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Sample records for absorbing carbon lac

  1. Absorption Ångström exponents of aerosols and light absorbing carbon (LAC) obtained from in situ data in Covilhã, central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mogo, S; Cachorro, V E; de Frutos, A; Rodrigues, A

    2012-12-01

    A field campaign was conducted from October 2009 to July 2010 at Covilhã, a small town located in the region of Beira Interior (Portugal) in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. The ambient light-absorption coefficient, σ(a) (522 nm), obtained from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), presented a daily mean value of 12.1 Mm⁻¹ (StD = 7.3 Mm⁻¹). The wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption is investigated through the Ångström parameter, α(a). The α(a) values for the pair of wavelengths 470-660 nm ranged from 0.86 to 1.47 during the period of measurements. The PSAP data were used to infer the mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC) and the daily mean varied from 0.1 to 6.8 μg m⁻³. A detailed study of special events with different aerosol characteristics is carried out and, to support data interpretation, air masses trajectory analysis is performed.

  2. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  3. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  4. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  14. Preparation of perlite-based carbon dioxide absorbent.

    PubMed

    He, H; Wu, L; Zhu, J; Yu, B

    1994-02-01

    A new highly efficient carbon dioxide absorbent consisting of sodium hydroxide, expanded perlite and acid-base indicator was prepared. The absorption efficiency, absorption capacity, flow resistance and color indication for the absorbent were tested and compared with some commercial products. The absorbent can reduce the carbon dioxide content in gases to 3.3 ppb (v/v) and absorbs not less than 35% of its weight of carbon dioxide. Besides its large capacity and sharp color indication, the absorbent has an outstanding advantage of small flow resistance in comparison with other commercial carbon dioxide absorbents. Applications in gas analysis and purification were also investigated.

  15. Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels. PMID:23982181

  16. Porous carbon nanoparticle networks with tunable absorbability.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels. PMID:23982181

  17. Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2013-08-01

    Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels.

  18. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass concentrations (MLAC) were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean and standard deviation MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36 (rural) to 5.39 μg m-3 (street canyon) and from 0.50 to 3.60 μg m-3, respectively. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at

  19. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean (± standard deviation) MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36±0.50 at the rural site to 5.39±3.60 μg m-3 at the street canyon site. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background

  20. Tuning Organic Carbon Dioxide Absorbents for Carbonation and Decarbonation

    PubMed Central

    Rajamanickam, Ramachandran; Kim, Hyungsoo; Park, Ji-Woong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide with a mixture of a superbase and alcohol affords a superbase alkylcarbonate salt via a process that can be reversed at elevated temperatures. To utilize the unique chemistry of superbases for carbon capture technology, it is essential to facilitate carbonation and decarbonation at desired temperatures in an easily controllable manner. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal stabilities of the alkylcarbonate salts of superbases in organic solutions can be tuned by adjusting the compositions of hydroxylic solvent and polar aprotic solvent mixtures, thereby enabling the best possible performances to be obtained from the various carbon dioxide capture agents based on these materials. The findings provides valuable insights into the design and optimization of organic carbon dioxide absorbents. PMID:26033537

  1. [Study on absorbing volatile oil with mesoporous carbon].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Yang Nan

    2014-11-01

    Clove oil and turmeric oil were absorbed by mesoporous carbon. The absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorietry (DSC). The effects of mesoporous carbon on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. They reached high adsorption rate when the absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was 1:1. When volatile oil was absorbed, dissolution rate of active components had a little improvement and their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was absorbed by the loss rate decreasing more than 50%. Absorbing herbal volatile oil with mesoporous carbon deserves further studying. PMID:25850263

  2. Inferring Absorbing Organic Carbon Content from AERONET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called brown carbon) and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated globally the amount of light absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South-America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 magnesium per square meters during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 magnesium per square meters during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  3. Application of carbon nanomaterial as a microwave absorber.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Pradhan, Debabrata; Zacharia, Renju; Puri, Vijaya

    2005-12-01

    Microwave absorption (8 GHz to 12 GHz) studies have been made with carbon nanomaterials for the first time. Carbon nanomaterials are synthesized by the pyrolysis of camphor. It is observed that film of carbon prepared under certain synthetic condition, can absorb microwave of either some specific wavelengths e.g., 9.5 GHz and 11.5 GHz or full range from 8-12 GHz to the extent of 20 dB depending upon their preparation condition. Carbon nanobeads seems to absorb the microwave in the range of 8-12 GHz.

  4. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  5. Microwave-absorbing properties of Co-filled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Haiyan; Zhu Hong Guo Hongfan; Yu Liufang

    2008-10-02

    Co-filled carbon nanotubes composites were synthesized via using a simple and efficient wet chemistry solution method. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Microwave-absorbing properties were investigated by measuring complex permittivity and complex permeability of the absorber in a frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The reflection loss (R.L.), matching frequency (f{sub m}) and matching thickness (d{sub m}) were calculated using the theory of the absorbing wall. The electromagnetic properties and microwave-absorbing characteristics effects of the modified carbon nanotubes by the encapsulation of metal Co were investigated. A matching thickness is found corresponding to a matching frequency. The maximum reflection loss is about -39.32 dB and the bandwidth corresponding to the reflection loss below -10 dB is 3.47 GHz. With increasing thickness, the maximum reflection loss shifts to lower frequency.

  6. Multiple Types of Light Absorbing Carbon Aerosol in East Asian Outflow: Variatons in Morphology and Internal Structure as Characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Alexander, D. T.; Crozier, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The importance of light absorbing carbon (LAC) aerosols to climate forcing is well established, but such aerosols are typically treated in climate models as uniform in optical properties. When examined by electron microscopy, however, LAC aerosols from regions with significant anthropogenic pollution show a wide variety of morphologies and internal structures. Electron energy loss spectral analysis to date on brown carbon and black carbon, albeit limited, suggests a linkage between internal structure and fundamental optical properties. Some of these LAC varieties can be easily defined as distinct “types” and other varieties show a continuum of variation within which general “types” can be defined. The data discussed here are from a research flight of the NCAR C-130 aircraft flown in April 2001 above the Yellow Sea during the ACE-Asia project. Perhaps the most common LAC type is “soot”, branched and chainlike aggregates of carbonaceous spherules. The spherule size in East Asian soot particles is 20-60 nm in many cases, but soot with large spherules (100 nm or larger) are also present. Spherule size is a “source effect” and not something altered during transport and aging. Some laboratory studies have suggested that as soot ages, the aggregates become more compact, but in these aerosols both compact and open soot particles coexist and compact soot is known to be the initial LAC product under some combustion conditions. In cases where the spherule size of the compact soot is different from that of open-structured soot, clearly the compact soot is not an aged form of the latter. Variability of ordering of the graphene sheets that make up the spherules is also a source effect. The more ordered soot particles consist of graphene sheets that curve concentrically, onion-like, around the spherule center, probably indicative of a high degree of carbonization that accompanies high temperature combustion. There is a range of ordering from highly ordered down to

  7. LacR is a repressor of lacABCD and LacT is an activator of lacTFEG, constituting the lac gene cluster in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2014-09-01

    Comparison of the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39 grown in the presence of either lactose or galactose with that of the strain grown in the presence of glucose revealed the elevated expression of various genes and operons, including the lac gene cluster, which is organized into two operons, i.e., lac operon I (lacABCD) and lac operon II (lacTFEG). Deletion of the DeoR family transcriptional regulator lacR that is present downstream of the lac gene cluster revealed elevated expression of lac operon I even in the absence of lactose. This suggests a function of LacR as a transcriptional repressor of lac operon I, which encodes enzymes involved in the phosphorylated tagatose pathway in the absence of lactose or galactose. Deletion of lacR did not affect the expression of lac operon II, which encodes a lactose-specific phosphotransferase. This finding was further confirmed by β-galactosidase assays with PlacA-lacZ and PlacT-lacZ in the presence of either lactose or glucose as the sole carbon source in the medium. This suggests the involvement of another transcriptional regulator in the regulation of lac operon II, which is the BglG-family transcriptional antiterminator LacT. We demonstrate the role of LacT as a transcriptional activator of lac operon II in the presence of lactose and CcpA-independent regulation of the lac gene cluster in S. pneumoniae. PMID:24951784

  8. LacR Is a Repressor of lacABCD and LacT Is an Activator of lacTFEG, Constituting the lac Gene Cluster in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39 grown in the presence of either lactose or galactose with that of the strain grown in the presence of glucose revealed the elevated expression of various genes and operons, including the lac gene cluster, which is organized into two operons, i.e., lac operon I (lacABCD) and lac operon II (lacTFEG). Deletion of the DeoR family transcriptional regulator lacR that is present downstream of the lac gene cluster revealed elevated expression of lac operon I even in the absence of lactose. This suggests a function of LacR as a transcriptional repressor of lac operon I, which encodes enzymes involved in the phosphorylated tagatose pathway in the absence of lactose or galactose. Deletion of lacR did not affect the expression of lac operon II, which encodes a lactose-specific phosphotransferase. This finding was further confirmed by β-galactosidase assays with PlacA-lacZ and PlacT-lacZ in the presence of either lactose or glucose as the sole carbon source in the medium. This suggests the involvement of another transcriptional regulator in the regulation of lac operon II, which is the BglG-family transcriptional antiterminator LacT. We demonstrate the role of LacT as a transcriptional activator of lac operon II in the presence of lactose and CcpA-independent regulation of the lac gene cluster in S. pneumoniae. PMID:24951784

  9. Hollow carbon spheres in microwaves: Bio inspired absorbing coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychanok, D.; Li, S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, A.; Gorokhov, G.; Kuzhir, P.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Pasc, A.; Ballweg, T.; Mandel, K.; Szczurek, A.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of a heterostructure based on a monolayer of hollow glassy carbon spheres packed in 2D was experimentally surveyed with respect to its response to microwaves, namely, the Ka-band (26-37 GHz) frequency range. Such an ordered monolayer of spheres mimics the well-known "moth-eye"-like coating structures, which are widely used for designing anti-reflective surfaces, and was modelled with the long-wave approximation. Based on the experimental and modelling results, we demonstrate that carbon hollow spheres may be used for building an extremely lightweight, almost perfectly absorbing, coating for Ka-band applications.

  10. Electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of amorphous carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-07-10

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7-50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was -25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at -10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2-18 GHz.

  11. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties of Amorphous Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7–50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was −25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at −10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. PMID:25007783

  12. Black carbon and other absorbing impurities in northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibb, J. E.; Polashenski, C.; Courville, Z.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the SAGE Traverse in May 2013, described in companion presentations by Courville et al. and Polashenski et al., snow samples were collected at 3 cm resolution down to 21 cm in 26 pits between Summit and northwest Greenland. Concentrations of major ions and black carbon have been quantified in these samples. We will discuss spatial patterns in both the concentrations in near surface layers and the inventories (mass/unit area) over different water equivalent depth intervals of these impurities as indicators of provenance of the snow falling on different regions along the 4000 km traverse route. Surface albedo measurements made at each sampling location will also be compared to the burden and depth profiles of the major absorbing impurities, black carbon, and calcium (a tracer of dust). Preliminary assessment of the relationship between impurity concentrations and snow microphysical characteristics (describe more fully by Courville at al.) in individual pit strata will also be presented.

  13. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon bed... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, and carbon..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and...

  14. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon bed... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, and carbon..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and...

  15. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon bed... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, and carbon..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and...

  16. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon bed... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, and carbon..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and...

  17. Structures and electrical properties of single nanoparticle junctions assembled using LaC2-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezura, Manabu; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2016-07-01

    As the miniaturization of integrated circuits advances, electronics using single molecules and nanosize particles are being studied increasingly. Single nanoparticle junctions (SNPJs) consist of two electrodes sandwiching a single nanoparticle. Nanocarbons with nanospaces in their center, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanocapsules (CNCs), are expected to be elements of advanced SNPJs. In this study, SNPJs were assembled using lanthanum dicarbide (LaC2)-encapsulating CNCs and two gold (Au) electrodes by a nanotip operation inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The atomic configuration and electrical resistance of the SNPJs were investigated in situ. The results implied that the electrical resistance of the SNPJ depended on the interface structures of the contacts between the CNC and Au electrodes, i.e., the contact electrical resistance, and the greatest portion of the current through the SNPJ flowed along the outermost carbon layer of the CNC. Thus, the resistance of the SNPJs using the CNCs was demonstrated and the electrical conduction mechanism of one of the CNC was discussed in this study.

  18. Structures and electrical properties of single nanoparticle junctions assembled using LaC2-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Tezura, Manabu; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2016-01-01

    As the miniaturization of integrated circuits advances, electronics using single molecules and nanosize particles are being studied increasingly. Single nanoparticle junctions (SNPJs) consist of two electrodes sandwiching a single nanoparticle. Nanocarbons with nanospaces in their center, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanocapsules (CNCs), are expected to be elements of advanced SNPJs. In this study, SNPJs were assembled using lanthanum dicarbide (LaC2)-encapsulating CNCs and two gold (Au) electrodes by a nanotip operation inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The atomic configuration and electrical resistance of the SNPJs were investigated in situ. The results implied that the electrical resistance of the SNPJ depended on the interface structures of the contacts between the CNC and Au electrodes, i.e., the contact electrical resistance, and the greatest portion of the current through the SNPJ flowed along the outermost carbon layer of the CNC. Thus, the resistance of the SNPJs using the CNCs was demonstrated and the electrical conduction mechanism of one of the CNC was discussed in this study. PMID:27412856

  19. Structures and electrical properties of single nanoparticle junctions assembled using LaC2-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Tezura, Manabu; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2016-01-01

    As the miniaturization of integrated circuits advances, electronics using single molecules and nanosize particles are being studied increasingly. Single nanoparticle junctions (SNPJs) consist of two electrodes sandwiching a single nanoparticle. Nanocarbons with nanospaces in their center, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanocapsules (CNCs), are expected to be elements of advanced SNPJs. In this study, SNPJs were assembled using lanthanum dicarbide (LaC2)-encapsulating CNCs and two gold (Au) electrodes by a nanotip operation inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The atomic configuration and electrical resistance of the SNPJs were investigated in situ. The results implied that the electrical resistance of the SNPJ depended on the interface structures of the contacts between the CNC and Au electrodes, i.e., the contact electrical resistance, and the greatest portion of the current through the SNPJ flowed along the outermost carbon layer of the CNC. Thus, the resistance of the SNPJs using the CNCs was demonstrated and the electrical conduction mechanism of one of the CNC was discussed in this study. PMID:27412856

  20. Specific point mutations in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 cause a phenotype switch from Lac- to Lac+.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Hung-Wen; Lo, Ta-Chun; Lin, Thy-Hou

    2009-03-01

    Lactose metabolism is a changeable phenotype in strains of Lactobacillus casei. In this study, we found that L. casei ATCC 27139 was unable to utilize lactose. However, when exposed to lactose as the sole carbon source, spontaneous Lac(+) clones could be obtained. A gene cluster (lacTEGF-galKETRM) involved in the metabolism of lactose and galactose in L. casei ATCC 27139 (Lac(-)) and its Lac(+) revertant (designated strain R1) was sequenced and characterized. We found that only one nucleotide, located in the lacTEGF promoter (lacTp), of the two lac-gal gene clusters was different. The protein sequence identity between the lac-gal gene cluster and those reported previously for some L. casei (Lac(+)) strains was high; namely, 96-100 % identity was found and no premature stop codon was identified. A single point mutation located within the lacTp promoter region was also detected for each of the 41 other independently isolated Lac(+) revertants of L. casei ATCC 27139. The revertants could be divided into six classes based on the positions of the point mutations detected. Primer extension experiments conducted on transcription from lacTp revealed that the lacTp promoter of these six classes of Lac(+) revertants was functional, while that of L. casei ATCC 27139 was not. Northern blotting experiments further confirmed that the lacTEGF operon of strain R1 was induced by lactose but suppressed by glucose, whereas no blotting signal was ever detected for L. casei ATCC 27139. These results suggest that a single point mutation in the lacTp promoter was able to restore the transcription of a fully functional lacTEGF operon and cause a phenotype switch from Lac(-) to Lac(+) for L. casei ATCC 27139. PMID:19246746

  1. Synthesis, experimental studies, and analysis of a new calcium-based carbon dioxide absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen-shan Li; Ning-sheng Cai; Yu-yu Huang; Hai-jin Han

    2005-08-01

    A new kind of Ca-based regenerable CO{sub 2} absorbent, CaO/Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33}, was synthesized on the basis of the integration of CaO, as solid reactant, with a composite metal oxide Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33}, as a binder, for applying it to repeated calcination/carbonation cycles. The carbonation reaction can be applied in many industrial processes, and it is important for practical calcination/carbonation processes to have absorbents with high performance. The cyclic carbonation reactivity of the new absorbent was investigated by TGA (thermogravimetric analysis). The effects of the ratio of active material to binder in the new absorbent, the mechanics for preparation, and the reaction process of the high-reactivity CaO/Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} absorbent have been analyzed. The results obtained here indicate that the new absorbent, CaO/Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33}, has a significantly improved CO{sub 2} absorption capacity and cyclic reaction stability compared with other Ca-based CO{sub 2} absorbents. These results suggest that this new absorbent is promising in the application of calcination/carbonation reactions. 23 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Development of a prototype regeneration carbon dioxide absorber. [for use in EVA conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, P. S.; Baker, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber was developed to maintain the environmental quality of the portable life support system. The absorber works on the alkali metal carbonate-bicarbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The prototype sorber module was designed, fabricated, and tested at simulated extravehicular activity conditions to arrive at optimum design. The unit maintains sorber outlet concentration below 5 mm Hg. An optimization study was made with respect to heat transfer, temperature control, sorbent utilization, sorber life and regenerability, and final size of the module. Important parameters influencing the capacity of the final absorber unit were identified and recommendations for improvement were made.

  3. Performance of a new carbon dioxide absorbent, Yabashi lime® as compared to conventional carbon dioxide absorbent during sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kei; Atiba, Ayman; Nagase, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Shizuko; Miwa, Takashi; Katsumata, Teruya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we compare a new carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbent, Yabashi lime(®) with a conventional CO2 absorbent, Sodasorb(®) as a control CO2 absorbent for Compound A (CA) and Carbon monoxide (CO) productions. Four dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane. Each dog was anesthetized with four preparations, Yabashi lime(®) with high or low-flow rate of oxygen and control CO2 absorbent with high or low-flow rate. CA and CO concentrations in the anesthetic circuit, canister temperature and carbooxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration in the blood were measured. Yabashi lime(®) did not produce CA. Control CO2 absorbent generated CA, and its concentration was significantly higher in low-flow rate than a high-flow rate. CO was generated only in low-flow rate groups, but there was no significance between Yabashi lime(®) groups and control CO2 absorbent groups. However, the CO concentration in the circuit could not be detected (≤5ppm), and no change was found in COHb level. Canister temperature was significantly higher in low-flow rate groups than high-flow rate groups. Furthermore, in low-flow rate groups, the lower layer of canister temperature in control CO2 absorbent group was significantly higher than Yabashi lime(®) group. CA and CO productions are thought to be related to the composition of CO2 absorbent, flow rate and canister temperature. Though CO concentration is equal, it might be safer to use Yabashi lime(®) with sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs than conventional CO2 absorbent at the point of CA production.

  4. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and § 63.996. (1) Where an absorber is used, a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a...) temperature monitoring device capable of providing a continuous record shall be used. (3) Where a carbon... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon...

  5. Influence of carbon black and indium tin oxide absorber particles on laser transmission welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aden, Mirko; Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    For laser transmission welding of polypropylene carbon black and indium tin oxide (ITO) are used as absorber particles. Additionally, the colorant titanium dioxide is mixed to the absorbing part, while the transparent part is kept in natural state. The absorption coefficients of ITO and carbon black particles are obtained, as well as the scattering properties of polypropylene loaded with titanium dioxide (TiO2). At similar concentrations the absorption coefficient of ITO is an order of magnitude smaller than that of carbon black. Simulations of radiation propagation show that the penetration depth of laser light is smaller for carbon black. Therefore, the density of the released heat is higher. Adding TiO2 changes the distribution of heat in case of ITO, whereas for carbon black the effect is negligible. Thermal simulations reveal the influence of the two absorbers and TiO2 on the heat affected zone. The results of the thermal simulations are compared to tensile test results.

  6. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  7. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  8. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber for portable life support systems. [for astronaut EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a prototype carbon dioxide absorber using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is described. Absorbers are constructed of thin, porous sheets of supported K2CO3 that are spirally wound to form a cylindrical reactor. Axial gas passages are formed between the porous sheets by corrugated screen material. Carbon dioxide and water in an enclosed life support system atmosphere react with potassium carbonate to form potassium bicarbonate. The potassium carbonate is regenerated by heating the potassium bicarbonate to 150 C at ambient pressure. The extravehicular mission design conditions are for one man for 8 h. Results are shown for a subunit test module investigating the effects of heat release, length-to-diameter ratio, and active cooling upon performance. The most important effect upon carbon dioxide removal is the temperature of the potassium carbonate.

  9. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Robert James; Lewis, Larry Neil; O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Kniajanski, Sergei; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Lee, Julia Lam; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Absorbers: An Engaging Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticich, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and direct method for measuring the absorption of carbon dioxide by two different substances is described. Lithium hydroxide has been used for decades to remove the gas from enclosed living spaces, such as spacecraft and submarines. The ratio of the mass of carbon dioxide absorbed to the mass of lithium hydroxide used obtained from this…

  11. Polymer-Free Carbon Nanotubes Saturable Absorbers for Nanosecond Pulse Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasedatelev, A. V.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Reynaud, O.; Gladush, Yu G.; Kopylova, D. S.; Komochkina, E. A.; Kauppinen, E. I.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    Hereby we present the results of investigations of nonlinear optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-film saturable absorbers without binding polymers. Developed CNT-based polymer-free saturable absorbers exhibit high third-order nonlinear susceptibility: esu, low absorption saturation intensity: Is∼30 mW/cm2 , and high photostability. Using CNT-based polymer-free saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching mode of Nd:YAG laser, 25 ns laser pulses have been obtained.

  12. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, carbon... Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, carbon... Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, carbon... Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices. (a)...

  15. Design parameters for carbon nanobottles to absorb and store methane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard K F; Hill, James M

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the internal mechanics for methane storage in a nanobottle, which is assumed to comprise a metallofullerene located inside a carbon nanobottle, which is constructed from a half-fullerene as the base, and two nanotubes which are joined by a nanocone. The interaction potential energy for the metallofullerene is obtained from the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approximation, which assumes that a discrete atomic structure can be replaced by an average atomic surface density. This potential energy shows that the metallofullerene has two minimum energy positions, which are located close to the neck of the bottle and at the base of the nanobottle, and therefore it may be used as a bottle-stopper to open or to close the nanobottle. At the neck of the bottle, the encapsulated metallofullerene closes the nanobottle, and by applying an external electrical force, the metallofullerene can overcome the energy barrier of the nanotube, and pass from the neck of the nanobottle to the base so that the nanobottle is open. For methane storage, the metallofullerene serves the dual purposes of opening and closing the nanobottle, as well as an attractor for the methane gas. The analytical formulation gives rise to a rapid computational capacity, and enables the direct determination of the optimal dimensions necessary to ensure the correct working function of the nanobottle, and specific ranges for the critical parameters are formulated. PMID:22103096

  16. Thermally Resilient, Broadband Optical Absorber from UV to IR Derived from Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Optical absorber coatings have been developed from carbon-based paints, metal blacks, or glassy carbon. However, such materials are not truly black and have poor absorption characteristics at longer wavelengths. The blackness of such coatings is important to increase the accuracy of calibration targets used in radiometric imaging spectrometers since blackbody cavities are prohibitively large in size. Such coatings are also useful potentially for thermal detectors, where a broadband absorber is desired. Au-black has been a commonly used broadband optical absorber, but it is very fragile and can easily be damaged by heat and mechanical vibration. An optically efficient, thermally rugged absorber could also be beneficial for thermal solar cell applications for energy harnessing, particularly in the 350-2,500 nm spectral window. It has been demonstrated that arrays of vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), specifically multi-walled-carbon- nanotubes (MWCNTs), are an exceptional optical absorber over a broad range of wavelengths well into the infrared (IR). The reflectance of such arrays is 100x lower compared to conventional black materials, such as Au black in the spectral window of 350-2,500 nm. Total hemispherical measurements revealed a reflectance of approximately equal to 1.7% at lambda approximately equal to 1 micrometer, and at longer wavelengths into the infrared (IR), the specular reflectance was approximately equal to 2.4% at lambda approximately equal to 7 micrometers. The previously synthesized CNTs for optical absorber applications were formed using water-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which yields CNT lengths in excess of 100's of microns. Vertical alignment, deemed to be a critical feature in enabling the high optical absorption from CNT arrays, occurs primarily via the crowding effect with thermal CVD synthesized CNTs, which is generally not effective in aligning CNTs with lengths less than 10 m. Here it has been shown that the

  17. OSIRIS Detections of a Tropospheric Aerosol that Absorbs at Wavelengths Near 350 nm - Black Carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenstein, D. A.; Roth, C.; Bourassa, A. E.; Lloyd, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian built OSIRIS instrument has been in operation onboard the Swedish spacecraft Odin since the autumn of 2001. During this 13 year period OSIRIS has recorded millions of spectra of the limb-scattered radiance in the wavelength range from 280 nm to 810 nm with approximately 1 nm spectral resolution. These measurements that scan tangents altitudes from 10 km to 65 km have primarily been used to retrieve stratospheric composition including vertical profiles of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphate aerosol and bromine monoxide. The ozone retrieval is done is such a way that it uses the vertical radiance profile at 350 nm as a non-ozone absorbing reference measurement and it is these measurements that have serendipitously indicated the presence of an absorbing aerosol at tropospheric altitudes. At this time there is no indication of the exact composition of this absorber but it has characteristics that are curiously like those of black carbon. This poster will outline: the technique used to detect the black carbon from OSIRIS measurements; the wavelength dependence of a pseudo absorber used in the SASKTARN radiative transfer model to accurately simulate the OSIRIS measurements; and the geographical distribution of the detections of this pseudo absorber.

  18. [Identification of different lac with infrared spectrum].

    PubMed

    Dong, Qin; Qiu, Jian; He, Run-xi; Zhang, Jian-yun

    2004-05-01

    Fourier infrared spectrum was used to differentiate raw lac, bleached las and lac mixed with resin. The results indicate that the infrared spectra of raw lac and lac mixed with resin are similar, so the authors can differentiate them by the following items: (1) the position and the shape of absorbing peak between 3500 and 2500 cm(-1), (2) the difference of the vibration peak at 1700 cm(-1) for C=O, (3) characteristic peak between 1200 and 1400 cm(-1), (4) the number of peaks and the change in the position of peak. But with bleached and graft copolymerization lacs the properties have been changed by chemical processing. Graft copolymerization of lac is made from methyl-acrylic acid-methyl fat by using potassium permanganate as stimulant. Their main differences are: the change of vibration peak of 1700 cm(-1) for C=O, a sharp small peak at 1558 cm(-1), a peak with middle strength at 681 cm(-1), and spliting to two small peaks at 1151 cm(-1). The experiment shows that the method of infrared spectrum is more scientific and effective than traditional method. PMID:15769053

  19. Preparation and microwave absorbing properties of carbon/cobalt ferromagnetic composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Wangchang; Qiao, Xiaojing; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Shuman; Ren, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    Carbon/cobalt ferromagnetic light composites with high performance of microwave absorbing properties were prepared by hydrothermal method using starch and hollow cobalt ferrites. It was concluded that after carbonization the spinel structure ferrites changed to Co3Fe7 alloys and the temperature of graphitization was significantly decreased for the catalytic of CoFe2O4/Co3Fe7. The increase of carbon content, and exist of CoFe2O4/Co3Fe7 heightened the microwave absorbing properties. Electromagnetic parameters were tested with 40% of the titled materials and 60% of paraffin wax composites by using HP8722ES vector network analyzer. The reflection was also simulated through transmission line theory. The microwave absorbers exhibited a maximum reflection loss -43 dB and the electromagnetic wave absorption less than -10 dB was found to exceed 3.0 GHz between 11.6 GHz and 15 GHz for an absorber thickness of 2 mm. PMID:23646517

  20. Preparation and microwave absorbing properties of carbon/cobalt ferromagnetic composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Wangchang; Qiao, Xiaojing; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Shuman; Ren, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    Carbon/cobalt ferromagnetic light composites with high performance of microwave absorbing properties were prepared by hydrothermal method using starch and hollow cobalt ferrites. It was concluded that after carbonization the spinel structure ferrites changed to Co3Fe7 alloys and the temperature of graphitization was significantly decreased for the catalytic of CoFe2O4/Co3Fe7. The increase of carbon content, and exist of CoFe2O4/Co3Fe7 heightened the microwave absorbing properties. Electromagnetic parameters were tested with 40% of the titled materials and 60% of paraffin wax composites by using HP8722ES vector network analyzer. The reflection was also simulated through transmission line theory. The microwave absorbers exhibited a maximum reflection loss -43 dB and the electromagnetic wave absorption less than -10 dB was found to exceed 3.0 GHz between 11.6 GHz and 15 GHz for an absorber thickness of 2 mm.

  1. TECHNICAL NOTE: Design and development of electromagnetic absorbers with carbon fiber composites and matching dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neo, C. P.; Varadan, V. K.

    2001-10-01

    Radar absorbing materials are designed and developed with carbon fibers and suitable matching layers. Complex permittivities of carbon fiber composite are predicted on the basis that the modulus of permittivity obeys a logarithmic law of mixtures and the dielectric loss tangents are related through a linear law of mixtures. Linear regression analysis performed on the data points provides the constants which are used to predict the effective permittivities of carbon fiber composite at different frequencies. Using the free space measurement system, complex permittivities of the lossy dielectric at different frequencies are obtained. These complex permittivities are used to predict the reflectivity of a thin lossy dielectric layer on carbon fiber composite substrate. The predicted results agree quite well with the measured data. It is interesting to note that the thin lossy dielectric layer, about 0.03 mm thick, has helped to reduce the reflectivity of the 5.2 mm thick carbon fiber composite considerably.

  2. A covalent route for efficient surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon as high performance microwave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hu; Wang, Jiacheng; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2013-12-21

    A covalent route has been successfully utilized for the surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) CMK-3 by in situ polymerization and grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the absence of any solvent. The modified CMK-3 carbon particles have a high loading of 19 wt% poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), named PMMA-g-CMK-3, and also maintain their high surface area and mesoporous structure. The in situ polymerization technique endows a significantly enhanced electric conductivity (0.437 S m(-1)) of the resulting PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA composite, about two orders of magnitude higher than 1.34 × 10(-3) S m(-1) of PMMA/CMK-3 obtained by the solvent mixing method. A minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -27 dB and a broader absorption band (over 3 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained for the in situ polymerized PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band), implying its great potential as a microwave absorbing material. The maximum absorbance efficiency for the in situ polymerized sample increases remarkably compared to that (-10 dB) of CMK-3/PMMA prepared by the solvent mixing method. Changing the thickness of the absorber can efficiently adjust the frequency corresponding to the best microwave absorbance ability. The enhanced microwave absorption by the surface modified CMK-3 is ascribed to high dielectric loss. This in situ polymerization for the surface modification of mesoporous carbons opens up a new method and idea for developing light-weight and high-performance microwave absorbing materials. PMID:24170288

  3. A covalent route for efficient surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon as high performance microwave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hu; Wang, Jiacheng; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2013-12-21

    A covalent route has been successfully utilized for the surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) CMK-3 by in situ polymerization and grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the absence of any solvent. The modified CMK-3 carbon particles have a high loading of 19 wt% poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), named PMMA-g-CMK-3, and also maintain their high surface area and mesoporous structure. The in situ polymerization technique endows a significantly enhanced electric conductivity (0.437 S m(-1)) of the resulting PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA composite, about two orders of magnitude higher than 1.34 × 10(-3) S m(-1) of PMMA/CMK-3 obtained by the solvent mixing method. A minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -27 dB and a broader absorption band (over 3 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained for the in situ polymerized PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band), implying its great potential as a microwave absorbing material. The maximum absorbance efficiency for the in situ polymerized sample increases remarkably compared to that (-10 dB) of CMK-3/PMMA prepared by the solvent mixing method. Changing the thickness of the absorber can efficiently adjust the frequency corresponding to the best microwave absorbance ability. The enhanced microwave absorption by the surface modified CMK-3 is ascribed to high dielectric loss. This in situ polymerization for the surface modification of mesoporous carbons opens up a new method and idea for developing light-weight and high-performance microwave absorbing materials.

  4. Microwave absorbing properties of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites with various polyaniline contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, T. H.; Jau, Y. N.; Yu, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PANI/MWNT) composites were synthesized using in situ polymerization at different aniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube weight ratios (Ani/MWNT = 1/2, 1/1, 2/1 and 3/1) and introduced into an epoxy resin to act as a microwave absorber. The spectroscopic characterization of the process of formation of PANI/MWNT composites were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron spin resonance. The microwave absorbing properties were investigated by measuring complex permittivity, complex permeability and reflection loss in the 2-18 and 18-40 GHz microwave frequency range, using the free space method. The results showed that the addition of PANI was useful for achieving a large absorption over a wide frequency range, especially for higher frequency values.

  5. Nonlinear absorbance amplification using a diffuse reflectance cell: total organic carbon monitoring at 214 nm.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-Huan; Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2015-01-20

    We present an absorption spectrometric method using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cell as a diffuse reflector. The system was used for monitoring ultrapure water. All compounds absorb to some degree at low UV wavelengths, and the absorption at 214 nm from a zinc lamp source was monitored using a charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. The absorption was interpreted in terms of total organic carbon present. The cell acts as a nonlinear absorbance amplifier, improving both the limit of detection (LOD) and the dynamic range. Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) and glucose were used to evaluate the system and provided respective LODs of 46.5 ng/L and 4.5 mg/L as carbon. Although the physical path length was 25 cm, a maximum effective path length of 280 cm was observed at the lowest tested KHP concentrations. The system is intended for real-time monitoring of ultrapure water.

  6. Multiwavelength absorbance of filter deposits for determination of environmental tobacco smoke and black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, Phil A.; Rodes, Charles E.; Ensor, David S.

    A multiwavelength optical absorption technique has been developed for Teflon filters used for personal exposure sampling with sufficient sensitivity to allow apportionments of environmental tobacco smoke and soot (black) carbon to be made. Measurements on blank filters show that the filter material itself contributes relatively little to the total absorbance and filters from the same lot have similar characteristics; this makes retrospective analysis of filters quite feasible. Using an integrating sphere radiometer and multiple wavelengths to provide specificity, the determination of tobacco smoke and carbon with reasonable accuracy is possible on filters not characterized before exposure. This technique provides a low cost, non-destructive exposure assessment alternative to both standard thermo-gravimetric elemental carbon evaluations on quartz filters and cotinine analyses from urine or saliva samples. The method allows the same sample filter to be used for assessment of mass, carbon, and tobacco smoke without affecting the deposit.

  7. Performance of four carbon dioxide absorbents in experimental and clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Yamakage, M; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, M; Satoh, J-I; Namiki, A

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of four kinds of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents (Medisorb GE Healthcare, Amsorb Plus Armstrong Medical, YabashiLime Yabashi Industries, and Sodasorb LF Grace Performance Chemicals), we measured their dust production, acceptability of colour indicator, and CO(2) absorption capacity in in vitro experimental settings and the concentration of compound A in an inspired anaesthetic circuit during in vivo clinical practice. In vitro, the order of the dust amount was Sodasorb LF > Medisorb > Amsorb Plus = YabashiLime both before and after shaking. The order of the color acceptability was similar: Sodasorb LF > Amsorb Plus = Medisorb > YabashiLime both initially and 16 h after CO(2) exhaustion. During exposure to 200 ml.min(-1) CO(2) in vitro, the period until 1 kg of fresh soda lime allowed inspired CO(2) to increase to 0.7 kPa (as a mark of utilisation of the absorbent) was longer with Medisorb (1978 min) than with the other absorbents (1270-1375 min). In vivo, compound A (1.0% inspired sevoflurane) was detected only when using Medisorb. While Medisorb has the best ability to absorb CO(2), it alone produces compound A.

  8. Light absorbing organic aerosols (brown carbon) over the tropical Indian Ocean: impact of biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The first field measurements of light absorbing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), referred as brown carbon (BrC), have been made in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during the continental outflow to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (ARS). The absorption signal measured at 365 nm in aqueous extracts of aerosols shows a systematic linear increase with WSOC concentration, suggesting a significant contribution from BrC to the absorption properties of organic aerosols. The mass absorption coefficient (babs) of BrC shows an inverse hyperbolic relation with wavelength (from ˜300 to 700 nm), providing an estimate of the Angstrom exponent (αP, range: 3-19 Av: 9 ± 3). The mass absorption efficiency of brown carbon (σabs-BrC) in the MABL varies from 0.17 to 0.72 m2 g-1 (Av: 0.45 ± 0.14 m2 g-1). The αP and σabs-BrC over the BoB are quite similar to that studied from a sampling site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), suggesting the dominant impact of organic aerosols associated with the continental outflow. A comparison of the mass absorption efficiency of BrC and elemental carbon (EC) brings to focus the significant role of light absorbing organic aerosols (from biomass burning emissions) in atmospheric radiative forcing over oceanic regions located downwind of the pollution sources.

  9. [Reactivity of sevoflurane with carbon dioxide absorbents--comparison of soda lime and Baralyme].

    PubMed

    Miyano, K; Nakazawa, M; Tanifuji, Y; Kobayashi, K; Obata, T

    1991-03-01

    The reactivity of sevoflurane with carbon dioxide absorbents, soda lime and Baralyme which are commercially available carbon dioxide absorbents, was studied. A closed circuit system which was made only for this investigation was set up without rubber. Sevoflurane 5% was circulated for 17 hours. The circulated gas was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and degradation products were identified by a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) as fluoromethyl 2-methoxy-2, 2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) ethyl ether, fluoromethyl 2-methoxy-2-fluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) vinyl ether, and its isomer. These degradation products of sevoflurane from soda lime and Baralyme were the same substances. The rate of degradation by soda lime was 0.88% +/- 0.306, while that by Baralyme was 3.40% +/- 0.501. Baralyme decomposed sevoflurane about four times more than soda lime. There are two possible explanations for these results. One is the Baralyme contains more potassium hydroxide than soda lime. The other is that soda lime absorbs sevoflurane more because it contains more silica.

  10. A new class of single-component absorbents for reversible carbon dioxide capture under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Barzagli, Francesco; Lai, Sarah; Mani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Some inexpensive and commercially available secondary amines reversibly react with CO2 at room temperature and ambient pressure to yield carbonated species in the liquid phase in the absence of any additional solvent. These solvent-free absorbents have a high CO2 capture capacity (0.63-0.65 mol CO2 /mol amine) at 1.0 bar (=100 kPa), combined with low-temperature reversibility at ambient pressure. (13) C NMR spectroscopy analysis identified the carbonated species as the carbamate salts and unexpected carbamic acids. These absorbents were used for CO2 (15 and 40 % in air) capture in continuous cycles of absorption-desorption carried out in packed columns, yielding an absorption efficiency of up to 98.5 % at absorption temperatures of 40-45 °C and desorption temperatures of 70-85 °C at ambient pressure. The absence of any parasitic solvent that requires to be heated and stability towards moisture and heating could result in some of these solvent-free absorbents being a viable alternative to aqueous amines for CO2 chemical capture.

  11. Carbon nanotube-based tandem absorber with tunable spectral selectivity: transition from near-perfect blackbody absorber to solar selective absorber.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, N; Krupanidhi, S B; Barshilia, Harish C

    2014-04-23

    CVD grown CNT thin film with a thickness greater than 10 μm behaves like a near-perfect blackbody absorber (i.e., α/ε = 0.99/0.99). Whereas, for a thickness ≤ 0.4 µm, the CNT based tandem absorber acts as a spectrally selective coating (i.e., α/ε = 0.95/0.20). These selective coatings exhibit thermal stability up to 650 °C in vacuum, which can be used for solar thermal power generation. PMID:24474148

  12. Enhanced stability of nitrogen-sealed carbon nanotube saturable absorbers under high-intensity irradiation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Amos; Fuse, Kazuyuki; Yamashita, Shinji

    2013-02-25

    Due to their broadband saturable absorption and fast response, carbon nanotubes have proven to be an excellent material for the modelocking of fiber lasers and have become a promising device for the implementation of novel laser configurations. However, it is imperative to address the issue of their long-term reliability under intense optical pulses before they can be exploited in widespread commercial applications. In this work, we study how carbon nanotubes degrade due to oxidation when exposed to high-intensity continuous-wave light and we demonstrate that by sealing the carbon nanotubes in a nitrogen gas, the damage threshold can be increased by over one order of magnitude. We then monitor over 24 hours the performance of the carbon nanotube saturable absorbers as the passive modelocking device of an erbium-doped fiber laser with intracavity powers ranging from 5 mW to 316 mW. We observe that when the carbon nanotubes are sealed in nitrogen environment, oxidation can be efficiently prevented and the laser can operate without any deterioration at intracavity powers higher than 300 mW. However, in the case where carbon nanotubes are unprotected (i.e. those directly exposed to the air in the environment), the nanotubes start to deteriorate at intracavity powers lower than 50 mW.

  13. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  14. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  15. Ligament and tendon repair with an absorbable polymer-coated carbon fiber stent.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H; Weiss, A B; Parsons, J R

    1986-01-01

    Ribbon-like composite structures of filamentous carbon fiber and absorbable polymers have been used in the repair and replacement of both tendons and ligaments. The composite acts as a scaffold upon which new collagenous tissue can grow and has proved successful in a variety of animal models. The results of the first three years of human clinical trials have revealed ingrowth potential similar to that seen in the animal studies. Most patients have shown significant improvement, with many demonstrating good to excellent stability and function.

  16. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  17. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Alaraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  18. Multiwall carbon nanotube polyvinyl alcohol-based saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H; Ismail, M F; Hassan, S N M; Ahmad, F; Zulkifli, M Z; Harun, S W

    2014-10-20

    In this work, we demonstrated a compact Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser capable of generating high-energy pulses using a newly developed multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film based saturable absorber. Q-switched pulse operation is obtained by sandwiching the thin film between two fiber ferrules forming a saturable absorber. A saturable absorber with 1.25 wt. % of PVA concentration shows a consistency in generating pulsed laser with a good range of tunable repetition rate, shortest pulse width, and produces a high pulse energy and peak power. The pulse train generated has a maximum repetition rate of 29.9 kHz with a corresponding pulse width of 3.49 μs as a function of maximum pump power of 32.15 mW. The maximum average output power of the Q-switched fiber laser system is 1.49 mW, which translates to a pulse energy of 49.8 nJ. The proposed method of multiwall CNT/PVA thin film fabrication is low in cost and involves uncomplicated processes. PMID:25402790

  19. Absorption and scattering properties of carbon nanohorn-based nanofluids for direct sunlight absorbers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the scattering and spectrally resolved absorption properties of nanofluids consisting in aqueous and glycol suspensions of single-wall carbon nanohorns. The characteristics of these nanofluids were evaluated in view of their use as sunlight absorber fluids in a solar device. The observed nanoparticle-induced differences in optical properties appeared promising, leading to a considerably higher sunlight absorption with respect to the pure base fluids. Scattered light was found to be not more than about 5% with respect to the total attenuation of light. Both these effects, together with the possible chemical functionalization of carbon nanohorns, make this new kind of nanofluids very interesting for increasing the overall efficiency of the sunlight exploiting device. PACS 78.40.Ri, 78.35.+c, 78.67.Bf, 88.40.fh, 88.40.fr, 81.05.U. PMID:21711795

  20. Novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents in low-flow anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Go; Mitsui, Takanori; Kakinuma, Takayasu; Ogihara, Yukihiko; Matsumoto, Shohei; Isshiki, Atsushi; Yasuo, Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    During long-term low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia, dew formation and the generation of compound A are increased in the anesthesia circuit because of elevated soda lime temperature. The object of this study was to develop a novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents used for long durations of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia. Eleven female swine were divided into two groups comprising a "radiator" group (n = 5) that used a novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents and a "control" group (n = 6) that used a conventional canister. Anesthesia was maintained with N2O, O2, and sevoflurane, and low-flow anesthesia was performed with fresh gas flow at 0.6 L/min for 12 hr. In the "control" group, the soda lime temperature reached more than 40 degrees C and soda lime dried up with severe dew formation in the inspiratory valve. In the "radiator" group, the temperature of soda lime stayed at 30 degrees C, and the water content of soda lime was retained with no dew formation in the inspiratory valve. In addition, compound A concentration was reduced. In conclusion, radiation of soda lime reduced the amounts of condensation formed and the concentration of compound A in the anesthetic circuit, and allowed long term low-flow anesthesia without equipment malfunction.

  1. 40 CFR 65.153 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers, and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each regeneration cycle, and a carbon-bed temperature... regeneration cycle, and the temperature of the carbon-bed determined within 15 minutes of the completion of the... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers,...

  2. 40 CFR 65.153 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers, and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each regeneration cycle, and a carbon-bed temperature... regeneration cycle, and the temperature of the carbon-bed determined within 15 minutes of the completion of the... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers,...

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of light-absorbing carbon concentration in a residential area impacted by woodsmoke.

