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Sample records for absorbing material layer

  1. Improving impact resistance of ceramic materials by energy absorbing surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.; Seretsky, J.

    1974-01-01

    Energy absorbing surface layers were used to improve the impact resistance of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics. Low elastic modulus materials were used. In some cases, the low elastic modulus was achieved using materials that form localized microcracks as a result of thermal expansion anisotropy, thermal expansion differences between phases, or phase transformations. In other cases, semi-vitreous or vitreous materials were used. Substantial improvements in impact resistance were observed at room and elevated temperatures.

  2. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  3. Thin and Broadband Two-Layer Microwave Absorber in 4-12 GHz with Developed Flaky Cobalt Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Neeraj; Singh, Jaydeep; Puthucheri, Smitha; Singh, Dharmendra

    2018-03-01

    Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs) in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz are essential for the stealth and communication applications. Researchers came up with effective MAMs for the higher frequency regions, i.e., 8.0-18.0 GHz, while absorbers with comparable properties in the lower frequency band are still not in the limelight. Designing a MAM for the lower frequency range is a critical task. It is known that the factors governing the absorption in this frequency predominantly depend on the permeability and conductivity of the material, whereas the shape anisotropy of the particles can initiate different absorption mechanisms like multiple internal reflections, phase cancellations, surface charge polarization and enhanced conductivity that can promote the microwave absorption towards lower frequencies. But the material alone may not serve the purpose of getting broad absorption bandwidth. With the effective use of advanced electromagnetic technique like multi-layering this problem may be solved. Therefore, in this paper, a material with shape anisotropy (cobalt flakes with high shape anisotropy) has been prepared and a two-layer structure is developed which gives the absorption bandwidth in 4.17-12.05 GHz at a coating thickness of 2.66 mm.

  4. Thin and Broadband Two-Layer Microwave Absorber in 4-12 GHz with Developed Flaky Cobalt Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Neeraj; Singh, Jaydeep; Puthucheri, Smitha; Singh, Dharmendra

    2018-05-01

    Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs) in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz are essential for the stealth and communication applications. Researchers came up with effective MAMs for the higher frequency regions, i.e., 8.0-18.0 GHz, while absorbers with comparable properties in the lower frequency band are still not in the limelight. Designing a MAM for the lower frequency range is a critical task. It is known that the factors governing the absorption in this frequency predominantly depend on the permeability and conductivity of the material, whereas the shape anisotropy of the particles can initiate different absorption mechanisms like multiple internal reflections, phase cancellations, surface charge polarization and enhanced conductivity that can promote the microwave absorption towards lower frequencies. But the material alone may not serve the purpose of getting broad absorption bandwidth. With the effective use of advanced electromagnetic technique like multi-layering this problem may be solved. Therefore, in this paper, a material with shape anisotropy (cobalt flakes with high shape anisotropy) has been prepared and a two-layer structure is developed which gives the absorption bandwidth in 4.17-12.05 GHz at a coating thickness of 2.66 mm.

  5. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  6. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  7. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  8. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  9. Radar Absorbing Material Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    layer will depend on the angle of the incidence of the incoming wave. However, for large and ε µ values, the direction of the refracted ray in the...1995. 3. Federation of American Scientist Official Website (www.fas.org), 22 June 2003. 4. Asoke Bhattacharyya, D.L. Sengupta, Radar Cross Section

  10. Nickel Nanoparticle Encapsulated in Few-Layer Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Supported by Nitrogen-Doped Graphite Sheets as a High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Material.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haoran; Yan, Feng; Li, Chunyan; Zhu, Chunling; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2018-01-10

    Herein we develop a facile strategy for fabricating nickel particle encapsulated in few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene supported by graphite carbon sheets as a high-performance electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbing material. The obtained material exhibits sheetlike morphology with a lateral length ranging from a hundred nanometers to 2 μm and a thickness of about 23 nm. Nickel nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 20 nm were encapsulated in about six layers of nitrogen-doped graphene. As applied for electromagnetic absorbing material, the heteronanostructures exhibit excellent electromagnetic wave absorption property, comparable to most EMW absorbing materials previously reported. Typically, the effective absorption bandwidth (the frequency region falls within the reflection loss below -10 dB) is up to 8.5 GHz at the thicknesses of 3.0 mm for the heteronanostructures with the optimized Ni content. Furthermore, two processes, carbonization at a high temperature and subsequent treatment in hot acid solution, were involved in the preparation of the heteronanostructures, and thus, mass production was achieved easily, facilitating their practical applications.

  11. Layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  12. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    PubMed

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  14. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  15. Absorbing boundary layers for spin wave micromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat, G.; Fangohr, H.; Prabhakar, A.

    2018-03-01

    Micromagnetic simulations are used to investigate the effects of different absorbing boundary layers (ABLs) on spin waves (SWs) reflected from the edges of a magnetic nano-structure. We define the conditions that a suitable ABL must fulfill and compare the performance of abrupt, linear, polynomial and tan hyperbolic damping profiles in the ABL. We first consider normal incidence in a permalloy stripe and propose a transmission line model to quantify reflections and calculate the loss introduced into the stripe due to the ABL. We find that a parabolic damping profile absorbs the SW energy efficiently and has a low reflection coefficient, thus performing much better than the commonly used abrupt damping profile. We then investigated SWs that are obliquely incident at 26.6 °, 45 ° and 63.4 ° on the edge of a yttrium-iron-garnet film. The parabolic damping profile again performs efficiently by showing a high SW energy transfer to the ABL and a low reflected SW amplitude.

  16. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  17. Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

    1991-01-01

    A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

  18. Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: layered foam liner . Mater Des 30(9):3405–3413 Sethian J, Wiegmann A (2000) Structural boundary design via...Army Research Laboratory Wildman RA, Weile DS (2007) Geometry reconstruction of conduct- ing cylinders using genetic programming. IEEE Trans Antennas

  19. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  20. Design of broadband absorber using 2-D materials for thermo-photovoltaic cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sajal; Prajapati, Y. K.

    2018-04-01

    Present study is done to analyze a nano absorber for thermo-photovoltaic cell application. Optical absorbance of two-dimensional materials is exploited to achieve high absorbance. It is found that few alternating layers of graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide provide high absorbance of electromagnetic wave in visible as well as near infrared region. Four transition metal dichalcogenides are considered and found that most of these provide perfect absorbance for almost full considered wavelength range i.e. 200-1000 nm. Demonstrated results confirm the extended operating region and improved absorbance of the proposed absorber in comparison to the existing absorbers made of different materials. Further, absorber performance is improved by using thin layers of gold and chromium. Simple geometry of the proposed absorber also ensures easy fabrication.

  1. Optimization of sound absorbing performance for gradient multi-layer-assembled sintered fibrous absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiyong; Zhu, Jian

    2012-04-01

    The transfer matrix method, based on plane wave theory, of multi-layer equivalent fluid is employed to evaluate the sound absorbing properties of two-layer-assembled and three-layer-assembled sintered fibrous sheets (generally regarded as a kind of compound absorber or structures). Two objective functions which are more suitable for the optimization of sound absorption properties of multi-layer absorbers within the wider frequency ranges are developed and the optimized results of using two objective functions are also compared with each other. It is found that using the two objective functions, especially the second one, may be more helpful to exert the sound absorbing properties of absorbers at lower frequencies to the best of their abilities. Then the calculation and optimization of sound absorption properties of multi-layer-assembled structures are performed by developing a simulated annealing genetic arithmetic program and using above-mentioned objective functions. Finally, based on the optimization in this work the thoughts of the gradient design over the acoustic parameters- the porosity, the tortuosity, the viscous and thermal characteristic lengths and the thickness of each samples- of porous metals are put forth and thereby some useful design criteria upon the acoustic parameters of each layer of porous fibrous metals are given while applying the multi-layer-assembled compound absorbers in noise control engineering.

  2. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  3. Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Marhauser, Frank; Elliott, Thomas; Rimmer, Robert

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variationsmore » from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.« less

  4. Analysis of single-layer metamaterial absorber with reflection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Han; Tang, Ming-Chun; Hong, Jing-Song

    2015-04-01

    A reflection theory is employed to analyze a single-layered metamaterial absorber. With the necessary conditions for zero reflection, the permittivity and permeability as functions of absorptivity were obtained, which are suitable for analyzing the absorption properties of single-layered metamaterial absorber at both normal and oblique incidence cases. With the obtained expressions, it not only can explain why the absorption peaks monotonously decrease with increasing of the incident angles but also can explore the relationship between the absorptivity and spacer thickness of the dielectric slab. A Jerusalem cross metamaterial absorber was simulated and verified the validity of this proposed reflection theory. The main contribution of our work is that it can explain the physical mechanism of the various absorption peaks by using the analytical formula and highlights its potential guidance for designing and analyzing metamaterial absorbers in the future.

  5. Influence of the electromagnetic parameters on the surface wave attenuation in thin absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinrui; Li, Dongmeng; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rongzhou

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the relationships between the surface wave attenuation properties and the electromagnetic parameters of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). In order to conveniently obtain the attenuation constant of TM surface waves over a wide frequency range, the simplified dispersion equations in thin absorbing materials were firstly deduced. The validity of the proposed method was proved by comparing with the classical dispersion equations. Subsequently, the attenuation constants were calculated separately for the absorbing layers with hypothetical relative permittivity and permeability. It is found that the surface wave attenuation properties can be strongly tuned by the permeability of RAM. Meanwhile, the permittivity should be appropriate so as to maintain high cutoff frequency. The present work provides specific methods and designs to improve the attenuation performances of radar absorbing materials.

  6. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  7. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the index of refraction on the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux in semitransparent materials, such as some ceramics, is investigated analytically. In the case considered here, a plane layer of a ceramic material is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces; the material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. It is shown that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained in a simple manner from the results for an index of refraction of unity.

  8. A Wide Band Absorbing Material Design Using Band-Pass Frequency Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Dianliang; Zhou, Li

    2018-03-01

    Based on the high frequency advantage characteristics of the Fe based absorbing coating, a method for designing the structure of broadband absorbing structure by using frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed. According to the transmission and reflection characteristic of the different size FSS structure, the frequency variation characteristic was simulated. Secondly, the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the high frequency broadband absorbing materials, including the single and double magnetic layer material. Finally, the absorbing characteristics in iron layer were analyzed as the band pass FSS structure was embedded, the results showed that the band-pass FSS had the influence on widening the absorbing frequency. As the FSS was set as the bottom layer, it was effective to achieve the good absorbing property in low frequency and the high frequency absorbing performance was not weakened, because the band-pass FSS led the low frequency absorption and the high frequency shielding effect. The results of this paper are of guiding significance for designing and manufacturing the broadband absorbing materials.

  9. Spray CVD for Making Solar-Cell Absorber Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2007-01-01

    Spray chemical vapor deposition (spray CVD) processes of a special type have been investigated for use in making CuInS2 absorber layers of thin-film solar photovoltaic cells from either of two subclasses of precursor compounds: [(PBu3) 2Cu(SEt)2In(SEt)2] or [(PPh3)2Cu(SEt)2 In(SEt)2]. The CuInS2 films produced in the experiments have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and four-point-probe electrical tests.

  10. Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in an Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Laminated Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    A simple set of equations is derived for predicting temperature radiative energy flow in a two-region semitransparent laminated layer in the limit of zero heat conduction. The composite is heated on its two sides by unequal amounts of incident radiation. The two layers of the composite have different refractive indices, and each material absorbs, emits, and isotropically scatters radiation. The interfaces are diffuse, and all interface reflections are included. To illustrate the thermal behavior that is readily calculated from the equations, typical results an given for various optical thicknesses and refractive indices of the layers. Internal reflections have a substantial effect on the temperature distribution and radiative heat flow.

  11. Development of Coatings for Radar Absorbing Materials at X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Samarjit

    2018-03-01

    The present review gives a brief account on some of the technical features of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). The paper has been presented with a concentrated approach towards the material aspects for achieving enhanced radar absorption characteristics for its application as a promising candidate in stealth technology and electromagnetic interference (EMI) minimization problems. The effect of metal particles doping/dispersion in the ferrites and dielectrics has been discussed for obtaining tunable radar absorbing characteristics. A short theoretical overview on the development of absorber materials, implementation of genetic algorithm (GA) in multi-layering and frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) based multi-layer has also been presented for the development of radar absorbing coatings for achieving better absorption augmented with broadband features in order to counter the radar detection systems.

  12. Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films

    PubMed Central

    Kocer, Hasan; Butun, Serkan; Palacios, Edgar; Liu, Zizhuo; Tongay, Sefaattin; Fu, Deyi; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao; Aydin, Koray

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic and metamaterial based nano/micro-structured materials enable spectrally selective resonant absorption, where the resonant bandwidth and absorption intensity can be engineered by controlling the size and geometry of nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a simple, lithography-free approach for obtaining a resonant and dynamically tunable broadband absorber based on vanadium dioxide (VO2) phase transition. Using planar layered thin film structures, where top layer is chosen to be an ultrathin (20 nm) VO2 film, we demonstrate broadband IR light absorption tuning (from ~90% to ~30% in measured absorption) over the entire mid-wavelength infrared spectrum. Our numerical and experimental results indicate that the bandwidth of the absorption bands can be controlled by changing the dielectric spacer layer thickness. Broadband tunable absorbers can find applications in absorption filters, thermal emitters, thermophotovoltaics and sensing. PMID:26294085

  13. Potential application of a homogeneous and anisotropic slab as an angle insensitive absorbing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiaoning; Niu, Tiaoming; Wang, Jing; Mei, Zhonglei; Qin, Jiayong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a flat and incident angle independence absorbing material is proposed and numerically verified in the optical spectrum. A homogeneous and anisotropic dielectric slab as a non-reflecting layer is first reviewed, and a feasible realization strategy of the slab is then given by using layered isotropic materials. When the loss components of the constitutive materials are not zero, the slab will work as an angle insensitive absorbing layer, and the absorption rate augments with increase of the losses. As the numerical verifications, the field distributions of a metallic cylinder and a triangular metallic object individually covered by the designed absorbing layer are demonstrated. The simulation results show that the designed absorbing layer can efficiently absorb the incident waves with the property of incident angle independence at the operation frequency. This homogeneous slab can be used in one and two dimensional situations for the realization of an invisibility cloak, a carpet cloak and even a skin cloak, if it is used to conformally cover target objects.

  14. Shock Tube Test for Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-13

    rigid and lightweight foam material with a closed-cell structure, and a very high strength-to-weight ratio (7). It is commonly used as a sandwich...including application in helmet liners (8). Zorbium™ is the viscoelastic polyurethane foam used in military helmet suspension system pads (9). 8...viscoelastic polyurethane foam which shows strain rate dependent behavior when compressed. This is displayed by the significant difference in response

  15. Bayesian characterization of micro-perforated panels and multi-layer absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Andrew Alexander Joseph

    First described by the late acoustician Dah-You Maa, micro-perforated panel (MPP) absorbers produce extremely high acoustic absorption coefficients. This is done without the use of conventional fibrous or porous materials that are often used in acoustic treatments, meaning MPP absorbers are capable of being implemented and withstanding critical situations where traditional absorbers do not suffice. The absorption function of a micro-perforated panel yields high yet relatively narrow results at certain frequencies, although wide-band absorption can be designed by stacking multiple MPP absorbers comprised of different characteristic parameters. Using Bayesian analysis, the physical properties of panel thickness, pore diameter, perforation ratio, and air depth are estimated inversely from experimental data of acoustic absorption, based on theoretical models for design of micro-perforated panels. Furthermore, this analysis helps to understand the interdependence and uncertainties of the parameters and how each affects the performance of the panel. Various micro-perforated panels are manufactured and tested in single- and double-layer absorber constructions.

  16. Use of cork as absorbent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria; D'Alesio, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Cork is a green and sustainable material. At the end of its useful life, it can be disposed of into the environment without causing any damage. It can be used to improve the acoustics inside environments, as a system for the reduction of reverberation time. Sound absorption systems consist of cork panels mounted at a distance onto a rigid wall. The thickness of the cork panels considered are 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm. While the distances considered from the rigid wall are 3 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm. The absorption coefficient of the samples was measured in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube (tube of Kundt). Furthermore, the problems relating to the realization of sound-absorption systems composed of cork panels are also discussed.

  17. A comparative study between different approaches to improve the RCS of a compact double-layer absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hakim, H. A.; Mahmoud, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, straightforward and efficient techniques have been addressed into double-layer structure to enlarge the operating bandwidth to include the X, Ku and K bands, in addition to increase the electromagnetic wave absorption for wide varieties of incident angles and both polarization types. To increase the band-stop resonating frequency up to 26 GHz, an additional layer of meta-surface, circuit analog radar absorber material (CAR), or a thin radar absorber material (RAM) layer is engineered. The synthesized layers are designed based on optimization process with genetic algorithm (GA) through numerical technique (Ansoft design software HFSS) for both transmission line (T.L) and the free space method to get optimal material properties suitable for the design. For different approaches, the designed structures achieved a reflectivity value less than -16 dB on average in the desired bandwidth from 8 to 26 GHz for TE/TM modes with incidence angle up to 50o.

  18. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The index of refraction can considerably influence the temperature distribution and radiative heat flow in semitransparent materials such as some ceramics. For external radiant heating, the refractive index influences the amount of energy transmitted into the interior of the material. Emission within a material depends on the square of its refractive index, and hence this emission can be many times that for a biackbody radiating into a vacuum. Since radiation exiting through an interface into a vacuum cannot exceed that of a blackbody, there is extensive reflection at the internal surface of an interface, mostly by total internal reflection. This redistributes energy within the layer and tends to make its temperature distribution more uniform. The purpose of the present analysis is to show that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained very simply from the results for an index of refraction of unity. For the situation studied here, the layer is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces. The material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. For simplicity the index of refraction is unity in the medium surrounding the layer. The surfaces of the layer are assumed diffuse. This is probably a reasonable approximation for a ceramic layer that has not been polished. When transmitted radiation or radiation emitted from the interior reaches the inner surface of an interface, the radiation is diffused and some of it thereby placed into angular directions for which there is total internal reflection. This provides a trapping effect for retaining energy within the layer and tends to equalize its temperature distribution. An analysis of temperature distributions in absorbing-emitting layers, including index of refraction effects, was developed by Gardon (1958) to predict cooling and heat treating of glass plates

  19. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  20. Preparation and characterization of CuInS2 absorber layers by sol-gel method for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerioun, M. H.; Ghazi, M. E.; Izadifard, M.; Bahramian, B.

    2016-04-01

    CuInSe2 , CuInS2 ( CIS2 and CuInGaS2 alloys and their compounds with band gaps between 1.05 and 1.7eV are absorbance materials based on chalcopyrite, in which, because of their suitable direct band gap, high absorbance coefficient and short carrier diffusion are used as absorbance layers in solar cells. In this work, the effects of decrease in p H and thickness variation on characteristics of the CIS2 absorber layers, grown by spin coating on glass substrates, are investigated. Furthermore by using thiourea as a sulphur source in solvent, the sulfurization of layers was done easier than other sulfurization methods. Due to the difficulty in dissolving thiourea in the considered solvent that leads to a fast deposition during the dissolving process, precise conditions are employed in order to prepare the solution. In fact, this procedure can facilitate the sulfurization process of CuIn layers. The results obtained from this investigation indicate reductions in absorbance and band gap in the visible region of the spectrum as a result of decrease in p H. Finally, conductivity of layers is studied by the current vs. voltage curve that represents reduction of electrical resistance with decrease and increase in p H and thickness, respectively.

  1. Absorbing Boundary Conditions For Optical Pulses In Dispersive, Nonlinear Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that provides absorbing boundary conditions for optical pulses in dispersive, nonlinear materials. A new numerical absorber at the boundaries has been developed that is responsive to the spectral content of the pulse. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of "light bullet" like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. Comparisons will be shown of calculations that use the standard boundary conditions and the new ones.

  2. One-way quasiplanar terahertz absorbers using nonstructured polar dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ulibarri, P.; Beruete, M.; Serebryannikov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of quasiplanar one-way transparent terahertz absorbers made of linear isotropic materials is presented. The resulting structure consists of a homogeneous absorbing layer of polar dielectric, GaAs, a dispersion-free substrate, and an ultrathin frequency-selective reflector. It is demonstrated that perfect absorption can be obtained for forward illumination, along with total reflection at backward illumination and transparency windows in the adjacent bands. The design is particularized for the polaritonic gap range where permittivity of GaAs varies in a wide range and includes epsilon-near-zero and transparency regimes. The underlying physics can be explained with the aid of a unified equivalent-circuit (EC) analytical model. Perfect matching of input impedance in forward operation and, simultaneously, strong mismatch in the backward case are the universal criteria of one-way absorption. It is shown that perfect one-way absorption can be achieved at rather arbitrary permittivity values, provided these criteria are fulfilled. The EC results are in good agreement with full-wave simulations in a wide range of material and geometrical parameters. The resulting one-way absorbers are very compact and geometrically simple, and enable transparency in the neighboring frequency ranges and, hence, multifunctionality that utilizes both absorption- and transmission-related regimes.

  3. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermallymore » annealed.« less

  4. Sound-absorbing slabs and structures based on granular materials (bound and unbound). [energy absorbing efficiency of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre-Lazar, S.; Popeea, G.

    1974-01-01

    Sound absorbing slabs and structures made up of bound or unbound granular materials are considered and how to manufacture these elements at the building site. The raw material is a single grain powder (sand, expanded blast furnace slag, etc.) that imparts to the end products an apparent porosity of 25-45% and an energy dissipation within the structure leading to absorption coefficients that can be compared with those of mineral wool and urethane.

  5. Intercalation of anionic organic ultraviolet ray absorbers into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Gardolinski, José Eduardo Ferreira da Costa; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was synthesized and nitrate ions were topotactically exchanged with three different anionic species of commercial organic ultraviolet (UV) ray absorbers: 2-mercaptobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-aminobenzoic acid. The exchange reactions were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry, TGA, and differential thermal analysis, DTA). In all the anionic exchanged products, evidence of grafting of the organic species onto the inorganic matrix was obtained. In general, after intercalation/grafting, the UV absorption ability was improved in relation to the use of the parent organic material, showing that layered hydroxide salts (LHS) can be good alternative matrixes for the immobilization of organic species with UV-blocking properties in cosmetic products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of a Tunable Ultra-Broadband Terahertz Absorber Based on Multiple Layers of Graphene Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zenghui; Wu, Dong; Liu, Yumin; Liu, Chang; Yu, Zhongyuan; Yu, Li; Ye, Han

    2018-05-01

    We propose and numerically demonstrate an ultra-broadband graphene-based metamaterial absorber, which consists of multi-layer graphene/dielectric on the SiO2 layer supported by a metal substrate. The simulated result shows that the proposed absorber can achieve a near-perfect absorption above 90% with a bandwidth of 4.8 Thz. Owing to the flexible tunability of graphene sheet, the state of the absorber can be switched from on (absorption > 90%) to off (reflection > 90%) in the frequencies range of 3-7.8 Thz by controlling the Fermi energy of graphene. Moreover, the absorber is insensitive to the incident angles. The broadband absorption can be maintained over 90% up to 50°. Importantly, the design is scalable to develop broader tunable terahertz absorbers by adding more graphene layers which may have wide applications in imaging, sensors, photodetectors, and modulators.

  7. Application of Absorbable Hemostatic Materials Observed in Thyroid Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Yan

    2016-05-01

    To observe the application effects of the absorbable hemostatic materials in thyroid operation. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2015, 100 patients with thyroid surgery in our university affiliated hospital were selected as the research object. Randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Application of absorbable hemostatic hemostatic materials in the experimental group during the operation, the control group using the traditional mechanical methods of hemostasis hemostasis to observe the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, complications and hospital stay of the two groups. Results: The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage and hospital stay in the experimental group were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05); The satisfaction of patients in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant in the two groups (P < 0.05); There was no significant difference in the incidence of wound bleeding complications between the study group and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Absorbable hemostatic materials can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the success rate of surgery and patient satisfaction, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical thyroid surgery.

  8. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  9. Absorbable synthetic versus catgut suture material for perineal repair

    PubMed Central

    Kettle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 70% of women will experience some degree of perineal trauma following vaginal delivery and will require stitches. This may result in perineal pain and superficial dyspareunia. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of absorbable synthetic suture material as compared with catgut on the amount of short and long term pain experienced by mothers following perineal repair. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register. Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing absorbable synthetic (polyglycolic acid and polyglactin) with plain or chromic catgut suture for perineal repair in mothers after vaginal delivery. Data collection and analysis Trial quality was assessed independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the second reviewer. Main results Eight trials were included. Compared with catgut, the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups were associated with less pain in first three days (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.71). There was also less need for analgesia (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.77) and less suture dehiscence (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.70). There was no significant difference in long term pain (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 1.08). Removal of suture material was significantly more common in the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.56 to 2.58). There was no difference in the amount of dyspareunia experienced by women. Authors’ conclusions Absorbable synthetic suture material (in the form of polyglycolic acid and polyglactin sutures) for perineal repair following childbirth appears to decrease women’s experience of short-term pain. The length of time taken for the synthetic material to be absorbed is of concern. A trial addressing the use of polyglactin has recently been completed and this has

  10. Dual-band absorption of mid-infrared metamaterial absorber based on distinct dielectric spacing layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Peiheng; Cheng, Dengmu; Weng, Xiaolong; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2013-04-01

    We present the simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a dual-band metamaterial absorber in the mid-infrared regime. Two pairs of circular-patterned metal-dielectric stacks are employed to excite the dual-band absorption peaks. Dielectric characteristics of the dielectric spacing layer determine energy dissipation in each resonant stack, i.e., dielectric or ohmic loss. By controlling material parameters, both two mechanisms are introduced into our structure. Up to 98% absorption is obtained at 9.03 and 13.32 μm in the simulation, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The proposed structure holds promise for various applications, e.g., thermal radiation modulators and multicolor infrared focal plane arrays.

  11. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  12. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  13. Fabrication of CIS Absorber Layers with Different Thicknesses Using A Non-Vacuum Spray Coating Method

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Chien-Chen; Kuo, Hsin-Hui; Tzou, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Yen-Lin; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new thin-film deposition process, spray coating method (SPM), was investigated to deposit the high-densified CuInSe2 absorber layers. The spray coating method developed in this study was a non-vacuum process, based on dispersed nano-scale CuInSe2 precursor and could offer a simple, inexpensive, and alternative formation technology for CuInSe2 absorber layers. After spraying on Mo/glass substrates, the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed at 550 °C by changing the annealing time from 5 min to 30 min in a selenization furnace, using N2 as atmosphere. When the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed, without extra Se or H2Se gas used as the compensation source during the annealing process. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of annealing time on the densification and crystallization of the CuInSe2 absorber layers to optimize the quality for cost effective solar cell production. The thickness of the CuInSe2 absorber layers could be controlled as the volume of used dispersed CuInSe2-isopropyl alcohol solution was controlled. In this work, X-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall parameter measurements were performed in order to verify the quality of the CuInSe2 absorber layers obtained by the Spray Coating Method. PMID:28788451

  14. Fabrication of CIS Absorber Layers with Different Thicknesses Using A Non-Vacuum Spray Coating Method.

    PubMed

    Diao, Chien-Chen; Kuo, Hsin-Hui; Tzou, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Yen-Lin; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2014-01-03

    In this study, a new thin-film deposition process, spray coating method (SPM), was investigated to deposit the high-densified CuInSe₂ absorber layers. The spray coating method developed in this study was a non-vacuum process, based on dispersed nano-scale CuInSe₂ precursor and could offer a simple, inexpensive, and alternative formation technology for CuInSe₂ absorber layers. After spraying on Mo/glass substrates, the CuInSe₂ thin films were annealed at 550 °C by changing the annealing time from 5 min to 30 min in a selenization furnace, using N₂ as atmosphere. When the CuInSe₂ thin films were annealed, without extra Se or H₂Se gas used as the compensation source during the annealing process. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of annealing time on the densification and crystallization of the CuInSe₂ absorber layers to optimize the quality for cost effective solar cell production. The thickness of the CuInSe₂ absorber layers could be controlled as the volume of used dispersed CuInSe₂-isopropyl alcohol solution was controlled. In this work, X-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall parameter measurements were performed in order to verify the quality of the CuInSe₂ absorber layers obtained by the Spray Coating Method.

  15. Study of gelatin as an effective energy absorbing layer for laser bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ruitong; Zhang, Zhengyi; Chai, Wenxuan; Chrisey, Douglas B; Huang, Yong

    2017-06-09

    Laser-induced forward transfer printing, also commonly known as laser printing, has been widely implemented for three-dimensional bioprinting due to its unique orifice-free nature during printing. However, the printing quality has the potential to be further improved for various laser bioprinting applications. The objectives of this study are to investigate the feasibility of using gelatin as an energy absorbing layer (EAL) material for laser bioprinting and its effects on the quality of printed constructs, bioink printability, and post-printing cell viability and process-induced DNA damage. The gelatin EAL is applied between the quartz support and the coating of build material, which is to be printed. Printing quality can be improved by EAL-assisted laser printing when using various alginate solutions (1%, 2%, and 4%) and cell-laden bioinks (2% alginate and 5 × 10 6 cells ml -1 in cell culture medium). The required laser fluence is also reduced due to a higher absorption coefficient of gelatin gel, in particular when to achieve the best printing type/quality. The post-printing cell viability is improved by ∼10% and DNA double-strand breaks are reduced by ∼50%. For all the build materials investigated, the gelatin EAL helps reduce the droplet size and average jet velocity.

  16. The Multi-Layer Variable Absorbers in NGC 1365 Revealed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, E.; Risaliti, G.; Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F.; Arevalo, P.; Baur, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Brightman, M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2012 July and 2013 February, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton performed four long-look joint observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert, NGC 1365. We have analyzed the variable absorption seen in these observations in order to characterize the geometry of the absorbing material. Two of the observations caught NGC 1365 in an unusually low absorption state, revealing complexity in the multi-layer absorber that had previously been hidden. We find the need for three distinct zones of neutral absorption in addition to the two zones of ionized absorption and the Compton-thick torus previously seen in this source. The most prominent absorber is likely associated with broad-line region clouds with column densities of around approximately 10 (sup 23) per square centimeter and a highly clumpy nature as evidenced by an occultation event in 2013 February. We also find evidence of a patchy absorber with a variable column around approximately 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter and a line-of-sight covering fraction of 0.3-0.9, which responds directly to the intrinsic source flux, possibly due to a wind geometry. A full-covering, constant absorber with a low column density of approximately 1 by 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter is also present, though the location of this low density haze is unknown.

  17. Competitive light absorbers in photoactive dental resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Shortall, Adrian C; Palin, William M

    2012-08-01

    The absorbance profile of photoinitiators prior to, during and following polymerization of light curable resin-based materials will have a significant effect on the cure and color properties of the final material. So-called "colorless" photoinitiators are used in some light-activated resin-based composite restorative materials to lessen the yellowing effect of camphoroquinone (CQ) in order to improve the esthetic quality of dental restorations. This work characterizes absorption properties of commonly used photoinitiators, an acylphosphine oxide (TPO) and CQ, and assesses their influence on material discoloration. Dimethacrylate resin formulations contained low (0.0134 mol/dm(3)), intermediate (0.0405 mol/dm(3)) or high (0.0678 mol/dm(3)) concentrations of the photoinitiators and the inhibitor, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 0, 0.1 or 0.2% by mass. Disc shaped specimens (n = 3) of each resin were polymerized for 60s using a halogen light curing unit. Dynamic measurements of photoinitiator absorption, polymer conversion and reaction temperature were performed. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color change before and after cure. GLM three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p<0.001), where photoinitiator concentration (df = 2; F = 618.83)>photoinitiator type (df = 1; F = 176.12)>% BHT (df = 2, F = 13.17). BHT concentration affected the rate of polymerization and produced lower conversion in some of the CQ-based resins. Significant differences between photoinitiator type and concentrations were seen in color (where TPO resins became yellower and camphoroquinone resins became less yellow upon irradiation). Reaction temperature, kinetics and conversion also differed significantly for both initiators (p<0.001). Despite TPO-based resins producing a visually perceptible color change upon polymerization, the color change was significantly less than that produced with CQ-based resins. Although some photoinitiators such as TPO may be a

  18. The Effects of an Absorbing Smoke Layer on MODIS Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Optical Property Retrievals and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Clouds, aerosols, and their interactions are widely considered to be key uncertainty components in our current understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and radiation budget. The work presented here is focused on the quasi-permanent marine boundary layer . (MBL) clouds off the southern Atlantic coast of Africa and the effects on MODIS cloud optical property retrievals (MOD06) of an overlying absorbing smoke layer. During much of August and September, a persistent smoke layer resides over this region, produced from extensive biomass burning throughout the southern African savanna. The resulting absorption, which increases with decreasing wavelength, potentially introduces biases into the MODIS cloud optical property retrievals of the underlying MBL clouds. This effect is more pronounced in the cloud optical thickness retrievals, which over ocean are derived from the wavelength channel centered near 0.86 micron (effective particle size retrievals are derived from the longer-wavelength near-IR channels at 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 microns). Here, the spatial distributions of the scalar statistics of both the cloud and aerosol layers are first determined from the CALIOP 5 km layer products. Next, the MOD06 look-up tables (LUTs) are adjusted by inserting an absorbing smoke layer of varying optical thickness over the cloud. Retrievals are subsequently performed for a subset of MODIS pixels collocated with the CALIOP ground track, using smoke optical thickness from the CALIOP 5km aerosol layer product to select the appropriate LUT. The resulting differences in cloud optical property retrievals due to the inclusion of the smoke layer in the LUTs will be examined. In addition, the direct radiative forcing of this smoke layer will be investigated from the perspective of the cloud optical property retrieval differences.

  19. Calcined Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide as an absorber for the removal of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Chao; State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070; Dai, Jing

    2015-05-15

    In this work, methyl orange (MO) was effectively removed from aqueous solution with the calcined product of hydrothermal synthesized Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH). The structure, composition, morphology and textural properties of the Mg/Fe-LDH before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption apparatus and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was confirmed that MO had been absorbed by calcined Mg/Fe-LDH which had strong interactions with MO. The adsorption of MO onto the Mg/Fe-LDH was systematically investigated by batch tests. The adsorption capacity of the Mg/Fe-LDH toward MO was found to be 194.9more » mg • g{sup −1}. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption of MO onto Mg/Fe-LDH was a spontaneous and endothermic process. These results indicate that Mg/Fe-LDH is a promising material for the removal of MO.« less

  20. An effective absorbing layer for the boundary condition in acoustic seismic wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Gang; da Silva, Nuno V.; Wu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Efficient numerical simulation of seismic wavefields generally involves truncating the Earth model in order to keep computing time and memory requirements down. Absorbing boundary conditions, therefore, are applied to remove the boundary reflections caused by this truncation, thereby allowing for accurate modeling of wavefields. In this paper, we derive an effective absorbing boundary condition for both acoustic and elastic wave simulation, through the simplification of the damping term of the split perfectly matched layer (SPML) boundary condition. This new boundary condition is accurate, cost-effective, and easily implemented, especially for high-performance computing. Stability analysis shows that this boundary condition is effectively as stable as normal (non-absorbing) wave equations for explicit time-stepping finite differences. We found that for full-waveform inversion (FWI), the strengths of the effective absorbing layer—a reduction of the computational and memory cost coupled with a simplistic implementation—significantly outweighs the limitation of incomplete absorption of outgoing waves relative to the SPML. More importantly, we demonstrate that this limitation can easily be overcome through the use of two strategies in FWI, namely variable cell size and model extension thereby fully compensating for the imperfectness of the proposed absorbing boundary condition.

  1. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2004-11-02

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  2. A Two-Step Absorber Deposition Approach To Overcome Shunt Losses in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Using Tin Sulfide as a Proof-of-Concept Material System

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmann, Vera; Chakraborty, Rupak; Rekemeyer, Paul H.

    2016-08-31

    As novel absorber materials are developed and screened for their photovoltaic (PV) properties, the challenge remains to reproducibly test promising candidates for high-performing PV devices. Many early-stage devices are prone to device shunting due to pinholes in the absorber layer, producing 'false-negative' results. Here, we demonstrate a device engineering solution toward a robust device architecture, using a two-step absorber deposition approach. We use tin sulfide (SnS) as a test absorber material. The SnS bulk is processed at high temperature (400 degrees C) to stimulate grain growth, followed by a much thinner, low-temperature (200 degrees C) absorber deposition. At a lowermore » process temperature, the thin absorber overlayer contains significantly smaller, densely packed grains, which are likely to provide a continuous coating and fill pinholes in the underlying absorber bulk. We compare this two-step approach to the more standard approach of using a semi-insulating buffer layer directly on top of the annealed absorber bulk, and we demonstrate a more than 3.5x superior shunt resistance Rsh with smaller standard error ..sigma..Rsh. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate a lower density of pinholes in the SnS absorber bulk when using the two-step absorber deposition approach. We correlate those findings to improvements in the device performance and device performance reproducibility.« less

  3. Characterization and device performance of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanket, Gregory; Boyle, Jonathan H.; Shafarman, William N.

    The study of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers is of interest in that Ag-chalcopyrites exhibit both wider bandgaps and lower melting points than their Cu counterparts. (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers were deposited over the composition range 0 < Ag/(Ag+Cu) < 1 and 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) < 1.0 using a variety of elemental co-evaporation processes. Films were found to be singlephase over the entire composition range, in contrast to prior studies. Devices with Ga content 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) <0.5 tolerated Ag incorporation up to Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.5 without appreciable performance loss. Ag-containing films with Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 showed improved device characteristics over Cu-only controlmore » samples, in particular a 30-40% increase in short-circuit current. An absorber layer with composition Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.75 and Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 yielded a device with VOC = 890 mV, JSC = 20.5mA/cm2, fill factor = 71.3%, and η = 13.0%.« less

  4. Modified Back Contact Interface of CZTSe Thin Film Solar Cells: Elimination of Double Layer Distribution in Absorber Layer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojing; Yao, Liyong; Bi, Jinlian; Gao, Shoushuai; Gao, Qing; Jeng, Ming‐Jer; Sun, Guozhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; He, Qing; Sun, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Double layer distribution exists in Cu2SnZnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films prepared by selenizing the metallic precursors, which will degrade the back contact of Mo substrate to absorber layer and thus suppressing the performance of solar cell. In this work, the double‐layer distribution of CZTSe film is eliminated entirely and the formation of MoSe2 interfacial layer is inhibited successfully. CZTSe film is prepared by selenizing the precursor deposited by electrodeposition method under Se and SnSex mixed atmosphere. It is found that the insufficient reaction between ZnSe and Cu‐Sn‐Se phases in the bottom of the film is the reason why the double layer distribution of CZTSe film is formed. By increasing Sn content in the metallic precursor, thus making up the loss of Sn because of the decomposition of CZTSe and facilitate the diffusion of liquid Cu2Se, the double layer distribution is eliminated entirely. The crystallization of the formed thin film is dense and the grains go through the entire film without voids. And there is no obvious MoSe2 layer formed between CZTSe and Mo. As a consequence, the series resistance of the solar cell reduces significantly to 0.14 Ω cm2 and a CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 7.2% is fabricated. PMID:29610727

  5. Modified Back Contact Interface of CZTSe Thin Film Solar Cells: Elimination of Double Layer Distribution in Absorber Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaojing; Yao, Liyong; Zhang, Yi; Ao, Jianping; Bi, Jinlian; Gao, Shoushuai; Gao, Qing; Jeng, Ming-Jer; Sun, Guozhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; He, Qing; Sun, Yun

    2018-02-01

    Double layer distribution exists in Cu 2 SnZnSe 4 (CZTSe) thin films prepared by selenizing the metallic precursors, which will degrade the back contact of Mo substrate to absorber layer and thus suppressing the performance of solar cell. In this work, the double-layer distribution of CZTSe film is eliminated entirely and the formation of MoSe 2 interfacial layer is inhibited successfully. CZTSe film is prepared by selenizing the precursor deposited by electrodeposition method under Se and SnSe x mixed atmosphere. It is found that the insufficient reaction between ZnSe and Cu-Sn-Se phases in the bottom of the film is the reason why the double layer distribution of CZTSe film is formed. By increasing Sn content in the metallic precursor, thus making up the loss of Sn because of the decomposition of CZTSe and facilitate the diffusion of liquid Cu 2 Se, the double layer distribution is eliminated entirely. The crystallization of the formed thin film is dense and the grains go through the entire film without voids. And there is no obvious MoSe 2 layer formed between CZTSe and Mo. As a consequence, the series resistance of the solar cell reduces significantly to 0.14 Ω cm 2 and a CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 7.2% is fabricated.

