats (75-100 g) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 12 or 24% sesame oil. To increase serum cholesterol levels, 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid were added to each diet. After rats were fed for 4 weeks, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured in the serum. Liver weight and cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined. Liver cholesterol levels were significantly lower in rats fed the 24% sesame oil diet, and the liver lipid level was significantly higher in the 24% sesame oil-fed group, compared with levels in the group fed the control diet. Liver weights and esterified cholesterol and liver triglyceride levels were not significantly different among the groups. Levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in rats fed the 24% sesame oil diet, compared with levels in the control group. Serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels did not differ significantly among the groups. The mechanism by which a diet containing 24% sesame oil reduces levels of serum and liver cholesterol, liver LDL cholesterol, and liver lipids is not known. However, the high degree of unsaturation (85%) of sesame oil and the presence of linoleic acid may be important factors. PMID:8979168

  16. Mirror seeing control of large infrared solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Xinnan; Meng, Xiaohui; Ni, Houkun

    2010-07-01

    To obtain high resolution infrared image, both low photon efficiency and long wavelength of infrared light requires enough large aperture telescope, but large aperture vacuum windows can hardly achieve high optical quality, so open structure becomes the only viable choice for large infrared solar telescope. In addition to the effects of atmospheric turbulence, open solar telescopes suffer from the heating of the optics by sunlight, especially primary mirror heating. These factors cause the image to shiver and become blurred, and increase infrared observing noise. Since blowing air across the front surface of the primary mirror doesn't have the necessary heat transfer coefficient to remove the absorbed heat load, it must be cooled down to maintained at a temperature between 0K and 2K below ambient air temperature to reduce the effects of turbulence. This paper will introduce some cooling methods and simulation results of primary mirror in large infrared solar telescope. On the other hand, mirror material with nice thermal conductivity can reduce the temperature difference between mirror surface and air, and mirror surface polishing at infrared wavelength can be comparatively easier than at visible wavelength, so it is possible to select low cost metal mirror as primary mirror of infrared solar telescope. To analyze the technical feasibility of metal mirror serving as primary mirror, this paper also give some polishing results of aluminum mirror with electroless nickel coating.

  17. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1995-03-21

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis. 7 figures.

  18. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis.

  19. Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina; Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-02-15

    Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a taste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits.

  20. Thermo-optically driven adaptive mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinert, Felix; Lüthy, Willy

    2006-02-01

    The ideal adaptive optical mirror combines large aperture with high spatial and temporal resolution and a phase shift of at least 2π. Further, a simple low-cost solution is preferred. No adaptive system can perfectly fulfill all these requirements. We present a system that has the potential to reach this goal with the exception of high temporal resolution. But even with a moderate temporal resolution of one second such a system can find practical applications. For example as a laser resonator mirror that allows to modify the intensity distribution of the emission, or to correct slowly varying aberrations of optical systems. Two possible mechanisms can be used to change the optical path length of the adaptive mirror: thermal expansion of the mirror substrate or the thermally induced change of the refractive index (thermal dispersion) of a medium in front of the mirror. Both mechanisms have been shown to lead to promising results. In both cases heating was performed by irradiation of light in the active medium. The thermal dispersion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a liquid in front of a mirror. To allow a modification of the refractive index by irradiation with a diode laser at 808 nm, a suitable absorber is dissolved in the water. With chopped irradiation a resolution of 3.8 Hz at 30 % contrast is measured. This mirror has been used in a laser resonator to modify the output distribution of the laser. The thermal expansion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a silicon elastomer with a gold coated front side. We present a preparation method to produce thin films of Sylgard on sapphire. With an irradiated intensity of only 370 mW/cm2 surface modulations of up to 350 nm are obtained. With a test pattern a resolution of 1.6 line-pairs per millimeter at 30 % contrast is measured. The temporal resolution is better than one second.

  1. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  2. AVE-SESAME 1: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhard, M. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Williams, S. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seven atmospheric variability experiments (AVE), two atmospheric variability and severe storms experiments (AVSSE), and six atmospheric variability experiment-severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiments (AVE-SESAME) conducted by NASA are discussed. The dates, observation times, and data reports for each of the experiments for which data was processed are listed. The AVE experiments were conducted primarily to study atmospheric variability with emphasis on spatial and temporal in atmospheric structure that can be detected from soundings taken at 3 hr intervals but not seen in soundings taken at 12 hr intervals. The AVSSE experiments were conducted to study atmospheric structure and variability associated with severe storms combining both rawinsonde and aircraft data to provide information on near storm environments. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, an example of contact data is given, and soundings are listed which exhibited abnormal characteristics.

  3. Marshak Lectureship Talk: SESAME: An International Collaborative Science Project in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowwan, Mukhles

    2010-02-01

    In this talk I will speak about the international collaborative science project SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East). SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO and is modeled closely on CERN. The first beam line will be operational in 2012. Several hundred scientists from the region and other parts of the world are expected to use this facility, which will cover disciplines ranging from archaeology to the medical sciences and nanotechnology. The members of SESAME are (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey). This makes SESAME a unique multidisciplinary centre in this part of the world. In addition, I will talk about the Nanotechnology Research at Al-Quds University, and my views on science and politics, and international collaboration, in a volatile environment like the Middle East. )

  4. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 3 conducted on 25-26 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    General weather conditions, including synoptic maps, radar reports, satellite photographs, precipitation areas and amounts, and a summary of severe weather reports are presented. These data provide researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 3 period.

  5. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity.

  6. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Adetunji, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Fapohunda, S.O.; Samson, R.A.; Atanda, O.O.; Agi-Otto, M.C.; Onashile, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = −0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  7. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity.

  8. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity. PMID:26395416

  9. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Udom, I E; Frisvad, J C; Adetunji, M C; Houbraken, J; Fapohunda, S O; Samson, R A; Atanda, O O; Agi-Otto, M C; Onashile, O A

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46-48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = -0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  10. Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Salah, Wa'el; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Hoorani, H.

    2009-09-15

    The calculation for the optics of the synchrotron radiation small and wide angle x-ray scattering beamline, currently under construction at SESAME is described. This beamline is based on a cylindrically bent germanium (111) single crystal with an asymmetric cut of 10.5 deg., followed by a 1.2 m long rhodium coated plane mirror bent into a cylindrical form. The focusing properties of bent asymmetrically cut crystals have not yet been studied in depth. The present paper is devoted to study of a particular application of a bent asymmetrically cut crystal using ray tracing simulations with the SHADOW code. These simulations show that photon fluxes of order of 1.09x10{sup 11} photons/s will be available at the experimental focus at 8.79 keV. The focused beam dimensions will be 2.2 mm horizontal full width at half maximum (FWHM) by 0.12 mm vertical (FWHM).

  11. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  12. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil.

  13. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  14. X-ray induced damage observations in ZERODUR mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; Furenlid, L.

    1997-07-01

    Catastrophic damage has been observed in some ZERODUR mirrors used as first mirrors in two beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Despite the high reflectivity of the coatings used on these mirrors, a significant flux of high energy photons penetrates below the coating and is absorbed in the substrate. Although model calculations indicate that the local temperature does not increase significantly, the authors suspect that over long time periods the absorbed flux produces structural changes in the material, leading to a build-up of surface stress, gross figure changes, and growth of fractures. These changes are probably related to the nature of the two-phase glass-ceramic composition of the ZERODUR material. Metal mirrors and single-phase materials do not exhibit such catastrophic damage under similar exposure conditions.

  15. Tracking sesamin synthase gene expression through seed maturity in wild and cultivated sesame species--a domestication footprint.

    PubMed

    Pathak, N; Bhaduri, A; Bhat, K V; Rai, A K

    2015-09-01

    Sesamin and sesamolin are the major oil-soluble lignans present in sesame seed, having a wide range of biological functions beneficial to human health. Understanding sesame domestication history using sesamin synthase gene expression could enable delineation of the sesame putative progenitor. This report examined the functional expression of sesamin synthase (CYP81Q1) during capsule maturation (0-40 days after flowering) in three wild Sesamum species and four sesame cultivars. Among the cultivated accessions, only S. indicum (CO-1) exhibited transcript abundance of sesamin synthase along with high sesamin content similar to S. malabaricum, while the other cultivated sesame showed low expression. The sesamin synthase expression analysis, coupled with quantification of sesamin level, indicates that sesamin synthase was not positively favoured during domestication. The sesamin synthase expression pattern and lignan content, along with phylogenetic analysis suggested a close relationship of cultivated sesame and the wild species S. malabaricum. The high genetic identity between the two species S. indicum and S. malabaricum points towards the role of the putative progenitor S. malabaricum in sesame breeding programmes to broaden the genetic base of sesame cultivars. This study emphasises the need to investigate intraspecific and interspecific variation in the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools to develop superior sesame genotypes.

  16. Durable Corrosion and Ultraviolet-Resistant Silver Mirror

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, G. J.; Gee, R.

    2006-01-24

    A corrosion and ultra violet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors; the silver layer having a film-forming protective polymer bonded thereto, and a protective shield overlay comprising a transparent multipolymer film that incorporates a UV absorber. The corrosion and ultraviolet resistant silver mirror retains spectral hemispherical reflectance and high optical clarity throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors.

  17. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  18. Self in the mirror.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    What are mirror systems good for? Several suggestions have been made in response to this question, addressing the putative functions of mirror systems in minds and brains. This paper examines possible contributions of mirror systems to the emergence of subjectivity. At the heart of the discussion is the notion of social mirroring, which has a long tradition in social philosophy and social anthropology. Taking the existence of mirror devices in minds and brains for granted, I argue that social mirroring is a prerequisite for the constitution of mental selves, and, hence, the emergence of subjectivity. However, the fact that self and subjectivity are socially created should not be taken to indicate that they are illusory. They are as real as natural facts are. PMID:23410785

  19. LOXT mirror design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L.; Antrim, W.; Boyd, D.; Giacconi, R.; Sinnamon, G.; Stille, F.

    1972-01-01

    The final report for the large orbiting X-ray telescope (LOXT) high resolution mirror design study is presented. The following tasks were performed: (1) Generation of a reference and alternate preliminary design for the LOXT high resolution mirror assembly, which will meet the LOXT scientific requirements, and are within the present state of the art of materials and fabrication techniques. (2) Measurement, in X-rays, of the scattering properties of a variety of optical flats, embodying materials, coatings, and polishing techniques which might be applicable to the flight configuration LOXT high resolution mirror. (3) Preparation of a procurement specification for a paraboloid test mirror of the size of the innermost paraboloid of the high resolution mirror assembly, including the design requirements for the reference design evolved from this preliminary design study. The results of the engineering and scientific analysis and the conclusions drawn are presented. The procurement specification for the test mirror is included.

  20. Sesame effects on testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats

    PubMed Central

    Khaneshi, Fereshteh; Nasrolahi, Ozra; Azizi, Shahriar; Nejati, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes. Diabetes is associated with changes in testicular tissue. Sesame oil contains large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lignin with antioxidant activity, vitamin E, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). The present study investigated the effects of sesame on testis histology and male reproductive parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., control (C), diabetic-control (DC), and sesame-treated diabetic rats (SD). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg; i.p). The animals were treated by a single intraperitoneal sesame extract injection (100 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 6 weeks. Results: The biochemical analysis revealed that the diabetes resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction in spermiogenesis, testosterone, LH, and FSH levels. Light microscopic analysis showed remarkable (p<0.05) reduction in STD (seminiferous tubules diameter), SPI (spermatogenesis index) thickness of the epithelium, and significant increase in thickness of the interstitial tissue in the diabetic group compared with the control group. Simultaneous administration of the sesame could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH, and FSH of the animals in this group. However, some differences were manifested with improved histological features as thickness of the epithelium, seminiferous tubules diameter, and spermatogenesis index. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that sesame significantly improved diabetes complication in rat testis. This study suggested that sesame might have a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced impaired testicular functions in diabetic rats. PMID:25050292

  1. Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Results Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. Conclusions As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame. PMID:24576357

  2. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition.

  3. NASA's participation in the AVE-SESAME '79 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center participated with its AVE (Atmospheric Variability Experiment) in a large interagency mesoscale and severe storms experiment identified herein as AVE-SESAME '79 (Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment 1979). A primary objective of NASA was to support an effort to acquire carefully edited sets of rawinsonde data during selected severe weather events for use in correlative and diagnostic studies with satellite and radar data obtained at approximately the same times. Data were acquired during six individual 24-h experiments on both the regional and storm scales over a network in the central United States that utilized approximately 20 supplemental rawinsonde sites meshed among 23 standard National Weather Service sites. Included among the six experiments are data obtained between 1200 GMT on April 10 and 1200 GMT on April 11, encompassing the formation and development period for the tornado-producing systems that devastated Wichita Falls, Texas, and other sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The other dates for which data sets are available are April 19-20 and 25-26, May 9-10 and 20-21, and June 7-8, 1979.

  4. Castable Amorphous Metal Mirrors and Mirror Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Davis, Gregory L.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Shapiro, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    A revolutionary way to produce a mirror and mirror assembly is to cast the entire part at once from a metal alloy that combines all of the desired features into the final part: optical smoothness, curvature, flexures, tabs, isogrids, low CTE, and toughness. In this work, it has been demonstrated that castable mirrors are possible using bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, also called amorphous metals) and BMG matrix composites (BMGMCs). These novel alloys have all of the desired mechanical and thermal properties to fabricate an entire mirror assembly without machining, bonding, brazing, welding, or epoxy. BMGs are multi-component metal alloys that have been cooled in such a manner as to avoid crystallization leading to an amorphous (non-crystalline) microstructure. This lack of crystal structure and the fact that these alloys are glasses, leads to a wide assortment of mechanical and thermal properties that are unlike those observed in crystalline metals. Among these are high yield strength, carbide-like hardness, low melting temperatures (making them castable like aluminum), a thermoplastic processing region (for improving smoothness), low stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratios, relatively low CTE, density similar to titanium alloys, high elasticity and ultra-smooth cast parts (as low as 0.2-nm surface roughness has been demonstrated in cast BMGs). BMGMCs are composite alloys that consist of a BMG matrix with crystalline dendrites embedded throughout. BMGMCs are used to overcome the typically brittle failure observed in monolithic BMGs by adding a soft phase that arrests the formation of cracks in the BMG matrix. In some cases, BMGMCs offer superior castability, toughness, and fatigue resistance, if not as good a surface finish as BMGs. This work has demonstrated that BMGs and BMGMCs can be cast into prototype mirrors and mirror assemblies without difficulty.

  5. A survey of aflatoxins in sesame seeds imported into Khorasan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseininia, Ali Reza; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Rashedinia, Marziyeh; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2014-02-01

    Sesame seed is one of the main nutrient substances which is used in the food industries of Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Because it is likely that stored sesame seeds are contaminated with mycotoxins, the levels of aflatoxins (AF) in five lots of imported sesame seeds before their distribution to the market were studied during one year. A total of 269 sub-samples were obtained from a total of 9,321 tons of sesame seeds from five importing companies. Aflatoxins at >1 μg/kg were found in 50 % of all samples, but at low levels in most cases, which is illustrated by mean AFB1 and total AF levels of 1.25 ± 3.70 and 1.43 ± 4.38 μg/kg, respectively. A few (1.9 %) samples exceeded the National Iranian Standard maximum accepted level for AFB1 (5 μg/kg) or total AF (15 μg/kg); the maximum total AF level found in one sample was 48 μg/kg. The results indicate that the risk of a violative AF contamination in imported sesame seeds is not negligible but is currently relatively low.

  6. Fate of Salmonella during sesame seeds roasting and storage of tahini.

    PubMed

    Torlak, Emrah; Sert, Durmuş; Serin, Pınar

    2013-05-15

    Tahini is usually consumed without further heat treatment, and roasting of sesame seeds is the only Salmonella inactivation step in its traditional production process. This study examined the efficiency of the roasting process in the elimination of Salmonella from sesame seeds and the survival of Salmonella in tahini during storage. Sesame seed and tahini samples were inoculated with a cocktail of three serotypes of Salmonella (S. Typhimurium, S. Newport and S. Montevideo). Complete inactivation of Salmonella in sesame seeds, inoculated with 5.9 log cfu/g, was achieved by roasting at 110 °C for 60 min, 130 °C for 50 min, or 150 °C for 30 min. Salmonella levels in tahini (aw=0.17) inoculated with 5.6 log cfu/g and stored for 16 weeks at 22 or 4 °C decreased by 4.5 and 3.3 log, respectively. Results of this study demonstrated that the standard roasting process is sufficient to inactivate Salmonella in sesame seeds and low water activity of tahini prevents microbial growth, but its composition allows Salmonella to survive for at least 16 weeks. Therefore, prevention of cross-contamination after roasting is crucial for food safety. PMID:23562834

  7. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of defatted sesame meal extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of far-infrared (FIR) irradiation on the antioxidant activities of sesame meal, half of sesame seeds were FIR-irradiated and then oil was extracted from the seeds. The resulting defatted sesame meal (DSM) was extracted with methanol, and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extract were determined. FIR irradiation of sesame seeds for 30 min increased the total phenol content from 34.0 to 59.0 muM and radical scavenging activity of DSM extracts from 26.40 to 68.76%. The induction time of lipid oxidation of oil added to extracts was also retarded from 0.82 to 0.96 h. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, several low molecular weight phenolic compounds, such as p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoferulic acid, and o-coumaric acid, were frequently detected in FIR-irradiated DSM extracts as compared to unirradiated ones. These results indicated that FIR irradiation of sesame seeds increased the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of DSM. PMID:15740030

  8. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  9. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  10. The mirror box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gene; Mathieson, Don

    2001-11-01

    The mirror box is an old standby in magic shows and an impressive demonstration of the law of reflection for the physics instructor. The box creates the illusion of an object floating in space by the use of a plane mirror.

  11. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  12. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  13. Corticospinal mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Kraskov, A; Philipp, R; Waldert, S; Vigneswaran, G; Quallo, M M; Lemon, R N

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the properties of neurons with mirror-like characteristics that were identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) and recorded in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and primary motor cortex (M1) of three macaque monkeys. We analysed the neurons' discharge while the monkeys performed active grasp of either food or an object, and also while they observed an experimenter carrying out a similar range of grasps. A considerable proportion of tested PTNs showed clear mirror-like properties (52% F5 and 58% M1). Some PTNs exhibited 'classical' mirror neuron properties, increasing activity for both execution and observation, while others decreased their discharge during observation ('suppression mirror-neurons'). These experiments not only demonstrate the existence of PTNs as mirror neurons in M1, but also reveal some interesting differences between M1 and F5 mirror PTNs. Although observation-related changes in the discharge of PTNs must reach the spinal cord and will include some direct projections to motoneurons supplying grasping muscles, there was no EMG activity in these muscles during action observation. We suggest that the mirror neuron system is involved in the withholding of unwanted movement during action observation. Mirror neurons are differentially recruited in the behaviour that switches rapidly between making your own movements and observing those of others.

  14. Bronze rainbow hologram mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.

    2006-02-01

    This project draws on holographic embossing techniques, ancient artistic conventions of bronze mirror design and modelling and casting processes to accomplish portraiture of reflection. Laser scanning, 3D computer graphics and holographic imaging are employed to enable a permanent 3D static holographic image to appear integrated with the real-time moving reflection of a viewer's face in a polished bronze disc. The disc and the figure which holds it (caryatid) are cast in bronze from a lost wax model, a technique which has been used for millennia to make personal mirrors. The Caryatid form of bronze mirror which went through many permutations in ancient Egyptian, Greece and Rome shows a plethora of expressive figure poses ranging from sleek nudes to highly embellished multifigure arrangements. The prototype of this series was made for Australian choreographer Graeme Murphy, Artistic Director of the Sydney Dance Company. Each subsequent mirror will be unique in figure and holographic imagery as arranged between artist and subject. Conceptually this project references both the modern experience of viewing mirrors retrieved from ancient tombs, which due to deterioration of the surface no longer reflect, and the functioning of Chinese Magic mirrors, which have the ability to project a predetermined image. Inspired by the metaphorical potential of these mirrors, which do not reflect the immediate reality of the viewer, this bronze hologram mirror series enables each viewer to reflect upon himself or herself observing simultaneously the holographic image and their own partially obliterated reflection.

  15. Variation in Seed Fatty Acid Composition, and Sequence Divergence in the FAD2 Gene Coding Region between Wild and Cultivated Sesame

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame germplasm harbors genetic diversity which can be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs. Seven accessions with different levels of oleic acid were selected from the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection (1232 accessions) and planted for morphological observation and re-examinati...

  16. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, T. Kenneth

    1978-11-14

    Apparatus and method for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell.

  17. The Portrayal of Gender in the Children's Program "Sesame Street" and Its Effect on the Intended Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditsworth, Dahlia

    2001-01-01

    Presents a literature review that addresses sexism and gender misrepresentation on "Sesame Street," the world's most popular children's television program. Discusses the show's content and the correlation between increased exposure to "Sesame Street" and viewers' changes in attitude and behavior. Suggests the presence of gender inequality and…

  18. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  19. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  20. Identification of a characteristic antioxidant, anthrasesamone F, in black sesame seeds and its accumulation at different seed developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Furumoto, Toshio; Nishimoto, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from black seeds of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) led to the isolation of an active compound that had a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. This antioxidant was confirmed to be anthrasesamone F, an anthraquinone derivative previously isolated from different black sesame seeds and biogenetically related to other anthrasesamones in sesame roots. The radical scavenging assay showed that anthrasesamone F had more potent activity than Trolox. The content of anthrasesamone F in different parts and at different developmental stages of black sesame seeds was investigated to clarify the accumulation pattern of this antioxidant in the black seeds. Anthrasesamone F was localized in the seed coat of black seeds and accumulated after the seed coat color changed to black. The content of anthrasesamone F increased gradually with seed maturation and drastically on air-drying, the final stage in sesame cultivation.

  1. Space Mirror Alignment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  2. Modelling Absorbent Phenomena of Absorbent Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeb, S.; Ladhari, N.; Ben Hassen, M.; Sakli, F.

    Absorption, retention and strike through time, as evaluating criteria of absorbent structures quality were studied. Determination of influent parameters on these criteria were realized by using the design method of experimental sets. In this study, the studied parameters are: Super absorbent polymer (SAP)/fluff ratio, compression and the porosity of the non woven used as a cover stock. Absorption capacity and retention are mostly influenced by SAP/fluff ratio. However, strike through time is affected by compression. Thus, a modelling of these characteristics in function of the important parameter was established.