    PubMed

    Krecl, Patricia; Johansson, Christer; Ström, Johan

    2010-03-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is responsible for 33% of the total carbon mass emitted in Europe. With the new European targets to increase the use of renewable energy, there is a growing concern that the population exposure to woodsmoke will also increase. This study investigates observed and simulated light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations in a residential neighborhood (Lycksele, Sweden) where RWC is a major air pollution source during winter. The measurement analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, coefficient of divergence, linear regression, concentration roses, diurnal pattern, and weekend versus weekday concentration ratios. Hourly RWC and road traffic contributions to MLAC were simulated with a Gaussian dispersion model to assess whether the model was able to mimic the observations. Hourly mean and standard deviation concentrations measured at six sites ranged from 0.58 to 0.74 microg m(-3) and from 0.59 to 0.79 microg m(-3), respectively. The temporal and spatial variability decreased with increasing averaging time. Low-wind periods with relatively high MLAC concentrations correlated more strongly than high-wind periods with low concentrations. On average, the model overestimated the observations by 3- to 5-fold and explained less than 10% of the measured hourly variability at all sites. Large residual concentrations were associated with weak winds and relatively high MLAC loadings. The explanation of the observed variability increased to 31-45% when daily mean concentrations were compared. When the contribution from the boilers within the neighborhood was excluded from the simulations, the model overestimation decreased to 16-71%. When assessing the exposure to light-absorbing carbon particles using this type of model, the authors suggest using a longer averaging period (i.e., daily concentrations) in a larger area with an updated and very detailed emission inventory. PMID:20397565

  4. Spatiotemporal variability of light-absorbing carbon concentration in a residential area impacted by woodsmoke.

    PubMed

    Krecl, Patricia; Johansson, Christer; Ström, Johan

    2010-03-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is responsible for 33% of the total carbon mass emitted in Europe. With the new European targets to increase the use of renewable energy, there is a growing concern that the population exposure to woodsmoke will also increase. This study investigates observed and simulated light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations in a residential neighborhood (Lycksele, Sweden) where RWC is a major air pollution source during winter. The measurement analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, coefficient of divergence, linear regression, concentration roses, diurnal pattern, and weekend versus weekday concentration ratios. Hourly RWC and road traffic contributions to MLAC were simulated with a Gaussian dispersion model to assess whether the model was able to mimic the observations. Hourly mean and standard deviation concentrations measured at six sites ranged from 0.58 to 0.74 microg m(-3) and from 0.59 to 0.79 microg m(-3), respectively. The temporal and spatial variability decreased with increasing averaging time. Low-wind periods with relatively high MLAC concentrations correlated more strongly than high-wind periods with low concentrations. On average, the model overestimated the observations by 3- to 5-fold and explained less than 10% of the measured hourly variability at all sites. Large residual concentrations were associated with weak winds and relatively high MLAC loadings. The explanation of the observed variability increased to 31-45% when daily mean concentrations were compared. When the contribution from the boilers within the neighborhood was excluded from the simulations, the model overestimation decreased to 16-71%. When assessing the exposure to light-absorbing carbon particles using this type of model, the authors suggest using a longer averaging period (i.e., daily concentrations) in a larger area with an updated and very detailed emission inventory.

  5. The lac repressor.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mitchell

    2005-06-01

    Few proteins have had such a strong impact on a field as the lac repressor has had in Molecular Biology. Over 40 years ago, Jacob and Monod [Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins, J. Mol. Biol. 3 (1961) 318] proposed a model for gene regulation, which survives essentially unchanged in contemporary textbooks. It is a cogent depiction of how a set of 'structural' genes may be coordinately transcribed in response to environmental conditions and regulates metabolic events in the cell. In bacteria, the genes required for lactose utilization are negatively regulated when a repressor molecule binds to an upstream cis activated operator. The repressor and its operator together form a genetic switch, the lac operon. The switch functions when inducer molecules alter the conformation of the repressor in a specific manner. In the presence of a particular metabolite, the repressor undergoes a conformational change that reduces its affinity for the operator. The structures of the lac repressor and its complexes with operator DNA and effector molecules have provided a physical platform for visualizing at the molecular level the different conformations the repressor and the molecular basis for the switch. The structures of lac repressor, bound to its operator and inducer, have also been invaluable for interpreting a plethora of biochemical and genetic data. PMID:15950160

  6. Value of forestation in absorbing carbon dioxide surrounding a coal fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-08-01

    The dispersion of carbon dioxide emitted from 1000 MW(e) coal fired power plant is investigated. Calculated ground level carbon dioxide concentrations as a function of distance from the power plant stack is validated by the results derived from sulfur dioxide dispersion measurements. Forestation is examined as a means for removal and control of atmospheric carbon dioxide at a distance of 5 to 10 km away from the power plant stack. An equilibrium and a dynamic approach are considered. For an average temperate zone forest growth rate (7.42 mg/dm/sup 2/ h), the overall reduction in forested land area required to remove the equivalent of all of the CO/sub 2/ from a 1000 MW(e) power plant would be less than 3.3% compared to removing the equivalent amount of CO/sub 2/ by planting forests remotely from the plant. If faster growing tropical plants or trees having up to 4 times the temperate plant growth rate were used, there would be a maximum savings of 15% in forested land area compared to a remote planting. This magnitude of reduction in cultivated forest area is insufficient to recommend planting forested areas adjacent to central power stations as a means of controlling CO/sub 2/ emission. Rather it is suggested to provide sufficient increased regional forested areas on a global scale for the purposes of absorbing the equivalent increase in CO/sub 2/ emission due to increased fossil fuel use.

  7. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, R.R.; Bammi, A.; Barger-Lux, M.J.; Heaney, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Whole milk, chocolate milk, yogurt, imitation milk (prepared from dairy and nondairy products), cheese, and calcium carbonate were labeled with /sup 45/Ca and administered as a series of test meals to 10 healthy postmenopausal women. Carrier Ca content of the test meals was held constant at 250 mg and subjects fasted before each meal. The absorbability of Ca from the six sources was compared by measuring fractional absorption by the double isotope method. The mean absorption values for all six sources were tightly clustered between 21 and 26% and none was significantly different from the others using one-way analysis of variance. We conclude that none of the sources was significantly superior or inferior to the others.

  8. 1 Mixing state and absorbing properties of black carbon during Arctic haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, Marco; Gysel, Martin; Eleftheriadis, Kosas; Laj, Paolo; Hans-Werner, Jacobi

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is periodically affected by the Arctic haze occurring in spring. One of its particulate components is the black carbon (BC), which is considered to be an important contributor to climate change in the Arctic region. Beside BC-cloud interaction and albedo reduction of snow, BC may influence Arctic climate interacting directly with the solar radiation, warming the corresponding aerosol layer (Flanner, 2013). Such warming depends on BC atmospheric burden and also on the efficiency of BC to absorb light, in fact the light absorption is enhanced by mixing of BC with other atmospheric non-absorbing materials (lensing effect) (Bond et al., 2013). The BC reaching the Arctic is evilly processed, due to long range transport. Aging promote internal mixing and thus absorption enhancement. Such modification of mixing and is quantification after long range transport have been observed in the Atlantic ocean (China et al., 2015) but never investigated in the Arctic. During field experiments conducted at the Zeppelin research site in Svalbard during the 2012 Arctic spring, we investigated the relative precision of different BC measuring techniques; a single particle soot photometer was then used to assess the coating of Arctic black carbon. This allowed quantifying the absorption enhancement induced by internal mixing via optical modelling; the optical assessment of aged black carbon in the arctic will be of major interest for future radiative forcing assessment.Optical characterization of the total aerosol indicated that in 2012 no extreme smoke events took place and that the aerosol population was dominated by fine and non-absorbing particles. Low mean concentration of rBC was found (30 ng m-3), with a mean mass equivalent diameter above 200 nm. rBC concentration detected with the continuous soot monitoring system and the single particle soot photometer was agreeing within 15%. Combining absorption coefficient observed with an aethalometer and rBC mass

  9. A wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic particles composite as an efficient broadband electromagnetic wave absorber.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiyong; Liu, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Yue, Xigui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2016-04-28

    A method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and the pyrolysis process has been developed to fabricate the wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic nanoparticles composite with a pore size of about 80 nm (WPC/MNPs-80). In this work, the porous structure was designed to enhance interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) wave and the absorber, while the magnetic nanoparticles were used to bring about magnetic loss ability. The structure, morphology, porosity and magnetic properties of WPC/MNPs-80 were investigated in detail. To evaluate its EM wave attenuation performance, the EM parameters of the absorber and wax composite were measured at 2-18 GHz. WPC/MNPs-80 has an excellent EM wave absorbency with a wide absorption band at a relatively low loading and thin absorber thickness. At the absorber thickness of 1.5 and 2.0 mm, minimum RL values of -29.2 and -47.9 dB were achieved with the RL below -10 dB in 12.8-18 and 9.2-13.3 GHz, respectively. The Co and Fe nanoparticles derived from the chemical reduction of Co0.2Fe2.8O4 can enhance the graphitization process of carbon and thus improve dielectric loss ability. Polarizations in the nanocomposite absorber also play an important role in EM wave absorption. Thus, EM waves can be effectively attenuated by dielectric loss and magnetic loss through multiple reflections and absorption in the porous structure. WPC/MNPs-80 could be an excellent absorber for EM wave attenuation; and the design strategy could be extended as a general method to synthesize other high-performance absorbers.

  10. A wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic particles composite as an efficient broadband electromagnetic wave absorber.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiyong; Liu, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Yue, Xigui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2016-04-28

    A method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and the pyrolysis process has been developed to fabricate the wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic nanoparticles composite with a pore size of about 80 nm (WPC/MNPs-80). In this work, the porous structure was designed to enhance interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) wave and the absorber, while the magnetic nanoparticles were used to bring about magnetic loss ability. The structure, morphology, porosity and magnetic properties of WPC/MNPs-80 were investigated in detail. To evaluate its EM wave attenuation performance, the EM parameters of the absorber and wax composite were measured at 2-18 GHz. WPC/MNPs-80 has an excellent EM wave absorbency with a wide absorption band at a relatively low loading and thin absorber thickness. At the absorber thickness of 1.5 and 2.0 mm, minimum RL values of -29.2 and -47.9 dB were achieved with the RL below -10 dB in 12.8-18 and 9.2-13.3 GHz, respectively. The Co and Fe nanoparticles derived from the chemical reduction of Co0.2Fe2.8O4 can enhance the graphitization process of carbon and thus improve dielectric loss ability. Polarizations in the nanocomposite absorber also play an important role in EM wave absorption. Thus, EM waves can be effectively attenuated by dielectric loss and magnetic loss through multiple reflections and absorption in the porous structure. WPC/MNPs-80 could be an excellent absorber for EM wave attenuation; and the design strategy could be extended as a general method to synthesize other high-performance absorbers. PMID:27072200

  11. Fractional absorption of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa) and calcium carbonate measured by a dual stable-isotope method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In ...

  12. Measured Wavelength-Dependent Absorption Enhancement of Internally Mixed Black Carbon with Absorbing and Nonabsorbing Materials.

    PubMed

    You, Rian; Radney, James G; Zachariah, Michael R; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Optical absorption spectra of laboratory generated aerosols consisting of black carbon (BC) internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials (ammonium sulfate, AS, and sodium chloride, NaCl) and BC with a weakly absorbing brown carbon surrogate derived from humic acid (HA) were measured across the visible to near-IR (550 to 840 nm). Spectra were measured in situ using a photoacoustic spectrometer and step-scanning a supercontinuum laser source with a tunable wavelength and bandwidth filter. BC had a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) of 7.89 ± 0.25 m(2) g(-1) at λ = 550 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 1.03 ± 0.09 (2σ). For internally mixed BC, the ratio of BC mass to the total mass of the mixture was chosen as 0.13 to mimic particles observed in the terrestrial atmosphere. The manner in which BC mixed with each material was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AS/BC and HA/BC particles were fully internally mixed, and the BC was both internally and externally mixed for NaCl/BC particles. The AS/BC, NaCl/BC, and HA/BC particles had AAEs of 1.43 ± 0.05, 1.34 ± 0.06, and 1.91 ± 0.05, respectively. The observed absorption enhancement of mixed BC relative to the pure BC was wavelength dependent for AS/BC and decreased from 1.5 at λ = 550 nm with increasing wavelength while the NaCl/BC enhancement was essentially wavelength independent. For HA/BC, the enhancement ranged from 2 to 3 and was strongly wavelength dependent. Removal of the HA absorption contribution to enhancement revealed that the enhancement was ≈1.5 and independent of wavelength. PMID:27359341

  13. Predicting trace organic compound breakthrough in granular activated carbon using fluorescence and UV absorbance as surrogates.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Park, Minkyu; Roccaro, Paolo; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the applicability of bulk organic parameters like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and total fluorescence (TF) to act as surrogates in predicting trace organic compound (TOrC) removal by granular activated carbon in water reuse applications. Using rapid small-scale column testing, empirical linear correlations for thirteen TOrCs were determined with DOC, UV254, and TF in four wastewater effluents. Linear correlations (R(2) > 0.7) were obtained for eight TOrCs in each water quality in the UV254 model, while ten TOrCs had R(2) > 0.7 in the TF model. Conversely, DOC was shown to be a poor surrogate for TOrC breakthrough prediction. When the data from all four water qualities was combined, good linear correlations were still obtained with TF having higher R(2) than UV254 especially for TOrCs with log Dow>1. Excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.9) between log Dow and the removal of TOrC at 0% surrogate removal (y-intercept) were obtained for the five neutral TOrCs tested in this study. Positively charged TOrCs had enhanced removals due to electrostatic interactions with negatively charged GAC that caused them to deviate from removals that would be expected with their log Dow. Application of the empirical linear correlation models to full-scale samples provided good results for six of seven TOrCs (except meprobamate) tested when comparing predicted TOrC removal by UV254 and TF with actual removals for GAC in all the five samples tested. Surrogate predictions using UV254 and TF provide valuable tools for rapid or on-line monitoring of GAC performance and can result in cost savings by extended GAC run times as compared to using DOC breakthrough to trigger regeneration or replacement.

  14. Fe-, Co-, and Ni-Loaded Porous Activated Carbon Balls as Lightweight Microwave Absorbents.

    PubMed

    Li, Guomin; Wang, Liancheng; Li, Wanxi; Xu, Yao

    2015-11-16

    Porous activated carbon ball (PACB) composites impregnated with iron, cobalt, nickel and/or their oxides were synthesized through a wet chemistry method involving PACBs as the carrier to load Fe(3+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) ions and a subsequent carbothermal reduction at different annealing temperatures. The results show that the pyrolysis products of nitrates and/or the products from the carbothermal reduction are embedded in the pores of the PACBs, with different distributions, resulting in different crystalline phases. The as-prepared PACB composites possessed high specific surface areas of 791.2-901.5 m(2)  g(-1) and low densities of 1.1-1.3 g cm(-3). Minimum reflection loss (RL) values of -50.1, -20.6, and -20.4 dB were achieved for Fe-PACB (annealed at 500 °C), Co-PACB (annealed at 800 °C), and Ni-PACB (annealed at 800 °C) composites, respectively. Moreover, the influence of the amount of the magnetic components in the PACB composites on the microwave-absorbing performances was investigated, further confirming that the dielectric loss was the primary contributor to microwave absorption. PMID:26373310

  15. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a double-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Yufei; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao; Feng, Chuansheng; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan

    2014-03-01

    A diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) saturable absorber is demonstrated for the first time. A maximum output power of 1.03 W and a minimum pulse duration of 24.3 ns with a highest peak power of 121 W were obtained. The pulse repetition rate varied from 122 to 350 kHz as the pump power increased. The experimental results show that DWCNT is an excellent saturable absorber for passive Q-switched lasers.

  16. SS Lac Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Schiller, S. J.; Munari, U.; Kallrath, J.

    1999-05-01

    We have evidence confirming changes in light curve amplitude of the former eclipsing and current SB2 system SS Lac in the open cluster NGC 7209. Remeasured Harvard plate data and published and compiled data sets reveal that the depth of the primary minimum increased between the 1890s and early 1900s and decreased in the 1920s and 1930s. Peak fittings of the amplitude with phase suggests a peak amplitude centered ca. 1911.5, with eclipse onset at about 1885 and effective eclipse cessation late in 1937. We thus concur with the findings of Lehmann (IBVS 3610, 1991), that the apparent inclination varies with time and that a central eclipse occurred about 1911, and of Mossakovskaya (Astron. Lett., 19, 35, 1993), that eclipses ceased prior to 1940. Estimates of SS Lac from plates taken at Tashkent between 1937 and 1940 serve to confirm these results. We have completed now an exhaustive study of the radial velocity curves of Tomasella & Munari (1998, A&A, 335, 561) and all three potentially useful archival light curves available to us, and will discuss the implications of the solutions for models of the system and the cluster to which it belongs. This work was supported in part by grants to Milone from NSERC of Canada, and the URGC of the University of Calgary.

  17. Environmental Technology Verification Program Advanced Monitoring Systems Center Quality Assurance Project Plan for Verification of Black Carbon Monitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black carbon is a term that is commonly used to describe strongly light absorbing carbon (LAC), which is thought to play a significant role in global climate change through direct absorption of light, interaction with clouds, and by reducing the reflectivity of snow and ice. BC ...

  18. Fabrication and Electromagnetic Wave-Absorbing Property of Si3N4 Ceramics with Gradient Pyrolytic Carbon Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangming; Gao, Mingjun

    2016-07-01

    A Si3N4 ceramic with gradient distribution of pyrolytic carbon (Gradient-PyC-Si3N4) was fabricated by a combined technique of precursor infiltration pyrolysis and directional oxidation. An electromagnetic wave could enter Gradient-PyC-Si3N4 with little reflection because of a weak impedance mismatch at its surface, and the electromagnetic wave entering Gradient-PyC-Si3N4 could propagate forward along the PyC changing belt and simultaneously be absorbed by PyC with little reflection. The electromagnetic reflectivity of the Gradient-PyC-Si3N4 with an absence of PyC could reach a low level of -12.1 dB, which means that about 94% of the incident energy is absorbed and so makes the Gradient-PyC-Si3N4 a promising electromagnetic absorbing material for covert action.

  19. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices. PMID:25977651

  20. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-04-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices.

  1. Black carbon and other light-absorbing particles in snow of central North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Sarah J.; Dang, Cheng; Hegg, Dean A.; Zhang, Rudong; Warren, Stephen G.

    2014-11-01

    Vertical profiles of light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow were sampled from 67 North American sites. Over 500 snow samples and 55 soil samples from these sites were optically analyzed for spectrally resolved visible light absorption. The optical measurements were used to estimate black carbon (BC) mixing ratios in snow (CBCest), contributions to absorption by BC and non-BC particles, and the absorption Ångström exponent of particles in snow and local soil. Sites in Canada tended to have the lowest BC mixing ratios (typically ~5-35 ng g-1), with somewhat higher CBCest in the Pacific Northwest (typically ~5-40 ng g-1) and Intramountain Northwest (typically 10-50 ng g-1). The Northern U.S. Plains sites were the dirtiest, with CBCest typically ~15-70 ng g-1 and multiple sample layers with >100 ng g-1 BC in snow. Snow water samples were also chemically analyzed for standard anions, selected carbohydrates, and various elements. The chemical and optical data were input to a Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of the sources of particulate light absorption. These were soil, biomass/biofuel burning, and fossil fuel pollution. Comparable analyses have been conducted for the Arctic and North China, providing a broad, internally consistent data set. As in North China, soil is a significant contributor to snow particulate light absorption in the Great Plains. We also examine the concentrations and sources of snow particulate light absorption across a latitudinal transect from the northern U.S. Great Plains to Arctic Canada by combining the current data with our earlier Arctic survey.

  2. Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weishaar, J.L.; Aiken, G.R.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Mopper, K.

    2003-01-01

    Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) is defined as the UV absorbance of a water sample at a given wavelength normalized for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. Our data indicate that SUVA, determined at 254 nm, is strongly correlated with percent aromaticity as determined by 13C NMR for 13 organic matter isolates obtained from a variety of aquatic environments. SUVA, therefore, is shown to be a useful parameter for estimating the dissolved aromatic carbon content in aquatic systems. Experiments involving the reactivity of DOC with chlorine and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), however, show a wide range of reactivity for samples with similar SUVA values. These results indicate that, while SUVA measurements are good predictors of general chemical characteristics of DOC, they do not provide information about reactivity of DOC derived from different types of source materials. Sample pH, nitrate, and iron were found to influence SUVA measurements.

  3. The physical properties of black carbon and other light-absorbing material emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Yokelson, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fortner, E.; Onasch, T. B.; Akagi, S. K.; Taylor, J.; Coe, H.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted from fires absorbs light, leading to visibility degradation as well as regional and global climate impacts. Fires also emit a wide range of trace gases and particulates that can interact with emitted BC and alter its optical properties and atmospheric lifetime. Non-BC particulate species emitted by fires can also scatter and absorb light, leading to additional effects on visibility. Recent work has shown that certain organic species can absorb light strongly at shorter wavelengths, giving it a brown or yellow color. This material has been classified as brown carbon, though it is not yet well defined. Land managers must find a balance between the negative impacts of prescribed fire emissions on visibility and air quality and the need to prevent future catastrophic wildfire as well as manage ecosystems for habitat restoration or other purposes. This decision process requires accurate assessments of the visibility impacts of fire emissions, including BC and brown carbon, which in turn depend on their optical properties. We present recent laboratory and aircraft measurements of black carbon and aerosol optical properties emitted from biomass burning. All measurement campaigns included a single particle soot photometer (SP2) instrument capable of providing size-resolved measurements of BC mass and number distributions and mixing state, which are needed to separate the BC and brown carbon contributions to total light absorption. The laboratory experiments also included a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer that provided accurate measurements of aerosol light absorption. The laboratory systems also characterized emissions after they had been treated with a thermal denuder to remove semi-volatile coatings, allowing an assessment of the role of non-BC coatings on bulk aerosol optical properties. Emissions were also aged in an environmental smog chamber to examine the role of secondary aerosol production on aerosol optical properties.

  4. A wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic particles composite as an efficient broadband electromagnetic wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiyong; Liu, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Yue, Xigui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    A method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and the pyrolysis process has been developed to fabricate the wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic nanoparticles composite with a pore size of about 80 nm (WPC/MNPs-80). In this work, the porous structure was designed to enhance interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) wave and the absorber, while the magnetic nanoparticles were used to bring about magnetic loss ability. The structure, morphology, porosity and magnetic properties of WPC/MNPs-80 were investigated in detail. To evaluate its EM wave attenuation performance, the EM parameters of the absorber and wax composite were measured at 2-18 GHz. WPC/MNPs-80 has an excellent EM wave absorbency with a wide absorption band at a relatively low loading and thin absorber thickness. At the absorber thickness of 1.5 and 2.0 mm, minimum RL values of -29.2 and -47.9 dB were achieved with the RL below -10 dB in 12.8-18 and 9.2-13.3 GHz, respectively. The Co and Fe nanoparticles derived from the chemical reduction of Co0.2Fe2.8O4 can enhance the graphitization process of carbon and thus improve dielectric loss ability. Polarizations in the nanocomposite absorber also play an important role in EM wave absorption. Thus, EM waves can be effectively attenuated by dielectric loss and magnetic loss through multiple reflections and absorption in the porous structure. WPC/MNPs-80 could be an excellent absorber for EM wave attenuation; and the design strategy could be extended as a general method to synthesize other high-performance absorbers.A method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and the pyrolysis process has been developed to fabricate the wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic nanoparticles composite with a pore size of about 80 nm (WPC/MNPs-80). In this work, the porous structure was designed to enhance interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) wave and the absorber, while the magnetic nanoparticles were used to bring about magnetic loss ability. The structure

  5. Multiscale Assembly of Grape-Like Ferroferric Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes: A Smart Absorber Prototype Varying Temperature to Tune Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Ming; Cao, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Hua; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Jia; Shi, Hong-Long; Zhang, De-Qing; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Yuan, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Ideal electromagnetic attenuation material should not only shield the electromagnetic interference but also need strong absorption. Lightweight microwave absorber with thermal stability and high efficiency is a highly sought-after goal of researchers. Tuning microwave absorption to meet the harsh requirements of thermal environments has been a great challenge. Here, grape-like Fe3O4-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized, which have unique multiscale-assembled morphology, relatively uniform size, good crystallinity, high magnetization, and favorable superparamagnetism. The Fe3O4-MWCNTs is proven to be a smart microwave-absorber prototype with tunable high intensities in double belts in the temperature range of 323-473 K and X band. Maximum absorption in two absorbing belts can be simultaneously tuned from ∼-10 to ∼-15 dB and from ∼-16 to ∼-25 dB by varying temperature, respectively. The belt for reflection loss ≤-20 dB can almost cover the X band at 323 K. The tunable microwave absorption is attributed to effective impedance matching, benefiting from abundant interfacial polarizations and increased magnetic loss resulting from the grape-like Fe3O4 nanocrystals. Temperature adjusts the impedance matching by changing both the dielectric and magnetic loss. The special assembly of MWCNTs and magnetic loss nanocrystals provides an effective pathway to realize excellent absorbers at elevated temperature.

  6. Thermally-Resilient, Broadband Optical Absorber from UV-to-IR Derived from Carbon Nanostructures and Method of Making the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor); Coles, James B. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic optical absorber and methods of making same. The monolithic optical absorber uses an array of mutually aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown using a PECVD growth process and a structure that includes a conductive substrate, a refractory template layer and a nucleation layer. Monolithic optical absorbers made according to the described structure and method exhibit high absorptivity, high site densities (greater than 10.sup.9 nanotubes/cm.sup.2), very low reflectivity (below 1%), and high thermal stability in air (up to at least 400.degree. C.). The PECVD process allows the application of such absorbers in a wide variety of end uses.

  7. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  8. Secondary brown carbon - Formation of light-absorbing compounds in atmospheric particulates from selected dicarbonyls and amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Christopher; Filippi, Alexander; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    One of the main open questions regarding organic compounds in atmospheric chemistry today is related to the formation of optically-active compounds and the occurrence of so called brown carbon (Andreae and Gelencsér, 2006). While organic compounds in ambient fine particles for decades have been assumed to not absorb solar radiation, thus resulting in a net cooling effect on climate (IPCC, 2007), it is now generally accepted that a continuum of light-absorbing carbonaceous species is present in fine aerosols (Pöschl, 2003). In this study, light-absorbing compounds from reactions between dicarbonyl compounds, i.e., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, acetylacetone, 2,3-butanedione, 2,5-hexanedione, and glutaraldehyde, and amine species, i.e., ammonia and glycine, were investigated at atmospherically relevant concentrations in bulk solution experiments mimicking atmospheric particulates. Product analyses were performed using UV/Vis spectrophotometry and (ultra) high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS), as well as ultra-high resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS). We demonstrate that light-absorbing compounds are formed from a variety of atmospherically relevant dicarbonyls via particle phase reactions with amine nucleophiles. Single dicarbonyl and mixed dicarbonyl experiments were performed and products were analyzed. The reaction products are suggested to be cyclic nitrogen containing compounds such as imidazoles or dihydropyridines as well as open chain compounds resulting from aldol condensation reactions. Further, the reactive turnover was found to be higher at increasing pH values. The aforementioned processes may be of higher relevance in regions with high aerosol pH, e.g., resulting from high ammonia emissions as for example in northern India (Clarisse et al., 2009). References Andreae, M.O., and Gelencsér, A. (2006): Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing

  9. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    DOEpatents

    Muradov, Nazim

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  10. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range.

    PubMed

    González, M; Crespo, M; Baselga, J; Pozuelo, J

    2016-05-19

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.

  11. Ultrashort stretched-pulse L-band laser using carbon-nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Won Sik; Lee, Hyub; Kim, Jin Hwan; Choi, Jindoo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2015-03-23

    In the paper, a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser in the long-wavelength band (L-band) is presented by using a single-wall nanotube saturable absorber (SWNT-SA). The optical properties of the SWNT-SA are compared with those in the C-band in view of the absorbance spectrum and the power-dependent transmittance of the SWNT-SA film. The effects of the net cavity dispersion and the length of the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) on L-band stretched pulse generation are discussed. The designed stretched-pulse L-band laser has a net dispersion of 0.017-ps2 and generates ultrashort (110 fs), broad-spectrum (41 nm) pulses with a signal-to-noise ratio over 70 dB.

  12. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range.

    PubMed

    González, M; Crespo, M; Baselga, J; Pozuelo, J

    2016-05-19

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials. PMID:27152472

  13. Passively Q-switched Nd:YCOB laser with a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Song, Yanrong; Yu, Zhenhua; Tian, Cuicui; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Yonggang

    2012-11-01

    A passively Single-walled carbon nanotube is a new material as a saturable absorber to obtain a Q-switched laser or a mode-locked laser because of it's broadband absorption wavelength and cheaper price comparing with SESAM. Here, by using a single-walled carbon nanotube as saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA), a passively Q-switched Nd:YCOB (Nd3+:YCa4O(BO3)3)laser was realized at 1085.3nm pumped by a 808 nm diode laser .The fluorescence spectrum of Nd:YCOB crystal near 1.06 μm. The output power of the Q-switched laser of 175 mW were obtained at the pump power of 9W in a V-type cavity. The range of the repetition rate was from 35 kHz to 62.5 kHz and pulse width was 1.6μs (FWHM) at 62.5 kHz.

  14. Fifty years fused to lac.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    I recount the history of how I became interested in the use of gene fusions for studying biological problems. Initially, selections for mutations that would restore function to an inactivated lac operon unexpectedly yielded fusions in which lac was expressed from the controlling elements of upstream genes. Subsequently, by chance, I generated strains in which the lac operon was transposed from its normal position on the chromosome to a position close to the trp operon, thus facilitating sets of useful fusions of the two operons. The development of a more generalized technique for obtaining fusions by my student Malcolm Casadaban opened up a much broader set of biological problems that could be approached with fusions. Work on these problems included the study of protein translocation across membranes, the analysis of membrane protein topology, and the discovery of the pathway of electron transfer that leads to disulfide bond formation in proteins. PMID:24024632

  15. Method 415.3, Rev. 1.2: Determination of Total Organic Carbon and Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm in Source Water and Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA) in source waters and drinking waters. The DOC and UVA determinations are used in the calculation of the Specific UV Absorbance (S...

  16. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Crespo, M.; Baselga, J.; Pozuelo, J.

    2016-05-01

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scheme of hydrogenated derivative of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (HDGEBA) and m-xylylenediamine; X-ray diffractograms of pristine CNT

  17. Distinct signatures for mutator sensitivity of lacZ reversions and for the spectrum of lacI/lacO forward mutations on the chromosome of nondividing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bharatan, Shanti M; Reddy, Manjula; Gowrishankar, J

    2004-01-01

    A conditional lethal galE(Ts)-based strategy was employed in Escherichia coli, first to eliminate all growth-associated chromosomal reversions in lacZ or forward mutations in lacI/lacO by incubation at the restrictive temperature and subsequently to recover (as papillae) spontaneous mutations that had arisen in the population of nondividing cells after shift to the permissive temperature. Data from lacZ reversion studies in mutator strains indicated that the products of all genes for mismatch repair (mutHLS, dam, uvrD), of some for oxidative damage repair (mutMT), and of that for polymerase proofreading (dnaQ) are required in dividing cells; some others for oxidative damage repair (mutY, nth nei) are required in both dividing and nondividing cells; and those for alkylation damage repair (ada ogt) are required in nondividing cells. The spectrum of lacI/lacO mutations in nondividing cells was distinguished both by lower frequencies of deletions and IS1 insertions and by the unique occurrence of GC-to-AT transitions at lacO +5. In the second approach to study mutations that had occurred in nondividing cells, lacI/lacO mutants were selected as late-arising papillae from the lawn of a galE+ strain; once again, transitions at lacO +5 were detected among the mutants that had been obtained from populations initially grown on poor carbon sources such as acetate, palmitate, or succinate. Our results indicate that the lacO +5 site is mutable only in nondividing cells, one possible mechanism for which might be that random endogenous alkylation (or oxidative) damage to DNA in these cells is efficiently corrected by the Ada Ogt (or Nth Nei) repair enzymes at most sites but not at lacO +5. Furthermore, the late-arising papillae from the second approach were composed almost exclusively of dominant lacI/lacO mutants. This finding lends support to "instantaneous gratification" models in which a spontaneous lesion, occurring at a random site in DNA of a nondividing cell, is most

  18. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for [1-carbon-11]-glucose in adults: The effects of hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J. |

    1996-10-01

    As preparation for studies of blood-brain glucose transport in diabetes mellitus, radiation absorbed dose estimates from intravenous administration of [1-{sup 11}C]-glucose for 24 internal organs, lens, blood and total body were calculated for three physiologic conditions: euinsulinemic euglycemia, hyperinsulinemic euglycemia and hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia. Cumulated activities in blood, insulin-independent and insulin-dependent compartments were calculated from blood time-activity curves in normal human volunteers and macaques. Apportionment of cumulated activity to individual organs in insulin-dependent and insulin-independent compartments was based on previously published data. Absorbed doses were calculated with the computer program MIRDOSE 3 for the 70-kg adult phantom. S for blood was calculated separately. The heart wall, lungs and spleen were the organs receiving the highest dose. The effect of hyperinsulinemia was demonstrated by the increase in adsorbed dose to the muscle, heart and blood with a decrease to other internal organs. This effect was more pronounced during hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia. Hyperinsulinemia produced a decrease in effective dose due to the decrease in cumulated activity in organs with specified weighting factors greater than 0.05. The effective dose per study for [1-{sup 11}C]-glucose is comparable to that reported for 2-deoxy-[2-{sup 18}F]-glucose. 43 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Laboratory differential simulation design method of pressure absorbers for carbonization of phenolate solution by carbon dioxide in coal-tar processing

    SciTech Connect

    Linek, V.; Sinkule, J.; Moucha, T.; Rejl, J.F.

    2009-01-15

    A laboratory differential simulation method is used for the design of carbonization columns at coal-tar processing in which phenols are regenerated from phenolate solution by carbon dioxide absorption. The design method is based on integration of local absorption rates of carbon dioxide along the column. The local absorption rates into industrial phenolate mixture are measured in a laboratory model contactor for various compositions of the gas and liquid phases under the conditions that ensure the absorption rates in the laboratory absorber simulate the local rates in the industrial column. On the bases of the calculations, two-step carbonization columns were designed for 30000 t/year of the phenolate solution treatment by carbon dioxide. The absorption proceeds at higher pressure of 500 kPa and temperatures from 50 to 65 C, pure carbon dioxide is used and toluene is added. These conditions have the following favourable effects: (I) significant size reduction of the columns, (ii) it is possible to process more concentrated solutions without danger of silting the columns by crystallization of NaHCO{sub 3} on the packing. (iii) small amount of inert gas is released, (iv) lower alkalinity and better separability of the organic phase (phenols with toluene) from water phase (soda or bicarbonate solution) in separators.

  20. Remote sensing of soot carbon - Part 1: Distinguishing different absorbing aerosol species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G. L.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a method of using the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) size distributions and complex refractive indices to retrieve the relative proportion of carbonaceous aerosols and free iron minerals (hematite and goethite). We assume that soot carbon has a spectrally flat refractive index and enhanced imaginary indices at the 440 nm wavelength are caused by brown carbon or hematite. Carbonaceous aerosols can be separated from dust in imaginary refractive index space because 95 % of biomass burning aerosols have imaginary indices greater than 0.0042 at the 675-1020 nm wavelengths, and 95 % of dust has imaginary refractive indices of less than 0.0042 at those wavelengths. However, mixtures of these two types of particles can not be unambiguously partitioned on the basis of optical properties alone, so we also separate these particles by size. Regional and seasonal results are consistent with expectations. Monthly climatologies of fine mode soot carbon are less than 1.0 % by volume for West Africa and the Middle East, but the southern African and South American biomass burning sites have peak values of 3.0 and 1.7 %. Monthly averaged fine mode brown carbon volume fractions have a peak value of 5.8 % for West Africa, 2.1 % for the Middle East, 3.7 % for southern Africa, and 5.7 % for South America. Monthly climatologies of free iron volume fractions show little seasonal variability, and range from about 1.1 to 1.7 % for coarse mode aerosols in all four study regions. Finally, our sensitivity study indicates that the soot carbon retrieval is not sensitive to the component refractive indices or densities assumed for carbonaceous and free iron aerosols, and the retrieval differs by only 15.4 % when these parameters are altered from our chosen baseline values. The total uncertainty of retrieving soot carbon mass is ˜ 50 % (when uncertainty in the AERONET product and mixing state is included in the analysis).

  1. Chemical characteristics and light-absorbing property of water-soluble organic carbon in Beijing: Biomass burning contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Sullivan, Amy P.; Bosch, Carme; Desyaterik, Yury; Andersson, August; Li, Xiaoying; Guo, Xiaoshuang; Zhou, Tian; Gustafsson, Örjan; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning contribute significantly to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon). Ambient atmospheric samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing during winter and summer, along with source samples from residential crop straw burning. Carbonaceous aerosol species, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), WSOC and multiple saccharides as well as water-soluble potassium (K+) in PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with size less than 2.5 μm) were measured. Chemical signatures of atmospheric aerosols in Beijing during winter and summer days with significant biomass burning influence were identified. Meanwhile, light absorption by WSOC was measured and quantitatively compared to EC at ground level. The results from this study indicated that levoglucosan exhibited consistently high concentrations (209 ± 145 ng m-3) in winter. Ratios of levoglucosan/mannosan (L/M) and levoglucosan/galacosan (L/G) indicated that residential biofuel use is an important source of biomass burning aerosol in winter in Beijing. Light absorption coefficient per unit ambient WSOC mass calculated at 365 nm is approximately 1.54 ± 0.16 m2 g-1 in winter and 0.73 ± 0.15 m2 g-1 in summer. Biomass burning derived WSOC accounted for 23 ± 7% and 16 ± 7% of total WSOC mass, and contributed to 17 ± 4% and 19 ± 5% of total WSOC light absorption in winter and summer, respectively. It is noteworthy that, up to 30% of total WSOC light absorption was attributed to biomass burning in significant biomass-burning-impacted summer day. Near-surface light absorption (over the range 300-400 nm) by WSOC was about ∼40% of that by EC in winter and ∼25% in summer.

  2. [Effects of lac insect honeydew on the diversity of ground-dwelling ants in lac plantation].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi-Xing; Chen, You-Qing; Li, Qiao; Wang, Si-Ming; Liu, Chun-Ju; Zhang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    By the method of pitfall trapping, an investigation was conducted on the diversity of ground-dwelling ants in a lac plantation in Yayi Town of Mojiang County, Yunnan Province of Southwest China in December 2009-May 2010, aimed to understand the effects of lac insect honeydew on the diversity of ground-dwelling ants. The presence or absence of lac insect honeydew and its dynamics all affected the species composition, abundance, and diversity of ground-dwelling ants. In the lac plantation with lac insect hosting, a total of 4953 ant individuals were collected, belonging to 34 species, 23 genera, and 5 subfamilies of Formicidae; whereas in the lac plantation without lac insect hosting, a total of 2416 ant individuals were collected, belonging to 30 species, 20 genera, and 5 subfamilies of Formicidae. The relative abundance, species richness (S), and ACE index in the lac plantation with lac insect hosting were higher than those in the lac plantation without lac insect hosting, and the common species and indicator species of ground-dwelling ants in the lac plantation with lac insect hosting differed from those in the lac plantation without lac insect hosting, suggesting that lac insect hosting altered the community structure of ground-dwelling ants. The adult lac insects excreted larger quantity of honeydew than the larval lac insects, and the relative abundance, S, and ACE index of ground-dwelling ants were higher at the adult stage than at the larval stage of lac insects. The common species and indicator species of ground-dwelling ants also had great differences between the two stages of lac insects.

  3. Noncovalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes by fluorescent polypeptides: supramolecular conjugates with pH-dependent absorbance and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin Hua; Johnson, Renjith P; Song, Song I; Kim, Il

    2013-11-01

    Fluorescent cut single-walled carbon nanotube (CSWCNT) were prepared by simply mixing CSWCNT with water soluble rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) conjugated poly(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and poly(L-tyrosine) to form highly stable product with good dispersity in buffer solution. The optical absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the resulting fluorescent CSWCNT display interesting pH-dependent optical properties, emitting strong fluorescence only in acidic environment. Considering the extracellular pH of tumor tissue is acidic, the pH-sensitive conjugates have advantages to sense tumor cells selectively, enabling it to be utilized as a biosensor for detecting cancer cells. The protocol employed to functionalize the CSWCNT with Rh6G conjugated polypeptides in aqueous solution is proven to be direct, fast and easily scalable. PMID:24245264

  4. Dual-wavelength synchronous mode-locked Yb:LSO laser using a double-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Hou, Wei; Yang, Jimin; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-05-01

    A dual-wavelength, passively mode-locked Yb:LSO laser was demonstrated using a double-walled carbon nanotube as a saturable absorber. The maximum average output power of the laser was 1.34 W at the incident pump power of 9.94 W. The two central wavelengths were 1057 and 1058 nm. The corresponding pulse duration of the autocorrelation interference pattern was about 15 ps, while the beat pulse repetition rate was 0.17 THz and the width of one beat pulse about 2 ps. When the incident pump power was above 10.25 W, a multiwavelength mode-locked oscillation phenomenon was observed. After employing a pair of SF10 prisms, a 1058.7 nm single-wavelength mode-locked laser was obtained with a pulse width of 7 ps. PMID:27140382

  5. Fragmentation of 200 and 244 MEV/u Carbon Beams in Thick Tissue-Like Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golovchenko, A. N.; Skvarc, J.; Ilic, R.; Sihver, L.; Bamblevski, V. P.; Tretyakova, S. P.; Schardt, D.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Bimbot, R.

    1999-01-01

    Stacks consisting of thin CR-39 sheets sandwiched between thick lucite and water absorbers were perpendicularly bombarded by C-12 ions at 200 and 244 MeV/u. Track radius distributions representing the charge composition of the fragmented beams were automatically measured by a particle track analysis system. After analysis of the nuclear charge distributions, the total charge removal cross-sections and elemental production cross-sections of fragments with atomic numbers from 5 to 3, were obtained down to the lower energies (approx. 50 and 100 MeV/u, respectively). It has been found that the measured total charge removal cross-section agrees with theoretical predictions within approx. 10% and very well with previous experiments in corresponding energy regions. Two model calculations for production of B fragment are in good agreement with our measured data while a third model overestimates it by approx. 12%. Theoretical cross-sections for Be and Li fragments differ strongly among the different models and from measured values.

  6. Hydrocarbon pyrolysis reactor experimentation and modeling for the production of solar absorbing carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederickson, Lee Thomas

    Much of combustion research focuses on reducing soot particulates in emissions. However, current research at San Diego State University (SDSU) Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory (CSEL) is underway to develop a high temperature solar receiver which will utilize carbon nanoparticles as a solar absorption medium. To produce carbon nanoparticles for the small particle heat exchange receiver (SPHER), a lab-scale carbon particle generator (CPG) has been built and tested. The CPG is a heated ceramic tube reactor with a set point wall temperature of 1100-1300°C operating at 5-6 bar pressure. Natural gas and nitrogen are fed to the CPG where natural gas undergoes pyrolysis resulting in carbon particles. The gas-particle mixture is met downstream with dilution air and sent to the lab scale solar receiver. To predict soot yield and general trends in CPG performance, a model has been setup in Reaction Design CHEMKIN-PRO software. One of the primary goals of this research is to accurately measure particle properties. Mean particle diameter, size distribution, and index of refraction are calculated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a Diesel Particulate Scatterometer (DPS). Filter samples taken during experimentation are analyzed to obtain a particle size distribution with SEM images processed in ImageJ software. These results are compared with the DPS, which calculates the particle size distribution and the index of refraction from light scattering using Mie theory. For testing with the lab scale receiver, a particle diameter range of 200-500 nm is desired. Test conditions are varied to understand effects of operating parameters on particle size and the ability to obtain the size range. Analysis of particle loading is the other important metric for this research. Particle loading is measured downstream of the CPG outlet and dilution air mixing point. The air-particle mixture flows through an extinction tube where opacity of the mixture is measured with a 532 nm

  7. Light-absorbing properties of ambient black carbon and brown carbon from fossil fuel and biomass burning sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Willis, M. D.; Jaroudi, E.; Zimmerman, N.; Hilker, N.; Murphy, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Wenger, J. C.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of ambient black carbon-containing particles and the composition of their associated coatings were investigated at a downtown site in Toronto, Canada, for 2 weeks in June 2013. The objective was to assess the relationship between black carbon (BC) coating composition/thickness and absorption. The site was influenced by emissions from local vehicular traffic, wildfires in Quebec, and transboundary fossil fuel combustion emissions in the United States. Mass concentrations of BC and associated nonrefractory coatings were measured using a soot particle-aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), while aerosol absorption and scattering were measured using a photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS). Absorption enhancement was investigated both by comparing ambient and thermally denuded PASS absorption data and by relating absorption data to BC mass concentrations measured using the SP-AMS. Minimal absorption enhancement attributable to lensing at 781 nm was observed for BC using both approaches. However, brown carbon was detected when the site was influenced by wildfire emissions originating in Quebec. BC coating to core mass ratios were highest during this period (~7), and while direct absorption by brown carbon resulted in an absorption enhancement at 405 nm (>2.0), no enhancement attributable to lensing at 781 nm was observed. The efficiency of BC coating removal in the denuder decreased substantially when wildfire-related organics were present and may represent an obstacle for future similar studies. These findings indicate that BC absorption enhancement due to lensing is minimal for downtown Toronto, and potentially other urban locations, even when impacted by long-range transport events.

  8. Estimating absorbing black carbon and organic carbon optical properties from AERONET and MISR data over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Ramanathan, V.; Huang, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The radiative forcing due to carbonaceous aerosols is one of the largest source of uncertainties in global and regional climate change. Black carbon and organic carbon from biomass and fossil fuel are two major types of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study we use available ground based and satellite observations to infer the optical properties of black and organic carbon. NASA's AERONET and MISR data over East Asia provide the observational basis. We use the spectral variations in the observed aerosol extinction optical depth and absorption optical depth to categorize the optical properties including their mixing state with other aerosols such as dust and other inorganic aerosols. We create 8 different categories of aerosol mixtures: Dust, Biomass Burning, Fossil Fuel, Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Dust with Biomass Burning, Mixed Dust with Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Biomass Burning with Fossil Fuel, and Mixed Dust, Biomass Burning, with Fossil Fuel, over the following 6 regions of East Asia: Nepal, Gobi, North Industrial China, South Industrial China, Southeast Asia, and Korea/Japan. Our results are compared with independent surface observations over China using Aethalometers and Single Particle Soot Photometers.