  6. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel-cobalt magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, Ku, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under -20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth).

  7. Study of sound-absorbing properties of glass-fiber reinforced materials used in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, V. E.; Habibova, R. R.; Shafigullin, L. N.

    2017-09-01

    Modern engineering makes high demands to the noise level in the passenger compartment or cabin of KAMAZ. An effective means of dealing with noise is to use sound absorbing materials produced by the automotive industry. To increase sound-absorbing capacity of materials and structures using glass fibre reinforced polyurethane foams (PUF) obtained by the technology Fiber Composite Spraying.

  8. Highly Absorbing Metal Nanolaminates for Bi-Material THz Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HIGHLY ABSORBING...Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is...Government. IRB Protocol number: N/A. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b

  9. A broadband metamaterial absorber based on multi-layer graphene in the terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Pan; Liu, Fei; Ren, Guang Jun; Su, Fei; Li, Dong; Yao, Jian Quan

    2018-06-01

    A broadband metamaterial absorber, composed of the periodic graphene pattern on SiO2 dielectric with the double layer graphene films inserted in it and all of them backed by metal plan, is proposed and investigated. The simulation results reveal that the wide absorption band can be flexibly tuned between the low-frequency band and the high-frequency band by adjusting graphene's Fermi level. The absorption can achieve 90% in 5.50-7.10 THz, with Fermi level of graphene is 0.3 eV, while in 6.98-9.10 THz with Fermi level 0.6 eV. Furthermore, the proposed structure can be switched from reflection (>81%) to absorption (>90%) over the whole operation band, when the Fermi level of graphene varies from 0 to 0.6 eV. Besides, the proposed absorber is insensitive to the polarization and can work over a wide range of incident angle. Compared with the previous broadband absorber, our graphene based wideband terahertz absorber can enable a wide application of high performance terahertz devices, including sensors, imaging devices and electro-optic switches.

  10. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  11. Tunable broadband near-infrared absorber based on ultrathin phase-change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Er-Tao; Gu, Tong; Guo, Shuai; Zang, Kai-Yan; Tu, Hua-Tian; Yu, Ke-Han; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lee, Young-Pak; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a tunable broadband near-infrared light absorber was designed and fabricated with a simple and lithography free approach by introducing an ultrathin phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) layer into the metal-dielectric multilayered film structure with the structure parameters as that: SiO2 (72.7 nm)/Ge2Sb2Te5 (6.0 nm)/SiO2 (70.2 nm)/Cu (>100.0 nm). The film structure exhibits a modulation depth of ∼72.6% and an extinction ratio of ∼8.8 dB at the wavelength of 1410 nm. The high light absorption (95%) of the proposed film structure at the wavelength of 450 nm in both of the amorphous and crystalline phase of GST, indicates that the intensity of the reflectance in the infrared region can be rapidly tuned by the blue laser pulses. The proposed planar layered film structure with layer thickness as the only controllable parameter and large reflectivity tuning range shows the potential for practical applications in near-infrared light modulation and absorption.

  12. A Novel, Real-Valued Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Radar Absorbing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, John Michael

    2004-01-01

    A novel, real-valued Genetic Algorithm (GA) was designed and implemented to minimize the reflectivity and/or transmissivity of an arbitrary number of homogeneous, lossy dielectric or magnetic layers of arbitrary thickness positioned at either the center of an infinitely long rectangular waveguide, or adjacent to the perfectly conducting backplate of a semi-infinite, shorted-out rectangular waveguide. Evolutionary processes extract the optimal physioelectric constants falling within specified constraints which minimize reflection and/or transmission over the frequency band of interest. This GA extracted the unphysical dielectric and magnetic constants of three layers of fictitious material placed adjacent to the conducting backplate of a shorted-out waveguide such that the reflectivity of the configuration was 55 dB or less over the entire X-band. Examples of the optimization of realistic multi-layer absorbers are also presented. Although typical Genetic Algorithms require populations of many thousands in order to function properly and obtain correct results, verified correct results were obtained for all test cases using this GA with a population of only four.

  13. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  14. Stability of an arch type shock absorber made of a rubber-like material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabrits, Sergey A.; Kolpak, Eugeny P.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers the stability problem of an arch shock absorber made of a rubber-like material. As a model, the nonlinear theory of thin shells from elastomers K.F. Chernykh is used. The case of symmetrical and asymmetrical deformation of an arch shock absorber under symmetrical compression is investigated. The possibility of asymmetric bifurcation is evaluated depending on the boundary conditions.

  15. Optimization on microwave absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes and magnetic oxide composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingdong, Chen; Huangzhong, Yu; Xiaohua, Jie; Yigang, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the physical principle of interaction between electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic medium, the relationship between microwave absorbing coefficient (MAC) and the electromagnetic parameters of materials was established. With the composite materials of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and paraffin as an example, optimization on absorbing properties of CNTs/magnetic oxide composite materials was studied at the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and a conclusion is drawn that the MAC is the biggest at the same frequency, when the CNTs is 10 wt% in the composite materials. Through study on the relationship between complex permeability and MAC, another interesting conclusion is drawn that MAC is obviously affected by the real part of complex permeability, and increasing real part of complex permeability is beneficial for improving absorbing properties. The conclusion of this paper can provide a useful reference for the optimization research on the microwave absorbing properties of CNTs/ferrite composite materials.

  16. Organic solar cells with graded absorber layers processed from nanoparticle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefan; Reich, Stefan; Bruns, Michael; Czolk, Jens; Colsmann, Alexander

    2016-03-28

    The fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures from solution is often limited by the choice of solvents since most organic semiconductors dissolve in the same aromatic agents. In this work, we investigate multi-pass deposition of organic semiconductors from eco-friendly ethanol dispersion. Once applied, the nanoparticles are insoluble in the deposition agent, allowing for the application of further nanoparticulate layers and hence for building poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bisadduct absorber layers with vertically graded polymer and conversely graded fullerene concentration. Upon thermal annealing, we observe some degrees of polymer/fullerene interdiffusion by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Replacing the common bulk-heterojunction by such a graded photo-active layer yields an enhanced fill factor of the solar cell due to an improved charge carrier extraction, and consequently an overall power conversion efficiency beyond 4%. Wet processing of such advanced device architectures paves the way for a versatile, eco-friendly and industrially feasible future fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures.

  17. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  18. An Absorbing Boundary Condition for the Lattice Boltzmann Method Based on the Perfectly Matched Layer

    PubMed Central

    Najafi-Yazdi, A.; Mongeau, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a well established computational tool for fluid flow simulations. This method has been recently utilized for low Mach number computational aeroacoustics. Robust and nonreflective boundary conditions, similar to those used in Navier-Stokes solvers, are needed for LBM-based aeroacoustics simulations. The goal of the present study was to develop an absorbing boundary condition based on the perfectly matched layer (PML) concept for LBM. The derivation of formulations for both two and three dimensional problems are presented. The macroscopic behavior of the new formulation is discussed. The new formulation was tested using benchmark acoustic problems. The perfectly matched layer concept appears to be very well suited for LBM, and yielded very low acoustic reflection factor. PMID:23526050

  19. Femtosecond solid-state laser based on a few-layered black phosphorus saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiancui; Wang, Yiran; Zhang, Baitao; Zhao, Ruwei; Yang, Kejian; He, Jingliang; Hu, Qiangqiang; Jia, Zhitai; Tao, Xutang

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, a high-quality, few-layered black phosphorus (BP) saturable absorber (SA) was fabricated successfully, and a femtosecond solid-state laser modulated by BP-SA was experimentally demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Pulses as short as 272 fs were achieved with an average output power of 0.82 W, corresponding to the pulse energy of 6.48 nJ and peak power of 23.8 MW. So far, these represent the shortest pulse duration and highest output power ever obtained with a BP-based mode-locked solid-state laser. The results indicate the promising potential of few-layered BP-SA for applications in solid-state femtosecond mode-locked lasers.

  20. Investigation of a broadband coherent perfect absorber in a multi-layer structure by using the transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Noh, Heeso

    2018-01-01

    We investigated a multi-layer structure for a broadband coherent perfect absorber (CPA). The transfer matrix method (TMM) is useful for analyzing the optical properties of structures and optimizing multi-layer structures. The broadband CPA strongly depends on the phase of the light traveling in one direction and the light reflected within the structure. The TMM simulation shows that the absorption bandwidth is increased by 95% in a multi-layer CPA compared to that in a single-layer CPA.

  1. Wide band design on the scaled absorbing material filled with flaky CIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Gao, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Zichang; Liao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The scaled target measurement is an important method to get the target characteristic. Radar absorbing materials are widely used in the low detectable target, considering the absorbing material frequency dispersion characteristics, it makes designing and manufacturing scaled radar absorbing materials on the scaled target very difficult. This paper proposed a wide band design method on the scaled absorbing material of the thin absorption coating with added carbonyl iron particles. According to the theoretical radar cross section (RCS) of the plate, the reflection loss determined by the permittivity and permeability was chosen as the main design factor. Then, the parameters of the scaled absorbing materials were designed using the effective medium theory, and the scaled absorbing material was constructed. Finally, the full-size coating plate and scaled coating plates (under three different scale factors) were simulated; the RCSs of the coating plates were numerically calculated and measured at 4 GHz and a scale factor of 2. The results showed that the compensated RCS of the scaled coating plate was close to that of the full-size coating plate, that is, the mean deviation was less than 0.5 dB, and the design method for the scaled material was very effective.

  2. Focusing and steering through absorbing and aberrating layers: application to ultrasonic propagation through the skull.

    PubMed

    Tanter, M; Thomas, J L; Fink, M

    1998-05-01

    The time-reversal process is applied to focus pulsed ultrasonic waves through the human skull bone. The aim here is to treat brain tumors, which are difficult to reach with classical surgery means. Such a surgical application requires precise control of the size and location of the therapeutic focal beam. The severe ultrasonic attenuation in the skull reduces the efficiency of the time reversal process. Nevertheless, an improvement of the time reversal process in absorbing media has been investigated and applied to the focusing through the skull [J.-L. Thomas and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43, 1122-1129 (1996)]. Here an extension of this technique is presented in order to focus on a set of points surrounding an initial artificial source implanted in the tissue volume to treat. From the knowledge of the Green's function matched to this initial source location a new Green's function matched to various points of interest is deduced in order to treat the whole volume. In a homogeneous medium, conventional steering consists of tilting the wave front focused on the acoustical source. In a heterogeneous medium, this process is only valid for small angles or when aberrations are located in a layer close to the array. It is shown here how to extend this method to aberrating and absorbing layers, like the skull bone, located at any distance from the array of transducers.

  3. Negative Refraction in a Uniaxial Absorbent Dielectric Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chin-Te

    2009-01-01

    Refraction of light from an isotropic dielectric medium to an anisotropic dielectric material is a complicated phenomenon that can have several different characteristics not usually discussed in electromagnetics textbooks for undergraduate students. With a simple problem wherein the refracting material is uniaxial with its optic axis normal to the…

  4. Investigation of the crater-like microdefects induced by laser shock processing with aluminum foil as absorbent layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y. X.; Xuan, T.; Lian, Z. C.; Feng, Y. Y.; Hua, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports that 3D crater-like microdefects form on the metal surface when laser shock processing (LSP) is applied. LSP was conducted on pure copper block using the aluminum foil as the absorbent material and water as the confining layer. There existed the bonding material to attach the aluminum foil on the metal target closely. The surface morphologies and metallographs of copper surfaces were characterized with 3D profiler, the optical microscopy (OM) or the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature increases of metal surface due to LSP were evaluated theoretically. It was found that, when aluminum foil was used as the absorbent material, and if there existed air bubbles in the bonding material, the air temperatures within the bubbles rose rapidly because of the adiabatic compression. So at the locations of the air bubbles, the metal materials melted and micromelting pool formed. Then under the subsequent expanding of the air bubbles, a secondary shock wave was launched against the micromelting pool and produced the crater-like microdefects on the metal surface. The temperature increases due to shock heat and high-speed deformation were not enough to melt the metal target. The temperature increase induced by the adiabatic compression of the air bubbles may also cause the gasification of the metal target. This will also help form the crater-like microdefects. The results of this paper can help to improve the surface quality of a metal target during the application of LSP. In addition, the results provide another method to fabricate 3D crater-like dents on metal surface. This has a potential application in mechanical engineering.

  5. Sound absorption of textile material using a microfibres resistive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura Alcaraz, M. P.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Segura Alcaraz, J. G.; Montava Seguí, I.

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic comfort is a basic human need. One of the adverse effects of noise is its interference with speech discrimination. Textile materials are suitable to be used as sound absorptive materials and thus help to improve acoustic comfort in rooms. Micro-fibre fabrics can be considered as better sound absorbers than regular fibre fabrics mainly due to the higher surface of its fibres and bigger contact area with the air thus, allowing greater dissipation of sound energy. In this work, the use of a microfibre woven fabric as an upstream layer is analysed considering acoustic issues. Authors demonstrate it improves the sound absorption of a polyester nonwoven, resulting in a material suitable for absorption at the sound frequencies of the human voice.

  6. Photochemical aging of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol material.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Neha; Moussa, Samar G; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-04-11

    Dark reactions of methylglyoxal with NH4(+) in aqueous aerosols yield light-absorbing and surface-active products that can influence the physical properties of the particles. Little is known about how the product mixture and its optical properties will change due to photolysis as well as oxidative aging by O3 and OH in the atmosphere. Here, we report the results of kinetics and product studies of the photochemical aging of aerosols formed by atomizing aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal and ammonium sulfate. Experiments were performed using aerosol flow tube reactors coupled with an aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometer (Aerosol-CIMS) for monitoring gas- and particle-phase compositions. Particles were also impacted onto quartz windows in order to assess changes in their UV-visible absorption upon oxidation. Photooxidation of the aerosols leads to the formation of small, volatile organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, and glyoxylic acid. The atmospheric lifetime of these species during the daytime is predicted to be on the order of minutes, with photolysis being an important mechanism of degradation. The lifetime with respect to O3 oxidation was observed to be on the order of hours. O3 oxidation also leads to a net increase in light absorption by the particles due to the formation of additional carbonyl compounds. Our results are consistent with field observations of high brown carbon absorption in the early morning.

  7. 3D-Printing ‘Smarter’ Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-08-29

    Foams are, by nature, disordered materials studded with air pockets of varying sizes. Lack of control over the material’s architecture at the micrometer or nanometer scale can make it difficult to adjust the foam’s basic properties. But Eric Duoss and a team of Livermore researchers are using additive manufacturing to develop “smarter” silicone cushions. By architecting the structure at the micro scale, they are able to control macro-scale properties previously unachievable with foam materials.

  8. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Layer coefficients for NHDOT pavement materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoo, Vincent C.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) experimented with the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete as a base course material, identified by NHDOT as reclaimed stabilized base (RSB). The RSB and a control test section were placed on Interstate 93 between exits 18 and 19. The RSB test section was designed to the same structural number (SN) as the control. To evaluate the structural capacity of these test sections, the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted deflection tests using a Dynatest 8000 falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Preliminary analysis of the results by NHDOT personnel showed higher deflection in the reclaimed asphalt concrete test sections. The explanation was that the layer coefficient used for the RSB layer in the design was probably incorrect. A total of 10 test sections constituting the base course materials used by NHDOT were built near Bow, New Hampshire. CRREL evaluated and estimated the layer coefficients of the base course materials. The test program was developed to characterize the material in more than one way. Tests were conducted with the heavy weight deflectometer (HWD), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the Clegg hammer. In situ California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were also conducted. The deflection from the HWD were used with the WESDEF back calculation program to determine the layer moduli. The moduli were than used with the AASHTO Design Guide to calculate the layer coefficients. The layer coefficients were also determined with the method proposed by Rohde. The CBR values from the Clegg hammer, in situ CBR and DCP tests were also used in the relationships in the HDM model to determine the layer coefficients.

  10. Method of Synthesizing a Novel Absorbent Titanosilicate Material (UPRM-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo (Inventor); Primera-Pedrozo, Jose N (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A titanium silicate variant named UPRM-5 was prepared using tetraethylammonium hydroxide as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Successful detemplation was achieved via ion exchange with NH4Cl. Effective functionalization was obtained after ion exchanging the detemplated material using SrCl2 and BaCl2. Adsorption of CO2 at 25 deg C in Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials activated at different temperatures. For low partial pressures, the observed CO2 adsorption capacities increased as follows: NH4-UPRM-5 less than Sr-UPRM-5 less than Ba-UPRM-5. Both the Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials exhibited outstanding selectivity for CO2 over CH4, N2 and O2.

  11. Trade-Offs in Thin Film Solar Cells with Layered Chalcostibite Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Peng, Haowei

    Discovery of novel semiconducting materials is needed for solar energy conversion and other optoelectronic applications. However, emerging low-dimensional solar absorbers often have unconventional crystal structures and unusual combinations of optical absorption and electrical transport properties, which considerably slows down the research and development progress. Here, the effect of stronger absorption and weaker carrier collection of 2D-like absorber materials are studied using a high-throughput combinatorial experimental approach, complemented by advanced characterization and computations. It is found that the photoexcited charge carrier collection in CuSbSe 2 solar cells is enhanced by drift in an electric field, addressing a different absorption/collection balance. Themore » resulting drift solar cells efficiency is <5% due to inherent J SC/ V OC trade-off, suggesting that improved carrier diffusion and better contacts are needed to further increase the CuSbSe 2 performance. Furthermore, this study also illustrates the advantages of high-throughput experimental methods for fast optimization of the optoelectronic devices based on emerging low-dimensional semiconductor materials.« less

  12. Trade-Offs in Thin Film Solar Cells with Layered Chalcostibite Photovoltaic Absorbers

    DOE PAGES

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Peng, Haowei; ...

    2017-01-25

    Discovery of novel semiconducting materials is needed for solar energy conversion and other optoelectronic applications. However, emerging low-dimensional solar absorbers often have unconventional crystal structures and unusual combinations of optical absorption and electrical transport properties, which considerably slows down the research and development progress. Here, the effect of stronger absorption and weaker carrier collection of 2D-like absorber materials are studied using a high-throughput combinatorial experimental approach, complemented by advanced characterization and computations. It is found that the photoexcited charge carrier collection in CuSbSe 2 solar cells is enhanced by drift in an electric field, addressing a different absorption/collection balance. Themore » resulting drift solar cells efficiency is <5% due to inherent J SC/ V OC trade-off, suggesting that improved carrier diffusion and better contacts are needed to further increase the CuSbSe 2 performance. Furthermore, this study also illustrates the advantages of high-throughput experimental methods for fast optimization of the optoelectronic devices based on emerging low-dimensional semiconductor materials.« less

  13. Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric and photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Ilya; West, D Vincent; Torres, Maria; Gou, Gaoyang; Stein, David M; Wu, Liyan; Chen, Guannan; Gallo, Eric M; Akbashev, Andrew R; Davies, Peter K; Spanier, Jonathan E; Rappe, Andrew M

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectrics have recently attracted attention as a candidate class of materials for use in photovoltaic devices, and for the coupling of light absorption with other functional properties. In these materials, the strong inversion symmetry breaking that is due to spontaneous electric polarization promotes the desirable separation of photo-excited carriers and allows voltages higher than the bandgap, which may enable efficiencies beyond the maximum possible in a conventional p-n junction solar cell. Ferroelectric oxides are also stable in a wide range of mechanical, chemical and thermal conditions and can be fabricated using low-cost methods such as sol-gel thin-film deposition and sputtering. Recent work has shown how a decrease in ferroelectric layer thickness and judicious engineering of domain structures and ferroelectric-electrode interfaces can greatly increase the current harvested from ferroelectric absorber materials, increasing the power conversion efficiency from about 10(-4) to about 0.5 per cent. Further improvements in photovoltaic efficiency have been inhibited by the wide bandgaps (2.7-4 electronvolts) of ferroelectric oxides, which allow the use of only 8-20 per cent of the solar spectrum. Here we describe a family of single-phase solid oxide solutions made from low-cost and non-toxic elements using conventional solid-state methods: [KNbO3]1 - x[BaNi1/2Nb1/2O3 - δ]x (KBNNO). These oxides exhibit both ferroelectricity and a wide variation of direct bandgaps in the range 1.1-3.8 electronvolts. In particular, the x = 0.1 composition is polar at room temperature, has a direct bandgap of 1.39 electronvolts and has a photocurrent density approximately 50 times larger than that of the classic ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 material. The ability of KBNNO to absorb three to six times more solar energy than the current ferroelectric materials suggests a route to viable ferroelectric semiconductor-based cells for solar energy conversion and

  14. Switchable wavelength-selective and diffuse metamaterial absorber/emitter with a phase transition spacer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping, E-mail: liping.wang@asu.edu

    2014-08-18

    We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 μm when the excitation of magnetic resonance is supported with the insulating VO{sub 2} spacer layer. The wavelength-selective absorption is switched off when the magnetic resonance is disabled with metallic VO{sub 2} that shorts the top and bottom metallic structures. The resonance wavelength can be tuned with different geometry, and the switchable metamaterial exhibits diffuse behaviors at oblique angles. The results would facilitate the designmore » of switchable metamaterials for active control in energy and sensing applications.« less

  15. Impacts of solar-absorbing aerosol layers on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann M.; ...

    2017-10-26

    Here, the effects of an initially overlying layer of solar-absorbing aerosol on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds are examined using large-eddy simulations. For lightly drizzling cloud the transition is generally hastened, resulting mainly from increased cloud droplet number concentration ( N c) induced by entrained aerosol. The increased N c slows sedimentation of cloud droplets and shortens their relaxation time for diffusional growth, both of which accelerate entrainment of overlying air and thereby stratocumulus breakup. However, the decrease in albedo from cloud breakup is more than offset by redistributing cloud water over a greater number of droplets,more » such that the diurnal-average shortwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere is negative. The negative radiative forcing is enhanced by sizable longwave contributions, which result from the greater cloud breakup and a reduced boundary layer height associated with aerosol heating. A perturbation of moisture instead of aerosol aloft leads to a greater liquid water path and a more gradual transition. Adding absorbing aerosol to that atmosphere results in substantial reductions in liquid water path (LWP) and cloud cover that lead to positive shortwave and negative longwave forcings on average canceling each other. Only for heavily drizzling clouds is the breakup delayed, as inhibition of precipitation overcomes cloud water loss from enhanced entrainment. Considering these simulations as an imperfect proxy for biomass burning plumes influencing Namibian stratocumulus, we expect regional indirect plus semi-direct forcings to be substantially negative to negligible at the top of the atmosphere, with its magnitude sensitive to background and perturbation properties.« less

  16. Impacts of solar-absorbing aerosol layers on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann M.

    Here, the effects of an initially overlying layer of solar-absorbing aerosol on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds are examined using large-eddy simulations. For lightly drizzling cloud the transition is generally hastened, resulting mainly from increased cloud droplet number concentration ( N c) induced by entrained aerosol. The increased N c slows sedimentation of cloud droplets and shortens their relaxation time for diffusional growth, both of which accelerate entrainment of overlying air and thereby stratocumulus breakup. However, the decrease in albedo from cloud breakup is more than offset by redistributing cloud water over a greater number of droplets,more » such that the diurnal-average shortwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere is negative. The negative radiative forcing is enhanced by sizable longwave contributions, which result from the greater cloud breakup and a reduced boundary layer height associated with aerosol heating. A perturbation of moisture instead of aerosol aloft leads to a greater liquid water path and a more gradual transition. Adding absorbing aerosol to that atmosphere results in substantial reductions in liquid water path (LWP) and cloud cover that lead to positive shortwave and negative longwave forcings on average canceling each other. Only for heavily drizzling clouds is the breakup delayed, as inhibition of precipitation overcomes cloud water loss from enhanced entrainment. Considering these simulations as an imperfect proxy for biomass burning plumes influencing Namibian stratocumulus, we expect regional indirect plus semi-direct forcings to be substantially negative to negligible at the top of the atmosphere, with its magnitude sensitive to background and perturbation properties.« less

  17. Impacts of solar-absorbing aerosol layers on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Wood, Robert; Kollias, Pavlos

    2017-10-01

    The effects of an initially overlying layer of solar-absorbing aerosol on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds are examined using large-eddy simulations. For lightly drizzling cloud the transition is generally hastened, resulting mainly from increased cloud droplet number concentration (Nc) induced by entrained aerosol. The increased Nc slows sedimentation of cloud droplets and shortens their relaxation time for diffusional growth, both of which accelerate entrainment of overlying air and thereby stratocumulus breakup. However, the decrease in albedo from cloud breakup is more than offset by redistributing cloud water over a greater number of droplets, such that the diurnal-average shortwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere is negative. The negative radiative forcing is enhanced by sizable longwave contributions, which result from the greater cloud breakup and a reduced boundary layer height associated with aerosol heating. A perturbation of moisture instead of aerosol aloft leads to a greater liquid water path and a more gradual transition. Adding absorbing aerosol to that atmosphere results in substantial reductions in liquid water path (LWP) and cloud cover that lead to positive shortwave and negative longwave forcings on average canceling each other. Only for heavily drizzling clouds is the breakup delayed, as inhibition of precipitation overcomes cloud water loss from enhanced entrainment. Considering these simulations as an imperfect proxy for biomass burning plumes influencing Namibian stratocumulus, we expect regional indirect plus semi-direct forcings to be substantially negative to negligible at the top of the atmosphere, with its magnitude sensitive to background and perturbation properties.

  18. Impacts of Solar-Absorbing Aerosol Layers on the Transition of Stratocumulus to Trade Cumulus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Wood, Robert; Kollias, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    The effects of an initially overlying layer of solar-absorbing aerosol on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds are examined using large-eddy simulations. For lightly drizzling cloud the transition is generally hastened, resulting mainly from increased cloud droplet number concentration (Nc) induced by entrained aerosol. The increased Nc slows sedimentation of cloud droplets and shortens their relaxation time for diffusional growth, both of which accelerate entrainment of overlying air and thereby stratocumulus breakup. However, the decrease in albedo from cloud breakup is more than offset by redistributing cloud water over a greater number of droplets, such that the diurnal-average shortwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere is negative. The negative radiative forcing is enhanced by sizable longwave contributions, which result from the greater cloud breakup and a reduced boundary layer height associated with aerosol heating. A perturbation of moisture instead of aerosol aloft leads to a greater liquid water path and a more gradual transition. Adding absorbing aerosol to that atmosphere results in substantial reductions in liquid water path (LWP) and cloud cover that lead to positive short-wave and negative longwave forcings on average canceling each other. Only for heavily drizzling clouds is the breakup delayed, as inhibition of precipitation overcomes cloud water loss from enhanced entrainment. Considering these simulations as an imperfect proxy for biomass burning plumes influencing Namibian stratocumulus, we expect regional indirect plus semi-direct forcings to be substantially negative to negligible at the top of the atmosphere, with its magnitude sensitive to background and perturbation properties.

  19. 2D Homologous Perovskites as Light-Absorbing Materials for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Duyen H; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-06-24

    We report on the fabrication and properties of the semiconducting 2D (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)(n-1)Pb(n)I(3n+1) (n = 1, 2, 3, and 4) perovskite thin films. The band gaps of the series decrease with increasing n values, from 2.24 eV (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1) to 1.52 eV CH3NH3PbI3 (n = ∞). The compounds exhibit strong light absorption in the visible region, accompanied by strong photoluminescence at room temperature, rendering them promising light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. Moreover, we find that thin films of the semi-2D perovskites display an ultrahigh surface coverage as a result of the unusual film self-assembly that orients the [Pb(n)I(3n+1)](-) layers perpendicular to the substrates. We have successfully implemented this 2D perovskite family in solid-state solar cells, and obtained an initial power conversion efficiency of 4.02%, featuring an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 929 mV and a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 9.42 mA/cm(2) from the n = 3 compound. This result is even more encouraging considering that the device retains its performance after long exposure to a high-humidity environment. Overall, the homologous 2D halide perovskites define a promising class of stable and efficient light-absorbing materials for solid-state photovoltaics and other applications.

  20. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  1. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

    2014-06-01

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  2. Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

    2013-08-06

    A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

  3. Determining the Absorbance Spectra of Photochromic Materials From Measured Spectrophotometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1998-01-01

    If a two-state photochromic material is optically bleached, the absorbance spectrum data measured by a spectrophotometer is in general comprised of components from both the ground state and the upper state. Under general conditions, it may be difficult to extract the actual upper state spectrum from the spectrum of the bleached material. A simple algorithm is presented here for the recovery of the pure absorbance spectra of the upper state of a material such as bacteriorhodopsin, given single wavelength bleaching illumination, steady-state conditions, and accurate knowledge of phototransition rates and thermal decay rates.

  4. Adsorption properties of BSA and DsRed proteins deposited on thin SiO2 layers: optically non-absorbing versus absorbing proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarangella, A.; Soumbo, M.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Mlayah, A.; Bonafos, C.; Monje, M.-C.; Roques, C.; Makasheva, K.

    2018-03-01

    Protein adsorption on solid surfaces is of interest for many industrial and biomedical applications, where it represents the conditioning step for micro-organism adhesion and biofilm formation. To understand the driving forces of such an interaction we focus in this paper on the investigation of the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) (optically non-absorbing, model protein) and DsRed (optically absorbing, naturally fluorescent protein) on silica surfaces. Specifically, we propose synthesis of thin protein layers by means of dip coating of the dielectric surface in protein solutions with different concentrations (0.01-5.0 g l-1). We employed spectroscopic ellipsometry as the most suitable and non-destructive technique for evaluation of the protein layers’ thickness and optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient) after dehydration, using two different optical models, Cauchy for BSA and Lorentz for DsRed. We demonstrate that the thickness, the optical properties and the wettability of the thin protein layers can be finely controlled by proper tuning of the protein concentration in the solution. These results are correlated with the thin layer morphology, investigated by AFM, FTIR and PL analyses. It is shown that the proteins do not undergo denaturation after dehydration on the silica surface. The proteins arrange themselves in a lace-like network for BSA and in a rod-like structure for DsRed to form mono- and multi-layers, due to different mechanisms driving the organization stage.

  5. Deposition and characterization of spray pyrolysed p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for potential absorber layer of solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Sakthi, P.; Prabhakaran, S.; Chakravarty, Sujay; Ganesan, V.; Rajesh, A. Leo

    2018-06-01

    Thin film of ternary Cu2SnS3 (CTS), a potential absorber layer for solar cells was successfully deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the film having tetragonal Cu2SnS3 phase with the preferential orientation along (112), (200), (220) and (312) plane and it is further confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by the existence of Raman peak at 320 cm-1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to estimate the surface roughness of 28.8 nm. The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than the order of 105 cm-1 and bandgap of 1.70 eV. Hall effect measurement indicates the p type nature of the film with a hole concentration of 1.03 × 1016cm-3 and a hall mobility of 404 cm2/V. The properties of CTS thin film confirmed suitable to be a potential absorber layer material for photovoltaic applications.

  6. Absorber Materials for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis; Chervenak, James; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred; Sadleir, Jack; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; hide

    2007-01-01

    Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) can provide high spatial and energy resolution necessary for x-ray astronomy. High quantum efficiency and uniformity of response can be achieved with a suitable absorber material, in which absorber x-ray stopping power, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity are relevant parameters. Here we compare these parameters for bismuth and gold. We have fabricated electroplated gold, electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, and evaporated gold/evaporated bismuth 8x8 absorber arrays and find that a correlation exists between the residual resistance ratio (RRR) and thin film microstructure. This finding indicates that we can tailor absorber material conductivity via microstructure alteration, so as to permit absorber thermalization on timescales suitable for high energy resolution x-ray microcalorimetry. We show that by incorporating absorbers possessing large grain size, including electroplated gold and electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, into our current Mo/Au TES, devices with tunable heat capacity and energy resolution of 2.3 eV (gold) and 2.1 eV (gold/bismuth) FWHM at 6 keV have been fabricated.

  7. Analytical one-dimensional model for laser-induced ultrasound in planar optically absorbing layer.

    PubMed

    Svanström, Erika; Linder, Tomas; Löfqvist, Torbjörn

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound generated by means of laser-based photoacoustic principles are in common use today and applications can be found both in biomedical diagnostics, non-destructive testing and materials characterisation. For certain measurement applications it could be beneficial to shape the generated ultrasound regarding spectral properties and temporal profile. To address this, we studied the generation and propagation of laser-induced ultrasound in a planar, layered structure. We derived an analytical expression for the induced pressure wave, including different physical and optical properties of each layer. A Laplace transform approach was employed in analytically solving the resulting set of photoacoustic wave equations. The results correspond to simulations and were compared to experimental results. To enable the comparison between recorded voltage from the experiments and the calculated pressure we employed a system identification procedure based on physical properties of the ultrasonic transducer to convert the calculated acoustic pressure to voltages. We found reasonable agreement between experimentally obtained voltages and the voltages determined from the calculated acoustic pressure, for the samples studied. The system identification procedure was found to be unstable, however, possibly from violations of material isotropy assumptions by film adhesives and coatings in the experiment. The presented analytical model can serve as a basis when addressing the inverse problem of shaping an acoustic pulse from absorption of a laser pulse in a planar layered structure of elastic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive step-size algorithm for Fourier beam-propagation method with absorbing boundary layer of auto-determined width.

    PubMed

    Learn, R; Feigenbaum, E

    2016-06-01

    Two algorithms that enhance the utility of the absorbing boundary layer are presented, mainly in the framework of the Fourier beam-propagation method. One is an automated boundary layer width selector that chooses a near-optimal boundary size based on the initial beam shape. The second algorithm adjusts the propagation step sizes based on the beam shape at the beginning of each step in order to reduce aliasing artifacts.

  9. Adaptive step-size algorithm for Fourier beam-propagation method with absorbing boundary layer of auto-determined width

    SciTech Connect

    Learn, R.; Feigenbaum, E.

    Two algorithms that enhance the utility of the absorbing boundary layer are presented, mainly in the framework of the Fourier beam-propagation method. One is an automated boundary layer width selector that chooses a near-optimal boundary size based on the initial beam shape. Furthermore, the second algorithm adjusts the propagation step sizes based on the beam shape at the beginning of each step in order to reduce aliasing artifacts.

  10. Adaptive step-size algorithm for Fourier beam-propagation method with absorbing boundary layer of auto-determined width

    DOE PAGES

    Learn, R.; Feigenbaum, E.

    2016-05-27

    Two algorithms that enhance the utility of the absorbing boundary layer are presented, mainly in the framework of the Fourier beam-propagation method. One is an automated boundary layer width selector that chooses a near-optimal boundary size based on the initial beam shape. Furthermore, the second algorithm adjusts the propagation step sizes based on the beam shape at the beginning of each step in order to reduce aliasing artifacts.

  11. Characterization and preparation of p(U-MMA-An) interpenetrating polymer network damping and absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Qingshan; Zhuo, Yuguo; Hong, Wei; Lv, Wenfeng; Xing, Guangzhong

    2014-06-01

    P(U-MMA-ANI) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) damping and absorbing material is successfully synthesized by PANI particles served as an absorbing agent with the microemulsion polymerization and P(U-MMA) foam IPN network structure for substrate materials with foaming way. P(U-MMA-ANI) IPN is characterized by the compression mechanical performance testing, TG-DSC, and DSC. The results verify that the P(U-MMA) IPN foam damping material has a good compressive strength and compaction cycle property, and the optimum content of PMMA was 40% (mass) with which the SEM graphs do not present the phase separation on the macro level between PMMA and PU, while the phase separation was observed on the micro level. The DTG curve indicates that because of the formation of P(U-MMA) IPN, the decomposition temperature of PMMA and the carbamate in PU increases, while that of the polyol segment in PU has almost no change. P(U-MMA-ANI) IPN foam damping and absorbing material is obtained by PANI particles served as absorbing agent in the form of filler, and PMMA in the form of micro area in substrate material. When the content of PANI was up to 2.0% (mass), the dissipation factor of composites increased, and with the increasing of frequency the dissipation factor increased in a straight line.

  12. Acoustic behavior of a fibrous bulk material. [Kevlar 29 sound absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1979-01-01

    A semiempirical model is presented describing the acoustic behavior of Kevlar 29, a bulk absorbing material. The model is based on an approximate solution to the one-dimensional equations representing conservation of fluctuating mass, momentum and energy. By treating the material as a momentum sink, theoretical expressions of the material complex propagation constants and characteristic impedance were derived in terms of a single constant. Evaluating the constant at a single frequency for a particular specimen, excellent agreement between prediction and measurement was achieved for a large range of sound frequencies and material porosities and thicknesses. Results show that Kevlar 29 absorbs sound efficiently even at low frequencies. This is explained in terms of a frequency dependent material phase speed.