  3. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  4. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  5. Mirror plasma apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

  6. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  7. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  8. Lighted, Folding Inspection Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roepe, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, inexpensive tool used in place of expensive borescopes. Shortens inspection/photographing process. Includes two small metal or glass mirrors hinged together. Two 3-V light bulbs attached along edges of one mirror and connected to battery of two cells. Inserted into narrow opening of clevis or tand, and surface viewed and photographed in opposite mirror. Useful in assembly of segments of solid rocket motors as well as in postflight assessment, engineering evaluation, and refurbishment. Also applied in general to inspection and photographing of inner sealing surfaces to which access difficult.

  9. [Mirror behaviors in dementia: the many mirror signs].

    PubMed

    Ghika, Joseph; Diéguez, Sebastian; Assal, Frédéric; Demonet, Jean-François

    2013-11-13

    Mirror behaviors in advanced dementia are: the mirror sign of Abely and Delmas, where the patient stares at his face (environment-driven behavior of Lhermitte); non recognition of the self in the mirror (autoprosopagnosia and/or delirious auto-Capgras); mirror agnosia of Ramachandran and Binkofski where the patient do not understand the concept of mirror and its use; the psychovisual reflex, or reflex pursuit of the eyes when passively moving a minrror in front of a patient (intact vision); mirror writing (procedural learning). We describe four demented patients with mirror behaviors assessing brain mechanisms of self recognition, social brain and mental and visuo-spatial manipulation of images and objects.

  10. Wavelength dependent scattering caused by dust accumulation on solar mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, R. B.; Freese, J. M.

    1980-09-01

    The reflectance properties of solar mirror materials including silvered float glass, aluminized acrylic and teflon films, and polished aluminum sheet were tested after 10 months of outdoor exposure in New Mexico. The specular reflectance characteristics were measured as a function of angular aperture using a bidirectional reflectometer; the diffuse and hemispherical reflectances were tested with an integrating sphere reflectometer. The exposure caused a deposit of particulates on mirror surfaces which scatter and absorb solar radiation; in the material investigated, the specular reflectance reduction was five times greater than the reduction in hemispherical reflectance showing that the deposited particles are more effective in scattering radiation than absorbing it. The decrease in the specular reflectance at 500 nm was somewhat smaller for the silvered glass compared to the aluminized acrylic and teflon mirrors.

  11. JWST Mirror Installation

    NASA Video Gallery

    The first six of 18 hexagonal shaped segments that will form NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope’s primary mirror for space observations were readied this week to begin final cryogenic testing at...

  12. The Rotating Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses theory of the rotating mirror, its use in measuring the velocity of the electrical signal in wires, and the velocity of light. Concludes with a description of the manometric flame apparatus developed for analyzing sound waves. (SK)

  13. The Athena Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The Athena mission (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) requires lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution and large effective area. For achieving an effective area of 2 m^2 (at 1 keV) and an angular resolution of below 5 arcsec, the Silicon Pore Optics technology was developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the current design of the Athena mirror concentrating on the technology development status of the Silicon Pore Optics, ranging from the manufacturing of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules and their integration into the mirror structure.

  14. Mirror image proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Le; Lu, Wuyuan

    2014-10-01

    Proteins composed entirely of unnatural d-amino acids and the achiral amino acid glycine are mirror image forms of their native l-protein counterparts. Recent advances in chemical protein synthesis afford unique and facile synthetic access to domain-sized mirror image d-proteins, enabling protein research to be conducted through 'the looking glass' and in a way previously unattainable. d-Proteins can facilitate structure determination of their native l-forms that are difficult to crystallize (racemic X-ray crystallography); d-proteins can serve as the bait for library screening to ultimately yield pharmacologically superior d-peptide/d-protein therapeutics (mirror-image phage display); d-proteins can also be used as a powerful mechanistic tool for probing molecular events in biology. This review examines recent progress in the application of mirror image proteins to structural biology, drug discovery, and immunology.

  15. A new concept for large deformable mirrors for extremely large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Ardeberg, Arne; Korhonen, Tapio

    2006-06-01

    For extremely large telescopes, there is strong need for thin deformable mirrors in the 3-4 m class. So far, feasibility of such mirrors has not been demonstrated. Extrapolation from existing techniques suggests that the mirrors could be highly expensive. We give a progress report on a study of an approach for construction of large deformable mirrors with a moderate cost. We have developed low-cost actuators and deflection sensors that can absorb mounting tolerances in the millimeter range, and we have tested prototypes in the laboratory. Studies of control laws for mirrors with thousands of sensors and actuators are in good progress and simulations have been carried out. Manufacturing of thin, glass mirror blanks is being studied and first prototypes have been produced by a slumping technique. Development of polishing procedures for thin mirrors is in progress.

  16. Mirror Attachment For Borescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gearhart, John F.; Peloquin, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Attachment for articulated borescope provides views into small, normally inaccessible spaces. Simple small round mirror on extension arm welded to borescope head. Tilted at angle to axis of borescope head, mirror provides views sideways to borescope head. Disassembly of turbopump blades not necessary to enable fluorescent-penetrant-dye inspection. Attachment used to inspect difficult-to-reach internal parts of other assemblies. Also used for inspection with ordinary white light.

  17. Notes on moving mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Obadia, N.; Parentani, R.

    2001-08-15

    The Davies-Fulling (DF) model describes the scattering of a massless field by a noninertial mirror in two dimensions. In this paper, we generalize this model in two different ways. First, we consider partially reflecting mirrors. We show that the Bogoliubov coefficients relating inertial modes can be expressed in terms of the reflection factor and the transformation from inertial modes to modes at rest with respect to the mirror. In this perspective, the DF model is simply the limiting case when the reflection factor is unity for all frequencies. In the second part, we introduce an alternative model which is based on self-interactions described by an action principle. When the coupling is constant, this model can be solved exactly and gives rise to a partially reflecting mirror. The usefulness of this dynamical model lies in the possibility of switching off the coupling between the mirror and field. This allows us to obtain regularized expressions for the fluxes in situations where they are singular when using the DF model. Two examples are considered. The first concerns the flux induced by the disappearance of the reflection condition, a situation which bears some analogies with the end of the evaporation of a black hole. The second case concerns the flux emitted by a uniformly accelerated mirror.

  18. Superconducting mirror for laser gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.

    1991-05-14

    This paper describes an apparatus for reflecting a light beam. It comprises: a mirror assembly comprising a substrate and a superconductive mirror formed on such substrate, wherein: the substrate is optically transparent to the light beam and has a thickness of from about 0.5 to about 1.0 millimeter, and the superconductive mirror has a thickness of from about 0.5 to about 1.0 microns; means for cooling the superconductive mirror; means for measuring the temperature of the superconductive mirror; means for determining the reflectivity of the superconductive mirror; and means for varying the reflectivity of the superconductive mirror.

  19. Cold welded laser mirror assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffee, E.G.

    1989-02-07

    A gas laser apparatus is described comprising: (a) a gas laser tube having a bore extending between cathode and anode ends; (b) the laser tube terminating at each end with a bellows assembly operative to extend the length of the tube bore; (c) each bellows assembly comprising: (i) an adjustably positionable metal bellows secured to a selected end of the tube; (ii) a tubular pedestal secured at one end to the bellows to form an extension thereof and at the opposite end providing a mirror mount surface; (iii) a mirror secured to the surface; (iv) a cold weld material located between the mirror and mirror mount surface; and (v) retaining means secured to the pedestal encasing the outer portion of the mirror and operative to apply pressure to the cold weld material to establish a cold weld seal between the mirror and mirror mount surface to retain the mirror on and prevent shifting of the mirror with respect to the mirror mount surface.

  20. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  1. Effects of sesame seed supplementation on inflammatory factors and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab

    2015-01-01

    Considering the high prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and since until now there has not been any human studies to evaluate the effect of sesame in OA patients, this study was designed to assess the effect of administration of sesame on inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA. Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups namely control and sesame group. 25 patients in the control group received 40 g placebo powder per day while 25 patients in the sesame group received 40 g of sesame seed daily during two months of study along with standard medical therapy. Serum total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. In the sesame group, a significant decrease in serum MDA and hs-CRP were seen after two months of study (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in post-treatment serum values of MDA, TAC and hs-CRP between two groups (P>0.05). Serum IL-6 decreased significantly in both groups compared with baseline during the two-month study (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in mean serum IL-6 between two groups after treatment (P=0.001). Sesame seed is a natural and safe substance that may have beneficial effects in patients with knee OA, and it may provide new complementary and adjunctive treatment in these patients. PMID:25871017

  2. Absorbing Outflows in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this program was a comprehensive multiwavelength study of absorption phenomena in active galactic nuclei (AGN). These include a variety of associated absorption systems: X-ray warm absorbers, X-ray cold absorbers. UV absorbers with high ionization lines, MgII absorbers, red quasars and BALQSOs. The aim is to determine the physical conditions in the absorbing outflows, study their inter-relations and their role in AGN. We designed several observing programs to achieve this goal: X-ray spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, FLAY spectroscopy and X-ray imaging. We were very successful towards achieving the goal over the five year period as shown through following observing programs and papers. Copies of a few papers are attached with this report.

  3. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kang-jin; Son, Jaeryong; Kim, Moon S.

    2010-04-01

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recently developed inspection system consists of a light source, a measuring unit, a spectrophotometer, fiber optics, and a data acquisition module. A near-infrared transmittance spectroscopic method was used to develop the prediction model using Partial Least Square (PLS). Sesame seed oil mixed with a range of concentrations of corn, or perilla, or soybean oil was measured in 8 mm diameter glass tubes. For the model development, a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 was observed for corn, perilla, and soybean oil mixtures with standard errors of correlation of 6.32%, 6.16%, and 5.67%, respectively. From the prediction model, the correlation coefficients of corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 0.98, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) for corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 6.52%, 6.89% and 5.88%, respectively. The results indicated that this system can potentially be used as a rapid non-destructive adulteration analysis tool for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils.

  4. The Lives of Sesame Street: The Impact of Foreclosures on Young Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Danne E.; Shin, Minsun

    2009-01-01

    While significant attention has been paid to Wall Street investors and families impacted by the current subprime mortgage crisis in the USA, the lives of Sesame Street are minimally discussed. Children and their families are enduring a variety of consequences of foreclosures. The consequences can be hugely disruptive to the approximately 2 million…

  5. Selective growth inhibition of a human malignant melanoma cell line by sesame oil in vitro.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Salerno, J W

    1992-06-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient and comprehensive system of natural medicine, recommends regular topical application to the skin of sesame oil, above all other oils, as a health-promoting procedure. We examined the effect of sesame oil and several other vegetable oils and their major component fatty acids on the proliferation rate of human normal and malignant melanocytes growing at similar rates in serum-free media. We found that sesame and safflower oils, both of which contain large amounts of linoleate in triglyceride form, selectively inhibited malignant melanoma growth over normal melanocytes whereas coconut, olive and mineral oils, which contain little or no linoleate as triglyceride, did not. These oils were tested at a range of 10-300 micrograms/ml. We found that of the fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid was selectively inhibitory while palmitic and oleic were not. These fatty acids were tested in the range of 3-100 micrograms/ml. These results suggest that certain vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid, such as the sesame oil, recommended for topical use by Ayurveda, may contain selective antineoplastic properties which are similar to those demonstrated for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites. This suggests that whole vegetable oils may have potential clinical usefulness.

  6. Simultaneous determination of carbaryl, malathion, fenitrothion, and diazinon residues in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.).

    PubMed

    Gebreegzi, Y T; Foster, G D; Khan, S U

    2000-11-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate), malathion [diethyl (dimethoxythiophosphorylthio) succinate], fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate), and diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl phosphorothioate) in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds. Sesame seeds were Soxhlet extracted with n-hexane, and the extract was subjected to a liquid-liquid partitioning and column cleanup to remove the oily coextractives prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean percent recoveries (+/- standard deviations) from sesame seeds fortified with carbaryl (0.004 to 0.035 microgram/g), malathion (0.53 to 4.25 microgram/g), fenitrothion (0.22 to 1.78 microgram/g), and diazinon (0.54 to 4.35 microgram/g) were 83.3 +/- 5.7, 85.5 +/- 6.6, 85. 6 +/- 7.2, and 88.4 +/- 4.8, respectively. The method was used for the simultaneous analysis of carbaryl, malathion, fenitrothion, and diazinon residues in sesame seeds obtained from an Ethiopian field crop that had been treated with the pesticides during its growing period.

  7. Effect of thermal heating on some lignans in flax seeds, sesame seeds and rye.

    PubMed

    Gerstenmeyer, Eva; Reimer, Sigrid; Berghofer, Emmerich; Schwartz, Heidi; Sontag, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of lignan rich food is presumed to have positive effects on human health. As numerous foods are consumed mainly in processed form it is important to investigate the changes of the lignan content during processing. To this end, unheated and heated sesame seeds, sesame products, rye grains, rye flour, rye bread and flax seeds were extracted by sonication with ethanol/water (70:30, v:v) or sodium methoxide. The extracts were additionally hydrolysed enzymatically (β-glucuronidase/arylsulphatase, cellulase), the compounds separated on a reversed phase column by gradient elution and detected by UV/ESI-MS in the negative ionisation multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, 7-hydroxymatairesinol, syringaresinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, lariciresinol monoglycoside, pinoresinol mono-, di- and triglycoside, sesaminol, sesaminol triglycoside, sesamolinol and sesamolinol diglycoside were identified. Moderate heating at 100°C did not degrade the lignan aglycones and glycosides in dry foods. In contrast, heating was responsible for the better extractability of the lignans. If samples with high moisture content were heated, the degradation of the lignans in sesame seeds and rye was observed already at 100°C. Higher roasting temperatures caused degradation of aglycones and glycosides. Especially at 250°C, lignans were degraded rapidly in sesame seeds and rye but not in flax seeds. PMID:23411317

  8. Study of the Effects of "Sesame Street" and "Polka Dot Door" on Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Laurie A.

    This paper presents a study designed to determine whether or not parents' attitudes and children's intelligence scores affect children's reactions to television programs. Preschool children's behavior before, during, and after the viewing of two half-hour television programs, "Sesame Street" and "Polka Dot Door," was compared. The children,…

  9. Some microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of gamma irradiated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2016-04-15

    The effect on microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of sesame seeds was determined after irradiation and storage. The sesame seeds were analyzed before and after irradiation with 3, 6 and 9 kGy of gamma irradiation, and after 6 and 12 months of storage. The results showed that gamma irradiation had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the moisture, ash and fat content on sesame seeds. While, small differences, but sometimes significant (p<0.05), on protein and sugar contents were recorded between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Total acidity percentage decreased significantly (p<0.05), while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) increased significantly (p<0.05) due to irradiation. During storage, total acidity increased (p<0.05) and TVBN decreased (p<0.05). Gamma irradiation reduced the microorganisms of sesame seeds. Samples treated with 3 kGy or more remained completely free of fungi throughout the storage. While, only the samples treated with 9 kGy remained completely free of bacteria at the end of storage period (after 12 months). The scores for taste, flavor, color and texture of irradiated samples were higher, but not significantly (p>0.05) than those of non-irradiated samples. PMID:26616940

  10. Some microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of gamma irradiated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2016-04-15

    The effect on microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of sesame seeds was determined after irradiation and storage. The sesame seeds were analyzed before and after irradiation with 3, 6 and 9 kGy of gamma irradiation, and after 6 and 12 months of storage. The results showed that gamma irradiation had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the moisture, ash and fat content on sesame seeds. While, small differences, but sometimes significant (p<0.05), on protein and sugar contents were recorded between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Total acidity percentage decreased significantly (p<0.05), while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) increased significantly (p<0.05) due to irradiation. During storage, total acidity increased (p<0.05) and TVBN decreased (p<0.05). Gamma irradiation reduced the microorganisms of sesame seeds. Samples treated with 3 kGy or more remained completely free of fungi throughout the storage. While, only the samples treated with 9 kGy remained completely free of bacteria at the end of storage period (after 12 months). The scores for taste, flavor, color and texture of irradiated samples were higher, but not significantly (p>0.05) than those of non-irradiated samples.

  11. Chaos on Sesame Street: Does This Carnival of Images Help Students Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Jane M.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid, disjointed, and vivid style of Sesame Street may impede rather than promote progress toward literacy and the development of voluntary attention. It robs children of the ability to create mental pictures. Contends that it is a failure as an instructional medium. (DM)

  12. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  13. The Effects of Viewing "Sesame Street" on Learning Styles and Readiness of Primary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Jane; Williams, Carolyn C.

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between learning styles and school readiness within two groups of 5- and 6-year-old primary school children. The first group was composed of 15 preschool children who watched an average of 5 hours of the television program "Sesame Street" per week; the second group consisted of 29 preschool…

  14. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 4 conducted on 9-10 May 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    July, M.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains information on data collected, symptotic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the Atmospheric Variability Experiment Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) 4 period. The information provides researchers a look at conditions during the period.

  15. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  16. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  17. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  18. Physics of mirror systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1982-05-01

    In recent years the emphasis in research on the magnetic mirror approach to fusion has been shifted to address what are essentially economically-motivated issues. The introduction of the Tandem Mirror idea solved in principal the problem of low Q (low fusion power gain) of mirror-based fusion systems. In order to optimize the tandem mirror idea from an economic standpoint, some important improvements have been suggested. These improvements include the thermal barrier idea of Baldwin and Logan and the axicell concept of Kesner. These new modifications introduce some special physics considerations. Among these are (1) The MHD stability properties of high energy electron components in the end cells; (2) The optimization of end-cell magnetic field configurations with the objective of minimizing equilibrium parallel currents; (3) The suppression of microstabilities by use of sloshing ion distributions. Following a brief outline of tandem mirror concepts, the above three topics are discussed, with illustrative examples taken from earlier work or from recent design studies.

  19. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average ..beta.. and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned.

  20. Carbon nanotube optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes (CNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation. Moreover, as the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and three-dimensional printing. Therefore, the technology holds promise for the development of a new generation of lightweight, compact "smart" telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics, active optics experiments, and numerical modeling. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  1. Smart materials optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2014-08-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional or `smart' composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation as well. Moreover, since the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and 3D printing. The technology therefore holds promise for development of a new generation of lightweight, compact `smart' telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  2. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-21

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  3. Mirror Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract led to a commercially available instrument used to measure the shape profile of mirror surfaces in scientific instruments. Bauer Associates, Inc.'s Bauer Model 200 Profilometer is based upon a different measurement concept. The local curvature of the mirror's surface is measured at many points, and the collection of data is computer processed to yield the desired shape profile. (Earlier profilometers are based on the principle of interferometry.) The system is accurate and immune to problems like vibration and turbulence. Two profilometers are currently marketed, and a third will soon be commercialized.

  4. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  5. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  6. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  7. Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2008-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

  8. Paranal Receives New Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    A 4.1-metre diameter primary mirror, a vital part of the world's newest and fastest survey telescope, VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) has been delivered to its new mountaintop home at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The mirror will now be coupled with a small camera for initial testing prior to installing the main camera in June. Full scientific operations are due to start early next year. VISTA will form part of ESO's Very Large Telescope facility. ESO PR Photo 10d/08 ESO PR Photo 10d/08 The VISTA Mirror The mirror arrived over the Easter weekend at the Paranal Observatory where the telescope is being assembled at an altitude of 2518m, in Chile's Atacama Desert. VISTA Project Manager Alistair McPherson from STFC's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) accompanied the mirror on its journey to Chile: "This is a major milestone for the VISTA project. The precious mirror was loaded on to a plane in a special cradle that used tennis balls to cushion it from impact for its arduous journey across three continents. " "The mirror had a difficult four-day journey, by air and by road. It arrived in perfect condition and now that it has been coated, we will install the mirror in the telescope with a small test camera for about four weeks testing. We plan to install the main camera in June," said the Project Scientist on VISTA, Will Sutherland of Queen Mary, University of London, UK. The VISTA 4.1-metre diameter primary mirror is the most strongly curved large mirror ever polished to such a precise and exacting surface accuracy - deviations from a perfect surface of less than 1/3000th of the thickness of a human hair. On arrival at Cerro Paranal it was safely craned into the telescope dome where it was washed and coated with a thin layer of protected silver in the facility's coating plant. Silver is the best metal for the purpose since it reflects over 98% of near-infrared light, better than the more commonly used aluminium. To date, the reflectivity

  9. Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic - Solar diffuser plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Avis, Lee M.; Gibson, M. A.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microns) and total (0.2 to greater than 200-microns) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface consisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/- 2 percent after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.

  10. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality.

  11. Endothelium-dependent Effect of Sesame Seed Feeding on Vascular Reactivity of Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats: Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Roghani, Mehrdad; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Naderi, Gholamali; Roghani Dehkordi, Farshad; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders continue to constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) seed feeding was studied on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats received sesame seed-mixed food at weight ratios of 3% and 6% for 7 weeks, one week after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to PE was significantly lower in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was also significantly higher in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) as compared to diabetic rats and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly attenuated the observed response. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and sesame treatment significantly reversed the increased MDA content and restored activity of SOD. We thus conclude that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with sesame seed could in a dose-manner prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and via attenuation of oxidative stress in aortic tissue and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect.

  12. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  13. Unravelling the optical responses of nanoplasmonic mirror-on-mirror metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Hasan, Shakeeb B; Urbakh, Michael; Edel, Joshua B; Kornyshev, Alexei A

    2016-07-27

    Mirror-on-mirror platforms based on arrays of metallic nanoparticles, arranged top-down or self-assembled on a thin metallic film, have interesting optical properties. Interaction of localized surface-plasmons in nanoparticles with propagating surface-plasmons in the film underpins the exotic features of such platforms. Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical framework which emulates such a system using a five-layer-stack model and calculate its reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance spectra. The theory rests on dipolar quasi-static approximations incorporating image-forces and effective medium theory. Systematically tested against full-wave simulations, this simple approach proves to be adequate within its obvious applicability limits. It is used to study optical signals as a function of nanoparticle dimensions, interparticle separation, metal film thickness, the gap between the film and nanoparticles, and incident light characteristics. Several peculiar features are found, e.g., quenching of reflectivity in certain frequency domains or shift of the reflectivity spectra. Schemes are proposed to tailor those as functions of the mentioned parameters. Calculating the system's optical responses in seconds, as compared to much longer running simulations, this theory helps to momentarily unravel the role of each system parameter in light reflection, transmission, and absorption, facilitating thereby the design and optimisation of novel mirror-on-mirror systems. PMID:27406066

  14. Rearview Mirror Dimming Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2011-01-01

    Students are often unaware of the little tab on a rear-view mirror that is used to dim headlights from the rear. Those who know about this tab are usually interested in knowing how it works. Explanations of the optics involved can be found in Serway and Jewett and Jones and Edge. An alternate explanation is given.