  9. Preparation of nickel oxide powder by decomposition of basic nickel carbonate in microwave field with nickel oxide seed as a microwave absorbing additive

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Ke, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) powder is prepared by decomposition of basic nickel carbonate (mNi(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}nNiCO{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O) in microwave field with NiO seed as a microwave absorbing additive. Basic nickel carbonate (BNC) can decompose completely to NiO powder in a short time. Firstly, the heat for BNC decomposition is provided by NiO seed which absorbs microwave and then by NiO product which also absorbs microwave. The decomposition process of BNC can be accelerated by increasing the amount of BNC, the amount of NiO seed or the microwave field power. The size of NiO powder product is about 180nm when the size of BNC used is about 160nm.

  10. Mode-locked ytterbium fiber lasers using a large modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber without an additional spectral filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y. Z.; Miao, J. G.; Liu, W. J.; Huang, X. J.; Wang, Y. B.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a higher modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber (CNT-SA) based on an evanescent field interaction scheme. The laser cavity consists of pure normal dispersion fibers without dispersion compensation and an additional spectral filter. It is exhibited that the higher modulation depth CNT-SA could contribute to stabilize the mode-locking operation within a limited range of pump power and generate the highly chirped pulses with a high-energy level in the cavity with large normal dispersion and strong nonlinearity. Stable mode-locked pulses with a maximal energy of 29 nJ with a 5.59 MHz repetition rate at the operating wavelength around 1085 nm have been obtained. The maximal time-bandwidth product is 262.4. The temporal and spectral characteristics of pulses versus pump power are demonstrated. The experimental results suggest that the CNT-SA provides a sufficient nonlinear loss to compensate high nonlinearity and catch up the gain at a different pump power and thus leads to the stable mode locking.

  11. Influence of the CO2 absorbent monoethanolamine on growth and carbon fixation by the green alga Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wookjin; Kim, Garam; Lee, Kisay

    2012-09-01

    The influence of monoethanolamine (MEA) as a CO(2) absorbent on photoautotrophic culture of CO(2)-fixing microalgae was investigated. When 300 ppm MEA (4.92 mM) was added to blank culture medium, the dissolved inorganic carbon and the molar absorption ratio increased to 51.0mg/L and 0.34 mol CO2 = mol MEA, respectively, which was an almost 6-fold increase in CO(2) solubility. When free MEA up to 300 mg/L was added to a green alga Scenedesmus sp. culture that was supplied 5% (v/v) CO(2) at 0.1 vvm, both cell growth rate and final cell density were enhanced compared to when no MEA was added. The cell growth rate reached 288.6 mg/L/d, which was equivalent to 539.6 mg-CO(2)/L/d as a CO(2)-fixation rate and enhancement of about 63.0% compared to not adding MEA. Chlorophyll-a content and nitrate consumption rate increased correspondingly. MEA doses higher than 400mg/L inhibited cell growth, probably due to toxicity of the carbamate intermediate.

  12. Pulse width shaping of passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser via polarization control in carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2013-11-01

    We report the continuous control of the pulse width of a passively mode-locked fiber laser via polarization state adjustment in a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). The SWCNT, coated on the side-polished fiber, was fabricated with optimized conditions and used for stable mode-locking of the fiber laser without Q-switching instabilities for any polarization state of the laser intra-cavity. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the mode-locked pulses can be continuously tuned from 1.8 nm to 8.5 nm with the polarization control for a given laser cavity length and applied pump power. A pulse duration varying from 470 fs to 1.6 ps was also observed with a change in the spectral bandwidth. The linear and the nonlinear transmission properties of the SA were analyzed, and found to exhibit different modulation depths depending on the input polarization state in the SA. The largest modulation depth of the SA was observed at the polarization state of the transverse electric mode that delivers shortest pulses at the laser output.

  13. Pulse width shaping of passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser via polarization control in carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2013-11-01

    We report the continuous control of the pulse width of a passively mode-locked fiber laser via polarization state adjustment in a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). The SWCNT, coated on the side-polished fiber, was fabricated with optimized conditions and used for stable mode-locking of the fiber laser without Q-switching instabilities for any polarization state of the laser intra-cavity. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the mode-locked pulses can be continuously tuned from 1.8 nm to 8.5 nm with the polarization control for a given laser cavity length and applied pump power. A pulse duration varying from 470 fs to 1.6 ps was also observed with a change in the spectral bandwidth. The linear and the nonlinear transmission properties of the SA were analyzed, and found to exhibit different modulation depths depending on the input polarization state in the SA. The largest modulation depth of the SA was observed at the polarization state of the transverse electric mode that delivers shortest pulses at the laser output. PMID:24216924

  14. Identification of absorbing organic (brown carbon) aerosols through Sun Photometry: results from AEROCAN / AERONET stations in high Arctic and urban Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G. H.; Chaubey, J. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Hayes, P.; Atkinson, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Light absorbing organic aerosols or brown carbon (BrC) aerosols are prominent species influencing the absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD) of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the UV wavelength region. They, along with dust, play an important role in modifying the spectral AAOD and the spectral AOD in the UV region: this property can be used to discriminate BrC aerosols from both weakly absorbing aerosols such as sulfates as well as strongly absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC). In this study we use available AERONET inversions (level 1.5) retrieved for the measuring period from 2009 to 2013, for the Arctic region (Eureka, Barrow and Hornsund), Urban/ Industrial regions (Kanpur, Beijing), and the forest regions (Alta Foresta and Mongu), to identify BrC aerosols. Using Dubovik's inversion algorithm results, we analyzed parameters that were sensitive to BrC presence, notably AAOD, AAODBrC estimated using the approach of Arola et al. [2011], the fine-mode-aerosol absorption derivative (αf, abs) and the fine-mode-aerosol absorption 2nd derivative (αf, abs'), all computed at a near UV wavelength (440 nm). Temporal trends of these parameters were investigated for all test stations and compared to available volume sampling surface data as a means of validating / evaluating the sensitivity of ostensible sunphotometer indicators of BrC aerosols to the presence of BrC as measured using independent indicators. Reference: Arola, A., Schuster, G., Myhre, G., Kazadzis, S., Dey, S., and Tripathi, S. N.: Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 215-225, doi:10.5194/acp-11-215-2011, 2011

  15. Endless versatility in the biotechnological applications of Kluyveromyces LAC genes.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Texeira, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Most microorganisms adapted to life in milk owe their ability to thrive in this habitat to the evolution of mechanisms for the use of the most abundant sugar present on it, lactose, as a carbon source. Because of their lactose-assimilating ability, Kluyveromyces yeasts have long been used in industrial processes involved in the elimination of this sugar. The identification of the genes conferring Kluyveromyces with a system for permeabilization and intracellular hydrolysis of lactose (LAC genes), along with the current possibilities for their transfer into alternative organisms through genetic engineering, has significantly broadened the industrial profitability of lactic yeasts. This review provides an updated overview of the general properties of Kluyveromyces LAC genes, and the multiple techniques involving their biotechnological utilization. Emphasis is also made on the potential that some of the latest technologies, such as the generation of transgenics, will have for a further benefit in the use of these and related genes. PMID:16289464

  16. Fabrication and electromagnetic characteristics of microwave absorbers containing Li0.35Zn0.3Fe2.35O4 micro-belts and nickel-coated carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Qilei; Zhang, Cunrui

    2013-11-01

    Li0.35Zn0.3Fe2.35O4 micro-belts were prepared by cotton template. The nickel-coated carbon fibers were obtained by electroless plating method. The formation mechanism of the ferrite micro-belt was studied. The electromagnetic properties of the microwave absorbers were investigated in the frequency range of 30-6000 MHz. The double-layer absorbers have better microwave absorption properties than the nickel-coated carbon fibers single-layer absorbers and the microwave absorption properties of the composites are influenced by the thickness of the absorber.

  17. Single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd,Y:SrF2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Cai, Wei; Liu, Jie; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Ma, Fengkai; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    A reflective single-walled carbon nanotube as saturable absorber has been firstly adopted to a passively mode-locked Nd,Y:SrF2 crystal. Without any dispersion compensation, the stably mode-locked laser delivers pulses with pulse width as short as 1.7 ps, repetition rate of 107.8 MHz and center wavelength of 1056 nm. The oscillator produces maximum average output power of 319 mW corresponding with a high slope efficiency of 20.2%. The single pulse energy and the peak power are 2.96 nJ and 1.74 kW, respectively. The experimental results show that single-walled carbon nanotube is an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locked lasers.

  18. Lac Courte Oreilles Energy Analysis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Isham; Denise Johnson

    2009-04-01

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe applied for first step funding in 2007 and was awarded in October of that year. We wanted to perform an audit to begin fulfilling two commitments we made to our membership and resolutions that we adopted. One was the Kyoto Protocol and reduce our carbon emissions by 25% and to produce 25% of our energy by sustainable means. To complete these goals we needed to begin with first assessing what our carbon emissions are and begin taking the steps to conserve on the energy we currently use. The First Step Grant gave us the opportunity to do this. Upon funding the Energy Project was formed under the umbrella of the LCO Public Works Department and Denise Johnson was hired as the coordinator. She quickly began fulfilling the objectives of the project. Denise began by contact the LCO College and hiring interns who were able to go to each Tribal entity and perform line logging to read and document the energy used for each electrical appliance. Data was also gathered for one full year from each entity for all their utility bills (gasoline, electric, natural gas, fuel oil, etc.). Relationships were formed with the Green Team and other Green Committees in the area that could assist us in this undertaking. The Energy Task Force was of great assistance as well recommending other committees and guidance to completing our project. The data was gathered, compiled and placed into spreadsheets that would be understandable for anyone who didn't have a background in Renewable Resources. While gathering the data Denise was also looking for ways to conserve energy usage, policies changes to implement and any possible viable renewable energy resources. Changes in the social behaviors of our members and employees will require further education by workshops, energy fairs, etc.. This will be looked into and done in coordination with our schools. The renewable resources seem most feasible are wind resources as well as Bio Mass both of which need further assessment

  19. Transcriptional and functional analysis of galactooligosaccharide uptake by lacS in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo; Goh, Yong Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-10-25

    Probiotic microbes rely on their ability to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, adhere to mucosal surfaces, and metabolize available energy sources from dietary compounds, including prebiotics. Genome sequencing projects have proposed models for understanding prebiotic catabolism, but mechanisms remain to be elucidated for many prebiotic substrates. Although β-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are documented prebiotic compounds, little is known about their utilization by lactobacilli. This study aimed to identify genetic loci in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM responsible for the transport and catabolism of GOS. Whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays were used to survey the differential global transcriptome during logarithmic growth of L. acidophilus NCFM using GOS or glucose as a sole source of carbohydrate. Within the 16.6-kbp gal-lac gene cluster, lacS, a galactoside-pentose-hexuronide permease-encoding gene, was up-regulated 5.1-fold in the presence of GOS. In addition, two β-galactosidases, LacA and LacLM, and enzymes in the Leloir pathway were also encoded by genes within this locus and up-regulated by GOS stimulation. Generation of a lacS-deficient mutant enabled phenotypic confirmation of the functional LacS permease not only for the utilization of lactose and GOS but also lactitol, suggesting a prominent role of LacS in the metabolism of a broad range of prebiotic β-galactosides, known to selectively modulate the beneficial gut microbiota.

  20. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  1. Electromagnetic and microwave-absorbing properties of magnetite decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared with poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chunying; Zhang, Aibo; Zheng, Yaping; Luan, Jingfan

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs hybrids prepared with PVP achieve a maximum reflection loss is -35.8 dB at 8.56 GHz, and the bandwidth below -10 dB is more than 2.32 GHz. More importantly, a new reflection loss peak occurs at the frequency of 14.6 GHz, which indicates that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs hybrids have better absorption properties in the high-frequency range. Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} decorated MWNTs hybrids were prepared using PVP as dispersant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many more Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were attached homogeneously on the surface of MWNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs hybrids achieve a maximum reflection loss of -35.8 dB at 8.56 GHz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new reflection loss peak occurs at the high-frequency of 14.6 GHz. -- Abstract: The magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) hybrids were prepared by an in situ chemical precipitation method using poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) as dispersant. The structure and morphology of hybrids are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron-microscopy (TEM). The TEM investigation shows that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs hybrids exhibit less entangled structure and many more Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are attached homogeneously on the surface of MWNTs, which indicated that PVP can indeed help MWNTs to disperse in isolated form. The electromagnetic and absorbing properties were investigated in a frequency of 2-18 GHz. The results show that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs hybrids exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior and possess a saturation magnetization of 22.9 emu/g. The maximum reflection loss is -35.8 dB at 8.56 GHz, and the bandwidth below -10 dB is more than 2.32 GHz. More importantly, a new reflection loss peak occurs at the frequency of 14.6 GHz, which indicates that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs

  2. Comparative functional analysis of the lac operons in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Loughman, Jennifer A; Caparon, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Having no known environmental reservoir, Streptococcus pyogenes, a bacterium responsible for a wider variety of human diseases than any other bacterial species, must rely on its host for metabolic substrates. Although a streptococcal aldolase, LacD.1, has been adapted to virulence gene regulation, both LacD.1 and a paralogous protein, LacD.2, are predicted to function in the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway for lactose and galactose utilization. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of the LacD.1 regulatory pathway and the role of genome context in the emergence of LacD.1's novel regulatory functions, we compared the function and regulation of the Lac.1 and Lac.2 loci. The Lac.1 operon is not inducible, and regulation by LacD.1 is independent of a functional tagatose 6-phosphate pathway and enhanced by the conserved truncation of upstream Lac.1 genes. In contrast, Lac.2 expression is sensitive to environmental carbohydrates, and LacD.2, not LacD.1, contributes to growth on galactose. Thus, we conclude that the Lac.1 locus has been specialized to participate in regulation, leaving efficient utilization of carbohydrate sources to the Lac.2 locus. The adaptation of LacD for transcription regulation may be an underappreciated strategy among prokaryotes, as homologues of this multifaceted enzyme are present in a broad range of species. PMID:17371500

  3. The role of cis-acting sequences governing catabolite repression control of lacS expression in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Viet; Bini, Elisabetta; Dixit, Vidula; Drozda, Melissa; Blum, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus uses a catabolite repression-like system to control production of several glycoside hydrolases. To better understand this regulatory system, studies of the regulation of expression of the beta-glycosidase gene (lacS) were conducted. Expression of lacS varies in response to medium composition and to mutations at an unlinked gene called car. Despite gene overlap, expression of the lacS promoter proximal gene, SSO3017, exhibited coregulation but not cotranscription with lacS. Measurements of mRNA half-life excluded differential stability as a factor in lacS regulation. Chromosomal repositioning by homologous recombination of a lacS deletion series clarified critical cis-acting sequences required for lacS regulation. lacS repositioned at amyA exhibited increased lacS expression and compromised the response to medium composition independently of lacS 5' flanking sequence composition. In contrast, regulation of lacS by the car mutation was dependent on sequences upstream of the archaeal TATA box. Expression of a promoter fusion between lacS and the car-independent malA promoter integrated either at amyA or at the natural lacS locus was insensitive to the allelic state of car. In contrast, the promoter fusion retained a response to medium composition only at the lacS locus. These results indicate that car acts at the lacS promoter and that the response to medium composition involves locus-specific sequences exclusive of those present 5' to lacS or within the lacS transcription unit. PMID:15342498

  4. Optimized expression and purification of biophysical quantities of Lac repressor and Lac repressor regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Stetz, Matthew A; Carter, Marie V; Wand, A Joshua

    2016-07-01

    The recombinant production of Lac repressor (LacI) in Escherichia coli is complicated by its ubiquitous use as a regulatory element in commercially-available expression vectors and host strains. While LacI-regulated expression systems are often used to produce recombinant LacI, the product can be heterogeneous and unsuitable for some studies. Alternative approaches include using unregulated vectors which typically suffer from low yield or vectors with promoters induced by metabolically active sugars which can dilute isotope labels necessary for certain biophysical studies. Here, an optimized expression system and isolation protocol for producing various constructs of LacI is introduced which eliminates these complications. The expression vector is an adaptation of the pASK backbone wherein expression of the lacI gene is regulated by an anhydrotetracyline inducible tetA promoter and the host strain lacks the lacI gene. Typical yields in highly deuterated minimal medium are nearly 2-fold greater than those previously reported. Notably, the new expression system is also able to produce the isolated regulatory domain of LacI without co-expression of the full-length protein and without any defects in cell viability, eliminating the inconvenient requirement for strict monitoring of cell densities during pre-culturing. Typical yields in highly deuterated minimal medium are significantly greater than those previously reported. Characterization by solution NMR shows that LacI constructs produced using this expression system are highly homogenous and functionally active. PMID:27064119

  5. The protein burden of lac operon products.

    PubMed

    Koch, A L

    1983-01-01

    A new approach to measuring the slowing of growth due to the manufacture of proteins not needed by a bacterium is presented. An entire single colony of Escherichia coli was used to start a chemostat culture that was then given a selective pressure by the addition of phenylgalactoside (phi-gal). This enriched the population for constitutive mutants that produced beta-galactosidase without induction and could split phi-gal, consume the galactose, and grow faster. When the phi-gal was removed, the constitutives grew slower than the parental strain and were gradually lost. This procedure allows competition experiments to be carried out with minimum effects due to genetic drift. Experiments with both strains having wild-type and mutant permease genes were conducted. With the former the selective disadvantage was initially much greater than expected from the simplest hypothesis that extra unused proteins would slow growth in proportion to their fraction of the total protein synthesis. This phase was followed by a second phase where the selective disadvantage was smaller than predicted by this simple hypothesis. With a very slowly reverting permease negative strain the selective disadvantage, and therefore the protein burden, was found to be much smaller and not statistically different from zero. Thus, while one would expect under carbon and energy limitation in the chemostat the protein burden to be larger than under unlimited conditions, it is so small that even the refined technique used here could not measure it accurately. It is certainly less than the fraction of 'waste' protein synthesis; but it could be between zero and the fraction of the cells' energy and carbon budget spent on manufacture of the proteins of the lac operon. PMID:6361271

  6. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  7. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  8. Evolutionary behaviour of AGN: Investigations on BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, V.

    2000-12-01

    which contribute to the BL Lac phenomenon. I also suggest an extension of the BL Lac definition to objects with a calcium break up to 40%, but do not support for the HBL the idea of allowing emission lines in the spectra of BL Lac galaxies. A way to find high redshift BL Lac objects might be the identification of faint X-ray sources (e.g. from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey) with neither optical nor radio counterpart in prominent databases (e.g. POSS plates for the optical, and NVSS/FIRST radio catalogues). The Seyfert II survey on the southern hemisphere derived a sample of 29 galaxies with 22 in a complete sample. The selection procedure developed in this work is able to select Seyfert II candidates with a success rate of ~40%. The Seyfert II galaxies outnumber the Seyfert I by a factor of 3...4 when comparing the total flux of the objects, but are less numerous than the type I objects when studying the core luminosity function. This luminosity function of the Seyfert II cores is the first one presented up to now. Hence it is possible to estimate the number of luminous Type II AGN, and the conclusion is drawn that absorbed AGN with MV < -28 mag might not exist within the universe. In 25 % of the Seyfert II galaxies I find evidence for merging events. In collaboration with Roberto Della Ceca I also showed that it is possible to find Type II AGN by selecting "hard" X-ray sources. I present a prototype of a Type II AGN found within this project. This work might be the basis to explore the universe for rare objects like BL Lacs and Seyfert II galaxies at higher redshifts. This could give an answer to the question: Whether there are BL Lac objects at redshifts z >> 1 and Type II Quasars or not. In summary the AGN phenomenon appears to be linked closely to merging and interacting events. For the BL Lac phenomenon the merging area seems to form the progenitor, while the Seyfert II phenomenon could be triggered by merging events. The role of star burst activity in terms of activity

  9. Comparison of metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonesifer, Greg T.; Chang, Craig H.; Cusick, Robert J.; Hart, Joan M.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-oxide absorbents (MOAs) have a demonstrated capability for removal of both metabolic CO2 and H2O from breathing atmospheres, simplifying portable life support system (PLSS) design and affording reversible operation for regeneration. Attention is presently given to the comparative performance levels obtained by silver-oxide-based and silver/zinc-oxide-based systems, which also proved to be longer-lasting than the silver oxide-absorber system. The silver/zinc system is found to substantially simplify the ventilation loop of a prospective Space Station Freedom PLSS.

  10. Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kuang-Nan; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-04-01

    The passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a medium gain is demonstrated and compared by using three different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) doped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. Nano-scale clay is used to disperse the CNTs doped in the PVA polymer aqueous solution to serve as a fast saturable absorber to initiate passive mode-locking. The three types of CNT based saturable absorbers, namely single-walled (SW), double-walled (DW) and multi-walled (MW), are characterized by Raman scattering and optical absorption spectroscopy. The SW-CNTs with a diameter of 1.26 nm have two absorption peaks located around 1550 ± 70 and 860 ± 50 nm. In contrast, the DW-CNTs with a diameter of 1.33 nm reveal two absorption peaks located at 1580 ± 40 and 920 ± 50 nm. By using the SW-CNT based saturable absorber, the passively mode-locked EDFL exhibits a pulsewidth of 1.28 ps and a spectral linewidth of 1.99 nm. Due to the increased linear absorption of the DW-CNT based saturable absorber, the intra-cavity net gain of the EDFL is significantly attenuated to deliver an incompletely mode-locked pulsewidth of 6.8 ps and a spectral linewidth of 0.62 nm. No distinct pulse-train is produced by using the MW-CNT film as the saturable absorber, which is attributed to the significant insertion loss of the EDFL induced by the large linear absorption of the MW-CNT film.

  11. Generation of stretched pulses and dissipative solitons at 2  μm from an all-fiber mode-locked laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Obraztsova, Elena D; Pozharov, Anatoly S; Set, Sze Y; Yamashita, Shinji

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a thulium-doped, all-fiber, mode-locked laser using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber, operating in the dissipative-soliton regime and the stretched-pulse-soliton regime. The net dispersion of the laser cavity is adjusted by inserting different lengths of normal dispersion fiber, resulting in different mode-locking regimes. These results could serve as a foundation for the optimization of mode-locked fiber-laser cavity design at the 2 μm wavelength region. PMID:27519109

  12. Generation of stretched pulses and dissipative solitons at 2  μm from an all-fiber mode-locked laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Obraztsova, Elena D; Pozharov, Anatoly S; Set, Sze Y; Yamashita, Shinji

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a thulium-doped, all-fiber, mode-locked laser using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber, operating in the dissipative-soliton regime and the stretched-pulse-soliton regime. The net dispersion of the laser cavity is adjusted by inserting different lengths of normal dispersion fiber, resulting in different mode-locking regimes. These results could serve as a foundation for the optimization of mode-locked fiber-laser cavity design at the 2 μm wavelength region.

  13. Magnetic γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe nanoparticles confined within ordered mesoporous carbons as efficient microwave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2015-02-01

    A series of magnetic γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe nanoparticles have been successfully introduced into the mesochannels of ordered mesoporous carbons by the combination of the impregnation of iron salt precursors and then in situ hydrolysis, pyrolysis and reduction processes. The magnetic nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed and confined within the mesopores of mesoporous carbons. Although the as-prepared magnetic mesoporous carbon composites have high contents of magnetic components, they still possess very high specific surface areas and pore volumes. The magnetic hysteresis loops measurements indicate that the magnetic constituents are poorly-crystalline nanoparticles and their saturation magnetization is evidently smaller than bulky magnetic materials. The confinement of magnetic nanoparticles within the mesopores of mesoporous carbons results in the decrease of the complex permittivity and the increase of the complex permeability of the magnetic nanocomposites. The maximum reflection loss (RL) values of -32 dB at 11.3 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 2 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained for 10-Fe3O4-CMK-3 and 10-γ-Fe2O3-CMK-3 composites in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band), showing their great potentials in microwave absorption. This research opens a new method and idea for developing novel magnetic mesoporous carbon composites as high-performance microwave absorbing materials. PMID:25562071

  14. Magnetic γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe nanoparticles confined within ordered mesoporous carbons as efficient microwave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2015-02-01

    A series of magnetic γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe nanoparticles have been successfully introduced into the mesochannels of ordered mesoporous carbons by the combination of the impregnation of iron salt precursors and then in situ hydrolysis, pyrolysis and reduction processes. The magnetic nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed and confined within the mesopores of mesoporous carbons. Although the as-prepared magnetic mesoporous carbon composites have high contents of magnetic components, they still possess very high specific surface areas and pore volumes. The magnetic hysteresis loops measurements indicate that the magnetic constituents are poorly-crystalline nanoparticles and their saturation magnetization is evidently smaller than bulky magnetic materials. The confinement of magnetic nanoparticles within the mesopores of mesoporous carbons results in the decrease of the complex permittivity and the increase of the complex permeability of the magnetic nanocomposites. The maximum reflection loss (RL) values of -32 dB at 11.3 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 2 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained for 10-Fe3O4-CMK-3 and 10-γ-Fe2O3-CMK-3 composites in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band), showing their great potentials in microwave absorption. This research opens a new method and idea for developing novel magnetic mesoporous carbon composites as high-performance microwave absorbing materials.

  15. Multiband Microvariability of BL Lac During Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Carini, M. T.; Noble, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The blazar BL Lac recently underwent a major outburst. A search for microvariability was made with the 0.76 m telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Nearly 300 CCD observations in V and R were made over ten nights in July. During that time, BL Lac varied by more than 1.5 magnitudes and exhibited substantial microvariability. In fact, it exhibited microvariability each of the eight nights multiple exposures were made, being most active when brightest on July 29. On this night, four mini-flares were seen within 7 hours. During one of these flares, BL Lac brightened by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The variations in V and R were simultaneous within the limits of the observations. However, the V and R magnitudes did not always change at the same rate. On July 3, BL Lac brightened in R faster than in V. Then on July 4, it dimmed in V faster than in R. Yet over the ten nights observed, BL Lac became bluer as it brightened. Another interesting difference between the V and R data was seen on July 4 when a mini-flare was seen in V but not in R. Clearly, while the V and R variations are highly correlated, there are compelling differences. Here we present these observations and discuss them in relation to models intended to explain microvariability. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NCC5-228.

  16. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  17. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers. PMID:27126900

  18. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-04-29

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

  19. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-04-01

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

  20. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers. PMID:27126900

  1. METHOD 415.3 - MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON, DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND SPECIFIC UV ABSORBANCE AT 254 NM IN SOURCE WATER AND DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    2.0 SUMMARY OF METHOD

    2.1 In both TOC and DOC determinations, organic carbon in the water sample is oxidized to form carbon dioxide (CO2), which is then measured by a detection system. There are two different approaches for the oxidation of organic carbon in water sample...

  2. Quantifying how sensitive different types of snow and snow ice are to black carbon and other types of light absorbing aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M. D.; Marks, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon in snow and sea ice has commonly been reported to lower albedo, exacerbating snow/sea ice melting and decrease e-folding depths, which can affect biological and chemical processes. There is still a large degree of uncertainty present in the estimated climatic radiative forcing that black carbon could cause. The properties (optical and physical) of snow and sea ice vary drastically both laterally and temporally and snow and sea ices with different physical and optical properties respond differently to additions of black carbon. The albedo and e-folding depth (light penetration) response of snow and sea ice with different physical properties, to black carbon and other light absorbing impurities additions is investigated as a function of sea ice and snow type. A snow or sea ice with a lower scattering cross-section is more responsive to additions of black carbon. The albedo of sea ice is a factor of five more responsive to black carbon additions than the albedo of snow. Light penetration or e-folding depth is a considerably more sensitive to black carbon than albedo. The e-folding depth of a snow or sea ice with a smaller scattering cross-section is more responsive to additions of black carbon. Cold polar snowpacks have large values of the scattering cross-section, whilst melting snow is the least scattering. For sea ice multi-year frozen white ice is the more light scattering environ than first year sea ice and melting blue ice is the least scattering. Current climate change is causing a decrease in snow covered areas which will result in more melted snow, with a small scattering cross-section which is more responsive to black carbon additions. Climate change is also leading to a decrease in multi-year ice, a transition from multi-year to first year ice will mean sea ice is more scattering and therefore its albedo is more responsive to black carbon additions which will further exacerbate melting.

  3. SPECTROSCOPY OF THE LARGEST EVER {gamma}-RAY-SELECTED BL LAC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.

    2013-02-20

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic z-tilde from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have z-tilde = 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M {sub .} {approx} 10{sup 8.5} - 10{sup 9}, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M {sub .} with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the {gamma}-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  4. Production and characterization of activated carbon prepared from safflower seed cake biochar and its ability to absorb reactive dyestuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angın, Dilek; Köse, T. Ennil; Selengil, Uğur

    2013-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from biochar for the removal of reactive dyestuff from aqueous solutions at various contact times, pHs and temperatures was investigated. The biochar was chemically modified with potassium hydroxide. The surface area and micropore volume of activated carbon was 1277 m2/g and 0.4952 cm3/g, respectively. The surface characterization of both biochar and activated carbon was undertaken using by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetics of reactive dyestuff obeys the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG̊, ΔH̊ and ΔS̊ were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 1.12 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal reactive dyestuff from wastewater.

  5. A batch study on the bio-fixation of carbon dioxide in the absorbed solution from a chemical wet scrubber by hot spring and marine algae.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, H T; Chu, H; Yu, S T

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide mass transfer is a key factor in cultivating micro-algae except for the light limitation of photosynthesis. It is a novel idea to enhance mass transfer with the cyclic procedure of absorbing CO(2) with a high performance alkaline abosorber such as a packed tower and regenerating the alkaline solution with algal photosynthesis. Hence, the algae with high affinity for alkaline condition must be purified. In this study, a hot spring alga (HSA) was purified from an alkaline hot spring (pH 9.3, 62 degrees C) in Taiwan and grows well over pH 11.5 and 50 degrees C. For performance of HSA, CO(2) removal efficiencies in the packed tower increase about 5-fold in a suitable growth condition compared to that without adding any potassium hydroxide. But ammonia solution was not a good choice for this system with regard to carbon dioxide removal efficiency because of its toxicity on HSA. In addition, HSA also exhibits a high growth rate under the controlled pHs from 7 to 11. Besides, a well mass balance of carbon and nitrogen made sure that less other byproducts formed in the procedure of carboxylation. For analysis of some metals in HSA, such as Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, related to the photosynthesis increased by a rising cultivated pH and revealed that those metals might be accumulated under alkaline conditions but the growth rate was still limited by the ratio of bicarbonate (useful carbon source) and carbonate. Meanwhile, Nannochlopsis oculta (NAO) was also tested under different additional carbon sources. The results revealed that solutions of sodium/potassium carbonate are better carbon sources than ammonia carbonate/bicarbonate for the growth of NAO. However, pH 9.6 of growth limitation based on sodium was lower than one of HSA. The integrated system is, therefore, more feasible to treat CO(2) in the flue gases using the algae with higher alkaline affinity such as HSA in small volume bioreactors.

  6. Metal-organic framework-templated synthesis of magnetic nanoporous carbon as an efficient absorbent for enrichment of phenylurea herbicides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingli; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-04-22

    Nanoporous carbon with a high specific surface area and unique porous structure represents an attractive material as an adsorbent in analytical chemistry. In this study, a magnetic nanoporous carbon (MNC) was fabricated by direct carbonization of Co-based metal-organic framework in nitrogen atmosphere without using any additional carbon precursors. The MNC was used as an effective magnetic adsorbent for the extraction and enrichment of some phenylurea herbicides (monuron, isoproturon, diuron and buturon) in grape and bitter gourd samples prior to their determination by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Several important experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 1.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for monuron, diuron and buturon and 1.5-100.0 ng g(-1) for isoproturon with the correlation coefficients (r) larger than 0.9964. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method were in the range from 0.17 to 0.46 ng g(-1). The results indicated that the MNC material was stable and efficient adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of phenylurea herbicides and would have a great application potential for the extraction and preconcentration of more organic pollutants from real samples. PMID:25819788

  7. 40 CFR 65.153 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers, and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity monitoring device, each capable of... exit (product side) temperature monitoring device capable of providing a continuous record, shall be... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each regeneration cycle, and a carbon-bed...

  8. 40 CFR 65.153 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers, and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity monitoring device, each capable of... exit (product side) temperature monitoring device capable of providing a continuous record, shall be... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each regeneration cycle, and a carbon-bed...

  9. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capable of providing a continuous record or a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a...) temperature monitoring device capable of providing a continuous record shall be used. Monitoring results shall... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of...

  10. 40 CFR 65.153 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers, and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity monitoring device, each capable of... exit (product side) temperature monitoring device capable of providing a continuous record, shall be... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each regeneration cycle, and a carbon-bed...

  11. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... capable of providing a continuous record or a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a...) temperature monitoring device capable of providing a continuous record shall be used. Monitoring results shall... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of...

  12. Metal-organic framework-templated synthesis of magnetic nanoporous carbon as an efficient absorbent for enrichment of phenylurea herbicides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingli; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-04-22

    Nanoporous carbon with a high specific surface area and unique porous structure represents an attractive material as an adsorbent in analytical chemistry. In this study, a magnetic nanoporous carbon (MNC) was fabricated by direct carbonization of Co-based metal-organic framework in nitrogen atmosphere without using any additional carbon precursors. The MNC was used as an effective magnetic adsorbent for the extraction and enrichment of some phenylurea herbicides (monuron, isoproturon, diuron and buturon) in grape and bitter gourd samples prior to their determination by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Several important experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 1.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for monuron, diuron and buturon and 1.5-100.0 ng g(-1) for isoproturon with the correlation coefficients (r) larger than 0.9964. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method were in the range from 0.17 to 0.46 ng g(-1). The results indicated that the MNC material was stable and efficient adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of phenylurea herbicides and would have a great application potential for the extraction and preconcentration of more organic pollutants from real samples.

  13. Characteristics of dissolved organic carbon revealed by ultraviolet/visible absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy: The current status and future exploration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important research subject for various disciplines. The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize recent advancement in characterization of DOC by ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopies and to identify the information gaps for ...

  14. Thermal conversion of an Fe₃O₄@metal-organic framework: a new method for an efficient Fe-Co/nanoporous carbon microwave absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingmiao; Ji, Guangbin; Liu, Wei; Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Shang, Chaomei; Cheng, Yan; Du, Youwei

    2015-08-14

    A novel FeCo nanoparticle embedded nanoporous carbon composite (Fe-Co/NPC) was synthesized via in situ carbonization of dehydro-ascorbic acid (DHAA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a metal-organic framework (zeolitic imidazolate framework-67, ZIF-67). The molar ratio of Fe/Co significantly depends on the encapsulated content of Fe3O4 in ZIF-67. The composites filled with 50 wt% of the Fe-Co/NPC-2.0 samples in paraffin show a maximum reflection loss (RL) of -21.7 dB at a thickness of 1.2 mm; in addition, a broad absorption bandwidth for RL < -10 dB which covers from 12.2 to 18 GHz can be obtained, and its minimum reflection loss and bandwidth (RL values exceeding -10 dB) are far greater than those of commercial carbonyl iron powder under a very low thickness (1-1.5 mm). This study not only provides a good reference for future preparation of carbon-based lightweight microwave absorbing materials but also broadens the application of such kinds of metal-organic frameworks. PMID:26167763

  15. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotor, J.; Sobon, G.; Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L.; Abramski, K. M.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (Frep) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest Frep was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  16. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Sotor, J. Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M.; Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L.

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  17. Broad spectral pulse operation of 2 μm Tm:YAP laser based on reflection-type carbon nanotube absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Z. S.; Ma, B. M.; Fan, X. W.; Liu, J.; Wang, Y. G.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrated the first use of reflection-type single-walled carbon nanotube (RSWCNT) as a saturable absorber in the Q-switched mode-locking (QML) of a diode pumped Tm:YAP operating at 2 μm. The spectrum of the QML laser is centered at 1.97 μm with a broad spectral region of 36 nm. At the incident pump power of 10.33 W, as high as 432 mW average output power was produced in QML laser. The repetition rate of the mode-locked pulse inside the Q-switched envelope was 158 MHz. The dependence of the operational parameters on the pump power was also investigated experimentally.

  18. Thulium-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser based on NALM and carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, M A; Krylov, A A; Kryukov, P G; Arutyunyan, N R; Pozharov, A S; Obraztsova, E D; Dianov, E M

    2012-12-10

    We present a thulium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a carboxymetylcellulose high-optical quality film with dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes. Laser system based on the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror generates the shortest pulses earlier obtained in SWCNT mode-locked thulium-doped fiber lasers with a duration of 450 fs and 18 mW maximum average power at 1870 nm.

  19. Fragmentation of 200 and 244 MeV/u Carbon Beams in Thick Tissue-Like Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golovchenko, A. N.; Skvar, J.; Ili, R.; Sihver, L.; Bamblevski, V. P.; Tretyskova, S. P.; Schardt, D.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Stacks consisting of thin CR-39 sheets sandwiched between thick Lucite and water absorbers were perpendicularly bombarded by C-12 ions at 200 and 244 MeV/u. Track radius distributions representing the charge composition of the fragmented beams were automatically measured by a particle track analysis system. After analysis of the nuclear charge distributions, the total charge removal cross sections and elemental production cross sections of fragments with atomic numbers from 5 to 3, were obtained down to the lower energies (approximately 50 and 100 MeV/u, respectively). It has been found that the measured total charge removal cross section agrees with theoretical predictions within approximately 10% and very well with previous experiments in corresponding energy regions. Two model calculations for production of B fragment are in good agreement with our measured data while a third model overestimates it by approximately 12%. Theoretical cross sections for Be and Li fragments differ strongly among the different models and from measured values.

  20. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  1. Effect of metal base layer on the absorptance and emittance of sputtered graded metal-carbon selective absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, G. L.; Craig, S.

    1981-08-01

    Solar absorptance and temperature-dependent emittance is measured for graded metal-carbon films deposited onto smooth aluminum, copper, nickel, and stainless steel base layers, sputter-deposited onto glass tubes at relatively low argon pressure (approximately 0.5 Pa), and deposited onto textured copper using argon pressures 3 to 40 Pa. Absorptance measurements are made on surfaces deposited onto small plane glass slides attached to a glass tube in the coating system, and emittance measurements are made on coated tubes, assembled into glass envelopes. Both the small planar specimens of selective surface and coated tubes were inserted in continuously evacuated glass envelopes and annealed at 500 C for approximately 1 hr. It is shown that solar absorptance varies by only 1-2% for the different base layers, whereas the emittance of surfaces based on nickel and stainless steel is considerably higher than for surfaces based on copper and aluminum. Small changes occur in absorptances and emittances after annealing. It is concluded that the optimum selective surface for evacuated collectors used with mirrors of low concentrations consists of graded metal-carbon overlaid with smooth copper.

  2. Design of the lac gene circuit revisited.

    PubMed

    Savageau, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    The lactose (lac) operon of Escherichia coli serves as the paradigm for gene regulation, not only for bacteria, but also for all biological systems from simple phage to humans. The details of the systems may differ, but the key conceptual framework remains, and the original system continues to reveal deeper insights with continued experimental and theoretical study. Nearly as long lasting in impact as the pivotal work of Jacob and Monod is the classic experiment of Novick and Weiner in which they demonstrated all-or-none gene expression in response to an artificial inducer. These results are often cited in claims that normal gene expression is in fact a discontinuous bistable phenomenon. In this paper, I review several levels of analysis of the lac system and introduce another perspective based on the construction of the system design space. These represent variations on a theme, based on a simply stated design principle, that captures the key qualitative features of the system in a largely mechanism-independent fashion. Moreover, this principle can be readily interpreted in terms of specific mechanisms to make predictions regarding monostable vs. bistable behavior. The regions of design space representing bifurcations are compared with the corresponding regions identified through bifurcation analysis. I present evidence based on biological considerations as well as modeling and analysis to suggest that induction of the lac system in its natural setting is a monostable continuously graded phenomenon. Nevertheless, it must be acknowledged that the lac stability question remains unsettled, and it undoubtedly will remain so until there are definitive experimental results. PMID:21414326

  3. Design of the lac gene circuit revisited

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The lactose (lac) operon of Escherichia coli serves as the paradigm for gene regulation, not only for bacteria, but also for all biological systems from simple phage to humans. The details of the systems may differ, but the key conceptual framework remains, and the original system continues to reveal deeper insights with continued experimental and theoretical study. Nearly as long lasting in impact as the pivotal work of Jacob and Monod is the classic experiment of Novick and Weiner in which they demonstrated all-or-none gene expression in response to an artificial inducer. These results are often cited in claims that normal gene expression is in fact a discontinuous bistable phenomenon. In this paper, I review several levels of analysis of the lac system and introduce another perspective based on the construction of the system design space. These represent variations on a theme, based on a simply stated design principle, that captures the key qualitative features of the system in a largely mechanism-independent fashion. Moreover, this principle can be readily interpreted in terms of specific mechanisms to make predictions regarding monostable vs. bistable behavior. The regions of design space representing bifurcations are compared with the corresponding regions identified through bifurcation analysis. I present evidence based on biological considerations as well as modeling and analysis to suggest that induction of the lac system in its natural setting is a monostable continuously graded phenomenon. Nevertheless, it must be acknowledged that the lac stability question remains unsettled, and it undoubtedly will remain so until there are definitive experimental results. PMID:21414326

  4. Origin of bistability in the lac Operon.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M; Mackey, M C; Zeron, E S

    2007-06-01

    Multistability is an emergent dynamic property that has been invoked to explain multiple coexisting biological states. In this work, we investigate the origin of bistability in the lac operon. To do this, we develop a mathematical model for the regulatory pathway in this system and compare the model predictions with other experimental results in which a nonmetabolizable inducer was employed. We investigate the effect of lactose metabolism using this model, and show that it greatly modifies the bistable region in the external lactose (Le) versus external glucose (Ge) parameter space. The model also predicts that lactose metabolism can cause bistability to disappear for very low Ge. We have also carried out stochastic numerical simulations of the model for several values of Ge and Le. Our results indicate that bistability can help guarantee that Escherichia coli consumes glucose and lactose in the most efficient possible way. Namely, the lac operon is induced only when there is almost no glucose in the growing medium, but if Le is high, the operon induction level increases abruptly when the levels of glucose in the environment decrease to very low values. We demonstrate that this behavior could not be obtained without bistability if the stability of the induced and uninduced states is to be preserved. Finally, we point out that the present methods and results may be useful to study the emergence of multistability in biological systems other than the lac operon. PMID:17351004

  5. Fundamental and harmonic soliton mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in poly (ethylene oxide) film saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdin, R. Z. R. R.; Zarei, A.; Ali, N. M.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, compact and low cost mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) film as a passive saturable absorber. The film was fabricated using a prepared homogeneous SWCNT solution, which was mixed with a diluted PEO solution and casted onto a glass petri dish to form a thin film by evaporation technique. The film, with a thickness of 50 μm, is sandwiched between two fiber connectors to construct a saturable absorber, which is then integrated in an EDFL cavity to generate a self-started stable soliton pulses operating at 1560.8 nm. The soliton pulse starts to lase at 1480 nm pup power threshold of 12.3 mW to produce pulse train with repetition rate of 11.21 MHz, pulse width of 1.02 ps, average output power of 0.65 mW and pulse energy of 57.98 pJ. Then, we observed the 4th, 7th and 15th harmonic of fundamental cavity frequency start to occur when the pump powers are further increased to 14.9, 17.5 and 20.1 mW, respectively. The 4th harmonic pulses are characterized in detail with a repetition rate of 44.84 MHz, a transform-limited pulse width of 1.19 ps, side-mode suppression ratio of larger than 20 dB and pulse energy of 9.14 pJ.

  6. Sources of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Disinfection By-Product Precursors to the McKenzie River: Use of absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, T. E.; Anderson, C.; Morgenstern, K.; Downing, B. D.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a constituent of concern with respect to drinking water quality because it reacts upon chlorination to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The amount of DBPs that form is a function of both the amount and type of DOM undergoing treatment. Currently, the EPA regulates two classes of DBPs - trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. This study was initiated to determine the main sources of NOM and disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors to the McKenzie River which is the sole water source for approximately 200,000 people in Eugene, Oregon (USA). Water samples collected from upstream, reservoir, tributary inputs and mainstem sites were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DBP formation potential. In addition, absorbance and fluorescence properties were determined to provide insight into DOC quality and assess whether these measurements can serve as useful proxies for DOC concentration and trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively). Overall, raw water concentrations of DOC (<2 mg/L) and distribution system trihalomethanes (10-30 μg/L) and haloacetic acids (10-35 μg/L) were well below EPA regulations. The main sources of DOC to the McKenzie River were terrestrial watershed inputs entering the watershed via upstream sources. Downstream tributaries contained greater concentrations of DOC which had higher propensity to form DBPs, however because these inflows comprise less than 5% of mainstem flows, DBP precursor loads from these sources have a minimal effect on drinking water quality. Water exiting two flood control reservoirs from upstream tributaries, Cougar and Blue River, also had higher DOC concentrations than the upstream site, however qualitative data did not support a significant source from in situ algal production. Due to the interference in absorbance likely due to the presence of iron in downstream tributaries, absorbance was not as strong of a predictor of

  7. Comments on “Impact of California’s Air Pollution Laws on Black Carbon and their Implications for Direct Radiative Forcing” by R. Bahadur et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schichtel, Bret A.; Pitchford, Marc L.; White, Warren H.