  13. New Layered Materials and Functional Nanoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jaeeun

    This thesis introduces functional nanomaterials including superatoms and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for new layered solids and molecular devices. Chapters 1-3 present how we incorporate superatoms into two-dimensional (2D) materials. Chapter 1 describes a new and simple approach to dope transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) using the superatom Co6Se8(PEt3)6 as the electron dopant. Doping is an effective method to modulate the electrical properties of materials, and we demonstrate an electron-rich cluster can be used as a tunable and controllable surface dopant for semiconducting TMDCs via charge transfer. As a demonstration of the concept, we make a p-n junction by patterning on specific areas of TMDC films. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 introduce new 2D materials by molecular design of superatoms. Traditional atomic van der Waals materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron-nitride, and TMDCs have received widespread attention due to the wealth of unusual physical and chemical behaviors that arise when charges, spins, and vibrations are confined to a plane. Though not as widespread as their atomic counterparts, molecule-based layered solids offer significant benefits; their structural flexibility will enable the development of materials with tunable properties. Chapter 2 describes a layered van der Waals solid self-assembled from a structure-directing building block and C60 fullerene. The resulting crystalline solid contains a corrugated monolayer of neutral fullerenes and can be mechanically exfoliated. Chapter 3 describes a new method to functionalize electroactive superatoms with groups that can direct their assembly into covalent and non-covalent multi-dimensional frameworks. We synthesized Co6Se8[PEt2(4-C6H4COOH)]6 and found that it forms two types of crystalline assemblies with Zn(NO3)2, one is a three-dimensional solid and the other consists of stacked layers of two-dimensional sheets. The dimensionality is controlled by subtle changes in reaction conditions. CNT

  14. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  15. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with thesemore » processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.« less

  16. Study of earth abundant tco and absorber materials for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Tejas

    In order to make photovoltaic power generation a sustainable venture, it is necessary to use cost-effective materials in the manufacture of solar cells. In this regard, AZO (Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide) and CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide) have been studied for their application in thin film solar cells. While AZO is a transparent conducting oxide, CZTS is a photovoltaic absorber. Both AZO and CZTS consist of earth abundant elements and are non-toxic in nature. Highly transparent and conductive AZO thin films were grown using RF sputtering. The influence of deposition parameters such as working pressure, RF power, substrate temperature and flow rate on the film characteristics was investigated. The as-grown films had a high degree of preferred orientation along the (002) direction which enhanced at lower working pressures, higher RF powers and lower substrate temperatures. Williamson-Hall analysis on the films revealed that as the working pressure was increased, the nature of stress and strain gradually changed from being compressive to tensile. The fall in optical transmission of the films was a consequence of free carrier absorption resulting from enhanced carrier density due to incorporation of Al atoms or oxygen vacancies. The optical and electrical properties of the films were described well by the Burstein-Moss effect. CZTS absorber layers were grown using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at a deposition temperature of 350 C and subsequently annealed in a sulfurization furnace. Measurements from XRD and Raman spectra confirmed the presence of pure single phase Cu2ZnSnS4. Texture analysis of as-deposited and annealed CZTS films indicated that the (112) plane which is characteristic of the kesterite phase was preferred. The grain size increased from 50 nm to 100 nm on conducting post-deposition annealing. CZTS films with stoichiometric composition yielded a band gap of 1.5 eV, which is optimal for solar energy conversion. The variation of tin in the film changed its

  17. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Radway, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber withoutmore » vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250

  18. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  19. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectricmore » properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm) infrared absorber.« less

  20. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  1. Sensitivity of multiangle photo-polarimetry to absorbing aerosol vertical layering and properties: Quantifying measurement uncertainties for ACE requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Davis, A. B.; Natraj, V.; Diner, D. J.; Tanelli, S.; Martonchik, J. V.; JPl Team

    2011-12-01

    The impact of tropospheric aerosols on climate can vary greatly based upon relatively small variations in aerosol properties, such as composition, shape and size distributions, as well as vertical layering. Multi-angle polarimetric measurements have been advocated in recent years as an additional tool to better understand and retrieve the aerosol properties needed for improved predictions of aerosol radiative forcing on climate. The central concern of this work is the assessment of the effects of absorbing aerosol properties under measurement uncertainties achievable for future generation multi-angle, polarimetric imaging instruments under ACE mission requirements. As guidelines, the on-orbit performance of MISR for multi-angle intensity measurements and the reported polarization sensitivities of a MSPI prototype were adopted. In particular, we will focus on sensitivities to absorbing aerosol layering and observation-constrained refractive indices (resulting in various single scattering albedos (SSA)) of both spherical and non-spherical absorbing aerosol types. We conducted modeling experiments to determine how the measured Stokes vector elements are affected in UV-NIR range by the vertical distribution, mixing and layering of smoke and dust aerosols, and aerosol SSA under the assumption of a black and polarizing ocean surfaces. We use a vector successive-orders-of-scattering (SOS) and VLIDORT transfer codes that show excellent agreement. Based on our sensitivity studies we will demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of wavelength selection in UV-NIR range to access absorbing aerosol properties. Polarized UV channels do not show particular advantage for absorbing aerosol property characterization due to dominating molecular signal. Polarimetric SSA sensitivity is small, however needed to be considered in the future polarimetric retrievals under ACE-defined uncertainty.

  2. Nonlinear Optics with 2D Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Autere, Anton; Jussila, Henri; Dai, Yunyun; Wang, Yadong; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei

    2018-06-01

    2D layered materials (2DLMs) are a subject of intense research for a wide variety of applications (e.g., electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics) due to their unique physical properties. Most recently, increasing research efforts on 2DLMs are projected toward the nonlinear optical properties of 2DLMs, which are not only fascinating from the fundamental science point of view but also intriguing for various potential applications. Here, the current state of the art in the field of nonlinear optics based on 2DLMs and their hybrid structures (e.g., mixed-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fiber integrated structures) is reviewed. Several potential perspectives and possible future research directions of these promising nanomaterials for nonlinear optics are also presented. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

    2013-07-23

    Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

  4. Thermoelectric material including conformal oxide layers and method of making the same using atomic layer deposition

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Jung Young; Ahn, Dongjoon; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2016-06-07

    A thermoelectric material includes a substrate particle and a plurality of conformal oxide layers formed on the substrate particle. The plurality of conformal oxide layers has a total oxide layer thickness ranging from about 2 nm to about 20 nm. The thermoelectric material excludes oxide nanoparticles. A method of making the thermoelectric material is also disclosed herein.

  5. Optical response of strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials: Application to paper degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missori, M.; Pulci, O.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Kupchak, I.; Bagniuk, J.; Łojewska, J.; Conte, A. Mosca

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new noninvasive and nondestructive approach to recover scattering and absorption coefficients from reflectance measurements of highly absorbing and optically inhomogeneous media. Our approach is based on the Yang and Miklavcic theoretical model of light propagation through turbid media, which is a generalization of the Kubelka-Munk theory, extended to accommodate optically thick samples. We show its applications to paper, a material primarily composed of a web of fibers of cellulose, whose optical properties are strongly governed by light scattering effects. Samples studied were ancient and industrial paper sheets, aged in different conditions and highly absorbing in the ultraviolet region. The recovered experimental absorptions of cellulose fibers have been compared to theoretical ab initio quantum-mechanical computational simulations carried out within time-dependent density functional theory. In this way, for each sample, we evaluate the absolute concentration of different kinds of oxidized groups formed upon aging and acting as chromophores causing paper discoloration. We found that the relative concentration of different chromophores in cellulose fibers depends on the aging temperature endured by samples. This clearly indicates that the oxidation of cellulose follows temperature-dependent reaction pathways. Our approach has a wide range of applications for cellulose-based materials, like paper, textiles, and other manufactured products of great industrial and cultural interest, and can potentially be extended to other strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials.

  6. An antibacterial and absorbable silk-based fixation material with impressive mechanical properties and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Pu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Guan; Feng, Xinglong; Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Qingshui; Xia, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Implant-associated infections and non-absorbing materials are two important reasons for a second surgical procedure to remove internal fixation devices after an orthopedic internal fixation surgery. The objective of this study was to produce an antibacterial and absorbable fixation screw by adding gentamicin to silk-based materials. The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro by plate cultivation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also investigated the properties, such as the mechanical features, swelling properties, biocompatibility and degradation, of gentamicin-loaded silk-based screws (GSS) in vitro. The GSS showed significant bactericidal effects against S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity remained high even after 4 weeks of immersion in protease solution. In addition, the GSS maintained the remarkable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility of pure silk-based screws (PSS). Interestingly, after gentamicin incorporation, the degradation rate and water-absorbing capacity increased and decreased, respectively. These GSS provide both impressive material properties and antibacterial activity and have great potential for use in orthopedic implants to reduce the incidence of second surgeries.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide materials

    DOE PAGES

    Dasgupta, Neil P.; Meng, Xiangbo; Elam, Jeffrey W.; ...

    2015-01-12

    The field of nanoscience is delivering increasingly intricate yet elegant geometric structures incorporating an ever-expanding palette of materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful driver of this field, providing exceptionally conformal coatings spanning the periodic table and atomic-scale precision independent of substrate geometry. This versatility is intrinsic to ALD and results from sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. This characteristic facilitates digital synthesis, in which the film grows linearly with the number of reaction cycles. While the majority of ALD processes identified to date produce metal oxides, novel applications in areas such as energy storage, catalysis, and nanophotonics are motivatingmore » interest in sulfide materials. Recent progress in ALD of sulfides has expanded the diversity of accessible materials as well as a more complete understanding of the unique chalcogenide surface chemistry. ALD of sulfide materials typically uses metalorganic precursors and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S). As in oxide ALD, the precursor chemistry is critical to controlling both the film growth and properties including roughness, crystallinity, and impurity levels. By modification of the precursor sequence, multicomponent sulfides have been deposited, although challenges remain because of the higher propensity for cation exchange reactions, greater diffusion rates, and unintentional annealing of this more labile class of materials. A deeper understanding of these surface chemical reactions has been achieved through a combination of in situ studies and quantum-chemical calculations. As this understanding matures, so does our ability to deterministically tailor film properties to new applications and more sophisticated devices. This Account highlights the attributes of ALD chemistry that are unique to metal sulfides and surveys recent applications of these materials in photovoltaics, energy storage, and photonics. Within each application

  8. Intercalation of IR absorber into layered double hydroxides: Preparation, thermal stability and selective IR absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Haifeng; Tang, Pinggui; Feng, Yongjun, E-mail: yjfeng@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMIDA anions were intercalated into Mg{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH by anion-exchange method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared material has highly selective IR absorption property in 9-11 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained material has practical applications as heat-retaining additive. -- Abstract: N-phosphonomethyl aminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) was intercalated into the interlayer spacing of layered double hydroxides (LDH) by an anion-exchange method. The intercalated LDHs were characterized by various techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and simultaneous thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry (TG-MS) in details. The results show the formation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH based on the expansion of d-spacingmore » from 0.89 nm to 1.22 nm and the disappearance of the characteristic IR absorption band at 1384 cm{sup -1} for NO{sub 3}{sup -} anions. The incorporation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH into the low density polyethylene (LDPE) as an additive enhances the selectivity of IR absorption in the main wavelength region 9-11 {mu}m for radiant heat loss at night. Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH as a heat-retaining additive has practical application in agricultural plastic films.« less

  9. Super water-absorbing new material from chitosan, EDTA and urea.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Abathodharanan; Dhamodharan, Raghavachari

    2015-12-10

    A new, super water-absorbing, material is synthesized by the reaction between chitosan, EDTA and urea and named as CHEDUR. CHEDUR is probably formed through the crosslinking of chitosan molecules (CH) with the EDTA-urea (EDUR) adduct that is formed during the reaction. CHEDUR as well as the other products formed in control reactions are characterized extensively. CHEDUR exhibits a very high water uptake capacity when compared with chitosan, chitosan-EDTA adduct, as well as a commercial diaper material. A systematic study was done to find the optimum composition as well as reaction conditions for maximum water absorbing capacity. CHEDUR can play a vital role in applications that demand the rapid absorption and slow release of water such as agriculture, as a three in one new material for the slow release of urea, water and other metal ions that can be attached through the EDTA component. The other potential advantage of CHEDUR is that it can be expected to degrade in soil based on its chitosan backbone. The new material with rapid and high water uptake could also find potential applications as biodegradable active ingredient of the diaper material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range.

    PubMed

    González, M; Crespo, M; Baselga, J; Pozuelo, J

    2016-05-19

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.

  11. Bacterial Sunscreen: Layer-by-Layer Deposition of UV-Absorbing Polymers on Whole-Cell Biosensors (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-13

    mycosporine - like amino acids that absorb in the UV range and can quench UV-induced intracellular free radicals.2,3 Common in both microorganisms and higher...oxygen, which will react with amino acid side chains and reduce protein stability. GFPuv is excited by long-wave UV and requires ionization for...vinyl sulfate, poly-4-styrenesulfonic acid , and humic acid ) were used to encapsulate E. coli cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) either

  12. Lightweight and efficient microwave absorbing materials based on walnut shell-derived nano-porous carbon.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xu; Wang, Lixi; Zhu, Hongli; Guan, Yongkang; Zhang, Qitu

    2017-06-08

    Lightweight microwave absorbing materials have drawn tremendous attention. Herein, nano-porous biomass carbon materials have been prepared by carbonization with a subsequent potassium hydroxide activation of walnut shells and the microwave absorption properties have also been investigated. The obtained samples have large specific surface areas with numerous micropores and nanopores. The sample activated at 600 °C with a specific surface area of 736.2 m 2 g -1 exhibits the most enhanced microwave absorption performance. It has the maximum reflection loss of -42.4 dB at 8.88 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss below -10 dB) is 1.76 GHz (from 8.08 GHz to 9.84 GHz), corresponding to a thickness of 2 mm. Additionally, the effective absorption bandwidth can reach 2.24 GHz (from 10.48 GHz to 12.72 GHz) when the absorber thickness is 1.5 mm. Three-dimensional porous architecture, interfacial polarization relaxation loss, and the dipolar relaxation loss make a great contribution to the excellent microwave absorption performance. In contrast, the non-activated sample with lower specific surface area (435.3 m 2 g -1 ) has poor microwave absorption performance due to a poor dielectric loss capacity. This comparison highlights the role of micropores and nanopores in improving the dielectric loss property of porous carbon materials. To sum up, porous biomass carbon has great potential to become lightweight microwave absorbers. Moreover, KOH is an efficient activation agent in the fabrication of carbonaceous materials.

  13. Utilizing strongly absorbing materials for low-loss surface-wave nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Nicolai B.; Franz, Philipp; Heckmann, Jan; Pufahl, Karsten; Woggon, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Optical media endowed with large nonlinear susceptibilities are highly prized for their employment in frequency conversion and the generation of nonclassical states of light. Although the presence of an optical resonance can greatly increase the nonlinear response (e.g., in epsilon-near-zero materials), the non-negligible increase in linear absorption often precludes the application of such materials in nonlinear optics. Absorbing materials prepared as thin films, however, can support a low-loss surface wave: the long-range surface exciton polariton (LRSEP). Its propagation lifetime increases with greater intrinsic absorption and reduced film thickness, provided that the film is embedded in a transparent medium (symmetric cladding). We explore LRSEP propagation in a molybdenum film by way of a prism-coupling configuration. Our observations show that excitation of the LRSEP mode leads to a dramatic increase in the yield of second-harmonic generation. This implies that the LRSEP mode is an effective vehicle for utilizing the nonlinear response of absorbing materials.

  14. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  15. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  16. Hematite from Natural Iron Stones as Microwave Absorbing Material on X-Band Frequency Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuri, Mochamad

    2017-05-01

    This study has been investigated the effect of hematite as microwave absorbing materials (RAM) on X-Band frequency ranges. Hematite was succesfully processed by coprecipitation method and calcined at 500 °C for 5 hour. It was synthesized from natural iron stones from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraxtion (XRD), conductivity measurement, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), and Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The result was shown that hematite has conductivity value on (2.5-3).10-7 S/cm and be included as dielectric materials. The hysterisis curve was shown that hematite was a super paramagnetic materials. The product was mixed on paint with procentage 10% of total weight and coated on steel grade AH36 with spray methods. Then, the maximum of reflection loss on x - band’s frequency range (8,2-12,4) GHz was -7 dB on frequency of 10.5 GHz. It mean that almost 50% electromagnetic energy was absorbed by hematite.

  17. Microwave energy harvesting based on metamaterial absorbers with multi-layered square split rings for wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaaslan, Muharrem; Bağmancı, Mehmet; Ünal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Sabah, Cumali

    2017-06-01

    We propose the design of a multiband absorber based on multi-layered square split ring (MSSR) structure. The multi-layered metamaterial structure is designed to be used in the frequency bands such as WIMAX, WLAN and satellite communication region. The absorption levels of the proposed structure are higher than 90% for all resonance frequencies. In addition, the incident angle and polarization dependence of the multi-layered metamaterial absorber and harvester is also investigated and it is observed that the structure has polarization angle independent frequency response with good absorption characteristics in the entire working frequency band. The energy harvesting ratios of the structure is investigated especially for the resonance frequencies at which the maximum absorption occurs. The energy harvesting potential of the proposed MSSRs is as good as those of the structures given in the literature. Therefore, the suggested design having good absorption, polarization and angle independent characteristics with a wide bandwidth is a potential candidate for future energy harvesting applications in commonly used wireless communication bands, namely WIMAX, WLAN and satellite communication bands.

  18. Six-band terahertz metamaterial absorber based on the combination of multiple-order responses of metallic patches in a dual-layer stacked resonance structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Sang, Tian; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2017-01-25

    This paper reports on a numerical study of the six-band metamaterial absorber composed of two alternating stack of metallic-dielectric layers on top of a continuous metallic plane. Six obvious resonance peaks with high absorption performance (average larger than 99.37%) are realized. The first, third, fifth, and the second, fourth, sixth resonance absorption bands are attributed to the multiple-order responses (i.e., the 1-, 3- and 5-order responses) of the bottom- and top-layer of the structure, respectively, and thus the absorption mechanism of six-band absorber is due to the combination of two sets of the multiple-order resonances of these two layers. Besides, the size changes of the metallic layers have the ability to tune the frequencies of the six-band absorber. Employing the results, we also present a six-band polarization tunable absorber through varying the sizes of the structure in two orthogonal polarization directions. Moreover, nine-band terahertz absorber can be achieved by using a three-layer stacked structure. Simulation results indicate that the absorber possesses nine distinct resonance bands, and average absorptivities of them are larger than 94.03%. The six-band or nine-band absorbers obtained here have potential applications in many optoelectronic and engineering technology areas.

  19. Assessing Layered Materials in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.

    2001-01-01

    The recent analysis of high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of layered outcrops in equatorial regions reinforces two important ideas, which will probably eventually become paradigms, about Mars: 1) It has had a long, complex geologic history marked by change, as manifested in the different layers observed, and 2) Standing bodies of water existed for substantial lengths of time, indicating clement conditions possibly conducive to life. Although observations of layering and evidence for lakes and oceans has been reported for years based on Mariner 9 and Viking data, the MOC data show that this layering is much more pervasive and complex than previously thought. These layered sites are ideal for studying the geologic, and possibly biologic, history of Mars. Here, a layered site within Gale Crater is advocated as a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) target. This is one of the few layered areas within closed depressions (e.g., other craters and Vallis Marineris) that meets the landing site constraints and is accessible to both MER A and B.

  20. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  1. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Crespo, M.; Baselga, J.; Pozuelo, J.

    2016-05-01

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scheme of hydrogenated derivative of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (HDGEBA) and m-xylylenediamine; X-ray diffractograms of pristine CNT

  2. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  3. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  4. Novel Solution Process for Fabricating Ultra-Thin-Film Absorber Layers in Fe 2SiS 4 and Fe 2GeS 4 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Orefuwa, Samuel A.; Lai, Cheng-Yu; Dobson, Kevin D.

    2014-05-12

    Fe 2SiS 4 and Fe 2GeS 4 crystalline materials posses direct bandgaps of ~1.55 and ~1.4 eV respectively and an absorption coefficient larger than 10^5 cm–1; their theoretical potential as solar photovoltaic absorbers has been demonstrated. However, no solar devices that employ either Fe 2SiS 4 or Fe 2GeS 4 have been reported to date. In the presented work, nanoprecursors to Fe 2SiS 4 and Fe 2GeS 4 have been fabricated and employed to build ultra-thin-film layers via spray coating and rod coating methods. Temperature-dependent X-Ray diffraction analyses of nanoprecursors coatings show an unprecedented low temperature for forming crystalline Femore » 2SiS 4 and Fe 2GeS 4. Fabricating of ultra-thin-film photovoltaic devices utilizing Fe 2SiS 4 and Fe 2GeS 4 as solar absorber material is presented.« less

  5. Thermally switchable meta-material absorber involving vanadium dioxide semiconductor-metal transition for thermo photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendelala, Fathi; Cheknane, Ali; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2018-01-01

    A new switchable absorber design using meta-materials for thermo photovoltaic applications is proposed here. Conventional absorbents are normally non-adjustable with narrow band-widths and polarization-dependence. The present study describes an alternative infrared absorber structure with tunable characteristics. The absorber is based on VO2 which exhibits transition from semiconductor to metallic conductor by thermal effect. With this design, the results show that wide-band absorption can be achieved. The absorption bandwidth can be improved from 15.94 to 36.75 THz. With 40.42% relative shift in the peak frequency, a maximum absorption efficiency of 99% can be achieved. This structure design is polarization-independent of normal incident radiations, and may accommodate radiations from wide oblique angles. These new features make the new thermally adjustable absorber potentially useful in thermo-photovoltaic conversion devices.

  6. Measurements of the light-absorbing material inside cloud droplets and its effect on cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twohy, C. H.; Clarke, A. D.; Warren, Stephen G.; Radke, L. F.; Charleson, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the measurements of light-absorbing aerosol particles made previously have been in non-cloudy air and therefore provide no insight into aerosol effects on cloud properties. Here, researchers describe an experiment designed to measure light absorption exclusively due to substances inside cloud droplets, compare the results to related light absorption measurements, and evaluate possible effects on the albedo of clouds. The results of this study validate those of Twomey and Cocks and show that the measured levels of light-absorbing material are negligible for the radiative properties of realistic clouds. For the measured clouds, which appear to have been moderately polluted, the amount of elemental carbon (EC) present was insufficient to affect albedo. Much higher contaminant levels or much larger droplets than those measured would be necessary to significantly alter the radiative properties. The effect of the concentrations of EC actually measured on the albedo of snow, however, would be much more pronounced since, in contrast to clouds, snowpacks are usually optically semi-infinite and have large particle sizes.

  7. Shock-absorbing effect of shoe insert materials commonly used in management of lower extremity disorders.

    PubMed

    Shiba, N; Kitaoka, H B; Cahalan, T D; Chao, E Y

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of 3 shock-absorbing materials was compared by determining impact characteristics with a drop test method and also by testing the effect of each material when used as a shoe insert in 16 asymptomatic subjects. Peak vertical ground reaction force (F1, F2, F3) and temporal force factors (T1, T2, T3) were obtained with a force plate at a high-frequency sampling rate. Impact force, impact time, impact slope, and impact energy were determined. A standard weight was dropped from 3 heights on each material covering the force plate while reduction of peak force was compared. Impact force was attenuated most effectively by Insert 3 (polymeric foam rubber) and averaged 11% less than that in shoes without inserts. Impact time was increased for all 3 inserts. Impact slope and impact energy were reduced significantly in Insert 3. There was a significant difference in peak vertical force F1 for all 3 inserts, in vertical force F2 for Insert 2 (viscoelastic polymeric material), and in vertical force F3 for Insert 2. Drop-test studies showed that at all ball heights, the highest mean peak force was observed consistently in Insert 2.

  8. Evaluation of tensile strength of surgical synthetic absorbable suture materials: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, V.; Nichani, Ashish Sham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of surgical synthetic absorbable sutures over a period of 14 days under simulated oral conditions. Methods Three suture materials (polyglycolic acid [PGA], polyglactin [PG] 910, and poly (glycolide-co-є-caprolactone) [PGC]) were used in 4-0 and 5-0 gauges. 210 suture samples (35 of each material and gauge) were used. All of the samples were tested preimmersion and 1 hour and 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days postimmersion. The tensile strength of each suture material and gauge was assessed. The point of breakage and the resorption pattern of the sutures were also assessed. Results During the first 24 hours of immersion, all 4-0 and 5-0 samples of PGA, PG 910, and PGC maintained their initial tensile strength. At baseline (preimmersion), there was a statistically significant (P<0.001) difference in the tensile strengths between the 4-0 and 5-0 gauge of PGA, PG 910, and PGC. PGA 4-0 showed the highest tensile strength until day 10. At 7 days, all the 4-0 sutures of the three materials had maintained their tensile strength with PGA 4-0 having significantly greater (P=0.003) tensile strength compared to PG. Conclusions 4-0 sutures are stronger and have greater tensile strength than 5-0 sutures. The PGA 4-0 suture showed the highest tensile strength at the end of day 10. PMID:23837127

  9. Synthesis of active absorber layer by dip-coating method for perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rahul; Noor, I. M.; Singh, Pramod K.; Bhattacharya, B.; Arof, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop the hybrid perovskite-based n-i-p solar cell using a simple, fast and low-cost dip-coating method. Hot solution and the pre-annealed substrate are used for coating the perovskite thin film by this method this is further used for studying its structural and electrical properties. UV-vis spectroscopy is carried out for calculating the band gap of the hybrid perovskite layer which is ∼1.6 eV. X-ray spectroscopy confirms that the formation of hybrid perovskite layer. The profilometer is used to study the surface roughness and also for measuring the thickness of the perovskite layer with varying substrate temperature. The optimized sample was further used for cross-sectional SEM image to verify the thickness measured from the profiler. The electrical parameter of JV characteristic with varying temperature is tabulated in the table. Whereas, the perovskite sensitized solar cell exhibits highest short circuit current density, Jsc of 11 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage, Voc of 0.87 V, fill factor of 0.55 and efficiency, η of >5%.

  10. Light absorbing material (soot) in rainwater and in aerosol particles in the Maldives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, L.; EngströM, J. E.; Praveen, S.; Rodhe, H.

    2010-08-01

    Simultaneous measurements of soot (absorbing material at 528 nm) and inorganic ions in aerosol and precipitation at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during the period May 2005 to February 2007 have made it possible to calculate the washout ratio (WR) of these components as a measure of how efficiently they are scavenged by precipitation. On the basis of air trajectories the data have been separated into days with polluted air arriving from the Indian subcontinent in a northeasterly sector during winter and clean monsoon days with southerly flow from the Indian Ocean. The average soot concentration was a factor of 10 higher in the former situations. Despite considerable scatter for individual days, a systematic pattern emerged when the WR for the different components were compared with each other. During the monsoon season the WR for soot was similar to that of sulfate and other fine mode aerosol components, indicating that soot containing particles in these situations were efficient as cloud condensation nuclei. The origin of the light absorbing material during the monsoon season is unclear. During the polluted winter days, on the other hand, the WR for soot was three times smaller than that of sulfate. This indicates that, even after a travel time of several days, the soot containing particles from India have retained much of their hydrophobic property. The low WR and the infrequent rain during this season probably contribute to extending the atmospheric lifetime of soot well beyond several days. Surprisingly high concentrations of non-sea-salt calcium were measured during the monsoon season, substantially higher than during the winter season. The origin of these high values could be long-range transport from the Australian or African continents. Another possibility might be exopolymer gels derived from the ocean surface microlayer.

  11. Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Wang, Qingkai; Jiang, Guobao; Xu, Changwen; Zhao, Chujun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Chen, Yu; Wen, Shuangchun; Zhang, Han

    2014-01-01

    By coupling few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) with fiber-taper evanescent light field, a new type of MoS2 based nonlinear optical modulating element had been successfully fabricated as a two-dimensional layered saturable absorber with strong light-matter interaction. This MoS2-taper-fiber device is not only capable of passively mode-locking an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium-doped fiber laser and enduring high power laser excitation (up to 1 W), but also functions as a polarization sensitive optical modulating component (that is, different polarized light can induce different nonlinear optical response). Thanks to the combined advantages from the strong nonlinear optical response in MoS2 together with the sufficiently-long-range interaction between light and MoS2, this device allows for the generation of high power stable dissipative solitons at 1042.6 nm with pulse duration of 656 ps and a repetition rate of 6.74 MHz at a pump power of 210 mW. Our work may also constitute the first example of MoS2-enabled wave-guiding photonic device, and potentially give some new insights into two-dimensional layered materials related photonics. PMID:25213108

  12. Confirmation of theoretical colour predictions for layering dental composite materials.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Sarah S; Johnston, William M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm the theoretical colour predictions for single and double layers of dental composite materials on an opaque backing. Single and double layers of composite resins were fabricated, placed in optical contact with a grey backing and measured for spectral radiance. The spectral reflectance and colour were directly determined. Absorption and scattering coefficients as previously reported, the measured thickness of the single layers and the effective reflectance of the grey backing were utilized to theoretically predict the reflectance of the single layer using corrected Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory. For double layers the predicted effective reflectance of the single layer was used as the reflectance of the backing of the second layer and the thickness of the second layer was used to predict the reflectance of the double layer. Colour differences, using both the CIELAB and CIEDE2000 formulae, measured the discrepancy between each directly determined colour and its corresponding theoretical colour. The colour difference discrepancies generally ranged around the perceptibility threshold but were consistently below the respective acceptability threshold. This theory can predict the colour of layers of composite resin within acceptability limits and generally also within perceptibility limits. This theory could therefore be incorporated into computer-based optical measuring instruments that can automate the shade selections for layers of a more opaque first layer under a more translucent second layer for those clinical situations where an underlying background colour and a desirable final colour can be measured. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization by simulation of the nature of the buffer, the gap profile of the absorber and the thickness of the various layers in CZTSSe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadel, Meriem; Chadel, Asma; Moustafa Bouzaki, Mohammed; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Performances of ZnO/ZnS/CZTSSe polycrystalline thin film solar cells (Copper Zinc Tin Sulphur Selenium-solar cell) were simulated for different thicknesses of the absorber and ZnS buffer layers. Simulations were performed with SCAPS (Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator) software, starting with actual parameters available from industrial data for commercial cells processing. The influences of the thickness of the various layers in the structure of the solar cell and the gap profile of the CZTSSe absorber layer on the performance of the solar cell were studied in detail. Through considerations of recent works, we discuss possible routes to enhance the performance of CZTSSe solar cells towards a higher efficiency level. Thus, we found that for one specific thickness of the absorber layer, the efficiency of the CZTSSe solar cell can be increased when a ZnS layer replaces the usual CdS buffer layer. On the other hand, the efficiency of the solar cell can be also improved when the absorber layer presents a grad-gap. In this case, the maximum efficiency for the CZTSSe cell was found equal to 13.73%.

  14. Frequency domain finite-element and spectral-element acoustic wave modeling using absorbing boundaries and perfectly matched layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi Dalkhani, Amin; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Mahdavi Basir, Hadi

    2018-04-01

    Wave propagation modeling as a vital tool in seismology can be done via several different numerical methods among them are finite-difference, finite-element, and spectral-element methods (FDM, FEM and SEM). Some advanced applications in seismic exploration benefit the frequency domain modeling. Regarding flexibility in complex geological models and dealing with the free surface boundary condition, we studied the frequency domain acoustic wave equation using FEM and SEM. The results demonstrated that the frequency domain FEM and SEM have a good accuracy and numerical efficiency with the second order interpolation polynomials. Furthermore, we developed the second order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary condition (CE-ABC2) and compared it with the perfectly matched layer (PML) for the frequency domain FEM and SEM. In spite of PML method, CE-ABC2 does not add any additional computational cost to the modeling except assembling boundary matrices. As a result, considering CE-ABC2 is more efficient than PML for the frequency domain acoustic wave propagation modeling especially when computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is unnecessary.

  15. Negative terahertz photoconductivity in 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Jing

    2017-11-17

    The remarkable qualities of 2D layered materials such as wide spectral coverage, high strength and great flexibility mean that ultrathin 2D layered materials have the potential to meet the criteria of next-generation optoelectronic devices. Photoconductivity is one of the critical parameters of materials applied to optoelectronics. In contrast to traditional semiconductors, specific ultrathin 2D layers present anomalous negative photoconductivity. This opens a new avenue for designing novel optoelectronic devices. It is important to have a deep understanding of the fundamentals of this anomalous response, in order to design and optimize such devices. In this review, we provide an overview of the observation of negative photoconductivity in 2D layered materials including graphene, topological insulators and transitional metal dichalcogenides. We also summarize recent reports on investigations into the fundamental mechanism using ultrafast terahertz (THz) spectroscopies. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the existing challenges and proposing the possible prospects of this direction of research.

  16. Direct evidence of void passivation in Cu(InGa)(SSe){sub 2} absorber layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongho; Kim, Young-Su; Mo, Chan B.

    We have investigated the charge collection condition around voids in copper indium gallium sulfur selenide (CIGSSe) solar cells fabricated by sputter and a sequential process of selenization/sulfurization. In this study, we found direct evidence of void passivation by using the junction electron beam induced current method, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The high sulfur concentration at the void surface plays an important role in the performance enhancement of the device. The recombination around voids is effectively suppressed by field-assisted void passivation. Hence, the generated carriers are easily collected by the electrodes. Therefore, when the S/(S + Se)more » ratio at the void surface is over 8% at room temperature, the device performance degradation caused by the recombination at the voids is negligible at the CIGSSe layer.« less

  17. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  18. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  19. Analysis of SnS2 hyperdoped with V proposed as efficient absorber material.

    PubMed

    Seminovski, Yohanna; Palacios, Pablo; Wahnón, Perla

    2014-10-01

    Intermediate-band materials can improve the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells through the absorption of two subband-gap photons that allow extra electron-hole pair formations. Previous theoretical and experimental findings support the proposal that the layered SnS2 compound, with a band-gap of around 2 eV, is a candidate for an intermediate-band material when it is doped with a specific transition-metal. In this work we characterize vanadium doped SnS2 using density functional theory at the dilution level experimentally found and including a dispersion correction combined with the site-occupancy-disorder method. In order to analyze the electronic characteristics that depend on geometry, two SnS2 polytypes partially substituted with vanadium in symmetry-adapted non-equivalent configurations were studied. In addition the magnetic configurations of vanadium in a SnS2 2H-polytype and its comparison with a 4H-polytype were also characterized. We demonstrate that a narrow intermediate-band is formed, when these dopant atoms are located in different layers. Our theoretical predictions confirm the recent experimental findings in which a paramagnetic intermediate-band material in a SnS2 2H-polytype with 10% vanadium concentration is obtained.

  20. Method for depositing layers of high quality semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.

    2001-08-14

    Plasma deposition of substantially amorphous semiconductor materials is carried out under a set of deposition parameters which are selected so that the process operates near the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold. This threshold varies as a function of the thickness of the depositing semiconductor layer; and, deposition parameters, such as diluent gas concentrations, must be adjusted as a function of layer thickness. Also, this threshold varies as a function of the composition of the depositing layer, and in those instances where the layer composition is profiled throughout its thickness, deposition parameters must be adjusted accordingly so as to maintain the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold.

  1. Tunable Bragg filters with a phase transition material defect layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi; Gong, Zilun; Dong, Kaichen

    We propose an all-solid-state tunable Bragg filter with a phase transition material as the defect layer. Bragg filters based on a vanadium dioxide defect layer sandwiched between silicon dioxide/titanium dioxide Bragg gratings are experimentally demonstrated. Temperature dependent reflection spectroscopy shows the dynamic tunability and hysteresis properties of the Bragg filter. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy reveals the connection between the tunability and the phase transition of the vanadium dioxide defect layer. This work paves a new avenue in tunable Bragg filter designs and promises more applications by combining phase transition materials and optical cavities.

  2. Tunable Bragg filters with a phase transition material defect layer

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xi; Gong, Zilun; Dong, Kaichen; ...

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-solid-state tunable Bragg filter with a phase transition material as the defect layer. Bragg filters based on a vanadium dioxide defect layer sandwiched between silicon dioxide/titanium dioxide Bragg gratings are experimentally demonstrated. Temperature dependent reflection spectroscopy shows the dynamic tunability and hysteresis properties of the Bragg filter. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy reveals the connection between the tunability and the phase transition of the vanadium dioxide defect layer. This work paves a new avenue in tunable Bragg filter designs and promises more applications by combining phase transition materials and optical cavities.

  3. Ablative Laser Propulsion Using Multi-Layered Material Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehls, Mary; Edwards, David; Gray, Perry; Schneider, T.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations are ongoing to study the force imparted to materials when subjected to laser ablation. When a laser pulse of sufficient energy density impacts a material, a small amount of the material is ablated. A torsion balance is used to measure the momentum produced by the ablation process. The balance consists of a thin metal wire with a rotating pendulum suspended in the middle. The wire is fixed at both ends. Recently, multi-layered material systems were investigated. These multi-layered materials were composed of a transparent front surface and opaque sub surface. The laser pulse penetrates the transparent outer surface with minimum photon loss and vaporizes the underlying opaque layer.

  4. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  5. Fabrication of Organic Radar Absorbing Materials: A Report on the TIF Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    thickness, permittivity and permeability. The ability to measure the permittivity and permeability is an essential requirement for designing an optimised...absorber. And good optimisations codes are required in order to achieve the best possible absorber designs . In this report, the results from a...through measurement of their conductivity and permittivity at microwave frequencies. Methods were then developed for optimising the design of

  6. Development Radar Absorber Material using Rice Husk Carbon for Anechoic Chamber Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulpadrianto, Z.; Yohandri, Y.; Putra, A.

    2018-04-01

    The developments of radar technology in Indonesia are very strategic due to the vast territory and had a high-level cloud cover more than 55% of the time. The objective of this research is to develop radar technology facility in Indonesia using local natural resources. The target of this research is to present a low cost and satisfy quality of anechoic chambers. Anechoic chamber is a space designed to avoid reflection of EM waves from outside or from within the room. The reflection coefficient of the EM wave is influenced by the medium imposed by the EM wave. In laboratory experimental research has been done the development of material radar absorber using rice husk. The rice husk is activated using HCl and KOH by stirring using a magnetic stirrer for 1 Hours. The results of rice husk activation were measured using a Vector Network Analyzer by varying the thickness of the ingredients and the concentration of the activation agent. The VNA measurement is obtained reflection coefficient of -12dB and. -6.22dB for 1M HCL and KOH at thickness 10mm, respectively.

  7. Material optimization of multi-layered enhanced nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobbia, Pietro

    physical properties of the spacer on the multi-layer enhancement were also studied. The trends in Schottky barrier height, interfacial potential and dielectric constant were isolated by using different materials as spacers (i.e., TiO2, HfO2, Ag 2O and Al2O3). The results show that the bulk dielectric constant of the material can be used to predict the relative magnitude of the multi-layer enhancement, with low dielectric constant materials performing more efficiently as spacers. Optimal spacer layers were found to be ultrathin coalescent films (ideally a monolayer) of low dielectric constant materials. Finally, multi-layered structures were observed to be employable to amplify SERS in drastically different substrate geometries. The multi-layered structures were applied to disposable commercial SERS substrates (i.e., Klarite). This project involved the regeneration of the used substrates, by stripping and redepositing the gold coating layer, and their amplification, by using the multi-layer geometry. The latter was observed to amplify the sensitivity of the substrates. Additionally, the multi-layered structures were applied to probes dispersed in solution. Such probes were observed to yield stronger SERS signal when optically trapped and to reduce the background signal. The application of the multi-layered structures on trapped probes, not only further amplified the SERS signal, but also increased the maximum number of applicable layers for the structures.

  8. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Films of Perylene Diimide- and Squaraine-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks- like Materials: Solar Energy Capture and Directional Energy Transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Hea Jung; So, Monica C.; Gosztola, David J.

    2016-09-28

    We demonstrate that thin films of metal organic framework (MOF)-like materials, containing two perylenedlimides (PDICl4, PDIOPh2) and a squaraine dye (S1); can be fabricated by, layer-by-layer assembly (LbL). Interestingly, these LbL films absorb across the visible light region (400-750 nm) and facilitate directional energy transfer. Due to the high spectral overlap and oriented transition dipole moments of the donor (PDICl4 and PDIOPh2) and acceptor (S1) components, directional long-range energy transfer from the bluest to reddest absorber was successfully demonstrated in the multicomponent MOF-like films. These findings have significant implications for the development of solar energy conversion devices based on MOFs.

  9. Measured Wavelength-Dependent Absorption Enhancement of Internally Mixed Black Carbon with Absorbing and Nonabsorbing Materials.