  15. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  16. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  17. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  18. Rearview Mirror Dimming Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William

    2011-12-01

    Students are often unaware of the little tab on a rear-view mirror that is used to dim headlights from the rear. Those who know about this tab are usually interested in knowing how it works. Explanations of the optics involved can be found in Serway and Jewett and Jones and Edge.2 An alternate explanation is given below:

  19. Tandem mirror fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.

    1983-12-02

    The tandem mirror program has evolved considerably in the last decade. Of significance is the viable reactor concept embodied in the MARS design. An aggressive experimental program, culminating in the operation of MFTF-B in late 1986, will provide a firm basis for refining the MARS design as necessary for constructing a reactor prototype in the 1990s.

  20. JWST Mirror Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Since the initial Design Studies leading to JWST, Mirror Technology was identified as a (if not the) critical capability necessary to enable the next generation of large aperture space telescopes required to achieve the science goals of imaging the earliest galaxies and proto-galaxies after the big bang. Specific telescope architectures were explored via three independent design concept studies conducted during the summer of 1996. Achieving the desired science objectives required a never before demonstrated space telescope capability, one with an 8 meter class primary mirror that is diffraction limited at 2 micrometers and operating in deep space at temperatures well below 70K. Beryllium was identified in the NASA "Yardstick" design as the preferred material because of its ability to provide stable optical performance in the anticipated thermal environment as well as its excellent specific stiffness. Because of launch vehicle constraints, two very significant architectural constraints were placed upon the telescope: segmentation and areal density. Each of these directly resulted in specific technology capability requirements. First, because the maximum launch vehicle payload fairing diameter is approximately 4.5 meters, the only way to launch an 8 meter class mirror is to segment it, fold it and deploy it on orbit - resulting in actuation and control requirements. Second, because of launch vehicle mass limits, the primary mirror allocation was only 1000 kg - resulting in a maximum areal density specification of 20 kilograms per square meter.

  1. NIF small mirror mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarville, Tom J.

    1999-11-01

    The most prominent physical characteristics of the 192-beam NIF laser are the 123 m length of the main laser and 400 mm aperture of each beam line. The main laser is illustrated in Figure 1, which shows half the total beam lines. Less visible are the many small optics (less than 100-mm diameter) used to align and diagnose each beam line. Commercial mounts can be used for most of the small aperture turning mirrors. This paper reviews the NIF projects effort to identify suitable commercial mirror mounts. The small mirror mounts have stability, wave front, space, and cleanliness requirements similar to the large aperture optics. While cost favors use of commercial mounts, there is little other than user experience to guide the mount qualification process. At present, there is no recognizable qualification standard with which to compare various products. In a large project like NIF, different user experience leads to different product selection. In some cases the differences are justified by application needs, but more often the selection process is somewhat random due to a lack of design standards. The result is redundant design and testing by project staff and suppliers. Identification of suitable mirror mounts for large projects like NIF would be streamlined if standards for physical and performance criteria were available, reducing cost for both the project and suppliers. Such standards could distinguish mounts for performance critical applications like NIF from laboratory applications, where ease of use and flexibility is important.

  2. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  3. SESAM-DIABETE, an expert system for insulin-requiring diabetic patient education.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Ferrand, P; Chirat, V

    1989-10-01

    SESAM-DIABETE is an interactive educational expert system that provides personalized advice and therapeutic recommendations for insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Because of its sophisticated explanation facilities, this system is intended to complete the more traditional educational tools for diabetic patients. It has been developed using an original essential expert system, namely SESAM, itself implemented in an upper-layer of Lisp, MBX. Its control structure uses a top-down strategy to solve a problem; i.e., it decomposes the current problem into subproblems easier to solve, this method being recursively applied to each subproblem. All information about patients is kept in a Patient Medical Record, which allows their follow-up. This system is currently available from their home for selected patients through the French telematic network TELETEL and is under clinical evaluation.

  4. SESAM-DIABETE, an expert system for insulin-requiring diabetic patient education.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Ferrand, P; Chirat, V

    1989-10-01

    SESAM-DIABETE is an interactive educational expert system that provides personalized advice and therapeutic recommendations for insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Because of its sophisticated explanation facilities, this system is intended to complete the more traditional educational tools for diabetic patients. It has been developed using an original essential expert system, namely SESAM, itself implemented in an upper-layer of Lisp, MBX. Its control structure uses a top-down strategy to solve a problem; i.e., it decomposes the current problem into subproblems easier to solve, this method being recursively applied to each subproblem. All information about patients is kept in a Patient Medical Record, which allows their follow-up. This system is currently available from their home for selected patients through the French telematic network TELETEL and is under clinical evaluation. PMID:2776447

  5. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  6. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  7. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  8. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  9. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-09-12

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  10. Bistability By Self-Reflection In A Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roso-Franco, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Propagation of laser light through a saturable absorber is theoretically studied. Computed steady state solutions of the Maxwell equations describing the unidimensional propagation of a plane monochromatic wave without introducing the slowly-varying envelope approximation are presented showing how saturation effects can influence the absorption of the field. At a certain range of refractive index and extintion coefficients, computed solutions display a very susprising behaviour, and a self-reflected wave appears inside the absorber. This can be useful for a new kind of biestable device, similar to a standard bistable cavity but with the back mirror self-induced by the light.

  11. [Study on the spectra of granite of asbestos red and sesame white].

    PubMed

    Liu, X

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the composition and spectra of granite of asbestos red and sesame white are studied by ICP-AES, XRF, IR and X-ray diffraction. According to the X-ray diffraction, the components were determined by computer. Comparing results, it is concluded that the red colour of asbestos red granite is caused by the red minerals of Fe contained in it.

  12. G-SESAME: web tools for GO-term-based gene similarity analysis and knowledge discovery

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhidian; Li, Lin; Chen, Chin-Fu; Yu, Philip S.; Wang, James Z.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a set of online tools for measuring the semantic similarities of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and the functional similarities of gene products, and for further discovering biomedical knowledge from the GO database. The tools have been used for about 6.9 million times by 417 institutions from 43 countries since October 2006. The online tools are available at: http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME. PMID:19491312

  13. Effect of Encapsulating Nitrate in Sesame Gum on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Mamvura, Chiedza Isabel; Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Lee, Hong-gu; Choi, Nag-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation is a method used to protect material from certain undesirable environments, for controlled release at a more favorable time and place. Animal productivity would be enhanced if feed additives are delivered to be utilized at their site of action, bypassing the rumen where they are likely to be degraded by microbial action. A novel method of encapsulation with sesame gum was used to coat nitrate, a known enteric methane mitigating agent, and tested for the effect on methane reduction and other in vitro fermentation parameters using rumen fluid from cannulated Hanwoo steers. Orchard grass was used as basal diet for fermentation. The treatments were matrix (1.1 g sesame gum+0.4 g sesame oil cake) only, encapsulated nitrate (matrix+nitrate [21 mM]), free nitrate (21 mM), and a control that contained no additive. Analyses of fermentation parameters were done at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h time periods. In comparison to control, both free and encapsulated nitrate produced significantly reduced (p<0.01) methane (76% less) and also the total volatile fatty acids were reduced. A significantly higher (p<0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen was obtained with the encapsulated nitrate treatment (44%) compared to the free form (28%) and matrix only (20%) (p = 0.014). This might suggest slow release of encapsulated nitrate so that it is fully reduced to ammonia. Thus, this pioneering study found a significant reduction in methane production following the use of sesame gum encapsulated nitrate that shows the potential of a controlled release system in enhancing sustainability of ruminant production while reducing/eliminating the risk of nitrite toxicity. PMID:25358317

  14. Relationship between metabolic and genomic diversity in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Laurentin, Hernán; Ratzinger, Astrid; Karlovsky, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Background Diversity estimates in cultivated plants provide a rationale for conservation strategies and support the selection of starting material for breeding programs. Diversity measures applied to crops usually have been limited to the assessment of genome polymorphism at the DNA level. Occasionally, selected morphological features are recorded and the content of key chemical constituents determined, but unbiased and comprehensive chemical phenotypes have not been included systematically in diversity surveys. Our objective in this study was to assess metabolic diversity in sesame by nontargeted metabolic profiling and elucidate the relationship between metabolic and genome diversity in this crop. Results Ten sesame accessions were selected that represent most of the genome diversity of sesame grown in India, Western Asia, Sudan and Venezuela based on previous AFLP studies. Ethanolic seed extracts were separated by HPLC, metabolites were ionized by positive and negative electrospray and ions were detected with an ion trap mass spectrometer in full-scan mode for m/z from 50 to 1000. Genome diversity was determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) using eight primer pair combinations. The relationship between biodiversity at the genome and at the metabolome levels was assessed by correlation analysis and multivariate statistics. Conclusion Patterns of diversity at the genomic and metabolic levels differed, indicating that selection played a significant role in the evolution of metabolic diversity in sesame. This result implies that when used for the selection of genotypes in breeding and conservation, diversity assessment based on neutral DNA markers should be complemented with metabolic profiles. We hypothesize that this applies to all crops with a long history of domestication that possess commercially relevant traits affected by chemical phenotypes. PMID:18510719

  15. Type 1 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Complications and Sesame (芝麻 Zhī Má)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Thùy, Trần Dương; Wang, Shu-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a major concern among medical practitioners, with the annual mortality rate increasing up to 26.9% in a person aged 65 years or older and 11.3% in the adult. There are many serious complications associated with diabetes, particularly cardiovascular complications due to microvascular diseases. A prerequisite to reduce the risk of microvascular and neurologic complications of type 1 diabetes is normoglycemia. Insulin therapy is the most common treatment used nowadays in type 1 diabetes. However, this method still has many disadvantages such as increased episode of severe hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia unawareness, increased weight gain, transient exacerbation of pre-existing retinopathy, etc. Using insulin pump (the insulin pump is a medical device used for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion to manage the insulin level in the treatment of diabetes mellitus), is associated with known disadvantages including increased ketoacidosis, infection at the infusion site, and the treatment being less suitable in young children (less than 7 years of age). Therefore, alternative treatment for diabetes is still in great demand. We took the approach of traditional Chinese medicine to discuss this matter. Sesame (芝麻 Zhī Má), a herb, has been used medicinally for thousands of years in almost all the countries in the world. The beneficial effects of sesame in remediating diabetes, such as hypoglycemic effects, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, improving fat metabolism, and reducing cholesterol, have been demonstrated in many studies,. However, reports on the effects of sesame in remediating cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients are limited, which necessitates further studies on the effects of sesame on cardiovascular complications. PMID:24872931

  16. G-SESAME: web tools for GO-term-based gene similarity analysis and knowledge discovery.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhidian; Li, Lin; Chen, Chin-Fu; Yu, Philip S; Wang, James Z

    2009-07-01

    We have developed a set of online tools for measuring the semantic similarities of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and the functional similarities of gene products, and for further discovering biomedical knowledge from the GO database. The tools have been used for about 6.9 million times by 417 institutions from 43 countries since October 2006. The online tools are available at: http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME.

  17. Duplex real-time PCR method for the detection of sesame (Sesamum indicum) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) DNA in processed food products.

    PubMed

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The development of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method allowing the simultaneous detection of sesame and flaxseed DNA in commercial food products is described. This duplex real-time PCR technique is based in the design of sesame- and flaxseed-specific primers based on the ITS1 region and two TaqMan fluorescent probes. The method was positive for sesame and flaxseed, and showed no cross-reactivity for all other heterologous plant and animal species tested. Sesame and flaxseed could be detected in a series of model samples with defined raw and heat-treated sesame in flaxseed, and flaxseed in sesame, respectively, with detection limits of 1.3 mg kg(-1) for sesame and 1.4 mg kg(-1) for flaxseed. The applicability of the assay for determining sesame and flaxseed in different food matrices was investigated by analysing a total of 238 commercial foodstuffs. This PCR method is useful for highly selective and sensitive detection of traces of sesame and flaxseed in commercial food products.

  18. Effect of Sesame Oil on Diuretics or ß-blockers in the Modulation of Blood Pressure, Anthropometry, Lipid Profile, and Redox Status

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, D.; Rao, M. Ramakrishna; Sambandam, G.; Pugalendi, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sesame oil in hypertensive patients who were on antihypertensive therapy either with diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) or ß-blockers (atenolol). Thirty-two male and 18 female patients aged 35 to 60 years old were supplied sesame oil (Idhayam gingelly oil) and instructed to use it as the only edible oil for 45 days. Blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution. Substitution of sesame oil brought down systolic and diastolic blood pressure to normal. The same patients were asked to withdraw sesame oil consumption for another 45 days, and the measurements were repeated at the end of withdrawal period. Withdrawal of sesame oil substitution brought back the initial blood pressure values. A significant reduction was noted in body weight and body mass index (BMI) upon sesame oil substitution. No significant alterations were observed in lipid profile except triglycerides. Plasma levels of sodium reduced while potassium elevated upon the substitution of sesame oil. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) decreased while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, ß-carotene, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were increased. The results suggested that sesame oil as edible oil lowered blood pressure, decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased antioxidant status in hypertensive patients. PMID:17876372

  19. Mirror Image Agnosia

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Material and Methods:: Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Results: Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Discussion: Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles

  20. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  1. Thermal mirror spectrometry: An experimental investigation of optical glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanuto, V. S.; Herculano, L. S.; Baesso, M. L.; Lukasievicz, G. V. B.; Jacinto, C.; Malacarne, L. C.; Astrath, N. G. C.

    2013-03-01

    The Thermal mirror technique relies on measuring laser-induced nanoscale surface deformation of a solid sample. The amplitude of the effect is directly dependent on the optical absorption and linear thermal expansion coefficients, and the time evolution depends on the heat diffusion properties of the sample. Measurement of transient signals provide direct access to thermal, optical and mechanical properties of the material. The theoretical models describing this effect can be formulated for very low optical absorbing and for absorbing materials. In addition, the theories describing the effect apply for semi-infinite and finite samples. In this work, we apply the Thermal mirror technique to measure physical properties of optical glasses. The semi-infinite and finite models are used to investigate very low optical absorbing glasses. The thickness limit for which the semi-infinite model retrieves the correct values of the thermal diffusivity and amplitude of the transient is obtained using the finite description. This procedure is also employed on absorbing glasses, and the semi-infinite Beer-Lambert law model is used to analyze the experimental data. The experimental data show the need to use the finite model for samples with very low bulk absorption coefficients and thicknesses L < 1.5 mm. This analysis helped to establish limit values of thickness for which the semi-infinite model for absorbing materials could be used, L > 1.0 mm in this case. In addition, the physical properties of the samples were calculated and absolute values derived.

  2. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  3. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296

  4. Skin mirrors human aging.

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies.

  5. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  6. Solar concentrator/absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Collector/energy converter, consisting of dual-slope optical concentrator and counterflow thermal energy absorber, is attached to multiaxis support structure. Efficient over wide range of illumination levels, device may be used to generate high temperature steam, serve as solar powered dryer, or power absorption cycle cooler.

  7. Improved cryogenic aluminum mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Don, Ken; Sumner, Richard E.

    1998-09-01

    Optical surface deformation of metal mirrors used at cryogenic temperatures is reduced through the use of a new process of plating amorphous aluminum on aluminum. The AlumiPlateTM process (produced by AlumiPlate, Inc. in Minneapolis, MN) plates a layer of 99.9+% high purity aluminum about 125 micrometers thick atop the substrate. Very good surface finishes are produced by direct diamond turning of the plating, with some samples below 40 angstroms RMS. Optical testing of a 175-mm diameter, 550-mm optical radius of curvature 6061-T651/AlumiPlateTM aluminum sphere was performed at 65 K to determine cryogenic optical surface figure stability. In five cycles from 300 to 65 K, an average optical surface change of 0.047 wave RMS (1 wave equals 633 nm) was observed. A total optical figure change of 0.03 wave RMS at 65 K was observed from the first to last cycle. The cause of this relatively small long-term change is not yet determined. The test mirror is bi-concave, with a semi- kinematic toroidal mount, and is machined from the axis of a billet. An `uphill quench' heat treatment consisting of five cycles from liquid nitrogen to boiling water temperatures is used to minimize residual stress in the test mirror. Initial diamond turning of the mirror by the Optical Filter Corp., Keene, NH, produced a 300 K unmounted optical surface figure of 0.380 wave peak-to-valley and 0.059 wave RMS. A second effort at diamond turning by II-VI, Inc., Saxonburg, PA produced a 300 K optical figure of 0.443 wave peak-to-valley and 0.066 wave RMS, with a surface roughness varying from 29 to 42 angstroms.

  8. Lightweight Substrates For Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. Kyle

    1991-01-01

    New substrate uses conventional quasi-isotropic fabric laminate with surfacing layer of carbon-fiber paper consisting of randomly oriented chopped carbon fibers. Layered structure of fabric and paper relatively easy to manufacture. When impregnated with carbon, structure rigid and stable. Substrates of this type made quite thin, thus keeping areal weights to minimum. Mirrors of this type made faster, and cost less, than predecessors.

  9. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  10. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  11. The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibition of human colon cancer growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salerno, J W; Smith, D E

    1991-01-01

    Sesame contains large quantities of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid, in the form triglycerides. The antineoplastic properties of many PUFAs such as linoleic acid and their metabolites are known. We tested the hypothesis that natural vegetable oils, such as sesame oil and its component linoleic acid, when added to human colon adenocarcinoma cells growing in tissue culture would inhibit their growth and that normal colon cells would not be similarly affected. Three human colon cancer cell lines and one normal human colon cell line were exposed to the following: (1) pure linoleic acid; (2) lipase-digested sesame oil; (3) undigested sesame oil; (4) five additional common vegetable oils; (5) mineral oil. Linoleic acid inhibited the in vitro growth of all three malignant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. The normal colon cell line showed dramatically less inhibition of growth. Lipase-digested sesame oil (LDSO) and undigested sesame oil (UDSO) produced greater inhibition of growth of all three malignant colon cell lines than of the normal colon cells. Five other common vegetable oils containing various amounts of PUFAs such as corn, soybean, safflower, olive and coconut oils, all in their lipase-digested form, were found to dramatically inhibit the growth of the HT-29 malignant human colon cell line. Undigested olive and safflower oils also inhibited the HT-29 cells although not as markedly as the lipase-digested oils. Mineral oil did not inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells. Both lauric and palmitic acid, which are saturated fatty acids found in abundance in coconut oil inhibits the HT-29 cells more strongly than linoleic acid, while oleic acid did not inhibit. We conclude that many vegetable oils including sesame contain in vitro antineoplastic properties and that this finding warrants further investigation both in vitro and in vivo to assess their possible chemotherapeutic potential.

  12. Replication of lightweight mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming Y.; Matson, Lawrence E.; Lee, Heedong; Chen, Chenggang

    2009-08-01

    The fabrication of lightweight mirror assemblages via a replication technique offers great potential for eliminating the high cost and schedule associated with the grinding and polishing steps needed for conventional glass or SiC mirrors. A replication mandrel is polished to an inverse figure shape and to the desired finish quality. It is then, coated with a release layer, the appropriate reflective layer, and followed by a laminate for coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) tailorability and strength. This optical membrane is adhered to a mirror structural substrate with a low shrinkage, CTE tailored adhesive. Afterwards, the whole assembly is separated from the mandrel. The mandrel is then cleaned and reused for the next replication run. The ultimate goal of replication is to preserve the surface finish and figure of the optical membrane upon its release from the mandrel. Successful replication requires a minimization of the residual stresses within the optical coating stack, the curing stresses from the adhesive and the thermal stress resulting from CTE mismatch between the structural substrate, the adhesive, and the optical membrane. In this paper, the results on replicated trials using both metal/metal and ceramic/ceramic laminates adhered to light weighted structural substrates made from syntactic foams (both inorganic and organic) will be discussed.

  13. Experimental realization of an achromatic magnetic mirror based on metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Ade, Peter A R; Tucker, Carole

    2016-06-20

    Our work relates to the use of metamaterials engineered to realize a metasurface approaching the exotic properties of an ideal object not observed in nature, a "magnetic mirror." Previous realizations were based on resonant structures that implied narrow bandwidths and large losses. The working principle of our device is ideally frequency-independent, it does not involve resonances and it does not rely on a specific technology. The performance of our prototype, working at millimeter wavelengths, has never been achieved before and it is superior to any other device reported in the literature, both in the microwave and optical regions. The device inherently has large bandwidth (144%), low losses (<1%), and is almost independent of incidence angle and polarization state, and thus approaches the behavior of an ideal magnetic mirror. Applications of magnetic mirrors range from low-profile antennas, absorbers to optoelectronic devices. Our device can be realized using different technologies to operate in other spectral regions. PMID:27409104

  14. Experimental realization of an achromatic magnetic mirror based on metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Ade, Peter A R; Tucker, Carole

    2016-06-20

    Our work relates to the use of metamaterials engineered to realize a metasurface approaching the exotic properties of an ideal object not observed in nature, a "magnetic mirror." Previous realizations were based on resonant structures that implied narrow bandwidths and large losses. The working principle of our device is ideally frequency-independent, it does not involve resonances and it does not rely on a specific technology. The performance of our prototype, working at millimeter wavelengths, has never been achieved before and it is superior to any other device reported in the literature, both in the microwave and optical regions. The device inherently has large bandwidth (144%), low losses (<1%), and is almost independent of incidence angle and polarization state, and thus approaches the behavior of an ideal magnetic mirror. Applications of magnetic mirrors range from low-profile antennas, absorbers to optoelectronic devices. Our device can be realized using different technologies to operate in other spectral regions.

  15. Two-mirror optical system with a small fold mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinping; Li, Yingcai; Yang, Jianfeng

    1998-09-01

    A new configuration of two-mirror optical system with a small fold mirror is presented in this paper. Consisting of a concave (positive power) primary mirror followed by a small flat mirror, a concave (positive power) secondary mirror, four lenses and a beam splitter, it gives the excellent image quality. A 1.5-m EFL, F/10 system of the upper configuration is designed over the 4 degree(s) field angle and 0.50 approximately 0.70 micrometers wavelength range. The aberrations have been highly corrected and the distortion is less than 0.3% over the field. The obscuration could be minimized by reducing primary radius of curvature and avoiding the spider that holds the small fold mirror.