    2011-08-01

    Using data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program, Bahadur et al. (2011) report that average fine particulate light absorbing carbon (LAC) concentrations in California decreased by about 50% from 0.46 μg m -3 in 1989 to 0.24 μg m -3 in 2008. They attribute most of the LAC decline in California to reductions in the state's diesel emissions. These findings are encouraging, but in this comment we call attention to a significant methodological issue that can arise in any long-term trends analysis using IMPROVE data. In the Bahadur et al. analysis, LAC data from eighteen remote monitoring sites were aggregated with data from three urban sites that only operated for 1-8 years. The large absolute decrease of 0.22 μg m -3 they reported in the statewide California average was largely driven by one urban site, South Lake Tahoe (Tahoe), which was dropped from the network in mid-1997. LAC concentrations at Tahoe were an order of magnitude higher than those at nearby Bliss State Park indicative of large local source contributions. The exclusion of the three locally influenced urban sites substantially reduces the magnitude of the decreasing LAC trends shown in Bahadur et al., though this does not necessarily invalidate the paper's conclusion that LAC is broadly decreasing and diesel emission controls are likely to be responsible for part of this decrease. Control of emissions from wood-burning stoves may also have contributed to decreases in LAC and other particulate compounds; like diesel emission controls, this too is an important regulatory success.

  8. Properties of light-absorbing aerosols in the Nagoya urban area, Japan, in August 2011 and January 2012: Contributions of brown carbon and lensing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Ikeda, Yuka; Sawada, Yuuki; Setoguchi, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Shuhei; Kawana, Kaori; Mochida, Michihiro; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2014-11-01

    The optical properties of aerosols at 405 and 781 nm were measured in an urban site in Nagoya, Japan, in August 2011 and in January 2012 using a photoacoustic spectrometer. Comparison of the absorption coefficient at 781 nm of aerosols that did and did not pass through a thermo-denuder showed that an increase in black carbon (BC) light absorption due to the coating of non-refractory materials (i.e., the lensing effect) was small (on average, 10%) in August and negligible in January. The effective density distributions for the particles that did and did not pass through the thermo-denuder, which were measured simultaneously in August, suggested that the majority of BC particles sampled had a minimal coating. The small lensing effect observed can be explained partly by assuming that a large portion of non-refractory materials was mixed externally with BC. The contribution of direct light absorption by organic matter (OM) that vaporized at temperatures below 300°C to the total light absorption at 405 nm was negligible in August, but those by OM that vaporized below 300 and 400°C averaged 11 and 17%, respectively, in January. The larger contribution of light-absorbing OM in January is likely due to the greater contribution of OM originating from the burning of biomass, including biofuel and agricultural residue, in Japan, northern China, or Siberia, during the winter.

  9. Self-mode-locking in erbium-doped fibre lasers with saturable polymer film absorbers containing single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc discharge method

    SciTech Connect

    Tausenev, Anton V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Obraztsova, Elena D; Konov, Vitalii I; Lobach, A S; Chernov, A I; Kryukov, P G; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2007-03-31

    We studied the ring and linear schemes of erbium-doped fibre lasers in which passive mode locking was achieved with the help of saturable absorbers made of high-optical quality films based on cellulose derivatives with dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes. The films were prepared by the original method with the use of nanotubes synthesised by the arc discharge method. The films exhibit nonlinear absorption at a wavelength of 1.5 {mu}m. Pulses in the form of optical solitons of duration 1.17 ps at a wavelength of 1.56 {mu}m were generated in the ring scheme of the erbium laser. The average output power was 1.1 mW at a pulse repetition rate of 20.5 MHz upon pumping by the 980-nm, 25-mW radiation from a laser diode. The pulse duration in the linear scheme was reduced to 466 fs for the output power up to 4 mW and a pulse repetition rate of 28.5 MHz. The specific feature of these lasers is a low pump threshold in the regime of generation of ultrashort pulses. (letters)

  10. UV254 absorbance as real-time monitoring and control parameter for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment with powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Massa, Lukas; Sperlich, Alexander; Gnirss, Regina; Jekel, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the applicability of UV absorbance measurements at 254 nm (UVA254) to serve as a simple and reliable surrogate parameter to monitor and control the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in advanced wastewater treatment applying powdered activated carbon (PAC). Correlations between OMP removal and corresponding UVA254 reduction were determined in lab-scale adsorption batch tests and successfully applied to a pilot-scale PAC treatment stage to predict OMP removals in aggregate samples with good accuracy. Real-time UVA254 measurements were utilized to evaluate adapted PAC dosing strategies and proved to be effective for online monitoring of OMP removal. Furthermore, active PAC dosing control according to differential UVA254 measurements was implemented and tested. While precise removal predictions based on real-time measurements were not accurate for all OMPs, UVA254-controlled dynamic PAC dosing was capable of achieving stable OMP removals. UVA254 can serve as an effective surrogate parameter for OMP removal in technical PAC applications. Even though the applicability as control parameter to adjust PAC dosing to water quality changes might be limited to applications with fast response between PAC adjustment and adsorptive removal (e.g. direct filtration), UVA254 measurements can also be used to monitor the adsorption efficiency in more complex PAC applications. PMID:26963606

  11. All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Cha, Yong-Ho; Jeong, Do-Young; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate a dissipative soliton fiber laser with high pulse energy (>30 nJ) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). In-line SA that evanescently interacts with the high quality SWCNT/polymer composite film was fabricated under optimized conditions, increasing the damage threshold of the saturation fluence of the SA to 97 mJ/cm(2). An Er-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser operating at net normal intra-cavity dispersion was built including the fabricated in-line SA. The laser stably delivers linearly chirped pulses with a pulse duration of 12.7 ps, and exhibits a spectral bandwidth of 12.1 nm at the central wavelength of 1563 nm. Average power of the laser output is measured as 335 mW at an applied pump power of 1.27 W. The corresponding pulse energy is estimated to be 34 nJ at the fundamental repetition rate of 9.80 MHz; this is the highest value, to our knowledge, reported in all-fiber Er-doped mode-locked laser using an SWCNT-SA.

  12. Q-switched 2 μm thulium bismuth co-doped fiber laser with multi-walled carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidin, N.; Zen, D. I. M.; Ahmad, F.; Haris, H.; Ahmad, H.; Dimyati, K.; Harun, S. W.; Halder, A.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    We report a passively Q-switched fiber laser operating at 1900 nm region using the newly developed thulium bismuth co-doped lithium-alumino-germano-silicate fiber (TBF) as a gain medium in conjunction with a multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA). The TBF and MWCNTs are fabricated and prepared in-house. By increasing the 802 nm pump power from 106.6 to 160 mW, stable generation of Q-switched TBFL has been obtained at 1857.8 nm wavelength. The pulse repetition rate varies from 12.84 to 29.48 kHz while pulse width is increased from 9.6 to 6.1 μs. The performance of the laser is also compared with the Q-switched TDFL, which was obtained using a similar MWCNTs SA and pump wavelength. The Q-switched TDFL generates an optical pulse train with a repetition rate increasing from 3.8 to 4.6 kHz and pulse width reducing from 22.1 to 18.3 μs when the pump power is tuned from 187.3 to 194.2 mW. This shows that the TBFL performs better than the TDFL in terms of threshold pump power, repetition rate and pulse width.

  13. Radiocarbon measurements at LAC-UFF: Recent performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, Roberto; Macario, Kita D.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Carvalho, Carla; dos Santos, Hellen C.; Gomes, Paulo R. S.; Castro, Maikel D.; Oliveira, Fabiana M.; Alves, Eduardo Q.

    2015-10-01

    In 2012 a single stage accelerator mass spectrometer from NEC was installed at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF), Niterói, Brazil. Here, we present a status report of our facility. We discuss some modifications applied to our combustion protocol in an attempt to reduce our procedural blank, mostly to processed organic samples. Measurements of reference materials indicate low precision and accuracy that are partially related to beam optics through the acceleration tube. We observed that once the beam current intensity increases the measured 13C+/12C+ becomes erratic. Therefore, in order to maintain the AMS-δ13C values within reasonable values, so that fractionation corrections using the spectrometer 13C+/12C+ values does not affect the final 14C results, we are forced to limit the 12C- beam intensity to ⩽30 μA. This requirement was confirmed during our accuracy tests, when measuring selected annual tree-rings wood samples from a Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) between 1927 and 1997 previously measured at the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility (KCCAMS), at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). At the LAC-UFF tree-ring wood samples were processed and measured in 4 different batches during a period of about 5 months. The 14C results were later compared to the high-precision data obtained at KCCAMS/UCI and reached a good agreement. Recently a problem associated with graphitization yield were finally identified and new measurements with secondary standards are promising.

  14. BATSE observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, V.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S.; McCollough, M.A; Robinson, C.F.

    1998-06-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has been shown to be sensitive to non-transient hard X-ray sources in our galaxy, down to flux levels of 100 mCrab for daily measurements, 3 mCrab for integrations over several years. We use the continuous BATSE database and the Earth Occultation technique to extract average flux values between 20 and 2OO keV from complete and radio- and X-ray- selected BL Lac samples over a 2 year period.

  15. LacR mutations are frequently observed in Streptococcus intermedius and are responsible for increased intermedilysin production and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Okamoto, Ayumi; Kim, Hyejin; Waite, Richard D; Whiley, Robert A; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin (ILY), which is considered to be the major virulence factor of this pathogen. We screened for a repressor of ily expression by using random gene disruption in a low-ILY-producing strain (PC574). Three independent high-ILY-producing colonies that had plasmid insertions within a gene that has high homology to lacR were isolated. Validation of these observations was achieved through disruption of lacR in strain PC574 with an erythromycin cassette, which also led to higher hemolytic activity, increased transcription of ily, and higher cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, compared to the parental strain. The direct binding of LacR within the ily promoter region was shown by a biotinylated DNA probe pulldown assay, and the amount of ILY secreted into the culture supernatant by PC574 cells was increased by adding lactose or galactose to the medium as a carbon source. Furthermore, we examined lacR nucleotide sequences and the hemolytic activity of 50 strains isolated from clinical infections and 7 strains isolated from dental plaque. Of the 50 strains isolated from infections, 13 showed high ILY production, 11 of these 13 strains had one or more point mutations and/or an insertion mutation in LacR, and almost all mutations were associated with a marked decline in LacR function. These results strongly suggest that mutation in lacR is required for the overproduction of ILY, which is associated with an increase in pathogenicity of S. intermedius.

  16. Intranight Variability During the 1997 Outburst of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Sandra D.; Carini, Michael T.; Noble, John C.

    1998-02-01

    The blazar BL Lac underwent a major outburst this summer. To search for intranight variability during the outburst, observations of BL Lac were made with the 30 inch telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. During ten nights in July, nearly 300 CCD observations were made. BL Lac was seen to vary by more than 1.5 magnitudes over those ten nights. Substantial intranight variability was also observed. For example, on July 29, BL Lac increased in brightness by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The observations of BL Lac taken in July are reported here and discussed in relation to the models intended to explain intranight variability.

  17. Large-area surveys for black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in snow: Arctic, Antarctic, North America, China (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, S. G.; Doherty, S. J.; Hegg, D.; Dang, C.; Zhang, R.; Grenfell, T. C.; Brandt, R. E.; Clarke, A. D.; Zatko, M.

    2013-12-01

    Absorption of radiation by ice is extremely weak at visible and near-UV wavelengths, so small amounts of light-absorbing impurities (LAI) in snow can dominate the absorption of sunlight at these wavelengths, reducing the albedo relative to that of pure snow and leading to earlier snowmelt. Snow samples were collected in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean, on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, sea ice, and frozen lakes, and in boreal forests. Snow was collected mostly in spring, when the entire winter snowpack was accessible for sampling. Snow was also collected at 67 sites in western North America. Expeditions from Lanzhou University obtained black carbon (BC) amounts at 84 sites in northeast and northwest China. BC was measured at 3 locations on the Antarctic Plateau, and at 5 sites on East Antarctic sea ice. The snow is melted and filtered; the filters are analyzed in a spectrophotometer. Median BC mixing ratios in snow range over 4 orders of magnitude from 0.2 ng/g in Antarctica to 1000 ng/g in northeast China. Chemical analyses, input to a receptor model, indicate that the major source of BC in most of the Arctic is biomass burning, but industrial sources dominate in Svalbard and the central Arctic Ocean. Non-BC impurities, principally brown (organic) carbon, are typically responsible for ~40% of the visible and ultraviolet absorption. In northeast China BC is the dominant LAI, but in Inner Mongolia soil dominates. When the snow surface layer melts, much of the BC is left at the top of the snowpack rather than carried away in meltwater, thus causing a positive feedback on snowmelt. This process was quantified through field studies in Greenland, Alaska, and Norway, where we found that only 10-30% of the BC is removed with meltwater. The BC content of the Arctic atmosphere has declined markedly since 1989, according to the continuous measurements of near-surface air in Canada, Alaska, and Svalbard. Correspondingly, our recent BC

  18. Evidence that selected amplification of a bacterial lac frameshift allele stimulates Lac(+) reversion (adaptive mutation) with or without general hypermutability.

    PubMed Central

    Slechta, E Susan; Liu, Jing; Andersson, Dan I; Roth, John R

    2002-01-01

    In the genetic system of Cairns and Foster, a nongrowing population of an E. coli lac frameshift mutant appears to specifically accumulate Lac(+) revertants when starved on medium including lactose (adaptive mutation). This behavior has been attributed to stress-induced general mutagenesis in a subpopulation of starved cells (the hypermutable state model). We have suggested that, on the contrary, stress has no direct effect on mutability but favors only growth of cells that amplify their leaky mutant lac region (the amplification mutagenesis model). Selection enhances reversion primarily by increasing the mutant lac copy number within each developing clone on the selection plate. The observed general mutagenesis is attributed to a side effect of growth with an amplification-induction of SOS by DNA fragments released from a tandem array of lac copies. Here we show that the S. enterica version of the Cairns system shows SOS-dependent general mutagenesis and behaves in every way like the original E. coli system. In both systems, lac revertants are mutagenized during selection. Eliminating the 35-fold increase in mutation rate reduces revertant number only 2- to 4-fold. This discrepancy is due to continued growth of amplification cells until some clones manage to revert without mutagenesis solely by increasing their lac copy number. Reversion in the absence of mutagenesis is still dependent on RecA function, as expected if it depends on lac amplification (a recombination-dependent process). These observations support the amplification mutagenesis model. PMID:12136002

  19. Carbon content of atmospheric aerosols in a residential area during the wood combustion season in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, Patricia; Ström, Johan; Johansson, Christer

    Carbonaceous aerosol particles were observed in a residential area with wood combustion during wintertime in Northern Sweden. Filter samples were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) content by using a thermo-optical transmittance method. The light-absorbing carbon (LAC) content was determined by employing a commercial Aethalometer and a custom-built particle soot absorption photometer. Filter samples were used to convert the optical signals to LAC mass concentrations. Additional total PM 10 mass concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured. The mean and standard deviation mass concentrations were 4.4±3.6 μg m -3 for OC, and 1.4±1.2 μg m -3 for EC. On average, EC accounted for 10.7% of the total PM 10 and the contribution of OC to the total PM 10 was 35.4%. Aethalometer and custom-built PSAP measurements were highly correlated ( R2=0.92). The hourly mean value of LAC mass concentration was 1.76 μg m -3 (median 0.88 μg m -3) for the winter 2005-2006. This study shows that the custom-built PSAP is a reliable alternative for the commercial Aethalometer with the advantage of being a low-cost instrument.

  20. Efficacy of crushed lanthanum carbonate for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Yukie; Takahashi, Taeko; Sato, Yuzuru; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LaC) is a non-calcium-based phosphate binder used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Oral administration of LaC is difficult in patients undergoing tube feeding or those who are of advanced age because it is essential to chew the LaC tablet sufficiently before swallowing it. We report two cases in whom crushed LaC was used in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding. In both cases, previously crushed LaC was mixed into enteral nutrients. We found that LaC administered this way was effective for decreasing serum phosphorus levels.

  1. Effect of weight fraction of carbon black and number of plies of E-glass fiber to reflection loss of E-glass/ripoxy composite for radar absorbing structure (RAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyastuti, Ramadhan, Rizal; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Zainuri, Mochamad

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, studies on investigating radar absorbing structure (RAS) using fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composite materials are becoming popular research field because the electromagnetic properties of FRP composites can be tailored effectively by just adding some electromagnetic powders, such as carbon black, ferrite, carbonyl iron, and etc., to the matrix of composites. The RAS works not only as a load bearing structure to hold the antenna system, but also has the important function of absorbing the in-band electromagnetic wave coming from the electromagnetic energy of tracking systems. In this study, E-glass fiber reinforced ripoxy resin composite was fabricated by blending the conductive carbon black (Ketjenblack EC300J) with the binder matrix of the composite material and maximizing the coefficient of absorption more than 90% (more than -10 dB) within the X-band frequency (8 - 12 GHz). It was measured by electrical conductivity (LCR meter) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Finally, the composite RAS with 0.02 weight fraction of carbon black and 4 plies of E-glass fiber showed thickness of 2.1 mm, electrical conductivity of 8.33 × 10-6 S/m, and maximum reflection loss of -27.123 dB, which can absorb more than 90% of incident EM wave throughout the entire X-band frequency range, has been developed.

  2. Transient repression of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Tyler, B; Loomis, W F; Magasanik, B

    1967-12-01

    Severe transient repression of constitutive or induced beta-galactosidase synthesis occurs upon the addition of glucose to cells of Escherichia coli growing on glycerol, succinic acid, or lactic acid. Only mutants particularily well adapted to growth on glucose exhibit this phenomenon when transferred to a glucose-containing medium. No change in ribonucleic acid (RNA) metabolism was observed during transient repression. We could show that transient repression is pleiotropic, affecting all products of the lac operon. It occurs in a mutant insensitive to catabolite repression. It is established much more rapidly than catabolite repression, and is elicited by glucose analogues that are phosphorylated but not further catabolized by the cell. Thus, transient repression is not a consequence of the exclusion of inducer from the cell, does not require catabolism of the added compound, and does not involve a gross change in RNA metabolism. We conclude that transient repression is distinct from catabolite repression. PMID:4864411

  3. Multifrequency spectra of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.; Kondo, Y.; Mufson, S. L.; Wandel, A.

    1988-01-01

    A program to obtain simultaneous multifrequency spectra of BL Lacertae objects that are known X-ray sources is discussed. The IUE spectra are generally featureless and well-fitted by power law models. For the faintest exposures, Gaussian extraction of the spectrum can greatly impove the signal-to-noise. Most program objects vary in the ultraviolet, although the time scales are not known because of limited observing time. The broadband spectra of BL Lacs exhibit a range of characteristics but the curvature is always downward and the shape is generally smooth. This can be interpreted as synchrotron emission from a relativistic jet; different jet models are possible, and each allows a range of values for the bulk velocity, magnetic field strength, and electron density. Synchrotron models are not required, however an accretion disk model also gives a good fit to the ultraviolet-through-X-ray continuum.

  4. Bistability of the lac operon during growth of Escherichia coli on lactose and lactose+glucose.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul; Pilyugin, Sergei S

    2008-05-01

    is proportional to e. These results imply that the lac operon is much more prone to bistability if the medium contains carbon sources that cannot be metabolized by the lac enzymes, e.g., succinate during growth on TMG/succinate and glucose during growth on lactose+glucose. We discuss the experimental data in the light of these results. PMID:18246403

  5. A source of artifact in the lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, George R; Gray, Carol L; Lange, Paulina B; Marando, Christie I

    2015-06-01

    The lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli measures point mutations that occur by specific base substitutions and frameshift mutations. The tester strains cannot use lactose as a carbon source (Lac(-)), and revertants are easily detected by growth on lactose medium (Lac(+)). Six strains identify the six possible base substitutions, and five strains measure +G, -G, -CG, +A and -A frameshifts. Strong mutagens give dose-dependent increases in numbers of revertants per plate and revertant frequencies. Testing compounds that are arguably nonmutagens or weakly mutagenic, we often noted statistically significant dose-dependent increases in revertant frequency that were not accompanied by an absolute increase in numbers of revertants. The increase in frequency was wholly ascribable to a declining number of viable cells owing to toxicity. Analysis of the conditions revealed that the frequency of spontaneous revertants is higher when there are fewer viable cells per plate. The phenomenon resembles "adaptive" or "stress" mutagenesis, whereby lactose revertants accumulate in Lac(-) bacteria under starvation conditions in the absence of catabolite repression. Adaptive mutation is observed after long incubation and might be expected to be irrelevant in a standard assay using 48-h incubation. However, we found that elevated revertant frequencies occur under typical assay conditions when the bacterial lawn is thin, and this can cause increases in revertant frequency that mimic chemical mutagenesis when treatments are toxic but not mutagenic. Responses that resemble chemical mutagenesis were observed in the absence of mutagenic treatment in strains that revert by different frameshift mutations. The magnitude of the artifact is affected by cell density, dilution, culture age, incubation time, catabolite repression and the age and composition of media. Although the specific reversion assay is effective for quickly distinguishing classes of mutations induced by potent mutagens, its

  6. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S.; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (−) supercoils enhance LacI’s DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions. PMID:26763930

  7. Cost-benefit tradeoffs in engineered lac operons.

    PubMed

    Eames, Matt; Kortemme, Tanja

    2012-05-18

    Cells must balance the cost and benefit of protein expression to optimize organismal fitness. The lac operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli has been a model for quantifying the physiological impact of costly protein production and for elucidating the resulting regulatory mechanisms. We report quantitative fitness measurements in 27 redesigned operons that suggested that protein production is not the primary origin of fitness costs. Instead, we discovered that the lac permease activity, which relates linearly to cost, is the major physiological burden to the cell. These findings explain control points in the lac operon that minimize the cost of lac permease activity, not protein expression. Characterizing similar relationships in other systems will be important to map the impact of cost/benefit tradeoffs on cell physiology and regulation. PMID:22605776

  8. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission denies a petition...

  9. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  10. On the magnetization of BL Lac jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-03-01

    The current paradigm foresees that relativistic jets are launched as magnetically dominated flows, whose magnetic power is progressively converted to kinetic power of the matter of the jet, until equipartition is reached. Therefore, at the end of the acceleration phase, the jet should still carry a substantial fraction (≈half) of its power in the form of a Poynting flux. It has been also argued that, in these conditions, the best candidate particle acceleration mechanism is efficient reconnection of magnetic field lines, for which it is predicted that magnetic field and accelerated relativistic electron energy densities are in equipartition. Through the modelling of the jet non-thermal emission, we explore if equipartition is indeed possible in BL Lac objects, i.e. low-power blazars with weak or absent broad emission lines. We find that one-zone models (for which only one region is involved in the production of the radiation we observe) the particle energy density is largely dominating (by 1-2 orders of magnitude) over the magnetic one. As a consequence, the jet kinetic power largely exceeds the magnetic power. Instead, if the jet is structured (i.e. made by a fast spine surrounded by a slower layer), the amplification of the inverse Compton emission due to the radiative interplay between the two components allows us to reproduce the emission in equipartition conditions.

  11. lac operon induction in Escherichia coli: Systematic comparison of IPTG and TMG induction and influence of the transacetylase LacA.

    PubMed

    Marbach, Anja; Bettenbrock, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Most commonly used expression systems in bacteria are based on the Escherichia coli lac promoter. Furthermore, lac operon elements are used today in systems and synthetic biology. In the majority of the cases the gratuitous inducers IPTG or TMG are used. Here we report a systematic comparison of lac promoter induction by TMG and IPTG which focuses on the aspects inducer uptake, population heterogeneity and a potential influence of the transacetylase, LacA. We provide induction curves in E. coli LJ110 and in isogenic lacY and lacA mutant strains and we show that both inducers are substrates of the lactose permease at low inducer concentrations but can also enter cells independently of lactose permease if present at higher concentrations. Using a gfp reporter strain we compared TMG and IPTG induction at single cell level and showed that bimodal induction with IPTG occurred at approximately ten-fold lower concentrations than with TMG. Furthermore, we observed that lac operon induction is influenced by the transacetylase, LacA. By comparing two Plac-gfp reporter strains with and without a lacA deletion we could show that in the lacA(+) strain the fluorescence level decreased after few hours while the fluorescence further increased in the lacA(-) strain. The results indicate that through the activity of LacA the IPTG concentration can be reduced below an inducing threshold concentration-an influence that should be considered if low inducer amounts are used. PMID:22079752

  12. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  13. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  14. Boolean models can explain bistability in the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Stigler, Brandilyn

    2011-06-01

    The lac operon in Escherichia coli has been studied extensively and is one of the earliest gene systems found to undergo both positive and negative control. The lac operon is known to exhibit bistability, in the sense that the operon is either induced or uninduced. Many dynamical models have been proposed to capture this phenomenon. While most are based on complex mathematical formulations, it has been suggested that for other gene systems network topology is sufficient to produce the desired dynamical behavior. We present a Boolean network as a discrete model for the lac operon. Our model includes the two main glucose control mechanisms of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. We show that this Boolean model is capable of predicting the ON and OFF steady states and bistability. Further, we present a reduced model which shows that lac mRNA and lactose form the core of the lac operon, and that this reduced model exhibits the same dynamics. This work suggests that the key to model qualitative dynamics of gene systems is the topology of the network and Boolean models are well suited for this purpose. PMID:21563979

  15. Mechanism of promoter repression by Lac repressor-DNA loops.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nicole A; Peters, Justin P; Maher, L James; Lionberger, Troy A

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon encodes the first genetic switch to be discovered, and lac remains a paradigm for studying negative and positive control of gene expression. Negative control is believed to involve competition of RNA polymerase and Lac repressor for overlapping binding sites. Contributions to the local Lac repressor concentration come from free repressor and repressor delivered to the operator from remote auxiliary operators by DNA looping. Long-standing questions persist concerning the actual role of DNA looping in the mechanism of promoter repression. Here, we use experiments in living bacteria to resolve four of these questions. We show that the distance dependence of repression enhancement is comparable for upstream and downstream auxiliary operators, confirming the hypothesis that repressor concentration increase is the principal mechanism of repression loops. We find that as few as four turns of DNA can be constrained in a stable loop by Lac repressor. We show that RNA polymerase is not trapped at repressed promoters. Finally, we show that constraining a promoter in a tight DNA loop is sufficient for repression even when promoter and operator do not overlap. PMID:23143103

  16. Real Time Monitoring of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Disinfection By-Product Formation Potential in a Surface Water Treatment Plant with Simulaneous UV-VIS Absorbance and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes a method based on simultaneous absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping for rapidly and accurately monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration and disinfection by-product formation potential for surface water sourced drinking water treatment. The method enables real-time monitoring of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), absorbance at 254 nm (UVA), the Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) as well as the Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethane (THM) Formation Potential (SDS-THMFP) for the source and treated water among other component parameters. The method primarily involves Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) decomposition of the high and lower molecular weight humic and fulvic organic component concentrations. The DOC calibration method involves calculating a single slope factor (with the intercept fixed at 0 mg/l) by linear regression for the UVA divided by the ratio of the high and low molecular weight component concentrations. This method thus corrects for the changes in the molecular weight component composition as a function of the source water composition and coagulation treatment effects. The SDS-THMFP calibration involves a multiple linear regression of the DOC, organic component ratio, chlorine residual, pH and alkalinity. Both the DOC and SDS-THMFP correlations over a period of 18 months exhibited adjusted correlation coefficients with r2 > 0.969. The parameters can be reported as a function of compliance rules associated with required % removals of DOC (as a function of alkalinity) and predicted maximum contaminant levels (MCL) of THMs. The single instrument method, which is compatible with continuous flow monitoring or grab sampling, provides a rapid (2-3 minute) and precise indicator of drinking water disinfectant treatability without the need for separate UV photometric and DOC meter measurements or independent THM determinations.

  17. Modelling Absorbent Phenomena of Absorbent Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeb, S.; Ladhari, N.; Ben Hassen, M.; Sakli, F.

    Absorption, retention and strike through time, as evaluating criteria of absorbent structures quality were studied. Determination of influent parameters on these criteria were realized by using the design method of experimental sets. In this study, the studied parameters are: Super absorbent polymer (SAP)/fluff ratio, compression and the porosity of the non woven used as a cover stock. Absorption capacity and retention are mostly influenced by SAP/fluff ratio. However, strike through time is affected by compression. Thus, a modelling of these characteristics in function of the important parameter was established.

  18. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  19. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  20. The disk-jet connection of Fermi 2LAC blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, L. M.; Xie, Zh. H.; Yi, T. F.; Xue, R.; Xu, Y. B.; Liu, W. G.; Wang, X. H.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, an estimator of the radiative power for blazars is proposed and is used in the study of the link between the accretion disk power and jet power. The results lend support to the disk-jet symbiosis. Since the blazars are strongly beamed sources, our results suggest that the Doppler enhancement of the sources needs to be removed to obtain physically reasonable results in the disk-jet connection study. The results after de-beaming suggest that FSRQs are accreting in the radiatively efficient regime, while the BL Lac population shows a flatter dependence between jet power and disk power, possibly due to a mixture of sources in the radiatively efficient (the broad lined BL Lacs) and inefficient (the bulk of the BL Lac population) regimes.

  1. Gamma-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlon, L.; McBreen, B.; OFlaherty, K.; Metcalfe, L.; Hunter, S.; Tashiro, M.; Wagner, S.; Bouchet, P.; Nicolson, G. D.; Smith, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from observations of a sample of BL Lac objects by the Compton telescope (COMPTEL) and energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are presented. The main targets in the sample were selected on the basis of their X-ray brightness and apparent spectral hardening at hard X-ray energies. One of the targets, PKS 0521-365 was detected by EGRET, and these data are presented together with contemporaneous ground-based radio data. Subsequent X-ray observations of this source with the Advanced Satellite for Cosomology and Astrophysics (ASCA) demonstrated that, although originally classified as a BL Lac object, it is better described as a flat spectrum radio quasar. Upper limits on the gamma ray flux from all the non-detected BL lacs are presented.

  2. Diffuse γ-ray emission from unresolved BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Lamanna, G.; Sanchez, D. A.

    2014-05-10

    Blazars, active galactic nuclei with a jet pointing toward the Earth, represent the most abundant class of high-energy extragalactic γ-ray sources. The subset of blazars known as BL Lac objects is on average closer to Earth (i.e., younger) and characterized by harder spectra at high energy than the whole sample. The fraction of BL Lacs that is too dim to be detected and resolved by current γ-ray telescopes is therefore expected to contribute to the high-energy isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB has been recently measured over a wide energy range by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We present a new prediction of the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the unresolved BL Lac blazar population. The model is built upon the spectral energy distribution and the luminosity function derived from the fraction of BL Lacs detected (and spectrally characterized) in the γ-ray energy range. We focus our attention on the O(100) GeV energy range, predicting the emission up to the TeV scale and taking into account the absorption on the extragalactic background light. In order to better shape the BL Lac spectral energy distribution, we combine the Fermi-LAT data with Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope measurements of the most energetic sources. Our analysis is carried on separately for low- and intermediate-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the one hand and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the other hand: we find in fact statistically different features for the two. The diffuse emission from the sum of both BL Lac classes increases from about 10% of the measured IGRB at 100 MeV to ∼100% of the data level at 100 GeV. At energies greater than 100 GeV, our predictions naturally explain the IGRB data, accommodating their softening with increasing energy. Uncertainties are estimated to be within of a factor of two of the best-fit flux up to 500 GeV.

  3. In vivo expression of the lacY gene in two segments leads to functional lac permease

    SciTech Connect

    Bibi, E.; Kaback, H.R. )

    1990-06-01

    The lacY gene of Escherichia coli was cut into two approximately equal-size fragments with Afl II and subcloned individually or together under separate lac operator/promoters in plasmid pT7-5. Under these conditions, lac permease is expressed in two portions: (i) the N-terminal portion (the N terminus, the first six putative transmembrane helices, and most of putative loop 7) and (ii) the C-terminal portion (the last six putative transmembrane helices and the C terminus). Cells harboring pT7-5 encoding both fragments transport lactose at about 30% the rate of cells expressing intact permease to a comparable steady-state level of accumulation. In contrast, cells expressing either half of the permease independently do not transport lactose. As judged by ({sup 35}S)methionine labeling and immunoblotting, intact permease in completely absent from the membrane of cells expressing lacY fragments either individually or together. Thus, transport activity must result from an association between independently synthesized pieces of lac permease. When the gene fragments are expressed individually, the N-terminal portion of the permease is observed inconsistently, and the C-terminal portion is not observed. When the gene fragments are expressed together, polypeptides identified as the N- and C-terminal moieties of the permease are found in the membrane. It is concluded that the N- or C-terminal halves of lac permease are proteolyzed when synthesized independently and that association between the two complementing polypeptides leads to a more stable, catalytically active complex.

  4. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  5. Absorbing Outflows in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this program was a comprehensive multiwavelength study of absorption phenomena in active galactic nuclei (AGN). These include a variety of associated absorption systems: X-ray warm absorbers, X-ray cold absorbers. UV absorbers with high ionization lines, MgII absorbers, red quasars and BALQSOs. The aim is to determine the physical conditions in the absorbing outflows, study their inter-relations and their role in AGN. We designed several observing programs to achieve this goal: X-ray spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, FLAY spectroscopy and X-ray imaging. We were very successful towards achieving the goal over the five year period as shown through following observing programs and papers. Copies of a few papers are attached with this report.

  6. Structural explanation for allolactose (lac operon inducer) synthesis by lacZ β-galactosidase and the evolutionary relationship between allolactose synthesis and the lac repressor.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J; Dugdale, Megan L; Huber, Reuben E

    2013-05-01

    β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2″-nitrilotriethanol) and L-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795-803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution.

  7. Structural Explanation for Allolactose (lac Operon Inducer) Synthesis by lacZ β-Galactosidase and the Evolutionary Relationship between Allolactose Synthesis and the lac Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Robert W.; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J.; Dugdale, Megan L.; Huber, Reuben E.

    2013-01-01

    β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2′,2″-nitrilotriethanol) and l-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795–803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution. PMID:23486479

  8. Structural explanation for allolactose (lac operon inducer) synthesis by lacZ β-galactosidase and the evolutionary relationship between allolactose synthesis and the lac repressor.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J; Dugdale, Megan L; Huber, Reuben E

    2013-05-01

    β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2″-nitrilotriethanol) and L-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795-803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution. PMID:23486479

  9. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar.

  10. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar. PMID:18278021

  11. Development of a Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI)

    PubMed Central

    Stefanski, Katherine M.; Gardner, Grant E.; Seipelt-Thiemann, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Concept inventories (CIs) are valuable tools for educators that assess student achievement and identify misconceptions held by students. Results of student responses can be used to adjust or develop new instructional methods for a given topic. The regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is an important concept in genetics and one that is particularly challenging for undergraduate students. As part of a larger study examining instructional methods related to gene regulation, the authors developed a 12-item CI assessing student knowledge of the lac operon. Using an established protocol, the authors wrote open-ended questions and conducted in-class testing with undergraduate microbiology and genetics students to discover common errors made by students about the lac operon and to determine aspects of item validity. Using these results, we constructed a 12-item multiple-choice lac operon CI called the Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI), The LOCI was reviewed by two experts in the field for content validity. The LOCI underwent item analysis and was assessed for reliability with a sample of undergraduate genetics students (n = 115). The data obtained were found to be valid and reliable (coefficient alpha = 0.994) with adequate discriminatory power and item difficulty. PMID:27252300

  12. LUNSORT list of lunar orbiter data by LAC area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, S.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar orbiter (missions 1-5) photographic data are listed sequentially according to the number (1 to 147) LAC (Lunar Aeronautical Chart) areas by use of a computer program called LUNSORT. This listing, as well as a similar one from Apollo would simplify the task of identifying images of a given Lunar area. Instructions and sample case are included.

  13. Development of a Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI).

    PubMed

    Stefanski, Katherine M; Gardner, Grant E; Seipelt-Thiemann, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Concept inventories (CIs) are valuable tools for educators that assess student achievement and identify misconceptions held by students. Results of student responses can be used to adjust or develop new instructional methods for a given topic. The regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is an important concept in genetics and one that is particularly challenging for undergraduate students. As part of a larger study examining instructional methods related to gene regulation, the authors developed a 12-item CI assessing student knowledge of the lac operon. Using an established protocol, the authors wrote open-ended questions and conducted in-class testing with undergraduate microbiology and genetics students to discover common errors made by students about the lac operon and to determine aspects of item validity. Using these results, we constructed a 12-item multiple-choice lac operon CI called the Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI), The LOCI was reviewed by two experts in the field for content validity. The LOCI underwent item analysis and was assessed for reliability with a sample of undergraduate genetics students (n = 115). The data obtained were found to be valid and reliable (coefficient alpha = 0.994) with adequate discriminatory power and item difficulty. PMID:27252300

  14. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  15. Corepressor system for catabolite repression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dobrogosz, W J

    1969-03-01

    Acetylated amino sugars, normally used in the biosynthesis of cell walls and cell membranes, were found to play a role as corepressors for catabolite repression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli. This conclusion was derived from studies conducted on mutants of E. coli that were able to assimilate an exogenous source of N-acetylglucosamine (AcGN) but were unable to dissimilate or grow on this compound. At concentrations less than 10(-4)m, AcGN caused severe catabolite repression of beta-galactosidase synthesis in cultures grown under either nonrepressed or partially repressed conditions. This repression occurred in the absence of any effect of AcGN on either the carbon and energy metabolism or the growth of the organism. In addition, this repression by AcGN occurred in a mutant strain that is constitutive for beta-galactosidase production, demonstrating that the AcGN effect does not involve the uptake of inducer. This model for the corepressor system of catabolite repression is discussed in relation to the existing theories on repression of the lac operon. PMID:4887497

  16. LacCore: Support for the terrestrial sediment core research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, K. L.; Noren, A. J.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

    2009-12-01

    LacCore, the National Lacustrine Core Facility, has been funded by the US National Science Foundation and the University of Minnesota for the past decade as a public facility to support the terrestrial sediment core research community. LacCore provides free or low-cost access to an array of expensive equipment and instrumentation in the field and lab, training for a variety of procedures, and core and data curation. The user base has increased from perhaps 20 users and a handful of projects in the first year to 621 users and 250 projects in 2008. The community served is diverse, with topics including invasive species, eutrophication, salinization, tectonics, geomicrobiology, evolutionary biology, isostatic rebound, stream bank erosion, glaciology, hydrogeology, atmospheric chemistry, carbon cycling, and rock magnetics, as well as paleoenvironment and paleoclimate. The changing needs of projects drive innovation in procedures and equipment, all of which become available to subsequent researchers. Among the newest additions to the lab is a benchtop scanning electron microscope with electron-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX or -EDS) capability for sediment characterization. This instrument allows rapid imaging of sedimentary components and determination of their elemental composition without substantial sample preparation, lead time, or user training. These images and data augment the initial core description process, filling a void between existing smear slide and scanning micro XRF capabilities.

  17. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  18. A facile one-pot method to synthesize a three-dimensional graphene@carbon nanotube composite as a high-efficiency microwave absorber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Ying; Li, Chao; Chen, Junjiao; Sun, Xu

    2015-01-21

    A novel three-dimensional graphene@carbon nanotube (CNTs) composite has been prepared using a facile one-pot pyrolysis strategy using urea as the carbon source, in which the density and length of CNTs on graphene are rationally tuned by adding an appropriate amount of urea to a precursor mixture. Correspondingly, the density and length of CNTs on graphene have a significant effect on the microwave absorption properties of graphene@CNTs. When most of the graphene surface is clearly covered by the CNTs whose length ranges from 300 to 600 nm, the graphene@CNT composite exhibits excellent microwave absorption properties. The maximum reflection loss value can reach -44.6 dB at 8.6 GHz and the absorption bandwidth with a reflection loss below -10 dB ranges from 7.1 to 10.4 GHz with an addition amount of only 5 wt% graphene@CNTs composite in the paraffin matrix.

  19. Phosphorylation of Streptococcus salivarius Lactose Permease (LacS) by HPr(His∼P) and HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P) and Effects on Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Christian; Cochu, Armelle; Lemay, Jean-Dominique; Roy, Denis; Vaillancourt, Katy; Frenette, Michel; Moineau, Sylvain; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius takes up lactose via a transporter called LacS that shares 95% identity with the LacS from Streptococcus thermophilus, a phylogenetically closely related organism. S. thermophilus releases galactose into the medium during growth on lactose. Expulsion of galactose is mediated via LacS and stimulated by phosphorylation of the transporter by HPr(His∼P), a phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system (PTS). Unlike S. thermophilus, S. salivarius grew on lactose without expelling galactose and took up galactose and lactose concomitantly when it is grown in a medium containing both sugars. Analysis of the C-terminal end of S. salivarius LacS revealed a IIA-like domain (IIALacS) almost identical to the IIA domain of S. thermophilus LacS. Experiments performed with purified proteins showed that S. salivarius IIALacS was reversibly phosphorylated on a histidine residue at position 552 not only by HPr(His∼P) but also by HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P), a doubly phosphorylated form of HPr present in large amounts in rapidly growing S. salivarius cells. Two other major S. salivarius PTS proteins, IIABLMan and IIABHMan, were unable to phosphorylate IIALacS. The effect of LacS phosphorylation on growth was studied with strain G71, an S. salivarius enzyme I-negative mutant that cannot synthesize HPr(His∼P) or HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P). These results indicated that (i) the wild-type and mutant strains had identical generation times on lactose, (ii) neither strain expelled galactose during growth on lactose, (iii) both strains metabolized lactose and galactose concomitantly when grown in a medium containing both sugars, and (iv) the growth of the mutant was slightly reduced on galactose. PMID:14617640

  20. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  1. Electron spin coherence in metallofullerenes: Y, Sc, and La@C82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard M.; Ito, Yasuhiro; Warner, Jamie H.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Shinohara, Hisanori; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Morton, John J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Endohedral fullerenes encapsulating a spin-active atom or ion within a carbon cage offer a route to self-assembled arrays such as spin chains. In the case of metallofullerenes the charge transfer between the atom and the fullerene cage has been thought to limit the electron spin phase coherence time (T2) to the order of a few microseconds. We study electron spin relaxation in several species of metallofullerene as a function of temperature and solvent environment, yielding a maximum T2 in deuterated o-terphenyl greater than 200μs for Y, Sc, and La@C82 . The mechanisms governing relaxation ( T1 , T2 ) arise from metal-cage vibrational modes, spin-orbit coupling and the nuclear spin environment. The T2 times are over 2 orders of magnitude longer than previously reported and consequently make metallofullerenes of interest in areas such as spin labeling, spintronics, and quantum computing.

  2. A Catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; De la Calle, I.; Rouco Escorial, A.

    2015-05-01

    A catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lac is presented based on a cross-correlation with the 1374 BL Lac objects listed in the 13th edition of the Veron-Cetty and Veron (2010) catalogue. X-ray counterparts were searched for in the field of view of more than 10000 pointed observations available in the XMM-Newton Archive (XSA) that were public before June 2012. The cross-correlation yielded around 250 XMM-Newton observations, which correspond to 162 different sources. X-ray data from the three EPIC cameras and Optical Monitor data were uniformly analyzed using the latest XMM-Newton Science Analysis System (SAS) version. The catalogue collects X-ray spectral properties, including flux variability, of the sample in the 0.2--10 KeV energy band. All the catalogue products will be made publicly available to the scientific community.

  3. First photometric study of W UMa binary star LU Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhao, E.-G.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2014-08-01

    LU Lac is a neglected W UMa binary star in photometric investigations. In this paper, we present BVRI CCD photometric light curves obtained on one night in 2012. The first photometric solutions of this system are computed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is shown that LU Lac is a marginal contact W-type system with a degree of contact factor of f=8.9%, a mass ratio of q=2.085 and a high inclination of i=82°.20. From the first analyses of orbital period changes, we found the period variation of the system includes an oscillation (A3=0.0125 days and T3=51.92 years). The cyclic change may be attributed to the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body.

  4. Imaging redshift estimates for Fermi BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Stadnik, Matt; Romani, Roger W. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu

    2014-04-01

    We have obtained WIYN and SOAR i' images of BL Lacertae objects and used these to detect or constrain the flux of the host galaxy. Under common standard candle assumptions, these data provide estimates of, or lower bounds on, the redshift. Our targets are a set of flat-spectrum radio counterparts of high flux Fermi Large Area Telescope sources, with sensitive spectral observations showing them to be continuum-dominated BL Lac objects. In this sample, 5 of 11 BL Lac objects yielded significant host detections, with standard candle redshifts z = 0.13-0.58. Our estimates and lower bounds are generally in agreement with other redshifts estimates, although our z = 0.374 estimate for J0543–5532 implies a significantly sub-luminous host.

  5. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  6. Evolution and Biophysics of the Escherichia coli lac Operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. Christian; Igoshin, Oleg; Quan, Selwyn; Monds, Russell; Cooper, Tim; Balázsi, Gábor

    2011-03-01

    To understand, predict, and control the evolution of living organisms, we consider biophysical effects and molecular network architectures. The lactose utilization system of E. coli is among the most well-studied molecular networks in biology, making it an ideal candidate for such studies. Simulations show how the genetic architecture of the wild-type operon attenuates large metabolic intermediate fluctuations that are predicted to occur in an equivalent system with the component genes on separate operons. Quantification of gene expression in the lac operon evolved in growth conditions containing constant lactose, alternating with glucose, or constant glucose, shows characteristic gene expression patterns depending on conditions. We are simulating these conditions to show context-dependent biophysical sources and costs of different lac operon architectures.