    PubMed

    You, Rian; Radney, James G; Zachariah, Michael R; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2016-08-02

    Optical absorption spectra of laboratory generated aerosols consisting of black carbon (BC) internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials (ammonium sulfate, AS, and sodium chloride, NaCl) and BC with a weakly absorbing brown carbon surrogate derived from humic acid (HA) were measured across the visible to near-IR (550 to 840 nm). Spectra were measured in situ using a photoacoustic spectrometer and step-scanning a supercontinuum laser source with a tunable wavelength and bandwidth filter. BC had a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) of 7.89 ± 0.25 m(2) g(-1) at λ = 550 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 1.03 ± 0.09 (2σ). For internally mixed BC, the ratio of BC mass to the total mass of the mixture was chosen as 0.13 to mimic particles observed in the terrestrial atmosphere. The manner in which BC mixed with each material was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AS/BC and HA/BC particles were fully internally mixed, and the BC was both internally and externally mixed for NaCl/BC particles. The AS/BC, NaCl/BC, and HA/BC particles had AAEs of 1.43 ± 0.05, 1.34 ± 0.06, and 1.91 ± 0.05, respectively. The observed absorption enhancement of mixed BC relative to the pure BC was wavelength dependent for AS/BC and decreased from 1.5 at λ = 550 nm with increasing wavelength while the NaCl/BC enhancement was essentially wavelength independent. For HA/BC, the enhancement ranged from 2 to 3 and was strongly wavelength dependent. Removal of the HA absorption contribution to enhancement revealed that the enhancement was ≈1.5 and independent of wavelength.

  10. Slow-muon study of quaternary solar-cell materials: Single layers and p -n junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, H. V.; Vilão, R. C.; Vieira, R. B. L.; Gil, J. M.; Weidinger, A.; Sousa, M. G.; Teixeira, J. P.; da Cunha, A. F.; Leitão, J. P.; Salomé, P. M. P.; Fernandes, P. A.; Törndahl, T.; Prokscha, T.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.

    2018-02-01

    Thin films and p -n junctions for solar cells based on the absorber materials Cu (In ,G a ) Se2 and Cu2ZnSnS4 were investigated as a function of depth using implanted low energy muons. The most significant result is a clear decrease of the formation probability of the Mu+ state at the heterojunction interface as well as at the surface of the Cu (In ,G a ) Se2 film. This reduction is attributed to a reduced bonding reaction of the muon in the absorber defect layer at its surface. In addition, the activation energies for the conversion from a muon in an atomiclike configuration to a anion-bound position are determined from temperature-dependence measurements. It is concluded that the muon probe provides a measurement of the effective surface defect layer width, both at the heterojunctions and at the films. The CIGS surface defect layer is crucial for solar-cell electrical performance and additional information can be used for further optimizations of the surface.

  11. Material parameter computation for multi-layered vocal fold models.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bastian; Stingl, Michael; Leugering, Günter; Berry, David A; Döllinger, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Today, the prevention and treatment of voice disorders is an ever-increasing health concern. Since many occupations rely on verbal communication, vocal health is necessary just to maintain one's livelihood. Commonly applied models to study vocal fold vibrations and air flow distributions are self sustained physical models of the larynx composed of artificial silicone vocal folds. Choosing appropriate mechanical parameters for these vocal fold models while considering simplifications due to manufacturing restrictions is difficult but crucial for achieving realistic behavior. In the present work, a combination of experimental and numerical approaches to compute material parameters for synthetic vocal fold models is presented. The material parameters are derived from deformation behaviors of excised human larynges. The resulting deformations are used as reference displacements for a tracking functional to be optimized. Material optimization was applied to three-dimensional vocal fold models based on isotropic and transverse-isotropic material laws, considering both a layered model with homogeneous material properties on each layer and an inhomogeneous model. The best results exhibited a transversal-isotropic inhomogeneous (i.e., not producible) model. For the homogeneous model (three layers), the transversal-isotropic material parameters were also computed for each layer yielding deformations similar to the measured human vocal fold deformations.

  12. Nanomorphology of P3HT:PCBM-based absorber layers of organic solar cells after different processing conditions analyzed by low-energy scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Marina; Klein, Michael F G; Müller, Erich; Müller, Philipp; Colsmann, Alexander; Lemmer, Uli; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2012-12-01

    In this study the nanomorphology of P3HT:PC61BM absorber layers of organic solar cells was studied as a function of the processing parameters and for P3HT with different molecular weight. For this purpose we apply scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) at low electron energies in a scanning electron microscope. This method exhibits sensitive material contrast in the high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) mode, which is well suited to distinguish materials with similar densities and mean atomic numbers. The images taken with low-energy HAADF STEM are compared with conventional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images to illustrate the capabilities of the different techniques. For the interpretation of the low-energy HAADF STEM images, a semiempirical equation is used to calculate the image intensities. The experiments show that the nanomorphology of the P3HT:PC61BM blends depends strongly on the molecular weight of the P3HT. Low-molecular-weight P3HT forms rod-like domains during annealing. In contrast, only small globular features are visible in samples containing high-molecular-weight P3HT, which do not change significantly after annealing at 150°C up to 30 min.

  13. Designing high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through orbital engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Fischer, Karl F. F.; Zhang, Wenqing; Shi, Xun; Iversen, Bo B.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric technology, which possesses potential application in recycling industrial waste heat as energy, calls for novel high-performance materials. The systematic exploration of novel thermoelectric materials with excellent electronic transport properties is severely hindered by limited insight into the underlying bonding orbitals of atomic structures. Here we propose a simple yet successful strategy to discover and design high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through minimizing the crystal field splitting energy of orbitals to realize high orbital degeneracy. The approach naturally leads to design maps for optimizing the thermoelectric power factor through forming solid solutions and biaxial strain. Using this approach, we predict a series of potential thermoelectric candidates from layered CaAl2Si2-type Zintl compounds. Several of them contain nontoxic, low-cost and earth-abundant elements. Moreover, the approach can be extended to several other non-cubic materials, thereby substantially accelerating the screening and design of new thermoelectric materials. PMID:26948043

  14. Chemical precursor impact on the properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorber layer

    SciTech Connect

    Vashistha, Indu B., E-mail: indu-139@yahoo.com; Sharma, S. K.; Sharma, Mahesh C.

    2016-04-13

    In present work impact of different chemical precursor on the deposition of solar absorber layer Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) were studied by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method without using expensive vacuum facilities and followed by annealing. As compared to the other deposition methods, CBD method is interesting one because it is simple, reproducible, non-hazardous, cost effective and well suited for producing large-area thin films at low temperatures, although effect of precursors and concentration plays a vital role in the deposition. So, the central theme of this work is optimizing and controlling of chemical reactions for different chemical precursors. Further Effectmore » of different chemical precursors i.e. sulphate and chloride is analyzed by structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) of annealed CZTS thin film revealed that films were polycrystalline in nature with kestarite tetragonal crystal structure. The Atomic Force micrographs (AFM) images indicated total coverage compact film and as well as growth of crystals. The band gap of annealed CZTS films was found in the range of optimal band gap by absorption spectroscopy.« less

  15. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised ofmore » boron trioxide and sassolite (H 3BO 3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.« less

  16. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attractedmore » great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.« less

  17. Incorporating microorganisms into polymer layers provides bioinspired functional living materials

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Lukas C.; Koehler, Fabian M.; Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J.

    2012-01-01

    Artificial two-dimensional biological habitats were prepared from porous polymer layers and inoculated with the fungus Penicillium roqueforti to provide a living material. Such composites of classical industrial ingredients and living microorganisms can provide a novel form of functional or smart materials with capability for evolutionary adaptation. This allows realization of most complex responses to environmental stimuli. As a conceptual design, we prepared a material surface with self-cleaning capability when subjected to standardized food spill. Fungal growth and reproduction were observed in between two specifically adapted polymer layers. Gas exchange for breathing and transport of nutrient through a nano-porous top layer allowed selective intake of food whilst limiting the microorganism to dwell exclusively in between a confined, well-enclosed area of the material. We demonstrated a design of such living materials and showed both active (eating) and waiting (dormant, hibernation) states with additional recovery for reinitiation of a new active state by observing the metabolic activity over two full nutrition cycles of the living material (active, hibernation, reactivation). This novel class of living materials can be expected to provide nonclassical solutions in consumer goods such as packaging, indoor surfaces, and in biotechnology. PMID:22198770

  18. A study on the optics of copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells with ultra-thin absorber layers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Wachters, Arthur J H; van Deelen, Joop; Mourad, Maurice C D; Buskens, Pascal J P

    2014-03-10

    We present a systematic study of the effect of variation of the zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) layer thickness on the absorption characteristics of CIGS solar cells using a simulation program based on finite element method (FEM). We show that the absorption in the CIGS layer does not decrease monotonically with its layer thickness due to interference effects. Ergo, high precision is required in the CIGS production process, especially when using ultra-thin absorber layers, to accurately realize the required thickness of the ZnO, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and CIGS layer. We show that patterning the ZnO window layer can strongly suppress these interference effects allowing a higher tolerance in the production process.

  19. Resistance to forced airflow through layers of composting organic material.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Denis Leocádio; de Matos, Antonio Teixeira; Melo, Evandro de Castro

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to adjust equations to estimate the static pressure gradient of airflow through layers of organic residues submitted to two stages of biochemical degradation, and to evaluate the static pressure drop of airflow thought the material layer. Measurements of static pressure drop in the layers of sugarcane bagasse and coffee husks mixed with poultry litter on day 0 and after 30 days of composting were performed using a prototype with specific airflow rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 m(3) s(-1) m(-2). Static pressure gradient and specific airflow rate data were properly fit to the Shedd, Hukill & Ives and Ergun models, which may be used to predict the static pressure gradient of air to be blown through the organic residue layers. However, the Shedd model was that which best represented the phenomenon studied. The static pressure drop of airflow increased as a power of the material layer thickness and showed tendency for decreasing with the biochemical degradation time of the organic material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication of Hierarchical Layer-by-Layer Assembled Diamond-based Core-Shell Nanocomposites as Highly Efficient Dye Absorbents for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinna; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Ma, Xilong; Hu, Jie; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Lexin; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-03-01

    The effective chemical modification and self-assembly of diamond-based hierarchical composite materials are of key importance for a broad range of diamond applications. Herein, we report the preparation of novel core-shell diamond-based nanocomposites for dye adsorption toward wastewater treatment through a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled strategy. The synthesis of the reported composites began with the carboxyl functionalization of microdiamond by the chemical modification of diamond@graphene oxide composite through the oxidation of diamond@graphite. The carboxyl-terminated microdiamond was then alternatively immersed in the aqueous solution of amine-containing polyethylenimine and carboxyl-containing poly acrylic acid, which led to the formation of adsorption layer on diamond surface. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing and carboxyl-containing polymers were continued until the desired number of shell layers were formed around the microdiamond. The obtained core-shell nanocomposites were successfully synthesized and characterized by morphological and spectral techniques, demonstrating higher surface areas and mesoporous structures for good dye adsorption capacities than nonporous solid diamond particles. The LbL-assembled core-shell nanocomposites thus obtained demonstrated great adsorption capacity by using two model dyes as pollutants for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the present work on LbL-assembled diamond-based composites provides new alternatives for developing diamond hybrids as well as nanomaterials towards wastewater treatment applications.

  1. Universal method for creating optically active nanostructures on layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Tim; He, Rui; Stollenwerk, Andrew; Oshea, Aaron; Beck, Ben; Spurgeon, Kyle; Gu, Genda

    2014-03-01

    We report a new method for the creating of nanostructures using a scanning electron microscope. Residual organic molecules on the surface of layered materials can be excited by electron beam radiation to burrow into the open spaces between the layers of these materials, and then are broken down further to form photoluminescent carbon nanoclusters. Surface characterization by atomic force microscopy shows the surface is nearly undamaged at the molecular level by this process, and a lack of nanostructure formation in non-layered materials confirms that the structures are created by sub-surface incorporation. The presence of carbon nanoclusters was determined by Raman Spectroscopy and photoluminescence in the visible light range. The nanostructures are react strongly to visible light, making them readily apparent using an optical microscope even for features measuring only a few nanometers tall. This technique can be used on apparently any layered material, with successful results on dichalcogenides, topological insulators, graphite, and high temperature copper oxide superconductors. This technique can create patterned nanostructures with vertical resolution at the nanometer scale and lateral resolution of tens of nanometers depending on beam spot size. This work is funded by University of Northern Iowa, NSF #DMR-1206530, and DOE #DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  2. Absorbed dose measurement in low temperature samples:. comparative methods using simulated material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ruth; Harris, Anthony; Winters, Martell; Howard, Betty; Mellor, Paul; Patil, Deepak; Meiner, Jason

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing need to reliably measure absorbed dose in low temperature samples, especially in the pharmaceutical and tissue banking industries. All dosimetry systems commonly used in the irradiation industry are temperature sensitive. Radiation of low temperature samples, such as those packaged with dry ice, must therefore take these dosimeter temperature effects into consideration. This paper will suggest a method to accurately deliver an absorbed radiation dose using dosimetry techniques designed to abrogate the skewing effects of low temperature environments on existing dosimetry systems.

  3. Synthesis and characterizations of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles/carbon nanotube composite as an efficient absorber material for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Sa, K.; Alam, I.; Mahakul, P. C.; Raiguru, J.; Subramanyam, B. V. R. S.; Mahanandia, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this energy crisis era, the urgent calls for clean energy converter realizes the importance of photovoltaic device, which offers the highest probability of delivering a sustainable way of harvesting solar energy. The active absorber layer has its significance towards the performance of photovoltaic device by absorbing solar light and creating electron-hole pair inside layer. Being a direct p-type semiconductor, Cu2ZnSnS4 generally referred as CZTS has emerged as potential absorber towards photovoltaics application in recent decades as it offers the advantage of tunable band gap near optimal region ˜1.45-1.65 eV favorably match the solar spectrum and a high absorption coefficient ˜104 cm-1. The further improvement in the performance of CZTS based photovoltaics has involved the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Semiconductors hybridized with carbonaceous materials (CNTs) have been the center of attraction in the scientific community with beneficial contribution in enhancing optoelectronic properties. The incorporation of CNTs shows effectiveness in charge carrier transfer pathways which ultimately could enhance the photo conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic device cell (PVC). Here, a facile hydrothermal one-pot synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles and MWCNTs composite towards photovoltaics application is reported. The phase and structural analysis of CZTS nanoparticles as well as CZTS/MWCNTs composite is done by XRD. From FERSEM and TEM (LRTEM & HRTEM) analysis the CZTS nanoparticles decorated over the surface of MWCNTs is confirmed. The optical band gap of CZTS/MWCNTs composite is estimated to be 1.62 eV from UV-Visible spectra.

  4. Oxygen Release Induced Chemomechanical Breakdown of Layered Cathode Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Linqin; Lin, Ruoqian; Xu, Rong; ...

    2018-04-18

    Chemical and mechanical properties interplay on the nanometric scale and collectively govern the functionalities of battery materials. Understanding the relationship between the two can inform the design of battery materials with optimal chemomechanical properties for long-life lithium batteries. Herein, we report a mechanism of nanoscale mechanical breakdown in layered oxide cathode materials, originating from oxygen release at high states of charge under thermal abuse conditions. Here, we observe that the mechanical breakdown of charged Li 1-xNi 0.4Mn 0.4Co 0.2O 2 materials proceeds via a two-step pathway involving intergranular and intragranular crack formation. Owing to the oxygen release, sporadic phase transformationsmore » from the layered structure to the spinel and/or rocksalt structures introduce local stress, which initiates microcracks along grain boundaries and ultimately leads to the detachment of primary particles; i.e., intergranular crack formation. Furthermore, intragranular cracks (pores and exfoliations) form, likely due to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies and continuous phase transformations at the surfaces of primary particles. Finally, finite element modeling confirms our experimental observation that the crack formation is attributable to formation of oxygen vacancies, oxygen release, and phase transformations. This study is designed to directly observe the chemomechanical behavior of layered oxide cathode materials and provides a chemical basis for strengthening primary and secondary particles by stabilizing the oxygen anions in the lattice.« less

  5. Oxygen Release Induced Chemomechanical Breakdown of Layered Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Linqin; Lin, Ruoqian; Xu, Rong

    Chemical and mechanical properties interplay on the nanometric scale and collectively govern the functionalities of battery materials. Understanding the relationship between the two can inform the design of battery materials with optimal chemomechanical properties for long-life lithium batteries. Herein, we report a mechanism of nanoscale mechanical breakdown in layered oxide cathode materials, originating from oxygen release at high states of charge under thermal abuse conditions. Here, we observe that the mechanical breakdown of charged Li 1-xNi 0.4Mn 0.4Co 0.2O 2 materials proceeds via a two-step pathway involving intergranular and intragranular crack formation. Owing to the oxygen release, sporadic phase transformationsmore » from the layered structure to the spinel and/or rocksalt structures introduce local stress, which initiates microcracks along grain boundaries and ultimately leads to the detachment of primary particles; i.e., intergranular crack formation. Furthermore, intragranular cracks (pores and exfoliations) form, likely due to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies and continuous phase transformations at the surfaces of primary particles. Finally, finite element modeling confirms our experimental observation that the crack formation is attributable to formation of oxygen vacancies, oxygen release, and phase transformations. This study is designed to directly observe the chemomechanical behavior of layered oxide cathode materials and provides a chemical basis for strengthening primary and secondary particles by stabilizing the oxygen anions in the lattice.« less

  6. [Reaction of the fibrose eyeball covering upon the suture material synthetic and absorbable "Dexon". (Experimental study) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Olah, Z

    1979-11-01

    The present paper deals with the results of 20 eyes of experimentally operated laboratory animals, whose perforating wounds (of cornea and those of sclerocorneal region) have been suturated with a new type of absorbable synthetic suture material "Dexon" thickness being 6-0. The synthetic absorbable suture material "Dexon" is made of polyglycol acid, and it has been introduced to market by the firm Davis and Geck (U.S.A.). The inflammatory tissue reaction to the presence of the suture material "Dexon" is prominent and can by compared to the reaction to chromic resorbable suture materials (catgut or collagen). The suture material "Dexon" start to resorb in the course of the 2nd-3rd weeks after operation. The suture material "Dexon" can be used at an advantage in the operation where it is possible to cover the knots by a conjuctival lobe (in sclerocorneal region or in strabismus surgery) in this way the tendency to overgrowing of epithelial cells along the suture channels can be prevented. The "Dexon" material is sufficiently flexible and firm and has no antigenic properties, therefore it appears very prospective for ophthalmosurgery.

  7. van der Waals Layered Materials: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Duong, Dinh Loc; Yun, Seok Joon; Lee, Young Hee

    2017-12-26

    Since graphene became available by a scotch tape technique, a vast class of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials has been researched intensively. What is more intriguing is that the well-known physics and chemistry of three-dimensional (3D) bulk materials are often irrelevant, revealing exotic phenomena in 2D vdW materials. By further constructing heterostructures of these materials in the planar and vertical directions, which can be easily achieved via simple exfoliation techniques, numerous quantum mechanical devices have been demonstrated for fundamental research and technological applications. It is, therefore, necessary to review the special features in 2D vdW materials and to discuss the remaining issues and challenges. Here, we review the vdW materials library, technology relevance, and specialties of vdW materials covering the vdW interaction, strong Coulomb interaction, layer dependence, dielectric screening engineering, work function modulation, phase engineering, heterostructures, stability, growth issues, and the remaining challenges.

  8. Efficiency enhancement of perovskite solar cells using structural and morphological improvement of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidaei, Maryam; Izadifard, Morteza; Ghazi, Mohammad E.; Ahmadi, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have been heavily investigated due to their unique properties such as high power conversion efficiency (PCE), low-cost fabrication by solution processes, high diffusion length, large absorption coefficient, and direct and tunable band gap. PCE of perovskite devices is strongly dependent on the absorber layer properties such as morphology, crystallinity, and compactness, which are required to be optimized. In this work, the CH3NH3PbI3 (170-480 nm) absorber layers with various methylammonium iodine (MAI) concentrations (7, 10, 20 and 40 mg ml-1) and perovskite solar cells with the fluorine-doped tin oxide (400 nm)/C-TiO2 (30 nm)/Meso-TiO2 (400 nm)/CH3NH3PbI3 (170-480 nm)/P3HT (30 nm)/Au (100 nm) structure were fabricated. A two-step solution process was used for deposition of the CH3NH3PbI3 absorber layers. The morphology, crystal structure, and optical properties of the perovskite layer grown on glass and also the photovoltaic properties of the fabricated solar cells were studied. The results obtained showed that by controlling the deposition conditions, due to the reduction in charge recombination, PCE enhancement of the perovskite solar cell (up to 11.6%) was accessible.

  9. CMUTs with high-K atomic layer deposition dielectric material insulation layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Toby; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F

    2014-12-01

    Use of high-κ dielectric, atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials as an insulation layer material for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is investigated. The effect of insulation layer material and thickness on CMUT performance is evaluated using a simple parallel plate model. The model shows that both high dielectric constant and the electrical breakdown strength are important for the dielectric material, and significant performance improvement can be achieved, especially as the vacuum gap thickness is reduced. In particular, ALD hafnium oxide (HfO2) is evaluated and used as an improvement over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride (Six)Ny)) for CMUTs fabricated by a low-temperature, complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor-compatible, sacrificial release method. Relevant properties of ALD HfO2) such as dielectric constant and breakdown strength are characterized to further guide CMUT design. Experiments are performed on parallel fabricated test CMUTs with 50-nm gap and 16.5-MHz center frequency to measure and compare pressure output and receive sensitivity for 200-nm PECVD Six)Ny) and 100-nm HfO2) insulation layers. Results for this particular design show a 6-dB improvement in receiver output with the collapse voltage reduced by one-half; while in transmit mode, half the input voltage is needed to achieve the same maximum output pressure.

  10. CMUTs with High-K Atomic Layer Deposition Dielectric Material Insulation Layer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Toby; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-κ dielectric, atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials as an insulation layer material for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is investigated. The effect of insulation layer material and thickness on CMUT performance is evaluated using a simple parallel plate model. The model shows that both high dielectric constant and the electrical breakdown strength are important for the dielectric material, and significant performance improvement can be achieved, especially as the vacuum gap thickness is reduced. In particular, ALD hafnium oxide (HfO2) is evaluated and used as an improvement over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride (SixNy) for CMUTs fabricated by a low-temperature, complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor-compatible, sacrificial release method. Relevant properties of ALD HfO2 such as dielectric constant and breakdown strength are characterized to further guide CMUT design. Experiments are performed on parallel fabricated test CMUTs with 50-nm gap and 16.5-MHz center frequency to measure and compare pressure output and receive sensitivity for 200-nm PECVD SixNy and 100-nm HfO2 insulation layers. Results for this particular design show a 6-dB improvement in receiver output with the collapse voltage reduced by one-half; while in transmit mode, half the input voltage is needed to achieve the same maximum output pressure. PMID:25474786

  11. First-charge instabilities of layered-layered lithium-ion-battery materials

    DOE PAGES

    Croy, Jason R.; Iddir, Hakim; Gallagher, Kevin; ...

    2015-09-03

    Dynamical simulation at 1000 K shows the migration of oxygen ions in delithiated Li 7/6-xNi 1/4Mn 7/12O 2(withx= 1) from oxygen layers (lower panel, att= 0) to form O–O pairs (upper panel att= 35 ps) thereby lowering the energy of charged cathode material.

  12. Candor Chasma - Massive (non-layered) material expos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    One of the most striking discoveries of the Mars Global Surveyor mission has been the identification of thousands of meters/feet of layers within the wall rock of the enormous martian canyon system, Valles Marineris.

    Valles Marineris was first observed in 1972 by the Mariner 9 spacecraft, from which the troughs get their name: Valles--valleys, Marineris--Mariner.

    Some hints of layering in both the canyon walls and within some deposits on the canyon floors were seen in Mariner 9 and Viking orbiter images from the 1970s. The Mars Orbiter Camera on board Mars Global Surveyor has been examining these layers at much higher resolution than was available previously.

    MOC images led to the realization that there are layers in the walls that go down to great depths. An example of the wall rock layers can be seen in MOC image 8403, shown above (C).

    MOC images also reveal amazing layered outcrops on the floors of some of the Valles Marineris canyons. Particularly noteworthy is MOC image 23304 (D, above), which shows extensive, horizontally-bedded layers exposed in buttes and mesas on the floor of western Candor Chasma. These layered rocks might be the same material as is exposed in the chasm walls (as in 8403--C, above), or they might be rocks that formed by deposition (from water, wind, and/or volcanism) long after Candor Chasma opened up.

    In addition to layered materials in the walls and on the floors of the Valles Marineris system, MOC images are helping to refine our classification of geologic features that occur within the canyons. For example, MOC image 25205 (E, above), shows the southern tip of a massive, tongue-shaped massif (a mountainous ridge) that was previously identified as a layered deposit. However, this MOC image does not show layering. The material has been sculpted by wind and mass-wasting--downslope movement of debris--but no obvious layers were exposed by these processes.

    Valles Marineris a fascinating region on Mars that holds much

  13. Efficient exfoliation of layered materials by waste liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Qiaolei; Chen, Hao; Dou, Huimin; Yu, Haibin

    2018-03-01

    Based on their unique material properties, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and boron nitride (BN) have been attracting increased research interest. The potential of 2D materials, in the form of nanoplatelets that are used as new materials, will be important to both nanomaterials and advanced materials. Water is usually considered to be the ideal dispersed medium, and the essential hydrophobicity and limitations to mass production of 2D nanoplatelets have become quite serious obstacles to their usage in various fields. In this paper, pulping black liquor was used as dispersant, with high concentration of lignin to get single- and few-layered nanoplatelets. The whole process required only the high-shear mixing of 2D layered materials and pulping waste liquor. This method was not only simple and efficient but also environmentally friendly and resource-recycling. Moreover, the fabricated single- or few-layered nanoplatelets possessed good solubility in aqueous solution due to their edge functionalization, and could be well dispersed in water at concentrations (10 mg ml-1 for graphene, 6.3 mg ml-1 for MoS2, and 6.0 mg ml-1 for BN) which were much higher than that of other methods. The dispersions of graphene, MoS2, and BN nanosheets were highly stable over several months, which allowed us to easily prepare graphene, MoS2, and BN films through simple vacuum filtration or spraying. These results indicated that pulping black liquor can be used as a material or reagent, and the mass production of 2D material is possible in a simple and fast method.

  14. Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

  15. Ultralight Weight Optical Systems Using Nano-Layered Synthesized Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie; Breckinridge, James

    2014-01-01

    Optical imaging is important for many NASA science missions. Even though complex optical systems have advanced, the optics, based on conventional glass and mirrors, require components that are thick, heavy and expensive. As the need for higher performance expands, glass and mirrors are fast approaching the point where they will be too large, heavy and costly for spacecraft, especially small satellite systems. NASA Langley Research Center is developing a wide range of novel nano-layered synthesized materials that enable the development and fabrication of ultralight weight optical device systems that enable many NASA missions to collect science data imagery using small satellites. In addition to significantly reducing weight, the nano-layered synthesized materials offer advantages in performance, size, and cost.

  16. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Layered Material Superlattices and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanath, Suresh; Liu, Xinyu; Rouvimov, Sergei; Furdyna, Jacek K.; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2014-03-01

    Stacking of various layered materials is being pursued widely to realize various devices and observe novel physics. Mostly, these have been limited to exfoliation and stacking either manually or in solution, where control on rotational alignment or order of stacking is lost. We have demonstrated molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of Bi2Se3/MoSe2 superlatticeand Bi2Se3/MoSe2/SnSe2 heterostructure on sapphire. We have achieved a better control on the order of stacking and number of layers as compared to the solution technique. We have characterized these structures using RHEED, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, AFM, X-ray reflectometry, cross-section (cs) and in-plane (ip) TEM. The rotational alignment is dictated by thermodynamics and is understood using ip-TEM diffraction patterns. Layered growth and long range order is evident from the streaky RHEED pattern. Abrupt change in RHEED pattern, clear demarcation of boundary between layers seen using cs-TEM and observation of Raman peaks corresponding to all the layers suggest van-der-waals epitaxy. In our knowledge this is a first demonstration of as grown superlattices and heterostuctures involving transition metal dichalcogenides and is an important step towards the goal of stacking of 2D crystals like lego blocks.

  17. Acoustic scattering reduction using layers of elastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrion, Cécile; Simon, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Making an object invisible to acoustic waves could prove useful for military applications or measurements in confined space. Different passive methods have been proposed in recent years to avoid acoustic scattering from rigid obstacles. These techniques are exclusively based on acoustic phenomena, and use for instance multiple resonators or scatterers. This paper examines the possibility of designing an acoustic cloak using a bi-layer elastic cylindrical shell to eliminate the acoustic field scattered from a rigid cylinder hit by plane waves. This field depends on the dimensional and mechanical characteristics of the elastic layers. It is computed by a semi-analytical code modelling the vibrations of the coating under plane wave excitation. Optimization by genetic algorithm is performed to determine the characteristics of a bi-layer material minimizing the scattering. Considering an external fluid consisting of air, realistic configurations of elastic coatings emerge, composed of a thick internal orthotopic layer and a thin external isotropic layer. These coatings are shown to enable scattering reduction at a precise frequency or over a larger frequency band.

  18. A facile fabrication of chemically converted graphene oxide thin films and their uses as absorber materials for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelifard, Mehdi; Darudi, Hosein

    2016-07-01

    There is a great interest in the use of graphene sheets in thin film solar cells with low-cost and good-optoelectronic properties. Here, the production of absorbent conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin films was investigated. RGO thin films were prepared from spray-coated graphene oxide (GO) layers at various substrate temperature followed by a simple hydrazine-reducing method. The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characterizations of graphene oxide (GO) and RGO thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a phase shift from GO to RGO due to hydrazine treatment, in agreement with the FTIR spectra of the layers. FESEM images clearly exhibited continuous films resulting from the overlap of graphene nanosheets. The produced low-cost thin films had high absorption coefficient up to 1.0 × 105 cm-1, electrical resistance as low as 0.9 kΩ/sq, and effective optical band gap of about 1.50 eV, close to the optimum value for solar conversion. The conductive absorbent properties of the reduced graphene oxide thin films would be useful to develop photovoltaic cells.

  19. Layer-by-layer assembly of two-dimensional materials into wafer-scale heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kibum; Lee, Kan-Heng; Han, Yimo; Gao, Hui; Xie, Saien; Muller, David A.; Park, Jiwoong

    2017-10-01

    High-performance semiconductor films with vertical compositions that are designed to atomic-scale precision provide the foundation for modern integrated circuitry and novel materials discovery. One approach to realizing such films is sequential layer-by-layer assembly, whereby atomically thin two-dimensional building blocks are vertically stacked, and held together by van der Waals interactions. With this approach, graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides--which represent one- and three-atom-thick two-dimensional building blocks, respectively--have been used to realize previously inaccessible heterostructures with interesting physical properties. However, no large-scale assembly method exists at present that maintains the intrinsic properties of these two-dimensional building blocks while producing pristine interlayer interfaces, thus limiting the layer-by-layer assembly method to small-scale proof-of-concept demonstrations. Here we report the generation of wafer-scale semiconductor films with a very high level of spatial uniformity and pristine interfaces. The vertical composition and properties of these films are designed at the atomic scale using layer-by-layer assembly of two-dimensional building blocks under vacuum. We fabricate several large-scale, high-quality heterostructure films and devices, including superlattice films with vertical compositions designed layer-by-layer, batch-fabricated tunnel device arrays with resistances that can be tuned over four orders of magnitude, band-engineered heterostructure tunnel diodes, and millimetre-scale ultrathin membranes and windows. The stacked films are detachable, suspendable and compatible with water or plastic surfaces, which will enable their integration with advanced optical and mechanical systems.

  20. Layer-by-layer assembly of two-dimensional materials into wafer-scale heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kibum; Lee, Kan-Heng; Han, Yimo; Gao, Hui; Xie, Saien; Muller, David A; Park, Jiwoong

    2017-10-12

    High-performance semiconductor films with vertical compositions that are designed to atomic-scale precision provide the foundation for modern integrated circuitry and novel materials discovery. One approach to realizing such films is sequential layer-by-layer assembly, whereby atomically thin two-dimensional building blocks are vertically stacked, and held together by van der Waals interactions. With this approach, graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides-which represent one- and three-atom-thick two-dimensional building blocks, respectively-have been used to realize previously inaccessible heterostructures with interesting physical properties. However, no large-scale assembly method exists at present that maintains the intrinsic properties of these two-dimensional building blocks while producing pristine interlayer interfaces, thus limiting the layer-by-layer assembly method to small-scale proof-of-concept demonstrations. Here we report the generation of wafer-scale semiconductor films with a very high level of spatial uniformity and pristine interfaces. The vertical composition and properties of these films are designed at the atomic scale using layer-by-layer assembly of two-dimensional building blocks under vacuum. We fabricate several large-scale, high-quality heterostructure films and devices, including superlattice films with vertical compositions designed layer-by-layer, batch-fabricated tunnel device arrays with resistances that can be tuned over four orders of magnitude, band-engineered heterostructure tunnel diodes, and millimetre-scale ultrathin membranes and windows. The stacked films are detachable, suspendable and compatible with water or plastic surfaces, which will enable their integration with advanced optical and mechanical systems.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Guang; Han, Catherine Y.; ...

    2006-01-01

    Amore » tomic layer deposition ( LD ) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used LD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide ( O ) and silica aerogels. O possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ∼ 40 nm and pore length L ∼ 70 microns. The O membranes were coated by LD to fabricate catalytic membranes that demonstrate remarkable selectivity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane. dditional O membranes coated with LD Pd films show promise as hydrogen sensors. Silica aerogels have the lowest density and highest surface area of any solid material. Consequently, these materials serve as an excellent substrate to fabricate novel catalytic materials and gas sensors by LD .« less

  2. Nanofluidics in two-dimensional layered materials: inspirations from nature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Feng, Yaping; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-29

    With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials. Recently, inspired partially by the layered microstructure of nacre, the material design and large-scale integration of artificial nanofluidic devices have stepped into a completely new stage, termed 2D nanofluidics. Unique advantages of the 2D layered materials have been found, such as facile and scalable fabrication, high flux, efficient chemical modification, tunable channel size, etc. These features enable wide applications in, for example, biomimetic ion transport manipulation, molecular sieving, water treatment, and nanofluidic energy conversion and storage. This review highlights the recent progress, current challenges, and future perspectives in this emerging research field of "2D nanofluidics", with emphasis on the thought of bio-inspiration.

  3. Prediction of microwave absorption properties of tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker radar absorbing material without prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jiang-Fan; Song, Zhong-Guo; Xi, Xiao-Li

    2017-07-01

    The radar absorbing material (RAM) containing a tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) has been proved to have good efficiency of microwave absorption. However, the available theoretical models, which are intended to predict the microwave absorbing properties of such an interesting composite, still cannot work well without some prior knowledge, like the measured effective electromagnetic parameters of the prepared T-ZnOw composite. Hence, we propose a novel predictive method here to calculate the reflectivity of T-ZnOw RAM without prior knowledge. In this method, the absorbing ability of this kind of material is divided into three main aspects: the unstructured background, the conductive network, and the nanostructured particle. Then, the attenuation properties of these three parts are represented, respectively, by three different approaches: the equivalent spherical particle and the static strong fluctuation theory, the equivalent circuit model obtained from the complex impedance spectra technology, and the combination of four different microscopic electromagnetic responses. The operational calculation scheme can be obtained by integrating these three absorption effects into the existing theoretical attenuation model. The reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of a T-ZnON/SiO2 composite in the range of 8-14 GHz shows that the proposed scheme can predict the microwave absorption properties of the T-ZnOw RAM. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of these three mechanisms indicates that, on the one hand, the background plays a dominant role in determining the real part of the effective permittivity of the T-ZnOw composite while the network and the particle are the decisive factors of its material loss; on the other hand, an zero-phase impedance, i.e., a pure resistance, with appropriate resonance characteristic might be a rational physical description of the attenuation property of the conductive network, but it is difficult to realize

  4. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  5. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-04-28

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  6. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  7. V x In (2–x) S 3 Intermediate Band Absorbers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    McCarthy, Robert F.; Weimer, Matthew S.; Haasch, Richard T.; ...

    2016-03-21

    Substitutional alloys of several thin film semiconductors have been proposed as intermediate band (IB) materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics, which aim to utilize a larger fraction of the solar spectrum without sacrificing significant photovoltage. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to IB material growth, namely atomic layer deposition (ALD), to enable unique control over substitutional-dopant location and density. Two new ALD processes for vanadium sulfide incorporation are introduced, one of which incorporates a vanadium (III) amidinate previously untested for ALD. We synthesize the first thin film V xIn (2-x)S 3 intermediate band semiconductors, using this process, and further demonstratemore » that the V:In ratio, and therefore intraband gap density of states, can be finely tuned according to the ALD dosing schedule. Deposition on a crystalline In 2S 3 underlayer promotes the growth of a tetragonal β-In 2S 3-like phase V xIn (2-x)S 3, which exhibits a distinct sub-band gap absorption peak with onset near 1.1 eV in agreement with computational predictions. But, the V xIn (2-x)S 3 films lack the lower energy transition predicted for a partially filled IB, and photoelectrochemical devices reveal a photocurrent response only from illumination with energy sufficient to span the parent band-gap.« less

  8. Antitumoral materials with regenerative function obtained using a layer-by-layer technique

    PubMed Central

    Ficai, Denisa; Sonmez, Maria; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Ficai, Anton; Bleotu, Coralia

    2015-01-01

    A layer-by layer technique was successfully used to obtain collagen/hydroxyapatite-magnetite-cisplatin (COLL/HAn-Fe3O4-CisPt, n=1–7) composite materials with a variable content of hydroxyapatite intended for use in the treatment of bone cancer. The main advantages of this system are the possibility of controlling the rate of delivery of cytostatic agents, the presence of collagen and hydroxyapatite to ensure more rapid healing of the injured bone tissue, and the potential for magnetite to be a passive antitumoral component that can be activated when an appropriate external electromagnetic field is applied. In vitro cytotoxicity assays performed on the COLL/HAn-Fe3O4-CisPt materials obtained using a layer-by layer method confirmed their antitumoral activity. Samples with a higher content of hydroxyapatite had more antitumoral activity because of their better absorption of cisplatin and consequently a higher amount of cisplatin being present in the matrices. PMID:25767374

  9. Recent progress of atomic layer deposition on polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong Chen; Ye, Enyi; Li, Zibiao; Han, Ming-Yong; Loh, Xian Jun

    2017-01-01

    As a very promising surface coating technology, atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to modify the surfaces of polymeric materials for improving their functions and expanding their application areas. Polymeric materials vary in surface functional groups (number and type), surface morphology and internal structure, and thus ALD deposition conditions that typically work on a normal solid surface, usually do not work on a polymeric material surface. To date, a large variety of research has been carried out to investigate ALD deposition on various polymeric materials. This paper aims to provide an in-depth review of ALD deposition on polymeric materials and its applications. Through this review, we will provide a better understanding of surface chemistry and reaction mechanism for controlled surface modification of polymeric materials by ALD. The integrated knowledge can aid in devising an improved way in the reaction between reactant precursors and polymer functional groups/polymer backbones, which will in turn open new opportunities in processing ALD materials for better inorganic/organic film integration and potential applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  11. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  12. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph (Inventor); Marder, Seth (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are disclosed. Many of these compositions are compounds satisfying the formulae D-.PI.-D, A-.PI.-A, D-A-D and A-D-A, wherein D is an electron donor group, A is an electron acceptor group and .PI. comprises a bridge of .pi.-conjugated bonds connecting the electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups. In A-D-A and D-A-D compounds, the .pi. bridge is substituted with electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups, respectively. Also disclosed are methods that generate an electronically excited state of a compound, including those satisfying one of these formulae. The electronically excited state is achieved in a method that includes irradiating the compound with light. Then, the compound is converted to a multi-photon electronically excited state upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of light. The sum of the energies of all of the absorbed photons is greater than or equal to the transition energy from a ground state of the compound to the multi-photon excited state. The energy of each absorbed photon is less than the transition energy between the ground state and the lowest single-photon excited state of the compound is less than the transition energy between the multi-photon excited state and the ground state.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of BaFe12O19/Poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) Composites Coatings as Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasria, Nia; Ardhyananta, H.; Fajarin, R.; Widyastuti

    2017-07-01

    This research shows the processing and design of radar absorbing material (RAM) based on barium hexaferrite (BaM) and poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) (PAni,PPy,PET). BaM was prepared by sol gel method with Ni-Zn doping at mole fraction of 0. 4 to obtain soft magnetic material. BaM/(PAni,PPy) composites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization method at ˜0 °C. (BaM/PET) composite was prepared by melt compounding at 220°C. The composites were coated on A-grade AH36 steel using Dallenbach Layer, Salisbury Screen and Jaumann Layer methods with thickness of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The composites were evaluated using XRD, SEM, FTIR, VSM, LCM-meter and VNA. Results showed that doped BaM showed BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 structure. BaM/(PAni,PPy,PET) composites possessed globular morphology with M-O and C-H bonds. BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 exhibited the value of Ms and Hc, 56.6 emu/g and 60 Oe respectively. High electrical conductivity of 1.77744 × 10-5 S/cm was achieved of BaM/PAni composite. The maximum reflection loss (RL) was reached at - 48.720 dB and 8.1 GHz for BaM/PAni composite coating with 6 mm thickness at Jaumann Layer. These results indicated that BaM/PAni composite was a soft magnetic material with a high RL value that is suitable for RAM, which used in stealth technology on naval vessels.