  16. Design of optical mirror structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soosaar, K.

    1971-01-01

    The structural requirements for large optical telescope mirrors was studied with a particular emphasis placed on the three-meter Large Space Telescope primary mirror. Analysis approaches through finite element methods were evaluated with the testing and verification of a number of element types suitable for particular mirror loadings and configurations. The environmental conditions that a mirror will experience were defined and a candidate list of suitable mirror materials with their properties compiled. The relation of the mirror mechanical behavior to the optical performance is discussed and a number of suitable design criteria are proposed and implemented. A general outline of a systematic method to obtain the best structure for the three-meter diffraction-limited system is outlined. Finite element programs, using the STRUDL 2 analysis system, were written for specific mirror structures encompassing all types of active and passive mirror designs. Parametric studies on support locations, effects of shear deformation, diameter to thickness ratios, lightweight and sandwich mirror configurations, and thin shell active mirror needs were performed.

  17. A spectrum of shadowed mirroring.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Melissa C

    2012-04-01

    The central focus of this paper is to explore and extend Kohut's theory of maternal mirroring and to place it within the current context of psychoanalytic thinking. Kohut believed a child must experience "positive" mirroring from his or her mother in infancy and beyond to ensure development of a healthy self. Kohut alludes, however, to a possible situation in which the mother's face, metaphorically a mirror, can appear "faceless" to her child. From this I have inferred the concept of what I shall call "shadowed mirroring." Clinical and literary examples show that distorted, "shadowed" mirroring appears on a spectrum, with passive mirroring at one end and hostile (either verbal or nonverbal) mirroring on the other; some individuals experience both. I then consider how "shadowed mirroring," especially hostile mirroring, can be understood within the twin contexts of the overall mother-child relationship and present-day Intersubjective/Relational thinking that is both bidirectional and co-constructed. Shadowed mirroring can lead to severe personality dysfunction along the borderline-narcissistic range, as well as to difficulties in the areas of identity formation, failure of self-cohesiveness, and the blunting of certain humane qualities like empathy.

  18. A spectrum of shadowed mirroring.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Melissa C

    2012-04-01

    The central focus of this paper is to explore and extend Kohut's theory of maternal mirroring and to place it within the current context of psychoanalytic thinking. Kohut believed a child must experience "positive" mirroring from his or her mother in infancy and beyond to ensure development of a healthy self. Kohut alludes, however, to a possible situation in which the mother's face, metaphorically a mirror, can appear "faceless" to her child. From this I have inferred the concept of what I shall call "shadowed mirroring." Clinical and literary examples show that distorted, "shadowed" mirroring appears on a spectrum, with passive mirroring at one end and hostile (either verbal or nonverbal) mirroring on the other; some individuals experience both. I then consider how "shadowed mirroring," especially hostile mirroring, can be understood within the twin contexts of the overall mother-child relationship and present-day Intersubjective/Relational thinking that is both bidirectional and co-constructed. Shadowed mirroring can lead to severe personality dysfunction along the borderline-narcissistic range, as well as to difficulties in the areas of identity formation, failure of self-cohesiveness, and the blunting of certain humane qualities like empathy. PMID:22489812

  19. Relating the "mirrorness" of mirror neurons to their origins.

    PubMed

    Kilner, James M; Friston, Karl J

    2014-04-01

    Ever since their discovery, mirror neurons have generated much interest and debate. A commonly held view of mirror neuron function is that they transform "visual information into knowledge," thus enabling action understanding and non-verbal social communication between con-specifics (Rizzolatti & Craighero 2004). This functionality is thought to be so important that it has been argued that mirror neurons must be a result of selective pressure.

  20. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  1. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  2. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  3. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  4. Absorbed dose water calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.R.

    1982-01-26

    An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated sleeving and then to junctions to form a wheatstone bridge circuit. Convection barriers may be provided to reduce the effects of convection from the point of measurement. Controlled heating of different levels in the water bath is accomplished by electrical heater circuits provided for controlling temperature drift and providing adiabatic operation of the calorimeter. The absorbed dose is determined from the known specific heat of water and the measured temperature change.

  5. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  6. Effects of Sesame Seed Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effect of sesame seed on lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Methods: Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups receiving 40 g of sesame seed daily along with standard medical therapy (n=25) or stan­dard treatment (n=25) for two months. Serum total antioxidant capacity, ma­londialdehyde (MDA) and lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) were measured. Results: After the intervention period two months of study, serum TC, LDL-cholesterol and MDA decreased significantly in the sesame group (P<0.05), while no significant difference in serum values of lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters was seen in the control group (P>0.05). There was no signifi­cant difference in pre and post-treatment values of lipid profile and oxidative parameters between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current study showed a positive effect of sesame seed in improv­ing lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA and indicated the fact that sesame seed might be of help to reduce oxidative stress in OA patients. PMID:25097842

  7. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  8. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  9. JWST Mirror Technology Development Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Mirror technology is a critical enabling capability for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST requires a Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) that can survive launch, deploy and align itself to form a 25 square meter collecting area 6.5 meter diameter primary mirror with a 131 nm rms wavefront error at temperatures less than 50K and provide stable optical performance. At the inception of JWST in 1996, such a capability did not exist. A highly successful technology development program was initiated including the Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD) and Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) projects. These projects along with flight program activities have matured and demonstrated mirror technology for JWST. Directly traceable prototypes or flight hardware has been built, tested and operated in a relevant environment. This paper summarizes that technology development effort.

  10. Poco Graphite Mirror Metrology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently a lightweight mirror technology was tested at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optic Manufacturing Technology Center (MSFC, SOMTC). The mirror is a Poco Graphite CVD Si clad SiC substrate. It was tested for cryogenic (cryo) survivability to 20deg Kelvin in SOMTC's X-ray Calibration and Cryogenic Test Facility. The surface figure of the mirror was measured before and after cry0 cycling. The test technique and results are discussed.

  11. Single Crystal Silicon Instrument Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vince

    2007-01-01

    The goals for the fabrication of single crystal silicon instrument mirrors include the following: 1) Develop a process for fabricating lightweight mirrors from single crystal silicon (SCS); 2) Modest lightweighting: 3X to 4X less than equivalent solid mirror; 3) High surface quality, better than lambda/40 RMS @ 633nm; 4) Significantly less expensive than current technology; and 5) Negligible distortion when cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

  12. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  13. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  14. Multilayer Active Shell Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeves, John

    This thesis presents a novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber composites and replication manufacturing processes. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the structure in order to provide the reflective layer, actuation capabilities and electrode routing. The mirror is thin, lightweight, and has large actuation capabilities. These features, along with the associated manufacturing processes, represent a significant change in design compared to traditional optics. Structural redundancy in the form of added material or support structures is replaced by thin, unsupported lightweight substrates with large actuation capabilities. Several studies motivated by the desire to improve as-manufactured figure quality are performed. Firstly, imperfections in thin CFRP laminates and their effect on post-cure shape errors are studied. Numerical models are developed and compared to experimental measurements on flat laminates. Techniques to mitigate figure errors for thicker laminates are also identified. A method of properly integrating the reflective facesheet onto the front surface of the CFRP substrate is also presented. Finally, the effect of bonding multiple initially flat active plates to the backside of a curved CFRP substrate is studied. Figure deformations along with local surface defects are predicted and characterized experimentally. By understanding the mechanics behind these processes, significant improvements to the overall figure quality have been made. Studies related to the actuation response of the mirror are also performed. The active properties of two materials are characterized and compared. Optimal active layer thicknesses for thin surface-parallel schemes are determined. Finite element simulations are used to make predictions on shape correction capabilities, demonstrating high correctabiliity and stroke over low-order modes. The effect of actuator saturation is studied and shown to significantly degrade shape correction performance. The

  15. SXI Prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed from June 1993 to January 1995. The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule.

  16. Begin with the Children: What Research on "Sesame Street's" International Coproductions Reveals about Using Media to Promote a New More Peaceful World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charlotte F.; Labin, Daniel B.; del Rocio Galarza, Maria

    2008-01-01

    For nearly four decades, Sesame Workshop has brought the joy of learning to the world's youngest citizens through the introduction of locally-produced coproductions of the preschool television series, "Sesame Street". Many of these television shows have been specifically designed to forward important prosocial messages directly linked to the…

  17. EST Telescope: primary mirror, support, and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; Manni, F.; Giannuzzi, M.; Scotto, A.; Cavaller, L.; Scheiffelen, T.; Bettonvil, F.; Berrilli, F.

    2010-07-01

    The solar telescope EST is currently in the conceptual design phase. It is planned to be build on the Canary Islands until end of the decade. It is specialized on polarimetric observations and will provide high spatial and spectral observations of the different solar atmospheric layers. The diameter of the primary mirror blank is 4.2m. Different types of mirror shapes were investigated with respect to thermal and mechanical characteristics. To remove the absorbed heat an air cooling system from the back side will be applied. Additional an air flushing system will remove remaining warm air from the front side. A major problem of a large open telescope will be the wind load. Results of the investigations will be shown. To achieve optimal optical performance an active support system is planned. The primary mirror cell needs to be stiff enough to support the primary mirror without deformation at strong wind in case of the open telescope option, but sufficient room for the active support system and cooling system below the backside of the mirror is also required. Preliminary designs and analysis results will be presented.

  18. JWST Primary Mirror Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Mirror Technology was identified as a (if not the) critical capability necessary to achieve the Level 1 science goals. A never before demonstrated space telescope capability was required: 6 to 8 meter class pri mary mirror, diffraction limited at 2 micrometers and operates at temperatures below 50K. Launch vehicle constraints placed significant architectural constraints: deployed/segmented primary mirror (4.5 meter fairing diameter) 20 kg/m2 areal density (PM 1000 kg mass) Such mirror technology had never been demonstrated - and did not exist

  19. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  20. Mirror development for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Doro, M.; Brun, P.; Canestrari, R.; Chadwick, P.; Font, L.; Ghigo, M.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Michalowski, J.; Niemiec, J.; Pareschi, G.; Peyaud, B.; Seweryn, K.

    2009-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), currently in its early design phase, is a proposed new project for groundbased gamma-ray astronomy with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA is planned to consist of several tens of large Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) with a combined reflective surface of up to 10,000 m2. The challenge for the future CTA array is to develop lightweight and cost efficient mirrors with high production rates, good longterm durability and adequate optical properties. The technologies currently under investigation comprise different methods of carbon fibre/epoxy based substrates, sandwich concepts with cold-slumped surfaces made of thin float glass and different structural materials like aluminum honeycomb, glass foam or PU foam inside, and aluminum sandwich structures with either diamond milled surfaces or reflective foils. The current status of the mirror development for CTA will be summarized together with investigations on the improvement of the reflective surfaces and their protection against degradation.

  1. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

    2014-06-15

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  2. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  3. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  4. Development of lightweight mirror elements for the Euro50 mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Harold E.; Romeo, Robert C.; Shaffer, Joseph J.; Chen, Peter C.

    2004-07-01

    New, very large telescopes with apertures of 30, 50, and 100 meters are being proposed by the astronomical community. Superpolished or ultrapolished mirrors with low scattered light levels and the use of adaptive optics for near-diffraction-limited performance would make such large telescopes a turning point in astronomy. The secondary mirror for the Euro50 will be a four meter adaptive optic made of a low expansion graphite-filled cyanate ester resin composite produced using a replica transfer technique. We have made three 1/3rd meter diameter prototype composite adaptive optic mirrors of this cyanate ester composite material. Because of the embedded graphite fibers, the composite material has a measured expansion coefficient in the 10-8 range, as has Zerodur or ULE glass. It is very much lighter, more rugged and more economical than Zerodur or ULE, and can be fabricated in weeks, not months. The Zerodur mandrels upon which these replica transfer mirrors are made are superpolished using centrifugal elutriation, so the replica surface has an rms roughness of 0.6 to 0.8 nm. It thus scatters about an order of magnitude less light than typical conventionally polished astronomical mirrors. In adaptive optic mirrors with sub-mm thick faceplates the number of plies used is insufficient to produce an isotropic surface. For mirrors 2 mm thick, with more plies, the surfaces are isotropic, and the slight astigmatism sometimes resulting from the mesh in the ply can be corrected by actuators to make them attractive mirrors. They must be supported to maintain a good optical figure over a meter diameter mirror. The support requirement may be met by using a new type of mechanical/piezoelectric actuator adjustable to a fraction of a wavelength. The mechanical actuators have a coarse adjust of over an mm and a fine adjust of less than a wavelength of light. They can be used in series with a novel type of piezoelectric actuator for final static adjustment. The low voltage, up to 2

  5. Studies on the effect of ohmic heating on oil recovery and quality of sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kirti; Mudgal, V D; Viswasrao, Gajanan; Srivastava, Himani

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a new technological process for sesame oil extraction. The process deals with the effect of ohmic heating on enhancement of oil recovery and quality of cleaned and graded sesame seed. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (600, 750 and 900 V/m), end point temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and holding time (5, 10 and 15 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovered from sesame seed through mechanical extracted oil by application of ohmic heating varies from 39.98 to 43.15 %. The maximum oil recovery 43.15 % was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 85 °C using EFS of 900 V/m for a holding time of 10 min as against 34.14 % in control sample. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil was within the acceptable limit (1.52 to 2.26 % oleic acid) of 0.5 to 3 % as prescribed respectively by Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The peroxide value of extracted oil was also found within the acceptable limit (0.78 to 1.01 meq/kg). The optimum value for maximum oil recovery, minimum residual oil content, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value were 41.24 %, 8.61 %, 1.74 % oleic acid and 0.86 meq/kg, respectively at 722.52 V/m EFS at EPT 65 °C for 5 min. holding time which was obtained by response surface methodology. PMID:27413228

  6. Studies on the effect of ohmic heating on oil recovery and quality of sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kirti; Mudgal, V D; Viswasrao, Gajanan; Srivastava, Himani

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a new technological process for sesame oil extraction. The process deals with the effect of ohmic heating on enhancement of oil recovery and quality of cleaned and graded sesame seed. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (600, 750 and 900 V/m), end point temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and holding time (5, 10 and 15 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovered from sesame seed through mechanical extracted oil by application of ohmic heating varies from 39.98 to 43.15 %. The maximum oil recovery 43.15 % was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 85 °C using EFS of 900 V/m for a holding time of 10 min as against 34.14 % in control sample. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil was within the acceptable limit (1.52 to 2.26 % oleic acid) of 0.5 to 3 % as prescribed respectively by Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The peroxide value of extracted oil was also found within the acceptable limit (0.78 to 1.01 meq/kg). The optimum value for maximum oil recovery, minimum residual oil content, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value were 41.24 %, 8.61 %, 1.74 % oleic acid and 0.86 meq/kg, respectively at 722.52 V/m EFS at EPT 65 °C for 5 min. holding time which was obtained by response surface methodology.

  7. The Impact of the SESAME Project on Science and Society in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2008-04-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is a UNESCO-sponsored project that is constructing an international research laboratory, closely modeled on CERN, in Jordan (www.sesame.org.jo). Ten Members of the governing Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, and Turkey) have responsibility for the project, led by Herwig Schopper, Council President since 1999. In late 2008 Chris Llewellyn-Smith will become Council President. SESAME was initiated by a gift from Germany of the decommissioned BESSY I facility. The BESSY I 0.8 GeV injector is now being installed in the recently completed building, funded by Jordan, as components are procured for a new 133 m circumference, 2.5 GeV third-generation storage ring with 12 locations for insertion devices. Beam line equipment has been provided by laboratories in France, UK, and US. Support also comes from EU, IAEA, ICTP, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the US Department of Energy and State Department, and laboratories around the world. The broad scientific program includes biomedical, environmental, and archaeological programs particularly relevant to the Middle East. Five scientific workshops and six annual Users' meetings have brought together several hundred scientists from the region, along with researchers from around the world. Training programs have enabled about 100 scientists from the region to work at synchrotron radiation laboratories. These activities have already had significant impact on science and society in the Middle East, for example leading to collaborations between scientists from countries that are not particularly friendly with each other, and to national planning emphasizing synchrotron radiation research. When research starts in 2011 this impact will grow as graduate students are trained in the region in many scientific disciplines, and scientists working abroad are attracted to return.

  8. The Hygroscopic Opening of Sesame Fruits Is Induced by a Functionally Graded Pericarp Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Shtein, Ilana; Elbaum, Rivka; Bar-On, Benny

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the distribution of their seeds, plants often utilize hygroscopic deformations that actuate dispersal mechanisms. Such movements are based on desiccation-induced shrinkage of tissues in predefined directions. The basic hygroscopic deformations are typically actuated by a bi-layer configuration, in which shrinking of an active tissue layer is resisted by a stiff layer, generating a set of basic movements including bending, coiling, and twisting. In this study, we investigate a new type of functionally graded hygroscopic movement in the fruit (capsule) of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Microscopic observations of the capsules showed that the inner stiff endocarp layer is built of a bilayer of transverse (i.e., circumferential) and longitudinal fiber cells with the layers positioned in a semi-circle, one inside the other. The outer mesocarp layer is made of soft parenchyma cells. The thickness of the fibrous layers and of the mesocarp exhibits a graded architecture, with gradual changes in their thickness around the capsule circumference. The cellulose microfibrils in the fiber cell walls are lying parallel to the cell long axis, rendering them stiff. The outer mesocarp layer contracted by 300% as it dried. Removal of this outer layer inhibited the opening movement, indicating that it is the active tissue. A biomechanical hygro-elastic model based on the relative thicknesses of the layers successfully simulated the opening curvature. Our findings suggest that the sesame capsules possess a functionally graded architecture, which promotes a non-uniform double-curvature hygroscopic bending movement. In contrast to other hygroscopic organs described in the literature, the sesame capsule actuating and resisting tissues are not uniform throughout the device, but changing gradually. This newly described mechanism can be exploited in bio-inspired designs of novel actuating platforms. PMID:27777579

  9. Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2014-02-01

    Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.

  10. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  11. The effects of sesame oil on the prevention of amiodarone-induced phlebitis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Hashemi-Karoie, Seyedeh Zahra; Khalilian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phlebitis is the most common complication associated with peripheral intravenous infusion of amiodarone. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of sesame oil on the prevention of amiodarone-induced phlebitis. Materials and Methods: This is a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Thirty-six patients hospitalized in a coronary care unit were randomly allocated into two groups using a convenience sampling method. Following peripheral intravenous cannulation, five drops of pure sesame oil were applied to the skin within a 10 cm radius of the infusion site prior to the administration of amiodarone in the intervention group. Sesame oil was rubbed on the skin at the infusion site every 6 h in the 24-h period of amiodarone infusion. In the control group, liquid paraffin, used as a placebo, was rubbed on the skin at the infusion site of amiodarone. Both groups were monitored for the development of phlebitis and its degree within the 24-h period of amiodarone infusion as well as 6 h after its administration. The incidence of phlebitis was confirmed and recorded by an assessor who was blind to the two groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 18, and descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square test, Kaplan–Meier, Hazard ratio, independent t-test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in their catheter survival after 30 h and 10 min (P < 0.001). Over 60% of the patients (61.1%) in the intervention group did not show any sign of phlebitis, while 16.7% and 22.2% of the patients manifested signs of grade 2 and 3 phlebitis, respectively. In the control group, 22.2% of the patients showed no signs of phlebitis, while 5.6%, 27.8%, and 44.4% of the patients exhibited signs of grade 2, 3, and 4 phlebitis, respectively. The statistical analysis showed significant differences in the degree of phlebitis (P = 0.006) and the onset

  12. Acoustic Models of Optical Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2014-01-01

    Students form a more exact idea of the action of optical mirrors if they can observe the wave field being formed during reflection. For this purpose it is possible to organize model experiments with flexural waves propagating in thin elastic plates. The direct and round edges of the plates are used as models of plane, convex and concave mirrors.…

  13. Eliminating mirror responses by instructions.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Bundt, Carsten; Notebaert, Wim; Brass, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The observation of an action leads to the activation of the corresponding motor plan in the observer. This phenomenon of motor resonance has an important role in social interaction, promoting imitation, learning and action understanding. However, mirror responses not always have a positive impact on our behavior. An automatic tendency to imitate others can introduce interference in action execution and non-imitative or opposite responses have an advantage in some contexts. Previous studies suggest that mirror tendencies can be suppressed after extensive practice or in complementary joint action situations revealing that mirror responses are more flexible than previously thought. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow response flexibility of motor mirroring. Here we show that the mere instruction of a counter-imitative mapping changes mirror responses as indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) enhancement induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Importantly, mirror activation was measured while participants were passively watching finger movements, without having the opportunity to execute the task. This result suggests that the implementation of task instructions activates stimulus-response association that can overwrite the mirror representations. Our outcome reveals one of the crucial mechanisms that might allow flexible adjustments of mirror responses in different contexts. The implications of this outcome are discussed.

  14. Forming Mirrors on Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauldin, R. E.; Ramohalli, K.

    1983-01-01

    Smooth coatings deposited on hard-to-polish substrates. Lightweight mirror, leaning against conventional glass mirror, consists of metallic relective layer on substrate coated with polyester resin. Smooth surface of polyester resin made by covering freshly applied resin with piece of smooth glass coated with release agent.

  15. Polishing technique for beryllium mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Performance tests, accomplished by inserting entire X ray telescope and polished mirror into vacuum line 67 m long and taking photographs of an X ray resolution source, indicate that polishing increases mirror efficiency from 0.06 percent for X rays at 0.8 nm and increases resolution from 15 to 3.75 arc-seconds.

  16. Gemini primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Huang, Eugene W.; Cho, Myung K.

    1994-06-01

    The primary mirror selected for the Gemini 8-m Telescopes is a thin meniscus made of Corning ULE(superscript TM) glass. The conceptual design of the Gemini support system has evolved in response to the properties of the meniscus mirror and the functional requirements of the Gemini Telescopes. This paper describes the design requirements, the design features, and predicted performance of this system.

  17. National mirror fusion program plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchers, R. R.; Vanatta, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are under way in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) facility at Livermore. Recently this idea was greatly improved by incorporating a new element called the thermal barrier, a concept that promises a higher power gain factor (Q = 10 to 20) with much less demanding neutral beam and magnet technology and a higher fusion power density in the reactor. In addition to the tandem-mirror experiments in TMX, a new attempt will be made in the Beta 2 facility during FY 1980 to create and sustain a field-reversed mirror configuration, which is a different mirror fusion approach that could lead to early commercialization of small reactors. The plan presented here is designed to exploit the results of these and other mirror experiments and theoretical developments toward a variety of applications. The main objective is electric power generation.