  7. Label-free multi-photon imaging using a compact femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    PubMed Central

    Kieu, K.; Mehravar, S.; Gowda, R.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate label-free multi-photon imaging of biological samples using a compact Er3+-doped femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT). These compact and low cost lasers have been developed by various groups but they have not been exploited for multiphoton microscopy. Here, it is shown that various multiphoton imaging modalities (e.g. second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), and three-photon excitation fluorescence (3PEF)) can be effectively performed on various biological samples using a compact handheld CNT mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser operating in the telecommunication window near 1560nm. We also show for the first time that chlorophyll fluorescence in plant leaves and diatoms can be observed using 1560nm laser excitation via three-photon absorption. PMID:24156074

  8. Label-free multi-photon imaging using a compact femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Kieu, K; Mehravar, S; Gowda, R; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate label-free multi-photon imaging of biological samples using a compact Er(3+)-doped femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT). These compact and low cost lasers have been developed by various groups but they have not been exploited for multiphoton microscopy. Here, it is shown that various multiphoton imaging modalities (e.g. second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), and three-photon excitation fluorescence (3PEF)) can be effectively performed on various biological samples using a compact handheld CNT mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser operating in the telecommunication window near 1560nm. We also show for the first time that chlorophyll fluorescence in plant leaves and diatoms can be observed using 1560nm laser excitation via three-photon absorption.

  9. Direct observation of a 91 bp LacI-mediated, negatively supercoiled DNA loop by atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Chapagain, Prem; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-03-01

    Escherichia coli lactose repressor (LacI), a tetrameric protein, is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. It specifically binds to the O1, O2, and O3 operators of the lac promoter, forms DNA loops, and regulates transcription of the lac operon. In this article, utilizing combined techniques of DNA-nicking assay and AFM imaging, we directly observed a 91 bp LacI-mediated, negatively supercoiled DNA loop mimicking the DNA loop between the O1 and O3 operators in the lac promoter. PMID:26878689

  10. Challenge of lightning detection with LAC on board Akatsuki spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Sato, Mitsutero; Imai, Masataka; Yair, Yoav; Fischer, Georg; Aplin, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Even after extensive investigations with spacecraft and ground-based observations, there is still no consensus on the existence of lightning in Venus. It has been reported that the magnetometer on board Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source could be lightning discharge occurring well below the spacecraft. On the other hand, with an infrared sensor, VIRTIS of Venus Express, does not show the positive indication of lightning flashes. In order to identify the optical flashes caused by electrical discharge in the atmosphere of Venus, at least, with an optical intensity of 1/10 of the average lightning in the Earth, we built a high-speed optical detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), on board Akatsuki spacecraft. The unique performance of the LAC compared to other instruments is the high-speed sampling rate at 32 us interval for all 32 pixels, enabling us to distinguish the optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises. Though, unfortunately, the first attempt of the insertion of Akatsuki into the orbit around Venus failed in December 2010, the second one carried out in December 7 in 2015 was quite successful. We checked out the condition of the LAC on January 5, 2016, and it is healthy as in 2010. Due to some elongated orbit than that planned originally, we have umbra for ~30 min to observe the lightning flash in the night side of Venus every ~10 days, starting on April 2016. Here we would report the instrumental status of LAC and the preliminary results of the first attempt to observe optical lightning emissions.

  11. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  12. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  13. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  14. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  15. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-09-12

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  16. Radar Absorbing Materials for Cube Stealth Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, D.; Pastore, R.; Vricella, A.; Marchetti, M.

    A Cube Stealth Satellite is proposed for potential applications in defense system. Particularly, the faces of the satellite exposed to the Earth are made of nanostructured materials able to absorb radar surveillance electromagnetic waves, conferring stealth capability to the cube satellite. Microwave absorbing and shielding material tiles are proposed using composite materials consisting in epoxy-resin and carbon nanotubes filler. The electric permittivity of the composite nanostructured materials is measured and discussed. Such data are used by the modeling algorithm to design the microwave absorbing and the shielding faces of the cube satellite. The electromagnetic modeling takes into account for several incidence angles (0-80°), extended frequency band (2-18 GHz), and for the minimization of the electromagnetic reflection coefficient. The evolutionary algorithm used for microwave layered microwave absorber modeling is the recently developed Winning Particle Optimization. The mathematical model of the absorbing structure is finally experimentally validated by comparing the electromagnetic simulation to the measurement of the manufactured radar absorber tile. Nanostructured composite materials manufacturing process and electromagnetic reflection measurements methods are described. Finally, a finite element method analysis of the electromagnetic scattering by cube stealth satellite is performed.

  17. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  18. Solar concentrator/absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Collector/energy converter, consisting of dual-slope optical concentrator and counterflow thermal energy absorber, is attached to multiaxis support structure. Efficient over wide range of illumination levels, device may be used to generate high temperature steam, serve as solar powered dryer, or power absorption cycle cooler.

  19. Lac operator repeats generate a traceable fragile site in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Ariana; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2011-10-01

    One limitation for the study of chromosomal fragile sites is that they must be studied on metaphase spreads, after the breakage. We show here that bacterial lac operator (lacO) repeats are prone to spontaneous breakage, which when combined with a fluorescent lac repressor (lacR) has allowed us to track a fragile site through the cell cycle. By using this system, we show that Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) is already present at fragile sites during interphase, suggesting roles for this helicase beyond mitosis. In addition, we report that the oncogene Myc promotes the formation of anaphase bridges and micronuclei containing fragile-site sequences. PMID:21836640

  20. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  1. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  2. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  3. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  4. Absorbed dose water calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.R.

    1982-01-26

    An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated sleeving and then to junctions to form a wheatstone bridge circuit. Convection barriers may be provided to reduce the effects of convection from the point of measurement. Controlled heating of different levels in the water bath is accomplished by electrical heater circuits provided for controlling temperature drift and providing adiabatic operation of the calorimeter. The absorbed dose is determined from the known specific heat of water and the measured temperature change.

  5. CLUSTERING OF γ-RAY-SELECTED 2LAC FERMI BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Cappelluti, N.

    2014-12-20

    We present the first measurement of the projected correlation function of 485 γ-ray-selected blazars, divided into 175 BL Lacertae (BL Lacs) and 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) detected in the 2 year all-sky survey by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. We find that Fermi BL Lacs and FSRQs reside in massive dark matter halos (DMHs) with log M{sub h} = 13.35{sub −0.14}{sup +0.20} and log M{sub h} = 13.40{sub −0.19}{sup +0.15} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, respectively, at low (z ∼ 0.4) and high (z ∼ 1.2) redshift. In terms of clustering properties, these results suggest that BL Lacs and FSRQs are similar objects residing in the same dense environment typical of galaxy groups, despite their different spectral energy distributions, power, and accretion rates. We find no difference in the typical bias and hosting halo mass between Fermi blazars and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supporting the unification scheme simply equating radio-loud objects with misaligned blazar counterparts. This similarity in terms of the typical environment they preferentially live in, suggests that blazars tend to occupy the center of DMHs, as already pointed out for radio-loud AGNs. This implies, in light of several projects looking for the γ-ray emission from DM annihilation in galaxy clusters, a strong contamination from blazars to the expected signal from DM annihilation.

  6. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  7. Studies on gene control regions X. The effect of specific adenine-thymine transversions on the lac repressor-lac operator interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Sista, H S; Loder, R T; Caruthers, M H

    1979-01-01

    Chemical and enzymatic methods were used to synthesize a transition (AT to GC) and a transversion (AT to TA) at a lac operator site known to interact with lac repressor through the thymine 5 methyl group. These operators also contained a poly(dA) . poly(dT) tail 8 to 12 base pairs in length at one end. Results suggest that the steric constraints of lac repressor relative to the position of the 5 methyl group are quite critical. For example a seven fold reduction in stability was observed for the transversion. Results also suggest that the operator spans at least 21 base pairs. Images PMID:379824

  8. Comparative genomics and evolution of regulons of the LacI-family transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Laikova, Olga N.; Tsoy, Olga V.; Sernova, Natalia V.; Petrova, Svetlana A.; Rakhmaninova, Aleksandra B.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are essential components of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. LacI-family TFs (LacI-TFs) are broadly distributed among certain lineages of bacteria. The majority of characterized LacI-TFs sense sugar effectors and regulate carbohydrate utilization genes. The comparative genomics approaches enable in silico identification of TF-binding sites and regulon reconstruction. To study the function and evolution of LacI-TFs, we performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of their regulons. For over 1300 LacI-TFs from over 270 bacterial genomes, we predicted their cognate DNA-binding motifs and identified target genes. Using the genome context and metabolic subsystem analyses of reconstructed regulons, we tentatively assigned functional roles and predicted candidate effectors for 78 and 67% of the analyzed LacI-TFs, respectively. Nearly 90% of the studied LacI-TFs are local regulators of sugar utilization pathways, whereas the remaining 125 global regulators control large and diverse sets of metabolic genes. The global LacI-TFs include the previously known regulators CcpA in Firmicutes, FruR in Enterobacteria, and PurR in Gammaproteobacteria, as well as the three novel regulators—GluR, GapR, and PckR—that are predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism in three lineages of Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of regulators combined with the reconstructed regulons provides a model of evolutionary diversification of the LacI protein family. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed LacI-TF regulons in bacteria is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). It provides a framework for future structural and functional classification of the LacI protein family and identification of molecular determinants of the DNA and ligand specificity. The inferred regulons can be also used for functional gene annotation and reconstruction of sugar catabolic

  9. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  10. Modified thermal-optical analysis using spectral absorption selectivity to distinguish black carbon from pyrolized organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Odelle; Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.

    2008-04-14

    Black carbon (BC), a main component of combustion-generated soot, is a strong absorber of sunlight and contributes to climate change. Measurement methods for BC are uncertain, however. This study presents a method for analyzing the BC mass loading on a quartz fiber filter using a modified thermal-optical analysis method, wherein light transmitted through the sample is measured over a spectral region instead of at a single wavelength as the sample is heated. Evolution of the spectral light transmission signal depends on the relative amounts of light-absorbing BC and char, the latter of which forms when organic carbon in the sample pyrolyzes during heating. Absorption selectivities of BC and char are found to be distinct and are used to apportion the amount of light attenuated by each component in the sample. Light attenuation is converted to mass concentration based on derived mass attenuation efficiencies (MAE) of BC and char. The fraction of attenuation due to each component are scaled by their individual MAE values and added together as the total mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC). An iterative algorithm is used to find the MAE values for both BC and char that provide the best fit to the carbon mass remaining on the filter (derived from direct measurements of thermally evolved CO{sub 2}) at temperatures higher than 480 C. This method was applied to measure the BC concentration in precipitation samples collected from coastal and mountain sites in Northern California. The uncertainty in measured BC concentration of samples that contained a high concentration of organics susceptible to char ranged from 12 to 100 percent, depending on the mass loading of BC on the filter. The lower detection limit for this method was approximately 0.35 {micro}g BC and uncertainty approached 20 percent for BC mass loading greater than 1.0 {micro}g BC.

  11. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  12. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  13. Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2014-02-01

    Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.

  14. Expression and phylogenetic relationships of a novel lacZ homologue from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T J; MacInnes, J I

    1997-07-01

    To learn more about the genetics and physiology of the important swine pathogen, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, we cloned the lacZ gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli delta lac mutant. The A. pleuropneumoniae lacZ gene has an open reading frame of 3015 bp which could encode a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 117022. The deduced protein shares 26.8-34.8% identity with beta-galactosidases from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sequences with homology to seven regions commonly found in beta-galactosidases are present and amino acids corresponding to active site residues Tyr-503 and Glu-537 in E. coli LacZ are also conserved; however, there is a leucine in the place of Gly-794, a residue which has been implicated in substrate recognition. The sequences flanking the A. pleuropneumoniae lacZ gene do not share homology with known transport or regulatory genes nor do they share homology with cAMP receptor protein (CRP) or LacI binding sites. Low levels of beta-galactosidase activity could be detected when the protein was expressed from a multicopy plasmid in E. coli delta lac and when it was measured in A. pleuropneumoniae. The level of activity was not markedly reduced in the presence of glucose. Although the A. pleuropneumoniae LacZ shares some features with other beta-galactosidases, its constitutive expression and an unusual active site residue suggest that it may have a unique function. PMID:9228778

  15. Structural and Enzymatic characterization of the lactonase SisLac from Sulfolobus islandicus

    PubMed Central

    Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Background A new member of the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonases (PLL) family from the hyperthermophilic archeon Sulfolobus islandicus (SisLac) has been characterized. SisLac is a native lactonase that exhibits a high promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. SisLac thus represents a promising target for engineering studies, exhibiting both detoxification and bacterial quorum quenching abilities, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe the substrate specificity of SisLac, providing extensive kinetic studies performed with various phosphotriesters, esters, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and other lactones as substrates. Moreover, we solved the X-ray structure of SisLac and structural comparisons with the closely related SsoPox structure highlighted differences in the surface salt bridge network and the dimerization interface. SisLac and SsoPox being close homologues (91% sequence identity), we undertook a mutational study to decipher these structural differences and their putative consequences on the stability and the catalytic properties of these proteins. Conclusions/Significance We show that SisLac is a very proficient lactonase against aroma lactones and AHLs as substrates. Hence, data herein emphasize the potential role of SisLac as quorum quenching agent in Sulfolobus. Moreover, despite the very high sequence homology with SsoPox, we highlight key epistatic substitutions that influence the enzyme stability and activity. PMID:23071703

  16. Program Evaluation of Community College Learning Assistance Centers: What Do LAC Directors Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Doug; Blankenberger, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study seeks to determine the nature of current program evaluation practices for learning assistance centers (LACs), the practices being used for program evaluation, and whether LAC directors believe their practices are appropriate for evaluating program effectiveness. Method: We conducted a survey (n = 61) of community college LAC…

  17. Role of Snf1p in regulation of intracellular sorting of the lactose and galactose transporter Lac12p in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Wiedemuth, Christian; Breunig, Karin D

    2005-04-01

    The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK plays a central role in carbon and energy homeostasis in yeasts and higher eukaryotes. To work out which aspects of the Snf1-controlled regulatory network are conserved in evolution, the Snf1 requirement in galactose metabolism was analyzed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Whereas galactose induction was only delayed, K. lactis snf1 mutants failed to accumulate the lactose/galactose H+ symporter Lac12p in the plasma membran,e as indicated by Lac12-green fluorescent protein fusions. In contrast to wild-type cells, the fusion protein was mostly intracellular in the mutant. Growth on galactose and galactose uptake could be restored by the KHT3 gene, which encodes a new transporter of the HXT subfamily of major facilitators These findings indicate a new role of Snf1p in regulation of sugar transport in K. lactis. PMID:15821131

  18. HUBBLE/COS OBSERVATIONS OF THE Ly{alpha} FOREST TOWARD THE BL Lac OBJECT 1ES 1553+113

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael; Yao Yangsen

    2010-09-01

    We present new moderate-resolution, far-ultraviolet spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) of the BL Lac object 1ES 1553+113 covering the wavelength range 1135 A < {lambda} < 1795 A. The data show a smooth continuum with a wealth of narrow (b < 100 km s{sup -1}) absorption features arising in the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium. These features include 41 Ly{alpha} absorbers at 0 < z{sub abs} < 0.43, 14 of which are detected in multiple Lyman lines and 6 of which show absorption in one or more metal lines. We analyze a metal-rich triplet ({Delta}cz {approx} 1000 km s{sup -1}) of Ly{alpha} absorbers at z{sub abs} {approx} 0.188 in which O VI, N V, and C III absorption is detected. Silicon ions (Si III, Si IV) are not detected to fairly strong upper limits and we use the measured Si III/C III upper limit to derive an abundance limit (C/Si) {>=} 4(C/Si){sub sun} for the strongest component of the absorber complex. Galaxy redshift surveys show a number of massive galaxies at approximately the same redshift as this absorption complex, suggesting that it arises in a large-scale galaxy filament. As one of the brightest extragalactic X-ray and {gamma}-ray sources, 1ES 1553+113 is of great interest to the high-energy astrophysics community. With no intrinsic emission or absorption features, 1ES 1553+113 has no direct redshift determination. We use intervening Ly{alpha} absorbers to place a direct limit on the redshift: z{sub em}>0.395 based on a confirmed Ly{alpha}+O VI absorber and z{sub em}>0.433 based on a single-line detection of Ly{alpha}. The current COS data are only sensitive to Ly{alpha} absorbers at z < 0.47, but we present statistical arguments that z{sub em} {approx}< 0.58 (at a 1{sigma} confidence limit) based on the non-detection of any Ly{beta} absorbers at z>0.4.

  19. Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

    2005-08-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

  20. 78 FR 45556 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Lac du Flambeau...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Lac du Flambeau Band Fee-to-Trust Acquisition and Casino Project in Shullsburg, Wisconsin AGENCY... fee-to-trust transfer and casino project in the City of Shullsburg, Wisconsin, proposed by the Lac du... address and the caption specifying ``Scoping Comments for Proposed Lac du Flambeau Band Casino'' on...

  1. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  2. Absorber coatings' degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

  3. Upstream operators enhance repression of the lac promoter.

    PubMed

    Mossing, M C; Record, M T

    1986-08-22

    To study regulation of transcription by distant elements, a wild-type lac operator was inserted upstream of a promoter-constitutive operator control region. The upstream operator is shown to aid in repression of transcription from the mutant control region. The effectiveness of the upstream operator as a function of its distance from the mutant control region parallels the length dependence observed for DNA cyclization. A quantitative model is proposed for action-at-a-distance of DNA control sites in which protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions are mediated by DNA looping. In this model, the effective concentrations of interacting proteins that are tethered by DNA are determined by the length of the intervening DNA and by its inherent bending and torsional stiffness. This model makes a number of predictions for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic control sequences located far from their sites of action. PMID:3090685

  4. Test Observation of EN Lac with Iodine Cell at Okayama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, E.; Sato, B.; Izumiura, H.; Takeda, Y.

    2007-03-01

    It is crucial to detect as many nonradial pulsation (NRP) modes as possible for asteroseismology. The precise radial velocity measurement with an iodine cell, which gives us a fiducial wavelength reference to the precision of at least several m s^{-1} under various observing configurations, may be a handy way to detect small amplitude oscillations even in early-type stars. With the completion of the iodine cell at Okayama, we collected about 200 spectra of the β Cep star, EN Lac, over two months in 2001, and determined its radial velocities from about 30 absorption lines between 5000 and 6000 Å. From their period analysis, we clearly detected the three well-known periods in the star. In this paper, we report our preliminary result along with discussion of the applicability of the iodine cell technique to such stars. Full description of our results will be presented in a separate paper.

  5. X-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. A.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.; Rothschild, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The BL Lac objects MK501 and MK421 were observed with OSO-8 and HEAO-1 X-ray detectors in the 2-60 keV band. Their spectra are similar with best fitting power laws having energy index -.4 alpha 4. A soft X-ray excess is indicated in their spectra. There was no detectable X-ray absorption with implied column densities N sub H 1.5 x 10 to the 22d power at sq cm. MK421 was a factor 6 weaker in November 1977 than in May 1977. An identification of PKS0548-322 with a new source H0548,-32 is suggested.

  6. Threshold Ionization of La(C_5H_8) Formed by La-MEDIATED Dehydrogenation of 1-PENTENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenjin; Zhang, Yuchen; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    La(C_5H_8) was formed by La reaction with 1-pentene (CH2=CH-CH2-CH3) in a laser-vaporization supersonic molecular beam source and characterized with mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. The MATI spectrum displays an origin band at 38988 (5) wn and three vibrational intervals of 130, 294, and 415 wn. The La(C_5H_8) complex is identified as a five-membered metallacycle in C1 point group, with the doublet and singlet being the lowest energy states of the neutral and cation, respectively. The energy at 38998 wn corresponds to the adiabatic ionization energy of the complex, and the three vibration intervals in the order of the frequency increase are assigned to the terminal CH_3 torsion, asymmetric La-ligand stretch, and symmetric La-ligand stretch excitation of the ion. The La + 1-penetene reaction will also be compared with La reactions with other five-carbon hydrocarbon molecules, such as isoprene, 1-pentyne, and 1,4-pentadiene.

  7. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lamanna, Giuseppe Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-15

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  8. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers' safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  9. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7 mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple λ/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  10. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  11. Yersinia pestis lacZ expresses a beta-galactosidase with low enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Bobrov, Alexander G; Perry, Robert D

    2006-02-01

    Although very little, if any, beta-galactosidase activity is detected in Yersinia pestis by a standard Miller assay, we found that Y. pestis KIM6+ cells formed blue colonies on plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside (X-gal). Searches of the Y. pestis genome databases revealed the presence of noncontiguous sequences highly homologous to Escherichia coli lacZ, lacY, and lacI. Yersinia pestis lacZ is predicted to encode a 1060 amino-acid protein with 62% identity and 72% similarity to beta-galactosidase from E. coli. A deletion in the Y. pestis lacZ gene caused the formation of white colonies on X-gal-containing plates and beta-galactosidase activity was at background levels in the KIM6+lacZ mutant, while the complemented strain expressed about 190 Miller units. The Y. pestis lacZ promoter was not regulated by isopropylthiogalactoside or glucose. Finally, uptake of lactose by Y. pestis may be impaired. PMID:16436060

  12. Interaction of inhalational anaesthetics with CO2 absorbents.

    PubMed

    Baum, Jan A; Woehlck, Harvey J

    2003-03-01

    We review the currently available carbon dioxide absorbents: sodium hydroxide lime (=soda lime), barium hydroxide lime, potassium-hydroxide-free soda lime, calcium hydroxide lime and non-caustic lime. In general, all of these carbon dioxide absorbents are liable to react with inhalational anaesthetics. However, there is a decreasing reactivity of the different absorbents with inhalational anaesthetics: barium hydroxide lime > soda lime > potassium-hydroxide-free soda lime > calcium hydroxide lime and non-caustic lime. Gaseous compounds generated by the reaction of the anaesthetics with desiccated absorbents are those that threaten patients. All measures are comprehensively described to--as far as possible--prevent any accidental drying out of the absorbent. Whether or not compound A, a gaseous compound formed by the reaction of sevoflurane with normally hydrated absorbents, is still a matter of concern is discussed. Even after very high loading with this compound, during long-lasting low-flow sevoflurane anaesthesias, no clinical or laboratory signs of renal impairment were observed in any of the surgical patients. Finally, guidelines for the judicious use of different absorbents are given. PMID:12751549

  13. Regulation of lac Operon Expression: Reappraisal of the Theory of Catabolite Repression

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Barry L.; Kodaira, Ryoji; Neidhardt, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    The physiological state of Escherichia coli with respect to (permanent) catabolite repression was assessed by measuring the steady-state level of β-galactosidase in induced or in constitutive cells under a variety of growth conditions. Four results were obtained. (i) Catabolite repression had a major effect on fully induced or constitutive expression of the lac gene, and the magnitude of this effect was found to be dependent on the promoter structure; cells with a wild-type lac promoter showed an 18-fold variation in lac expression, and cells with the lacP37 (formerly lac-L37) promoter exhibited several hundred-fold variation. (ii) Exogenous adenosine cyclic 3′,5′-monophosphoric acid (cAMP) could not abolish catabolite repression, even though several controls demonstrated that cAMP was entering the cells in significant amounts. (Rapid intracellular degradation of cAMP could not be ruled out.) (iii) Neither the growth rate nor the presence of biosynthetic products altered the degree of catabolite repression; all variation could be related to the catabolites present in the growth medium. (iv) Slowing by imposing an amino acid restriction decreased the differential rate of β-galactosidase synthesis from the wild-type lac promoter when bacteria were cultured in either the absence or presence of cAMP; this decreased lac expression also occurred when the bacteria harbored the catabolite-insensitive lacP5 (formerly lacUV5) promoter mutation. These findings support the idea that (permanent) catabolite repression is set by the catabolites in the growth medium and may not be related to an imbalance between catabolism and anabolism. PMID:214424

  14. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  15. The nature of X-ray emission in BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The 77% of TeV extragalactic sources are BL Lacs. They belong to the High frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) subclass characterized by a low-energy component with power peaking between the UV and the X-rays. We propose xmm~observations of a selected sample of HBLs, to study the spectral behavior of their optical to X-ray component. In addition, on the basis of our previous X-ray analyses of TeV e non TeV HBLs, these proposed xmm~observations will allow us to identify BL Lac candidates for future TeV observations.

  16. Reaction Mechanism and Regioselectivity of the Bingel-Hirsch Addition of Dimethyl Bromomalonate to La@C2v -C82.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Osuna, Sílvia; Poater, Jordi; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Solà, Miquel

    2016-04-18

    We quantum chemically explore the thermodynamics and kinetics of all 65 possible mechanistic pathways of the Bingel-Hirsch addition of dimethyl bromomalonate to the endohedral metallofullerene La@C2v -C82 that result from the combination of 24 nonequivalent carbon atoms and 35 different bonds present in La@C2v -C82 by using dispersion-corrected DFT calculations. Experimentally, this reaction leads to four singly bonded derivatives and one fulleroid adduct. Of these five products, only the singly bonded derivative on C23 could be experimentally identified unambiguously. Our calculations show that La@C2v -C82 is not particularly regioselective under Bingel-Hirsch conditions. From the obtained results, however, it is possible to make a tentative assignment of the products observed experimentally. We propose that the observed fulleroid adduct results from the attack at bond 19 and that the singly bonded derivatives correspond to the C2, C19, C21, and C23 initial attacks. However, other possibilities cannot be ruled out completely.

  17. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  18. Hydraulic shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic shock absorber including a piston reciprocating in a cylinder, a piston upper chamber and a piston lower chamber which are oil-tightly separated by the piston, piston ports formed through the piston in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber, and return ports formed outside of the piston ports in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber. It also includes a sheet ring-like non-return valve provided above the piston and fitted to a piston rod, valve holes formed through the non-return valve in opposed relation with the piston ports. A ring-like non-return valve stopper fixed to the piston rod on an upper side of the non-return valve with a small spaced defined between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper, and a spring is interposed between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper for normally urging the non-return valve to an upper surface of the piston. Movement of the piston to the piston upper chamber allows oil to flow from the piston upper chamber through the piston ports to the piston lower chamber, while the return ports are closed by the non-return valve to generate a vibration damping force by resistance upon pass of the oil through the piston parts. The improvement described here comprises a groove formed in an upper surface of the piston facing the non-return valve and aligned with the valve holes, the groove being in the circle where the piston ports lie and being in communication with the piston ports.

  19. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  20. The broadband dynamic vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. B.; Nissen, J.-C.

    1982-08-01

    The limited effectiveness of the linear passive dynamic vibration absorber is described. This is followed by an analysis producing the response of a primary system when a non-linear softening Belleville spring is used in the absorber. It is shown that the suppression bandwidth can be doubled by this means.

  1. Molecular cloning of Mu d(bla lacZ) transcriptional and translational fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, B L

    1987-01-01

    The vector pBW2 was made to selectively clone chimeric plasmids with chromosomal Mu d(bla lacZ) transcriptional or translational fusions. It was tetracycline resistant and had the carboxyl-terminal end of bla distal to its PstI site. Because ligation of PstI-digested chromosomal DNA of a Mu d(bla lacZ) insertion with pBW2 restored bla, ampicillin-resistant chimeric plasmids were selectable. These plasmids had the Mu d bla amino terminus and simultaneously acquired other Mu d sequences including lacZ, the chromosomal fusion joint, and the DNA adjacent to the nearest chromosomal PstI site. The plasmid pBW2 was useful in the molecular cloning of several psi and pho::lacZ(Mu d) fusions, as well as chromosomal genes located near Mu d insertions. PMID:3032905

  2. Probing of electronic structures of La@C82 superatoms upon clustering realized using glycine nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taninaka, Atsushi; Ochiai, Takahiro; Kanazawa, Ken; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2015-12-01

    We have succeeded in the first direct probe of the change in the electronic structures of La@C82 superatoms upon clustering by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). An array of ∼1.3-nm-diameter glycine nanocavities self-assembled on a Cu(111) surface was used as a template. Isolated La@C82 superatoms were stably observed on terraces without diffusion to step edges, which enabled us to observe the change in the electronic structures associated with single, dimer, and clustered La@C82. A cluster with four La@C82 superatoms showed electronic structures similar to those obtained for thin films in previous works.

  3. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    SciTech Connect

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  4. Photometric Analysis and Period Investigation of the EW Type Eclipsing Binary V441 Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Hu, S.-M.; Guo, D.-F.; Jiang, Y.-G.; Gao, D.-Y.; Chen, X.

    2016-09-01

    Four color light curves of the EW type eclipsing binary V441 Lac were presented and analyzed by the W-D code. It is found that V441 Lac is an extremely low mass ratio ( q = 0.093±0.001) semi-detached binary with the less massive secondary component filling the inner Roche lobe. Two dark spots on the primary component were introduced to explain the asymmetric light curves. By analyzing all times of light minimum, we determined that the orbital period of V441 Lac is continuously increasing at a rate of d P/d t = 5.874(±0.007) × 10-7 d yr-1. The semi-detached Algol type configuration of V441 Lac is possibly formed by a contact configuration destroyed shallow contact binary due to mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one predicted by the thermal relaxation oscillation theory.

  5. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  6. On the hadronic cascade scenario for extreme BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    The peculiar high-energy emission spectrum of the so-called extreme BL Lacs (EHBL) challenges the standard emission models of blazars. Among the possible solutions, the so-called hadronic cascade scenario assumes that the observed high-energy radiation is produced in the intergalactic space through photo-hadronic reactions by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies up to 1019-20 eV beamed by the blazar jet. Under the assumption - implicit in this model - that the intrinsic high-energy synchrotron self-Compton emission of the blazar does not substantially contribute to the observed γ-ray spectrum, we derive constraints to the basic physical quantities of the jet and we compare them with the requirements of the hadronic cascade scenario. We found that, for a plausible range of relativistic jet Doppler factors (δ = 10-50), the maximum achievable energy of the accelerated protons can exceed 2 × 1019 eV with jet powers of the order of ≈1044 erg s-1, parameters compatible with the requests of the hadronic scenario even if EHBL are embedded in magnetic fields of cosmic filaments. We also discuss the consequences of our results for the possibility that local EHBL contribute to the observed UHECR.

  7. [Diversity of grasshopper community in lac plantation-farmland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao; Chen, You-qing; Chen, Yan-lin; Chen, Zhen

    2009-03-01

    The grasshopper communities in the paddy field, dry land, natural forest, and plantation forest of lac plantation-farmland ecosystem in Lvchun County, Yunnan were investigated by sweep netting. A total of 1426 grasshoppers belonging to 33 species, 22 genena, and 5 families were captured. In the paddy field, dry land, natural forest, and plantation forest of the ecosystem, the species richness S were 16.333, 13.000, 11.000, and 12.000, Margalef index was 2.873, 2.266, 2.335, and 2. 137, Shannon-Wiener index was 2.034, 1.976, 1.982, and 1.488, Simpson index was 0.196, 0.189, 0.174, and 0.323, and Pielou index was 0.728, 0.787, 0.829, 0.599, respectively. This ecosystem had a lower diversity of grasshopper communities, and different land use habitats in the ecosystem had different species component and diversity. In paddy field, grasshopper had a higher diversity than in dry land, but its evenness and stability were moderate; in natural forest, the diversity was high and the stability was strong; while in plantation forest, the diversity was low and the stability was weak. There existed species exchange in different land use habitats in the ecosystem.

  8. eLac - Conceptual Model for Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rata, Marius; Florentin Draghia, Aurelian; Drobot, Radu; Matreata, Marius; Corbus, Ciprian

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the conceptual model of the decision support system (DSS) for flood management activities introduced in the scope of e-LAC project. Following the general system architecture which has an emphasize on the water management decision processes, hydrologic and hydraulic models are introduced and discussed according to their specific DSS integration potential. Three directions are discussed in dedicated sections corresponding to the main modules defined in the conceptual model : the Water Basin Management Module (mainly implements the management decision flow, but manages also data exchange between hydrologic modeling module and hydraulic modeling module, allow real time visualization for hydrological data), the Hydrologic Modeling Module (manages all the modeling functionalities of rainfalls - runoff processes, providing continuous hydrologic forecasts with a variable time-step depending on the actual basin situation) and the Hydraulic Modeling Module (computes the flood's waves routing having as boundary upstream conditions the discharge hydrographs, generated both by catchment's upper area, river tributaries and inter-basins, respectively the rating curves, water level hydrograph or water surface slope as downstream condition). The GIS concepts are contextually reviewed based on their use as geospatial database for water management modeling, integration within hydrologic time courses, hydraulic modeling (from both software and management perspective), expert knowledge or mathematical modeling results (knowledge database, rules).

  9. A quantitative understanding of lac repressor’s binding specificity and flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zheng; Chang, Yiming; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Lac repressor, the first discovered transcriptional regulator, has been shown to confer multiple-modes of binding to its operator sites depending on the central spacer length. Other homolog members in the LacI/GalR family (PurR and YcjW) cannot bind their operator sites with similar structural flexibility. To decipher the underlying mechanism for this unique property, we used Spec-seq approach combined with site-directed mutagenesis to quantify the DNA binding specificity of multiple hybrids of lacI and PurR. We find that lac repressor’s recognition di-residues YQ and its hinge helix loop regions are both critical for its structural flexibility. Also, specificity profiling of the whole lac operator suggests that a simple additive model from single variants suffice to predict other multivariant sites’ energy reasonably well, and the genome occupancy model based on this specificity data correlates well with in vivo lac repressor binding profile. PMID:26752632

  10. Regulation of endothelial-specific transgene expression by the LacI repressor protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morton, Susan K; Chaston, Daniel J; Baillie, Brett K; Hill, Caryl E; Matthaei, Klaus I

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2) with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacI(R), and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacI(R) protein. PMID:24755679

  11. Multiple LacI-mediated loops revealed by Bayesian statistics and tethered particle motion

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephanie; van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Phillips, Rob; Wiggins, Chris H.; Lindén, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial transcription factor LacI loops DNA by binding to two separate locations on the DNA simultaneously. Despite being one of the best-studied model systems for transcriptional regulation, the number and conformations of loop structures accessible to LacI remain unclear, though the importance of multiple coexisting loops has been implicated in interactions between LacI and other cellular regulators of gene expression. To probe this issue, we have developed a new analysis method for tethered particle motion, a versatile and commonly used in vitro single-molecule technique. Our method, vbTPM, performs variational Bayesian inference in hidden Markov models. It learns the number of distinct states (i.e. DNA–protein conformations) directly from tethered particle motion data with better resolution than existing methods, while easily correcting for common experimental artifacts. Studying short (roughly 100 bp) LacI-mediated loops, we provide evidence for three distinct loop structures, more than previously reported in single-molecule studies. Moreover, our results confirm that changes in LacI conformation and DNA-binding topology both contribute to the repertoire of LacI-mediated loops formed in vitro, and provide qualitatively new input for models of looping and transcriptional regulation. We expect vbTPM to be broadly useful for probing complex protein–nucleic acid interactions. PMID:25120267

  12. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  13. Loss of the lac operon contributes to Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through derepression of flagellar synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingyan; Ni, Zhiwei; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella, a genus that is closely related to Escherichia coli, includes many pathogens of humans and other animals. A notable feature that distinguishes Salmonella from E. coli is lactose negativity, because the lac operon is lost in most Salmonella genomes. Here, we expressed the lac operon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and compared the virulence of the Lac(+) strain to that of the wild-type strain in a murine model, invasion assays, and macrophage replication assays. We showed that the Lac(+) strain is attenuated in vivo and the attenuation of virulence is caused by its defect in epithelial cell invasion. However, the invasion-defective phenotype is unrelated to lactose utilization. Through sequencing and the comparison of the transcriptome profile between the Lac(+) and wild-type strains during invasion, we found that most flagellar genes were markedly downregulated in the Lac(+) strain, while other genes associated with invasion, such as the majority of genes encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, were not differentially expressed. Moreover, we discovered that lacA is the major repressor of flagellar gene expression in the lac operon. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the lac operon decreases Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through repression of flagellar biosynthesis. As the ability to invade epithelial cells is a critical virulence determinant of Salmonella, our results provide important evidence that the loss of the lac operon contributes to the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity. PMID:25362512

  14. Beware of your Cre-Ation: lacZ expression impairs neuronal integrity and hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Reichel, J M; Bedenk, B T; Gassen, N C; Hafner, K; Bura, S A; Almeida-Correa, S; Genewsky, A; Dedic, N; Giesert, F; Agarwal, A; Nave, K-A; Rein, T; Czisch, M; Deussing, J M; Wotjak, C T

    2016-10-01

    Expression of the lacZ-sequence is a widely used reporter-tool to assess the transgenic and/or transfection efficacy of a target gene in mice. Once activated, lacZ is permanently expressed. However, protein accumulation is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, the protein product of the bacterial lacZ gene is ß-galactosidase, an analog to the mammalian senescence-associated ß-galactosidase, a molecular marker for aging. Therefore we studied the behavioral, structural and molecular consequences of lacZ expression in distinct neuronal sub-populations. lacZ expression in cortical glutamatergic neurons resulted in severe impairments in hippocampus-dependent memory accompanied by marked structural alterations throughout the CNS. In contrast, GFP expression or the expression of the ChR2/YFP fusion product in the same cell populations did not result in either cognitive or structural deficits. GABAergic lacZ expression caused significantly decreased hyper-arousal and mild cognitive deficits. Attenuated structural and behavioral consequences of lacZ expression could also be induced in adulthood, and lacZ transfection in neuronal cell cultures significantly decreased their viability. Our findings provide a strong caveat against the use of lacZ reporter mice for phenotyping studies and point to a particular sensitivity of the hippocampus formation to detrimental consequences of lacZ expression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Loss of the lac operon contributes to Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through derepression of flagellar synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingyan; Ni, Zhiwei; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella, a genus that is closely related to Escherichia coli, includes many pathogens of humans and other animals. A notable feature that distinguishes Salmonella from E. coli is lactose negativity, because the lac operon is lost in most Salmonella genomes. Here, we expressed the lac operon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and compared the virulence of the Lac(+) strain to that of the wild-type strain in a murine model, invasion assays, and macrophage replication assays. We showed that the Lac(+) strain is attenuated in vivo and the attenuation of virulence is caused by its defect in epithelial cell invasion. However, the invasion-defective phenotype is unrelated to lactose utilization. Through sequencing and the comparison of the transcriptome profile between the Lac(+) and wild-type strains during invasion, we found that most flagellar genes were markedly downregulated in the Lac(+) strain, while other genes associated with invasion, such as the majority of genes encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, were not differentially expressed. Moreover, we discovered that lacA is the major repressor of flagellar gene expression in the lac operon. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the lac operon decreases Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through repression of flagellar biosynthesis. As the ability to invade epithelial cells is a critical virulence determinant of Salmonella, our results provide important evidence that the loss of the lac operon contributes to the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity.

  16. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  17. Innovative Anti Crash Absorber for a Crashworthy Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Michele; Marulo, Francesco; Montesarchio, Bruno; Bruno, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    This paper defines an innovative concept to anti-crash absorber in composite material to be integrated on the landing gear as an energy-absorbing device in crash conditions to absorb the impact energy. A composite cylinder tube in carbon fiber material is installed coaxially to the shock absorber cylinder and, in an emergency landing gear condition, collapses in order to enhance the energy absorption performance of the landing system. This mechanism has been developed as an alternative solution to a high-pressure chamber installed on the Agusta A129 CBT helicopter, which can be considered dangerous when the helicopter operates in hard and/or crash landing. The characteristics of the anti-crash device are presented and the structural layout of a crashworthy landing gear adopting the developed additional energy absorbing stage is outlined. Experimental and numerical results relevant to the material characterization and the force peaks evaluation of the system development are reported. The anti-crash prototype was designed, analysed, optimized, made and finally the potential performances of a landing gear with the additional anti-crash absorber system are tested by drop test and then correlated with a similar test without the anti-crash system, showing that appreciable energy absorbing capabilities and efficiencies can be obtained in crash conditions.

  18. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  19. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  20. Ion effects on the lac repressor--operator equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Barkley, M D; Lewis, P A; Sullivan, G E

    1981-06-23

    The effects of ions on the interaction of lac repressor protein and operator DNA have been studied by the membrane filter technique. The equilibrium association constant was determined as a function of monovalent and divalent cation concentrations, anions, and pH. The binding of repressor and operator is extremely sensitive to the ionic environment. The dependence of the observed equilibrium constant on salt concentration is analyzed according to the binding theory of Record et al. [Record, M. T., Jr., Lohman, T. M., & deHaseth, P. L. (1976) J. Mol. Biol. 107, 145]. The number of ionic interactions in repressor--operator complex is deduced from the slopes of the linear log-log plots. About 11 ionic interactions are formed between repressor and DNA phosphates at pH 7.4 and about 9 ionic interactions at pH 8.0, in reasonable agreement with previous estimates. A favorable nonelectrostatic binding free energy of about 9-12 kcal/mol is estimated from the extrapolated equilibrium constants at the 1 M standard state. The values are in good accord with recent results for the salt-independent binding of repressor core and operator DNA. The effects of pH on the repressor--operator interaction are small, and probably result from titration of functional groups in the DNA-binding site of the protein. For monovalent salts, the equilibrium constant is slightly dependent on cation type and highly dependent on anion type. At constant salt concentration, the equilibrium constant decreases about 10000-fold in the order CH3CO2- greater than or equal to F- greater than Cl- greater than Br- greater than NO3- greater than SCN- greater than I-. The wide range of accessible equilibrium constants provides a useful tool for in vitro studies of the repressor--operator interaction.

  1. A biosensor based on Coriolopsis gallica laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide for polyphenol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguila, Sergio A.; Shimomoto, David; Ipinza, Franscisco; Bedolla-Valdez, Zaira I.; Romo-Herrera, José; Contreras, Oscar E.; Farías, Mario H.; Alonso-Núñez, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    The use of nanomaterials allows the design of ultrasensitive biosensors with advantages in the detection of organic molecules. Catechol and catechin are molecules that occur naturally in fruits, and their presence in products like dyes and wines affects quality standards. In this study, catechol and catechin were measured at the nanoscale by means of cyclic voltammetry. The oxidation of Coriolopsis gallica laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Lac/CNx-MWCNT) and on graphene oxide (Lac/GO) was used to measure the concentrations of catechol and catechin. Nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWCNT) were synthesized by spray pyrolysis and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Covalently bonded hybrids with laccase (Lac/CNx-MWCNT and Lac/GO) were generated. Catalytic activity of free enzymes determined with syringaldazine yielded 14 584 UmL-1. With Lac/CNx-MWCNT at concentrations of 6.4 mmol L-1 activity was 9326 U mL-1, while enzyme activity measured with Lac/GO at concentration of 6.4 mmol L-1 was 9 234 U mL-1. The Lac/CNx-MWCNT hybrid showed higher stability than Lac/GO at different ethyl alcohol concentrations. The Lac/CNx-MWCNT hybrid can measure concentrations, not previously reported, as low as 1 × 10-8 mol L-1 by measuring the electric current responses.