  14. Quantitation of absorbed or deposited materials on a substrate that measures energy deposition

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick G.; Bakajin, Olgica; Vogel, John S.; Bench, Graham

    2005-01-18

    This invention provides a system and method for measuring an energy differential that correlates to quantitative measurement of an amount mass of an applied localized material. Such a system and method remains compatible with other methods of analysis, such as, for example, quantitating the elemental or isotopic content, identifying the material, or using the material in biochemical analysis.

  15. Optimization of Layered Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Christian; Mauger, Alain; Zaghib, Karim; Groult, Henri

    2016-01-01

    This review presents a survey of the literature on recent progress in lithium-ion batteries, with the active sub-micron-sized particles of the positive electrode chosen in the family of lamellar compounds LiMO2, where M stands for a mixture of Ni, Mn, Co elements, and in the family of yLi2MnO3•(1 − y)LiNi½Mn½O2 layered-layered integrated materials. The structural, physical, and chemical properties of these cathode elements are reported and discussed as a function of all the synthesis parameters, which include the choice of the precursors and of the chelating agent, and as a function of the relative concentrations of the M cations and composition y. Their electrochemical properties are also reported and discussed to determine the optimum compositions in order to obtain the best electrochemical performance while maintaining the structural integrity of the electrode lattice during cycling. PMID:28773717

  16. Effect of selenization time on the structural and morphological properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films absorber layers using two step growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korir, Peter C.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work two step growth process was used to prepare Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film for solar cell applications. The first step involves deposition of Cu-In-Ga precursor films followed by the selenization process under vacuum using elemental selenium vapor to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film. The growth process was done at a fixed temperature of 515 °C for 45, 60 and 90 min to control film thickness and gallium incorporation into the absorber layer film. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms single-phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film for all the three samples and no secondary phases were observed. A shift in the diffraction peaks to higher 2θ (2 theta) values is observed for the thin films compared to that of pure CuInSe2. The surface morphology of the resulting film grown for 60 min was characterized by the presence of uniform large grain size particles, which are typical for device quality material. Photoluminescence spectra show the shifting of emission peaks to higher energies for longer duration of selenization attributed to the incorporation of more gallium into the CuInSe2 crystal structure. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) revealed a uniform distribution of the elements through the surface of the film. The elemental ratio of Cu/(In + Ga) and Se/Cu + In + Ga strongly depends on the selenization time. The Cu/In + Ga ratio for the 60 min film is 0.88 which is in the range of the values (0.75-0.98) for best solar cell device performances.

  17. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  18. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  19. Two-Photon or Higher-Order Absorbing Optical Materials for Generation of Reactive Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  20. A comparative study between titania and zirconia as material for scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nursam, N. M.; Hidayat, J.; Shobih; Rosa, E. S.; Pranoto, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    The photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is typically composed of nanocrystalline titania (TiO2) layer that has been sensitized with light-absorbing dye molecules. Large portion of the light, however, could not be efficiently absorbed due to some physical reasons, such as TiO2 crystal size (typically 10-25 nm) that makes the photoanode remains partially transparent to the visible region in the solar spectrum. One of the ways to improve the light harvesting efficiency in DSSC could be achieved by employing an additional scattering layer over the TiO2 electron transport material. In this contribution, we evaluate the effect of light scattering properties on the performance of DSSC. Specifically, the light scattering properties provided from two different scattering materials, i.e. additional TiO2 scattering layer and zirconia (ZrO2) scattering layer, were compared. Both layers were deposited using screen printing technique under the same condition on top of 8 µm thick TiO2 photoanode layer. All samples subsequently received the same thermal annealing treatment at 500 °C and sensitized with ruthenium-based synthetic dyes. Our results revealed that the thickness of the scattering layer for both TiO2 and ZrO2 had a significant effect on the solar cell performance. The best photoconversion efficiency was achieved by samples that were coated with one screen-printing cycle, giving an overall efficiency of 3.50 % and 4.02% for TiO2 and ZrO2, respectively.

  1. Acoustic structure and propagation in highly porous, layered, fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.; Tesar, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustic structure and propagation of sound in highly porous, layered, fine fiber materials is examined. Of particular interest is the utilization of the Kozeny number for determining the static flow resistance and the static structure factor based on flow permeability measurements. In this formulation the Kozeny number is a numerical constant independent of volume porosity at high porosities. The other essential parameters are then evaluated employing techniques developed earlier for open cell foams. The attenuation and progressive phase characteristics in bulk samples are measured and compared with predicted values. The agreements on the whole are very satisfactory.

  2. Hierarchically porous materials from layer-by-layer photopolymerization of high internal phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sušec, Maja; Ligon, Samuel Clark; Stampfl, Jürgen; Liska, Robert; Krajnc, Peter

    2013-06-13

    A combination of high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating and additive manufacturing technology (AMT) is applied for creating hierarchical porosity within an acrylate and acrylate/thiol-based polymer network. The photopolymerizable formulation is optimized to produce emulsions with a volume fraction of droplet phase greater than 80 vol%. Kinetic stability of the emulsions is sufficient enough to withstand in-mold curing or computer-controlled layer-by-layer stereolithography without phase separation. By including macroscale cellular cavities within the build file, a level of controlled porosity is created simultaneous to the formation of the porous microstructure of the polyHIPE. The hybrid HIPE-AMT technique thus provides hierarchically porous materials with mechanical properties tailored by the addition of thiol chain transfer agent. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Two dimensional layered materials: First-principle investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Youjian

    Two-dimensional layered materials have emerged as a fascinating research area due to their unique physical and chemical properties, which differ from those of their bulk counterparts. Some of these unique properties are due to carriers and transport being confined to 2 dimensions, some are due to lattice symmetry, and some arise from their large surface area, gateability, stackability, high mobility, spin transport, or optical accessibility. How to modify the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional layered materials for desirable long-term applications or fundamental physics is the main focus of this thesis. We explored the methods of adsorption, intercalation, and doping as ways to modify two-dimensional layered materials, using density functional theory as the main computational methodology. Chapter 1 gives a brief review of density functional theory. Due to the difficulty of solving the many-particle Schrodinger equation, density functional theory was developed to find the ground-state properties of many-electron systems through an examination of their charge density, rather than their wavefunction. This method has great application throughout the chemical and material sciences, such as modeling nano-scale systems, analyzing electronic, mechanical, thermal, optical and magnetic properties, and predicting reaction mechanisms. Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides are arguably the two most important two-dimensional layered materials in terms of the scope and interest of their physical properties. Thus they are the main focus of this thesis. In chapter 2, the structure and electronic properties of graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides are described. Alkali adsorption onto the surface of bulk graphite and metal intecalation into transition metal dichalcogenides -- two methods of modifying properties through the introduction of metallic atoms into layered systems -- are described in chapter 2. Chapter 3 presents a new method of tuning

  4. Measurement and Simulation of Thermal Conductivity of Hafnium-Aluminum Thermal Neutron Absorber Material

    DOE PAGES

    Guillen, Donna Post; Harris, William H.

    2016-05-11

    A metal matrix composite (MMC) material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) intermetallic particles in an aluminum matrix has been identified as a promising material for fast-flux irradiation testing applications. This material can filter thermal neutrons while simultaneously providing high rates of conductive cooling for experiment capsules. Our purpose is to investigate effects of Hf-Al material composition and neutron irradiation on thermophysical properties, which were measured before and after irradiation. When performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the irradiated specimens, a large exotherm corresponding to material annealment was observed. Thus, a test procedure was developed to perform DSC and laser flashmore » analysis (LFA) to obtain the specific heat and thermal diffusivity of pre- and post-annealment specimens. This paper presents the thermal properties for three states of the MMC material: (1) unirradiated, (2) as-irradiated, and (3) irradiated and annealed. Microstructure-property relationships were obtained for the thermal conductivity. These relationships are useful for designing components from this material to operate in irradiation environments. Furthermore, the ability of this material to effectively conduct heat as a function of temperature, volume fraction Al 3Hf, radiation damage and annealing is assessed using the MOOSE suite of computational tools.« less

  5. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  6. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  7. First-charge instabilities of layered-layered lithium-ion-battery materials.

    PubMed

    Croy, Jason R; Iddir, Hakim; Gallagher, Kevin; Johnson, Christopher S; Benedek, Roy; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

    2015-10-07

    Li- and Mn-rich layered oxides with composition xLi2MnO3·(1 -x)LiMO2 enable high capacity and energy density Li-ion batteries, but suffer from degradation with cycling. Evidence of atomic instabilities during the first charge are addressed in this work with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, first principles simulation at the GGA+U level, and existing literature. The pristine material of composition xLi2MnO3·(1 -x)LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 is assumed in the simulations to have the form of LiMn2 stripes, alternating with NiMn stripes, in the metal layers. The charged state is simulated by removing Li from the Li layer, relaxing the resultant system by steepest descents, then allowing the structure to evolve by molecular dynamics at 1000 K, and finally relaxing the evolved system by steepest descents. The simulations show that about ¼ of the oxygen ions in the Li2MnO3 domains are displaced from their original lattice sites, and form oxygen-oxygen bonds, which significantly lowers the energy, relative to that of the starting structure in which the oxygen sublattice is intact. An important consequence of the displacement of the oxygen is that it enables about ⅓ of the (Li2MnO3 domain) Mn ions to migrate to the delithiated Li layers. The decrease in the coordination of the Mn ions is about twice that of the Ni ions. The approximate agreement of simulated coordination number deficits for Mn and Ni following the first charge with analysis of EXAFS measurements on 0.3Li2MnO3·0.7LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 suggests that the simulation captures significant features of the real material.

  8. Charge transport in quantum dot organic solar cells with Si quantum dots sandwiched between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) absorber and bathocuproine (BCP) transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Upendra Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh

    2017-10-01

    We have modeled a multilayer quantum dot organic solar cell that explores the current-voltage characteristic of the solar cell whose characteristics can be tuned by varying the fabrication parameters of the quantum dots (QDs). The modeled device consists of a hole transport layer (HTL) which doubles up as photon absorbing layer, several quantum dot layers, and an electron transport layer (ETL). The conduction of charge carriers in HTL and ETL has been modeled by the drift-diffusion transport mechanism. The conduction and recombination in the quantum dot layers are described by a system of coupled rate equations incorporating tunneling and bimolecular recombination. Analysis of QD-solar cells shows improved device performance compared to the similar bilayer and trilayer device structures without QDs. Keeping other design parameters constant, solar cell characteristics can be controlled by the quantum dot layers. Bimolecular recombination coefficient of quantum dots is a prime factor which controls the open circuit voltage (VOC) without any significant reduction in short circuit current (JSC).

  9. Failure modes and materials design for biomechanical layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan

    Ceramic materials are finding increasing usage in the area of biomechanical replacements---dental crowns, hip and bone implants, etc.---where strength, wear resistance, biocompatibility, chemical durability and even aesthetics are critical issues. Aesthetic ceramic crowns have been widely used in dentistry to replace damaged or missing teeth. However, the failure rates of ceramic crowns, especially all-ceramic crowns, can be 1%˜6% per year, which is not satisfactory to patients. The materials limitations and underlying fracture mechanisms of these prostheses are not well understood. In this thesis, fundamental fracture and damage mechanisms in model dental bilayer and trilayer structures are studied. Principle failure modes are identified from in situ experimentation and confirmed by fracture mechanics analysis. In bilayer structures of ceramic/polycarbonate (representative of ceramic crown/dentin structure), three major damage sources are identified: (i) top-surface cone cracks or (ii) quasiplasticity, dominating in thick ceramic bilayers; (iii) bottom-surface radial cracks, dominating in thin ceramic bilayers. Critical load P for each damage mode are measured in six dental ceramics: Y-TZP zirconia, glass-infiltrated zirconia and alumina (InCeram), glass-ceramic (Empress II), Porcelain (Mark II and Empress) bonded to polymer substrates, as a function of ceramic thickness d in the range of 100 mum to 10 mm. P is found independent of d for mode (i) and (ii), but has a d 2 relations for mode (iii)---bottom surface radial cracking. In trilayer structures of glass/core-ceramic/polycarbonate (representing veneer porcelain/core/dentin structures), three inner fracture origins are identified: radial cracks from the bottom surface in the (i) first and (ii) second layers; and (iii) quasiplasticity in core-ceramic layer. The role of relative veneer/core thickness, d1/d 2 and materials properties is investigated for three core materials with different modulus (114--270GPa

  10. Material transport in a wind and buoyancy forced mixed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensa, J. A.; Özgökmen, T.; Poje, A. C.; Imberger, J.

    2016-02-01

    Flows in the upper ocean mixed layer are responsible for the transport and dispersion of biogeochemical tracers, phytoplankton and buoyant pollutants, such as hydrocarbons from an oil spill. Material dispersion in mixed layer flows subject to diurnal buoyancy forcing and weak winds (|u10|=5ms-1) are investigated using a non-hydrostatic model. Both purely buoyancy-forced and combined wind- and buoyancy-forced flows are sampled using passive tracers, as well as 2D and 3D particles to explore characteristics of horizontal and vertical dispersion. It is found that the surface tracer patterns are determined by the convergence zones created by convection cells within a time scale of just a few hours. For pure convection, the results displayed the classic signature of Rayleigh-Benard cells. When combined with a wind stress, the convective cells become anisotropic in that the along-wind length scale gets much larger than the cross-wind scale. Horizontal relative dispersion computed by sampling the flow fields using both 2D and 3D passive particles is found to be consistent with the Richardson regime. Relative dispersion is an order of magnitude higher and 2D surface releases transition to Richardson regime faster in the wind-forced case. We also show that the buoyancy-forced case results in significantly lower amplitudes of scale-dependent horizontal relative diffusivity, kD(l), than those reported by Okubo (1970), while the wind- and buoyancy forced case shows a good agreement with Okubo's diffusivity amplitude, and scaling consistent with Richardson's 4/3rd law, kD(l) l4/3. The modelling results provide a framework for measuring material dispersion by mixed layer flow in future observational programs.

  11. Limitations of Cs3Bi2I9 as lead-free photovoltaic absorber materials.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Biplab; Wu, Bo; Mulmudi, Hemant Kumar; Guet, Claude; Weber, Klaus; Sum, Tze Chien; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Mathews, Nripan

    2018-01-17

    Lead (Pb) halide perovskites have attracted tremendous attention in recent years due to their rich optoelectronic properties, which have resulted in more than 22% power conversion efficient photovoltaics. Nevertheless, Pb-metal toxicity remains a huge hurdle for extensive applications of these compounds. Thus, alternative compounds with similar optoelectronic properties need to be developed. Bismuth possesses similar electronic structure as that of lead with the presence of ns2 electrons that exhibit rich structural variety as well as interesting optical and electronic properties. Herein, we critically assess Cs3Bi2I9 as a candidate for thin-film solar cell absorber. Despite a reasonable optical bandgap (~2eV) and absorption coefficient, the power conversion efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 mesoscopic solar cells was found to be severely lacking, limited by poor photocurrent density. The efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 solar cell can be slightly improved by changing the stoichiometry of the precursor solutions. We have investigated the possible reasons behind the poor performance of Cs3Bi2I9 by transient absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Comparison between thin-films and single crystals highlights the presence of intrinsic defects in thin-films which act as nonradiative recombination centers.

  12. Improving the efficiency of cadmium sulfide-sensitized titanium dioxide/indium tin oxide glass photoelectrodes using silver sulfide as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanocrystals are deposited on the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystalline film on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate to prepare CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO photoelectrodes through a new method known as the molecular precursor decomposition method. The Ag2S is interposed between the TiO2 nanocrystal film and CdS nanocrystals as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber. As a consequence, the energy conversion efficiency of the CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrodes is significantly improved. Under AM 1.5 G sunlight irradiation, the maximum efficiency achieved for the CdS(4)/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrode is 3.46%, corresponding to an increase of about 150% as compared to the CdS(4)/TiO2/ITO electrode without the Ag2S layer. Our experimental results show that the improved efficiency is mainly due to the formation of Ag2S layer that may increase the light absorbance and reduce the recombination of photogenerated electrons with redox ions from the electrolyte. PMID:25411566

  13. 3D-Printing ‘Smarter’ Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    Foams are, by nature, disordered materials studded with air pockets of varying sizes. Lack of control over the material’s architecture at the micrometer or nanometer scale can make it difficult to adjust the foam’s basic properties. But Eric Duoss and a team of Livermore researchers are using additive manufacturing to develop “smarter” silicone cushions. By architecting the structure at the micro scale, they are able to control macro-scale properties previously unachievable with foam materials.

  14. Comment on "Analysis of single-layer metamaterial absorber with reflection theory" [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 154906 (2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Nguyen Thanh

    2016-03-01

    In a recent paper, Xiong et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 154906 (2015)] presented the simulated results of a Jerusalem-cross structure in an attempt to elaborate their proposed reflection theory for metamaterial absorbers. Noting that even at non-resonant frequencies the real part of the permeability shows an over-high average value and its imaginary part drops abruptly from positivity to negativity, we argue that their simulated results are unphysical, resulting from an incomplete understanding of the retrieval procedure.

  15. Canyon transfer neutron absorber to fissile material ratio analysis. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmons, J.S.

    1994-03-04

    Waste tank fissile material and non-fissile material estimates are used to evaluate criticality safety for the existing sludge inventory and batches of sludge sent to Extended Sludge Processing (ESP). This report documents the weight ratios of several non-fissile waste constituents to fissile waste constituents from canyon reprocessing waste streams. Weight ratios of Fe, Mn, Al, Mi, and U-238 to fissile material are calculated from monthly loss estimates from the F and H Canyon Low Heat Waste (LHW) and High Heat Waste (HHW) streams. The monthly weight ratios for Fe, Mn and U-238 are then compared to calculated minimum safe weightmore » ratios. Documented minimum safe weight ratios for Al and Ni to fissile material are currently not available. Total mass data for the subject sludge constituents is provided along with scatter plots of the monthly weight ratios for each waste stream.« less

  16. Flexural properties and shock-absorbing capabilities of new face guard materials reinforced with fiberglass cloth.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keisuke; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Churei, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

     Experimental materials incorporating fiberglass cloth were used to develop a thin and lightweight face guard (FG). This study aims to evaluate the effect of fiberglass reinforcement on the flexural and shock absorption properties compared with conventional thermoplastic materials.  Four commercial 3.2-mm and 1.6-mm medical splint materials (Aquaplast, Polyform, Co-polymer, and Erkodur) and two experimental materials were examined for use in FGs. The experimental materials were prepared by embedding two or four sheets of a plain woven fiberglass cloth on both surfaces of 1.5-mm Aquaplast. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a three-point bending test. The shock absorption properties were evaluated for a 5200-N impact load using the first peak intensity with a load cell system and the maximum stress with a film sensor system.  The flexural strength (74.6 MPa) and flexural modulus (6.3 GPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly greater than those of the 3.2-mm commercial specimens, except for the flexural strength of one product. The first peak intensity (515 N) and maximum stress (2.2 MPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly lower than those of the commercial 3.2-mm specimens, except for one product for each property. These results suggest that the thickness and weight of the FG can be reduced using the experimental fiber-reinforced material. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Demonstration of passive saturable absorber by utilizing MWCNT-ABS filament as starting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuikafly, S. N. F.; Ahmad, F.; Ibrahim, M. H.; Latif, A. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    This work demonstrated a stable passively Q-switched laser with the employment MWCNTs dispersed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin (MWCNTs-ABS) based filament as passive saturable absorber. The simple fabrication process of the SA is further explained, started from the process of extruding the filament through a 3D printer nozzle at 210 °C to reduce the diameter from 1.75 mm to 200 μm. It is then weighed to about 25 mg and mixed with 1 ml acetone before sonicated for 5 minutes to dissolve the ABS. The resultant MWCNTs-acetone suspension is dropped on a glass slide to be characterized using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. It is also drop-casted on the end of a fiber ferrule to be integrated in the laser cavity. The proposed work revealed that the laser oscillated at about 1558 nm with threshold input pump power of 22.54 mW and maximum input pump power of 108.8 mW. The increase in pump power resulted in the increase in repetition rate where the pulse train increases from 8.96 kHz to 39.34 kHz while the pulse width decreases from 33.58 μs to 5.14 μs. The generated pulsed laser yields a maximum of 1.01 mW and 5.53 nJ of peak power and pulse energy respectively. The signal-to-noise ratio of 40 dB indicates that the generated pulse is stable.

  18. Prediction of the niche effect for single flat panels with or without attached sound absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Sgard, Franck; Atalla, Noureddine; Nélisse, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The sound transmission loss (STL) of a test sample measured in sound transmission facilities is affected by the opening in which it is located. This is called the niche effect. This paper uses a modal approach to study the STL of a rectangular plate with or without an attached porous material located inside a box-shaped niche. The porous material is modeled as a limp equivalent fluid. The proposed model is validated by comparison with finite element/boundary element computations. Using a condensation of the pressure fields in the niche, the niche effect is interpreted in terms of a modification of the modal blocked pressure fields acting on the panel induced by the front cavity and by a modification of the radiation efficiency of the panel modes due to the presence of the back cavity. The modal approach is then used to investigate the impact of (1) the presence of a porous material attached to the panel on the niche effect and (2) the niche effect on the assessment of the porous material insertion loss. A simplified model for the porous material based on a transfer matrix approach is also proposed to predict the STL of the system and its validity is discussed.

  19. The physical properties of black carbon and other light-absorbing material emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Yokelson, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fortner, E.; Onasch, T. B.; Akagi, S. K.; Taylor, J.; Coe, H.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted from fires absorbs light, leading to visibility degradation as well as regional and global climate impacts. Fires also emit a wide range of trace gases and particulates that can interact with emitted BC and alter its optical properties and atmospheric lifetime. Non-BC particulate species emitted by fires can also scatter and absorb light, leading to additional effects on visibility. Recent work has shown that certain organic species can absorb light strongly at shorter wavelengths, giving it a brown or yellow color. This material has been classified as brown carbon, though it is not yet well defined. Land managers must find a balance between the negative impacts of prescribed fire emissions on visibility and air quality and the need to prevent future catastrophic wildfire as well as manage ecosystems for habitat restoration or other purposes. This decision process requires accurate assessments of the visibility impacts of fire emissions, including BC and brown carbon, which in turn depend on their optical properties. We present recent laboratory and aircraft measurements of black carbon and aerosol optical properties emitted from biomass burning. All measurement campaigns included a single particle soot photometer (SP2) instrument capable of providing size-resolved measurements of BC mass and number distributions and mixing state, which are needed to separate the BC and brown carbon contributions to total light absorption. The laboratory experiments also included a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer that provided accurate measurements of aerosol light absorption. The laboratory systems also characterized emissions after they had been treated with a thermal denuder to remove semi-volatile coatings, allowing an assessment of the role of non-BC coatings on bulk aerosol optical properties. Emissions were also aged in an environmental smog chamber to examine the role of secondary aerosol production on aerosol optical properties.

  20. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Kun; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss's and Stokes's theorems have been related to Green's theorem in a novel way.

  1. Assessment of doses caused by electrons in thin layers of tissue-equivalent materials, using MCNP.

    PubMed

    Heide, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Absorbed doses caused by electron irradiation were calculated with Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP) for thin layers of tissue-equivalent materials. The layers were so thin that the calculation of energy deposition was on the border of the scope of MCNP. Therefore, in this article application of three different methods of calculation of energy deposition is discussed. This was done by means of two scenarios: in the first one, electrons were emitted from the centre of a sphere of water and also recorded in that sphere; and in the second, an irradiation with the PTB Secondary Standard BSS2 was modelled, where electrons were emitted from an (90)Sr/(90)Y area source and recorded inside a cuboid phantom made of tissue-equivalent material. The speed and accuracy of the different methods were of interest. While a significant difference in accuracy was visible for one method in the first scenario, the difference in accuracy of the three methods was insignificant for the second one. Considerable differences in speed were found for both scenarios. In order to demonstrate the need for calculating the dose in thin small zones, a third scenario was constructed and simulated as well. The third scenario was nearly equal to the second one, but a pike of lead was assumed to be inside the phantom in addition. A dose enhancement (caused by the pike of lead) of ∼113 % was recorded for a thin hollow cylinder at a depth of 0.007 cm, which the basal-skin layer is referred to in particular. Dose enhancements between 68 and 88 % were found for a slab with a radius of 0.09 cm for all depths. All dose enhancements were hardly noticeable for a slab with a cross-sectional area of 1 cm(2), which is usually applied to operational radiation protection.

  2. Enhancement of near-infrared detectability from InGaZnO thin film transistor with MoS2 light absorbing layer.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sang Woo; Chu, Dongil; Song, Da Ye; Lee, Seung Kyo; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2017-11-24

    We report an enhancement of near-infrared (NIR) detectability from amorphous InGaZnO (α-IGZO) thin film transistor in conjunction with randomly distributed molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) flakes. The electrical characteristics of the α-IGZO grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering exhibit high effective mobility exceeding 15 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and current on/off ratio up to 10 7 . By taking advantages of the high quality α-IGZO and MoS 2 light absorbing layer, photodetection spectra are able to extend from ultra-violet to NIR range. The α-IGZO channel detector capped by MoS 2 show a photo-responsivity of approximately 14.9 mA W -1 at 1100 nm wavelength, which is five times higher than of the α-IGZO device without MoS 2 layer.

  3. Enhancement of near-infrared detectability from InGaZnO thin film transistor with MoS2 light absorbing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Sang Woo; Chu, Dongil; Song, Da Ye; Kyo Lee, Seung; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2017-11-01

    We report an enhancement of near-infrared (NIR) detectability from amorphous InGaZnO (α-IGZO) thin film transistor in conjunction with randomly distributed molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flakes. The electrical characteristics of the α-IGZO grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering exhibit high effective mobility exceeding 15 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current on/off ratio up to 107. By taking advantages of the high quality α-IGZO and MoS2 light absorbing layer, photodetection spectra are able to extend from ultra-violet to NIR range. The α-IGZO channel detector capped by MoS2 show a photo-responsivity of approximately 14.9 mA W-1 at 1100 nm wavelength, which is five times higher than of the α-IGZO device without MoS2 layer.

  4. Evaluation of van der Waals density functionals for layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Gould, Tim; Stampfl, Catherine; Ford, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    In 2012, Björkman et al. posed the question "Are we van der Waals ready?" [T. Björkman et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 424218 (2012), 10.1088/0953-8984/24/42/424218] about the ability of ab initio modeling to reproduce van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces in layered materials. The answer at that time was no, however. Here we report on a new generation of vdW dispersion models and show that one, i.e., the fractionally ionic atom theory with many-body dispersions, offers close to quantitative predictions for layered structures. Furthermore, it does so from a qualitatively correct picture of dispersion forces. Other methods, such as D3 and optB88vdW, also work well, albeit with some exceptions. We thus argue that we are nearly vdW ready and that some modern dispersion methods are accurate enough to be used for nanomaterial prediction, albeit with some caution required.

  5. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  6. Dynamical Effects in Metal-Organic Frameworks: The Microporous Materials as Shock Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of nano-porous crystalline solids consisting of inorganic units coordinated to organic linkers. The unique molecular structures and outstanding properties with ultra-high porosity and tunable chemical functionality by various choices of metal clusters and organic ligands make this class of materials attractive for many applications. The complex and quite unique responses of these materials to mechanical loading including void collapse make them attractive for applications in energy absorption and storage. We will present using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate shock propagation in zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 and MOF-5. We find that for shock strengths above a threshold a two-wave structure develops with a leading elastic precursor followed by a second wave of structural collapse to relax the stress. Structural transition of MOFs in response to shock waves corresponds to the transition between two Hugoniot curves, and results in abrupt change in temperature. The pore-collapse wave propagates at slower velocity than the leading wave and weakens it, resulting in shock attenuation. Increasing piston speed results in faster propagation of pore-collapse wave, but the leading elastic wave remains unchanged below the overdriven regime. We discuss how the molecular structure of the MOFs and shock propagation direction affect the response of the materials and their ability to weaken shocks. Office of Naval Research, MURI 2012 02341 01.

  7. Toward “Green” Hybrid Materials: Core–Shell Particles with Enhanced Impact Energy Absorbing Ability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Restrained properties of “green” degradable products drive the creation of materials with innovative structures and retained eco-attributes. Herein, we introduce the creation of impact modifiers in the form of core–shell (CS) particles toward the creation of “green” composite materials. Particles with CS structure constituted of PLA stereocomplex (PLASC) and a rubbery phase of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-d,l-lactide) (P[CL-co-LA]) were successfully achieved by spray droplet atomization. A synergistic association of the soft P[CL-co-LA] and hard PLASC domains in the core–shell structure induced unique thermo-mechanical effects on the PLA-based composites. The core–shell particles enhanced the crystallization of PLA matrices by acting as nucleating agents. The core–shell particles functioned efficiently as impact modifiers with minimal effect on the composites stiffness and strength. These findings provide a new platform for scalable design of polymeric-based structures to be used in the creation of advanced degradable materials. PMID:29503773

  8. Correlation between the physical parameters of the i-nc-Si absorber layer grown by 27.12 MHz plasma with the nc-Si solar cell parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debajyoti; Mondal, Praloy

    2017-09-01

    Growth of highly conducting nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films of optimum crystalline volume fraction, involving dominant <220> crystallographic preferred orientation with simultaneous low fraction of microstructures at a low substrate temperature and high growth rate, is a challenging task for its promising utilization in nc-Si solar cells. Utilizing enhanced electron density and superior ion flux densities of the high frequency (∼27.12 MHz) SiH4 plasma, improved nc-Si films have been produced by simple optimization of H2-dilution, controlling the ion damage and enhancing supply of atomic-hydrogen onto the growing surface. Single junction nc-Si p-i-n solar cells have been prepared with i-nc-Si absorber layer and optimized. The physical parameters of the absorber layer have been systematically correlated to variations of the solar cell parameters. The preferred <220> alignment of crystallites, its contribution to the low recombination losses for conduction of charge carriers along the vertical direction, its spectroscopic correlation with the dominant growth of ultra-nanocrystalline silicon (unc-Si) component and corresponding longer wavelength absorption, especially in the neighborhood of i/n-interface region recognize scientific and technological key issues that pave the ground for imminent advancement of multi-junction silicon solar cells.

  9. Si3 AlP: A New Promising Material for Solar Cell Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihui; Zhai, Yingteng; Liu, Hengrui; Xiang, Hongjun; Gong, Xingao; Wei, Suhuai

    2014-03-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to study the structural and optoelectronic properties of the newly synthesized nonisovalent and lattice-matched (Si2)0.6(AlP)0.4 alloy [T. Watkins et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 16212.] The most stable structure of Si3AlP is a superlattice along the <111>direction with separated AlP and Si layers, which has a similar optical absorption spectrum to silicon. The ordered C1c1-Si3AlP is found to be the most stable one among all the structures with -AlPSi3- motifs, in agreement with the experimental suggestions. We predict that C1c1-Si3AlP has good optical properties, i.e., it has a larger fundamental band gap and a smaller direct band gap than Si, thus it has much higher absorption in the visible light region, making it a promising candidate for improving the performance of the existing Si-based solar cells.

  10. Elastic, Frictional, Strength and Dynamic Characteristics of the Bell Shape Shock Absorbers Made of MR Wire Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutkin, G. V.; Davydov, D. P.; Boyarov, K. V.; Volkova, T. V.

    2018-01-01

    The results of the mechanical characteristic experimental studies are presented for the shock absorbers of DKU type with the elastic elements of the bell shape made of MR material and obtained by the cold pressing of mutually crossing wire spirals with their inclusion in the array of reinforcing wire harnesses. The design analysis and the technology of MR production based on the methods of similarity theory and dimensional analysis revealed the dimensionless determined and determining parameters of elastic frictional, dynamic and strength characteristics under the static and dynamic loading of vibration isolators. The main similarity criteria of mechanical characteristics for vibration isolators and their graphical and analytical representation are determined, taking into account the coefficients of these (affine) transformations of the hysteresis loop family field.

  11. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-08-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications.

  12. Tunable microwave absorbing nano-material for X-band applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Imran; Naseem, Shahzad; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Khan, M. A.; Niaz, Shanawer; Rana, M. U.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of rare earth elements substitution in Sr1.96RE0.04Co2Fe27.80Mn0.2O46 (RE=Ce, Gd, Nd, La and Sm) X-type hexagonal ferrites prepared by using sol gel autocombustion method was studied. The XRD and FTIR analysis show the single phase of the prepared material. The lattice constants a (Å) and c (Å) varies with the additives. The particle size measured by Scherer formula for all the samples varies in the range of 54-100 nm and confirmed by the TEM analysis. The average grain size measured by SEM analysis lies in the range of 0.672-1.01 μm for all the samples. The Gd-substituted ferrite has higher value of coercivity (526.06 G) among all the samples which could be a good material for longitudinal recording media. The results also indicate that the Gd-substituted sample has maximum reflection loss of -25.2 dB at 11.878 GHz, can exhibit the best microwave absorption properties among all the substituted samples. Furthermore, the minimum value of reflection loss shifts towards the lower and higher frequencies with the substitution of rare earth elements which confirms that the microwave absorption properties can be tuned with the substitution of rare earth elements in pure ferrites. The peak value of attenuation constant at higher frequency agrees well the reflection loss data.

  13. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-01-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications. PMID:27501762

  14. Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material.

    PubMed

    Lu, S B; Miao, L L; Guo, Z N; Qi, X; Zhao, C J; Zhang, H; Wen, S C; Tang, D Y; Fan, D Y

    2015-05-04

    Black phosphorous (BP), the most thermodynamically stable allotrope of phosphorus, is a high-mobility layered semiconductor with direct band-gap determined by the number of layers from 0.3 eV (bulk) to 2.0 eV (single layer). Therefore, BP is considered as a natural candidate for broadband optical applications, particularly in the infrared (IR) and mid-IR part of the spectrum. The strong light-matter interaction, narrow direct band-gap, and wide range of tunable optical response make BP as a promising nonlinear optical material, particularly with great potentials for infrared and mid-infrared opto-electronics. Herein, we experimentally verified its broadband and enhanced saturable absorption of multi-layer BP (with a thickness of ~10 nm) by wide-band Z-scan measurement technique, and anticipated that multi-layer BPs could be developed as another new type of two-dimensional saturable absorber with operation bandwidth ranging from the visible (400 nm) towards mid-IR (at least 1930 nm). Our results might suggest that ultra-thin multi-layer BP films could be potentially developed as broadband ultra-fast photonics devices, such as passive Q-switcher, mode-locker, optical switcher etc.

  15. Quantum storage of heralded polarization qubits in birefringent and anisotropically absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Christoph; Bussières, Félix; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-05-11

    Storage of quantum information encoded into heralded single photons is an essential constituent of long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters and of optical quantum information processing. The storage of photonic polarization qubits is, however, difficult because many materials are birefringent and have polarization-dependent absorption. Here we present a simple scheme that eliminates these polarization effects, and we demonstrate it by storing heralded polarization qubits into a solid-state quantum memory. The quantum memory is implemented with a biaxial yttrium orthosilicate (Y2SiO5) crystal doped with rare-earth ions. Heralded single photons generated from a filtered spontaneous parametric down-conversion source are stored, and quantum state tomography of the retrieved polarization state reveals an average fidelity of 97.5±0.4%, which is significantly higher than what is achievable with a measure-and-prepare strategy.

  16. [Using UV-Vis Absorbance for Characterization of Maturity in Composting Process with Different Materials].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Yang; Xi, Bei-dou; Wei, Zi-min; Wang, Xing-lei; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Ding, Jei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the degree of humification in DOM during composting using different raw materials, and their effect on maturity of compost based on UV-Vis spectra measurements and chemometrics method. The raw materials of composting studied included chicken manure, pig manure, kitchen waste, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, straw waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste. During composting, the parameters of UV-Vis spectra of DOM, including SUVA254 , SUVA280 , E250/E365, E4/E6, E2/E4, E2/E6, E253/E203, E253/E220, A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 were calculated, Statistical analysis indicated that all the parameter were significantly changed during composting. SUVA254 and SUVA280 of DOM were continuously increased, E250/E365 and E4/E6 were continuously decreased in DOM, while A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 of DOM at the final stage were significantly different with those at other stages of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that the parameters were significantly correlated with each other except for E2/E4 and E235/E203. Furthermore, principal component analysis suggested that A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275~295 were reasonable parameters for assessing the compost maturity. To distinguish maturity degree among different composts, hierarchical cluster analysis, an integrated tool utilizing multiple UV-Vis parameters, was performed based on the data (A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275-295) of DOM derived from the final stage of composting. Composts from different sources were clustered into 2 groups. The first group included chicken manure, pig manure, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste characterized by a lower maturity degree, and the second group contained straw waste and kitchen waste associated with a higher maturity degree. The above results suggest that a multi-index of UV-Vis spectra could accurately evaluate the compost maturity

  17. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process-Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Fabian; Hanft, Dominik; Gujar, Tanaji P; Kahle, Frank-Julian; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Köhler, Anna; Moos, Ralf

    2016-04-08

    We present the successful fabrication of CH₃NH₃PbI₃ perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM). The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  18. Bottom-up approach for microstructure optimization of sound absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Camille; Chevillotte, Fabien; Panneton, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    Results from a numerical study examining micro-/macrorelations linking local geometry parameters to sound absorption properties are presented. For a hexagonal structure of solid fibers, the porosity phi, the thermal characteristic length Lambda('), the static viscous permeability k(0), the tortuosity alpha(infinity), the viscous characteristic length Lambda, and the sound absorption coefficient are computed. Numerical solutions of the steady Stokes and electrical equations are employed to provide k(0), alpha(infinity), and Lambda. Hybrid estimates based on direct numerical evaluation of phi, Lambda('), k(0), alpha(infinity), Lambda, and the analytical model derived by Johnson, Allard, and Champoux are used to relate varying (i) throat size, (ii) pore size, and (iii) fibers' cross-section shapes to the sound absorption spectrum. The result of this paper tends to demonstrate the important effect of throat size in the sound absorption level, cell size in the sound absorption frequency selectivity, and fibers' cross-section shape in the porous material weight reduction. In a hexagonal porous structure with solid fibers, the sound absorption level will tend to be maximized with a 48+/-10 microm throat size corresponding to an intermediate resistivity, a 13+/-8 microm fiber radius associated with relatively small interfiber distances, and convex triangular cross-section shape fibers allowing weight reduction.