  18. More questions for mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Borg, Emma

    2013-09-01

    The mirror neuron system is widely held to provide direct access to the motor goals of others. This paper critically investigates this idea, focusing on the so-called 'intentional worry'. I explore two answers to the intentional worry: first that the worry is premised on too limited an understanding of mirror neuron behaviour (Sections 2 and 3), second that the appeal made to mirror neurons can be refined in such a way as to avoid the worry (Section 4). I argue that the first response requires an account of the mechanism by which small-scale gestures are supposedly mapped to larger chains of actions but that none of the extant accounts of this mechanism are plausible. Section 4 then briefly examines refinements of the mirror neuron-mindreading hypothesis which avoid the intentional worry. I conclude that these refinements may well be plausible but that they undermine many of the claims standardly made for mirror neurons.

  19. Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

    2005-08-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

  20. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    ScienceCinema

    Kumar, Krishna

    2016-07-12

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  1. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  2. Mirror man: a case of skilled deliberate mirror writing.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert D; De Lucia, Natascia; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Mirror writing is a striking behaviour that is common in children and can reemerge in adults following brain damage. Skilled deliberate mirror writing has also been reported, but only anecdotally. We provide the first quantitative study of skilled deliberate mirror writing. K.B. can write forward or backward, vertically upright or inverted, with the hands acting alone or simultaneously. K.B. is predominantly left handed, but writes habitually with his right hand. Of his writing formats, his left hand mirror writing is by far the most similar in style to his normal handwriting. When writing bimanually, he performs better when his two hands make mirror-symmetrical movements to write opposite scripts than if they move in the same direction to write similar scripts. He has no special facility for reading mirrored text. These features are consistent with prior anecdotal cases and support a motor basis for K.B.'s ability, according to which his skilled mirror writing results from the left hand execution of a low-level motor program for a right hand abductive writing action. Our methods offer a novel framework for investigating the sharing of motor representations across effectors.

  3. Status on NGST Mirror Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David

    2000-01-01

    The NGST primary mirror is anticipated to be a segmented deployable optic with segment size being in the range of 1 - 3 m depending on the details of the architecture. The secondary mirror will likely be a monolith similar in size to one of the primary mirror segments. Over the past 4 years the NGST program has initiated and implemented an aggressive lightweight cryogenic mirror technology program. The program was designed to challenge and excite the optical community in reaching a new standard in production of lightweight optics. The goal was to develop optics at less than 15 kg/sq m, operational at approx. 40 K and meeting the overall NGST observatory requirement for diffraction limited performance at 2 microns. In order to meet the NGST needs, technology efforts were initiated to investigate and develop mirrors in a variety of materials, which held promise for the program. The basic technology approaches have initially targeted the production of large mirrors in the 1.2 - 2.0 m diameter range (or side-to-side distance in the case of hexagonal optics). Although this size may not be the final size of an NGST primary mirror segment, it was felt that a 1.2 - 2.0 m optic would be of sufficient size to understand the mirror material and fabrication processes which drive the cost and schedule of mirror production. The ultimate goals of the technology program are both to demonstrate mirrors meeting, the NGST performance requirements, and to establish cost and schedule credibility for producing and implementing the mirrors for the NGST flight system. Establishing cost and schedule credibility is essential to NGST which is a cost capped mission, with past program experience demonstrating that the optics will be a large portion of the total cost of the program. The first two years of the program were dedicated to understanding; the various applicable materials, funding those materials to various levels of maturity and implementing the first large mirror procurement, the

  4. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  5. Absorber coatings' degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

  6. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    PubMed

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients.

  7. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    PubMed

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients. PMID:26635049

  8. SESAME -- A third generation synchrotron light source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-03-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. Members of the Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority,Turkey) provide the operations budget. Voluntary contributions by several Council Members that could amount to over 20 million over 5 years are now being finalized. This, plus funds from other sources, will enable acquisition of the technical components of the new ring and the upgrading of beamline equipment donated by several European and US labs. All concrete shielding is complete. The 0.8 GeV BESSY I injector system, a gift from Germany, is now being installed. A training program has been underway since 2000. SESAME is on track to start operation with four day-one beam lines in 2015.

  9. Cosmic ray dose monitoring using RadFET sensors of the Rosetta instruments SESAME and COSIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, Peter; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Thiel, Klaus; Fischer, Henning; Hilchenbach, Martin; Henkel, Hartmut; Koch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    On its more than 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta carried RadFET ionising dose monitors in the central electronics of the orbiter instrument COSIMA and the lander instrument SESAME. The readings of the dosimeters were corrected for the temperature of the devices during measurements. Because the sensitivity of RadFETs depends on the energy of impinging charged particles, a mean efficiency factor for the prevalent proton radiation was determined by applying nine efficiency models to proton energy spectra of Rosetta's radiation environment. The resulting dose profiles show linear increases of the accumulated dose with time, mainly caused by galactic cosmic radiation, and the arrival of two solar particle events in 2005. The accumulated dose (in Silicon) during 3909 days in space from 2004-03-02 to 2014-11-14 was 3.2 ± 0.6 Gy in case of COSIMA and 1.9 ± 0.4 Gy for SESAME. The deviation of the two measurements is mainly due to the solar particle event in September 2005, which had a 5.3 ± 1.0 times stronger impact on the COSIMA RadFET. Measured dose levels are one order of magnitude lower than those expected before launch for not being exceeded on the 90% confidence level, which is mainly due to the low solar activity during the mission so far.

  10. Observational physics of mirror world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

  11. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  12. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  13. The MGGB equation-of-state for multifield applications: a numerical recipe for analytic expression of sesame EOS data

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwa, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Abstract A thermodynamically consistent and fully general equation–of– state (EOS) for multifield applications is described. EOS functions are derived from a Helmholtz free energy expressed as the sum of thermal (fluctuational) and collisional (condensed–phase) contributions; thus the free energy is of the Mie–Gr¨uneisen1 form. The phase–coexistence region is defined using a parameterized saturation curve by extending the form introduced by Guggenheim,2 which scales the curve relative to conditions at the critical point. We use the zero–temperature condensed–phase contribution developed by Barnes,3 which extends the Thomas–Fermi–Dirac equation to zero pressure. Thus, the functional form of the EOS could be called MGGB (for Mie– Gr¨uneisen–Guggenheim–Barnes). Substance–specific parameters are obtained by fitting the low–density energy to data from the Sesame4 library; fitting the zero–temperature pressure to the Sesame cold curve; and fitting the saturation curve and latent heat to laboratory data,5 if available. When suitable coexistence data, or Sesame data, are not available, then we apply the Principle of Corresponding States.2 Thus MGGB can be thought of as a numerical recipe for rendering the tabular Sesame EOS data in an analytic form that includes a proper coexistence region, and which permits the accurate calculation of derivatives associated with compressibility, expansivity, Joule coefficient, and specific heat, all of which are required for multifield applications. 1

  14. JWST NIRCam flight mirror assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Huff, Lynn; Jacoby, Mike S.; Lopez, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has an optical prescription which includes numerous fold mirror assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K. The optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the mirror assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. This paper covers the design, analysis, assembly, and test of two of the instruments key fold mirrors.

  15. Structural materials for space mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitanio, C.

    1990-06-01

    Work leading to the development of XMM telescope mirrors is described. Although a carbon/epoxy composite structure was specified, a hot type of material was proposed. The further use of such technology in the development of substrates for space mirrors is discussed. The specifications for the plane plates used for the XMM telescope are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of various other materials in producing substrates for space mirrors are discussed. The potential uses of glass matrix ceramics reinforced with carbon or silicon carbide fibers is given particular attention.

  16. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  17. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7 mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple λ/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  18. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  19. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  20. Low-cost mirror concentrator based on inflated, double-walled, metallized, tubular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendeman, J. L.; Ball, G. L., III; Leffingwell, J. W.; McClung, C. E.

    1981-07-01

    A potentially low cost, inflatable plastic solar mirror concentrator based on segments of a cylinder joined along the length of the collector on a plane passing through the axis of the absorber tube was designed and built. This design results in a savings of approximately 40% in the amount of window and mirror material and in a savings of about 20% of the land area occupied by a single collector when compared to a fully cylindrical one. The type of construction permits the assembling of the mirror/window envelope to the collector without disturbing the collector frame, absorber tube, or the associated plumbing. Aluminum foil plastic laminates were used as an alternative to aluminized polyester films, because of their potential low cost and durability. Specially ultraviolet stabilized and polyester scrim reinforced flexible polyvinyl chloride film was developed for use as the outer cover material.

  1. Tinbergen on mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Niko Tinbergen defined the scope of behavioural biology with his four problems: causation, ontogeny, survival value and evolution. About 20 years ago, there was another highly significant development in behavioural biology-the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs). Here, I use Tinbergen's original four problems (rather than the list that appears in textbooks) to highlight the differences between two prominent accounts of MNs, the genetic and associative accounts; to suggest that the latter provides the defeasible 'best explanation' for current data on the causation and ontogeny of MNs; and to argue that functional analysis, of the kind that Tinbergen identified somewhat misleadingly with studies of 'survival value', should be a high priority for future research. In this kind of functional analysis, system-level theories would assign MNs a small, but potentially important, role in the achievement of action understanding-or another social cognitive function-by a production line of interacting component processes. These theories would be tested by experimental intervention in human and non-human animal samples with carefully documented and controlled developmental histories. PMID:24778376

  2. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  3. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-09-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  4. Tinbergen on mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Niko Tinbergen defined the scope of behavioural biology with his four problems: causation, ontogeny, survival value and evolution. About 20 years ago, there was another highly significant development in behavioural biology-the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs). Here, I use Tinbergen's original four problems (rather than the list that appears in textbooks) to highlight the differences between two prominent accounts of MNs, the genetic and associative accounts; to suggest that the latter provides the defeasible 'best explanation' for current data on the causation and ontogeny of MNs; and to argue that functional analysis, of the kind that Tinbergen identified somewhat misleadingly with studies of 'survival value', should be a high priority for future research. In this kind of functional analysis, system-level theories would assign MNs a small, but potentially important, role in the achievement of action understanding-or another social cognitive function-by a production line of interacting component processes. These theories would be tested by experimental intervention in human and non-human animal samples with carefully documented and controlled developmental histories.

  5. Congenital mirror movements

    PubMed Central

    Méneret, Aurélie; Depienne, Christel; Riant, Florence; Trouillard, Oriane; Bouteiller, Delphine; Cincotta, Massimo; Bitoun, Pierre; Wickert, Julia; Lagroua, Isabelle; Westenberger, Ana; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Doummar, Diane; Romano, Marcello; Rossi, Simone; Defebvre, Luc; De Meirleir, Linda; Espay, Alberto J.; Fiori, Simona; Klebe, Stephan; Quélin, Chloé; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Plessis, Ghislaine; Dale, Russell C.; Sklower Brooks, Susan; Dziezyc, Karolina; Pollak, Pierre; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We screened a large series of individuals with congenital mirror movements (CMM) for mutations in the 2 identified causative genes, DCC and RAD51. Methods: We studied 6 familial and 20 simplex CMM cases. Each patient had a standardized neurologic assessment. Analysis of DCC and RAD51 coding regions included Sanger sequencing and a quantitative method allowing detection of micro rearrangements. We then compared the frequency of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic by either the PolyPhen-2 or the SIFT algorithm in our population and in the 4,300 controls of European origin on the Exome Variant Server. Results: We found 3 novel truncating mutations of DCC that segregate with CMM in 4 of the 6 families. Among the 20 simplex cases, we found one exonic deletion of DCC, one DCC mutation leading to a frameshift, 5 missense variants in DCC, and 2 missense variants in RAD51. All 7 missense variants were predicted to be pathogenic by one or both algorithms. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of variants predicted to be deleterious was significantly different between patients and controls (p < 0.001 for both RAD51 and DCC). Conclusion: Mutations and variants in DCC and RAD51 are strongly associated with CMM, but additional genes causing CMM remain to be discovered. PMID:24808016

  6. Tinbergen on mirror neurons

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Niko Tinbergen defined the scope of behavioural biology with his four problems: causation, ontogeny, survival value and evolution. About 20 years ago, there was another highly significant development in behavioural biology—the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs). Here, I use Tinbergen's original four problems (rather than the list that appears in textbooks) to highlight the differences between two prominent accounts of MNs, the genetic and associative accounts; to suggest that the latter provides the defeasible ‘best explanation’ for current data on the causation and ontogeny of MNs; and to argue that functional analysis, of the kind that Tinbergen identified somewhat misleadingly with studies of ‘survival value’, should be a high priority for future research. In this kind of functional analysis, system-level theories would assign MNs a small, but potentially important, role in the achievement of action understanding—or another social cognitive function—by a production line of interacting component processes. These theories would be tested by experimental intervention in human and non-human animal samples with carefully documented and controlled developmental histories. PMID:24778376

  7. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  8. Honeycomb mirrors of borosilicate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of different types of honeycomb mirrors with various kinds of borosilicate glass is discussed. Borosilicate glass is much less expensive to make than zero expansion glass, and can be used for ground-based applications. A mirror 60 cm in diameter made with a slotted strut or egg-crate honeycomb of 6 mm polished Pyrex plate is shown. The faceplates are 12 mm thick, laminated from the same 6 mm sheet. The result of an interferometric test is shown, with residual errors of about wavelength/8 RMS. An alternative fabrication technique for very large mirrors which require high quality bonds between separate sheets of thick Pyrex is described. The result of a recent test casting of a 60 cm honeycomb structure made in a mold with towers 14 cm square and 6 mm gaps between is shown, and methods to cast an entire mirror in one operation are discussed.

  9. The magic of relay mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Edward A.; Washburn, Donald C.

    2004-09-01

    Laser weapon systems would be significantly enhanced with the addition of high altitude or space-borne relay mirrors. Such mirrors, operating alone with a directed energy source, or many in a series fashion, can be shown to effectively move the laser source to the last, so-called fighting mirror. This "magically" reduces the range to target and offers to enhance the performance of directed energy systems like the Airborne Laser and even ground-based or ship-based lasers. Recent development of high altitude airships will be shown to provide stationary positions for such relay mirrors thereby enabling many new and important applications for laser weapons. The technical challenges to achieve this capability are discussed.

  10. JWST Secondary Mirror Deploy Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    Setting up NASA's James Webb Space Telescope's secondary mirror in space will require special arms that resemble a tripod that was recently demonstrated in a NASA cleanroom. TRT: 1:25 / Credit: NAS...

  11. JWST Primary Mirror Installation Complete

    NASA Video Gallery

    Completing the assembly of the primary mirror, which took place at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, is a significant milestone and the culmination of over a decade of desi...

  12. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  13. Large Scale Nanolaminate Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Miles, R; Chang, K

    2005-11-30

    This work concerns the development of a technology that uses Nanolaminate foils to form light-weight, deformable mirrors that are scalable over a wide range of mirror sizes. While MEMS-based deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators have considerably reduced the cost and increased the capabilities of adaptive optic systems, there has not been a way to utilize the advantages of lithography and batch-fabrication to produce large-scale deformable mirrors. This technology is made scalable by using fabrication techniques and lithography that are not limited to the sizes of conventional MEMS devices. Like many MEMS devices, these mirrors use parallel plate electrostatic actuators. This technology replicates that functionality by suspending a horizontal piece of nanolaminate foil over an electrode by electroplated nickel posts. This actuator is attached, with another post, to another nanolaminate foil that acts as the mirror surface. Most MEMS devices are produced with integrated circuit lithography techniques that are capable of very small line widths, but are not scalable to large sizes. This technology is very tolerant of lithography errors and can use coarser, printed circuit board lithography techniques that can be scaled to very large sizes. These mirrors use small, lithographically defined actuators and thin nanolaminate foils allowing them to produce deformations over a large area while minimizing weight. This paper will describe a staged program to develop this technology. First-principles models were developed to determine design parameters. Three stages of fabrication will be described starting with a 3 x 3 device using conventional metal foils and epoxy to a 10-across all-metal device with nanolaminate mirror surfaces.

  14. Evolution of the mirror machine

    SciTech Connect

    Damm, C. C.

    1983-08-18

    The history of the magnetic-mirror approach to a fusion reactor is primarily the history of our understanding and control of several crucial physics issues, coupled with progress in the technology of heating and confining a reacting plasma. The basic requirement of an MHD-stable plasma equilibrium was achieved following the early introduction of minimum-B multipolar magnetic fields. In refined form, the same magnetic-well principle carries over to our present experiments and to reactor designs. The higher frequency microinstabilities, arising from the non-Maxwellian particle distributions inherent in mirror machines, have gradually come under control as theoretical prescriptions for distribution functions have been applied in the experiments. Even with stability, the classical plasma leakage through the mirrors posed a serious question for reactor viability until the principle of electrostatic axial stoppering was applied in the tandem mirror configuration. Experiments to test this principle successfully demonstrated the substantial improvement in confinement predicted. Concurrent with advances in mirror plasma physics, development of both high-power neutral beam injectors and high-speed vacuum pumping techniques has played a crucial role in ongoing experiments. Together with superconducting magnets, cryogenic pumping, and high-power radiofrequency heating, these technologies have evolved to a level that extrapolates readily to meet the requirements of a tandem mirror fusion reactor.

  15. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2008-07-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. The collaboration between optical- and mechanical designers at Astron led to new design philosophies and strategies. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness (~1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions.

  16. Membrane mirror light modulator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warde, Cardinal; McCann, James T.; Shrauger, Vern; Ieong, H.-H.; Ersen, Ali; Wang, X. Y.; Hubbard, J.

    2000-03-01

    We have incorporated membrane mirror technology over a discrete array of pixel wells to create both high-efficiency optical shutters and spatial light modulators (SLM). A continuous metalized-membrane mirror with greater than 98% reflectivity minimizes optical insertion loss. This mirror is electrostatically deformed into the wells with either a common electrode (shutter) or pixilated electrodes (SLM). By using a spatial filter, analog intensity optical modulation is realized. Both 1-D (linear) and 2-D grating pixel patterns have been investigated. With the appropriate pixel dimensions, both coherent monochromatic and broadband incoherent light within the 0.25 to 10.6 micron range can be modulated with contrast ratios up to 1000:1. Small well sizes (approximately 10-micron diameter) allow for modulation speeds up to 1 MHz. The theoretical foundations for the well layout, the membrane mirror deformation and its diffraction properties, and the design trade-offs are detailed. We have applied our membrane mirror technology to CMOS VLSI circuits creating a high-speed, high-efficiency spatial light modulator capable of 80 X 64 resolution and scalable to HDTV standards. The membrane mirror SLM provides either amplitude or phase modulation. In the phase modulation mode, at least two waves of stroke per discrete well are possible.

  17. Metamaterial slab-based super-absorbers and perfect nanodetectors for single dipole sources.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang-Yu; Klimov, Vasily; Sun, Shulin; Zheng, Wei-Jin

    2013-05-01

    We propose to use double negative (DNG) metamaterial slabs to build effective super-absorbers and perfect nanodetectors for single divergent sources. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that an absorbing nanoparticle properly placed inside a DNG slab back-covered with a perfect electric conductor or perfect magnetic conductor mirror can absorb up to 100% radiation energy of a single dipole source placed outside the slab. Furthermore, we also show that even the simple DNG slab without any absorbing nanoparticle could be used as a perfect absorber for both plane and divergent beams. The proposed systems may focus the radiation in nanoscale and thus have applications in optical nanodevices for a variety of different purposes. PMID:23669990

  18. High stroke pixel for a deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.

    2005-09-20

    A mirror pixel that can be fabricated using standard MEMS methods for a deformable mirror. The pixel is electrostatically actuated and is capable of the high deflections needed for spaced-based mirror applications. In one embodiment, the mirror comprises three layers, a top or mirror layer, a middle layer which consists of flexures, and a comb drive layer, with the flexures of the middle layer attached to the mirror layer and to the comb drive layer. The comb drives are attached to a frame via spring flexures. A number of these mirror pixels can be used to construct a large mirror assembly. The actuator for the mirror pixel may be configured as a crenellated beam with one end fixedly secured, or configured as a scissor jack. The mirror pixels may be used in various applications requiring high stroke adaptive optics.

  19. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  20. Hydraulic shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic shock absorber including a piston reciprocating in a cylinder, a piston upper chamber and a piston lower chamber which are oil-tightly separated by the piston, piston ports formed through the piston in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber, and return ports formed outside of the piston ports in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber. It also includes a sheet ring-like non-return valve provided above the piston and fitted to a piston rod, valve holes formed through the non-return valve in opposed relation with the piston ports. A ring-like non-return valve stopper fixed to the piston rod on an upper side of the non-return valve with a small spaced defined between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper, and a spring is interposed between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper for normally urging the non-return valve to an upper surface of the piston. Movement of the piston to the piston upper chamber allows oil to flow from the piston upper chamber through the piston ports to the piston lower chamber, while the return ports are closed by the non-return valve to generate a vibration damping force by resistance upon pass of the oil through the piston parts. The improvement described here comprises a groove formed in an upper surface of the piston facing the non-return valve and aligned with the valve holes, the groove being in the circle where the piston ports lie and being in communication with the piston ports.

  1. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  2. The broadband dynamic vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. B.; Nissen, J.-C.

    1982-08-01

    The limited effectiveness of the linear passive dynamic vibration absorber is described. This is followed by an analysis producing the response of a primary system when a non-linear softening Belleville spring is used in the absorber. It is shown that the suppression bandwidth can be doubled by this means.

  3. Alignment Mirror Mechanisms for Space Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin M.; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an optical Alignment Mirror Mechanism (AMM), and discusses its control scheme. The mirror's angular positioning accuracy requirement is +/- 0.2 arc-sec. This requires the mirror's linear positioning actuators to have a positioning accuracy of +/- 109 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are +/- 35 nm linear positioning capability at the actuator, which translates into +/- 0.07 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy.

  4. Characteristics of ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak - AVE-SESAME I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    GOES satellite data was used to examine the ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of severe weather outbreaks along the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma in April 1979. The observations were part of the NASA AVE-SESAME I data on atmospheric states close to severe weather conditions. The Barnes Objective Analysis Technique was employed to analyze the data on a 100 km grid. The ageostrophic wind was defined on a regional scale from satellite data on different levels of cloud wind vectors, with a height change signalling a short-wave system in a long-wave trough. The percentage of deviation of the subgeostrophic winds from the geostrophic wind was calculated, and maximum departure corresponded with the region of greatest storm development. Time cross sections of additions to the ageostrophic flow were made as a function of pressure at 100 mb intervals from 900-100 mb. The ageostrophic acceleration was consistently twice the geostrophic acceleration.