  2. Aflatoxin B₁ and M₁ Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators.

    PubMed

    Loi, Martina; Fanelli, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Liuzzi, Vania C; Quintieri, Laura; Cimmarusti, Maria T; Monaci, Linda; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio F; Sanjust, Enrico; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Laccases (LCs) are multicopper oxidases that find application as versatile biocatalysts for the green bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenobiotics. In this study we elucidate the degrading activity of Lac2 pure enzyme form Pleurotus pulmonarius towards aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and M₁ (AFM₁). LC enzyme was purified using three chromatographic steps and identified as Lac2 through zymogram and LC-MS/MS. The degradation assays were performed in vitro at 25 °C for 72 h in buffer solution. AFB₁ degradation by Lac2 direct oxidation was 23%. Toxin degradation was also investigated in the presence of three redox mediators, (2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS) and two naturally-occurring phenols, acetosyringone (AS) and syringaldehyde (SA). The direct effect of the enzyme and the mediated action of Lac2 with redox mediators univocally proved the correlation between Lac2 activity and aflatoxins degradation. The degradation of AFB₁ was enhanced by the addition of all mediators at 10 mM, with AS being the most effective (90% of degradation). AFM₁ was completely degraded by Lac2 with all mediators at 10 mM. The novelty of this study relies on the identification of a pure enzyme as capable of degrading AFB₁ and, for the first time, AFM₁, and on the evidence that the mechanism of an effective degradation occurs via the mediation of natural phenolic compounds. These results opened new perspective for Lac2 application in the food and feed supply chains as a biotransforming agent of AFB₁ and AFM₁. PMID:27563923

  3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of lac insects (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming; Feng, Ying; Yang, Hui; He, Rui; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yang, Zixiang

    2013-10-01

    Lac insects are commercial scale insects with high economic value. The combined molecular phylogeny of 20 lac insect populations was generated using elongation factor 1 alpha, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene loci. The 20 populations of lac insects clustered into four distinct clades supported by high bootstrap values in maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Clade A at the base of the dendrogram comprises Kerria ruralis and two populations of Kerria lacca and is the branch with most primitive species. Clade B includes K. lacca, Kerria sindica and the three populations P, V and Z from India. They clustered with high bootstrap support and have evolved later than those in Clade A. The three unidentified populations P, V and Z exhibited a close relationship with K. lacca and are the same species. In Clade C, three populations of Kerria yunnanensis (Ym, Yj and Yl), population Ys from Thailand and population H from India clustered as a group, in which population H clustered with Ym with 100 % bootstrap in all three analysis methods. In Clade D, Kerria chinensis, Kerria pusana and three populations of K. yunnanensis clustered together with strong support, and are located in the upper branches of the dendrogram and are recently evolved taxa. The majority of populations from the Indian subcontinent clade are more closely related to outgroup taxa from the primitive family Pseudococcidae, as compared to the Eurasian populations. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Indian subcontinent is the centre of original of lac insects which have translocated to the Eurasian Continent. Based on the theory of continental drift and existing fossil records, it is suggested that lac insect evolved from ancient scale insects during the late Cretaceous period when the Indian subcontinent drifted towards the Eurasian Continent. Changes in the global environment have impacted on the distribution and evolution of lac

  4. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Martina; Fanelli, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Liuzzi, Vania C.; Quintieri, Laura; Cimmarusti, Maria T.; Monaci, Linda; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Sanjust, Enrico; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Laccases (LCs) are multicopper oxidases that find application as versatile biocatalysts for the green bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenobiotics. In this study we elucidate the degrading activity of Lac2 pure enzyme form Pleurotus pulmonarius towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1). LC enzyme was purified using three chromatographic steps and identified as Lac2 through zymogram and LC-MS/MS. The degradation assays were performed in vitro at 25 °C for 72 h in buffer solution. AFB1 degradation by Lac2 direct oxidation was 23%. Toxin degradation was also investigated in the presence of three redox mediators, (2,2′-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS) and two naturally-occurring phenols, acetosyringone (AS) and syringaldehyde (SA). The direct effect of the enzyme and the mediated action of Lac2 with redox mediators univocally proved the correlation between Lac2 activity and aflatoxins degradation. The degradation of AFB1 was enhanced by the addition of all mediators at 10 mM, with AS being the most effective (90% of degradation). AFM1 was completely degraded by Lac2 with all mediators at 10 mM. The novelty of this study relies on the identification of a pure enzyme as capable of degrading AFB1 and, for the first time, AFM1, and on the evidence that the mechanism of an effective degradation occurs via the mediation of natural phenolic compounds. These results opened new perspective for Lac2 application in the food and feed supply chains as a biotransforming agent of AFB1 and AFM1. PMID:27563923

  5. Formation of Archean batholith-hosted gold veins at the Lac Herbin deposit, Val-d'Or district, Canada: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezeau, Hervé; Moritz, Robert; Beaudoin, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The Lac Herbin deposit consists of a network of mineralized, parallel steep-reverse faults within the synvolcanic Bourlamaque granodiorite batholith at Val-d'Or in the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt. There are two related quartz-tourmaline-carbonate fault-fill vein sets in the faults, which consist of subvertical fault-fill veins associated with subhorizontal veins. The paragenetic sequence is characterized by a main vein filling ore stage including quartz, tourmaline, carbonate, and pyrite-hosted gold, chalcopyrite, tellurides, pyrrhotite, and cubanite inclusions. Most of the gold is located in fractures in deformed pyrite and quartz in equilibrium with chalcopyrite and carbonates, with local pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, cobaltite, pyrite, or tellurides. Petrography and microthermometry on quartz from the main vein filling ore stage reveal the presence of three unrelated fluid inclusion types: (1) gold-bearing aqueous-carbonic inclusions arranged in three-dimensional intragranular clusters in quartz crystals responsible for the main vein filling stage, (2) barren high-temperature, aqueous, moderately saline inclusions observed in healed fractures, postdating the aqueous-carbonic inclusions, and considered as a remobilizing agent of earlier precipitated gold in late fractures, and (3) barren low-temperature, aqueous, high saline inclusions in healed fractures, similar to the crustal brines reported throughout the Canadian Shield and considered to be unrelated to the gold mineralization. At the Lac Herbin deposit, the aqueous-carbonic inclusions are interpreted to have formed first and to represent the gold-bearing fluid, which were generated contemporaneous with regional greenschist facies metamorphism. In contrast, the high-temperature aqueous fluid dissolved gold from the main vein filling ore stage transported and reprecipitated it in late fractures during a subsequent local thermal event.

  6. Distinction of Indian commercial lac insect lines of Kerria spp. (Homoptera: Coccoidea) based on their morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramani, Ranganathan; Sharma, Kewal K; Vidyarthi, Ambrish S; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor V

    2014-01-01

    The lac insects belong to the genus Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae) and are commercially exploited worldwide for the production of lac, which comes from their waxy test and has diverse industrial applications. The insects are maintained by the Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums as distinctive lines that are cultivated and commercialized in the lac producing areas of India. The lines are all considered to belong to the genus Kerria but without validation of their taxonomic characters, and their identity to species has not been ascertained. This study used single-factor analysis of variance and several multivariate analyses, such as principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis to explore the morphometrics of some of the adult female lac insect lines. The results have enabled the identification of some taxonomically significant characters in adult females, which has grouped the 32 lac insect lines studied into 15 species along with validation of the most significant characters. Distinctive grouping patterns for the species of Kerria have been brought out using morphometrics.

  7. Solving a discrete model of the lac operon using Z3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Natalia A.

    2014-05-01

    A discrete model for the Lcac Operon is solved using the SMT-solver Z3. Traditionally the Lac Operon is formulated in a continuous math model. This model is a system of ordinary differential equations. Here, it was considerated as a discrete model, based on a Boolean red. The biological problem of Lac Operon is enunciated as a problem of Boolean satisfiability, and it is solved using an STM-solver named Z3. Z3 is a powerful solver that allows understanding the basic dynamic of the Lac Operon in an easier and more efficient way. The multi-stability of the Lac Operon can be easily computed with Z3. The code that solves the Boolean red can be written in Python language or SMT-Lib language. Both languages were used in local version of the program as online version of Z3. For future investigations it is proposed to solve the Boolean red of Lac Operon using others SMT-solvers as cvc4, alt-ergo, mathsat and yices.

  8. Activation of the lac genes of Tn951 by insertion sequences from Pseudomonas cepacia.

    PubMed

    Wood, M S; Lory, C; Lessie, T G

    1990-04-01

    We have identified three transposable gene-activating elements from Pseudomonas cepacia on the basis of their abilities to increase expression of the lac genes of the broad-host-range plasmid pGC91.14 (pRP1::Tn951). When introduced into auxotrophic derivatives of P. cepacia 249 (ATCC 17616), this plasmid failed to confer the ability to utilize lactose. The lac genes of Tn951 were poorly expressed in P. cepacia and were not induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. Lac+ variants of the pGC91.14-containing strains which formed beta-galactosidase at high constitutive levels as a consequence of transposition of insertion sequences from the P. cepacia genome to sites upstream of the lacZ gene of Tn951 were isolated. Certain of the elements also increased gene expression in other bacteria. For example, IS407 strongly activated the lacZ gene of Tn951 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and IS406 (but not IS407) did so in Zymomonas mobilis. The results indicate that IS elements from P. cepacia have potential for turning on the expression of foreign genes in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:2156800

  9. Does black hole spin play a key role in the FSRQ/BL Lac dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debbijoy; Sreekumar, Parameswaran; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Tomar, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Blazars are characterized by large intensity and spectral variations across the electromagnetic spectrum It is believed that jets emerging from them are almost aligned with the line-of-sight. The majority of identified extragalactic sources in γ-ray catalogs of EGRET and Fermi are blazars. Observationally, blazars can be divided into two classes: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower γ-ray luminosity and harder power law spectra at γ-ray energies than FSRQs. We attempt to explain the high energy properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs from Fermi γ-ray space telescope observations. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large mismatch in observed luminosity in γ-ray. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this difference in γ-ray luminosity between the two classes is significantly reduced. In order to explain this difference in intrinsic luminosities, we propose that spin plays an important role in the luminosity distribution dichotomy of BL Lacs and FSRQs. As the outflow power of a blazar increases with increasing spin of a central black hole, we suggest that the spin plays a crucial role in making BL Lac sources low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQ sources.

  10. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  11. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  12. Nonventing, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, regenerable heat absorber (RHA), developed for rejecting metabolic heat from a space suit, may also be useful on Earth for short-term cooling of heavy protective garments. Unlike prior space-suit-cooling systems, a system that includes this RHA does not vent water. The closed system contains water reservoirs, tubes through which water is circulated to absorb heat, an evaporator, and an absorber/radiator. The radiator includes a solution of LiCl contained in a porous material in titanium tubes. The evaporator cools water that circulates through a liquid-cooled garment. Water vapor produced in the evaporator enters the radiator tubes where it is absorbed into the LiCl solution, releasing heat. Much of the heat of absorption is rejected to the environment via the radiator. After use, the RHA is regenerated by heating it to a temperature of 100 C for about 2 hours to drive the absorbed water back to the evaporator. A system including a prototype of the RHA was found to be capable of maintaining a temperature of 20 C while removing heat at a rate of 200 W for 6 hours.

  13. Waveform-Dependent Absorbing Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Kim, Sanghoon; Rushton, Jeremiah J.; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first use of a waveform-dependent absorbing metasurface for high-power pulsed surface currents. The new type of nonlinear metasurface, composed of circuit elements including diodes, is capable of storing high-power pulse energy to dissipate it between pulses, while allowing propagation of small signals. Interestingly, the absorbing performance varies for high-power pulses but not for high-power continuous waves (CW’s), since the capacitors used are fully charged up. Thus, the waveform dependence enables us to distinguish various signal types (i.e., CW or pulse) even at the same frequency, which potentially creates new kinds of microwave technologies and applications.

  14. Detection of LacZ-Positive Cells in Living Tissue with Single-Cell Resolution.

    PubMed

    Doura, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Mako; Obata, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi; Hiyama, Takeshi Y; Matsuda, Takashi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Noda, Masaharu; Miura, Masayuki; Urano, Yasuteru

    2016-08-01

    The LacZ gene, which encodes Escherichia coli β-galactosidase, is widely used as a marker for cells with targeted gene expression or disruption. However, it has been difficult to detect lacZ-positive cells in living organisms or tissues at single-cell resolution, limiting the utility of existing lacZ reporters. Herein we present a newly developed fluorogenic β-galactosidase substrate suitable for labeling live cells in culture, as well as in living tissues. This precisely functionalized fluorescent probe exhibited dramatic activation of fluorescence upon reaction with the enzyme, remained inside cells by anchoring itself to intracellular proteins, and provided single-cell resolution. Neurons labeled with this probe preserved spontaneous firing, which was enhanced by application of ligands of receptors expressed in the cells, suggesting that this probe would be applicable to investigate functions of targeted cells in living tissues and organisms. PMID:27400827

  15. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their γ-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for γ counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi γ-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  16. Croconic acid - An absorber in the Venus clouds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Karen K.; Wolff, Andrew R.; Travis, Larry D.

    1989-01-01

    The absorbing species responsible for the UV cloud features and pale yellow hue of the Venus clouds is presently suggested to be the carbon monoxide-polymer croconic acid, which strongly absorbs in the blue and near-UV. Laboratory absorption-coefficient measurements of a dilute solution of croconic acid in sulfuric acid are used as the bases of cloud-scattering models; the Venus planetary albedo's observed behavior in the blue and near-UV are noted to be qualitatively reproduced. Attention is given to a plausible croconic acid-production mechanism for the Venus cloudtop region.

  17. Determinants of bistability in induction of the Escherichia coli lac operon.

    PubMed

    Dreisigmeyer, D W; Stajic, J; Nemenman, I; Hlavacek, W S; Wall, M E

    2008-09-01

    The authors have developed a mathematical model of regulation of expression of the Escherichia coli lac operon, and have investigated bistability in its steady-state induction behaviour in the absence of external glucose. Numerical analysis of equations describing regulation by artificial inducers revealed two natural bistability parameters that can be used to control the range of inducer concentrations over which the model exhibits bistability. By tuning these bistability parameters, the authors found a family of biophysically reasonable systems that are consistent with an experimentally determined bistable region for induction by thio-methylgalactoside (TMG) (in Ozbudak et al. Nature, 2004, 427; p. 737). To model regulation by lactose, the authors developed similar equations in which allolactose, a metabolic intermediate in lactose metabolism and a natural inducer of lac, is the inducer. For biophysically reasonable parameter values, these equations yield no bistability in response to induction by lactose - only systems with an unphysically small permease-dependent export effect can exhibit small amounts of bistability for limited ranges of parameter values. These results cast doubt on the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli, and help shed light on the controversy among existing theoretical studies that address this issue. The results also motivate a deeper experimental characterisation of permease-independent transport of lac inducers, and suggest an experimental approach to address the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli. The sensitivity of lac bistability to the type of inducer emphasises the importance of metabolism in determining the functions of genetic regulatory networks. PMID:19045824

  18. A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Pasumarthi, Ravi K.; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M.; Engelhard, Eric K.; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, K.C. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ∼80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ∼20% showed no specific staining, ∼13% had staining in only one tissue, and ∼25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (∼50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

  19. Commander Lousma stows trash bags in middeck CO2 Absorber Stowage volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Lousma uses his body as a zero gravity garbage compactor to stow plastic bags full of empty containers and trash in the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Absorber Stowage volume in front of the airlock hatch.

  20. Ultraviolet and X-ray observations of the BL Lac object PKS 05 8-322

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, K. R. H.; Hackney, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of the BL Lac object PKS 0548-322 were made with ultraviolet and X-ray instruments on the IUE and HEAO-2 satellites. Two observations in each spectral region, one set of which was obtained simultaneously are presented. A power law of energy index approximately 1.0 gives a good description of the data from ultraviolet through X-ray frequencies. This source is reported to be variable on short timescales (Gilmore 1980); the implications of the spectral properties and apparent variability are discussed in light of a relativistic jet model. Findings support the jet picture of BL Lac objects.

  1. SSC Model Fits to Simultaneous Fermi and CAO observations of Bl Lac's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Tyler; Macomb, Daryl J.; Hand, Jared; Norris, Jay P.; Long, Min

    2016-01-01

    The Challis Astronomical Observatory (CAO) has been surveying a sample of blazar-type AGN since 2010. The CAO blazar sample includes4 3 sources - comprising 30 FSRQs, 15 BL Lacs, one radio galaxy and four unclassified sources - covering a redshift range 0.02 < z < 2. Observations are carried out in BVRI filters. Here we describe photometric results on a small sample emphasizing BL Lacs. We combine the CAO data with Fermi/LAT data and explore the suitability of fits to the data using the uniform conical jet model of Potter and Cotter (MNRAS, 2012, 423, 756-765).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CZ Lac multiperiodic Blazhko modulation (Sodor+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodor, A.; Jurcsik, J.; Szeidl, B.; Varadi, M.; Henden, A.; Vida, K.; Hurta, Zs.; Posztobanyi, K.; Dekany, I.; Szing, A.

    2011-09-01

    CZ Lac was observed with a photometer attached to the 60-cm telescope of the Konkoly Observatory, Svabhegy, Budapest, through B and V filters on seven nights in 1967 (table A1), and 2 seasons between 2004 and 2005. We observed CZ Lac with the same, refurbished and automated 60-cm telescope equipped with a Wright Instruments 750x1100 CCD camera (field of view 17x24arcmin) in 2004 and 2005. About 29 000 frames were obtained in BV(RI)C bands. The data of the two seasons spanned 146 and 84d. (8 data files).

  3. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  4. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  5. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  6. Synthesis of tetravalent LacNAc-glycoclusters as high-affinity cross-linker against Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Makoto; Chuma, Yasushi; Yasumoto, Yoshinori; Onoda, Takashi; Umemura, Myco; Usui, Taichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-01-01

    Four kinds of tetravalent double-headed glycoclusters [(LacNAc)4-DHGs] were designed with linkers of varying lengths consisting of alkanedioic carboxyamido groups (C6, C12, C18 and C24) between two bi-antennary LacNAc-glycosides. These glycoclusters served as high-affinity cross-linking ligands for the LacNAc-binding lectin Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA). The binding activity and cross-linking between each ligand and ECA were characterized by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a quantitative precipitation assay and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the precipitation assay and DLS measurement, the synthesized (LacNAc)4-DHGs were found to be capable of binding and precipitating the ECA as multivalent ligands. ITC analysis indicated the binding of (LacNAc)4-DHGs was driven by a favorable enthalpy change. Furthermore, the entropy penalty from binding (LacNAc)4-DHGs clearly decreased in a spacer length-dependent manner. The binding affinities of flexible (LacNAc)4-DHGs (C18 and C24) with long spacers were found to be more favorable than those of the clusters having short spacers (C6 and C12). These results were supported by molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules for the tetravalent glycoclusters with ECA. We concluded that the subtle modification in the epitope-presenting scaffolds exerts the significant effect in the recognition efficiency involved in the LacNAc moieties by ECA.

  7. Program Evaluation: Outcomes of Participation in Lac Du Bois, the French Language Village of Concordia Language Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clementi, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of stakeholders (leadership of Concordia Language Villages, staff members and villagers of "Lac du Bois", the French Language Village of Concordia Language Villages), related to achievement of the mission statement. The research question was: How do stakeholders in "Lac du…

  8. Synthesis of tetravalent LacNAc-glycoclusters as high-affinity cross-linker against Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Makoto; Chuma, Yasushi; Yasumoto, Yoshinori; Onoda, Takashi; Umemura, Myco; Usui, Taichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-01-01

    Four kinds of tetravalent double-headed glycoclusters [(LacNAc)4-DHGs] were designed with linkers of varying lengths consisting of alkanedioic carboxyamido groups (C6, C12, C18 and C24) between two bi-antennary LacNAc-glycosides. These glycoclusters served as high-affinity cross-linking ligands for the LacNAc-binding lectin Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA). The binding activity and cross-linking between each ligand and ECA were characterized by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a quantitative precipitation assay and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the precipitation assay and DLS measurement, the synthesized (LacNAc)4-DHGs were found to be capable of binding and precipitating the ECA as multivalent ligands. ITC analysis indicated the binding of (LacNAc)4-DHGs was driven by a favorable enthalpy change. Furthermore, the entropy penalty from binding (LacNAc)4-DHGs clearly decreased in a spacer length-dependent manner. The binding affinities of flexible (LacNAc)4-DHGs (C18 and C24) with long spacers were found to be more favorable than those of the clusters having short spacers (C6 and C12). These results were supported by molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules for the tetravalent glycoclusters with ECA. We concluded that the subtle modification in the epitope-presenting scaffolds exerts the significant effect in the recognition efficiency involved in the LacNAc moieties by ECA. PMID:26672510

  9. The Hinge Region Strengthens the Nonspecific Interaction between Lac-Repressor and DNA: A Computer Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lili; Tabaka, Marcin; Hou, Sen; Li, Lin; Burdzy, Krzysztof; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Maffeo, Christopher; Zhang, Xuzhu; Holyst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    LacI is commonly used as a model to study the protein-DNA interaction and gene regulation. The headpiece of the lac-repressor (LacI) protein is an ideal system for investigation of nonspecific binding of the whole LacI protein to DNA. The hinge region of the headpiece has been known to play a key role in the specific binding of LacI to DNA, whereas its role in nonspecific binding process has not been elucidated. Here, we report the results of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation and continuum electrostatic calculations suggesting that the hinge region strengthens the nonspecific interaction, accounting for up to 50% of the micro-dissociation free energy of LacI from DNA. Consequently, the rate of microscopic dissociation of LacI from DNA is reduced by 2~3 orders of magnitude in the absence of the hinge region. We find the hinge region makes an important contribution to the electrostatic energy, the salt dependence of electrostatic energy, and the number of salt ions excluded from binding of the LacI-DNA complex. PMID:27008630

  10. Dry Process Based Infrared Sensors with CNT Film Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kum-Pyo; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Lim, Lee-Taek; Choi, Chang-Seon; Lee, Dong Il; Lee, Cheol Jin; Park, Chan-Won; Min, Nam Ki

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a front-side micromachined thermopiles consisting of a suspended membrane and a carbon nanotube (CNT) film absorber. Thermocouples of 52 pairs which are composed of phosphorous-doped silicon and aluminum were formed and connected in series. A CNT film collected by filter was transferred on hot junction. A CNT absorber has an absorptance of about 50% in the midinfrared region. The suspended membrane was fabricated by an isotropic silicon dry etching process with XeF2 gas at the front side of the substrates. The output voltage with the CNT film is found to be 250.2 mV at 7 mW of incident power, approximately 1.8 times higher than that of one without an absorber.

  11. Light-absorbing impurities in Arctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, S. J.; Warren, S. G.; Grenfell, T. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Brandt, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Absorption of radiation by ice is extremely weak at visible and near-ultraviolet wavelengths, so small amounts of light-absorbing impurities in snow can dominate the absorption of solar radiation at these wavelengths, reducing the albedo relative to that of pure snow, contributing to the surface energy budget and leading to earlier snowmelt. In this study Arctic snow is surveyed for its content of light-absorbing impurities, expanding and updating the 1983-1984 survey of Clarke and Noone. Samples were collected in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean during 1998 and 2005-2009, on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, sea ice, frozen lakes, and in boreal forests. Snow was collected mostly in spring, when the entire winter snowpack is accessible for sampling. Sampling was carried out in summer on the Greenland Ice Sheet and on the Arctic Ocean, of melting glacier snow and sea ice as well as cold snow. About 1200 snow samples have been analyzed for this study. The snow is melted and filtered; the filters are analyzed in a specially designed spectrophotometer system to infer the concentration of black carbon (BC), the fraction of absorption due to non-BC light-absorbing constituents and the absorption Ångstrom exponent of all particles. This is done using BC calibration standards having a mass absorption efficiency of 6.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm and by making an assumption that the absorption Angstrom exponent for BC is 1.0 and for non-BC light-absorbing aerosol is 5.0. The reduction of snow albedo is primarily due to BC, but other impurities, principally brown (organic) carbon, are typically responsible for ~40% of the visible and ultraviolet absorption. The meltwater from selected snow samples was saved for chemical analysis to identify sources of the impurities. Median BC amounts in surface snow are as follows (nanograms of carbon per gram of snow): Greenland 3, Arctic Ocean snow 7, melting sea ice 8, Arctic Canada 8, subarctic Canada 14

  12. High-Resolution Specificity from DNA Sequencing Highlights Alternative Modes of Lac Repressor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zheng; Stormo, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the specificity of transcription factors is critical to understanding regulatory networks in cells. The lac repressor–operator system has been studied for many years, but not with high-throughput methods capable of determining specificity comprehensively. Details of its binding interaction and its selection of an asymmetric binding site have been controversial. We employed a new method to accurately determine relative binding affinities to thousands of sequences simultaneously, requiring only sequencing of bound and unbound fractions. An analysis of 2560 different DNA sequence variants, including both base changes and variations in operator length, provides a detailed view of lac repressor sequence specificity. We find that the protein can bind with nearly equal affinities to operators of three different lengths, but the sequence preference changes depending on the length, demonstrating alternative modes of interaction between the protein and DNA. The wild-type operator has an odd length, causing the two monomers to bind in alternative modes, making the asymmetric operator the preferred binding site. We tested two other members of the LacI/GalR protein family and find that neither can bind with high affinity to sites with alternative lengths or shows evidence of alternative binding modes. A further comparison with known and predicted motifs suggests that the lac repressor may be unique in this ability and that this may contribute to its selection. PMID:25209146

  13. In silico evolved lac operons exhibit bistability for artificial inducers, but not for lactose.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, M J A; Hogeweg, P

    2006-10-15

    Bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli has been widely studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, bistability has been observed when E. coli is induced by an artificial, nonmetabolizable, inducer. However, if the lac operon is induced with lactose, the natural inducer, bistability has not been demonstrated. We derive an analytical expression that can predict the occurrence of bistability both for artificial inducers and lactose. We find very different conditions for bistability in the two cases. Indeed, for artificial inducers bistability is predicted, but for lactose the condition for bistability is much more difficult to satisfy. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution of the lac operon generates an operon that avoids bistability with respect to lactose, but does exhibit bistability with respect to artificial inducers. The activity of this evolved operon strikingly resembles the experimentally observed activity of the operon. Thus our computational experiments suggest that the wild-type lac operon, which regulates lactose metabolism, is not a bistable switch. Nevertheless, for engineering purposes, this operon can be used as a bistable switch with artificial inducers. PMID:16877514

  14. Determining the bistability parameter ranges of artificially induced lac operon using the root locus method.

    PubMed

    Avcu, N; Alyürük, H; Demir, G K; Pekergin, F; Cavas, L; Güzeliş, C

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs the root locus method to conduct a detailed investigation of the parameter regions that ensure bistability in a well-studied gene regulatory network namely, lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In contrast to previous works, the parametric bistability conditions observed in this study constitute a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions. These conditions were derived by applying the root locus method to the polynomial equilibrium equation of the lac operon model to determine the parameter values yielding the multiple real roots necessary for bistability. The lac operon model used was defined as an ordinary differential equation system in a state equation form with a rational right hand side, and it was compatible with the Hill and Michaelis-Menten approaches of enzyme kinetics used to describe biochemical reactions that govern lactose metabolism. The developed root locus method can be used to study the steady-state behavior of any type of convergent biological system model based on mass action kinetics. This method provides a solution to the problem of analyzing gene regulatory networks under parameter uncertainties because the root locus method considers the model parameters as variable, rather than fixed. The obtained bistability ranges for the lac operon model parameters have the potential to elucidate the appearance of bistability for E. coli cells in in vivo experiments, and they could also be used to design robust hysteretic switches in synthetic biology. PMID:25864166

  15. Weak operator binding enhances simulated Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping.

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Andrew V; Grosner, Michael A; Perez, Pamela J; Clauvelin, Nicolas; Lu, Xiang-Jun; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-12-01

    The 50th anniversary of Biopolymers coincides closely with the like celebration of the discovery of the Escherichia coli (lac) lactose operon, a classic genetic system long used to illustrate the influence of biomolecular structure on function. The looping of DNA induced by the binding of the Lac repressor protein to sequentially distant operator sites on DNA continues to serve as a paradigm for understanding long-range genomic communication. Advances in analyses of DNA structures and in incorporation of proteins in computer simulations of DNA looping allow us to address long-standing questions about the role of protein-mediated DNA loop formation in transcriptional control. Here we report insights gained from studies of the sequence-dependent contributions of the natural lac operators to Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping. Novel superposition of the ensembles of protein-bound operator structures derived from NMR measurements reveals variations in DNA folding missed in conventional structural alignments. The changes in folding affect the predicted ease with which the repressor induces loop formation and the ways that DNA closes between the protein headpieces. The peeling of the auxiliary operators away from the repressor enhances the formation of loops with the 92-bp wildtype spacing and hints of a structural reason behind their weak binding. PMID:23818216

  16. Dct::lacZ ES cells: a novel cellular model to study melanocyte determination and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pla, Patrick; Solov'eva, Olga; Moore, Robert; Alberti, Christophe; Kunisada, Takahiro; Larue, Lionel

    2004-04-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into various cell lineages in vitro. A procedure was previously designed to promote the differentiation of ES cells towards the melanocyte lineage and to obtain large and reproducible amounts of melanocytes. To elucidate the main events that lead to the development of melanocytes in vitro, we used transgenic Dct::lacZ mouse blastocysts to establish ES cell lines expressing the lacZ reporter gene under the control of the Dct promoter. Dct, a melanoblast marker, is expressed just after melanoblast determination in vivo. We evaluated the importance of recruitment, proliferation and differentiation during melanocyte ontogeny after the in vitro differentiation of Dct::lacZ ES cells into melanocytes. We showed that bFGF and cholera toxin induce precocious melanoblast determination, associated with early melanocyte differentiation. Edn3 induced melanoblast proliferation and long-term melanoblast recruitment, but not precocious determination. The lack of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and cholera toxin can be partially compensated by Edn3. Thus, Dct::lacZ ES cells can be used as a model to study determination, proliferation and differentiation in the melanocyte lineage in vitro.

  17. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  18. Influence of salt content and processing time on sensory characteristics of cooked "lacón".

    PubMed

    Purriños, Laura; Bermúdez, Roberto; Temperán, Sara; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-04-01

    The influence of salt content and processing time on the sensory properties of cooked "lacón" were determined. "Lacón" is a traditional dry-cured and ripened meat product made in the north-west of Spain from the fore leg of the pig, following a similar process to that of dry-cured ham. Six batches of "lacón" were salted with different amounts of salt (LS (3 days of salting), MS (4 days of salting) and HS (5 days of salting)) and ripened during two times (56 and 84 days of dry-ripening). Cured odour in all batches studied, red colour and rancid odour in MS and HS batches, flavour intensity in MS batch and fat yellowness, rancid flavour and hardness in the HS batch were significantly different with respect to the time of processing. Appearance, odour, flavour and texture were not significantly affected by the salt content (P>0.05). However, the saltiness score showed significant differences with respect to the salt levels in all studied batches (56 and 84 days of process). The principal component analysis showed that physicochemical traits were the most important ones concerning the quality of dry-cured "lacón" and offered a good separation of the mean samples according to the dry ripening days and salt level. PMID:21168978

  19. 77 FR 2774 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Fond du Lac...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Statement: Fond du Lac & Sheboygan Counties, WI AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Road, Suite 8000, Madison, WI 53717-2157; Telephone: (608) 662-2119. You may also contact Rebecca...., Madison, WI 53704-2549; Telephone (608) 246-5399. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FHWA, in cooperation...

  20. A simple system for converting lacZ to gfp reporter fusions in diverse bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goulian, Mark; van der Woude, Marjan

    2006-05-10

    We describe new plasmids that facilitate the rapid conversion of lacZ fusions to gfp transcriptional fusions in bacteria. The exchange is based on a double recombination between lacZ sequences in a suicide vector and the recipient chromosome. The suicide vector is a mobilizable, conditionally replicative plasmid that contains the gene for gfp with flanking lacZ homology and is derived from a broad host range plasmid that has been successfully used in a wide range of bacterial species. The technique was used to convert lacZ reporter fusions to gfp fusions in Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Green fluorescent protein expression in the new recombinants reflected the beta galactosidase expression in the parent strains. GFP is particularly useful for rapid quantification of gene expression in real time and in single cells. As a demonstration of an application of this system, we studied the induction of virE transcription by the VirA/VirG two-component system in A. tumefaciens in response to various levels of phenolic inducer. Analysis of GFP fluorescence in single cells revealed that at intermediate levels of inducer the population of cells was remarkably heterogeneous. The tools described here will be useful for general studies of transcriptional regulation as well as for applications that require spatial and temporal identification of gene expression, such as in the study of biofilms, and interactions between bacteria and their environment. PMID:16500039

  1. Single molecule study of non-specific binding kinetics of LacI in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Caccianini, Laura; Normanno, Davide; Izeddin, Ignacio; Dahan, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Many key cellular processes are controlled by the association of DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) to specific sites. The kinetics of the search process leading to the binding of DBPs to their target locus are largely determined by transient interactions with non-cognate DNA. Using single-molecule microscopy, we studied the dynamics and non-specific binding to DNA of the Lac repressor (LacI) in the environment of mammalian nuclei. We measured the distribution of the LacI-DNA binding times at non-cognate sites and determined the mean residence time to be τ(1D) = 182 ms. This non-specific interaction time, measured in the context of an exogenous system such as that of human U2OS cells, is remarkably different compared to that reported for the LacI in its native environment in E. coli (<5 ms). Such a striking difference (more than 30 fold) suggests that the genome, its organization, and the nuclear environment of mammalian cells play important roles on the dynamics of DBPs and their non-specific DNA interactions. Furthermore, we found that the distribution of off-target binding times follows a power law, similar to what was reported for TetR in U2OS cells. We argue that a possible molecular origin of such a power law distribution of residence times is the large variability of non-cognate sequences found in the mammalian nucleus by the diffusing DBPs. PMID:26387491

  2. Establishment of a LacZ marker rescue assay to detect infectious RD114 virus.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Okada, Masaya; Shojima, Takayuki; Baba, Kenji; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2008-08-01

    Cats have an infectious endogenous retrovirus, named RD114 virus, and there is a possibility that RD114 virus has contaminated live attenuated vaccines, for which feline cells are used as a substrate. To monitor infectious RD114 virus in vaccines for cats, we developed a LacZ marker rescue assay to detect infectious RD114 virus. Among four human cell lines examined, TE671 cells (human rhabdomyosarcoma) were most susceptible to RD114 virus and supported RD114 replication efficiently. Infection was enhanced approximately 5 times by the addition of polybrene at concentrations of 2 to 8 microg/ml in the medium during viral adsorption. A 4-hr viral adsorption period was sufficient to obtain the maximum titer. By inoculating samples into TE671 cells transduced with the lacZ marker gene, the limiting diluted sample (i.e., less than 10 infectious units) was detected at 12 days post-inoculation by the LacZ marker rescue assay. Based on the results obtained in this study, we propose a standard protocol of the LacZ marker rescue assay to detect infectious RD114 virus.

  3. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of lac insects (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming; Feng, Ying; Yang, Hui; He, Rui; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yang, Zixiang

    2013-10-01

    Lac insects are commercial scale insects with high economic value. The combined molecular phylogeny of 20 lac insect populations was generated using elongation factor 1 alpha, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene loci. The 20 populations of lac insects clustered into four distinct clades supported by high bootstrap values in maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Clade A at the base of the dendrogram comprises Kerria ruralis and two populations of Kerria lacca and is the branch with most primitive species. Clade B includes K. lacca, Kerria sindica and the three populations P, V and Z from India. They clustered with high bootstrap support and have evolved later than those in Clade A. The three unidentified populations P, V and Z exhibited a close relationship with K. lacca and are the same species. In Clade C, three populations of Kerria yunnanensis (Ym, Yj and Yl), population Ys from Thailand and population H from India clustered as a group, in which population H clustered with Ym with 100 % bootstrap in all three analysis methods. In Clade D, Kerria chinensis, Kerria pusana and three populations of K. yunnanensis clustered together with strong support, and are located in the upper branches of the dendrogram and are recently evolved taxa. The majority of populations from the Indian subcontinent clade are more closely related to outgroup taxa from the primitive family Pseudococcidae, as compared to the Eurasian populations. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Indian subcontinent is the centre of original of lac insects which have translocated to the Eurasian Continent. Based on the theory of continental drift and existing fossil records, it is suggested that lac insect evolved from ancient scale insects during the late Cretaceous period when the Indian subcontinent drifted towards the Eurasian Continent. Changes in the global environment have impacted on the distribution and evolution of lac

  5. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  6. Measurements of Light Absorbing Particles on Tropical South American Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Warthon, J.; Andrade, M.; Celestian, A. J.; Hoffmann, D.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been losing mass rapidly in recent decades. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light absorbing particulates deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we present results of measurements of light absorbing particles from glaciers in Peru and Bolivia. Samples have been collected by American Climber Science Program volunteers and scientists at altitudes up to 6770 meters. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field. A new inexpensive technique, the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM) has been developed for analysis of light absorbing particles collected on filters. Results from LAHM analysis are calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). For snow samples collected at the same field location LAHM analysis and measurements from the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument are well correlated (r2 = 0.92). Co-located SP2 and LAHM filter analysis suggest that BC could be the dominant absorbing component of the light absorbing particles in some areas.

  7. Decreased UV absorbance as an indicator of micropollutant removal efficiency in wastewater treated with ozone.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, A; Heisele, A; McArdell, C S; Böhler, M; Longree, P; Siegrist, H

    2015-01-01

    Ozone transforms various organic compounds that absorb light within the UV and visible spectra. UV absorbance can therefore be used to detect the transformation of chemicals during ozonation. In wastewater, decolourisation can be observed after ozonation. This study investigates the correlation of the UV absorbance difference between the ozonation inlet and outlet and the removal efficiency of micropollutants in wastewater. The absorbance at 254 and 366 nm was measured at the ozonation inlet and outlet, as was the concentration of 24 representative micropollutants and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The results clearly showed that the relative decrease of absorbance (ΔAbs) is positively correlated with the relative removal efficiency of micropollutants. We therefore suggest that UV absorbance can be used as a feedback control parameter to achieve optimal ozone dosage in wastewater treatment plants and to gain a fast insight into the process efficiency and stability of the ozonation.

  8. Decreased UV absorbance as an indicator of micropollutant removal efficiency in wastewater treated with ozone.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, A; Heisele, A; McArdell, C S; Böhler, M; Longree, P; Siegrist, H

    2015-01-01

    Ozone transforms various organic compounds that absorb light within the UV and visible spectra. UV absorbance can therefore be used to detect the transformation of chemicals during ozonation. In wastewater, decolourisation can be observed after ozonation. This study investigates the correlation of the UV absorbance difference between the ozonation inlet and outlet and the removal efficiency of micropollutants in wastewater. The absorbance at 254 and 366 nm was measured at the ozonation inlet and outlet, as was the concentration of 24 representative micropollutants and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The results clearly showed that the relative decrease of absorbance (ΔAbs) is positively correlated with the relative removal efficiency of micropollutants. We therefore suggest that UV absorbance can be used as a feedback control parameter to achieve optimal ozone dosage in wastewater treatment plants and to gain a fast insight into the process efficiency and stability of the ozonation. PMID:25860699

  9. Rapid generation of CRISPR/dCas9-regulated, orthogonally repressible hybrid T7-lac promoters for modular, tuneable control of metabolic pathway fluxes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Brady F.; Jones, J. Andrew; Kim, Daniel C.; Leitz, Quentin D.; Englaender, Jacob A.; Collins, Shannon M.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Robust gene circuit construction requires use of promoters exhibiting low crosstalk. Orthogonal promoters have been engineered utilizing an assortment of natural and synthetic transcription factors, but design of large orthogonal promoter-repressor sets is complicated, labor-intensive, and often results in unanticipated crosstalk. The specificity and ease of targeting the RNA-guided DNA-binding protein dCas9 to any 20 bp user-defined DNA sequence makes it a promising candidate for orthogonal promoter regulation. Here, we rapidly construct orthogonal variants of the classic T7-lac promoter using site-directed mutagenesis, generating a panel of inducible hybrid promoters regulated by both LacI and dCas9. Remarkably, orthogonality is mediated by only two to three nucleotide mismatches in a narrow window of the RNA:DNA hybrid, neighboring the protospacer adjacent motif. We demonstrate that, contrary to many reports, one PAM-proximal mismatch is insufficient to abolish dCas9-mediated repression, and we show for the first time that mismatch tolerance is a function of target copy number. Finally, these promoters were incorporated into the branched violacein biosynthetic pathway as dCas9-dependent switches capable of throttling and selectively redirecting carbon flux in Escherichia coli. We anticipate this strategy is relevant for any promoter and will be adopted for many applications at the interface of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. PMID:27079979

  10. Enhanced bacterial protein expression during auto-induction obtained by alteration of lac repressor dosage and medium composition.

    PubMed

    Blommel, Paul G; Becker, Katie J; Duvnjak, Petar; Fox, Brian G

    2007-01-01

    The auto-induction method of protein expression in E. coli is based on diauxic growth resulting from dynamic function of lac operon regulatory elements (lacO and LacI) in mixtures of glucose, glycerol, and lactose. The results show that successful execution of auto-induction is strongly dependent on the plasmid promoter and repressor construction, on the oxygenation state of the culture, and on the composition of the auto-induction medium. Thus expression hosts expressing high levels of LacI during aerobic growth exhibit reduced ability to effectively complete the auto-induction process. Manipulation of the promoter to decrease the expression of LacI altered the preference for lactose consumption in a manner that led to increased protein expression and partially relieved the sensitivity of the auto-induction process to the oxygenation state of the culture. Factorial design methods were used to optimize the chemically defined growth medium used for expression of two model proteins, Photinus luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein, including variations for production of both unlabeled and selenomethionine-labeled samples. The optimization included studies of the expression from T7 and T7-lacI promoter plasmids and from T5 phage promoter plasmids expressing two levels of LacI. Upon the basis of the analysis of over 500 independent expression results, combinations of optimized expression media and expression plasmids that gave protein yields of greater than 1000 mug/mL of expression culture were identified. PMID:17506520

  11. Measurement of Ligand-Induced Activation in Single Viable T Cells Using the lacZ Reporter Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karttunen, Jaana; Shastri, Nilabh

    1991-05-01

    We have used the bacterial β-galactosidase gene (lacZ) as a reporter gene for the rapid measurement of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of individual T cells. The reporter construct contained the lacZ gene under the control of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) element of the human interleukin 2 enhancer [Fiering, S., Northrop, J. P., Nolan, G. P., Matilla, P., Crabtree, G. R. & Herzenberg, L. A. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1823-1834]. The activity of the intracellular lacZ enzyme was analyzed by flow cytometric measurement of fluorescein accumulation in cells loaded with the fluorogenic β-galactosidase substrate fluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside. As a model system, the T-cell hybridoma BO4H9.1, which is specific for the lysozyme peptide (amino acids 74-88)/A^b complex, was transfected with the NF-AT-lacZ construct. lacZ activity was induced in 50-100% of the transfectant cells following exposure to pharmacological agents, to the physiological peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand, or to other TCR-specific stimuli. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of the stimulus increased the fraction of lacZ^+ cells, but not the level of lacZ activity per cell. Even under widely varying levels of stimulus, the level of lacZ activity in individual lacZ^+ cells remained within a remarkably narrow range. These results demonstrate that TCR-mediated activation can be readily measured in single T cells and strongly suggest that, once committed to activation, the level of NF-AT transcriptional activity in individual T cells is independent of the form or concentration of stimulus. This assay is likely to prove useful for the study of early activation events in individual T cells and of TCR ligands.

  12. Light Absorbing Aerosols in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Kelley, K. L.; Kilaparty, P. S.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The direct effects of aerosol radiative forcing has been identified by the IPCC as a major uncertainty in climate modeling. The DOE Megacity Aerosol Experiment-Mexico City (MAX-Mex), as part of the MILAGRO study in March of 2006, was undertaken to reduce these uncertainties by characterization of the optical, chemical, and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols emitted from this megacity environment. Aerosol samples collected during this study using quartz filters were characterized in the uv-visible-infrared by using surface spectroscopic techniques. These included the use of an integrating sphere approach combined with the use of Kubelka-Munk theory to obtain aerosol absorption spectra. In past work black carbon has been assumed to be the only major absorbing species in atmospheric aerosols with an broad band spectral profile that follows a simple inverse wavelength dependence. Recent work has also identified a number of other absorbing species that can also add to the overall aerosol absorption. These include primary organics from biomass and trash burning and secondary organic aerosols including nitrated PAHs and humic-like substances, or HULIS. By using surface diffuse reflection spectroscopy we have also obtained spectra in the infrared that indicate significant IR absorption in the atmospheric window-region. These data will be presented and compared to spectra of model compounds that allow for evaluation of the potential importance of these species in adding strength to the direct radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64327 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  13. Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: isolation and characterization of strains with nif-lac fusions.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, D; Zhu, J; Brill, W J

    1981-01-01

    Strains with lac fused to each of the seven nif operons were isolated by two different methods. Repressing conditions prevented expression of all nif operons, whereas derepressing conditions led to the expression of all nif operons. No differences in Nif regulation were observed between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with the same nif-lac fusions. Most derivatives of nif-lac fusion strains selected on lactose and NH4+ contained nif operator mutations. Some derivative contained deletions, which establishes that the direction of transcription of all seven nif operons is toward his

  14. Analysis of natural coloring matters in food. III. Application of methylation with diazomethane for the detection of lac color.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Noda, N; Mikami, E; Hayakawa, J; Yamada, M

    1989-01-01

    A new method has been proposed for detection of lac color in food. Lac color is a natural color additive derived from a secretion of the insect Coccus Laccae (Laccifer lacca Kerr). It is extracted from food with methanolic oxalic acid and eluted from a column of Amberlite XAD-2 with the same solvent. The fraction containing the lac color is treated with diazomethane to produce 2 reddish-orange markers. The marker species in the reaction mixture are detected by both thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase liquid chromatography.

  15. Improving the laboratory monitoring of absorbent oil

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; S.S. Sychev; I.V. Safina; S.A. Klykov

    2009-05-15

    The performance of absorbent coal tar oil is analyzed as a function of the constituent and group composition. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil that ensures the required absorbent properties is determined. Operative monitoring may be based on absorbent characteristics that permit regulation of the beginning and end of regeneration.

  16. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  17. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  18. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  19. Advances in the graphitization protocol at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario, Kita D.; Oliveira, Fabiana M.; Carvalho, Carla; Santos, Guaciara M.; Xu, Xiaomei; Chanca, Ingrid S.; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Jou, Renata M.; Oliveira, Maria Isabela; Pereira, Bruna B.; Moreira, Vinicius; Muniz, Marcelo C.; Linares, Roberto; Gomes, Paulo Roberto Silveira; dos Anjos, Roberto Meigikos; Castro, Maikel D.; dos Anjos, Leandro; Marques, Aguinaldo N.; Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we summarize the sample preparation methods currently used at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil. We also report on a series of results with regards to the graphitization protocol. Tests with different temperatures and baking times were performed, and carbon stable isotope ratios of graphite were measured by an EA-IRMS (elemental analyzer coupled with an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer) to infer the completeness of the graphitization reaction. We monitored the muffle furnace temperature using an independent thermocouple and found a -60 °C offset, which may have caused the lower graphitization yields (detected from the large isotopic fractionation on several reference materials targets). At a temperature of 520 °C, the isotopic fractionation in the graphitization reaction was systematically lower (-5‰ in average) and the overall scattering was reduced. As long as isotopic fractionation corrections are made using the online stable isotopes ratios provided by the AMS system, the accuracy of the 14C results should be maintained.

  20. Advanced EMU electrochemically regenerable CO2 and moisture absorber module breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Sudar, M.; Chang, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of the Electrochemically Regenerable Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Absorption Technology to the advanced extravehicular mobility unit was demonstrated by designing, fabricating, and testing a breadboard Absorber Module and an Electrochemical Regenerator. Test results indicated that the absorber module meets or exceeds the carbon dioxide removal requirements specified for the design and can meet the moisture removal requirement when proper cooling is provided. CO2 concentration in the vent gas stream was reduced from 0.52 to 0.027 kPa (3.9 to 0.20 mm Hg) for the full five hour test period. Vent gas dew point was reduced from inlet values of 294 K (69 F) to 278 K (41 F) at the outlet. The regeneration of expended absorbent was achieved by the electrochemical method employed in the testing. An absorbent bed using microporous hydrophobic membrane sheets with circulating absorbent is shown to be the best approach to the design of an Absorber Module based on sizing and performance. Absorber Module safety design, comparison of various absorbents and their characteristics, moisture absorption and cooling study and subsystem design and operation time-lining study were also performed.