  19. Efficiency of ablative loading of material upon the fast-electron transfer of absorbed laser energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Kasperczuk, A; Pisarczyk, T

    2006-05-31

    We present the results of experiments on the short-term irradiation of a solid material by a laser beam. The data testify to a rise in efficiency of the energy transfer from the laser pulse to a shock wave due to the fast-electron energy transfer. The experiments were performed with massive aluminium targets on the PALS iodine laser, whose pulse duration (0.4 ns) was much shorter than the time of shock decay and crater formation in the target (50-200 ns). The irradiation experiments were carried out using the fundamental laser harmonic (1.315 {mu}m) with an energy of 360 J. The greatermore » part of the experiments were performed for the radiation intensity exceeding 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}, which corresponded to the efficient generation of fast electrons under the conditions where the relatively long-wavelength iodine-laser radiation was employed. The irradiation intensity was varied by varying the laser beam radius for a specified pulse energy. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)« less

  20. Layered assembly of graphene oxide and Co-Al layered double hydroxide nanosheets as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Dong; Dong, Xin Yi; Zhang, Zhi Jun; Pei, Xian Feng; Chen, Xin Jiang; Chen, Biao; Jin, Jian

    2011-03-28

    An innovative strategy of fabricating electrode material by layered assembling two kinds of one-atom-thick sheets, carboxylated graphene oxide (GO) and Co-Al layered double hydroxide nanosheet (Co-Al LDH-NS) for the application as a pseudocapacitor is reported. The Co-Al LDH-NS/GO composite exhibits good energy storage properties.

  1. Systematic approaches to layered materials with strong electron correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chung-Hou

    I present systematic large-N approaches to study the ground state magnetic orderings and charge transport of layered materials with strong electron correlations, including the organic material kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2X, and the antiferromagnetic insulators Cs2CuCl4 and SrCu2(BO3) 2. I model the electronic properties of the organic materials kappa-(BEDT-TTF) 2X with a fermionic SU(N) Hubbard-Heisenberg model on an anisotropic triangular lattice. The ground state phase diagram shows a metal-insulator transition and a depression of the density of states in the metallic phase which are consistent with the experiments. The magnetic properties of kappa-(BEDT-TTF) 2X are modeled by a bosonic Sp(N) quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the same lattice. The phase diagram consists of five different phases as a function of the size of the spin and the degree of frustration: the Neel ordered phase, a (pi, pi) short-range-order (SRO) phase, an incommensurate (q, q) long-range-order (LRO) phase, a (q, q) SRO phase, and a decoupled chain phase. I apply the same Sp(N) approach on the same triangular lattice to model the magnetic properties of Cs2CuCl 4 both with and without a magnetic field. At zero field, I find the ground state either exhibits incommensurate spin order, or is in a quantum disordered phase with deconfined spin-1/2 excitations and topological order. The Sp(N) calculation of spin excitation spectrum shows a large upward quantum renormalization consistent with that seen in experiments. For fields perpendicular to the plane of spin rotation, I find that the spins form an incommensurate "cone" of polarization up to a saturation field where all spins are fully polarized. There is a large quantum renormalization of the zero-field incommensuration. The results are in apparent agreement with neutron scattering experiments. Finally, the magnetic properties of the insulator SrCu2(BO 3)2 is modeled by the Sp(N) quantum antiferromagnet on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice. In addition

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Nonionic Surfactant Aggregates in Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Guégan, Régis; Veron, Emmanuel; Le Forestier, Lydie; Ogawa, Makoto; Cadars, Sylvian

    2017-09-26

    The aggregation of surfactants on solid surfaces as they are adsorbed from solution is the basis of numerous technological applications such as colloidal stabilization, ore flotation, and floor cleaning. The understanding of both the structure and the dynamics of surfactant aggregates applies to the development of alternative ways of preparing hybrid layered materials. For this purpose, we study the adsorption of the triethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether (C 10 E 3 ) nonionic surfactant onto a synthetic montmorillonite (Mt), an aluminosilicate clay mineral for organoclay preparation with important applications in materials sciences, catalysis, wastewater treatment, or as drug delivery. The aggregation mechanisms follow those observed in an analogous natural Mt, with the condensation of C 10 E 3 in a bilayer arrangement once the surfactant self-assembles in a lamellar phase beyond the critical micelle concentration, underlining the importance of the surfactant state in solution. Solid-state 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) and high magnetic field combined with 1 H- 13 C correlation experiments and different types of 13 C NMR experiments selectively probes mobile or rigid moieties of C 10 E 3 in three different aggregate organizations: (i) a lateral monolayer, (ii) a lateral bilayer, and (iii) a normal bilayer. High-resolution 1 H{ 27 Al} CP- 1 H- 1 H spin diffusion experiments shed light on the proximities and dynamics of the different fragments and fractions of the intercalated surfactant molecules with respect to the Mt surface. 23 Na and 1 H NMR measurements combined with complementary NMR data, at both molecular and nanometer scales, precisely pointed out the location of the C 10 E 3 ethylene oxide hydrophilic group in close contact with the Mt surface interacting through ion-dipole or van der Waals interactions.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of toe board energy-absorbing material for foot, ankle, and lower leg injury reduction.

    PubMed

    Patalak, John P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2018-02-17

    Since 2000, numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNRs), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets, and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging. Though the drivers' legs are well contained for lateral and vertical crashes, they remain largely unrestrained in frontal and frontal oblique crashes. Sled testing was conducted for the evaluation of an energy-absorbing (EA) toe board material to be used as a countermeasure for leg and foot injuries. Testing included baseline rigid toe boards, tests with EA material-covered toe boards, and pretest positioning of the 50th percentile male frontal Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower extremities. ATD leg and foot instrumentation included foot acceleration and tibia forces and moments. The sled test data were evaluated using established injury criteria for tibial plateau fractures, leg shaft fractures, and calcaneus, talus, ankle, and midfoot fractures. A polyurethane EA foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system.

  4. Estimating the Direct Radiative Effect of Absorbing Aerosols Overlying Marine Boundary Layer Clouds in the Southeast Atlantic Using MODIS and CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin

    2013-01-01

    Absorbing aerosols such as smoke strongly absorb solar radiation, particularly at ultraviolet and visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) wavelengths, and their presence above clouds can have considerable implications. It has been previously shown that they have a positive (i.e., warming) direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) when overlying bright clouds. Additionally, they can cause biased passive instrument satellite retrievals in techniques that rely on VIS/NIR wavelengths for inferring the cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (re) of underlying clouds, which can in turn yield biased above-cloud DARE estimates. Here we investigate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical property retrieval biases due to overlying absorbing aerosols observed by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and examine the impact of these biases on above-cloud DARE estimates. The investigation focuses on a region in the southeast Atlantic Ocean during August and September (2006-2011), where smoke from biomass burning in southern Africa overlies persistent marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds. Adjusting for above-cloud aerosol attenuation yields increases in the regional mean liquid COT (averaged over all ocean-only liquid clouds) by roughly 6%; mean re increases by roughly 2.6%, almost exclusively due to the COT adjustment in the non-orthogonal retrieval space. It is found that these two biases lead to an underestimate of DARE. For liquid cloud Aqua MODIS pixels with CALIOP-observed above-cloud smoke, the regional mean above-cloud radiative forcing efficiency (DARE per unit aerosol optical depth (AOD)) at time of observation (near local noon for Aqua overpass) increases from 50.9Wm(sup-2)AOD(sup-1) to 65.1Wm(sup-2)AOD(sup -1) when using bias-adjusted instead of nonadjusted MODIS cloud retrievals.

  5. Synthesis and study of photovoltaic performance on various photoelectrode materials for DSSCs: Optimization of compact layer on nanometer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, Subramanian; Thangamuthu, Rangasamy; Senthil Kumar, Sakkarapalayam Murugesan; Murugadoss, Govindhasamy

    2017-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have gained widespread attention in recent years because of their low production costs, ease of fabrication process and tuneable optical properties, such as colour and transparency. In this work, we explored a strategy wherein nanoparticles of pure TiO2, TiO2sbnd SnO2 nanocomposite, Sn (10%) doped TiO2 and SnO2 synthesized by the simple chemical precipitation method were employed as photoelectrodes to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. The nanoparticles were characterized by different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM with EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution electron microscopy (HR-TEM), UV-Visible absorbance (UV-vis), photoluminescence (PL), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Moreover, we also demonstrated the effect of thin compact layer in DSSCs by architecture with various precursor materials of different concentrations. We found that the optimized compact layer material TDIP (titanium diisopropoxide) with a concentration of 0.3 M % is produced the highest efficiency of 2.25% for Sn (10%) doped TiO2 electron transport material (ETM) and 4.38% was achieved for pure TiO2 ETM using SnCl2 compact layer with 0.1 M concentrations.

  6. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-11-01

    The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR)

    PubMed Central

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method (“rinse-wipe-rinse”) for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants. PMID:28152053

  8. Methods of Fabricating a Layer of Metallic Glass-Based Material Using Immersion and Pouring Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement layers of metallic glass-based materials. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating a layer of metallic glass includes: applying a coating layer of liquid phase metallic glass to an object, the coating layer being applied in a sufficient quantity such that the surface tension of the liquid phase metallic glass causes the coating layer to have a smooth surface; where the metallic glass has a critical cooling rate less than 1000 K/s; and cooling the coating layer of liquid phase metallic glass to form a layer of solid phase metallic glass.

  9. Evaluation of absorbed dose in irradiated sugar-containing plant material (peony roots) by an ESR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of irradiated plant materials and sugar content was investigated by spectral analysis using peony roots. A weak background signal near g=2.005 was observed in the roots. After a 10 kGy irradiation, the ESR line broadened and the intensity increased, and the spectral characteristics were similar to a typical spectrum of irradiated food containing crystalline sugars. The free radical concentration was nearly stable 30 days after irradiation. The spectrum of peony root 30 days after irradiation was simulated using the summation of the intensities of six assumed components: radical signals derived from (a) sucrose, (b) glucose, (c) fructose, (d) cellulose, (e) the background signal near g=2.005 and (f) unidentified component. The simulated spectra using the six components were in agreement with the observed sample spectra. The intensity of sucrose radical signal in irradiated samples increased proportionally up to 20 kGy. In addition, the intensity of sucrose radical signals was strongly correlated with the sucrose contents of the samples. The results showed that the radiation sensitivity of sucrose in peony roots was influenced little by other plant constituents. There was also a good correlation between the total area of the spectra and the sucrose content, because the sucrose content was higher than that of other sugars in the samples. In peony roots, estimation of the absorbed dose from the ESR signal intensity may be possible by a calibration method based on the sucrose content.

  10. Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Thin film Photovoltaic Absorber Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandur, Abhishek; White, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) has become the subject of intense interest because it is an ideal candidate absorber material for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap (1.5 eV), high absorption coefficient (104 cm-1) and abundant elemental components. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) provides excellent control over film composition since thin films are deposited under high vacuum with excellent stoichiometry transfer from the target. CZTS thin films were deposited using PLD from a stoichiometrically close CZTS target (Cu2.6Zn1.1Sn0.7S3.44). The effects of laser energy fluence and substrate temperature and post-deposition sulfur annealing on the surface morphology, composition and optical absorption have been investigated. Optimal CZTS thin films exhibited a band gap of 1.54 eV with an absorption coefficient of 4x104cm-1. A solar cell utilizing PLD grown CZTS with the structure SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO showed a conversion efficiency of 5.85% with Voc = 376 mV, Jsc = 38.9 mA/cm2 and Fill Factor, FF = 0.40.

  11. Application of Mobility Spectrum Analysis to Modern Multi-layered IR Device Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander Earl

    Modern detector materials used for infrared (IR) imaging purposes contain complex multi-layered architectures, making more robust characterization techniques necessary. In order to determine mutli-carrier transport properties in the presence of mixed conduction, variable-field Hall characterization can be performed and then analyzed using mobility spectrum analysis to extract parameters of interest. Transport parameters are expected to aid in modeling and simulation of materials and can be used in optimization of particular problem areas. The performances of infrared devices ultimately depend on transport mechanisms, so an accurate determination becomes paramount. This work focuses on the characterization of two materials at the forefront of IR detectors; incumbent, tried and true, HgCdTe technologies and emergent III-V based superlattice structures holding much promise for future detector purposes. Ex-situ doped long-wave planar devices and in-situ doped mid-wave dual-layer heterojunctions (P+/n architecture) HgCdTe structures are explored with regards to substrate choice, namely lattice-matched CdZnTe and lattice-mismatched Si or GaAs. A detailed study of scattering mechanisms reveal that growth on lattice-mismatched substrates leads to dislocation scattering limited mobility at low temperature, correlating with extrinsically limited minority carrier lifetime and excesses diode tunneling current, resulting in overall lower performance. Mobility spectrum analysis proves to be an effective diagnostic on performance as well as providing insight in surface, substrate-interface, and minority carrier transport. Two main issues limiting performance of III-V based superlattices are addressed; high residual doping backgrounds and surface passivation. Mobility spectrum analysis proves to be a reliable method of determining background doping levels. Modest improvements are obtained via post-growth thermal annealing, but results suggest future efforts should be placed upon

  12. Low RF Reflectivity Spacecraft Thermal Blanket by Using High-Impedance Surface Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F.; Monorchio, A.; Carrubba, E.; Zolesi, V.

    2012-05-01

    A technique for designing a low-RF reflectivity thermal blanket is presented. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets are employed to stabilize the temperature on spacecraft unit but they can be responsible of passive intermodulation products and high-mutual coupling between antennas since they are realized with metallic materials. The possibility to replace the last inner layer of a MLI blanket with an ultra-thin absorbing layer made of high-impedance surface absorber is discussed.

  13. The Perfectly Matched Layer absorbing boundary for fluid-structure interactions using the Immersed Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jubiao; Yu, Feimi; Krane, Michael; Zhang, Lucy T

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a non-reflective boundary condition, the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique, is adapted and implemented in a fluid-structure interaction numerical framework to demonstrate that proper boundary conditions are not only necessary to capture correct wave propagations in a flow field, but also its interacted solid behavior and responses. While most research on the topics of the non-reflective boundary conditions are focused on fluids, little effort has been done in a fluid-structure interaction setting. In this study, the effectiveness of the PML is closely examined in both pure fluid and fluid-structure interaction settings upon incorporating the PML algorithm in a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction framework, the Immersed Finite Element Method. The performance of the PML boundary condition is evaluated and compared to reference solutions with a variety of benchmark test cases including known and expected solutions of aeroacoustic wave propagation as well as vortex shedding and advection. The application of the PML in numerical simulations of fluid-structure interaction is then investigated to demonstrate the efficacy and necessity of such boundary treatment in order to capture the correct solid deformation and flow field without the requirement of a significantly large computational domain.

  14. Deposition of ultra thin CuInS₂ absorber layers by ALD for thin film solar cells at low temperature (down to 150 °C).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nathanaelle; Bouttemy, Muriel; Genevée, Pascal; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2015-02-06

    Two new processes for the atomic layer deposition of copper indium sulfide (CuInS₂) based on the use of two different sets of precursors are reported. Metal chloride precursors (CuCl, InCl₃) in combination with H2S imply relatively high deposition temperature (Tdep = 380 °C), and due to exchange reactions, CuInS₂ stoechiometry was only achieved by depositing In₂S3 layers on a CuxS film. However, the use of acac- metal precursors (Cu(acac)₂, In(acac)₃) allows the direct deposition of CuInS₂ at temperature as low as 150 °C, involving in situ copper-reduction, exchange reaction and diffusion processes. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition and optical band gap of thin films were investigated using scanning electronic microscope, x-ray diffraction under grazing incidence conditions, x-ray fluorescence, energy dispersive spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Films were implemented as ultra-thin absorbers in a typical CIS-solar cell architecture and allowed conversion efficiencies up to 2.8%.

  15. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320-400 nm) and UV-B (290-320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  16. Oxide-based materials by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek; Pietruszka, Rafał; Kaszewski, Jarosław; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Gierałtowska, Sylwia; Wachnicki, Łukasz; Godlewski, Michał M.; Slonska, Anna; Gajewski, Zdzisław

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of wide band-gap oxides grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) are suitable for a range of applications. Some of these applications will be presented. First of all, ALD-grown high-k HfO2 is used as a gate oxide in the electronic devices. Moreover, ALD-grown oxides can be used in memory devices, in transparent transistors, or as elements of solar cells. Regarding photovoltaics (PV), ALD-grown thin films of Al2O3 are already used as anti-reflection layers. In addition, thin films of ZnO are tested as replacement of ITO in PV devices. New applications in organic photovoltaics, electronics and optoelectronics are also demonstrated Considering new applications, the same layers, as used in electronics, can also find applications in biology, medicine and in a food industry. This is because layers of high-k oxides show antibacterial activity, as discussed in this work.

  17. Understanding Thermal Transport in Graded, Layered and Hybrid Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    interfacial chemistries, including metallic and carbide layers, and; (iv) mimic the observed interface structure on a TDTR specimen by manipulating the...surface carbides , which were extracted from several different composites via acid dissolution of Cu, continued throughout the last 12 months of the...effort. The previously-reported electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) based techniques were employed to estimate the interfacial carbide layer thickness

  18. The design of broadband radar absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suk, Go H.

    1990-09-01

    There has been a growing and widespread interest in radar absorbing material technology. As the name implies, radar absorbing materials or RAM's are coatings whose electric and magnetic properties have been selected to allow the absorption of microwave energy at discrete or broadband frequencies. In military applications low radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle may be required in order to escape detection while a covert mission is being carried on. These requirements have led to the very low observable or stealth technology that reduces the probability of detection of an aircraft. The design of radar absorbing materials is limited by constraints on the allowable volume and weight of the surface coating, and it is difficult to design a broadband radar absorbing structure in limited volume. This thesis investigates the use of lossy dielectric materials of high dielectric permittivity in multilayer composites for the production of low radar cross section (RCS). The analysis is done by computing the plane wave reflection coefficient at the exterior surface of the composite coating by means of a computer program which selects layer parameters which determine low reflection coefficients for electromagnetic radiation under constraint of limited layer thickness as well as maximum frequency bandwidth.

  19. Study on the Mechanical Properties of Bionic Coupling Layered B4C/5083Al Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Liu, Qingping; Zhang, Zhihui; Yu, Zhenglei; Ren, Luquan

    2018-01-01

    Based on microstructure characteristics of Meretrix lusoria shell and Rapana venosa shell, bionic coupling layered B4C/5083Al composites with different layered structures and hard/soft combination models were fabricated via hot pressed sintering. The simplified bionic coupling models with hard and soft layers were similar to layered structure and hardness tendency of shells, guiding the bionic design and fabrication. B4C/5083Al composites with various B4C contents and pure 5083Al were treated as hard and soft layers, respectively. Hot pressed sintering maintained the designed bionic structure and enhanced high bonding strength between ceramics and matrix. Compared with B4C/5083Al composites, bionic layered composites exhibited high mechanical properties including flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness. The hard layers absorbed applied loads in the form of intergranular fracture. Besides connection role, soft layers restrained slabbing phenomenon and reset extension direction of cracks among layers. The coupling functions of bionic composites proved the feasibility and practicability of bionic fabrication, providing a new method for improvement of ceramic/Al composite with properties of being lightweight and high mechanical strength. PMID:29701707

  20. Metamaterial Absorber Based Multifunctional Sensor Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Z.; Mamedov, A. M.; Ozbay, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study metamaterial based (MA) absorber sensor, integrated with an X-band waveguide, is numerically and experimentally suggested for important application including pressure, density sensing and marble type detecting applications based on rectangular split ring resonator, sensor layer and absorber layer that measures of changing in the dielectric constant and/or the thickness of a sensor layer. Changing of physical, chemical or biological parameters in the sensor layer can be detected by measuring the resonant frequency shifting of metamaterial absorber based sensor. Suggested MA based absorber sensor can be used for medical, biological, agricultural and chemical detecting applications in microwave frequency band. We compare the simulation and experimentally obtained results from the fabricated sample which are good agreement. Simulation results show that the proposed structure can detect the changing of the refractive indexes of different materials via special resonance frequencies, thus it could be said that the MA-based sensors have high sensitivity. Additionally due to the simple and tiny structures it could be adapted to other electronic devices in different sizes.

  1. Noise and vibration level reduction by covering metal structures with layers of damping materials. [considering viscoelastic insulation layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rugina, I.; Paven, H. T. O.

    1974-01-01

    One of the most important methods of reducing the noise and vibration level is the damping of the secondary sources, such as metal plates, often used in vehicle structures, by means of covering materials with high internal viscosity. Damping layers are chosen at an optimum thickness corresponding to the frequency and temperature range in which a certain structure works. The structure's response corresponding to various real situations is analyzed by means of a measuring chain including electroacoustical or electromechanical transducers. The experimental results provide the dependence of the loss factor and damping transmission coefficient as a function of the damping layer thickness or of the frequency for various viscoelastic covering materials.

  2. Engineering 1D Quantum Stripes from Superlattices of 2D Layered Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenewald, John H.; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Heung Sik

    Dimensional tunability from two dimensions to one dimension is demonstrated for the first time using an artificial superlattice method in synthesizing 1D stripes from 2D layered materials. The 1D confinement of layered Sr2IrO4 induces distinct 1D quantum-confined electronic states, as observed from optical spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. This 1D superlattice approach is generalizable to a wide range of layered materials.

  3. Synthesis of Large-Area 2D Layered Materials and Their Heterostacking Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-13

    Volume: 6 Pages: 7666 Published: JUL 2015 4. Title: Atomically Thin Heterostructures Based on Single- Layer Tungsten Diselenide and DISTRIBUTION A...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0070 Synthesis of Large-Area 2D layered Materials and Their Heterostacking Structures Chih-Wei Chu Academia Sinica Final Report...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 20 Nov 2014 to 19 Nov 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Synthesis of Large-Area 2D layered Materials and Their

  4. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2015-10-27

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqeuous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  5. Science and Emerging Technology of 2D Atomic Layered Materials and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0067 Science & Emerging Technology of 2D Atomic Layered Materials and Devices Angel Rubio UNIVERSIDAD DEL PAIS VASCO - EUSKAL...Emerging Technology of 2D Atomic Layered Materials and Devices 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-15-1-0006 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...reporting documents for AOARD project 144088, “2D Materials and Devices Beyond Graphene Science & Emerging Technology of 2D Atomic Layered Materials and

  6. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectivelymore » recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.« less

  7. Panel Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MECHEL, F. P.

    2001-11-01

    A plane wave is incident on a simply supported elastic plate covering a back volume; the arrangement is surrounded by a hard baffle wall. The plate may be porous with a flow friction resistance; the back volume may be filled either with air or with a porous material. The back volume may be bulk reacting (i.e., with sound propagation parallel to the plate) or locally reacting. Since this arrangement is of some importance in room acoustics, Cremer in his book about room acoustics [1] has presented an approximate analysis. However, Cremer's analysis uses a number of assumptions which make his solution, in his own estimate, unsuited for low frequencies, where, on the other hand, the arrangement mainly is applied. This paper presents a sound field description which uses modal analysis. It is applicable not only in the far field, but also near the absorber. Further, approximate solutions are derived, based on simplifying assumptions like Cremer has used. The modal analysis solution is of interest not only as a reference for approximations but also for practical applications, because the aspect of computing time becomes more and more unimportant (the 3D-plots presented below for the sound field were evaluated with modal analysis in about 6 s).

  8. Protecting the surface of a light absorber in a photoanode

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shu; Lewis, Nathan S.

    A photoanode includes a passivation layer on a light absorber. The passivation layer is more resistant to corrosion than the light absorber. The photoanode includes a surface modifying layer that is location on the passivation layer such that the passivation layer is between the light absorber and the surface modifying layer. The surface modifying layer reduces a resistance of the passivation layer to conduction of holes out of the passivation layer.

  9. A "Layers of Negotiation" Model for Designing Constructivist Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.; And Others

    In designing materials for use in a contructivist learning environment, instructional designers still have a role in selecting the situations that may provide a stimulus for knowledge construction and providing features that support students and teachers in using these materials. This paper describes the process of designing a series of case-based…

  10. Ultrathin and lightweight microwave absorbers made of mu-near-zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuomin; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    We present a theory of perfect absorption in a bilayer model composed of a mu-near-zero (MNZ) metamaterial (MM) absorbing layer on a metallic substrate. Our analytical solutions reveal that a MM layer with a large purely imaginary permeability and a moderate permittivity backed by a metallic plane has a zero reflection at normal incidence when the thickness is ultrathin. The impedance-mismatched metamaterial absorber (MA) can be 77.3% thinner than conventional impedance-matched MAs with the same material loss in order to get the same absorption. A microwave absorber using double-layered spiral MMs with a thickness of only about one percent of the operating wavelength is designed and realized. An absorption efficiency above 93% at 1.74 GHz is demonstrated experimentally at illumination angles up to 60 degrees. Our absorber is 98% lighter than traditional microwave absorbers made of natural materials working at the same frequencies. PMID:23803861

  11. Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Xu, Bin; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian

    2014-10-20

    We propose and demonstrate a MoS2-based passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser with a wide tuning range of 1519.6-1567.7 nm. The few-layer MoS2 nano-platelets are prepared by the liquid-phase exfoliation method, and are then made into polymer-composite film to construct the fiber-compatible MoS2 saturable absorber (SA). It is measured at 1560 nm wavelength, that such MoS2 SA has the modulation depth of ∼ 2% and the saturable optical intensity of ∼ 10 MW/cm(2). By further inserting the filmy MoS2-SA into an Er-doped fiber laser, stable Q-switching operation with a 48.1 nm continuous tuning from S- to C-waveband is successfully achieved. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum pulse energy are 3.3 μs and 160 nJ, respectively. The repetition rate and the pulse duration under different operation conditions have been also characterized. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of MoS2 Q-switched, widely-tunable fiber laser.

  12. Light scattering by dust particles (PROGRA2 experiment): size and structure effects for transparent and absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.-B.; Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    1- Introduction Cometary and possibly interplanetary dust particles seem to be mainly made of agglomerates of submicron and micron-sized grains. These particles are among the most primitive in our solar system. Regoliths on asteroidal and planetary surfaces seem to be loose materials produced by impinging meteorites on the surface of small bodies. Comparing their physical properties is thus fundamental to understand their evolution. To interpret remote observations of solar light scattered by dust particles and regoliths, it is necessary to use numerical and experimental simulations [1,2,3]. 2- PROGRA2 experiment PROGRA2 instruments are polarimeters; the light sources are two randomly polarized lasers (632.8 nm and 543.5 nm). Levitating particles (in microgravity or lifted by an air-draught) are studied by imaging polarimetry. Details on the instruments can be found in [4,5]. 3- Samples Two kinds of samples are studied: compact particles in the (1-400) micrometer size range and fluffy aggregates in the same size range, made from submicron and micronsized grains. The materials are transparent silica and absorbing carbon. Some deposited particles are huge agglomerates of micron-sized grains produced by random ballistic deposition of single grains [6,7] or produced by evaporation of mixtures in alcohol of fluffy aggregates of submicron-sized grains. Two samples are made of silica spheres coated by a carbonaceous black compound. Cometary analogues are mixtures of silica and amorphous carbon or Mg-Fe silicates mixed with amorphous carbon. 4- Results Phase curves and their main parameters (negative polarization at small phase angles and maximum polarization, Pmax, at 90-100° phase angle) for the different materials will be compared and related to the physical properties. For example, it is well known by numerical simulations and/or by experiments that the maximum polarization decreases when the size (submicrometer range) of the grains increases [2,8,9]. An inverse rule

  13. Stress-free end problem in layered materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Bakioglu, M.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the plane elastostatic problem for a medium which consists of periodically arranged two sets of bonded dissimilar layers or strips is considered. First it is assumed that one set of strips contains a crack which crosses the bimaterial interfaces. Then, by letting the collinear cracks join, the stress-free end problem is formulated. The singular behavior of the solutions at the point on intersection of the stress-free boundary and the interfaces is examined and appropriate stress intensity factors are defined. The results of some numerical examples are then presented which include the cases of both plane stress and plane strain.

  14. Hierarchical porous carbons with layer-by-layer motif architectures from confined soft-template self-assembly in layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Tang, Jing; Ding, Bing; Malgras, Victor; Chang, Zhi; Hao, Xiaodong; Wang, Ya; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    Although various two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been explored as promising capacitive materials due to their unique layered structure, their natural restacking tendency impedes electrolyte transport and significantly restricts their practical applications. Herein, we synthesize all-carbon layer-by-layer motif architectures by introducing 2D ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) within the interlayer space of 2D nanomaterials. As a proof of concept, MXenes are selected as 2D hosts to design 2D-2D heterostructures. Further removing the metal elements from MXenes leads to the formation of all-carbon 2D-2D heterostructures consisting of alternating layers of MXene-derived carbon (MDC) and OMC. The OMC layers intercalated with the MDC layers not only prevent restacking but also facilitate ion diffusion and electron transfer. The performance of the obtained hybrid carbons as supercapacitor electrodes demonstrates their potential for upcoming electronic devices. This method allows to overcome the restacking and blocking of 2D nanomaterials by constructing ion-accessible OMC within the 2D host material.

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-07

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Application of the thin electrolyte layer technique to corrosion testing of dental materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, Martin

    Proper simulation of the oral environment for the corrosion testing of dental materials is crucial for determining corrosion rates and mechanisms correctly. In this study, the thin electrolyte layer technique (TET) was characterized and employed to investigate the importance of the chemical composition of the testing environment on the outcome of electrochemical tests. The thickness of the electrolyte layer in TET is only 0.5 mm and contains only 20 muL of electrolyte. This arrangement simulates the physical characteristics of the oral environment and facilitates testing in human saliva. Oxygen availability for reduction on the sample surface was determined, using cathodic polarization of Pt in borate buffer, to be lower in TET than in traditional (bulk electrolyte) techniques. Appreciable differences were found during polarization experiments on 316 L SS in saline and artificial saliva. Oxygen content was found to play a significant role in the corrosivity of various species contained in artificial saliva. Potentiodynamic polarization employing human saliva in TET on 316L SS proved to be very different from tests performed in artificial saliva. This was believed to be due to the presence of organic species, specifically proteins, contained in human saliva. This was further confirmed by cyclic polarization and corrosion current measurements of four commercial nickel-chromium (NiCr) alloys with varying amounts of Be. For this phase of the experiment, artificial saliva (AS), AS with 1% albumin, AS with 1% of mucin and parotid human saliva were employed as electrolytes. The results obtained in the various electrolytes depended on the composition, microstructure, stability of passive film, and the presence of casting porosity of the alloys tested. Proteins had insignificant effect on alloys with highly stable passive films, whereas, corrosion rates increased substantially in those alloys with compromised passive film formation. Proteins, especially mucin, lowered the

  17. Three-dimensional textures and defects of soft material layering revealed by thermal sublimation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Dae Seok; Oh, Seong Dae; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Clark, Noel A; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2013-11-26

    Layering is found and exploited in a variety of soft material systems, ranging from complex macromolecular self-assemblies to block copolymer and small-molecule liquid crystals. Because the control of layer structure is required for applications and characterization, and because defects reveal key features of the symmetries of layered phases, a variety of techniques have been developed for the study of soft-layer structure and defects, including X-ray diffraction and visualization using optical transmission and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and SEM and transmission electron microscopy, including freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy. Here, it is shown that thermal sublimation can be usefully combined with such techniques to enable visualization of the 3D structure of soft materials. Sequential sublimation removes material in a stepwise fashion, leaving a remnant layer structure largely unchanged and viewable using SEM, as demonstrated here using a lamellar smectic liquid crystal.

  18. High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via ultra-thin absorber layer with optical confinement and (Cd, CBD)-free heterojunction partner

    SciTech Connect

    Marsillac, Sylvain

    2015-11-30

    The main objective of this proposal was to use several pathways to reduce the production cost of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) PV modules and therefore the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with this technology. Three high cost drivers were identified, nominally: 1) Materials cost and availability; 2) Large scale uniformity; 3) Improved throughput These three cost drivers were targeted using the following pathways: 1) Reducing the thickness of the CIGS layer while enhancing materials quality; 2) Developing and applying enhanced in-situ metrology via real time spectroscopic ellipsometry; 3) Looking into alternative heterojunction partner, back contact and anti-reflection (AR) coating Elevenmore » main Tasks were then defined to achieve these goals (5 in Phase 1 and 6 in Phase 2), with 11 Milestones and 2 Go/No-go decision points at the end of Phase 1. The key results are summarized below« less

  19. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Chojnacki, E.P.

    1994-05-31

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer. 9 figs.

  20. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Chojnacki, Eric P.

    1994-01-01

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer.

  1. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  2. Use of absorbent materials in on-line coupled reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography via the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Díaz-Plaza, Eva María; Cortés, Jose Manuel; Villén, Jesús; Herraiz, Marta

    2008-11-21

    The use of absorbents as retaining materials in the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface (TOTAD) of an on-line coupled reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography system (RPLC-GC) is proposed for the first time. A comparative study of an adsorbent (Tenax TA) and two absorbents, namely polydimethylsiloxane and poly(50% phenyl/50% methylsiloxane) is performed to establish the best experimental conditions for the automated and simultaneous determination of 15 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticide residues in olive oil. The proposed method provides satisfactory repeatability (RSDs lower, in general, than 8.5%) and sensitivity (limits of detection ranging from 0.6 to 81.9 microg/L) for the investigated compounds.

  3. Engineering 1D Quantum Stripes from Superlattices of 2D Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, John H; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Heung Sik; Johnson, Jared M; Hwang, Jinwoo; Souri, Maryam; Terzic, Jasminka; Chang, Seo Hyoung; Said, Ayman; Brill, Joseph W; Cao, Gang; Kee, Hae-Young; Seo, Sung S Ambrose

    2017-01-01

    Dimensional tunability from two dimensions to one dimension is demonstrated for the first time using an artificial superlattice method in synthesizing 1D stripes from 2D layered materials. The 1D confinement of layered Sr 2 IrO 4 induces distinct 1D quantum-confined electronic states, as observed from optical spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. This 1D superlattice approach is generalizable to a wide range of layered materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High Curie temperature drive layer materials for ion-implanted magnetic bubble devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratello, V. J.; Wolfe, R.; Blank, S. L.; Nelson, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ion implantation of bubble garnets can lower the Curie temperature by 70 C or more, thus limiting high temperature operation of devices with ion-implanted propagation patterns. Therefore, double-layer materials were made with a conventional 2-micron bubble storage layer capped by an ion-implantable drive layer of high Curie temperature, high magnetostriction material. Contiguous disk test patterns were implanted with varying doses of a typical triple implant. Quality of propagation was judged by quasistatic tests on 8-micron period major and minor loops. Variations of magnetization, uniaxial anisotropy, implant dose, and magnetostriction were investigated to ensure optimum flux matching, good charged wall coupling, and wide operating margins. The most successful drive layer compositions were in the systems (SmDyLuCa)3(FeSi)5O12 and (BiGdTmCa)3(FeSi)5O12 and had Curie temperatures 25-44 C higher than the storage layers.

  5. Liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry for determination of isoflavones in soy standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Melissa M; Bedner, Mary; Reitz, Manuela; Burdette, Carolyn Q; Nelson, Michael A; Yen, James H; Sander, Lane C; Rimmer, Catherine A

    2017-02-01

    Two independent analytical approaches, based on liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, have been developed for determination of isoflavones in soy materials. These two methods yield comparable results for a variety of soy-based foods and dietary supplements. Four Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assist the food and dietary supplement community in method validation and have been assigned values for isoflavone content using both methods. These SRMs include SRM 3234 Soy Flour, SRM 3236 Soy Protein Isolate, SRM 3237 Soy Protein Concentrate, and SRM 3238 Soy-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. A fifth material, SRM 3235 Soy Milk, was evaluated using the methods and found to be inhomogeneous for isoflavones and unsuitable for value assignment. Graphical Abstract Separation of six isoflavone aglycones and glycosides found in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3236 Soy Protein Isolate.

  6. Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Michael; Paul, Joshua; Sinnott, Susan B; Hennig, Richard G

    2017-03-10

    The Materials Project crystal structure database has been searched for materials possessing layered motifs in their crystal structures using a topology-scaling algorithm. The algorithm identifies and measures the sizes of bonded atomic clusters in a structure's unit cell, and determines their scaling with cell size. The search yielded 826 stable layered materials that are considered as candidates for the formation of two-dimensional monolayers via exfoliation. Density-functional theory was used to calculate the exfoliation energy of each material and 680 monolayers emerge with exfoliation energies below those of already-existent two-dimensional materials. The crystal structures of these two-dimensional materials provide templates for future theoretical searches of stable two-dimensional materials. The optimized structures and other calculated data for all 826 monolayers are provided at our database (https://materialsweb.org).

  7. Multi-layered poly-dimethylsiloxane as a non-hermetic packaging material for medical MEMS.

    PubMed

    Lachhman, S; Zorman, C A; Ko, W H

    2012-01-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an attractive material for packaging implantable biomedical microdevices owing to its biocompatibility, ease in application, and bio-friendly mechanical properties. Unfortunately, devices encapsulated solely by PDMS lack the longevity for use in chronic implant applications due to defect-related moisture penetration through the packaging layer caused by conventional deposition processes such as spin coating. This paper describes an effort to improve the performance of PDMS as a packaging material by constructing the encapsulant from multiple, thin roller casted layers of PDMS as a part of a polymeric multi-material package.

  8. Multi-layered Poly-Dimethylsiloxane As A Non-Hermetic Packaging Material For Medical MEMS

    PubMed Central

    Lachhman, S.; Zorman, C.A.; Ko, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an attractive material for packaging implantable biomedical microdevices owing to its biocompatibility, ease in application, and bio-friendly mechanical properties. Unfortunately, devices encapsulated by PDMS lack the longevity for use in chronic implant applications due to defect-related moisture penetration through the packaging layer. This paper describes an effort to improve the performance of PDMS as packaging material by constructing the encapsulant from multiple, thin layers of PDMS as a part of a polymeric multi-material package PMID:23366225

  9. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, Robert E.; Downie, Craig M.; Fischer, Christopher

    2016-01-19

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negativemore » electrode active material is described.« less

  10. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher

    2016-07-26

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negativemore » electrode active material is described.« less

  11. The potential for fast van der Waals computations for layered materials using a Lifshitz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Pellouchoud, Lenson A.; Reed, Evan J.

    2017-06-01

    Computation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions plays a crucial role in the study of layered materials. The adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem within random phase approximation (ACFDT-RPA) has been empirically reported to be the most accurate of commonly used methods, but it is limited to small systems due to its computational complexity. Without a computationally tractable vdW correction, fictitious strains are often introduced in the study of multilayer heterostructures, which, we find, can change the vdW binding energy by as much as 15%. In this work, we employed for the first time a defined Lifshitz model to provide the vdW potentials for a spectrum of layered materials orders of magnitude faster than the ACFDT-RPA for representative layered material structures. We find that a suitably defined Lifshitz model gives the correlation component of the binding energy to within 8-20% of the ACFDT-RPA calculations for a variety of layered heterostructures. Using this fast Lifshitz model, we studied the vdW binding properties of 210 three-layered heterostructures. Our results demonstrate that the three-body vdW effects are generally small (10% of the binding energy) in layered materials for most cases, and that non-negligible second-nearest neighbor layer interaction and three-body effects are observed for only those cases in which the middle layer is atomically thin (e.g. BN or graphene). We find that there is potential for particular combinations of stacked layers to exhibit repulsive three-body van der Waals effects, although these effects are likely to be much smaller than two-body effects.