  5. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals onto sesame straw biochar in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in mono and multimetal forms onto sesame straw biochar (SSB). Competitive sorption of metals by SSB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities (mgg(-1)) of metals by SSB were in the order of Pb (102)≫Cd (86)≫Cr (65)>Cu (55)≫Zn (34) in the monometal adsorption isotherm and Pb (88)≫Cu (40)≫Cr (21)>Zn (7)⩾Cd (5) in the multimetal adsorption isotherm. Based on data obtained from the distribution coefficients, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models, and three-dimensional simulation, multimetal adsorption behaviors differed from monometal adsorption due to competition. Especially, during multimetal adsorption, Cd was easily exchanged and substituted by other metals. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate the heavy metal adsorption capacity of biochar in natural environments.

  6. Hypersensitive response of Sesamum prostratum Retz. elicitated by Fusarium oxysporum f. sesame (Schelt) Jacz Butler.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Reeja; Rajan, S Sajitha; Satheesh, L Shilpa; Harish, S R; Sunukumar, S S; Sandeep, B S; Mohan, T C Kishor; Murugan, K

    2009-10-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the intensity and timing of the ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and expression of antioxidant enzymes as initial responses of calli of Sesamum prostratum (SP) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sesame crude toxin metabolite of varying concentrations. 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) / coconut milk combinations were found to be more efficient among different hormonal regimes (2,4 -D, 2,4-D/casein hydrosylate and 2,4-D/ coconut milk). The concentration of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were higher (13.2 and 5.7-folds, respectively) after 6 h in the treated callus confirmed the oxidative stress. An increase in total phenolics was also detected in inoculated callus. Increased activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) corroborate with the high level of ROSs, such as O2*- and H2O2. The poor activity of catalase confirmed the oxidative burst in the callus leading to necrosis. Activity of peroxidase was at par with total phenolics. Similarly, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) also showed high activity revealing the active phase in the synthesis of secondary metabolites in the plant. The oxidative burst generated in the interaction between Sesamum and F. oxysporum f. sesame toxin might be the first line of defense by the host mounted against the invading necrotrophic pathogen. The results suggested that the rapid production of reactive oxygen species in the callus in response to fungal toxin had been proposed to orchestrate the establishment of different defensive barriers against the pathogens. PMID:20112812

  7. SESAME 96170, a solid-liquid equation of state for CeO2

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, Eric D.

    2014-05-02

    I describe an equation of state (EOS) for the low-pressure solid phase and liquid phase of cerium (IV) oxide, CeO2. The models and parameters used to calculate the EOS are presented in detail, and I compare with data for the full-density crystal. Hugoniot data are available only for high-porosity powders, and I discuss difficulties in comparing with such data. I have constructed SESAME 96170, an EOS for cerium (IV) oxide that includes the ambient solid and liquid phases. The EOS extends over the full standard SESAME range, but should not be used at low temperatures and high densities because of the lack of a high-pressure solid phase. I have described the models used to compute the three terms of the EOS (cold curve, nuclear, and thermal electronic), and I have given the parameters used in the models. They were determined by comparison with experimental data at P = 1 atm, including the constant-pressure specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, and melting and boiling points. The EOS compares well with data in its intended range of validity, but the presence of high-frequency optical modes in its phonon spectrum limits the agreement of our models with thermal data. The next step is to construct a multiphase EOS that includes the low- and high-pressure solid phases and the liquid. The DAC data from Duclos will most strongly constrain the parameters of the high-pressure solid. A remaining issue is the comparison of the crystal-density EOS with experimental Hugoniot data, which are taken at much lower initial data because the samples are porous powders. A satisfactory means of modeling porosity, allowing comparison of theory and experiment, has not yet been produced.

  8. Genome-Wide Investigation of Hsf Genes in Sesame Reveals Their Segmental Duplication Expansion and Their Active Role in Drought Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Diouf, Diaga; Cissé, Ndiaga

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is a survivor crop cultivated for ages in arid areas under high temperatures and limited water conditions. Since its entire genome has been sequenced, revealing evolution, and functional characterization of its abiotic stress genes became a hot topic. In this study, we performed a whole-genome identification and analysis of Hsf gene family in sesame. Thirty genes encoding Hsf domain were found and classified into 3 major classes A, B, and C. The class A members were the most representative one and Hsf genes were distributed in 12 of the 16 linkage groups (except the LG 8, 9, 13, and 16). Evolutionary analysis revealed that, segmental duplication events which occurred around 67 MYA, were the primary force underlying Hsf genes expansion in sesame. Comparative analysis also suggested that sesame has retained most of its Hsf genes while its relatives viz. tomato and potato underwent extensive gene losses during evolution. Continuous purifying selection has played a key role in the maintenance of Hsf genes in sesame. Expression analysis of the Hsf genes in sesame revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages. Time-course expression profiling of Hsf genes in response to drought stress showed that 90% Hsfs are drought responsive. We infer that classes B-Hsfs might be the primary regulators of drought response in sesame by cooperating with some class A genes. This is the first insight into this gene family and the results provide some gene resources for future gene cloning and functional studies toward the improvement in stress tolerance of sesame. PMID:27790233

  9. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  10. Non-linear mirror instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    Slow dynamical changes in magnetic-field strength and invariance of the particles' magnetic moments generate ubiquitous pressure anisotropies in weakly collisional, magnetized astrophysical plasmas. This renders them unstable to fast, small-scale mirror and firehose instabilities, which are capable of exerting feedback on the macroscale dynamics of the system. By way of a new asymptotic theory of the early non-linear evolution of the mirror instability in a plasma subject to slow shearing or compression, we show that the instability does not saturate quasi-linearly at a steady, low-amplitude level. Instead, the trapping of particles in small-scale mirrors leads to non-linear secular growth of magnetic perturbations, δB/B ∝ t2/3. Our theory explains recent collisionless simulation results, provides a prediction of the mirror evolution in weakly collisional plasmas and establishes a foundation for a theory of non-linear mirror dynamics with trapping, valid up to δB/B = O(1).

  11. Variation in seed fatty acid composition and sequence divergence in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated sesame.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenbang; Tonnis, Brandon; Morris, Brad; Wang, Richard B; Zhang, Amy L; Pinnow, David; Wang, Ming Li

    2014-12-01

    Sesame germplasm harbors genetic diversity which can be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs. Seven accessions with different levels of oleic acid were selected from the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection (1232 accessions) and planted for morphological observation and re-examination of fatty acid composition. The coding region of the FAD2 gene for fatty acid desaturase (FAD) in these accessions was also sequenced. Cultivated sesame accessions flowered and matured earlier than the wild species. The cultivated sesame seeds contained a significantly higher percentage of oleic acid (40.4%) than the seeds of the wild species (26.1%). Nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated species. Some nucleotide polymorphisms led to amino acid changes, one of which was located in the enzyme active site and may contribute to the altered fatty acid composition. Based on the morphology observation, chemical analysis, and sequence analysis, it was determined that two accessions were misnamed and need to be reclassified. The results obtained from this study are useful for sesame improvement in molecular breeding programs.

  12. Large mirror ratio tandem mirror magnetic design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, G.L.; Myra, J.R.; D'lppolito, D.A.; Catto, P.J.; Aamodt, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    A systematic study of magnetic designs has been carried out for three-cell quadrupole-stabilized tandem mirror reactors comparable in size to the (octupole) mini-MARS design. In these designs, a single mirror cell at each end of the device serves as end plug, thermal barrier and MHD anchor. The multiple functions of the end plugs make it difficult to simultaneously optimize the physics properties of the plasma (stability, radial confinement, and good particle drift orbits). Two different design approaches have been studied using recently developed magnetic optimization techniques. Typical physics figures of merit are given and critical issues discussed for each design.

  13. Compact neutron imaging system using axisymmetric mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Khaykovich, Boris; Moncton, David E; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Ramsey, Brian D; Engelhaupt, Darell E

    2014-05-27

    A dispersed release of neutrons is generated from a source. A portion of this dispersed neutron release is reflected by surfaces of a plurality of nested, axisymmetric mirrors in at least an inner mirror layer and an outer mirror layer, wherein the neutrons reflected by the inner mirror layer are incident on at least one mirror surface of the inner mirror layer N times, wherein N is an integer, and wherein neutrons reflected by the outer mirror are incident on a plurality of mirror surfaces of the outer layer N+i times, where i is a positive integer, to redirect the neutrons toward a target. The mirrors can be formed by a periodically reversed pulsed-plating process.

  14. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  15. Parasitic driven heliostat mirror declinator

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, W.A.

    1983-09-06

    An automatic parasitically driven declinator is disclosed for changing the tilt angle of the mirror of a heliostat to provide solar declination tracking by the heliostat. The declinator includes an axial gear drive train coupled to the polar axial shaft of the heliostat, which shaft is rotated. A pendulum arrangement coupled via an input shaft to the axial gear drive train is substantially held in plumb position by gravity wherein the gear drive train is driven as it is rotated about the polar axis by the polar axial shaft. An output shaft coupled to the gear train is rotated to drive a skew bar linkage assembly that is connected to the mirror mounting assembly of the heliostat. The gear ratio of the gear drive train assembly is made 365:1 so that the mirror angle is annually nutated a predetermined number of degrees corresponding to the cyclic variations of solar declination.

  16. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  17. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  18. Fused silica mirror development for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, W. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced design, lightweight, fuse-quartz mirror of sandwich construction was evaluated for optical figure performance at cryogenic temperatures. A low temperature shroud was constructed with an integral mirror mount and interface to a cryostat for use in a vacuum chamber. The mirror was tested to 13 K. Cryogenic distortion of the mirror was measured interferometrically. Separate interferometry of the chamber window during the test permitted subtraction of the small window distortions from the data. Results indicate that the imaging performance of helium cooled, infrared telescopes will be improved using this type of mirror without correction of cryogenic distortion of the primary mirror.

  19. Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1983-08-11

    Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror.

  20. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  1. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  2. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  3. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Alaraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  4. Controllable objective with deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, V V; Safronov, A G

    2004-03-31

    A new optical device - an objective with deformable mirrors and parameters controlled in the dynamic regime is proposed. The computer simulation of the objective is performed. The dependences of some parameters of the objective on the control voltage are determined. The simulation showed that the ranges of control of the rear focal segment and the focal distance for the objective with the focal distance 602 mm were 1057 and 340 mm, respectively, which is substantially greater than in the control of an equivalent deformable mirror. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  6. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  7. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  8. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  9. NASA CONNECT: Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    'Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe' is the last of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe', students will learn how algebra is used to explore the universe.

  10. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition. PMID:23709352

  11. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition.

  12. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition. PMID:23709352

  13. SESAME/CASSE listening to the insertion of the MUPUS PEN at Abydos site, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer, M.; Fischer, H.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Thiel, K.; Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Möhlmann, D.

    2015-10-01

    SESAME is a suite of three instruments (the Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment CASSE, the Dust Impact Monitor DIM, and the electrical Permittivity Probe PP) that have sensors and transmitters distributed all over the Philae lander, but share common electronics for commanding and processing. SESAME is conducted by a consortium of DLR, the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (Göttingen), and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (Helsinki, [1]). The Multi-Purpose Sensor MUPUS, run also by DLR, combines a thermal conductivity and heat flow experiment with a mechanical properties experiment associated with the anchoring harpoons of the lander ([2]). It was recognized early in the preparation of both the SESAME and MUPUS experiments that the hammering mechanism of the latter, which drives the thermal probe into the ground, might as well serve as source of elastic waves for the CASSE experiment. To support the CASSE experiment, the MUPUS flight software provides information on its hammering process in a shared memory of the lander data management system. CASSE listening to the MUPUS PEN hammer mechanism proved to be the first active seismic experiment conducted on a celestial body other than Earth since the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment, which was carried out on the Moon by the Apollo 17 astronauts in 1972 (e.g. [3]).

  14. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  15. [The ontogeny of the mirror neuron system].

    PubMed

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Humans utilize the mirror neuron system to understand and predict others' actions. However, the ontogeny of the mirror neuron system remains unknown. Whether mirror neuron function is an innate trait or whether mirror neurons acquire their sensorimotor matching properties ontogenetically remains to be clarified. In this paper, I review the ontogenetic theory of the mirror neuron system. I then discuss the functioning of the mirror neuron system in the context of social cognitive abilities, which are unique to humans. Recently, some researchers argue that it is too early to interpret the function of mirror neurons as an understanding of the underlying psychological states of others. They imply that such functioning would require inferential cognitive processes that are known to involve areas outside the mirror neuron system. Filling in this missing link may be the key to elucidating the unique ability of humans to understand others' actions.

  16. Modeling of Intellite 3 Layer Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A

    2002-04-15

    This is a report on modeling of the Intellite three layer membrane mirror design. The goal of this project was to provide Intellite with a model that will allow them to design a mirror with confidence.

  17. Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2010-06-22

    A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.

  18. Collodion technique of mirror cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Cleaning method is modified by addition of a layer of cheesecloth between thin coatings of U.S.P. collodion. After drying, the collodion is peeled off by an even pull on the cheesecloth, leaving the mirror clean and ready for use.

  19. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  20. Hartmann test of aspherical mirrors.

    PubMed

    Malacara, D

    1972-01-01

    Astronomical aspherical mirrors may be tested in the optical shop with a Hartmann null test. A null test is obtained by placing small wedges over each hole of the Hartmann screen. The wedges have an angle between the two faces such that the spherical aberration with the object and the image at the center of curvature is just compensated.

  1. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  2. Detecting surface faults on solar mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Shumate, M. S.; Walker, W. L.; Zanteson, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two quality control tests determine reflectivity and curvature faults of concave solar mirrors. Curvature defects in solar mirrors are easily revealed by photographing mirror surface. Calibrated aperture placed in front of camera lens admits rays reflecting only from acceptable areas of mirror, blocking out diverging rays reflected from defective areas. Defects can pinpoint problems that may exist in production. Same photograph can be obtained using calibrated disk instead of aperture, except that, this time, only defective areas would be exposed.

  3. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT

  4. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease. PMID:27195795

  5. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    PubMed

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease. PMID:27195795

  6. Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Legrand, P.; Baty, A.; Hovsepian, T.

    1997-03-01

    The primary mirror cell of the very large telescope supports the primary mirror, the tertiary tower and mirror, and the Cassegrain instrumentation. Stringent requirements have been set to achieve the desired image quality, flexibility of use, and the necessary mirror safety. This paper describes the most important requirements set on the system and some of the design solutions which were chosen.

  7. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  12. Finite element analysis of a meniscus mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Y.

    1989-10-01

    Finite element analyses were carried out for a 7.5 m meniscus mirror of 20 cm thickness. Calculations were made for deformations of the mirror surface due to the gravity and the effect of a hole through which a lateral supporting mechanism would be installed. Vibrational eigenmodes were also calculated when the mirror is fixed by three axial and three lateral hard points.

  13. Light Weight Silicon Mirrors for Space Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vincent T.; Hill, Peter C.; Hagopian, John G.; Strojay, Carl R.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Each mirror is a monolithic structure from a single crystal of silicon. The mirrors are light weighted after the optical surface is ground and polished. Mirrors made during the initial phase of this work were typically 1/50 lambda or better (RMS at 633 n m)

  14. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs.

  15. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  16. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  17. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  18. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  19. Nonventing, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, regenerable heat absorber (RHA), developed for rejecting metabolic heat from a space suit, may also be useful on Earth for short-term cooling of heavy protective garments. Unlike prior space-suit-cooling systems, a system that includes this RHA does not vent water. The closed system contains water reservoirs, tubes through which water is circulated to absorb heat, an evaporator, and an absorber/radiator. The radiator includes a solution of LiCl contained in a porous material in titanium tubes. The evaporator cools water that circulates through a liquid-cooled garment. Water vapor produced in the evaporator enters the radiator tubes where it is absorbed into the LiCl solution, releasing heat. Much of the heat of absorption is rejected to the environment via the radiator. After use, the RHA is regenerated by heating it to a temperature of 100 C for about 2 hours to drive the absorbed water back to the evaporator. A system including a prototype of the RHA was found to be capable of maintaining a temperature of 20 C while removing heat at a rate of 200 W for 6 hours.

  20. Physics issues in mirror and tandem mirror systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1984-06-15

    Over the years the study of the confinement of high temperature plasma in magnetic mirror systems has presented researchers with many unusual physics problems. Many of these issues are by now understood theoretically and documented experimentally. With the advent of the tandem mirror idea, some new issues have emerged and are now under intensive study. These include: (1) the generation and control of ambipolar confining potentials and their effect on axial confinement and, (2) the combined influence of nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields (used to ensure MHD stability) and electric magnetic particle drifts on radial transport. Physics considerations associated with these two categories of issues will be reviewed, including concepts for the control of radial transport, under study or proposed.

  1. A synoptic analysis of the first AVE-SESAME '79 period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. T.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Key features of a severe convection observed during April 10-11, 1979 as part of the Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) are examined. Three-hourly rawinsonde readings from 23 stations were taken, and vertical motion and divergence parameters are considered. The data were converted into a 127 km grid at the surface, and at 50 mb intervals from 900 mb to 100 mb by an objective analysis scheme, while a kinematic method was used to compute vertical motion. A weak upper tropospheric short wave trough was found to propagate from New Mexico into the Texas panhandle, while a jet maximum propagated eastward. The development of a strong wind maximum over Oklahoma and Kansas was associated with a rapid increase in upper-level divergence and the development of a small-scale pressure perturbation in the Texas panhandle, as well as a low-level jet and convergence, which led to rapid changes over the Red River Valley, where stability was decreased.

  2. Optimization of oil retention in sesame based halva using emulsifiers and fibers: an industrial assay.

    PubMed

    Aloui, F; Maazoun, B; Gargouri, Y; Miled, N

    2016-03-01

    Oil bleeding during storage oleaginous seeds based confectionery products is a major problem affecting acceptance by consumers. Halva is a popular sweet food prepared from a sesame paste and a sugar mixture. The objective of this work was to improve the oil retention in this product by incorporating commercial fibers and emulsifiers: soya lecithin and monoglycerides (MG1 or MG2) during manufacturing. Oil retention yield was optimized on small batches, by response surface methodology using a central composite design applied with two factors, emulsifier concentration (0.25-2.25 %) and fibers concentration (0-2 %) at three levels. A centrifugation test was optimized to assess oil retention in halva samples. The experimental response (oil retention) was fitted with quadratic equations for each emulsifier, using multiple regression analysis. The emulsion stability increased with increasing the emulsifier concentration, particularly to 2.25 %. The oil bleeding assessed at 45 °C was slow but yielded similar results to those estimated by centrifugation test. The latter seems an attractive rapid method to quantify oil retention in oleaginous seeds and crops based food matrices. At an industrial scale, the increase of MG1 concentration to 2.25 % in halva enhances the oil retention of the product but does not affect its color or textural characteristics. Microscopic observations allowed us to explain high oil retention in this product by a homogeneous dispersion of oil droplets in the aqueous phase.

  3. SESAME 96171, a three-phase equation of state for CeO2

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, Eric D.

    2014-07-08

    This report describes an earlier version of an equation of state (EOS) for cerium (IV) oxide, CeO2. This work has been superseded by a newer version that is described in LA-UR-14-24689. Everything from this report needed to understand the new version is included in the new report. I have constructed SESAME 96171, an EOS for cerium (IV) oxide that includes two solid phases and the liquid. Unlike its immediate predecessor, this EOS is valid over a larger range in pressure due to including the extra phase. I have described the process of constructing and testing the EOS, emphasizing its continuity with the previous EOS and the modifications needed for the new frame-work. The comparison with data is good, but is still limited by the same issues with nuclear models that were present in the previous work. The remaining significant issue is the comparison of the crystal-density EOS with experimental porous Hugoniot data, which may require using more sophisticated model to represent porosity, as discussed in the previous report.

  4. Laboratory calibrations of the PP-SESAME instrument on Philae for measuring the cometary surface permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Laasko, H.; Ciarletti, V.; Seidensticker, K.

    2013-09-01

    The complex permittivity of terrestrial and planetary grounds can be derived from Mutual Impedance (MI) measurements using a four-electrode array [1]; the system is working at a fixed frequency with the electrodes not necessarily in contact with the ground and with a dedicated electronic system. This concept was used to build the Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment of the Philae Rosetta cometary lander. However severe constraints due to the payload facilities and to the particular environment lead to the actual design of the instrument. Unfortunately it was not possible to perform calibrations of the full system before lauch and the ground model consists of several parts used by various instruments. Here we report the results of basic calibration tests performed with a model of the Philae Landing Gear built in DLR. These tests involve only the three feet electrodes and a mockup of the the Philae body with very simple and well defined targets for characterizing the instrument. Further measurements on natural targets would be the next step.

  5. Silicone rubber nipples: effects of sesame-oil extract on reproduction in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatim, Al-Ser A Gader; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Galil, Khidir A

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated a type of silicone rubber (SR) nipple for toxicity, caused by chemical migrants, on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. They followed an extraction method (set forth in the 20th revised edition of the United States Pharmacopeia) in which sesame oil was a vehicle. They prepared the extract daily and administered it orally (50 ml/kg of body weight) into pregnant Swiss albino mice from gestation Day 0 until delivery. They gave a control group of mice the pure vehicle that was subjected to the same conditions. The authors recorded pregnancy weight gain, gestation period, litter size, stillbirths, and offspring sex ratio. They performed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pregnancy hormones (progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin) for each trimester and monitored birth weight, growth rate, and sex hormone levels (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol in females; testosterone in males) in offspring. The authors detected SR-extractable chemicals by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The decrease in weight gain from Day 6 of gestation until delivery and the shortness in the gestation period were significant in dams (p< or = .05). Newly born pups demonstrated a significantly (p < or = .05) lower body weight that continued with age, and this became highly significant (p< or = .01) from Day 6. Blood hormone levels in dams and offspring indicated no significance. In conclusion, the studied SR nipples indicated leachability, which could affect reproduction, without a manifest endocrine modulation.