  1. The Double Absorbing Boundary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Givoli, Dan; Rabinovich, Daniel; Bielak, Jacobo

    2014-02-01

    A new approach is devised for solving wave problems in unbounded domains. It has common features to each of two types of existing techniques: local high-order Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC) and Perfectly Matched Layers (PML). However, it is different from both and enjoys relative advantages with respect to both. The new method, called the Double Absorbing Boundary (DAB) method, is based on truncating the unbounded domain to produce a finite computational domain Ω, and on applying a local high-order ABC on two parallel artificial boundaries, which are a small distance apart, and thus form a thin non-reflecting layer. Auxiliary variables are defined on the two boundaries and inside the layer bounded by them, and participate in the numerical scheme. The DAB method is first introduced in general terms, using the 2D scalar time-dependent wave equation as a model. Then it is applied to the 1D Klein-Gordon equation, using finite difference discretization in space and time, and to the 2D wave equation in a wave guide, using finite element discretization in space and dissipative time stepping. The computational aspects of the method are discussed, and numerical experiments demonstrate its performance.

  2. A polarization-independent broadband terahertz absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Cheng; Zang, XiaoFei E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn; Wang, YiQiao; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn

    2014-07-21

    A highly efficient broadband terahertz absorber is designed, fabricated, and experimentally as well as theoretically evaluated. The absorber comprises a heavily doped silicon substrate and a well-designed two-dimensional grating. Due to the destructive interference of waves and diffraction, the absorber can achieve over 95% absorption in a broad frequency range from 1 to 2 THz and for angles of incidence from 0° to 60°. Such a terahertz absorber is also polarization-independent due to its symmetrical structure. This omnidirectional and broadband absorber have potential applications in anti-reflection coatings, imaging systems, and so on.

  3. Nutrient, trace-element, and ecological history of Musky Bay, Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin, as inferred from sediment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Garrison, Paul J.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Elder, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from Musky Bay, Lac Courte Oreilles, and from surrounding areas in 1999 and 2001 to determine whether the water quality of Musky Bay has declined during the last 100 years or more as a result of human activity, specifically cottage development and cranberry farming. Selected cores were analyzed for sedimentation rates, nutrients, minor and trace elements, biogenic silica, diatom assemblages, and pollen over the past several decades. Two cranberry bogs constructed along Musky Bay in 1939 and the early 1950s were substantially expanded between 1950?62 and between 1980?98. Cottage development on Musky Bay has occurred at a steady rate since about 1930, although currently housing density on Musky Bay is one-third to one-half the housing density surrounding three other Lac Courte Oreilles bays. Sedimentation rates were reconstructed for a core from Musky Bay by use of three lead radioisotope models and the cesium-137 profile. The historical average mass and linear sedimentation rates for Musky Bay are 0.023 grams per square centimeter per year and 0.84 centimeters per year, respectively, for the period of about 1936?90. There is also limited evidence that sedimentation rates may have increased after the mid-1990s. Historical changes in input of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur to Musky Bay could not be directly identified from concentration profiles of these elements because of the potential for postdepositional migration and recycling. Minor- and trace-element profiles from the Musky Bay core possibly reflect historical changes in the input of clastic material over time, as well as potential changes in atmospheric deposition inputs. The input of clastic material to the bay increased slightly after European settlement and possibly in the 1930s through 1950s. Concentrations of copper in the Musky Bay core increased steadily through the early to mid-1900s until about 1980 and appear to reflect inputs from atmospheric

  4. Carbon cyclist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A satellite launched in early August as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth could dramatically increase understanding of how carbon cycles through the Earth's biosphere and living organisms and how this process influences global climate. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) will measure the color of the oceans with a radiometer to determine the concentration of chlorophyll found in oceanic phytoplankton. The single-celled plants, at the base of food chains around the world, remove carbon dioxide from seawater through photosynthesis, which allows oceans to absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  5. Revised (Mixed-Effects) Estimation for Forest Burning Emissions of Gases and Smoke, Fire/Emission Factor Typologies, and Potential Remote Sensing Classification of Types for Use in Ozone and Absorbing-Carbon Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    We summarize recent progress (a) in correcting biomass burning emissions factors deduced from airborne sampling of forest fire plumes, (b) in understanding the variability in reactivity of the fresh plumes sampled in ARCTAS (2008), DC3 (2012), and SEAC4RS (2013) airborne missions, and (c) in a consequent search for remotely sensed quantities that help classify forest-fire plumes. Particle properties, chemical speciation, and smoke radiative properties are related and mutually informative, as pictures below suggest (slopes of lines of same color are similar). (a) Mixed-effects (random-effects) statistical modeling provides estimates of both emission factors and a reasonable description of carbon-burned simultaneously. Different fire plumes will have very different contributions to volatile organic carbon reactivity; this may help explain differences of free NOx(both gas- and particle-phase), and also of ozone production, that have been noted for forest-fire plumes in California. Our evalualations check or correct emission factors based on sequential measurements (e.g., the Normalized Ratio Enhancement and similar methods). We stress the dangers of methods relying on emission-ratios to CO. (b) This work confirms and extends many reports of great situational variability in emissions factors. VOCs vary in OH reactivity and NOx-binding. Reasons for variability are not only fuel composition, fuel condition, etc, but are confused somewhat by rapid transformation and mixing of emissions. We use "unmixing" (distinct from mixed-effects) statistics and compare briefly to approaches like neural nets. We focus on one particularly intense fire the notorious Yosemite Rim Fire of 2013. In some samples, NOx activity was not so surpressed by binding into nitrates as in other fires. While our fire-typing is evolving and subject to debate, the carbon-burned Δ(CO2+CO) estimates that arise from mixed effects models, free of confusion by background-CO2 variation, should provide a solid

  6. Induction of the lac promoter in the absence of DNA loops and the stoichiometry of induction.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Stefan; Alberti, Siegfried; Müller-Hill, Benno

    2006-01-01

    In vivo induction of the Escherichia coli lactose operon as a function of inducer concentration generates a sigmoidal curve, indicating a non-linear response. Suggested explanations for this dependence include a 2:1 inducer-repressor stoichiometry of induction, which is the currently accepted view. It is, however, known for decades that, in vitro, operator binding as a function of inducer concentration is not sigmoidal. This discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro data has so far not been resolved. We demonstrate that the in vivo non-linearity of induction is due to cooperative repression of the wild-type lac operon through DNA loop formation. In the absence of DNA loops, in vivo induction curves are hyperbolic. In the light of this result, we re-address the question of functional molecular inducer-repressor stoichiometry in induction of the lac operon. PMID:16432263

  7. Diverse galactooligosaccharides consumption by bifidobacteria: implications of β-galactosidase--LacS operon.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Kimura, Kazumasa; Hatano, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) possess prebiotic properties that specifically increase the number of bifidobacteria in the human intestine, thus giving health benefits to the host. Although the bifidogenic effect of GOS has been demonstrated in numerous studies, the utilization of GOS by specific bifidobacteria remains unclear. The goal of our study was to elucidate GOS consumption by specific bifidobacteria and gain insights into the mechanism. First, we examined GOS consumption by 14 bifidobacterial strains belonging to seven different species by comparing growth rate, carbohydrate consumption, and acid production. We then performed a transcription analysis in the case of one strong GOS consumer, Bifidobacterium adolescentis YIT 4011(T), to predict the operon contributing to GOS use. The study indicated the contribution of an operon consisted of LacS symporter and β-galactosidase to bifidobacterial GOS consumption. PMID:25483279

  8. Tight-binding repressors of the lac operon: selection system and in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Pfahl, M

    1979-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of altered repressors of the lac operon which have an increased affinity for an operator should give useful clues about the molecular basis for the very tight and specific interaction between repressor and operator. A selection system has been devised which allows the isolation of such repressor mutants. This system selects for mutant repressors which can overcome lac operator-constitutive (Oc) mutations. By using in vivo assays, 24 candidates were obtained which, compared with wild type, have an increased trans effect of their repressor on one or several Oc operators. Three of these candidates have been investigated in vitro; the affinity of their repressor for inducer was unchanged, whereas the affinity for wild-type operator was increased 15-, 86-, and 262-fold, respectively. PMID:104955

  9. Flexibility and Disorder in Gene Regulation: LacI/GalR and Hox Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Bondos, Sarah E.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Matthews, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    To modulate transcription, a variety of input signals must be sensed by genetic regulatory proteins. In these proteins, flexibility and disorder are emerging as common themes. Prokaryotic regulators generally have short, flexible segments, whereas eukaryotic regulators have extended regions that lack predicted secondary structure (intrinsic disorder). Two examples illustrate the impact of flexibility and disorder on gene regulation: the prokaryotic LacI/GalR family, with detailed information from studies on LacI, and the eukaryotic family of Hox proteins, with specific insights from investigations of Ultrabithorax (Ubx). The widespread importance of structural disorder in gene regulatory proteins may derive from the need for flexibility in signal response and, particularly in eukaryotes, in protein partner selection. PMID:26342073

  10. Quantitative approaches to the study of bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, the history and importance of the lac operon in the development of molecular and systems biology are briefly reviewed. We start by presenting a description of the regulatory mechanisms in this operon, taking into account the most recent discoveries. Then we offer a survey of the history of the lac operon, including the discovery of its main elements and the subsequent influence on the development of molecular and systems biology. Next the bistable behaviour of the operon is discussed, both with respect to its discovery and its molecular origin. A review of the literature in which this bistable phenomenon has been studied from a mathematical modelling viewpoint is then given. We conclude with some brief remarks. PMID:18426771

  11. VERITAS observations and spectral energy distribution of H 1426+428 BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khassen, Y.

    2014-07-01

    The VERITAS array of 12-m atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes in southern Arizona is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of astrophysical very high energy (VHE) γ-rays above 100 GeV. We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object H 1426+428. The VERITAS array has been monitoring this source since 2007 and has accumulated over 35 hours of data. The source was first detected in the VHE range by the Whipple 10-m γ-ray telescope in 2002 during a flaring state. It is classified as an extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL), with the peak of the synchrotron emission lying above 100 keV, even during low states. The spectral energy distribution of H 1426+428, including contemporaneous VERITAS, Fermi-LAT, Swift XRT/UVOT and optical data, will be presented.

  12. Diverse galactooligosaccharides consumption by bifidobacteria: implications of β-galactosidase--LacS operon.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Kimura, Kazumasa; Hatano, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) possess prebiotic properties that specifically increase the number of bifidobacteria in the human intestine, thus giving health benefits to the host. Although the bifidogenic effect of GOS has been demonstrated in numerous studies, the utilization of GOS by specific bifidobacteria remains unclear. The goal of our study was to elucidate GOS consumption by specific bifidobacteria and gain insights into the mechanism. First, we examined GOS consumption by 14 bifidobacterial strains belonging to seven different species by comparing growth rate, carbohydrate consumption, and acid production. We then performed a transcription analysis in the case of one strong GOS consumer, Bifidobacterium adolescentis YIT 4011(T), to predict the operon contributing to GOS use. The study indicated the contribution of an operon consisted of LacS symporter and β-galactosidase to bifidobacterial GOS consumption.

  13. Quantitative approaches to the study of bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, the history and importance of the lac operon in the development of molecular and systems biology are briefly reviewed. We start by presenting a description of the regulatory mechanisms in this operon, taking into account the most recent discoveries. Then we offer a survey of the history of the lac operon, including the discovery of its main elements and the subsequent influence on the development of molecular and systems biology. Next the bistable behaviour of the operon is discussed, both with respect to its discovery and its molecular origin. A review of the literature in which this bistable phenomenon has been studied from a mathematical modelling viewpoint is then given. We conclude with some brief remarks.

  14. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Clearing for LacZ and Fluorescent Reporters, and Immunofluorescence Staining.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mayank; Murkonda, Bhavani Sr; Asakura, Yoko; Asakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly ordered yet complex tissue containing several cell types that interact with each other in order to maintain structure and homeostasis. It is also a highly regenerative tissue that responds to damage in a highly intricate but stereotypic manner, with distinct spatial and temporal kinetics. Proper examination of this process requires one to look at the three-dimensional orientation of the cellular and subcellular components, which can be accomplished through tissue clearing. While there has been a recent surge of protocols to study biology in whole tissue, it has primarily focused on the nervous system. This chapter describes the workflow for whole mount analysis of murine skeletal muscle for LacZ reporters, fluorescent reporters and immunofluorescence staining. Using this technique, we are able to visualize LacZ reporters more effectively in deep tissue samples, and to perform fluorescent imaging with a depth greater than 1700 μm. PMID:27492170

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant Lac15 from a marine microbial metagenome.

    PubMed

    Ge, Honghua; Xu, Peisong; Xu, Ying; Fang, Zemin; Xiao, Yazhong

    2011-08-01

    Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that can oxidize a wide range of aromatic compounds. A new bacterial laccase (Lac15) has recently been obtained from a marine microbial metagenome from the South China Sea and characterized. In this work, recombinant Lac15 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.41, b = 91.36, c = 86.157 Å, β = 112.10°.

  16. Integrated insights from simulation, experiment, and mutational analysis yield new details of LacI function.

    PubMed

    Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Zhan, Hongli; Matthews, Kathleen Shive

    2005-08-23

    Protein structural change underlies many signal transduction processes. Although end-state structures are known for various allosteric proteins, intermediates are difficult to observe. Recently, targeted molecular dynamics simulation (TMD) was used to examine the conformational transition and predict relevant intermediates for wild-type lactose repressor (LacI). A catalog of involved residues suggests that the transition of this homodimer is asymmetric and that K84 is a prominent participant in the dynamic N-subdomain interface. Previous experiments indicated that hydrophobic substitutions at position 84 engender slowed, biphasic inducer binding kinetics, which might reflect the same phenomena observed in TMD. Here, we report biochemical confirmation that DNA and inducer binding remain allosterically linked in K84A and K84L, albeit with a differential smaller than that found in wild-type LacI. Other features of these mutant proteins are consistent with an allosteric conformational shift that approximates that of the wild type. As a consequence, these repressors can be utilized to explore an unanswered question about LacI function: How many inducers (one or two per dimer) are required to diminish operator affinity? The biphasic natures of the K84L and K84A inducer association rates allow direct correlation between the two distinct inducer binding events and operator release. Indeed, the kinetics of operator release for the K84A and K84L closely parallel those for the second inducer binding event. Together with implications from previous equilibrium results for wild-type and mutant proteins, these kinetic data demonstrate that binding of two inducers per dimeric DNA binding unit is required to release the operator in these variant LacI proteins. PMID:16101304

  17. Contemporaneous Broadband Observations of Three High-redshift BL LAC Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; An, H.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J.; Britto, R. J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Katsuragawa, M.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, C.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, O.; Rau, A.; Romani, R. W.; Schady, P.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stern, D.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have collected broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three BL Lac objects 3FGL J0022.1-1855 (z = 0.689), 3FGL J0630.9-2406 (z\\quad ≳ 1.239), and 3FGL J0811.2-7529 (z = 0.774), detected by Fermi with relatively flat gigaelectronvolt spectra. By observing simultaneously in the near-infrared to hard X-ray band, we can well characterize the high end of the synchrotron component of the SED. Thus, fitting the SEDs to synchro-Compton models of the dominant emission from the relativistic jet, we can constrain the underlying particle properties and predict the shape of the gigaelectronvolt Compton component. Standard extragalactic background light (EBL) models explain the high-energy absorption well, with poorer fits for high-ultraviolet models. The fits show clear evidence for EBL absorption in the Fermi spectrum of our highest-redshift source 3FGL J0630.9-2406. While synchrotron self-Compton models adequately describe the SEDs, the situation may be complicated by possible external Compton components. For 3FGL J0811.2-7529, we also discover a nearby serendipitous source in the X-ray data, which is almost certainly another lower synchrotron peak frequency ({ν }{{pk}}{{sy}}) BL Lac, that may contribute flux in the Fermi band. Since our sources are unusual high-luminosity, moderate {ν }{{pk}}{{sy}} BL Lacs, we compare these quantities and the Compton dominance, the ratio of peak inverse Compton to peak synchrotron luminosities ({L}{{pk}}{{IC}}/{L}{{pk}}{{sy}}), with those of the full Fermi BL Lac population.

  18. VERITAS observations of low- and intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T.; VERITAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    We present highlights of long-term monitoring of low- and intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lac objects with the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory carried out in 2010, 2011 and 2012. These include the key results obtained from observations of a bright VHE flare in BL Lacertae in June 2011, as well as preliminary results of monitoring observations of five northern blazars. Two IBLs-3C 66A and W Comae-are detected in low flux states for the first time.

  19. Model for the possible origin of anorthosite-syenite associations like the Laramie anorthosite complex (lac)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsley, D.H.; Kolker, A.; Fuhrman, M.; Frost, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Proterozoic massif anorthosites (ANT) have several unique attributes. Compared to typical tholeiitic layered mafic intrusions, they are distinctly evolved, with low mg numbers and high Ab/An ratios, and are also more potassic, with 1-2 wt% K/sub 2/O - 5-10% normative Or that occurs as antiperthite. They are closely associated in time and space with still more potassic rocks (MSY: monzonites, syenites, mangerites, etc.) considered by some to be comagmatic with the ANT and by others to be partial melts of the country rock. If the MSY are comagmatic, the parent magma is must be relatively potassic. Such a magma might pond and fractionate at the base of thin continental crust, with olivines and pyroxenes sinking and plagioclase floating, thereby depleting the magma in Mg and Eu. Crystal mushes of plagioclase would then intrude the crust diapirically to depths of 8-15 km, forming ANT. With continued fractionation the K- and Fe-enriched liquid would begin crystallizing ternary feldspars (as found at LAC); these too would float, forming crystal mushes (MSY) that would rise diapirically and intrude the ANT. The cumulate MSY would have no Eu anomaly (or a small positive one) as found at LAC; the liquid would have a strong negative Eu anomaly. Some contamination of the MSY suite by partial melts from the country rock is likely. This model can explain the virtual continuum in mineral compositions from ANT to MSY reported for LAC by Fuhrman and others (this volume). Parent magmas might be trachyandesitic; another candidate is the biotite gabbro found throughout the LAC.

  20. Comparison between TeV and non-TeV BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Fan, Jun-Hui

    2016-07-01

    BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) are the dominant population of TeV emitting blazars. In this work, we investigate whether there are any special observational properties associated with TeV sources. To do so, we will compare the observational properties of TeV detected BL Lacs (TeV BLs) with non-TeV detected BL Lac objects (non-TeV BLs). From the 3rd Fermi/LAT source catalog (3FGL), we can obtain 662 BL Lacs, out of which 47 are TeV BLs and 615 are non-TeV BLs. Their multi-wavelength flux densities (F R, F O, F X and F γ), photon spectral indexes (αX ph and αph γ), and effective spectral indexes (αRO and αOX) are compiled from the available literature. Then the luminosities (log vL R, log vL O, log vL X, log vL γ) are calculated. From comparisons, we find that TeV BLs are different from low synchrotron peaked BLs and intermediate synchrotron peaked BLs, but TeV BLs show similar properties to high synchrotron peaked (HSP) BLs. Therefore, we concentrated on a comparison between TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs. Analysis results suggest that TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs exhibit some differences in their αRO and αγ ph, but their other properties are quite similar.

  1. The use of lacZ marker in enumeration of Azotobacter chroococcum in carrier based inoculants.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Manu; Garg, Faquir C

    2014-01-01

    A transconjugant of Azotobacter chroococcum Mac 27 tagged with lac Z(A. chroococcum Mac27 L) was found to possess high levels of β-galactosidase activity constitutively. Further, the lac Z marker was found to be stably integrated into the chromosome of the A. chroococcum Mac 27 and did not have any adverse effect on growth, nitrogen fixation and excretion of ammonia. A quick method to determine the viable cell number in broth culture and carrier based inoculants has been developed on the basis of β-galactosidase assay. It was found that there was a direct relationship between the number of cell as determined by standard plate count and intensity of colour that developed upon degradation of ONPG due to β-galactosidase activity. The method was found to be sensitive enough to determine 1.7 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) in broth culture as well as carrier based Azotobacter inoculants. Further, it was observed that when A. chroococcum Mac27 L was inoculated on Brassica campestris, it could be detected in the presence of other bacteria capable of growing on Burks agar medium containing X-gal on the basis of lac Z genetic marker.

  2. DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Tyler M; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2013-04-01

    Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application. PMID:23406725

  3. Paradoxical Effect of Weak Inducers on the lac Operon of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Beverly; Paigen, Kenneth

    1968-01-01

    Previously, we reported the existence of a group of compounds whose function in the regulation of the lac operon was “paradoxical” in that they acted as either inducers or repressors depending on the circumstances. We now show that this group of compounds does not repress the lac operon by catabolite repression, transient repression, or by preventing the uptake of inducers. A model is presented which shows that “paradoxical” behavior is to be expected if a weak inducer is present at a concentration that is high relative to its binding affinity for the regulatory macromolecule. This model depends on the assumptions that the regulatory macromolecule is an allosteric protein which undergoes a transition between two conformational states and that the rate of enzyme synthesis depends on the fraction of protein molecules in each state. The previous observations on the responses of lac regulatory mutants to weak inducers have been extended to a series of such mutants. Weak inducers repress β-galactosidase synthesis in several i− mutants. When this happens, enzyme synthesis can be reinduced by using a strong inducer such as isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside. These compounds induce operator constitutives and the it mutant more easily than they induce a wild-type strain. PMID:4882023

  4. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Guetta, Dafne

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  5. DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2013-04-01

    Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application.

  6. Ultrafast force-clamp spectroscopy to probe lac repressor-DNA interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Capitanio, Marco; Belcastro, Gionata; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2013-06-01

    We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap capable to probe, under controlled force, bimolecular interactions with unprecedented temporal resolution. Here we present the technique in the framework of protein-DNA interactions, specifically on Lactose repressor protein (LacI). The high temporal resolution of the method reveals the kinetics of both short- and long-lived interactions of LacI along the DNA template (from ˜100 μs to tens of seconds), as well the dependence on force of such interaction kinetics. The two kinetically well-distinct populations of interactions observed clearly represent specific interactions with the operator sequences and a fast scanning of LacI along non-cognate DNA. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method to study the sequence-dependent affinity of DNA-binding proteins along the DNA and the effects of force on a wide range of interaction durations, including μs time scales not accessible to other single-molecule methods. This improvement in time resolution provides also important means of investigation on the long-puzzled mechanism of target search on DNA and possible protein conformational changes occurring upon target recognition.

  7. Color Variations of Two Blazars: BL Lac and PKS 0736+017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    Multi-night campaigns to monitor sources for microvariability were undertaken in the summer of 1997 for BL Lac and in early 2002 for PKS 0736+017. BL Lac was observed at Rosemary Hill Observatory in Bronson, Florida and PKS 0736+017 was observed with the SARA telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Both sources underwent dramatic flares and exhibited substantial microvariability. During each campaign, the source was observed alternately through V and R filters so that color variations could be monitored as well. The most commonly reported behavior for such objects is that they become redder when fainter. This is observed in the BL Lac data. These data do not indicate that the point source varies in color however. Instead, they support the notion that the underlying host galaxy contributes a larger fraction of the total flux when the source is faint than when it is bright. More unusual was the observation that PKS 0736+017 was observed to be redder when brighter. The data support the notion that the observed color variation may be related more to the nature of the variation (flaring, subsiding, or quiescent) than to the flux level.

  8. The first synthesis of chem-prep varistor LAC (lightning arrestor connector) granules

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Andrews, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    ZnO variestor granules are the active medis for many lightning arrestor connectors (LACs). The 150 to 200 micron diameter granules provide a controlled electrical breakdown in the 400 micron gap between the electrically conductive pin and web of the connector. Tradiationally, the varistor granules are made from commercially available, reagent grade, mixed oxide powders that range in particle size from 1 to 20 microns. For the first time, we have synthesized varistor granules from chemically prepared powders developed at Sandia. These chem-prep varistor powders are more homogeneous and much finer than the mixed oxide powders; the mean particle size of the chem-prep powders is approximately 0.06 microns. LAC granules were formed from chemically prepared powders by traditional ceramic processing techniques. Although the chem-prep granules were not as spherical as the mixed oxide granules, the chem-prep granules did meet present LAC component requirements for fast-rise breakdown voltage and insulation resistance. The insulation resistance of chem-prep granules for a 200 volt pin-to-web voltage was 100 times less than for mixed oxide granules; however, both types of granules had similar insulation resistance for a 250 volt pin-to-web voltage.

  9. Monzonites (MZ) and monzosyenites (MSY) associated with the Laramie anorthoside complex (LAC), Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman, M.; Kolker, A.; Lindsley, D.H.; Frost, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between Proterozoic massif anorthosites and the associated syenitic rocks remains controversial. Unlike most such complexes, the LAC is unmetamorphosed and hence is ideally suited to petrologic and geochemical tests of a possible comagmatic origin. The authors detailed mapping and petrologic studies of the MZ and MSY show that these rocks were nearly anhydrous and crystallized at 3-5 kbar, 950-1050/sup 0/C, and oxygen fugacities several log units below FMQ buffer. They intrude the anorthosite, although the radiometric ages are identical within error. They have found strong petrologic evidence for a close genetic relationship between the anorthositic rocks and the MZ and MSY: mineral-chemical trends - as expressed by feldspars; augites, and low-Ca pyroxenes - are virtually continuous from the anorthosite through MZ to MSY. In contrast, recent geochemical studies of the LAC indicate that the MSY cannot represent a liquid complementary to the anorthosite. Their studies suggest a possible explanation: the MSY, like the anorthosite, may be a cumulate rather than a liquid. Fine-grained MZ that forms a border facies of the MSY probably represents a liquid. The authors are also considering several other highly evolved units as possible liquids residual to the MSY; such liquids should show strong negative Eu anomalies. Rare-earth studies on the fine-grained MZ and on other rocks are under way. A model for the possible comagmatic formation of the LAC is given by Lindsley and others.

  10. Comparison of Deterministic and Stochastic Models of the lac Operon Genetic Network

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Michail; Mantzaris, Nikos V.

    2009-01-01

    The lac operon has been a paradigm for genetic regulation with positive feedback, and several modeling studies have described its dynamics at various levels of detail. However, it has not yet been analyzed how stochasticity can enrich the system's behavior, creating effects that are not observed in the deterministic case. To address this problem we use a comparative approach. We develop a reaction network for the dynamics of the lac operon genetic switch and derive corresponding deterministic and stochastic models that incorporate biological details. We then analyze the effects of key biomolecular mechanisms, such as promoter strength and binding affinities, on the behavior of the models. No assumptions or approximations are made when building the models other than those utilized in the reaction network. Thus, we are able to carry out a meaningful comparison between the predictions of the two models to demonstrate genuine effects of stochasticity. Such a comparison reveals that in the presence of stochasticity, certain biomolecular mechanisms can profoundly influence the region where the system exhibits bistability, a key characteristic of the lac operon dynamics. For these cases, the temporal asymptotic behavior of the deterministic model remains unchanged, indicating a role of stochasticity in modulating the behavior of the system. PMID:19186128

  11. The use of lacZ marker in enumeration of Azotobacter chroococcum in carrier based inoculants

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Manu; Garg, Faquir C.

    2014-01-01

    A transconjugant of Azotobacter chroococcum Mac 27 tagged with lac Z(A. chroococcum Mac27 L) was found to possess high levels of β-galactosidase activity constitutively. Further, the lac Z marker was found to be stably integrated into the chromosome of the A. chroococcum Mac 27 and did not have any adverse effect on growth, nitrogen fixation and excretion of ammonia. A quick method to determine the viable cell number in broth culture and carrier based inoculants has been developed on the basis of β-galactosidase assay. It was found that there was a direct relationship between the number of cell as determined by standard plate count and intensity of colour that developed upon degradation of ONPG due to β-galactosidase activity. The method was found to be sensitive enough to determine 1.7 × 106 CFU mL−1 in broth culture as well as carrier based Azotobacter inoculants. Further, it was observed that when A. chroococcum Mac27 L was inoculated on Brassica campestris, it could be detected in the presence of other bacteria capable of growing on Burks agar medium containing X-gal on the basis of lac Z genetic marker. PMID:25242946

  12. Engineering a portable riboswitch-LacP hybrid device for two-way gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2011-10-01

    Riboswitches are RNA-based regulatory devices that mediate ligand-dependent control of gene expression. However, there has been limited success in rationally designing riboswitches. Moreover, most previous riboswitches are confined to a particular gene and only perform one-way regulation. Here, we used a library screening strategy for efficient creation of ON and OFF riboswitches of lacI on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. We then engineered a riboswitch-LacP hybrid device to achieve portable gene control in response to theophylline and IPTG. Moreover, this device regulated target expression in a 'two-way' manner: the default state of target expression was ON; the expression was switched off by adding theophylline and restored to the ON state by adding IPTG without changing growth medium. We showcased the portability and two-way regulation of this device by applying it to the small RNA CsrB and the RpoS protein. Finally, the use of the hybrid device uncovered an inhibitory role of RpoS in acetate assimilation, a function which is otherwise neglected using conventional genetic approaches. Overall, this work establishes a portable riboswitch-LacP device that achieves sequential OFF-and-ON gene regulation. The two-way control of gene expression has various potential scientific and biotechnological applications and helps reveal novel gene functions. PMID:21803790

  13. AlloRep: A Repository of Sequence, Structural and Mutagenesis Data for the LacI/GalR Transcription Regulators.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Parente, Daniel J; Shis, David L; Hessman, Jacob A; Chazelle, Allen; Bennett, Matthew R; Teichmann, Sarah A; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2016-02-22

    Protein families evolve functional variation by accumulating point mutations at functionally important amino acid positions. Homologs in the LacI/GalR family of transcription regulators have evolved to bind diverse DNA sequences and allosteric regulatory molecules. In addition to playing key roles in bacterial metabolism, these proteins have been widely used as a model family for benchmarking structural and functional prediction algorithms. We have collected manually curated sequence alignments for >3000 sequences, in vivo phenotypic and biochemical data for >5750 LacI/GalR mutational variants, and noncovalent residue contact networks for 65 LacI/GalR homolog structures. Using this rich data resource, we compared the noncovalent residue contact networks of the LacI/GalR subfamilies to design and experimentally validate an allosteric mutant of a synthetic LacI/GalR repressor for use in biotechnology. The AlloRep database (freely available at www.AlloRep.org) is a key resource for future evolutionary studies of LacI/GalR homologs and for benchmarking computational predictions of functional change. PMID:26410588

  14. Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Stephan, Ryan; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 m2 radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduces the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  15. Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  16. Detection of Organic Compounds in Water by an Optical Absorbance Method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chihoon; Eom, Joo Beom; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optical method which allows determination of the organic compound concentration in water by measurement of the UV (ultraviolet) absorption at a wavelength of 250 nm~300 nm. The UV absorbance was analyzed by means of a multiple linear regression model for estimation of the total organic carbon contents in water, which showed a close correlation with the UV absorbance, demonstrating a high adjusted coefficient of determination, 0.997. The comparison of the TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations for real samples (tab water, sea, and river) calculated from the UV absorbance spectra, and those measured by a conventional TOC analyzer indicates that the higher the TOC value the better the agreement. This UV absorbance method can be easily configured for real-time monitoring water pollution, and built into a compact system applicable to industry areas. PMID:26742043

  17. Effect of DNA looping on the induction kinetics of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul

    2007-08-21

    The induction of the lac operon follows cooperative kinetics. The first mechanistic model of these kinetics is the de facto standard in the modeling literature [Yagil, G., Yagil, E., 1971. On the relation between effector concentration and the rate of induced enzyme synthesis. Biophys. J. 11, 11-17]. Yet, subsequent studies have shown that the model is based on incorrect assumptions. Specifically, the repressor is a tetramer with four (not two) inducer-binding sites, and the operon contains two auxiliary operators (in addition to the main operator). Furthermore, these structural features are crucial for the formation of DNA loops, the key determinants of lac repression and induction. Indeed, the repression is determined almost entirely (>95%) by the looped complexes [Oehler, S., Eismann, E.R., Krämer, H., Müller-Hill, B., 1990. The three operators of the lac operon cooperate in repression. EMBO J. 9(4), 973-979], and the pronounced cooperativity of the induction curve hinges upon the existence of the looped complexes [Oehler, S., Alberti, S., Müller-Hill, B., 2006. Induction of the lac promoter in the absence of DNA loops and the stoichiometry of induction. Nucleic Acids Res. 34(2), 606-612]. Here, we formulate a model of lac induction taking due account of the tetrameric structure of the repressor and the existence of looped complexes. We show that: (1) The kinetics are significantly more cooperative than those predicted by the Yagil and Yagil model. The cooperativity is higher because the formation of looped complexes is easily abolished by repressor-inducer binding. (2) The model provides good fits to the repression data for cells containing wild-type tetrameric or mutant dimeric repressor, as well as the induction curves for 6 different strains of Escherichia coli. It also implies that the ratios of certain looped and non-looped complexes are independent of inducer and repressor levels, a conclusion that can be rigorously tested by gel electrophoresis. (3

  18. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  19. Warming of the Arctic lower stratosphere by light absorbing particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Kok, G.; Raga, G.

    2004-03-01

    Recent measurements of light absorbing particles in the Arctic lower stratosphere show significantly higher mass concentrations of black carbon than were measured in 1992. The difference is primarily a result of measurements with a more quantitative and accurate technique than was previously used. We attribute the large amount of light absorbing material to transport from lower latitude, tropospheric sources rather than increases in aircraft emissions. The calculated heating rate in this aerosol layer, as compared to an atmosphere consisting of only gases, increases by 12% during the winter. This is a result of light absorption by the particles and could perturb the altitude of the local tropopause and affect tropospheric/stratospheric exchange processes.

  20. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

    2009-04-01

    Global climate models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) are examined for the top-of-atmosphere radiation changes as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways commonly assumed. While there is a large increase in the greenhouse effect from increasing greenhouse gases and water vapor (as a feedback), this is offset to a large degree by a decreasing greenhouse effect from reducing cloud cover and increasing radiative emissions from higher temperatures. Instead the main warming from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly from the decreasing cloud amounts. These findings underscore the need to ascertain the credibility of the model changes, especially insofar as changes in clouds are concerned.

  1. Mode-locked fiber laser using an SU8/SWCNT saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Romano, Ivan; Mandridis, Dimitrios; May-Arrioja, Daniel A; Sanchez-Mondragon, Jose J; Delfyett, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a saturable absorber based on SU8 single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite material. Thin films with a controllable thickness can be fabricated using a simple and reliable process. These films can be inserted between two FC/APC connectors in order to have an inline saturable absorber. A passive mode-locked laser was built by interleaving the fiberized saturable absorber in an erbium-doped fiber (L-band) ring cavity laser. The laser produces 871 fs pulses with a repetition rate of 21.27 MHz and a maximum average power of 1 mW.

  2. Foam-based optical absorber for high-power laser radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadurai, Krishna; Cromer, Christopher L.; Li, Xiaoyu; Mahajan, Roop L.; Lehman, John H

    2007-12-01

    We report damage threshold measurements of novel absorbers comprised of either liquid-cooled silicon carbide or vitreous carbon foams. The measurements demonstrate damage thresholds up to 1.6x104 W/cm2 at an incident circular spot size of 2 mm with an absorbance of 96% at 1.064 {mu}m. We present a summary of the damage threshold as a function of the water flow velocity and the absorbance measurements. We also present a qualitative description of a damage mechanism based on a two-phase heat transfer between the foam and the flowing water.

  3. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.

  4. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  5. Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.

  6. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  7. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  8. Gains in efficiency and scientific potential of continental climate reconstruction provided by the LRC LacCore Facility, University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, A.; Brady, K.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

    2007-12-01

    Lacustrine sediment cores comprise an integral archive for the determination of continental paleoclimate, for their potentially high temporal resolution and for their ability to resolve spatial variability in climate across vast sections of the globe. Researchers studying these archives now have a large, nationally-funded, public facility dedicated to the support of their efforts. The LRC LacCore Facility, funded by NSF and the University of Minnesota, provides free or low-cost assistance to any portion of research projects, depending on the specific needs of the project. A large collection of field equipment (site survey equipment, coring devices, boats/platforms, water sampling devices) for nearly any lacustrine setting is available for rental, and Livingstone-type corers and drive rods may be purchased. LacCore staff can accompany field expeditions to operate these devices and curate samples, or provide training prior to device rental. The Facility maintains strong connections to experienced shipping agents and customs brokers, which vastly improves transport and importation of samples. In the lab, high-end instrumentation (e.g., multisensor loggers, high-resolution digital linescan cameras) provides a baseline of fundamental analyses before any sample material is consumed. LacCore staff provide support and training in lithological description, including smear-slide, XRD, and SEM analyses. The LRC botanical macrofossil reference collection is a valuable resource for both core description and detailed macrofossil analysis. Dedicated equipment and space for various subsample analyses streamlines these endeavors; subsamples for several analyses may be submitted for preparation or analysis by Facility technicians for a fee (e.g., carbon and sulfur coulometry, grain size, pollen sample preparation and analysis, charcoal, biogenic silica, LOI, freeze drying). The National Lacustrine Core Repository now curates ~9km of sediment cores from expeditions around the world

  9. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient) combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning), crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS), and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm) based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs) for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg-1 fuel burned), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs). From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) emission factors (g kg-1 fuel burned). The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg-1) for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ˜ 80 gases in all). The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68) was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10). Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg-1), organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg-1), and HCN (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg-1), where the latter could

  10. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  11. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associatedwith a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This reportdescribes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world,to the abosrber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and theninto helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for freeconvection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newport, Thomas G.

    1962-01-01

    The principal water-bearing rocks underlying Fond du Lac County, Wis., are sandstones of Cambrian and Ordovician age and dolomite of Silurian age. Other aquifers include dolomite of Ordovician age and sand. and gravel of Quaternary age. Crystalline rocks of Precambrian age, which underlie all the water-bearing formations, form a practically impermeable basement complex and yield little or no water to wells. Ground water is the source of all public and most private and industrial water supplies in the county. The municipalities and industries obtain water chiefly from wells that penetrate the sandstones of Cambrian and Ordorician age. The Platteville formation and Galena dolomite of Ordovician age and the Niagara dolomite of Silurian age supply water to most domestic and stock wells and to a few industrial wells. Several buried valleys in the bedrock surface contain water-bearing deposits of sand and gravel. The source of the ground water in Fond du Lac County is local precipitation. Recharge to the water-bearing beds occurs in most of the county but is greatest where the bedrock formations are near the surface. Ground water is discharged by seeps and springs, by evaporation and transpiration, and by wells. Ground-water levels in wells fluctuate in response to recharge and to natural discharge and pumping. In areas not affected by pumping, water levels generally decline through the summer months because of natural discharge and lack of recharge, recover slightly in the fall after the first killing frost, decline during the winter, and recover in the spring when recharge is greatest. In areas of heavy pumping, the water levels are lowest in late summer and highest in late winter. Water levels in wells in the Fond du Lac area were about 5 to 50 feet above the land surface in 1885, but they had declined to as low as 185 feet below the land surface by 1957. Coefficients of transmissibility and storage of the sandstones of Cambrian and Ordovician age were determined by

  17. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  18. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Horneck, G.

    In the 21 st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  19. Construction and characterization of thermo-inducible vectors derived from heat-sensitive lacI genes in combination with the T7 A1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yun-Peng; Chern, Jong-Tzer; Wen, Chin-Sheng; Fu, Hongyong

    2002-07-01

    The lack of stringency and the cost of induction are two major disadvantages of using lac-derived vectors for recombinant protein productions. To compensate for these drawbacks, a series of thermo-inducible vectors was developed by coupling heat-sensitive lacI (lacIts) with the T7 A1 promoter on a multiple-copynumber plasmid. The lacIts genes were created by the introduction of Gly187-->Ser substitution along with three alternative mutation sites, Leu233-->Lys, Ala241-->Thr, and Gly265-->Asp, generated by site-directed mutagenesis into the wild-type lacI gene. With the LacZ production as a model, the induction profiles for various vectors containing distinct lacIts exhibited a positive trend as the temperature increased. The fully induced level was achieved by applying the temperature shift from 30 degrees C to 42, 40, or 37 degrees C to the cells harboring the plasmid with the Gly187-->Ser, Ala241-->Thr, or Gly265-->Asp substitution in lacI, respectively. As a result, it produced the maximal LacZ production ranging between 46,000 and 54,000 Miller units, corresponding to a 100- to 400-fold amplification over the uninduced level. As a whole, these novel expression vectors are characterized as having tight regulation and facile inducibility, and their practical usefulness in industrial production of recombinant proteins appears promising. PMID:17590925

  20. Structured Metal Film as Perfect Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    With standing U-shaped resonators, fish-spear-like resonator has been designed for the first time as the building block to assemble perfect absorbers. The samples have been fabricated with two-photon polymerization process and FTIR measurement results support the effectiveness of the perfect absorber design. In such a structure the polarization-dependent resonance occurs between the tines of the spears instead of the conventional design where the resonance occurs between the metallic layers separated by a dielectric interlayer. The incident light neither transmits nor reflects back which results in unit absorbance. The power of light is trapped between the tines of spears and finally be absorbed. The whole structure is covered with a continuous metallic layer with good thermo-conductance, which provides an excellent approach to deal with heat dissipation, is enlightening in exploring metamaterial absorbers.

  1. The effect of stochasticity on the lac operon: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Milan; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2007-06-01

    The role of stochasticity on gene expression is widely discussed. Both potential advantages and disadvantages have been revealed. In some systems, noise in gene expression has been quantified, in among others the lac operon of Escherichia coli. Whether stochastic gene expression in this system is detrimental or beneficial for the cells is, however, still unclear. We are interested in the effects of stochasticity from an evolutionary point of view. We study this question in the lac operon, taking a computational approach: using a detailed, quantitative, spatial model, we evolve through a mutation-selection process the shape of the promoter function and therewith the effective amount of stochasticity. We find that noise values for lactose, the natural inducer, are much lower than for artificial, nonmetabolizable inducers, because these artificial inducers experience a stronger positive feedback. In the evolved promoter functions, noise due to stochasticity in gene expression, when induced by lactose, only plays a very minor role in short-term physiological adaptation, because other sources of population heterogeneity dominate. Finally, promoter functions evolved in the stochastic model evolve to higher repressed transcription rates than those evolved in a deterministic version of the model. This causes these promoter functions to experience less stochasticity in gene expression. We show that a high repression rate and hence high stochasticity increases the delay in lactose uptake in a variable environment. We conclude that the lac operon evolved such that the impact of stochastic gene expression is minor in its natural environment, but happens to respond with much stronger stochasticity when confronted with artificial inducers. In this particular system, we have shown that stochasticity is detrimental. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution in a quantitative model, by mutating the parameters of interest, is a promising way to unravel the functional

  2. Flexible Gates Generate Occluded Intermediates in the Transport Cycle of LacY☆

    PubMed Central

    Stelzl, Lukas S.; Fowler, Philip W.; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Beckstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter lactose permease (LacY) alternates between cytoplasmic and periplasmic open conformations to co-transport a sugar molecule together with a proton across the plasma membrane. Indirect experimental evidence suggested the existence of an occluded transition intermediate of LacY, which would prevent leaking of the proton gradient. As no experimental structure is known, the conformational transition is not fully understood in atomic detail. We simulated transition events from a cytoplasmic open conformation to a periplasmic open conformation with the dynamic importance sampling molecular dynamics method and observed occluded intermediates. Analysis of water permeation pathways and the electrostatic free-energy landscape of a solvated proton indicated that the occluded state contains a solvated central cavity inaccessible from either side of the membrane. We propose a pair of geometric order parameters that capture the state of the pathway through the MFS transporters as shown by a survey of available crystal structures and models. We present a model for the occluded state of apo-LacY, which is similar to the occluded crystal structures of the MFS transporters EmrD, PepTSo, NarU, PiPT and XylE. Our simulations are consistent with experimental double electron spin–spin distance measurements that have been interpreted to show occluded conformations. During the simulations, a salt bridge that has been postulated to be involved in driving the conformational transition formed. Our results argue against a simple rigid-body domain motion as implied by a strict “rocker-switch mechanism” and instead hint at an intricate coupling between two flexible gates. PMID:24513108

  3. Analysis and Remediation of the 2013 LAC-MÉGANTIC Train Derailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, Suzanne; Aubé, Guy; Legaré, Serge; Auger, Claude

    2016-06-01

    On July 6, 2013 a train owned by Montréal, Maine & Atlantic Railway (MMA) Company derailed in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec, Canada triggering the explosion of the tankers carrying crude oil. Several buildings in the downtown core were destroyed. The Sûreté du Québec confirmed the death of 47 people in the disaster. Through the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Rapid Information Products and Services (RIPS) program, MDA developed value-added products that allowed stakeholders and all levels of government (municipal, provincial and federal) to get an accurate picture of the disaster. The goal of this RIPS Project was to identify the contribution that remote sensing technology can provide to disasters such as the train derailment and explosion at Lac-Mégantic through response and remediation monitoring. Through monitoring and analysis, the Lac-Mégantic train derailment response and remediation demonstrated how Earth observation data can be used for situational awareness in a disaster and in documenting the remediation process. Both high resolution optical and RADARSAT-2 SAR image products were acquired and analyzed over the disaster remediation period as each had a role in monitoring. High resolution optical imagery provided a very clear picture of the current state of remediation efforts, however it can be difficult to acquire due to cloud cover and weather conditions. The RADARSAT-2 SAR images can be acquired in all weather conditions at any time of day making it ideal for mission critical information gathering. MDA's automated change detection processing enabled rapid delivery of advanced information products.