  12. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Shunji; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Tanaka, Junzo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm⁻³ and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 ± 0.48 and 0.651 ± 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  13. Exploiting the MODIS albedos with the Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP): 2. Fractions of transmitted and absorbed fluxes in the vegetation and soil layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, B.; Clerici, M.; Andredakis, I.; Kaminski, T.; Taberner, M.; Verstraete, M. M.; Gobron, N.; Plummer, S.; Widlowski, J.-L.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stream model parameters and associated uncertainties retrieved by inversion against MODIS broadband visible and near-infrared white sky surface albedos were discussed in a companion paper. The present paper concentrates on the partitioning of the solar radiation fluxes delivered by the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP). The estimation of the various flux fractions related to the vegetation and the background layers separately capitalizes on the probability density functions of the model parameters discussed in the companion paper. The propagation of uncertainties from the observations to the model parameters is achieved via the Hessian of the cost function and yields a covariance matrix of posterior parameter uncertainties. This matrix is propagated to the radiation fluxes via the model's Jacobian matrix of first derivatives. Results exhibit a rather good spatiotemporal consistency given that the prior values on the model parameters are not specified as a function of land cover type and/or vegetation phenological states. A specific investigation based on a scenario imposing stringent conditions of leaf absorbing and scattering properties highlights the impact of such constraints that are, as a matter of fact, currently adopted in vegetation index approaches. Special attention is also given to snow-covered and snow-contaminated areas since these regions encompass significant reflectance changes that strongly affect land surface processes. A definite asset of the JRC-TIP lies in its capability to control and ultimately relax a number of assumptions that are often implicit in traditional approaches. These features greatly help us understand the discrepancies between the different data sets of land surface properties and fluxes that are currently available. Through a series of selected examples, the inverse procedure implemented in the JRC-TIP is shown to be robust, reliable, and compliant with large-scale processing requirements

  14. Experimental study of 2-layer regenerators using Mn-Fe-Si-P materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiaanse, T. V.; Trevizoli, P. V.; Misra, Sumohan; Carroll, Colman; van Asten, David; Zhang, Lian; Teyber, R.; Govindappa, P.; Niknia, I.; Rowe, A.

    2018-03-01

    This work describes an experimental study of a two layer active magnetic regenerator with varying transition temperature spacing. The transition temperature of the materials is based on the specific heat peak of the materials. A transition temperature based on the average of the heating and cooling curves at zero Tesla field value is used to refer to the materials throughout this paper. This study uses five Mn-Fe-Si-P materials with transition temperatures of 294.6 K, 292.3 K, 290.7 K, 282.5 K and 281.4 K. Six different regenerators are tested. A reference configuration is tested using the 294.6 K material a hot side layer and with a second passive layer of lead spheres as cold side layer. Followed by four configurations that use the same 294.6 K material as hot side layer, but where each configuration uses a different cold side material. For the second active layer the materials are used in sequence; 292.3 K, 290.7 K, 282.5 K and 281.4K. Lastly, a sixth configuration uses the 292.3 K and 282.5 K materials. For each configuration, the temperature span is measured for rejection temperatures from 40 °C to 9 °C and at 0 W and 2 W applied load. Experimental results for temperature span and exergetic cooling power are compared based on the differences from the reference configuration. Materials are analysed based on material performance metrics such as peak adiabatic temperature change, peak entropy change and RCP(s) values. For the cases considered, a closer transition temperature spacing generally gives a greater temperature span and exergetic cooling power than further spaced materials, even when the combined materials have comparatively lower performance metrics. When two materials with higher RCP(s) values with large transition temperature spacing are compared to materials with lower RCP(s) values but, closer transition temperature spacing a higher exergetic cooling power and temperature span is found for the latter.

  15. Electronic structure of boron based single and multi-layer two dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazato, Itsuki; Takahashi, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Two dimensional nanosheets based on boron and Group VA elements are designed and characterized using first principles calculations. B-N, B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi are found to possess honeycomb structures where formation energies indicate exothermic reactions. Contrary to B-N, the cases of B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi nanosheets are calculated to possess narrow band gaps. In addition, calculations reveal that the electronegativity difference between B and Group VA elements in the designed materials is a good indicator to predict the charge transfer and band gap of the two dimensional materials. Hydrogen adsorption over defect-free B-Sb and B-Bi results in exothermic reactions, while defect-free B-N, B-P, and B-As result in endothermic reactions. The layerability of the designed two dimensional materials is also investigated where the electronic structure of two-layered two dimensional materials is strongly coupled with how the two dimensional materials are layered. Thus, one can consider that the properties of two dimensional materials can be controlled by the composition of two dimensional materials and the structure of layers.

  16. Liquid Chromatography with Absorbance Detection and with Isotope-Dilution Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Isoflavones in Soy Standard Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa M.; Bedner, Mary; Gradl, Manuela; Burdette, Carolyn Q.; Nelson, Michael A.; Yen, James H.; Sander, Lane C.; Rimmer, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Two independent analytical approaches, based on liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, have been developed for determination of isoflavones in soy materials. These two methods yield comparable results for a variety of soy-based foods and dietary supplements. Four Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assist the food and dietary supplement community in method validation and have been assigned values for isoflavone content using both methods. These SRMs include SRM 3234 Soy Flour, SRM 3236 Soy Protein Isolate, SRM 3237 Soy Protein Concentrate, and SRM 3238 Soy-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. A fifth material, SRM 3235 Soy Milk, was evaluated using the methods and found to be inhomogeneous for isoflavones and unsuitable for value assignment. PMID:27832301

  17. Fast Photo-detection in Phototransistors based on Group III-VI Layered Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Prasanna; Ghosh, Sujoy; Wasala, Milinda; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel; Talapatra, Saikat

    Response time of a photo detector is one of the crucial aspect of photo-detection. Recently it has been shown that direct band gap of few layered group III-VI materials helps in increased absorption of light thereby enhancing the photo responsive properties of these materials. Ternary system of Copper Indium Selenide has been extensively used in optoelectronics industry and it is expected that 2D layered structure of Copper Indium Selenide will be a key component of future optoelectronics devices based on 2D materials. Here we report fast photo detection in few layers of Copper Indium Selenide (CuIn7Se11) phototransistor. Few-layers of CuIn7Se11 flakes were exfoliated from crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our photo response characterization indicates responsivity of 104 mA/W with external quantum efficiency exceeding 103. We have found response time of few μs which is one of the fastest response among photodetectors based on 2D materials. We also found specific detectivity of 1012 Jones which is an order higher than conventional photodetectors. A comparison between response times of various layered group III-VI materials will be presented and discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Research Office through a MURI Grant # W911NF-11-1-0362.

  18. An effective method to screen sodium-based layered materials for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Zihe; Yao, Sai; Chen, An; Zhao, Xudong; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high cost and insufficient resource of lithium, sodium-ion batteries are widely investigated for large-scale applications. Typically, insertion-type materials possess better cyclic stability than alloy-type and conversion-type ones. Therefore, in this work, we proposed a facile and effective method to screen sodium-based layered materials based on Materials Project database as potential candidate insertion-type materials for sodium ion batteries. The obtained Na-based layered materials contains 38 kinds of space group, which reveals that the credibility of our screening approach would not be affected by the space group. Then, some important indexes of the representative materials, including the average voltage, volume change and sodium ion mobility, were further studied by means of density functional theory computations. Some materials with extremely low volume changes and Na diffusion barriers are promising candidates for sodium ion batteries. We believe that our classification algorithm could also be used to search for other alkali and multivalent ion-based layered materials, to accelerate the development of battery materials.

  19. Temperature-dependent layer breathing modes in two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Indrajit; Maiti, Prabal K.; Jain, Manish

    2018-04-01

    Relative out-of-plane displacements of the constituent layers of two-dimensional materials give rise to unique low-frequency breathing modes. By computing the height-height correlation functions from molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the layer breathing modes (LBMs) can be mapped consistently to vibrations of a simple linear chain model. Our calculated thickness dependence of LBM frequencies for few-layer (FL) graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are in excellent agreement with available experiments. Our results show a redshift of LBM frequency with an increase in temperature, which is a direct consequence of anharmonicities present in the interlayer interaction. We also predict the thickness and temperature dependence of LBM frequencies for FL hexagonal boron nitride. Our Rapid Communication provides a simple and efficient way to probe the interlayer interaction for layered materials and their heterostructures with the inclusion of anharmonic effects.

  20. Direct grafting of anti-fouling polyglycerol layers to steel and other technically relevant materials.

    PubMed

    Weber, Theresa; Bechthold, Maren; Winkler, Tobias; Dauselt, John; Terfort, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Direct grafting of hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG) layers onto the oxide surfaces of steel, aluminum, and silicon has been achieved through surface-initiated polymerization of 2-hydroxymethyloxirane (glycidol). Optimization of the deposition conditions led to a protocol that employed N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as the solvent and temperatures of 100 and 140 °C, depending on the substrate material. In all cases, a linear growth of the PG layers could be attained, which allows for control of film thickness by altering the reaction time. At layer thicknesses >5 nm, the PG layers completely suppressed the adhesion of albumin, fibrinogen, and globulin. These layers were also at least 90% bio-repulsive for two bacteria strains, E. coli and Acinetobacter baylyi, with further improvement being observed when the PG film thickness was increased to 17 nm (up to 99.9% bio-repulsivity on silicon). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Local Structure Analysis and Interface Layer Effect of Phase-Change Recording Material Using Actual Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Tsukasa; Yoshiki, Masahiko; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Sumio

    2008-07-01

    The influences of the interface layer on crystal structure, the local atomic arrangement, and the electronic and chemical structure of a GeBiTe (GBT) phase-change recording material have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES) methods using actual rewritable high-speed HD DVD media without special sample processing. XRD results showed that the crystal structure of laser-crystallized GBT alloy in the actual HD DVD media is the same as that of GeSbTe (GST) alloy, which has a NaCl-type structure. No differences between samples with and without interface layers were found. The lattice constant of GBT is larger than that of GST. Bi increases the lattice constant of GST with respect to the Bi substitution ratio of Sb. According to HX-PES, the DOS of in the recording film amorphous state with an interface layer is closer to that of the crystalline state than the recording film without an interface layer. From XAFS results, clear differences between amorphous (Amo.) and crystalline states (Cry.) were observed. The interatomic distance of amorphous recording material is independent of the existence of an interface layer. On the other hand, the coordination number varied slightly due to the presence of the interface layer. Therefore, the electronic state of the recording layer changes because of the interface layer, although the local structure changes only slightly except for the coordination number. Combining these results, we conclude that the interface layer changes the electronic state of the recording layer and promotes crystallization, but only affects the local structure of the atomic arrangement slightly.

  2. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  3. Analysis of Photothermal Characterization of Layered Materials: Design of Optimal Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper numerical calculations are presented for the steady-periodic temperature in layered materials and functionally-graded materials to simulate photothermal methods for the measurement of thermal properties. No laboratory experiments were performed. The temperature is found from a new Green s function formulation which is particularly well-suited to machine calculation. The simulation method is verified by comparison with literature data for a layered material. The method is applied to a class of two-component functionally-graded materials and results for temperature and sensitivity coefficients are presented. An optimality criterion, based on the sensitivity coefficients, is used for choosing what experimental conditions will be needed for photothermal measurements to determine the spatial distribution of thermal properties. This method for optimal experiment design is completely general and may be applied to any photothermal technique and to any functionally-graded material.

  4. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic impedance measurements

    DOEpatents

    Langlois, G.N.

    1983-09-13

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material are disclosed. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material. 6 figs.

  5. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic impedance measurements

    DOEpatents

    Langlois, Gary N.

    1983-09-13

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material.

  6. Single and multijunction silicon based thin film solar cells on a flexible substrate with absorber layers made by hot-wire CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo

    2007-09-01

    change in layer crystallinity during the growth of the c-Si:H i-layer. For PECVD deposited cells, it is often found that the layer crystallinity is enhanced with increasing film thickness. We found for Hot-wire deposited cells, however, the opposite development in material structure: the material becomes amorphous near the end of the deposition. This results in a deterioration of cell performance. We therefore introduce a so-called H2 reverse profiling technique, in which H2 is increased during the c-Si:H i-layer deposition. With this technique, a cell with an efficiency of 8.5% has been reached, which is in line with the best reported PECVD cells deposited on the same type of substrate. In the literature, carrier transport in c-Si:H cells has been a topic for debate. In this thesis, we present our finding of photogating effect on the spectral response of c-Si:H solar cells. When measured under coloured bias light, the apparent quantum efficiency value of a c-Si:H cell can be largely enhanced. This phenomenon is a typical result of trapping induced field modification in the bulk of a drift type solar cell. The discovery of this phenomenon has experimentally proved that field-driven transport to a large extend exist in a c-Si:H solar cell.

  7. Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Jong; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    The layered materials such as graphene have attracted considerable interest for future electronics. Here we report the vertical integration of multi-heterostructures of layered materials to enable high current density vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs). An n-channel VFET is created by sandwiching few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the semiconducting channel between a monolayer graphene and a metal thin film. The VFETs exhibit a room temperature on-off ratio >103, while at same time deliver a high current density up to 5,000 A/cm2, sufficient for high performance logic applications. This study offers a general strategy for the vertical integration of various layered materials to obtain both p- and n-channel transistors for complementary logic functions. A complementary inverter with larger than unit voltage gain is demonstrated by vertically stacking the layered materials of graphene, Bi2Sr2Co2O8 (p-channel), graphene, MoS2 (n-channel), and metal thin film in sequence. The ability to simultaneously achieve high on-off ratio, high current density, and logic integration in the vertically stacked multi-heterostructures can open up a new dimension for future electronics to enable three-dimensional integration. PMID:23241535

  8. Cellular interaction of a layer-by-layer based drug delivery system depending on material properties and cell types

    PubMed Central

    Brueckner, Mandy; Jankuhn, Steffen; Jülke, Eva-Maria; Reibetanz, Uta

    2018-01-01

    Background Drug delivery systems (DDS) and their interaction with cells are a controversial topic in the development of therapeutic concepts and approaches. On one hand, DDS are very useful for protected and targeted transport of defined dosages of active agents. On the other hand, their physicochemical properties such as material, size, shape, charge, or stiffness have a huge impact on cellular uptake and intracellular processing. Additionally, even identical DDS can undergo a completely diverse interaction with different cell types. However, quite often in in vitro DDS/cell interaction experiments, those aspects are not considered and DDS and cells are randomly chosen. Methods and results Hence, our investigations provide an insight into layer-by-layer designed microcarriers with modifications of only some of the most important parameters (surface charge, stiffness, and applied microcarrier/cell ratio) and their influence on cellular uptake and viability. We also considered the interaction of these differently equipped DDS with several cell types and investigated professional phagocytes (neutrophil granulocytes; macrophages) as well as non-professional phagocytes (epithelial cells) under comparable conditions. We found that even small modifications such as layer-by-layer (LbL)-microcarriers with positive or negative surface charge, or LbL-microcarriers with solid core or as hollow capsules but equipped with the same surface properties, show significant differences in interaction and viability, and several cell types react very differently to the offered DDS. Conclusion As a consequence, the properties of the DDS have to be carefully chosen with respect to the addressed cell type with the aim to efficiently transport a desired agent. PMID:29670351

  9. Cellular interaction of a layer-by-layer based drug delivery system depending on material properties and cell types.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, Mandy; Jankuhn, Steffen; Jülke, Eva-Maria; Reibetanz, Uta

    2018-01-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDS) and their interaction with cells are a controversial topic in the development of therapeutic concepts and approaches. On one hand, DDS are very useful for protected and targeted transport of defined dosages of active agents. On the other hand, their physicochemical properties such as material, size, shape, charge, or stiffness have a huge impact on cellular uptake and intracellular processing. Additionally, even identical DDS can undergo a completely diverse interaction with different cell types. However, quite often in in vitro DDS/cell interaction experiments, those aspects are not considered and DDS and cells are randomly chosen. Hence, our investigations provide an insight into layer-by-layer designed microcarriers with modifications of only some of the most important parameters (surface charge, stiffness, and applied microcarrier/cell ratio) and their influence on cellular uptake and viability. We also considered the interaction of these differently equipped DDS with several cell types and investigated professional phagocytes (neutrophil granulocytes; macrophages) as well as non-professional phagocytes (epithelial cells) under comparable conditions. We found that even small modifications such as layer-by-layer (LbL)-microcarriers with positive or negative surface charge, or LbL-microcarriers with solid core or as hollow capsules but equipped with the same surface properties, show significant differences in interaction and viability, and several cell types react very differently to the offered DDS. As a consequence, the properties of the DDS have to be carefully chosen with respect to the addressed cell type with the aim to efficiently transport a desired agent.

  10. Apollo couch energy absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, C. J.; Drexel, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Load attenuators for the Apollo spacecraft crew couch and its potential applications are described. Energy absorption is achieved through friction and cyclic deformation of material. In one concept, energy absorption is accomplished by rolling a compressed ring of metal between two surfaces. In another concept, energy is absorbed by forcing a plastically deformed washer along a rod. Among the design problems that had to be solved were material selection, fatigue life, ring slippage, lubrication, and friction loading.

  11. Application of ICP-OES to the determination of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin films used as absorber materials in solar cell devices.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Caballero, Raquel; Guillén, Cecilia; Gutiérrez, María Teresa; Rucandio, María Isabel

    2005-05-01

    CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 [CIGS; x=Ga/(In+Ga)] thin films are among of the best candidates as absorber materials for solar cell applications. The material quality and main properties of the polycrystalline absorber layer are critically influenced by deviations in the stoichiometry, particularly in the Cu/(In+Ga) atomic ratio. In this work a simple, sensitive and accurate method has been developed for the quantitative determination of these thin films by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed method involves an acid digestion of the samples to achieve the complete solubilization of CIGS, followed by the analytical determination by ICP-OES. A digestion procedure with 50% HNO3 alone or in the presence of 10% HCl was performed to dissolve those thin films deposited on glass or Mo-coated glass substrates, respectively. Two analytical lines were selected for each element (Cu 324.754 and 327.396 nm, Ga 294.364 and 417.206 nm, In 303.936 and 325.609 nm, Se 196.090 and 203.985 nm, and Mo 202.030 and 379.825 nm) and a study of spectral interferences was performed which showed them to be suitable, since they offered a high sensitivity and no significant inter-element interferences were detected. Detection limits for all elements at the selected lines were found to be appropriate for this kind of application, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 1.5% for all elements with the exception of Se (about 5%). The Cu/(In+Ga) atomic ratios obtained from the application of this method to CIGS thin films were consistent with the study of the structural and morphological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  12. Investigation of Materials for Boundary Layer Control in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braafladt, Alexander; Lucero, John M.; Hirt, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    During operation of the NASA Glenn Research Center 15- by 15-Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT), a significant, undesirable corner flow separation is created by the three-dimensional interaction of the wall and floor boundary layers in the tunnel corners following an oblique-shock/ boundary-layer interaction. A method to minimize this effect was conceived by connecting the wall and floor boundary layers with a radius of curvature in the corners. The results and observations of a trade study to determine the effectiveness of candidate materials for creating the radius of curvature in the SWT are presented. The experiments in the study focus on the formation of corner fillets of four different radii of curvature, 6.35 mm (0.25 in.), 9.525 mm (0.375 in.), 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), and 15.875 mm (0.625 in.), based on the observed boundary layer thickness of 11.43 mm (0.45 in.). Tests were performed on ten candidate materials to determine shrinkage, surface roughness, cure time, ease of application and removal, adhesion, eccentricity, formability, and repeatability. Of the ten materials, the four materials which exhibited characteristics most promising for effective use were the heavy body and regular type dental impression materials, the basic sculpting epoxy, and the polyurethane sealant. Of these, the particular material which was most effective, the heavy body dental impression material, was tested in the SWT in Mach 2 flow, and was observed to satisfy all requirements for use in creating the corner fillets in the upcoming experiments on shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction.

  13. Optimization Methods on Synthesis of Atomically Thin Layered Materials and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, Selcuk

    Two dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as a new class of materials that only a few atoms thick. Owing to their low dimensionality, 2D materials bear rather unusual properties that do not exist in traditional three dimensional (3D) materials. Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arrange in a 2D hexagonal lattice, has started the revolutionary progress in materials science and condensed matter physics, and motivated intense research in other 2D materials such as h-BN, and layered metal dichalcogenides. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most studied bottom-up graphene production method for building the prototypes of next-generation electronic devices due to its scalability; however, there is still not an ultimate consensus of growth mechanisms on control the size and morphology of synthesized-crystals. In order to have better understanding the growth mechanisms, the role of oxygen exposure in the graphene growth has been comprehensively studied. The oxygen gas is introduced into the CVD reactor before and during the growth, and its effects on the morphology, crystallinity, and nucleation density of graphene are systematically studied. It is found that introducing oxygen during growth significantly improves the graphene crystallinity while pre-dosing oxygen before growth reduces the graphene nucleation density. The stacking of graphene and other layered materials in the lateral or vertical geometries can offer extended functionality by exploiting interfacial phenomena, quantum confinement and tunneling, which requires the interface between the layered materials be free of contaminates. The vertical heterostructures of CVD-grown graphene and h-BN single crystals are deeply investigated by analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). It is shown that graphene contamination, undetectable using optical microscopy, is prevalent at the nanoscale, and the interfacial contamination between the layers

  14. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  15. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility inmore » groundwater environments.« less

  16. Hybrid magnetic materials formed by ferritin intercalated into a layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Primo, Vicent; Ribera, Antonio; Soriano-Portillo, Alejandra

    2008-12-01

    A hybrid magnetic material formed by ferritin intercalated into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Mg and Al (Mg/Al molar ratio 2) is prepared and characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). One observes an enhancement in the thermal stability of the ferritin molecules when they are inserted in the layered material. Magnetic measurements of the hybrid material exhibit the typical superparamagnetic behaviour of the ferritin molecule. On the other hand, the intercalation of ferritin into the LDH guarantees a homogeneous dispersion of the ferritin molecules, which do not aggregate even after calcination of the sample. This feature allows obtaining well-dispersed magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles upon calcination of the hybrid material.

  17. Measured acoustic properties of variable and low density bulk absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, M. D.; Rice, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data were taken to determine the acoustic absorbing properties of uniform low density and layered variable density samples using a bulk absober with a perforated plate facing to hold the material in place. In the layered variable density case, the bulk absorber was packed such that the lowest density layer began at the surface of the sample and progressed to higher density layers deeper inside. The samples were placed in a rectangular duct and measurements were taken using the two microphone method. The data were used to calculate specific acoustic impedances and normal incidence absorption coefficients. Results showed that for uniform density samples the absorption coefficient at low frequencies decreased with increasing density and resonances occurred in the absorption coefficient curve at lower densities. These results were confirmed by a model for uniform density bulk absorbers. Results from layered variable density samples showed that low frequency absorption was the highest when the lowest density possible was packed in the first layer near the exposed surface. The layers of increasing density within the sample had the effect of damping the resonances.

  18. Polymer/graphite oxide composites as high-performance materials for electric double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Chien-Pin; Teng, Hsisheng

    A single graphene sheet represents a carbon material with the highest surface area available to accommodating molecules or ions for physical and chemical interactions. Here we demonstrate in an electric double layer capacitor the outstanding performance of graphite oxide for providing a platform for double layer formation. Graphite oxide is generally the intermediate compound for obtaining separated graphene sheets. Instead of reduction with hydrazine, we incorporate graphite oxide with a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer and anchor the graphene oxide sheets with poly(propylene oxide) diamines. This polymer/graphite oxide composite shows in a "dry" gel-electrolyte system a double layer capacitance as high as 130 F g -1. The polymer incorporation developed here can significantly diversify the application of graphene-based materials in energy storage devices.

  19. Dynamic Response of Layered TiB/Ti Functionally Graded Material Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Larry; Beberniss, Tim; Chapman, Ben

    2008-02-15

    This paper covers the dynamic response of rectangular (25.4x101.6x3.175 mm) specimens manufactured from layers of TiB/Ti. The layers contained volume fractions of TiB that varied from 0 to 85% and thus formed a functionally graded material. Witness samples of the 85% TiB material were also tested to provide a baseline for the statistical variability of the test techniques. Static and dynamic tests were performed to determine the in situ material properties and fundamental frequencies. Damping in the material/ fixture was also found from the dynamic response. These tests were simulated using composite beam theory which gave an analytical solution, andmore » using finite element analysis. The response of the 85% TiB specimens was found to be much more uniform than the functionally graded material and the dynamic response more uniform than the static response. A least squares analysis of the data using the analytical solutions were used to determine the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of each layer. These results were used to model the response in the finite element analysis. The results indicate that current analytical and numerical methods for modeling the material give similar and adequate predictions for natural frequencies if the measured property values were used. The models did not agree as well if the properties from the manufacturer or those of Hill and Linn were used.« less

  20. Dehomogenized Elastic Properties of Heterogeneous Layered Materials in AFM Indentation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-Jye; Rao, Satish; Kaushik, Gaurav; Azeloglu, Evren U; Costa, Kevin D

    2018-06-05

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to study mechanical properties of biological materials at submicron length scales. However, such samples are often structurally heterogeneous even at the local level, with different regions having distinct mechanical properties. Physical or chemical disruption can isolate individual structural elements but may alter the properties being measured. Therefore, to determine the micromechanical properties of intact heterogeneous multilayered samples indented by AFM, we propose the Hybrid Eshelby Decomposition (HED) analysis, which combines a modified homogenization theory and finite element modeling to extract layer-specific elastic moduli of composite structures from single indentations, utilizing knowledge of the component distribution to achieve solution uniqueness. Using finite element model-simulated indentation of layered samples with micron-scale thickness dimensions, biologically relevant elastic properties for incompressible soft tissues, and layer-specific heterogeneity of an order of magnitude or less, HED analysis recovered the prescribed modulus values typically within 10% error. Experimental validation using bilayer spin-coated polydimethylsiloxane samples also yielded self-consistent layer-specific modulus values whether arranged as stiff layer on soft substrate or soft layer on stiff substrate. We further examined a biophysical application by characterizing layer-specific microelastic properties of full-thickness mouse aortic wall tissue, demonstrating that the HED-extracted modulus of the tunica media was more than fivefold stiffer than the intima and not significantly different from direct indentation of exposed media tissue. Our results show that the elastic properties of surface and subsurface layers of microscale synthetic and biological samples can be simultaneously extracted from the composite material response to AFM indentation. HED analysis offers a robust approach to studying regional micromechanics of

  1. Preparation of Superparamagnetic Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 Particle by Coprecipitation-Sonochemical Method for Radar Absorbing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufiq, A.; Bahtiar, S.; Sunaryono; Hidayat, N.; Hidayat, A.; Mufti, N.; Diantoro, M.; Fuad, A.; Munasir; Rahmawati, R.; Adi, W. A.; Pratapa, S.; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    One of many applications of spinel ferrite nanoparticles is related to their performance as radar absorbing materials. In this work, we report developing synthesis method through combined coprecipitation-sonochemical routes in preparing Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle from iron sand in Indonesia as a vital raw material. The structure, size, morphology, and elements of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle were investigated via X-Ray diffractometry and Transmission/Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM/SEM) combining Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The magnetic properties of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle were characterized by using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Furthermore, the reflection loss character of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle was determined via Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). From the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the XRD data, it can be identified that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 particle formed a spinel cubic structure in a single phase with the lattice parameter of approximately 8.401 Å. It is known from the TEM image that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 particle had a size of about 9.7 nm and tended to agglomerate. Furthermore, the data analysis of the M(H) curve presented that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle has a superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization of approximately 43 emu/g. Finally, the data analysis of the reflection loss as a function of frequency showed that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle performs as a radar absorbing material with the absorption performance of approximately -11.0 dB at the frequency of 10.8 GHz

  2. Enhanced photon absorption in spiral nanostructured solar cells using layered 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Tahersima, Mohammad H; Sorger, Volker J

    2015-08-28

    Recent investigations of semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides have provided evidence for strong light absorption relative to its thickness attributed to high density of states. Stacking a combination of metallic, insulating, and semiconducting 2D materials enables functional devices with atomic thicknesses. While photovoltaic cells based on 2D materials have been demonstrated, the reported absorption is still just a few percent of the incident light due to their sub-wavelength thickness leading to low cell efficiencies. Here we show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling a molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2))/graphene (Gr)/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for optical absorption up to 90%. The optical absorption of a 1 μm long hetero-material spiral cell consisting of the aforementioned hetero stack is about 50% stronger compared to a planar MoS(2) cell of the same thickness; although the volumetric absorbing material ratio is only 6%. A core-shell structure exhibits enhanced absorption and pronounced absorption peaks with respect to a spiral structure without metallic contacts. We anticipate these results to provide guidance for photonic structures that take advantage of the unique properties of 2D materials in solar energy conversion applications.

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  4. Using Layer-by-Layer Coating and Nanocomposite Technologies to Improve the Barrier Properties of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Iman

    Means for improving barrier properties of polymers against gases, particularly for promoting their applications as packaging materials, are divided into surface coating and embedding nanoparticles in the bulk of the polymeric membranes. In this research, we mainly investigated improvement in barrier properties of polymers against oxygen and carbon dioxide, through layer-by-layer (LBL) coating and bulk nanocomposite methods. Initially, we studied the morphology of layer-by-layer assemblies comprising alternating layers of polyelectrolyte (PE) and natural montmorillonite (MMT) platelets, where polyethyleneterephthalate ionomer was used as our proposed alternative PE, to be compared with already examined polyethyleneimine. For both investigated PEs, while microscopic images showed the formation of tortuous networks of galleries between subsequent layers of oriented clay platelets parallel to the substrate surface, x-ray diffractometry (XRD) traces pointed to the intercalation of PE layers between clay platelets. As a confirmation of forming tortuous networks between oriented and high aspect ratio clay platelets to increase the path length of diffusing gas species dramatically, LBL-coated polystyrene-based membranes demonstrated pronounced decreases in permeability of oxygen and carbon dioxide (e.g. about the scale of 500 times decrease in permeability, with only five cycles of bilayer deposition). Before LBL deposition, the surface of the hydrophobic polymeric substrate was pretreated with oxygen plasma to improve its interaction with the coating. In the next study, previously LBL-coated samples were melt pressed in a cyclic manner to embed and to crush the coating inside the polystyrene-based matrix, aiming the exfoliated polymer-clay nanocomposites. The morphological investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the tortuous internal structure of crushed LBL assemblies' portions, mainly comprising swollen intercalated stacks of clay, as well as

  5. Layer-by-layer assembly of TiO(2) colloids onto diatomite to build hierarchical porous materials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuxin; Han, Wei; Xiong, Guoxing; Yang, Weishen

    2008-07-15

    TiO(2) colloids with the most probably particle size of 10 nm were deposited on the surface of macroporous diatomite by a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method with using phytic acid as molecular binder. For preparation of colloidal TiO(2), titanium(IV) isopropoxide (Ti(C(3)H(7)O)(4)) was used as titanium precursor, nitric acid (HNO(3)) as peptizing agent and deionized water and isopropanol (C(3)H(7)OH) as solvent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) adsorption-desorption, and UV-vis spectra are used to assess the morphology and physical chemistry properties of the resulting TiO(2) coated diatomite. It was shown that the mesoporosity has been introduced into macroporous diatomite by LBL deposition. The mesoporosity was originated from close-packing of the uniform TiO(2) nanoparticles. More TiO(2) could be coated on the surface of diatomite by increasing the deposition cycles. This hierarchical porous material has potential for applications in catalytic reactions involved diffusion limit, especially in photocatalytic reactions.

  6. A depleted ozone layer absorbs less UV-B, cooling the ozone layer, increasing the amount of UV-B observed to reach Earth, heating air by dissociating tropospheric and ground-level ozone, and heating oceans very efficiently by penetrating tens of meters into the mixed layer. UV-B is 48 times more energetic ("hotter") than IR absorbed by greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    This new insight into the physics of radiation shows why changes in stratospheric ozone are observed to cause changes in global temperature. By 1970, manufactured CFC gases and ozone depletion began increasing. By 1993, increases in CFCs stopped as mandated by the Montreal Protocol. By 1995, increases in ozone depletion stopped. By 1998, increases in temperature stopped until 2014. Ozone is also depleted by halogen gases emitted from major basaltic lava flows, the largest of which, since 1783, occurred at Bardarbunga in Iceland in 2014, causing 2015 and 2016 to be the hottest years on record. Throughout Earth history, the largest basaltic lava flows were contemporaneous with periods of greatest warming and greatest levels of mass extinctions. Planck's empirical law shows that temperature of matter results from oscillation of all the bonds holding matter together. The higher the temperature, the higher the frequencies and amplitudes of oscillation. Thus, radiation from a nearby hotter body will make the absorbing body hotter than radiation from a cooler body. According to the Planck-Einstein relation, thermal energy (E) in matter and in radiation equals frequency of oscillation (ν) times the Planck constant (h), E=hν—the energy of a frictionless atomic oscillator. Since frequency is observed to be a very broad continuum extending from radio signals through visible light to gamma rays, thermal energy (E=hν) must also be a very broad continuum. Thermal flux cannot be represented properly by a single number of watts per square meter, as commonly assumed throughout the physical sciences, because all frequencies coexist and the number of watts increases with frequency. Thus, UV-B solar radiation is 48 times more energetic than IR terrestrial radiation absorbed by greenhouse gases and can make the absorbing body 48 times hotter. UV-B causes sunburn; no amount of IR can cause sunburn. Furthermore, in a basic experiment, I show that air containing more than 23 times

  7. Epitaxial Bi2 FeCrO6 Multiferroic Thin Film as a New Visible Light Absorbing Photocathode Material.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Huang, Wei; Mi, Zetian; Serpone, Nick; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico

    2015-08-26

    Ferroelectric materials have been studied increasingly for solar energy conversion technologies due to the efficient charge separation driven by the polarization induced internal electric field. However, their insufficient conversion efficiency is still a major challenge. Here, a photocathode material of epitaxial double perovskite Bi(2) FeCrO(6) multiferroic thin film is reported with a suitable conduction band position and small bandgap (1.9-2.1 eV), for visible-light-driven reduction of water to hydrogen. Photoelectrochemical measurements show that the highest photocurrent density up to -1.02 mA cm(-2) at a potential of -0.97 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode is obtained in p-type Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film photocathode grown on SrTiO(3) substrate under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. In addition, a twofold enhancement of photocurrent density is obtained after negatively poling the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film, as a result of modulation of the band structure by suitable control of the internal electric field gradient originating from the ferroelectric polarization in the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) films. The findings validate the use of multiferroic Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin films as photocathode materials, and also prove that the manipulation of internal fields through polarization in ferroelectric materials is a promising strategy for the design of improved photoelectrodes and smart devices for solar energy conversion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cryo-mediated exfoliation and fracturing of layered materials into 2D quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianfang; Wu, Jingjie; Xu, Hui; Wen, Xiewen; Zhang, Xiang; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Yang, Wei; Vajtai, Robert; Zhang, Yong; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab Nizar; Wu, Yucheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2017-01-01

    Atomically thin quantum dots from layered materials promise new science and applications, but their scalable synthesis and separation have been challenging. We demonstrate a universal approach for the preparation of quantum dots from a series of materials, such as graphite, MoS2, WS2, h-BN, TiS2, NbS2, Bi2Se3, MoTe2, Sb2Te3, etc., using a cryo-mediated liquid-phase exfoliation and fracturing process. The method relies on liquid nitrogen pretreatment of bulk layered materials before exfoliation and breakdown into atomically thin two-dimensional quantum dots of few-nanometer lateral dimensions, exhibiting size-confined optical properties. This process is efficient for a variety of common solvents with a wide range of surface tension parameters and eliminates the use of surfactants, resulting in pristine quantum dots without surfactant covering or chemical modification. PMID:29250597

  9. Shear bond strengths of an indirect composite layering material to a tribochemically silica-coated zirconia framework material.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Taro; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Kubochi, Kei; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated shear bond strengths of a layering indirect composite material to a zirconia framework material treated with tribochemical silica coating. Zirconia disks were divided into two groups: ZR-PRE (airborne-particle abrasion) and ZR-PLU (tribochemical silica coating). Indirect composite was bonded to zirconia treated with one of the following primers: Clearfil Ceramic Primer (CCP), Clearfil Mega Bond Primer with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (MGP+Act), ESPE-Sil (SIL), Estenia Opaque Primer, MR. Bond, Super-Bond PZ Primer Liquid A with Liquid B (PZA+PZB), and Super-Bond PZ Primer Liquid B (PZB), or no treatment. Shear bond testing was performed at 0 and 20,000 thermocycles. Post-thermocycling shear bond strengths of ZR-PLU were higher than those of ZR-PRE in CCP, MGP+Act, SIL, PZA+PZB, and PZB groups. Application of silane yielded better durable bond strengths of a layering indirect composite material to a tribochemically silica-coated zirconia framework material.

  10. Determination of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets by liquid chromatography with absorbance detection.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Sharpless, Katherine E; Yen, James H; Rimmer, Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of selected fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets have been determined by two independent LC methods, with measurements performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This SRM has been prepared as part of a collaborative effort between NIST and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. The SRM is also intended to support the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database that is being established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The methods used at NIST to determine the concentration levels of vitamins A and E, and beta-carotene in the SRM used RPLC with absorbance detection. The relative precision of these methods ranged from 2 to 8% for the analytes measured. SRM 3280 is primarily intended for use in validating analytical methods for the determination of selected vitamins, carotenoids, and elements in multivitamin/multielement tablets and similar matrixes.