  6. Water-Soluble Components of Sesame Oil Reduce Inflammation and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Selvarajan, Krithika; Burge, Kathryn Young; Litvinov, Dmitry; Sengupta, Bhaswati; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis, a major form of cardiovascular disease, is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Nonpharmacological means of treating chronic diseases have gained attention recently. We previously reported that sesame oil aqueous extract (SOAE) has anti-inflammatory properties, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the antiatherosclerotic properties of SOAE, and the mechanisms, through genes and inflammatory markers, by which SOAE might modulate atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout female mice were fed with either a high-fat (HF) diet or an HF diet supplemented with SOAE. Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. Plasma samples were used for global cytokine array. RNA was extracted from both liver tissue and the aorta, and used for gene analysis. The high-fat diet supplemented with SOAE significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, plasma cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDL-R(-/-) mice. Plasma inflammatory cytokines were reduced in the SOAE diet-fed animals, but not significantly, demonstrating potential anti-inflammatory properties of SOAE. Gene analysis showed the HF diet supplemented with SOAE reduced gene expression involved in inflammation and induced genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport, an anti-inflammatory process. Our studies suggest that a SOAE-enriched diet could be an effective nonpharmacological treatment for atherosclerosis by controlling inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:27348418

  7. Optimization of oil retention in sesame based halva using emulsifiers and fibers: an industrial assay.

    PubMed

    Aloui, F; Maazoun, B; Gargouri, Y; Miled, N

    2016-03-01

    Oil bleeding during storage oleaginous seeds based confectionery products is a major problem affecting acceptance by consumers. Halva is a popular sweet food prepared from a sesame paste and a sugar mixture. The objective of this work was to improve the oil retention in this product by incorporating commercial fibers and emulsifiers: soya lecithin and monoglycerides (MG1 or MG2) during manufacturing. Oil retention yield was optimized on small batches, by response surface methodology using a central composite design applied with two factors, emulsifier concentration (0.25-2.25 %) and fibers concentration (0-2 %) at three levels. A centrifugation test was optimized to assess oil retention in halva samples. The experimental response (oil retention) was fitted with quadratic equations for each emulsifier, using multiple regression analysis. The emulsion stability increased with increasing the emulsifier concentration, particularly to 2.25 %. The oil bleeding assessed at 45 °C was slow but yielded similar results to those estimated by centrifugation test. The latter seems an attractive rapid method to quantify oil retention in oleaginous seeds and crops based food matrices. At an industrial scale, the increase of MG1 concentration to 2.25 % in halva enhances the oil retention of the product but does not affect its color or textural characteristics. Microscopic observations allowed us to explain high oil retention in this product by a homogeneous dispersion of oil droplets in the aqueous phase. PMID:27570279

  8. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  9. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  10. Waveform-Dependent Absorbing Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Kim, Sanghoon; Rushton, Jeremiah J.; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first use of a waveform-dependent absorbing metasurface for high-power pulsed surface currents. The new type of nonlinear metasurface, composed of circuit elements including diodes, is capable of storing high-power pulse energy to dissipate it between pulses, while allowing propagation of small signals. Interestingly, the absorbing performance varies for high-power pulses but not for high-power continuous waves (CW’s), since the capacitors used are fully charged up. Thus, the waveform dependence enables us to distinguish various signal types (i.e., CW or pulse) even at the same frequency, which potentially creates new kinds of microwave technologies and applications.

  11. SIRTF primary mirror design, analysis, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L., III; Maa, Scott; Chang, LI

    1990-01-01

    The primary mirror assembly (PMA) requirements and concepts for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program are discussed. The PMA studies at NASA/ARC resulted in the design of two engineering test articles, the development of a mirror mount cryogenic static load testing system, and the procurement and partial testing of a full scale spherical mirror mounting system. Preliminary analysis and testing of the single arch mirror with conical mount design and the structured mirror with the spherical mount design indicate that the designs will meet all figure and environmental requirements of the SIRTF program.

  12. TRL-6 Qualification of JWST Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Since 1996, all key mirror technology for a JWST Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA), as defined directly from the JWST Level 1 Science Requirements, have been developed and matured from a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3 to 6. This has occurred as the result of a highly successful technology development program including sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD), Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD), and JWST flight mirror fabrication. Directly traceable prototypes (and in some cases the flight hardware itself) has been built, tested and operated in a relevant environment.

  13. Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars using Insertion-Deletion (InDel) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame is an important and ancient oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. China is one of the most important sesame producing countries with many germplasm accessions and excellent cultivars. Domestication and modern plant breeding have presumably narrowed the genetic basis of cultivated sesame. Several modern sesame cultivars were bred with a limited number of landrace cultivars in their pedigree. The genetic variation was subsequently reduced by genetic drift and selection. Characterization of genetic diversity of these cultivars by molecular markers is of great value to assist parental line selection and breeding strategy design. Results Three hundred and forty nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 79 insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were developed from cDNA library and reduced-representation sequencing of a sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 14, respectively. Combined with previously published SSR markers, 88 polymorphic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and allele distribution among 130 Chinese sesame accessions including 82 cultivars, 44 landraces and 4 wild germplasm accessions. A total of 325 alleles were detected, with the average gene diversity of 0.432. Model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups belonging to two main groups, which were consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis (PCA), phylogenetic clustering and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Several missing or unique alleles were identified from particular types, subgroups or families, even though they share one or both parental/progenitor lines. Conclusions This report presented a by far most comprehensive characterization of the molecular and genetic diversity of sesame cultivars in China. InDels are more polymorphic than SSRs, but their ability for deciphering genetic diversity compared to the later. Improved sesame cultivars have narrower genetic basis than landraces

  14. Evaluation of Metal Absorber Materials for Beyond Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongchul; Kim, Jung Sik; Lee, Jae Uk; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jung Hwan; Ahn, Jinho

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the development of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), studies on beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography (BEUVL), which uses radiation with a wavelength of 6.7 nm, are in progress for their application in high-volume manufacturing. The BEUV wavelength, which is much shorter than the EUV wavelength, improves the resolution of patterned features. However, suitable materials for the mask stack of BEUVL are still under development. In this study, the applicability of metallic materials, such as Ni, Co, Ir, W, and Ta, as the absorber in a binary-intensity BEUVL mask was evaluated. The mask-imaging properties were simulated by adopting a thickness that ensured a reflectivity of <1% for each material. Furthermore, we used a multilayered La/B mirror--which exhibited a high reflectivity at a wavelength of 6.7 nm--because BEUV light is absorbed by most materials, and therefore uses reflective optics as desired. The numerical aperture (NA), angle of incidence, and demagnification factor were 0.5 and 0.6, 6 degrees, and 8x, respectively. We confirmed that a line-and-space pattern with a half-pitch of 11 nm can be patterned with metallic absorbers by using a high NA. PMID:26726569

  15. Evaluation of Metal Absorber Materials for Beyond Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongchul; Kim, Jung Sik; Lee, Jae Uk; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jung Hwan; Ahn, Jinho

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the development of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), studies on beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography (BEUVL), which uses radiation with a wavelength of 6.7 nm, are in progress for their application in high-volume manufacturing. The BEUV wavelength, which is much shorter than the EUV wavelength, improves the resolution of patterned features. However, suitable materials for the mask stack of BEUVL are still under development. In this study, the applicability of metallic materials, such as Ni, Co, Ir, W, and Ta, as the absorber in a binary-intensity BEUVL mask was evaluated. The mask-imaging properties were simulated by adopting a thickness that ensured a reflectivity of <1% for each material. Furthermore, we used a multilayered La/B mirror--which exhibited a high reflectivity at a wavelength of 6.7 nm--because BEUV light is absorbed by most materials, and therefore uses reflective optics as desired. The numerical aperture (NA), angle of incidence, and demagnification factor were 0.5 and 0.6, 6 degrees, and 8x, respectively. We confirmed that a line-and-space pattern with a half-pitch of 11 nm can be patterned with metallic absorbers by using a high NA.

  16. [What mirror neurons have revealed: revisited].

    PubMed

    Murata, Akira; Maeda, Kazutaka

    2014-06-01

    The first paper on mirror neurons was published in 1992. In the span of over two decades since then, much knowledge about the relationship between social cognitive function and the motor control system has been accumulated. Direct matching of visual actions and their corresponding motor representations is the most important functional property of mirror neuron. Many studies have emphasized intrinsic simulation as a core concept for mirror neurons. Mirror neurons are thought to play a role in social cognitive function. However, the function of mirror neurons in the macaque remains unclear, because such cognitive functions are limited or lacking in macaque monkeys. It is therefore important to discuss these neurons in the context of motor function. Rizzolatti and colleagues have stressed that the most important function of mirror neurons in macaques is recognition of actions performed by other individuals. I suggest that mirror neurons in the Macaque inferior pariental lobule might be correlated with body schema. In the parieto-premotor network, matching of corollary discharge and actual sensory feedback is an essential neuronal operation. Recently, neurons showing mirror properties were found in some cortical areas outside the mirror neuron system. The current work would revisit the outcomes of mirror neuron studies to discuss the function of mirror neurons in the monkey.

  17. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  18. Control of Origin of Sesame Oil from Various Countries by Stable Isotope Analysis and DNA Based Markers—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Horacek, Micha; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Burg, Kornel; Soja, Gerhard; Okello-Anyanga, Walter; Fluch, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis. PMID:25831054

  19. Prevalence, level and distribution of Salmonella in shipments of imported capsicum and sesame seed spice offered for entry to the United States: observations and modeling results.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Jane M; Blodgett, Robert J; Pouillot, Régis; Westerman, Ann; Kleinmeier, Daria; Ziobro, George C; Ma, Yinqing; Hammack, Thomas S; Gill, Vikas; Muckenfuss, Martin F; Fabbri, Linda

    2013-12-01

    In response to increased concerns about spice safety, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated research to characterize the prevalence and levels of Salmonella in imported spices. 299 imported dried capsicum shipments and 233 imported sesame seed shipments offered for entry to the United States were sampled. Observed Salmonella shipment prevalence was 3.3% (1500 g examined; 95% CI 1.6-6.1%) for capsicum and 9.9% (1500 g; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 6.3-14%) for sesame seed. Within shipment contamination was not inconsistent with a Poisson distribution. Shipment mean Salmonella level estimates among contaminated shipments ranged from 6 × 10(-4) to 0.09 (capsicum) or 6 × 10(-4) to 0.04 (sesame seed) MPN/g. A gamma-Poisson model provided the best fit to observed data for both imported shipments of capsicum and imported shipments of sesame seed sampled in this study among the six parametric models considered. Shipment mean levels of Salmonella vary widely between shipments; many contaminated shipments contain low levels of contamination. Examination of sampling plan efficacy for identifying contaminated spice shipments from these distributions indicates that sample size of spice examined is critical. Sampling protocols examining 25 g samples are predicted to be able to identify a small fraction of contaminated shipments of imported capsicum or sesame seeds.

  20. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (Light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  1. Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Victor L

    2010-10-01

    Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed.

  2. What do fish make of mirror images?

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Julie K.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish act aggressively towards their mirror image suggesting that they consider it another individual, whereas in some mammals behavioural response to mirrors may be an evidence of self-recognition. Since fish cannot self-recognize, we asked whether they could distinguish between fighting a mirror image and fighting a real fish. We compared molecular, physiological and behavioural responses in each condition and found large differences in brain gene expression levels. Although neither levels of aggressive behaviour nor circulating androgens differed between these conditions, males fighting a mirror image had higher immediate early gene (IEG) expression in brain areas homologous to the amygdala and hippocampus than controls. Since amygdalar responses are associated with fear and fear conditioning in other species, higher levels of brain activation when fighting a mirror suggest fish experience fear in response to fights with a mirror image. Clearly, the fish recognize something unusual about the mirror image and the differential brain response may reflect a cognitive distinction. PMID:20462889

  3. JWST Lightweight Mirror TRL-6 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Mirror technology for a Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) is a system of components: reflective coating; polished optical surface; mirror substrate; actuators, mechanisms and flexures; and reaction structure. The functional purpose of a PMSA is to survive launch, deploy and align itself to form a 25 square meter collecting area 6.5 meter diameter primary mirror with a 131 nm rms wavefront error at temperatures less than 50K and provide stable optical performance for the anticipated thermal environment. At the inception of JWST in 1996, such a capability was at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. A highly successful technology development program was initiated including the Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD) and Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) projects. These projects along with flight program activities have matured mirror technology for JWST to TRL-6. A directly traceable prototype (and in some cases the flight hardware itself) has been built, tested and operated in a relevant environment.

  4. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55-m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being polished at the the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows engineers inspecting the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025- micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being ground at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  8. LST secondary mirror articulation mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis, design, manufacture, test, and delivery of one secondary mirror articulation mechanism for the large space telescope (LST) are reported. The mechanism provides angular freedom about two axes that are perpendicular to the optical axis of the secondary mirror. Motion in each axis is controlled from two sources; one source provides alignment, the other source provides stabilization. Two articulation mechanism configurations were evaluated. In one configuration the stabilization system was assembled with piezoelectric actuators. In the second configuration the stabilization system utilized flexure torque motor actuators. The alignment system was the same for both configurations. System testing confirmed performance that met or exceeded all operational requirements. The two types of stabilization actuators had different performance characteristics. Both types demonstrated position resolution and frequency response better than specified limits.

  9. Radius of curvature controlled mirror

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Rathke, John Wickham; Schultheiss, Thomas John; Shinn, Michelle D.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    2006-01-17

    A controlled radius of curvature mirror assembly comprising: a distortable mirror having a reflective surface and a rear surface; and in descending order from the rear surface; a counter-distortion plate; a flow diverter having a flow diverter aperture at the center thereof; a flow return plate having a flow return aperture at the center thereof; a thermal isolation plate having a thermal isolation plate aperture at the center thereof and a flexible heater having a rear surface and a flexible heater aperture at the center thereof; a double walled tube defining a coolant feed chamber and a coolant return chamber; said coolant feed chamber extending to and through the flow diverter aperture and terminating at the counter-distortion plate and the coolant return chamber extending to and through the thermal isolation backplate and terminating at the flow diverter; and a coolant feed and a coolant return exit at the rear of said flexible heater.

  10. Beautiful mirrors at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kunal; Shepherd, William; Tait, Tim M. P.; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    We explore the “Beautiful Mirrors” model, which aims to explain the measured value of A b FB , discrepant at the 2.9σ level. This scenario introduces vector-like quarks which mix with the bottom, subtly affecting its coupling to the Z. The spectrum of the new particles consists of two bottom-like quarks and a charge -4/3 quark, all of which have electroweak interactions with the third generation. We explore the phenomenology and discovery reach for these new particles at the LHC, exploring single mirror quark production modes whose rates are proportional to the same mixing parameters which resolve the A b FB anomaly. We find that for mirror quark masses ≲ 500 GeV, a 14 TeV LHC with 300 fb-1 is required to reasonably establish the scenario and extract the relevant mixing parameters.

  11. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-11-21

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

  12. Vectorial velocity filter for ultracold neutrons based on a surface-disordered mirror system.

    PubMed

    Chizhova, L A; Rotter, S; Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Geltenbort, P; Wautischer, G; Filter, H; Abele, H; Burgdörfer, J

    2014-03-01

    We perform classical three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of ultracold neutrons scattering through an absorbing-reflecting mirror system in the Earth's gravitational field. We show that the underlying mixed phase space of regular skipping motion and random motion due to disorder scattering can be exploited to realize a vectorial velocity filter for ultracold neutrons. The absorbing-reflecting mirror system proposed allows beams of ultracold neutrons with low angular divergence to be formed. The range of velocity components can be controlled by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system. First experimental tests of its performance are presented. One potential future application is the investigation of transport and scattering dynamics in confined systems downstream of the filter.

  13. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  14. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  15. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  16. Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This contract and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and demonstration of a different technology for construction of lightweight mirrors. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities; Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (less than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or quaternary mirror into a quasi-continuous surface with individual subapertures phased so that near diffraction limited imaging in the visible wavelength region is achieved. Continuous compensation of optical wavefront due to perturbations caused by imperfections, natural disturbances, and equipment induced vibrations/deflections to provide near diffraction limited imaging performance in the visible wavelength region. Demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating such systems with reduced mass and cost compared to past approaches. While the SSD could not be expected to satisfy all of the above capabilities, the intent was to start identifying and understanding new technologies that might be applicable to these goals.

  17. Deflectometric measurement of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesch, Evelyn; Häusler, Gerd; Wörnlein, André; Stinzing, Friedrich; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the inspection of large-sized, spherical mirror tiles by `Phase Measuring Deflectometry' (PMD). About 10 000 of such mirror tiles, each satisfying strict requirements regarding the spatial extent of the point-spread-function (PSF), are planned to be installed on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future ground-based instrument to observe the sky in very high energy gamma-rays. Owing to their large radii of curvature of up to 60 m, a direct PSF measurement of these mirrors with concentric geometry requires large space. We present a PMD sensor with a footprint of only 5×2×1.2 m3 that overcomes this limitation. The sensor intrinsically acquires the surface slope; the shape data are calculated by integration. In this way, the PSF can be calculated for real case scenarios, e.g., when the light source is close to infinity and off-axis. The major challenge is the calibration of the PMD sensor, specifically because the PSF data have to be reconstructed from different camera views. The calibration of the setup is described, and measurements presented and compared to results obtained with the direct approach.

  18. Robust double Z-type cavity mode locked Yb:KYW ultrafast laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sha; Han, Jing-hua; Wang, Yan-biao; Feng, Guo-ying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode locked Yb doped ultrafast lasers have been widely used in industrial applications. High laser stability against environment change and delivery process are required for industrial laser systems. A double Z-type ultrafast laser cavity was demonstrated experimentally and theoretically. Compared with the conventional Z-type cavity, this double Z-type cavity SESAM mode locked laser is less sensitive to misalignment and can tolerate more arm length changes while still staying cw mode locking.

  19. Automatically acquired broadband plasmonic-metamaterial black absorber during the metallic film-formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengqi; Liu, Xiaoshan; Huang, Shan; Pan, Pingping; Chen, Jing; Liu, Guiqiang; Gu, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers are highly desirable in numerous applications such as solar-energy harvesting, thermo-photovoltaics, and photon detection. The aim to efficiently achieve ultrathin broadband absorbers with high-yield and low-cost fabrication process has long been pursued. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a unique broadband plasmonic-metamaterial absorber by utilizing a sub-10 nm meta-surface film structure to replace the precisely designed metamaterial crystal in the common metal-dielectric-metal absorbers. The unique ultrathin meta-surface can be automatically obtained during the metal film formation process. Spectral bandwidth with absorbance above 80% is up to 396 nm, where the full absorption width at half-maximum is about 92%. The average value of absorbance across the whole spectral range of 370-880 nm reaches 83%. These super absorption properties can be attributed to the particle plasmon resonances and plasmon near-field coupling by the automatically formed metallic nanoparticles as well as the plasmon polaritons of the metal film with the induced plasmonic magnetic resonances occurring between the top meta-surface and the bottom metal mirror. This method is quite simple, cost-effective for large-area fabrication, and compatible with current industrial methods for microelectro-mechanical systems, which makes it an outstanding candidate for advanced high-efficiency absorber materials. PMID:25679790

  20. Mirror Metrology Using Nano-Probe Supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Hong, Maoling; Byron, Glenn; McClelland, Ryan; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2012-01-01

    Thin, lightweight mirrors are needed for future x-ray space telescopes in order to increase x-ray collecting area while maintaining a reduced mass and volume capable of being launched on existing rockets. However, it is very difficult to determine the undistorted shape of such thin mirrors because the mounting of the mirror during measurement causes distortion. Traditional kinematic mounts have insufficient supports to control the distortion to measurable levels and prevent the mirror from vibrating during measurement. Over-constrained mounts (non-kinematic) result in an unknown force state causing mirror distortion that cannot be determined or analytically removed. In order to measure flexible mirrors, it is necessary to over-constrain the mirror. Over-constraint causes unknown distortions to be applied to the mirror. Even if a kinematic constraint system can be used, necessary imperfections in the kinematic assumption can lead to an unknown force state capable of distorting the mirror. Previously, thicker, stiffer, and heavier mirrors were used to achieve low optical figure distortion. These mirrors could be measured to an acceptable level of precision using traditional kinematic mounts. As lighter weight precision optics have developed, systems such as the whiffle tree or hydraulic supports have been used to provide additional mounting supports while maintaining the kinematic assumption. The purpose of this invention is to over-constrain a mirror for optical measurement without causing unacceptable or unknown distortions. The invention uses force gauges capable of measuring 1/10,000 of a Newton attached to nano-actuators to support a thin x-ray optic with known and controlled forces to allow for figure measurement and knowledge of the undeformed mirror figure. The mirror is hung from strings such that it is minimally distorted and in a known force state. However, the hanging mirror cannot be measured because it is both swinging and vibrating. In order to

  1. Simple physical treatment as an effective tool to improve the functional properties or rapeseed (Brassica campestris var. toria) and sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) meals.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amita; Dua, Saroj; Bhardwaj, Seema

    2002-03-01

    Dry and 24 h imbibed rapeseeds and sesame seeds were defatted with hexane and the resulting freeze-dried powder was analysed for the functional properties of the meals. Water absorption capacity (WAC) of imbibed rapeseed meal and fat absorption capacity (FAC) of both the imbeded meals were higher than those for dry meals. Protein solubility of rapeseed meals was improved by imbibition and both the imbibed meals exhibited maximum protein solubility at pH 12. Rapeseed meal possessed better foaming properties and viscosity than sesame seed meal. Imbibition considerably enhanced the foaming properties of rapeseed meal while the emulsification properties and viscosity did not change appreciably. Emulsification properties of sesame meal were higher than rapeseed meal.

  2. Simple physical treatment as an effective tool to improve the functional properties of rapeseed (Brassica campestris var. toria) and sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) meals.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amita; Dua, Saroj; Bhardwaj, Seema

    2002-11-01

    Dry and 24-h imbibed rapeseeds and sesame seeds were defatted with hexane, and freeze-dried powder was analysed for the functional properties of the meals. The water absorption capacity of the imbibed rapeseed meal and the fat absorption capacity of both the imbibed meals were higher than dry meals. Protein solubility of the rapeseed meal was improved by imbibition and both the imbibed meals exhibited maximum protein solubility at pH 12. The rapeseed meal possessed better foaming properties and viscosity than the sesame seed meal. Imbibition considerably enhanced the foaming properties of the rapeseed meal, while the emulsification properties and viscosity did not change appreciably. Emulsification properties of the sesame meal were higher than those of the rapeseed meal.

  3. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter.

  4. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter. PMID:26641280

  5. Critical care ultrasound in cardiac arrest. Technological requirements for performing the SESAME-protocol--a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound has gained its place in critical care as part of our day-to-day monitoring tools. A better understanding of ultrasound techniques and recent publications including protocols for the lungs, the abdomen and the blood vessels has introduced ultrasound to the bedside of our ICU patients. However, we will prove in this paper that early machines, dating back more than 25 years, were perfectly able to do the job as compared to modern laptop machines with more features but few additional advantages. Ultrasound is not only a diagnostic tool, but should also be seen as an extension of the traditional physical examination. This paper will focus on the use of the SESAME-protocol in cardiac arrest. The SESAME-protocol suggests starting with a lung scan to rule out possible causes leading to cardiac arrest. Firstly, pneumothorax needs to be ruled out. Secondly, a partial diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is done following the BLUE-protocol. Thirdly, fluid therapy can be guided, following the FALLS-protocol. The SESAME-protocol continues by scanning the lower femoral veins to check for signs of deep venous thrombosis, followed by (or before, in case of trauma) the abdomen to detect massive bleeding. Next comes the pericardium, to exclude pericardial tamponade. Finally, a transthoracic cardiac ultrasound is performed to check for other (cardiac) causes leading to cardiac arrest. The emphasis is on a holistic approach, where ultrasound can be seen as the modern stethoscope needed by clinicians to complete the full physiological examination of their critically ill unstable patients.