  4. High-Level Expression of Bacillus naganoensis Pullulanase from Recombinant Escherichia coli with Auto-Induction: Effect of lac Operator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Chen, Wen Bo; Mu, Xiao Qing; Wang, Xinye; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Pullulanase plays an important role in specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin and is generally employed as an important enzyme in starch-processing industry. So far, however, the production level of pullulanase is still somewhat low from wide-type strains and even heterologous expression systems. Here the gene encoding Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase was amplified and cloned. For expression of the protein, two recombinant systems, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul and E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul, were constructed, both bearing T7 promoter and signal peptide sequence, but different in the existance of lac operator and lacI gene encoding lac repressor. Recombinant pullulanase was initially expressed with the activity of up to 14 U/mL by E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul with IPTG induction in LB medium, but its expression level reduced continually with the extension of cryopreservation time and basal expression was observed. However, E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul , involving lac operator downstream of T7 promoter to regulate foreign gene transcription, exhibited pullulanase activity consistently without detected basal expression. By investigating the effect of lac operator, basal expression of foreign protein was found to cause expression instability and negative effect on production of target protein. Thus double-repression strategy was proposed that lac operators in both chromosome and plasmid were bound with lac repressor to repress T7 RNA polymerase synthesis and target protein expression before induction. Consequently, the total activity of pullulanase was remarkably increased to 580 U/mL with auto-induction by lac operator-involved E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul. When adding 0.6% glycine in culture, the extracellular production of pullulanase was significantly improved with the extracellular activity of 502 U/mL, which is a relatively higher level achieved to date for extracellular production of pullulanase. The successful

  5. Photocurable acrylic composition, and U.V. curing with development of U.V. absorber

    DOEpatents

    McKoy, Vincent B.; Gupta, Amitava

    1992-01-01

    In-situ development of an ultraviolet absorber is provided by a compound such as a hydroxy-phenyl-triazole containing a group which protects the absorber during actinically activated polymerization by light at first frequency. After polymerization the protective group is removed by actinic reaction at a second frequency lower than the first frequency. The protective group is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group with an acyl group containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms or an acryloxy group of the formula: ##STR1## where R.sup.1 is either an alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms or --CH.dbd.CH.sub.2.

  6. THz ATR Spectroscopy for Inline Monitoring of Highly Absorbing Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Amin; Busch, Stefan F.; Plew, Patrick; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We present a THz attenuated total reflection (ATR) setup which allows for inline measurements of highly absorbing liquids. As a proof of principle, we investigate a mixture of water and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) from 5 to 40 wt%. Inline measurements prove that our THz ATR setup allows for the distinction of various concentrations. As an example, we show inline THz ATR measurements for 30 to 40 wt% for GCC watery solution, as this concentration range is of technical relevance. We obtain a sensitivity better than 2 wt%.

  7. The effect of LacI autoregulation on the performance of the lactose utilization system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Semsey, Szabolcs; Jauffred, Liselotte; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Erdossy, János; Stéger, Viktor; Hansen, Sabine; Krishna, Sandeep

    2013-07-01

    The lactose operon of Escherichia coli is a paradigm system for quantitative understanding of gene regulation in prokaryotes. Yet, none of the many mathematical models built so far to study the dynamics of this system considered the fact that the Lac repressor regulates its own transcription by forming a transcriptional roadblock at the O3 operator site. Here we study the effect of autoregulation on intracellular LacI levels and also show that cAMP-CRP binding does not affect the efficiency of autoregulation. We built a mathematical model to study the role of LacI autoregulation in the lactose utilization system. Previously, it has been argued that negative autoregulation can significantly reduce noise as well as increase the speed of response. We show that the particular molecular mechanism, a transcriptional roadblock, used to achieve self-repression in the lac system does neither. Instead, LacI autoregulation balances two opposing states, one that allows quicker response to smaller pulses of external lactose, and the other that minimizes production costs in the absence of lactose. PMID:23658223

  8. What makes the lac-pathway switch: identifying the fluctuations that trigger phenotype switching in gene regulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Bhogale, Prasanna M; Sorg, Robin A; Veening, Jan-Willem; Berg, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Multistable gene regulatory systems sustain different levels of gene expression under identical external conditions. Such multistability is used to encode phenotypic states in processes including nutrient uptake and persistence in bacteria, fate selection in viral infection, cell-cycle control and development. Stochastic switching between different phenotypes can occur as the result of random fluctuations in molecular copy numbers of mRNA and proteins arising in transcription, translation, transport and binding. However, which component of a pathway triggers such a transition is generally not known. By linking single-cell experiments on the lactose-uptake pathway in E. coli to molecular simulations, we devise a general method to pinpoint the particular fluctuation driving phenotype switching and apply this method to the transition between the uninduced and induced states of the lac-genes. We find that the transition to the induced state is not caused only by the single event of lac-repressor unbinding, but depends crucially on the time period over which the repressor remains unbound from the lac-operon. We confirm this notion in strains with a high expression level of the lac-repressor (leading to shorter periods over which the lac-operon remains unbound), which show a reduced switching rate. Our techniques apply to multistable gene regulatory systems in general and allow to identify the molecular mechanisms behind stochastic transitions in gene regulatory circuits. PMID:25245949

  9. Crystal structure of VmoLac, a tentative quorum quenching lactonase from the extremophilic crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia.

    PubMed

    Hiblot, Julien; Bzdrenga, Janek; Champion, Charlotte; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    A new representative of the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonases (PLLs) family from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia has been characterized and crystallized. VmoLac is a native, proficient lactonase with promiscuous, low phosphotriesterase activity. VmoLac therefore represents an interesting candidate for engineering studies, with the aim of developing an efficient bacterial quorum-quenching agent. Here, we provide an extensive biochemical and kinetic characterization of VmoLac and describe the X-ray structures of the enzyme bound to a fatty acid and to its cognate substrate 3-oxo-C10 AHL (Acyl-Homoserine Lactone). The structures highlight possible structural determinants that may be involved in its extreme thermal stability (Tm = 128 °C). Moreover, the structure reveals that the substrate binding mode of VmoLac significantly differs from those of its close homologues, possibly explaining the substrate specificity of the enzyme. Finally, we describe the specific interactions between the enzyme and its substrate, and discuss the possible lactone hydrolysis mechanism of VmoLac. PMID:25670483

  10. The long-term color variability of the BL Lac object OQ 530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing-Kai; Zhang, Kai-Yin; Yu, Li-Zhi; Dai, Ben-Zhong; Zhang, Li; Zha, Min; Cao, Zhen

    2011-12-01

    The optical light curve of the BL Lac object OQ 530 is constructed based on published data. Diagrams showing the correlations of fluxes in different wavelength ranges are constructed and used to analyze the color variations. The relative spectral energy distribution of the variable source in the optical can be represented by a power law that is stable on long time scales. The average spectral index is -1.15±0.02, indicating that the radiation of the variable source probably has a synchrotron nature.

  11. Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan Hoover

    2009-11-16

    This plan discusses the current energy use on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, the current status of the Tribe's energy program, as well as the issues and concerns with energy on the reservation. This plan also identifies and outlines energy opportunities, goals, and objectives for the Tribe to accomplish. The overall goal of this plan is to address the energy situation of the reservation in a holistic manner for the maximum benefit to the Tribe. This plan is an evolving document that will be re-evaluated as the Tribe's energy situation changes.

  12. Fermi LAT Detection of a Gamma-ray Flare from the BL Lac Object ON 246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Josefa

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object ON 246 (RA=187.55871 deg, Dec=25.30198 deg, J2000, Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13; with redshift z=0.135, Nass et al. 1996, A&A, 309, 419), also known as S3 1227+25 and 3FGL J1230.3+2519 (3FGL; Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003).

  13. The Long-term Light Variation of BL Lac Object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu-hai; Liu, Fu-qing

    2014-07-01

    According to the data of optical observations of the Tuorla Observatory in Finland, using the power spectrum method, DCF (Discrete Correlation Function) method, and Jurkevich method, respectively, we analyzed the periodicity of the long-term light variation of the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650, and obtained its light period to be P =1.4±0.3 yr. Assuming that the origin of the periodicity is concerned with the accretion disk, we obtained the region where the instability of this source occurs being R =9.65 Rg, here Rg represents the Schwarzschild radius.

  14. Fertility in couples heterozygous for the tyrosinemia gene in Saguenay Lac-St-Jean.

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, M; Lamarre, V; Scriver, C R; Larochelle, J; Bouchard, G

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study of 84 couples from Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, jointly heterozygous for the tyrosinemia gene, was done to determine whether the birth of an homozygous child affected their fertility rates. The mean number of children born to tyrosinemia and control couples between 1940 and 1986 was not different (p greater than 0.05). The knowledge that tyrosinemia was an autosomal recessive disorder, with risk of recurrence in these families, did not appear to modify reproductive behaviour. Fertility fell significantly in both the tyrosinemia and control families in the period of observation. This change reflects the decline in fertility of French Canadians in general during this period.

  15. Analysis of LAC Observations of Clusters of Galaxies and Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J.

    1996-01-01

    The following publications are included and serve as the final report: The X-ray Spectrum of Abell 665; Clusters of Galaxies; Ginga Observation of an Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant; Ginga Observations of the Coma Cluster and Studies of the Spatial Distribution of Iron; A Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the X-ray Properties and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect of Abell 2218; Non-polytropic Model for the Coma Cluster; and Abundance Gradients in Cooling Flow Clusters: Ginga LAC (Large Area Counter) and Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) Spectra of A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199.

  16. Evaluation of critical indicators in the process of acquiring supplies and services LAC-UFPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, V. F.; Ferreira, C. V.; dos Santos, M. J.; Honorato, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    In laboratories linked to public universities and accredited by the NBR ISO/IEC 17025, to meet efficiently item 4.6 (procurement of supplies and services) is a challenge that can be accomplished by programming based on historical purchases and services. In this study, we evaluated the critical procurement items to meet the quality management system of the LAC-UFPE: reagents, certified reference material, of equipment parts, maintenance and calibration of equipment and instruments. It was found that the most critical item is the certified reference material, the purchase or repair of which must be expedited within 125 days prior to the receipt to occur within the desired period.

  17. Source apportionment of light absorbing WSOC in South Asian outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Carme; Kirillova, Elena; Andersson, August; Kruså, Martin; Budhavant, Krishnakant; Tiwari, Suresh; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2013-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols (CA) formed over South Asia are of special concern for human health and regional climate impacts. Anthropogenic emissions forming CA are generally high throughout the region and particularly over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The net effects of CA on radiative climate forcing are still uncertain. One of the components of CA is black carbon (BC), dominated by soot-like elemental carbon, a strong absorber of solar radiation. Another component is organic carbon (OC), traditionally considered as a light scattering particle. However, recent field studies have shown OC to absorb at lower wavelengths. Thus OC, in addition to BC, may also contribute to light absorption and have a positive direct radiative effect on climate. Light absorbing organic aerosol is usually termed brown carbon (BrC). A significant fraction of BrC is water-soluble, therefore its dissolution into clouds could result in absorbing droplets that affect the cloud absorption and thus contributing to the indirect aerosol climate effects. In this study, light absorption and δ13C + Δ14C isotopic measurements of WSOC were studied in fine aerosols (PM 2.5) at two sites during early pre-monsoon season. New Delhi, one of the most densely populated and industrialized urban megacities in South Asia, was chosen to represent a strong source and Maldives Climate Observatory at Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) was chosen as a regional receptor which in wintertime is located downwind of the Indian subcontinent. Sampling in Delhi was done from mid-February to mid-March 2011 and in MCOH during March 2012. WSOC concentrations were 12±4.5 and 0.71±0.30 μg m-3 in Delhi and MCOH respectively. Whereas in Delhi WSOC contributed 31±4% of total organic carbon, this contribution was slightly higher in MCOH (40±12%). Light absorption by WSOC exhibited strong wavelength (?) dependence. In Maldives, WSOC Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) was found to be 6.9±0.4 and Mass Absorption Efficiency (MAE) measured at 365 nm

  18. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. Restoration of parathyroid function after change of phosphate binder from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate in hemodialysis patients with suppressed serum parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Nagayama, Harumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Ishimura, Eiji; Imanishi, Yasuo; Shoji, Shigeichi

    2015-03-01

    Control of phosphate is the most critical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Because calcium-containing phosphate binder to CKD patients is known to induce adynamic bone disease with ectopic calcification by increasing calcium load, we examined the effect of lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a non-calcium containing phosphate binder, to restore bone turnover in 27 hemodialysis patients with suppressed parathyroid function (serum intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH] ≦ 150 pg/mL). At the initiation of LaC administration, the dose of calcium-containing phosphate binder calcium carbonate (CaC) was withdrawn or reduced based on serum phosphate. After initiation of LaC administration, serum calcium and phosphate decreased significantly by 4 weeks, whereas whole PTH and iPTH increased. A significant and positive correlation between decreases of serum calcium, but not phosphate, with increases of whole PTH and iPTH, suggested that the decline in serum calcium with reduction of calcium load by LaC might increase parathyroid function. Serum bone resorption markers, such as serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen increased significantly by 4 weeks after LaC administration, which was followed by increases of serum bone formation markers including serum bone alkaline phosphatase, intact procollagen N-propeptide, and osteocalcin. Therefore, it was suggested that LaC attenuated CaC-induced suppression of parathyroid function and bone turnover by decreasing calcium load. In conclusion, replacement of CaC with LaC, either partially or totally, could increase parathyroid function and resultant bone turnover in hemodialysis patients with serum iPTH ≦ 150 pg/mL.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the lactonase VmoLac from Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia

    PubMed Central

    Hiblot, Julien; Gotthard, Guillaume; Champion, Charlotte; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs) are native lactonases that are capable of hydrolyzing lactones such as aliphatic lactones or acyl-homoserine lactones, which are involved in bacterial quorum sensing. Previously characterized PLLs are moreover endowed with a promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity and are therefore able to detoxify organophosphate insecticides. A novel PLL representative, dubbed VmoLac, has been identified from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia. Because of its intrinsic high thermal stability, VmoLac may constitute an appealing candidate for engineering studies with the aim of producing an efficient biodecontaminant for organophosphorus compounds and a bacterial antivirulence agent. In combination with biochemical studies, structural information will allow the identification of the residues involved in substrate specificity and an understanding of the enzymatic catalytic mechanisms. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray data collection at 2.4 Å resolution of VmoLac are reported. PMID:24192357

  1. Ultraviolet absorbance screening for DNAPL site compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Misquitta, N.; Foster, D.; Coll, F.; Brourman, M.

    1997-12-31

    The UV Absorbance Effectiveness Demonstration was developed to evaluate the feasibility of using UV absorbance as a surrogate for oil & grease methods of measuring the concentration of coal tar-related constituents in groundwater. Since the current oil & grease method via Freon{reg_sign} extraction is being phased out, a new alternative oil & grease method using a hexane extraction will be introduced in the near future. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to compare the two oil & grease methods, as they relate to facility groundwater, in order to demonstrate the overall robustness of UV absorbance as a surrogate for oil & grease analysis, regardless of the method of extraction.

  2. Bond integrity of microwave absorbers for CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    A. Ananda; Y. Verma; B.T. Smith; P.H. Johnson; I.E. Campisi; K.E. Finger

    1992-10-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses superconducting niobium cavities. Specially developed microwave absorbing ceramics are used in the cavities to absorb the higher order mode power. The ceramic absorbers are brazed to copper mounts. The structural integrity and the thermal contact of the braze joints are essential. The ultrasonic reflection signal from the various bonds is evaluated to locate voids and partial braze surfaces. The acoustic wave properties of the four components of the structure are used as input to an ultrasonic transmission line model which is compared to the experimental data. There is good correlation between the ultrasonic reflection data and destructive testing of the bonds.

  3. Expression pattern of STOP lacZ reporter gene in adult and developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Couégnas, Alice; Schweitzer, Annie; Andrieux, Annie; Ghandour, M Said; Boehm, Nelly

    2007-05-15

    Stable tubulin-only polypeptide (STOP) proteins are microtubule-associated proteins responsible for microtubule stabilization in neurons. STOP null mice show apparently normal cerebral anatomy but display synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders. STOP null mice have therefore been proposed as an animal model for the study of schizophrenia. In the present study, the expression pattern of STOP gene in developing and adult brain has been examined by using lacZ gene inserted in the STOP locus, as a reporter gene. beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) immunostaining was confined to neuronal cells and projections. Strong labeling was observed in the whole olfactory system, cortical layer VII, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, habenula, fasciculus retroflexus, and interpeduncular nucleus in adults. Additionally, ventral thalamic nucleus, clusters of positive cells in striatum, and Cajal-Retzius cells of cortical layer I were labeled in young mice. The strong expression of STOP lacZ reporter gene observed in brain is confined to areas that may be involved in the schizophrenia-related symptoms observed in STOP-deficient mice.

  4. Dynamics and bistability in a reduced model of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Necmettin; Santillan, Moises; Horike, Daisuke; Mackey, Michael C

    2004-06-01

    It is known that the lac operon regulatory pathway is capable of showing bistable behavior. This is an important complex feature, arising from the nonlinearity of the involved mechanisms, which is essential to understand the dynamic behavior of this molecular regulatory system. To find which of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the lac operon is the origin of bistability, we take a previously published model which accounts for the dynamics of mRNA, lactose, allolactose, permease and beta-galactosidase involvement and simplify it by ignoring permease dynamics (assuming a constant permease concentration). To test the behavior of the reduced model, three existing sets of data on beta-galactosidase levels as a function of time are simulated and we obtain a reasonable agreement between the data and the model predictions. The steady states of the reduced model were numerically and analytically analyzed and it was shown that it may indeed display bistability, depending on the extracellular lactose concentration and growth rate. PMID:15189056

  5. Bistable behavior in a model of the lac operon in Escherichia coli with variable growth rate.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M

    2008-03-15

    This work is a continuation from another study previously published in this journal. Both the former and the present works are dedicated to investigating the bistable behavior of the lac operon in Escherichia coli from a mathematical modeling point of view. In the previous article, we developed a detailed mathematical model that accounts for all of the known regulatory mechanisms in this system, and studied the effect of inducing the operon with lactose instead of an artificial inducer. In this article, the model is improved to account, in a more detailed way, for the interaction of the repressor molecules with the three lac operators. A recently discovered cooperative interaction between the CAP molecule (an activator of the lactose operon) and Operator 3 (which influences DNA folding) is also included in this new version of the model. The growth rate dependence on the rate of energy entering the bacteria (in the form of transported glucose molecules and of metabolized lactose molecules) is also considered. A large number of numerical experiments is carried out with this improved model. The results are discussed in regard to the bistable behavior of the lactose operon. Special attention is paid to the effect that a variable growth rate has on the system dynamics. PMID:18065471

  6. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stoebel, Daniel M

    2005-03-01

    The idea that Escherichia coli gained the lac operon via horizontal transfer, allowing it to invade a new niche and form a new species, has become a paradigmatic example of bacterial nonpathogenic adaptation and speciation catalyzed by horizontal transfer. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for this event is essentially nonexistent. To see whether horizontal transfer occurred, I compared a phylogeny of 14 Enterobacteriaceae based on two housekeeping genes to a phylogeny of a part of their lac operon. Although several species in this clade appear to have acquired some or all of the operon via horizontal transfer, there is no evidence of horizontal transfer into E. coli. It is not clear whether the horizontal transfer events for which there is evidence were adaptive because those species which have acquired the operon are not thought to live in high lactose environments. I propose that vertical transmission from the common ancestor of the Enterobacteriaceae, with subsequent loss of these genes in many species can explain much of the patchy distribution of lactose use in this clade. Finally, I argue that we need new, well-supported examples of horizontal transfer spurring niche expansion and speciation, particularly in nonpathogenic cases, before we can accept claims that horizontal transfer is a hallmark of bacterial adaptation. PMID:15563718

  7. In vitro transcription accurately predicts lac repressor phenotype in vivo in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A multitude of studies have looked at the in vivo and in vitro behavior of the lac repressor binding to DNA and effector molecules in order to study transcriptional repression, however these studies are not always reconcilable. Here we use in vitro transcription to directly mimic the in vivo system in order to build a self consistent set of experiments to directly compare in vivo and in vitro genetic repression. A thermodynamic model of the lac repressor binding to operator DNA and effector is used to link DNA occupancy to either normalized in vitro mRNA product or normalized in vivo fluorescence of a regulated gene, YFP. An accurate measurement of repressor, DNA and effector concentrations were made both in vivo and in vitro allowing for direct modeling of the entire thermodynamic equilibrium. In vivo repression profiles are accurately predicted from the given in vitro parameters when molecular crowding is considered. Interestingly, our measured repressor–operator DNA affinity differs significantly from previous in vitro measurements. The literature values are unable to replicate in vivo binding data. We therefore conclude that the repressor-DNA affinity is much weaker than previously thought. This finding would suggest that in vitro techniques that are specifically designed to mimic the in vivo process may be necessary to replicate the native system. PMID:25097824

  8. POWERFUL HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF THE REMARKABLE BL Lac OBJECT S5 0716+714

    SciTech Connect

    Vittorini, V.; Chen, A. W.; Ferrari, A.; Tavani, M.; D'Ammando, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Pacciani, L.; Pucella, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Giommi, P.

    2009-12-01

    BL Lac objects of the intermediate subclass (IBLs) are known to emit a substantial fraction of their power in the energy range 0.1-10 GeV. Detecting gamma-ray emission from such sources provides therefore a direct probe of the emission mechanisms and of the underlying powerhouse. The gamma-ray satellite, AGILE, detected the remarkable IBL S5 0716+714 (z approx = 0.3) during a high state in the period from 2007 September-October, marked by two very intense flares reaching peak fluxes of 200 x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 100 MeV, with simultaneous optical and X-ray observations. We present here a theoretical model for the two major flares and discuss the overall energetics of the source. We conclude that 0716+714 is among the brightest BL Lac's ever detected at gamma-ray energies. Because of its high power and lack of signs for ongoing accretion or surrounding gas, the source is an ideal candidate to test the maximal power extractable from a rotating supermassive black hole via the pure Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We find that during the 2007 gamma-ray flares 0716+714 approached or just exceeded the upper limit set by BZ for a black hole of mass 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}.

  9. An Analysis of Periodic Components in BL Lac Object S5 0716 +714 with MUSIC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithms are introduced to the estimation of the period of variation of BL Lac objects.The principle of MUSIC spectral analysis method and theoretical analysis of the resolution of frequency spectrum using analog signals are included. From a lot of literatures, we have collected a lot of effective observation data of BL Lac object S5 0716 + 714 in V, R, I bands from 1994 to 2008. The light variation periods of S5 0716 +714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC spectral analysis method and periodogram spectral analysis method. There exist two major periods: (3.33±0.08) years and (1.24±0.01) years for all bands. The estimation of the period of variation of the algorithm based on the MUSIC spectral analysis method is compared with that of the algorithm based on the periodogram spectral analysis method. It is a super-resolution algorithm with small data length, and could be used to detect the period of variation of weak signals.

  10. The mechanistic-holistic divide revisited: The case of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Racine, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, I revisit the development of the repression model of genetic regulation in the lac operon to challenge a common application of a conceptual framework in the history of biology. I take Allen's (1978) account of the changes in the life sciences during the early and mid-twentieth century as an example of a common application of a framework based on the dichotomy between a mechanistic, or reductionist, approach to science and a holistic one. From this conceptual framework, Allen infers two general claims about the process of science and its goals: (1) that "mechanistic materialism" has often presented a more practical way to begin the study of complex phenomena in the life sciences, and (2) that the approach described as "holistic materialism" provides a more complete or accurate description of the natural world. The development of the lac operon model does not fit Allen's generalizations about scientific developments, and it can be used to cast some doubt on the scope of application of that conceptual framework. I argue that a better framework to interpret particular episodes in the history of molecular biology is to consider the ways in which biologists prioritize and track different aspects of the phenomena under study, rather than to focus on whether certain scientific practices are best described as developing from mechanistic to more holistic approaches. I end with some implications for the historiography of science by considering the appropriateness of different conceptual frameworks for different grains of resolution in the history of biology.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV photometry of V360 Lac (Hill+ 1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, G.; Harmanec, P.; Pavlovski, K.; Bozic, H.; Hadrava, P.; Koubsky, P.; Ziznovsky, J.

    1997-03-01

    An analysis of an extensive collection of photometric and spectroscopic observations of the little studied bright Be star V360 Lac lead to the following main conclusions: (1) V360 Lac is a binary system consisting of a B3e primary and a F9IV secondary which probably fills the Roche lobe and losses mass towards the primary. Radial-velocity curves of both components were obtained. (2) The light variations arise from superposition of variations on at least three time scales: phase-locked orbital brightness and colour changes with two minima; sinusoidal variation with a 322.24d period and low-amplitude rapid changes with a possible period of 1.6738d. (3) A tentative solution of the B and V light curves which assumes the semi-detached configuration and presence of a disk around the primary, combined with the orbital solution, leads to preliminary basic physical elements of the system which are consistent with the radiative properties of the binary components. (1 data file).

  12. Veritas Observations of Relativistic Outflows in - and Intermediate-Frequency BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoph, Heike

    2014-03-01

    The majority of blazars detected at very high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs). Low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs/IBLs with synchrotron-peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) are generally more powerful, more luminous, and have a richer jet environment than HBLs. However, only a handful of these IBL and LBLs have been detected by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array has been monitoring five known VHE LBLs/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, W Comae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with typical exposures of 5-10 hours per year. The results of these long-term observations are presented, including a bright, subhour-scale VHE flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011, the first low-state detections of 3C 66A and W Comae, and the detection and characterization of the IBL B2 1215+30.

  13. Northern hemisphere mid-latitude geomagnetic anomaly revealed from Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation (LAC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.; Agnon, A.; Ben-Yosef, E.; Hassul, E.

    2015-12-01

    The rich archaeological heritage of Israel and nearby Levantine countries provides a unique opportunity for archaeomagnetic investigation in high resolution. Here we present a summary of our ongoing effort to reconstruct geomagnetic variations of the past several millennia in the Levant at decadal to millennial resolution. This effort at the Southern Levant, namely the "Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation" (LAC), presently consists of data from over 650 well-dated archaeological objects including pottery, slag, ovens, and furnaces. In this talk we review the methodological challenges in achieving a robust master secular variation curve with realistic error estimations from a large number of different datasets. We present the current status of the compilation, including the southern and western Levant LAC data (Israel, Cyprus, and Jordan) and other published north-eastern Levant data (Syria and southern Turkey), and outline the main findings emerging from these data. The main feature apparent from the new compilation is an extraordinary intensity high that developed over the Levant region during the first two millennia BCE. The climax of this event is a double peak intensity maximum starting at ca. 1000 BCE and ending at ca. 735 BCE, accompanied with at least two events of geomagnetic spikes. Paleomagnetic directions from this period demonstrate anomalies of up to 20 degrees far from the averaged GAD field. This leads us to postulate that the maximum in the intensity is a manifestation of an intense mid-latitude local positive geomagnetic anomaly that persisted for over two centuries.

  14. Dynamics and bistability in a reduced model of the lac operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Necmettin; Santillán, Moisés; Horike, Daisuke; Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-06-01

    It is known that the lac operon regulatory pathway is capable of showing bistable behavior. This is an important complex feature, arising from the nonlinearity of the involved mechanisms, which is essential to understand the dynamic behavior of this molecular regulatory system. To find which of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the lac operon is the origin of bistability, we take a previously published model which accounts for the dynamics of mRNA, lactose, allolactose, permease and β-galactosidase involvement and simplify it by ignoring permease dynamics (assuming a constant permease concentration). To test the behavior of the reduced model, three existing sets of data on β-galactosidase levels as a function of time are simulated and we obtain a reasonable agreement between the data and the model predictions. The steady states of the reduced model were numerically and analytically analyzed and it was shown that it may indeed display bistability, depending on the extracellular lactose concentration and growth rate.

  15. Lightning Detection by LAC Onboard the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter, Planet-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshida, J.; Yair, Y.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.

    Lightning activity in Venus has been a mystery for a long period, although many studies based on observations both by spacecraft and by ground-based telescope have been carried out. This situation may be attributed to the ambiguity of these evidential measurements. In order to conclude this controversial subject, we are developing a new type of lightning detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), which will be onboard Planet-C (Venus Climate Orbiter: VCO). Planet-C will be launched in 2010 by JAXA. To distinguish an optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises, high-speed sampling at 50 kHz for each pixel, that enables us to investigate the time variation of each lightning flash phenomenon, is adopted. On the other hand, spatial resolution is not the first priority. For this purpose we developed a new type of APD (avalanche photo diode) array with a format of 8×8. A narrow band interference filter at wavelength of 777.4 nm (OI), which is the expected lightning color based on laboratory discharge experiment, is chosen for lightning measurement. LAC detects lightning flash with an optical intensity of average of Earth's lightning or less at a distance of 3 Rv. In this paper, firstly we describe the background of the Venus lightning study to locate our spacecraft project, and then introduce the mission details.

  16. Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) MAC Protocol for Very High Speed Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Dinh Chi; Masuda, Akeo; Rabarijaona, Verotiana Hanitriniala; Shimamoto, Shigeru

    Future wireless communication systems aim at very high data rates. As the medium access control (MAC) protocol plays the central role in determining the overall performance of the wireless system, designing a suitable MAC protocol is critical to fully exploit the benefit of high speed transmission that the physical layer (PHY) offers. In the latest 802.11n standard [2], the problem of long overhead has been addressed adequately but the issue of excessive colliding transmissions, especially in congested situation, remains untouched. The procedure of setting the backoff value is the heart of the 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) to avoid collision in which each station makes its own decision on how to avoid collision in the next transmission. However, collision avoidance is a problem that can not be solved by a single station. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol called Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) that redefines individual rationality in choosing the backoff counter value to avoid a colliding transmission. The distinguishing feature of iLAC is that it fundamentally changes this decision making process from collision avoidance to collaborative collision prevention. As a result, stations can avoid colliding transmissions with much greater precision. Analytical solution confirms the validity of this proposal and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms by a large margin.

  17. An extracellular laccase with potent dye decolorizing ability from white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhuo-Ren; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Meng-Juan; Ning, Ying-Jie; Wang, Shou-Nan; Li, Bing; Yang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Meng

    2015-11-01

    A novel laccase was purified from fermentation broth of white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01 using an isolation procedure involving three ion-exchange chromatography steps on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sepharose, and Q-Sepharose, and one gel-filtration step. The purified enzyme (TSL) was proved as a monomeric protein with a Mr of 59kDa based on SDS-PAGE and FPLC. Partial amino acid sequences were obtained by LC-MS/MS sharing considerably high sequence similarity with that of other laccases. It possessed optimal pH of 2.6 and temperature of 60°C using ABTS as the substrate. The Km of the laccase toward ABTS was estimated to 30.28μM at pH 2.6 and 40°C. TSL manifested considerably high oxidizing activity toward ABTS, but was avoid of degradative activity toward benzidine, caftaric acid, etc. It was effective in the decolorization of phenolic dyes - Bromothymol Blue and Malachite Green with decolorization rate higher than 60% after 24h of incubation. Adjunction of Cu(2+) with the final concentration of 2.0mmol/L significantly activated laccase production with a steady high level of 275.8-282.2U/mL in 96-144h. The high yield and short production period makes Trametes sp. LAC-01 and TSL potentially useful for industrial and environmental application and commercialization. PMID:26361865

  18. Lightning Detection by LAC Onboard the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter, Planet-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshida, J.; Yair, Y.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.

    2008-06-01

    Lightning activity in Venus has been a mystery for a long period, although many studies based on observations both by spacecraft and by ground-based telescope have been carried out. This situation may be attributed to the ambiguity of these evidential measurements. In order to conclude this controversial subject, we are developing a new type of lightning detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), which will be onboard Planet-C (Venus Climate Orbiter: VCO). Planet-C will be launched in 2010 by JAXA. To distinguish an optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises, high-speed sampling at 50 kHz for each pixel, that enables us to investigate the time variation of each lightning flash phenomenon, is adopted. On the other hand, spatial resolution is not the first priority. For this purpose we developed a new type of APD (avalanche photo diode) array with a format of 8×8. A narrow band interference filter at wavelength of 777.4 nm (OI), which is the expected lightning color based on laboratory discharge experiment, is chosen for lightning measurement. LAC detects lightning flash with an optical intensity of average of Earth’s lightning or less at a distance of 3 Rv. In this paper, firstly we describe the background of the Venus lightning study to locate our spacecraft project, and then introduce the mission details.

  19. Parsec-scale magnetic field structures in HEAO-1 BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharb, P.; Gabuzda, D.; Shastri, P.

    2008-02-01

    We present very long baseline interferometry polarization images of an X-ray-selected sample of BL Lacertae objects belonging to the first HEAO-1 and the ROSAT-Green Bank (RGB) surveys. These are primarily high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) and exhibit core-jet radio morphologies on pc scales. They show moderately polarized jet components, similar to those of low-energy-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs). The fractional polarization in the unresolved cores of the HBLs is, on average, lower than in the LBLs, while the fractional polarizations in the pc-scale jets of HBLs and LBLs are comparable. However, a difference is observed in the orientation of the inferred jet magnetic fields - while LBL jets are well known to preferentially exhibit transverse magnetic fields, the HBL jets tend to display longitudinal magnetic fields. Although a `spine-sheath' jet velocity structure, along with larger viewing angles for HBLs could produce the observed magnetic field configuration, differences in other properties of LBLs and HBLs, such as their total radio power, cannot be fully reconciled with the different-angle scenario alone. Instead it appears that LBLs and HBLs differ intrinsically, perhaps in the spin rates of their central black holes.

  20. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

  1. Fine-tuning function: correlation of hinge domain interactions with functional distinctions between LacI and PurR.

    PubMed

    Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Larson, Christopher; Pettitt, B Montgomery; Matthews, Kathleen Shive

    2002-04-01

    LacI and PurR are highly homologous proteins. Their functional units are homodimers, with an N-terminal DNA binding domain that comprises the helix-turn-helix (HTH), N-linker, and hinge regions from both monomers. Hinge structural changes are known to occur upon DNA dissociation but are difficult to monitor experimentally. The initial steps of hinge unfolding were therefore examined using molecular dynamics simulations, utilizing a truncated, chimeric protein comprising the LacI HTH/N-linker and PurR hinge. A terminal Gly-Cys-Gly was added to allow "dimerization" through disulfide bond formation. Simulations indicate that differences in LacI and PurR hinge primary sequence affect the quaternary structure of the hinge x hinge' interface. However, these alternate hinge orientations would be sterically restricted by the core domain. These results prompted detailed comparison of recently available DNA-bound structures for LacI and truncated LacI(1-62) with the PurR structure. Examination revealed that different N-linker and hinge contacts to the core domain of the partner monomer (which binds effector molecule) affect the juxtapositions of the HTH, N-linker, and hinge regions in the DNA binding domain. In addition, the two full-length repressors exhibit significant differences in the interactions between the core and the C-linker connection to the DNA binding domain. Both linkers and the hinge have been implicated in the allosteric response of these repressors. Intriguingly, one functional difference between these two proteins is that they exhibit opposite allosteric response to effector. Simulations and observed structural distinctions are correlated with mutational analysis and sequence information from the LacI/GalR family to formulate a mechanism for fine-tuning individual repressor function.

  2. GB6 J1058+5628: A New Quasi-periodic BL Lac Object from the Asiago Plate Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  3. Functional consequences of exchanging domains between LacI and PurR are mediated by the intervening linker sequence.

    PubMed

    Tungtur, Sudheer; Egan, Susan M; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2007-07-01

    Homologue function can be differentiated by changing residues that affect binding sites or long-range interactions. LacI and PurR are two proteins that represent the LacI/GalR family (>500 members) of bacterial transcription regulators. All members have distinct DNA-binding and regulatory domains linked by approximately 18 amino acids. Each homologue has specificity for different DNA and regulatory effector ligands; LacI and PurR also exhibit differences in allosteric communication between DNA and effector binding sites. A comparative study of LacI and PurR suggested that alterations in the interface between the regulatory domain and linker are important for differentiating their functions. Four residues (equivalent to LacI positions 48, 55, 58, and 61) appear particularly important for creating a unique interface and were predicted to be necessary for allosteric regulation. However, nearby residues in the linker interact with DNA ligand. Thus, differences observed in interactions between linker and regulatory domain may be the cause of altered function or an effect of the two proteins binding different DNA ligands. To separate these possibilities, we created a chimeric protein with the LacI DNA-binding domain/linker and the PurR regulatory domain (LLhP). If the interface requires homologue-specific interactions in order to propagate the signal from effector binding, then LLhP repression should not be allosterically regulated by effector binding. Experiments show that LLhP is capable of repression from lacO1 and, contrary to expectation, allosteric response is intact. Further, restoring the potential for PurR-like interactions via substitutions in the LLhP linker tends to diminish repression. These effects are especially pronounced for residues 58 and 61. Clearly, binding affinity of LLhP for the lacO1 DNA site is sensitive to long-range changes in the linker. This result also raises the possibility that mutations at positions 58 and 61 co-evolved with changes in

  4. GB6 J1058+5628: A NEW QUASI-PERIODIC BL LAC OBJECT FROM THE ASIAGO PLATE ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.

    2010-06-15

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  5. A KPC-scale X-ray jet in the BL LAC Source S5 2007+777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita; Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The BL Lac S3 2007++777, a classical radio-selected BL Lac from the sample of Stirkel et al. exhibiting an extended (19") radio jet. was observed with Chandra revealing an X-ray jet with simi1ar morphology. The hard X-ray spectrum and broad band SED is consistent with an IC/CMB origin for the X-ray emission, implying a highly relativistic flow at small angle to the line of sight with an unusually large deprojected length, 300 kpc. A structured jet consisting of a fast spine and slow wall is consistent with the observations.

  6. A series of vectors to construct lacZ fusions for the study of gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, M J; Petit, T; Gancedo, C

    1997-12-22

    We have constructed a series of plasmids to facilitate the fusion of promoters with or without coding regions of genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli. These vectors carry a multiple cloning region in which fission yeast DNA may be inserted in three different reading frames with respect to the coding region of lacZ. The plasmids were constructed with the ura4+ or the his3+ marker of S. pombe. Functionality of the plasmids was tested measuring in parallel the expression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and beta-galactosidase under the control of the fbp1+ promoter in different conditions.

  7. Freshwater DOM quantity and quality from a two-component model of UV absorbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Heather T.; Tipping, Edward; Koprivnjak, Jean-Francois; Miller, Matthew P.; Cookson, Brenda; Hamilton-Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    We present a model that considers UV-absorbing dissolved organic matter (DOM) to consist of two components (A and B), each with a distinct and constant spectrum. Component A absorbs UV light strongly, and is therefore presumed to possess aromatic chromophores and hydrophobic character, whereas B absorbs weakly and can be assumed hydrophilic. We parameterised the model with dissolved organic carbon concentrations [DOC] and corresponding UV spectra for c. 1700 filtered surface water samples from North America and the United Kingdom, by optimising extinction coefficients for A and B, together with a small constant concentration of non-absorbing DOM (0.80 mg DOC L-1). Good unbiased predictions of [DOC] from absorbance data at 270 and 350 nm were obtained (r2 = 0.98), the sum of squared residuals in [DOC] being reduced by 66% compared to a regression model fitted to absorbance at 270 nm alone. The parameterised model can use measured optical absorbance values at any pair of suitable wavelengths to calculate both [DOC] and the relative amounts of A and B in a water sample, i.e. measures of quantity and quality. Blind prediction of [DOC] was satisfactory for 9 of 11 independent data sets (181 of 213 individual samples).

  8. Calibration method for a photoacoustic system for real time source apportionment of light absorbing carbonaceous aerosol based on size distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, Noemi; Ajtai, Tibor; Pinter, Mate; Orvos, Peter I.; Szabo, Gabor; Bozoki, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we introduce a calibration method with which sources of light absorbing carbonaceous particulate matter (LAC) can be apportioned in real time based on multi wavelength optical absorption measurements with a photoacoustic system. The method is primary applicable in wintry urban conditions when LAC is dominated by traffic and biomass burning. The proposed method was successfully tested in a field campaign in the city center of Szeged, Hungary during winter time where the dominance of traffic and wood burning aerosol has been experimentally demonstrated earlier. With the help of the proposed calibration method a relationship between the measured Aerosol Angström Exponent (AAE) and the number size distribution can be deduced. Once the calibration curve is determined, the relative strength of the two pollution sources can be deduced in real time as long as the light absorbing fraction of PM is exclusively related to traffic and wood burning. This assumption is indirectly confirmed in the presented measurement campaign by the fact that the measured size distribution is composed of two unimodal size distributions identified to correspond to traffic and wood burning aerosols. The proposed method offers the possibility of replacing laborious chemical analysis with simple in-situ measurement of aerosol size distribution data.

  9. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Wright, Richard N.; Swank, William D.; Lister, Tedd E.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  10. Energy absorber uses expanded coiled tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical shock mitigating device, based on working material to its failure point, absorbs mechanical energy by bending or twisting tubing. It functions under axial or tangential loading, has no rebound, is area independent, and is easy and inexpensive to build.

  11. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. )

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  12. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  13. A cloning vector for creation of Escherichia coli lacZ translational fusions and generation of linear template for chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    Uhlich, Gaylen A; Chen, Chin-Yi

    2012-05-01

    A novel cloning vector to aid in the construction of single copy β-galactosidase reporter systems for gene expression studies in lactose metabolizing Escherichia coli strains, including STEC, is described. The plasmid allows construction of translational fusions of cloned gene promoters to a short segment of E. coli lacZ. A selectable spectinomycin resistance marker flanked by a short lacI segment is positioned 5' to the cloning site. PCR amplification using opposing primers complementary to the upstream lacI fragment and the downstream lacZ fragment generates a linear template suitable for integration using pRedET recombination. Integration of linear template derived from the recombinant plasmid into host strains replaces the entire native lacZ promoter and fuses the promoter of interest in-frame with the lacZ gene, thus simultaneously producing a single-copy, chromosomal reporter system and eliminating background lacZ expression. Studies comparing ahpC expression from a chromosomal fusion in the lac open with that on a plasmid in E. coli strain EDL933 are shown. PMID:22197962

  14. Porous absorber for solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, J.A.

    1980-09-10

    A general discussion of the factors affecting solar collector performance is presented. Bench scale tests done to try to determine the heat transfer characteristics of various screen materials are explained. The design, performance, and evaluation of a crude collector with a simple screen stack absorber is treated. The more sophisticated absorber concept, and its first experimental approximation is examined. A short summary of future plans for the collector concept is included. (MHR)

  15. Taming electromagnetic metamaterials for isotropic perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, Doan Tung; Viet, Do Thanh; Trang, Pham Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Quy, Ho Quang; Hieu, Nguyen Van; Lam, Vu Dinh; Tung, Nguyen Thanh

    2015-07-01

    Conventional metamaterial absorbers, which consist of a dielectric spacer sandwiched between metamaterial resonators and a metallic ground plane, have been inherently anisotropic. In this paper, we present an alternative approach for isotropic perfect absorbers using symmetric metamaterial structures. We show that by systematically manipulating the electrically and magnetically induced losses, one can achieve a desired absorption without breaking the structural homogeneity. Finite integration simulations and standard retrieval method are performed to elaborate on our idea.

  16. Structured metal film as a perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2013-08-01

    A new type of absorber, a four-tined fish-spear-like resonator (FFR), constructed by the two-photon polymerization process, is reported. An absorbance of more than 90% is experimentally realized and the resonance occurs in the space between the tines. Since a continuous layer of metallic thin film covers the structure, it is perfectly thermo- and electroconductive, which is the mostly desired feature for many applications. PMID:23661582

  17. Lidar remote sensing of laser-induced incandescence on light absorbing particles in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Miffre, Alain; Anselmo, Christophe; Geffroy, Sylvain; Fréjafon, Emeric; Rairoux, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Carbon aerosol is now recognized as a major uncertainty on climate change and public health, and specific instruments are required to address the time and space evolution of this aerosol, which efficiently absorbs light. In this paper, we report an experiment, based on coupling lidar remote sensing with Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII), which allows, in agreement with Planck's law, to retrieve the vertical profile of very low thermal radiation emitted by light-absorbing particles in an urban atmosphere over several hundred meters altitude. Accordingly, we set the LII-lidar formalism and equation and addressed the main features of LII-lidar in the atmosphere by numerically simulating the LII-lidar signal. We believe atmospheric LII-lidar to be a promising tool for radiative transfer, especially when combined with elastic backscattering lidar, as it may then allow a remote partitioning between strong/less light absorbing carbon aerosols.

  18. Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; Smirnova, E I; O' Hara, John F

    2009-01-01

    We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance frequencies. However, the downside of these designs is that they all employ resonators of rather complicated shape with many fine parts and so they are not easy to fabricate and are sensitive to distortions.

  19. Two-dimensional coalescence dynamics of encapsulated metallofullerenes in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher S; Ito, Yasuhiro; Robertson, Alex W; Shinohara, Hisanori; Warner, Jamie H

    2011-12-27

    We report on the coalescence of a two-dimensional (2D) chain of La@C(82) metallofullerene molecules encapsulated inside a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT). 2D packing of metallofullerenes is known to adopt a zigzag arrangement and cause elliptical distortion to the cross-section of the SWNT host. We show that after coalescence of the metallofullerenes into an inner nanotube the carbon nanotube host returns to its original circular cross-section. This is due to a relaxation of the strain caused by the packing of the encapsulated La@C(82) molecules into the nanotube. We identify the formation of some novel but transient fullerene-based structures formed during the intermediate stages of coalescence of the La@C(82) into an inner nanotube. These results highlight the flexible nature of SWNTs and their ability to adapt their cross-sectional profile depending upon forces induced by material encapsulated within.

  20. Photophoretic manipulation of absorbing aerosol particles with vortex beams: theory versus experiment.

    PubMed

    Desyatnikov, Anton S; Shvedov, Vladlen G; Rode, Andrei V; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2009-05-11

    We develop a theoretical approach for describing the optical trapping and manipulation of carbon nanoclusters in air with a dual-vortex optical trap, as realized recently in experiment [V. Shvedov et al., Opt. Express 17, 5743 (2009)]. We calculate both longitudinal and transverse photophoretic forces acting on a spherical absorbing particle, and then compare our theoretical predictions with the experimental data. PMID:19434152