  6. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil.

  7. Dust Impact Monitor (SESAME-DIM) measurements at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Albin, Thomas; Apathy, Istvan; Arnold, Walter; Flandes, Alberto; Hirn, Attila; Kobayashi, Masanori; Loose, Alexander; Péter, Attila; Podolak, Morris

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae carries the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) on board, which is part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME). DIM employs piezoelectric PZT sensors to detect impacts by submillimeter- and millimeter-sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma. Aims: The DIM sensor measures dynamical data such as flux and the directionality of the impacting particles. Mass and speed of the particles can be constrained assuming density and elastic particle properties. Methods: DIM was operated during three mission phases of Philae at the comet: (1) before the separation of Philae from Rosetta at distances of about 9.6 km, 11.8 km, and 25.3 km from the nucleus barycenter. In this mission phase particles released from the nucleus on radial trajectories remained undetectable because of significant obscuration by the structures of Rosetta, and no dust particles were indeed detected; (2) during Philae's descent to its nominal landing site Agilkia, DIM detected one approximately millimeter-sized particle at a distance of 5.0 km from the nucleus' barycenter, corresponding to an altitude of 2.4 km from the surface. This is the closest ever dust detection at a cometary nucleus by a dedicated in situ dust detector; and (3) at Philae's final landing site, Abydos, DIM detected no dust impact which may be due to low cometary activity in the vicinity of Philae or due to shading by obstacles close to Philae, or both. Results: Laboratory calibration experiments showed that the material properties of the detected particle are compatible with a porous particle having a bulk density of approximately 250 kg m-3. The particle could have been lifted off the comet's surface by sublimating water ice.

  8. Demographic Predictors of Peanut, Tree Nut, Fish, Shellfish, and Sesame Allergy in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shoshan, M.; Harrington, D. W.; Soller, L.; Fragapane, J.; Joseph, L.; Pierre, Y. St.; Godefroy, S. B.; Elliott, S. J.; Clarke, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Studies suggest that the rising prevalence of food allergy during recent decades may have stabilized. Although genetics undoubtedly contribute to the emergence of food allergy, it is likely that other factors play a crucial role in mediating such short-term changes. Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59), 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68), and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87), resp.) while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72) and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61)). Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91)). Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31)). There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04)) and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95)), but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy. PMID:22187574

  9. Genetic and histopathological alterations induced by cypermethrin in rat kidney and liver: Protection by sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Attia, Hossam F; El-Ella, Ghada A Abou

    2015-12-01

    Pesticides are widespread synthesized substances used for public health protection and agricultural programs. However, they cause environmental pollution and health hazards. This study aimed to examine the protective effects of sesame oil (SO) on the genetic alterations induced by cypermethrin (CYP) in the liver and kidney of Wistar rats. Male rats were divided into four groups, each containing 10 rats: the control group received vehicle, SO group (5 mL/kg b.w), CYP group (12 mg/kg b.w), and protective group received SO (5 mL/kg b.w) plus CYP (12 mg/kg b.w). Biochemical analysis showed an increase in albumin, urea, creatinine, GPT, GOT, and lipid profiles in the CYP group. Co-administration of SO with CYP normalized such biochemical changes. CYP administration decreased both the activity and mRNA expression of the examined antioxidants. SO co-administration recovered CYP, downregulating the expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, SO co-administration with CYP counteracted the CYP- altering the expression of renal interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), anigotensinogen (AGT), AGT receptors (AT1), and genes of hepatic glucose and fatty acids metabolism. CYP induced degenerative changes in the kidney and liver histology which are ameliorated by SO. In conclusion, SO has a protective effect against alterations and pathological changes induced by CYP in the liver and kidney at genetic and histological levels.

  10. Demographic predictors of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shoshan, M; Harrington, D W; Soller, L; Fragapane, J; Joseph, L; Pierre, Y St; Godefroy, S B; Elliott, S J; Clarke, A E

    2012-01-01

    Background. Studies suggest that the rising prevalence of food allergy during recent decades may have stabilized. Although genetics undoubtedly contribute to the emergence of food allergy, it is likely that other factors play a crucial role in mediating such short-term changes. Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59), 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68), and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87), resp.) while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72) and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61)). Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91)). Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31)). There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04)) and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95)), but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.

  11. Evaluation of phosphorus adsorption capacity of sesame straw biochar on aqueous solution: influence of activation methods and pyrolysis temperatures.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Ok, Y S; Kim, S H; Cho, J S; Heo, J S; Delaune, R D; Seo, D C

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorus (P) adsorption characteristic of sesame straw biochar prepared with different activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures was evaluated. Between 0.109 and 0.300 mg L(-1) in the form of inorganic phosphate was released from raw sesame straw biochar in the first 1 h. The release of phosphate was significantly enhanced from 62.6 to 168.2 mg g(-1) as the pyrolysis temperature increased. Therefore, sesame straw biochar cannot be used as an adsorbent for P removal without change in the physicochemical characteristics. To increase the P adsorption of biochar in aqueous solution, various activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures were applied. The amount of P adsorbed from aqueous solution by biochar activated using different activation agents appeared in the order ZnCl2 (9.675 mg g(-1)) > MgO (8.669 mg g(-1)) ⋙ 0.1N-HCl > 0.1N-H2SO4 > K2SO4 ≥ KOH ≥ 0.1N-H3PO4, showing ZnCl2 to be the optimum activation agent. Higher P was adsorbed by the biochar activated using ZnCl2 under different pyrolysis temperatures in the order 600 °C > 500 °C > 400 °C > 300 °C. Finally, the amount of adsorbed P by activated biochar at different ratios of biochar to ZnCl2 appeared in the order 1:3 ≒ 1:1 > 3:1. As a result, the optimum ratio of biochar to ZnCl2 and pyrolysis temperature were found to be 1:1 and 600 °C for P adsorption, respectively. The maximum P adsorption capacity by activated biochar using ZnCl2 (15,460 mg kg(-1)) was higher than that of typical biochar, as determined by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Therefore, the ZnCl2 activation of sesame straw biochar was suitable for the preparation of activated biochar for P adsorption.

  12. Blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation pumped by a giant-chirped SESAM mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shoufei; Wang, Yingying; Sun, Ruoyu; Jin, Dongchen; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Pu

    2016-08-01

    We report on a blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation pumped by a giant-chirped SESAM mode-locked 1064-nm fiber laser, in which the giant chirp is introduced by a piece of 3.5-km single-mode fiber outside of the cavity. The giant-chirped pump source with 2.2-nm spectral bandwidth and 186-ps pulse width is used to enhance dispersive waves generation in blue wavelength. An extremely wide optical spectrum with a broad 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 311 nm (from 446 to 757 nm) and a maximum spectral power density of 4 mW/nm at 464 nm is obtained.

  13. (+)-Pinoresinol is a putative hypoglycemic agent in defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds though inhibiting α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Wikul, Arin; Damsud, Thanakorn; Kataoka, Keita; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

    2012-08-15

    Defatted sesame seeds have been reported for hypoglycemic effect in mice and T2DM women. An attempted to identify active components responsible for this effect was conducted using α-glucosidase-guided fractionation, resulting in the isolation of various lignans. Of compounds isolated, only (+)-pinoresinol showed inhibitory activity against rat intestinal maltase with an IC(50) value of 34.3 μM. The kinetic study indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of maltose is inhibited by (+)-pinoresinol through competitive and noncompetitive manners. However, a lower dissociation constant (k(i) 288 M) of EI complex suggested that competitive inhibition is predominant over noncompetitive mode (k'(i) 1342 M).

  14. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  15. Mirrors, mirrors on the wall…the ubiquitous multiple reflection error.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Participants decided when somebody, Janine, could see their face in a horizontal row of adjacent mirrors mounted flat on the same wall. They saw real mirrors and a shop-dummy representing Janine. Such coplanar mirrors reflect different, non-overlapping areas of a scene. However, almost everybody made an unexpected error: they claimed that Janine would see her face reflected in multiple mirrors simultaneously. They therefore responded as if each mirror showed similar information and thus grossly overestimated how much each mirror revealed. Further studies established that this multiple reflection error also occurred for vertical rows of mirrors and for different areas of a single, large mirror. The error was even common if the participant themselves sat in front of a set of covered-up mirrors and indicated where they would be able to see their own reflection. In the latter case, people often made multiple reflection errors despite having seen all the mirrors uncovered immediately before they responded. People's gross overestimation of how much of a scene a mirror reflects and their inability to learn to correct this false belief explains why, despite a lifetime's experience of mirrors, they incorrectly think they will see themselves in all nearby mirrors.

  16. Findings from the PP-SESAME experiment on board the Philae/ROSETTA lander on the surface of comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lethuillier, A.; Le Gall, A.; Hamelin, M.; Ciarletti, V.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Fischer, H.; Seidensticker, K.

    2015-10-01

    The Permittivity Probe (PP-SESAME [1]) on-board the Philae Lander of the ROSETTA mission was designed to constrain the complex permittivity of the first 2 meters of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko and to monitor its variations with time. Doing so, it is meant to provide unique insight into the composition (and activity if data could have been acquired longer) of the comet. In this paper, we present the analysis of the PP-SESAME measurements acquired during the first science sequence, on November 13, 2014, on the surface of the comet.

  17. Passivation coating for flexible substrate mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors. Also, the silver or other reflective metal layer on mirrors comprising thin, lightweight, flexible substrates of metal or polymer sheets coated with glassy layers can be protected with silicon nitride according to this invention.

  18. Magnetic mirror fusion: status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1980-02-11

    Two improved mirror systems, the tandem mirror (TM) and the field-reversed mirror (FRM) are being intensively studied. The twin practical aims of these studies: to improve the economic prospects for mirror fusion power plants and to reduce the size and/or complexity of such plants relative to earlier approaches to magnetic fusion. While at the present time the program emphasis is still strongly oriented toward answering scientific questions, the emphasis is shifting as the data accumulates and as larger facilities - ones with a heavy technological and engineering orientation - are being prepared. The experimental and theoretical progress that led to the new look in mirror fusion research is briefly reviewed, the new TM and the FRM ideas are outlined, and the projected future course of mirror fusion research is discussed.

  19. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  20. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  1. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Buckwalter, Jr., Charles Q.

    1981-01-01

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  2. Future engineering needs of mirror fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-07-30

    Fusion research has matured during the last decade and significant insight into the future program needs has emerged. While some will properly note that the crystal ball is cloudy, it is equally important to note that the shape and outline of our course is discernable. In this short summary paper, I will draw upon the National Mirror Program Plan for mirror projects and on available design studies of these projects to put the specific needs of the mirror program in perspective.

  3. Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

  4. Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byberg, Alicia; Russell, J. Kevin; Kaukler, Donna; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will report risk issues associated with designing, manufacturing, and testing the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD). The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) will be developed as a lightweight primary mirror system that can be produced at a low cost and with a short manufacturing schedule. This technology will add to the knowledge base for selection for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), Space Based Laser (SBL), Research Laboratory mission (AFRL), and other government agency programs.

  5. The Physical Mirror Equivalence for the Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatori, Sergio Luigi; Compagnoni, Marco; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the total space of the canonical bundle of and we use a proposal by Hosono, together with results of Seidel and Auroux-Katzarkov-Orlov, to deduce the physical mirror equivalence between and the derived Fukaya category of its mirror which assigns the expected central charge to BPS states. By construction, our equivalence is compatible with the mirror map relating the complex and the Kähler moduli spaces and with the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants.

  6. Deformable Mirrors Correct Optical Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with revolutionary imaging technologies consisting primarily of adaptive optics, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is slated to have imaging power 100 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, Boston Micromachines Corporation, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for space-based adaptive optical technology. The work resulted in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) called the Kilo-DM. The company now offers a full line of MEMS DMs, which are being used in observatories across the world, in laser communication, and microscopy.

  7. Tandem mirror technology demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a facility for generating engineering data on the nuclear technologies needed to build an engineering test reactor (ETR). The facility, based on a tandem mirror operating in the Kelley mode, could be used to produce a high neutron flux (1.4 MW/M/sup 2/) on an 8-m/sup 2/ test area for testing fusion blankets. Runs of more than 100 h, with an average availability of 30%, would produce a fluence of 5 mW/yr/m/sup 2/ and give the necessary experience for successful operation of an ETR.

  8. Effect of Gemini primary mirror position relative to the lateral support on mirror figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.; Stepp, Larry M.

    2000-07-01

    The Gemini primary mirror support incorporates a system of hydraulic whiffletrees to carry the mirror weight and define its position. The six orthogonal kinematic degrees of freedom are controlled by six hydraulic zones--three axial, two lateral, plus a transverse lateral. By varying the fluid volumes in these hydraulic zones the mirror position can be adjusted in all six degrees of freedom. Because of the finite lengths of the linkages that connect the mirror to the lateral supports, any shift in mirror position changes the amplitudes and directions of the applied forces with a resulting effect on the static balance and mirror figure. These effects have been calculated for mirror translations and rotations in all six degrees of freedom, resulting in predictions of the changes in the axial and lateral support forces and in the mirror figure. This paper describes the modeling as well as experimental verification of the results.

  9. Zero Density of Open Paths in the Lorentz Mirror Model for Arbitrary Mirror Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Atahualpa S.; Sanders, David P.

    2014-09-01

    We show, incorporating results obtained from numerical simulations, that in the Lorentz mirror model, the density of open paths in any finite box tends to 0 as the box size tends to infinity, for any mirror probability.

  10. Simulation of segmented mirror telescope and calculating asphericity of segmented mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhou; Qiu, Qi; Zhang, Yudong

    2014-09-01

    To determine parameters of the Segmented Mirror Telescope is quite essential for the design, manufacture, testing and construct of the telescope system, especially the F-number parameters and curvature radius of the primary mirror, as well as the asphericity. A model of Sub-segmented mirror was established in this paper, based on which, using the feature points combined with lagrange condition extreme, the asphericity calculation of the asymmetrical hexagon off-axis parabolic mirror in different central points is solved. The 8m and 11m segmented mirror telescope were taken for example in the calculation, and got the relation curve between F-number of primary mirror and Asphericity of segmented mirror, respectively. This work is useful for the design, manufacturing and testing of the large diameter Segmented Mirror Telescope.

  11. Thermomechanical design, hybrid fabrication, and testing of a MOEMS deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinlein, Claudia; Appelfelder, Michael; Gebhardt, Sylvia; Beckert, Erik; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the thermomechanical modeling and characterization of a micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems deformable mirror (DM). This unimorph DM offers a low-temperature cofired ceramic substrate with screen-printed piezoceramic actuators on its rear surface and a machined copper layer on its front surface. We present the DM setup, thermomechanical modeling, and hybrid fabrication. The setup of the DM is transferred into a thermomechanical model in ANSYS Multiphysics. The thermomechanical modeling of the DM evaluates and optimizes the mount material and the copper-layer thickness for the loading cases: homogeneous thermal loading and laser-loading of the mirror. Subsequently, the developed and theoretically optimized DM setup is experimentally validated. The homogeneous loading of the optimized design results in a membrane deformation with a rate of -0.2 μm K-1, whereas the laser loading causes an opposed change with a rate of -0.2 μm W-1. Therefore, the proposed mirror design is suitable to precompensate laser-generated mirror deformations by homogeneous thermal loading (heating). We experimentally show that a 35-K preheating of the mirror assembly compensates for an absorbed laser power of 1.25 W. Therefore, the novel compensation regime "compound loading" for the suppression of laser-induced deformations is developed and proven.

  12. Thermomechanical design of the grazing incidence metal mirror of the prometheus-L IFE reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.; El-Azab, A.

    1994-12-31

    In Laser IFE reactors the reflectivity and absorptivity of the grazing metal mirror depend on the neutron dose received by the mirror surface. In addition to these irradiation effects, the surface deformation due to neutron irradiation-induced swelling and due to thermal loads change the focusing quality of the mirror. In the present work, a thorough review of the irradiation effects on the changes in mirror surface quality is presented. A mirror design methodology, which considers the deformation due to the loads associated with laser beam and the deformation due to neutron-irradiation induced swelling is discussed. The basic philosophy considered in the design is to separate the functions and choose the best possible materials to perform these specific functions. An aluminum thin layer, for the purpose of reflection of the laser beam, is deposited on a SiC substrate. The SiC substrate provides a rigid bulk, through which coolant is provided to remove the heat absorbed during laser pulses, and avoids the need for a thicker aluminum layer that undergoes more swelling than SiC. A concrete frame is designed to provide the ultimate resistance against thermally-induced deformation. Other features of the design will also be presented.

  13. Membrane Mirrors With Bimorph Shape Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2003-01-01

    Deformable mirrors of a proposed type would be equipped with relatively-large-stroke microscopic piezoelectric actuators that would be used to maintain their reflective surfaces in precise shapes. These mirrors would be members of the class of MEMS-DM (for microelectromechanical system deformable mirror) devices, which offer potential for a precise optical control in adaptive-optics applications in such diverse fields as astronomy and vision science. The proposed mirror would be fabricated, in part, by use of a membrane-transfer technique. The actuator design would contain bimorph-type piezoelectric actuators.

  14. Unimorph piezoelectric deformable mirrors for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, P.; Verpoort, S.; Wittrock, U.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed, manufactured and tested a unimorph deformable mirror for space applications based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror was designed for the correction of low-order Zernike modes with a stroke of several tens of micrometers over a clear aperture of 50 mm. It was successfully tested in thermal vacuum, underwent lifetime tests, and was exposed to random vibrations, sinusoidal vibrations, and to ionizing radiation. We report on design considerations, manufacturing of the mirror, and present the test results. Furthermore, we discuss critical design parameters, and how our mirror could be adapted to serve recently proposed space telescopes such as HDST and TALC.

  15. Mounting with compliant cylinders for deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Reinlein, Claudia; Goy, Matthias; Lange, Nicolas; Appelfelder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A method is presented to mount large aperture unimorph deformable mirrors by compliant cylinders (CC). The CCs are manufactured from a soft silicone, and shear testing is performed in order to evaluate the Young's modulus. A scale mirror model is assembled to evaluate mount-induced change of piezoelectric deformation, and its applicability for tightly focusing mirrors. Experiments do not show any decrease of piezoelectric stroke. Further it is shown that the changes of surface fidelity by the attachment of the deformable mirror to its mount are neglectable.

  16. First mirrors for diagnostic systems of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Costley, A.; Donné, A. J. H.; SWG on First Mirrors of the ITPA Topical Group on Diagnostics

    2007-08-01

    The majority of optical diagnostics presently foreseen for ITER will implement in-vessel metallic mirrors as plasma-viewing components. Mirrors are used for the observation of the plasma radiation in a very wide wavelength range: from about 1 nm up to a few mm. In the hostile ITER environment, mirrors are subject to erosion, deposition, particle implantation and other adverse effects which will change their optical properties, affecting the entire performance of the respective diagnostic systems. The Specialists Working Group (SWG) on first mirrors was established under the wings of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics to coordinate and guide the investigations on diagnostic mirrors towards the development of optimal, robust and durable solutions for ITER diagnostic systems. The results of tests of various ITER-candidate mirror materials, performed in Tore-Supra, TEXTOR, DIII-D, TCV, T-10, TRIAM-1M and LHD under various plasma conditions, as well as an overview of laboratory investigations of mirror performance and mirror cleaning techniques are presented in the paper. The current tasks in the R&D of diagnostic mirrors will be addressed.

  17. Composite technology for lightweight optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Bernd; Helwig, Gunter; Scheulen, Dietmar

    1990-07-01

    Reflectors for antennas using fiber-composite technology today represent the state of the art, and mirrors for radio telescopes occasionally are already made using this technology. For even shorter wavelengths, including the visible light, glass mirrors have been used almost exclusively and, rarely, metal mirrors (for example made of beryllium). In general a surface contour accuracy of about 1/20 wavelength is required. Years of development work based on experience gained in aircraft construction and space technology made it possible to improve fiber-composite technology to such an extent that a substitute for heavy glass has become feasible, opening up new applications for lighter and/or larger mirrors.

  18. Are mirror-sensations really synesthetic?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-sensations, including touch and pain, are often referred to as synesthetic. The term can be challenged, however, because mirror-sensations lack the incongruency and saliency of synesthesia, may involve problems of perspective rather than entangled sensations, and may be easier to generate with suggestion. If mirror-sensations are truly sensations then they might be expected to act like the true sensation and mirror-pain, for example, might inhibit pain at a distance or itch in the same location. These predictions are highly testable. PMID:25997924

  19. Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Tongtong; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Huiyun; O'Hara, John F; Abele, Ethan; Taylor, Antoinette J; Chen, Hou-Tong; Azad, Abul K

    2015-01-01

    We design a dual-band absorber formed by combining two cross-shaped metallic resonators of different sizes within a super-unit-cell arranged in mirror symmetry. Simulations indicate that absorption efficiencies greater than 99% can be achieved at two different frequencies under normal incidence. We employ a design scheme with graphene integration, which allows independent tuning of individual absorption frequencies by electrostatically changing the Fermi energy of the graphene layer. High absorbance is maintained over a wide incident angle range up to 50 degrees for both TE and TM polarizations. It thus enables a promising way to design electrically tunable absorbers, which may contribute toward the realization of frequency selective detectors for sensing applications.

  20. Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Tongtong; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Huiyun; O’Hara, John F.; Abele, Ethan; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Azad, Abul K.

    2015-12-22

    We design a dual-band absorber formed by combining two cross-shaped metallic resonators of different sizes within a super-unit-cell arranged in mirror symmetry. Simulations indicate that absorption efficiencies greater than 99% can be achieved at two different frequencies under normal incidence. We also employ a design scheme with graphene integration, which allows independent tuning of individual absorption frequencies by electrostatically changing the Fermi energy of the graphene layer. High absorbance is maintained over a wide incident angle range up to 50 degrees for both TE and TM polarizations. Thus, it enables a promising way to design electrically tunable absorbers, which maymore » contribute toward the realization of frequency selective detectors for sensing applications.« less