  11. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    PubMed

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Free-standing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide and transport barriers in layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaraman, Shriram

    This thesis is based on the topic of layered materials, in which different layers interact with each other via van der Waals forces. The majority of this thesis deals with epitaxial graphene (EG) obtained from silicon carbide (SiC). Free-standing epitaxial graphene (FSEG) structures are produced from EG using a photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching process developed for making suspended graphene structures on a large-scale. These structures are investigated for their mechanical and electrical properties. For doubly-clamped FSEG structures, a unique U-beam effect is observed which causes orders of magnitude increase in their mechanical resonance frequency compared to that expected using simple beam theory. Combined magnetotransport and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that FSEG devices produced from nominally monolayer graphene on the Si-face of SiC exhibit properties of an inhomogeneously doped bilayer after becoming suspended. This suggests that the buffer layer which precedes graphene growth on the Si-face of SiC gets converted to a graphene layer after the PEC etching process. In the second theme of this thesis, transport barriers in layered materials are investigated. The EG-SiC interface is studied using a combination of electrical (I-V, C-V) and photocurrent spectroscopy techniques. It is shown that the interface may be described as having a Schottky barrier for electron transport with a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights. Another interface explored in this work is that between different layers of MoS 2, a layered material belonging to the class of transition metal dichalcogenides. This interface maybe thought of as a one-dimensional junction. Four-point transport measurements indicate the presence of a barrier for electron transport at this interface. A simple model of the junction as a region with an increased threshold voltage and degraded mobility is suggested. The final chapter is a collection of works based on the topic of layered materials, which

  13. Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Hailong; Yin, Anxiang; Li, Zheng; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Layered materials of graphene and MoS2, for example, have recently emerged as an exciting material system for future electronics and optoelectronics. Vertical integration of layered materials can enable the design of novel electronic and photonic devices. Here, we report highly efficient photocurrent generation from vertical heterostructures of layered materials. We show that vertically stacked graphene–MoS2–graphene and graphene–MoS2–metal junctions can be created with a broad junction area for efficient photon harvesting. The weak electrostatic screening effect of graphene allows the integration of single or dual gates under and/or above the vertical heterostructure to tune the band slope and photocurrent generation. We demonstrate that the amplitude and polarity of the photocurrent in the gated vertical heterostructures can be readily modulated by the electric field of an external gate to achieve a maximum external quantum efficiency of 55% and internal quantum efficiency up to 85%. Our study establishes a method to control photocarrier generation, separation and transport processes using an external electric field. PMID:24162001

  14. Dark material in the polar layered deposits and dunes on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Vasavada, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    Viking infrared thermal mapping and bistatic radar data suggest that the bulk density of the north polar erg material is much lower than that of the average Martian surface or of dark dunes at lower latitudes. We have derived a thermal inertia of 245-280 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1 (5.9-6.7 ?? 10-3 cal cm-2 s-1/2 K-1) for the Proctor dune field and 25-150 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1 (0.6-3.6 ?? 10-3 cal cm-2 s-1/2 K-1) for the north polar erg. The uniqueness of the thermophysical properties of the north polar erg material may be due to a unique polar process that has created them. The visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance of the erg suggests that the dark material may be composed of basalt or ferrous clays. These data are consistent with the dark material being composed of basaltic ash or filamentary sublimate residue (FSR) particles derived from erosion of the layered deposits. Dark dust may be preferentially concentrated at the surface of the layered deposits by the formation of FSR particles upon sublimation of water ice. Further weathering and erosion of these areas of exposed layered deposits may form the dark, saltating material that is found in both polar regions. Dark FSR particles may saltate for great distances before eventually breaking down into dust grains, re-mixing with the global dust reservoir, and being recycled into the polar layered deposits via atmospheric suspension. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Dark material in the polar layered deposits and dunes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    1999-07-01

    Viking infrared thermal mapping and bistatic radar data suggest that the bulk density of the north polar erg material is much lower than that of the average Martian surface or of dark dunes at lower latitudes. We have derived a thermal inertia of 245-280Jm-2s-1/2K-1(5.9-6.7×10-3calcm-2s-1/2K-1) for the Proctor dune field and 25-150Jm-2s-1/2K-1(0.6-3.6×10-3calcm-2s-1/2K-1) for the north polar erg. The uniqueness of the thermophysical properties of the north polar erg material may be due to a unique polar process that has created them. The visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance of the erg suggests that the dark material may be composed of basalt or ferrous clays. These data are consistent with the dark material being composed of basaltic ash or filamentary sublimate residue (FSR) particles derived from erosion of the layered deposits. Dark dust may be preferentially concentrated at the surface of the layered deposits by the formation of FSR particles upon sublimation of water ice. Further weathering and erosion of these areas of exposed layered deposits may form the dark, saltating material that is found in both polar regions. Dark FSR particles may saltate for great distances before eventually breaking down into dust grains, re-mixing with the global dust reservoir, and being recycled into the polar layered deposits via atmospheric suspension.

  16. Characterization and MCNP simulation of neutron energy spectrum shift after transmission through strong absorbing materials and its impact on tomography reconstructed image.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Boucenna, A

    2012-10-01

    An ideal neutron radiograph, for quantification and 3D tomographic image reconstruction, should be a transmission image which exactly obeys to the exponential attenuation law of a monochromatic neutron beam. There are many reasons for which this assumption does not hold for high neutron absorbing materials. The main deviations from the ideal are due essentially to neutron beam hardening effect. The main challenges of this work are the characterization of neutron transmission through boron enriched steel materials and the observation of beam hardening. Then, in our work, the influence of beam hardening effect on neutron tomographic image, for samples based on these materials, is studied. MCNP and FBP simulation are performed to adjust linear attenuation coefficients data and to perform 2D tomographic image reconstruction with and without beam hardening corrections. A beam hardening correction procedure is developed and applied based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the projections data. Results from original and corrected 2D reconstructed images obtained shows the efficiency of the proposed correction procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Contributions Regarding the Use of Microwave to Obtain Modeling Gypsum for Phonic-Absorbent Construction and Orthopedic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, P. A.; Ungur, P. A.; Caraban, A.; Marcu, F.

    2009-11-01

    The paper has presented some experiments realized at "Congips" Co. Oradea and University of Oradea, regarding of increase machining efficiency and quality for modeling gypsum plaster by using of microwave energy to gypsum ore roast. The elaboration process of microwave energy for modeling gypsum plaster has done on electromagnetic waves properties and specific properties for dielectric materials. Microwaves are radiations of electromagnetic waveform nature, determine by pulsations of electrical-E) and magnetically-H components of electromagnetic wave in interdependence with Maxwell equations. The gypsum ore is calcium sulphate dehydrate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) using at modeling gypsum plaster fabrication, which is calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4ṡ1/2H2O), that has behavior of dielectric with losses. The gypsum ore getting in microwave field, in conditions of predictable pressure and temperature has transformed in modeling gypsum plaster, by quick lost of a part from crystallization water. The processing time is very short, which due to a great productivity and machining efficiency, finally of low process cost. All of these recommend continuing the research at pilot station level.

  18. Metal Thio- and Selenophosphates as Multifunctional van der Waals Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Susner, Michael A; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; McGuire, Michael A; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Maksymovych, Petro

    2017-10-01

    Since the discovery of Dirac physics in graphene, research in 2D materials has exploded with the aim of finding new materials and harnessing their unique and tunable electronic and optical properties. The follow-on work on 2D dielectrics and semiconductors has led to the emergence and development of hexagonal boron nitride, black phosphorus, and transition metal disulfides. However, the spectrum of good insulating materials is still very narrow. Likewise, 2D materials exhibiting correlated phenomena such as superconductivity, magnetism, and ferroelectricity have yet to be developed or discovered. These properties will significantly enrich the spectrum of functional 2D materials, particularly in the case of high phase-transition temperatures. They will also advance a fascinating fundamental frontier of size and proximity effects on correlated ground states. Here, a broad family of layered metal thio(seleno)phosphate materials that are moderate- to wide-bandgap semiconductors with incipient ionic conductivity and a host of ferroic properties are reviewed. It is argued that this material class has the potential to merge the sought-after properties of complex oxides with electronic functions of 2D and quasi-2D electronic materials, as well as to create new avenues for both applied and fundamental materials research in structural and magnetic correlations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Anion exchange of the cationic layered material [Pb2F2]2+.

    PubMed

    Fei, Honghan; Pham, Catherine H; Oliver, Scott R J

    2012-07-04

    We demonstrate the complete exchange of the interlamellar anions of a 2-D cationic inorganic material. The α,ω-alkanedisulfonates were exchanged for α,ω-alkanedicarboxylates, leading to two new cationic materials with the same [Pb(2)F(2)](2+) layered architecture. Both were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the transformation also followed by in situ optical microscopy and ex situ powder X-ray diffraction. This report represents a rare example of metal-organic framework displaying highly efficient and complete replacement of its anionic organic linker while retaining the original extended inorganic layer. It also opens up further possibilities for introducing other anions or abatement of problematic anions such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites.

  20. Sound transmission through double cylindrical shells lined with porous material under turbulent boundary layer excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Bhaskar, Atul; Zhang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates sound transmission through double-walled cylindrical shell lined with poroelastic material in the core, excited by pressure fluctuations due to the exterior turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Biot's model is used to describe the sound wave propagating in the porous material. Three types of constructions, bonded-bonded, bonded-unbonded and unbonded-unbonded, are considered in this study. The power spectral density (PSD) of the inner shell kinetic energy is predicted for two turbulent boundary layer models, different air gap depths and three types of polyimide foams, respectively. The peaks of the inner shell kinetic energy due to shell resonance, hydrodynamic coincidence and acoustic coincidence are discussed. The results show that if the frequency band over the ring frequency is of interest, an air gap, even if very thin, should exist between the two elastic shells for better sound insulation. And if small density foam has a high flow resistance, a superior sound insulation can still be maintained.

  1. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm.

  2. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However, MgAl LDH shows better performance than ZnAl LDH, due to the presence of magnesium cations in the layers. Following the structural, morphological and electrochemical behavior studies of both synthesized LDHs, the prepared LDH modified electrodes were tested through microbial fuel cell configuration, revealing a remarkable, potential new pathway for high-performance and cost-effective electrode use in electrochemical power devices.

  3. Bandgap Engineering of Cu(In 1-xGax)Se 2 Absorber Layers Fabricated using CuInSe 2 and CuGaSe 2 Targets for One-Step Sputtering Process

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Jae -Cheol; Lee, Jeon -Ryang; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; ...

    2016-10-17

    Here we have demonstrated that the bandgap of Cu(In 1-xGa x)Se 2(CIGS) absorber layers was readily controlled by using a one-step sputtering process. CIGS thin-film sample libraries with different Ga/(In + Ga) ratios were synthesized on soda-lime glass at 550 °C using a combinatorial magnetron sputtering system employing CuInSe 2(CIS) and CuGaSe 2(CGS) targets. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDS-XRF) confirmed that the CIGS films had different Ga/(In + Ga) ratios, which were varied by the sample configuration on the substrate and ranged from 0.2 to 0.9. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the CIGS films had a pure chalcopyritemore » phase without any secondary phase such as Cu-Se or ordered vacancy compound (OVC), respectively. Furthermore, we found that the optical bandgap energies of the CIGS films determined by transmittance measurements ranged from 1.07 eV to 1.53 eV as the Ga/(In + Ga) ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.9, demonstrating that the one-step sputtering process using CIS and CGS targets is another simple route to control the bandgap energy of the CIGS absorber layer.« less

  4. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film solar cells: The electronic effects of point defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 and Cu 2ZnSn(Se,S) 4 devices

    DOE PAGES

    Varley, J. B.; Lordi, V.

    2014-08-08

    We investigate point defects in the buffer layers CdS and ZnS that may arise from intermixing with Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 (CIGS) or Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTS) absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaics. Using hybrid functional calculations, we characterize the electrical and optical behavior of Cu, In, Ga, Se, Sn, Zn, Na, and K impurities in the buffer. We find that In and Ga substituted on the cation site act as shallow donors in CdS and tend to enhance the prevailing n-type conductivity at the interface facilitated by Cd incorporation in CIGS, whereas they are deep donors in ZnS and will be lessmore » effective dopants. Substitutional In and Ga can favorably form complexes with cation vacancies (A-centers) which may contribute to the “red kink” effect observed in some CIGS-based devices. For CZTS absorbers, we find that Zn and Sn defects substituting on the buffer cation site are electrically inactive in n-type buffers and will not supplement the donor doping at the interface as in CIGS/CdS or ZnS devices. Sn may also preferentially incorporate on the S site as a deep acceptor in n-type ZnS, which suggests possible concerns with absorber-related interfacial compensation in CZTS devices with ZnS-derived buffers. Cu, Na, and K impurities are found to all have the same qualitative behavior, most favorably acting as compensating acceptors when substituting on the cation site. Lastly, our results suggest one beneficial role of K and Na incorporation in CIGS or CZTS devices is the partial passivation of vacancy-related centers in CdS and ZnS buffers, rendering them less effective interfacial hole traps and recombination centers.« less

  5. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film solar cells: The electronic effects of point defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 and Cu 2ZnSn(Se,S) 4 devices

    SciTech Connect

    Varley, J. B.; Lordi, V.

    We investigate point defects in the buffer layers CdS and ZnS that may arise from intermixing with Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 (CIGS) or Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTS) absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaics. Using hybrid functional calculations, we characterize the electrical and optical behavior of Cu, In, Ga, Se, Sn, Zn, Na, and K impurities in the buffer. We find that In and Ga substituted on the cation site act as shallow donors in CdS and tend to enhance the prevailing n-type conductivity at the interface facilitated by Cd incorporation in CIGS, whereas they are deep donors in ZnS and will be lessmore » effective dopants. Substitutional In and Ga can favorably form complexes with cation vacancies (A-centers) which may contribute to the “red kink” effect observed in some CIGS-based devices. For CZTS absorbers, we find that Zn and Sn defects substituting on the buffer cation site are electrically inactive in n-type buffers and will not supplement the donor doping at the interface as in CIGS/CdS or ZnS devices. Sn may also preferentially incorporate on the S site as a deep acceptor in n-type ZnS, which suggests possible concerns with absorber-related interfacial compensation in CZTS devices with ZnS-derived buffers. Cu, Na, and K impurities are found to all have the same qualitative behavior, most favorably acting as compensating acceptors when substituting on the cation site. Lastly, our results suggest one beneficial role of K and Na incorporation in CIGS or CZTS devices is the partial passivation of vacancy-related centers in CdS and ZnS buffers, rendering them less effective interfacial hole traps and recombination centers.« less

  6. Graphene-like layers as promising chemiresistive sensing material for detection of alcohols at low concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Valentina; Alfano, Brigida; Di Capua, Roberto; Alfé, Michela; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Polichetti, Tiziana; Massera, Ettore; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Schiattarella, Chiara; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2018-01-01

    In the manifold of materials for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) sensing, graphene related materials (GRMs) gain special attention thanks to their versatility and overall chemico-physical tunability as a function of specific applications. In this work, the sensing performances of graphene-like (GL) layers, a new material belonging to the GRM family, are tested against ethanol and n-butanol. Two typologies of GL samples were produced by employing two different approaches and tested in view of their application as VOC sensors. The experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure, in dry air, and at room temperature and demonstrated that the sensing capabilities are related to the film surface features. The results indicated that GL films are promising candidates for the detection of low concentrations of VOCs at room temperature. The present investigation thus paves the way for VOC sensing optimization using cost-effective and easily scalable materials.

  7. Discrimination of tooth layers and dental restorative materials using cutting sounds.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Vahid; Arzanpour, Siamak; Chehroudi, Babak

    2015-03-01

    Dental restoration begins with removing carries and affected tissues with air-turbine rotary cutting handpieces, and later restoring the lost tissues with appropriate restorative materials to retain the functionality. Most restoration materials eventually fail as they age and need to be replaced. One of the difficulties in replacing failing restorations is discerning the boundary of restorative materials, which causes inadvertent removal of healthy tooth layers. Developing an objective and sensor-based method is a promising approach to monitor dental restorative operations and to prevent excessive tooth losses. This paper has analyzed cutting sounds of an air-turbine handpiece to discriminate between tooth layers and two commonly used restorative materials, amalgam and composite. Support vector machines were employed for classification, and the averaged short-time Fourier transform coefficients were selected as the features. The classifier performance was evaluated from different aspects such as the number of features, feature scaling methods, classification schemes, and utilized kernels. The total classification accuracies were 89% and 92% for cases included composite and amalgam materials, respectively. The obtained results indicated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Bulk and interface quantum states of electrons in multi-layer heterostructures with topological materials.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Zhang, Kexin; Barnes, C H W

    2018-06-13

    In this article we describe the bulk and interface quantum states of electrons in multi-layer heterostructures in one dimension, consisting of topological insulators (TIs) and topologically trivial materials. We use and extend an effective four-band continuum Hamiltonian by introducing position dependence to the eight material parameters of the Hamiltonian. We are able to demonstrate complete conduction-valence band mixing in the interface states. We find evidence for topological features of bulk states of multi-layer TI heterostructures, as well as demonstrating both complete and incomplete conduction-valence band inversion at different bulk state energies. We show that the linear k z terms in the low-energy Hamiltonian, arising from overlap of p z orbitals between different atomic layers in the case of chalcogenides, control the amount of tunneling from TIs to trivial insulators. Finally, we show that the same linear k z terms in the low-energy Hamiltonian affect the material's ability to form the localised interface state, and we demonstrate that due to this effect the spin and probability density localisation in a thin film of Sb 2 Te 3 is incomplete. We show that changing the parameter that controls the magnitude of the overlap of p z orbitals affects the transport characteristics of the topologically conducting states, with incomplete topological state localisation resulting in increased backscattering.

  9. Material and shape optimization for multi-layered vocal fold models using transient loadings.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bastian; Leugering, Günter; Stingl, Michael; Hüttner, Björn; Agaimy, Abbas; Döllinger, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Commonly applied models to study vocal fold vibrations in combination with air flow distributions are self-sustained physical models of the larynx consisting of artificial silicone vocal folds. Choosing appropriate mechanical parameters and layer geometries for these vocal fold models while considering simplifications due to manufacturing restrictions is difficult but crucial for achieving realistic behavior. In earlier work by Schmidt et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 2168-2180 (2011)], the authors presented an approach in which material parameters of a static numerical vocal fold model were optimized to achieve an agreement of the displacement field with data retrieved from hemilarynx experiments. This method is now generalized to a fully transient setting. Moreover in addition to the material parameters, the extended approach is capable of finding optimized layer geometries. Depending on chosen material restriction, significant modifications of the reference geometry are predicted. The additional flexibility in the design space leads to a significantly more realistic deformation behavior. At the same time, the predicted biomechanical and geometrical results are still feasible for manufacturing physical vocal fold models consisting of several silicone layers. As a consequence, the proposed combined experimental and numerical method is suited to guide the construction of physical vocal fold models.

  10. Large negative magnetoresistance of a nearly Dirac material: Layered antimonide EuMnS b2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changjiang; Yang, Shuai; Yang, Meng; Wang, Le; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Miao, Shanshan; Jiao, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Jinguang; Li, Yongqing; Yamaura, Kazunari; Shi, Youguo; Luo, Jianlin

    2017-11-01

    Single crystals of EuMnS b2 were successfully grown and their structural and electronic properties were investigated systematically. The material crystallizes in an orthorhombic-layered structure (space group: Pnma, No. 62) comprising a periodic sequence of -MnSb/Eu/Sb/Eu/- layers (˜1 nm in thickness), and massless fermions are expected to emerge in the Sb layer, by analogy of the candidate Dirac materials EuMnB i2 and A Mn P n2 (A =Ca or Sr or Ba, P n =Sb or Bi). The magnetic and specific heat measurements of EuMnS b2 suggest an antiferromagnetic ordering of Eu moments near 20 K. A characteristic hump appears in the temperature-dependent electrical resistivity curve at ˜25 K . A spin-flop transition of Eu moments with an onset magnetic field of ˜15 kOe (at 2 K) was observed. Interestingly, EuMnS b2 shows a negative magnetoresistance (up to -95 % ) in contrast to the positive magnetoresistances observed for EuMnB i2 and A Mn P n2 (A =Ca or Sr or Ba, P n =Sb or Bi), providing a unique opportunity to study the correlation between electronic and magnetic properties in this class of materials.

  11. Few Atomic Layered Lithium Cathode Materials to Achieve Ultrahigh Rate Capability in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tai, Zhixin; Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M; Chou, Shu-Lei; Chen, Lingna; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2017-09-01

    The most promising cathode materials, including LiCoO 2 (layered), LiMn 2 O 4 (spinel), and LiFePO 4 (olivine), have been the focus of intense research to develop rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for portable electronic devices. Sluggish lithium diffusion, however, and unsatisfactory long-term cycling performance still limit the development of present LIBs for several applications, such as plug-in/hybrid electric vehicles. Motivated by the success of graphene and novel 2D materials with unique physical and chemical properties, herein, a simple shear-assisted mechanical exfoliation method to synthesize few-layered nanosheets of LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 , and LiFePO 4 is used. Importantly, these as-prepared nanosheets with preferred orientations and optimized stable structures exhibit excellent C-rate capability and long-term cycling performance with much reduced volume expansion during cycling. In particular, the zero-strain insertion phenomenon could be achieved in 2-3 such layers of LiCoO 2 electrode materials, which could open up a new way to the further development of next-generation long-life and high-rate batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Surface modification of esophageal stent materials by a polyethylenimine layer aiming at anti-cancer function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Bai, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Qian; Guan, Fangxia; Li, Jingan

    2017-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is difficult to cure globally and possesses high mortality rate, and it is generally accepted that palliative care such as stent implantation is the main therapy method for esophageal cancer in later period. However, the restenosis caused by tumor cells and inflammatory cells seriously interferes the stent clinical application and limits its long-term services. To solve this problem, series of drug delivery stents were developed and proven rather effective in the early stage of implantation, but more serious restenosis occurred after the drug delivery was over, which endangered the patients' life. Therefore, endowing the esophageal stent continuous anti-cancer function become an ideal strategy for inhibiting the restenosis. In this contribution, the functional layer composed of polydopamine (PDA) and Poly-ethylenimine (PEI) with series of molecular weights (MW, 1.8 × 10 3 , 1 × 10 4 , 2.5 × 10 4 and 7 × 10 4  Da) were fabricated onto the esophageal stent material 317L stainless steel (317L SS) surface. The surface characterization including amine quantitative, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurement indicated successful preparation of the PDA/PEI layer. The Eca109 cells culture results proved that the PDA/PEI layers significantly improve Eca109 cells apoptosis and necrosis, suggesting excellent anti-cancer function. In addition, we also found that the anti-cancer function of the PDA/PEI layers was positively correlated to the immobilized PEIs' MW. All the results demonstrated the potential application of the PDA/PEI layers on the surface modification of esophageal stent for continuous anti-cancer function. It is generally accepted that the restenosis caused by tumor cells seriously interferes the esophageal stent clinical application. Thus, endowing the esophageal stent continuous anti-cancer function is the ideal strategy for inhibiting the restenosis. In this work, we fabricated functional layers

  13. Ultra-thin and -broadband microwave magnetic absorber enhanced by phase gradient metasurface incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ya; Wang, Jiafu; Li, Yongfeng; Pang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Lin; Xiang, Jiayu; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-05-01

    Based on the effect of anomalous reflection and refraction caused by the circularly cross-polarized phase gradient metasurface (PGM), an ultra-thin and -broadband composite absorber composed of metasurface and conventional magnetic absorbing film is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. In the case of keeping nearly the same thickness of absorbing layer, the equivalent thickness of magnetic absorbing film is enlarged by the effect of anomalous reflection and refraction, resulting in the expansion and improvement of the absorbing bandwidth and efficiency in low microwave frequency. A biarc metallic sub-cell for circularly crossed polarization is adopted to form a broadband phase gradient, by the means of rotating the Pancharatnam–Berry phases. As indicated in the experimental results, the fabricated 3.6 mm-thick absorber can averagely absorb microwave energy with the specular reflection below  ‑10 dB in the frequency interval of 2–12 GHz, which shows a good match with simulated results. Due to ultra-thin thickness and ultra-wide operating bandwidth, the proposed application of PGM in absorbing can provide an alternative way to enhance the absorbing property of current absorbing materials.

  14. Characterization of the Mechanical Strength, Resorption Properties, and Histologic Characteristics of a Fully Absorbable Material (Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate—PHASIX Mesh) in a Porcine Model of Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Deeken, Corey R.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) is a naturally derived, absorbable polymer. P4HB has been manufactured into PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug designs for soft tissue repair. The objective of this study was to evaluate mechanical strength, resorption properties, and histologic characteristics in a porcine model. Methods. Bilateral defects were created in the abdominal wall of n = 20 Yucatan minipigs and repaired in a bridged fashion with PHASIX Mesh or P4HB Plug fixated with SorbaFix or permanent suture, respectively. Mechanical strength, resorption properties, and histologic characteristics were evaluated at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks (n = 5 each). Results. PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug repairs exhibited similar burst strength, stiffness, and molecular weight at all time points, with no significant differences detected between the two devices (P > 0.05). PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug repairs also demonstrated significantly greater burst strength and stiffness than native abdominal wall at all time points (P < 0.05), and material resorption increased significantly over time (P < 0.001). Inflammatory infiltrates were mononuclear, and both devices exhibited mild to moderate granulation tissue/vascularization. Conclusions. PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug demonstrated significant mechanical strength compared to native abdominal wall, despite significant material resorption over time. Histological assessment revealed a comparable mild inflammatory response and mild to moderate granulation tissue/vascularization. PMID:23781348

  15. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, R., E-mail: rifky-mec@yahoo.com; Tauviqirrahman, M., E-mail: rifky-mec@yahoo.com; Laboratory for Surface Technology and Tribology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, Enschede

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boronmore » nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio‐degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser‐print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running‐in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.« less

  16. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  17. Stimuli-responsive hybrid materials: breathing in magnetic layered double hydroxides induced by a thermoresponsive molecule

    DOE PAGES

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Jordá, Jose Luis; Atienzar, Pedro; ...

    2014-12-04

    In this study, a hybrid magnetic multilayer material of micrometric size, with highly crystalline hexagonal crystals consisting of CoAl–LDH ferromagnetic layers intercalated with thermoresponsive 4-(4 anilinophenylazo)benzenesulfonate (AO5) molecules diluted (ratio 9 : 1) with a flexible sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been obtained. The resulting material exhibits thermochromism attributable to the isomerization between the azo (prevalent at room temperature) and the hydrazone (favoured at higher temperatures) tautomers, leading to a thermomechanical response. In fact, these crystals exhibited thermally induced motion triggering remarkable changes in the crystal morphology and volume. In situ variable temperature XRD of these thin hybrids shows thatmore » the reversible change into the two tautomers is reflected in a shift of the position of the diffraction peaks at high temperatures towards lower interlayer spacing for the hydrazone form, as well as a broadening of the peaks reflecting lower crystallinity and ordering due to non-uniform spacing between the layers. These structural variations between room temperature (basal spacing (BS) = 25.91 Å) and 100 °C (BS = 25.05 Å) are also reflected in the magnetic properties of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) due to the variation of the magnetic coupling between the layers. Finally and in conclusion, our study constitutes one of the few examples showing fully reversible thermo-responsive breathing in a 2D hybrid material. In addition, the magnetic response of the hybrid can be modulated due to the thermotropism of the organic component that, by influencing the distance and in-plane correlation of the inorganic LDH, modulates the magnetism of the CoAl–LDH sheets in a certain range.« less

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, H; Delpy, D T

    2000-09-01

    Previous modeling of near-infrared (NIR) light distribution in models of the adult head incorporating a clear nonscattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer have shown the latter to have a profound effect on the resulting photon measurement density function (PMDF). In particular, the presence of the CSF limits the PMDF largely to the outer cortical gray matter with little signal contribution from the deeper white matter. In practice, the CSF is not a simple unobstructed clear layer but contains light-scattering membranes and is crossed by various blood vessels. Using a radiosity-diffusion finite-element model, we investigated the effect on the PMDF of introducing intrusions within the clear layer. The results show that the presence of such obstructions does not significantly increase the light penetration into the brain tissue, except immediately adjacent to the obstruction and that its presence also increases the light sampling of the adjacent skull tissues, which would lead to additional contamination of the NIR spectroscopy signal by the surface tissue layers.

  19. Novel Transport Characterizations in Layered Two-Dimensional Materials and Bulk Chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennypacker, Sam

    We present a case study (September 20 - October 13, 2015) of synergistic, multi-instrument observations of aerosols, clouds and the marine boundary layer (MBL) at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) ARM site centered on a period of exceptionally low (20 - 50 cm-3) surface accumulation mode (0.1 - 1 mum) aerosol particle number concentrations. We divide the case study into three regimes (high, clean and ultra-clean) based on daily median number concentrations, and compare finer resolution (hourly or less) observations between these regimes. The analysis focuses on the possibility of using these ultra-clean events to study pristine conditions in the remote MBL, as well as examining evidence for a recently proposed conceptual model for the large-scale depletion of CCN-sized particles in post-frontal air masses. Relative to the high and clean regimes, the ultra-clean regime tends to exhibit significantly fewer particles between 0.1 and 0.4 mum in diameter and a relatively increased prevalence of larger accumulation mode particles. In addition, supermicron particles tend to dominate total scattering in the ultra-clean regime, and there is little evidence for absorbing aerosol. These observations are more in line with a heavily scavenged but natural marine aerosol population and minimal contribution from continental sources such as anthropogenic pollution, biomass burning or dust. The air masses with the consistently lowest accumulation mode aerosol number concentrations are largely dominated by heavily drizzling clouds with high liquid water path (LWP) cores, deep decoupled boundary layers, open cellular organization and notable surface forcing of sub-cloud turbulence, even at night. We end with a discussion of the implications of this work the second aerosol indirect effect and pristine conditions in the remote MBL.

  20. How the Number of Layers and Relative Position Modulate the Interlayer Electron Transfer in π-Stacked 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Alessandro; Caraiani, Claudiu; Chan, Wai-Lun; Caricato, Marco

    2017-04-06

    Understanding the interfacial electron transfer (IET) between 2D layers is central to technological applications. We present a first-principles study of the IET between a zinc phthalocyanine film and few-layer graphene by using our recent method for the calculation of electronic coupling in periodic systems. The ultimate goal is the development of a predictive in silico approach for designing new 2D materials. We find IET to be critically dependent on the number of layers and their stacking orientation. In agreement with experiment, IET to single-layer graphene is shown to be faster than that to double-layer graphene due to interference effects between layers. We predict that additional graphene layers increase the number of IET pathways, eventually leading to a faster rate. These results shed new light on the subtle interplay between structure and IET, which may lead to more effective "bottom up" design strategies for these materials.

  1. THz - ToF Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) to determine optical properties of dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spranger, Holger; Beckmann, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 0.1 and 10 THz are described as THz-radiation (T-ray). The ability to penetrate dielectric materials makes T-rays attractive to reveal discontinuities in polymer and ceramic materials. THz-Time Domain Spectroscopy Systems (THz-TDS) are available on the market today which operates with THz-pulses transmitted and received by optically pumped semiconductor antennas. In THz-TDS the travelling time (ToF) and shape of the pulse is changed if it interacts with the dielectric material and its inherent discontinuities. A tomogram of the object under the test can be reconstructed from time of flight diffraction (ToFD) scans if a synthetic focusing aperture (SAFT) algorithm is applied. The knowledge of the base materials shape and optical properties is essential for a proper reconstruction result. To obtain these properties a model is assumed which describes the device under the test as multilayer structure composed of thin layers with different dielectric characteristics. The Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) is able to fulfill these requirements. A short description why the optical properties are crucial for meaningful SAFT reconstruction results will be given first. Afterwards the OLA will be derived and applied on representative samples to discuss and evaluate its benefits and limits.

  2. Porous and Microporous Honeycomb Composites as Potential Boundary-Layer Bleed Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. O.; Willis, B. P.; Schoenenberger, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation are presented in which the use of porous and microporous honeycomb composite materials is evaluated as an alternate to perforated solid plates for boundary-layer bleed in supersonic aircraft inlets. The terms "porous" and "microporous," respectively, refer to bleed orifice diameters roughly equal to and much less than the displacement thickness of the approach boundary-layer. A Baseline porous solid plate, two porous honeycomb, and three microporous honeycomb configurations are evaluated. The performance of the plates is characterized by the flow coefficient and relative change in boundary-layer profile parameters across the bleed region. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 1.27 and 1.98. The results show the porous honeycomb is not as efficient at removing mass compared to the baseline. The microporous plates were about equal to the baseline with one plate demonstrating a significantly higher efficiency. The microporous plates produced significantly fuller boundary-layer profiles downstream of the bleed region for a given mass flow removal rate than either the baseline or the porous honeycomb plates.

  3. Bulk and interface quantum states of electrons in multi-layer heterostructures with topological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Zhang, Kexin; Barnes, C. H. W.

    2018-06-01

    In this article we describe the bulk and interface quantum states of electrons in multi-layer heterostructures in one dimension, consisting of topological insulators (TIs) and topologically trivial materials. We use and extend an effective four-band continuum Hamiltonian by introducing position dependence to the eight material parameters of the Hamiltonian. We are able to demonstrate complete conduction-valence band mixing in the interface states. We find evidence for topological features of bulk states of multi-layer TI heterostructures, as well as demonstrating both complete and incomplete conduction-valence band inversion at different bulk state energies. We show that the linear k z terms in the low-energy Hamiltonian, arising from overlap of p z orbitals between different atomic layers in the case of chalcogenides, control the amount of tunneling from TIs to trivial insulators. Finally, we show that the same linear k z terms in the low-energy Hamiltonian affect the material’s ability to form the localised interface state, and we demonstrate that due to this effect the spin and probability density localisation in a thin film of Sb2Te3 is incomplete. We show that changing the parameter that controls the magnitude of the overlap of p z orbitals affects the transport characteristics of the topologically conducting states, with incomplete topological state localisation resulting in increased backscattering.

  4. Femtosecond laser patterning, synthesis, defect formation, and structural modification of atomic layered materials

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Eunpa; Hwang, David J.

    2016-12-06

    This article summarizes recent research on laser-based processing of twodimensional (2D) atomic layered materials, including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Ultrafast lasers offer unique processing routes that take advantage of distinct interaction mechanisms with 2D materials to enable extremely localized energy deposition. Experiments have shown that ablative direct patterning of graphene by ultrafast lasers can achieve resolutions of tens of nanometers, as well as single-step pattern transfer. Ultrafast lasers also induce non-thermal excitation mechanisms that are useful for the thinning of TMDCs to tune the 2D material bandgap. Laser-assisted site-specific doping was recently demonstrated where ultrafast laser radiation undermore » ambient air environment could be used for the direct writing of high-quality graphene patterns on insulating substrates. This article concludes with an outlook towards developing further advanced laser processing with scalability, in situ monitoring strategies and potential applications.« less

  5. Nanoarchitectured materials composed of fullerene-like spheroids and disordered graphene layers with tunable mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Wang, Erik F; Yan, Hongping; Kono, Yoshio; Wen, Bin; Bai, Ligang; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Junfeng; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Wang, Yanbin; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-02-04

    Type-II glass-like carbon is a widely used material with a unique combination of properties including low density, high strength, extreme impermeability to gas and liquid and resistance to chemical corrosion. It can be considered as a carbon-based nanoarchitectured material, consisting of a disordered multilayer graphene matrix encasing numerous randomly distributed nanosized fullerene-like spheroids. Here we show that under both hydrostatic compression and triaxial deformation, this high-strength material is highly compressible and exhibits a superelastic ability to recover from large strains. Under hydrostatic compression, bulk, shear and Young's moduli decrease anomalously with pressure, reaching minima around 1-2 GPa, where Poisson's ratio approaches zero, and then revert to normal behaviour with positive pressure dependences. Controlling the concentration, size and shape of fullerene-like spheroids with tailored topological connectivity to graphene layers is expected to yield exceptional and tunable mechanical properties, similar to mechanical metamaterials, with potentially wide applications.

  6. InAs/GaInSb strained layer superlattice as an infrared detector material: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey L.

    2000-04-01

    The investigation of the InAs/Ga1-xInxSb strained layer superlattice (SLS) has been largely motivated by the promise of overcoming limitations of current mature high-performance IR detectors, such as those using HgCdTe and extrinsic silicon. It also offers fundamentally superior performance over other newly emerging III-V bandgap- engineered materials such as QWIPs. The inherent properties of the InAs/GaInSb SLS have identified it as an attractive alternative for niche VLWIR applications requiring high performance under low backgrounds at operating temperatures > 40K. If this material system proves to meet the stringent demands of VLWIR applications, it will most certainly play a significant role as an alternative materials for photovoltaic focal pane arrays operating in the LWIR and MWIR regimes as well. This paper is an overview of SLS technology development, and focuses on critical development needs as seen from the perspective of the IR detector industry.

  7. Review of Radar Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Symposium, 1990. AP-S. Merging technologies for the 90’s. Digest 1990, 3, 1212. (30) Nortier, J. R., Van der Neut , C.A., Baker, D.E. Microwave Journal...1987, 219. (31) Kasevich, R. S.; Broderick, F., US Patent 5223849. 1993. (32) Van Der Plas, G., Barel, A., Schweicher, E. Antennas and Propagation

  8. Studying physical properties of CuInS2 absorber layers grown by spin coating method on different kinds of substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerioun, M. H.; Ghazi, M. E.; Izadifard, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, first the CuInS2 (CIS2) layers are deposited on Aluminum and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as flexible substrates, and on glass and soda lime glass (SLG) as rigid substrates by the sol-gel method. Then the samples are analyzed by x-ray diffractomery (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the crystal structures and surface roughness of the samples. The I-V curve measurements and Seebeck effect setup are used to measure the electrical properties of the samples. The XRD data obtained for the CIS2 layers show that all the prepared samples have a single phase with a preferred orientation that is substrate-dependent. The samples grown on the rigid substrates had higher crystallite sizes. The results obtained for the optical measurements indicate the dependence of the band gap energy on the substrate type. The measured Seebeck coefficient showed that the carriers were of p-type in all the samples. According to the AFM images, the surface roughness also varied in the CIS2 layers with different substrates. In this regard, the type of substrate could be an important parameter for the final performance of the fabricated CIS2 cells.

  9. The effect of the interaction of cracks in orthotropic layered materials under compressive loading.

    PubMed

    Winiarski, B; Guz, I A

    2008-05-28

    The non-classical problem of fracture mechanics of composites compressed along the layers with interfacial cracks is analysed. The statement of the problem is based on the model of piecewise homogeneous medium, the most accurate within the framework of the mechanics of deformable bodies as applied to composites. The condition of plane strain state is examined. The layers are modelled by a transversally isotropic material (a matrix reinforced by continuous parallel fibres). The frictionless Hertzian contact of the crack faces is considered. The complex fracture mechanics problem is solved using the finite-element analysis. The shear mode of stability loss is studied. The results are obtained for the typical dispositions of cracks. It was found that the interacting crack faces, the crack length and the mutual position of cracks influence the critical strain in the composite.

  10. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, María Eugenia; Le Lay, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established on synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and surface electron diffraction places few layer germanene among the rare two-dimensional Dirac materials. Since germanium is currently used in the mainstream Si-based electronics, perspectives of using germanene for scaling down beyond the 5 nm node appear very promising. Other fascinating properties seem at hand, typically the robust quantum spin Hall effect for applications in spintronics and the engineering of Floquet Majorana fermions by light for quantum computing.

  11. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material.

    PubMed

    Dávila, María Eugenia; Le Lay, Guy

    2016-02-10

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established on synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and surface electron diffraction places few layer germanene among the rare two-dimensional Dirac materials. Since germanium is currently used in the mainstream Si-based electronics, perspectives of using germanene for scaling down beyond the 5 nm node appear very promising. Other fascinating properties seem at hand, typically the robust quantum spin Hall effect for applications in spintronics and the engineering of Floquet Majorana fermions by light for quantum computing.

  12. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, María Eugenia; Le Lay, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established on synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and surface electron diffraction places few layer germanene among the rare two-dimensional Dirac materials. Since germanium is currently used in the mainstream Si-based electronics, perspectives of using germanene for scaling down beyond the 5 nm node appear very promising. Other fascinating properties seem at hand, typically the robust quantum spin Hall effect for applications in spintronics and the engineering of Floquet Majorana fermions by light for quantum computing. PMID:26860590

  13. Review of multi-layered magnetoelectric composite materials and devices applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhaoqiang; PourhosseiniAsl, MohammadJavad; Dong, Shuxiang

    2018-06-01

    Multiferroic materials with the coexistence of at least two ferroic orders, such as ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, or ferroelasticity, have recently attracted ever-increasing attention due to their potential for multifunctional device applications, including magnetic and current sensors, energy harvesters, magnetoelectric (ME) random access memory and logic devices, tunable microwave devices, and ME antenna. In this article, we provide a review of the recent and ongoing research efforts in the field of multi-layered ME composites. After a brief introduction to ME composites and ME coupling mechanisms, we review recent advances in multi-layered ME composites as well as their device applications based on the direct ME effect, magnetic sensors in particular. Finally, some remaining challenges and future perspective of ME composites and their engineering applications will be discussed.

  14. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act.

  15. Thermalization of X-rays in evaporated tin and bismuth films used as the absorbing materials in X-ray calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, C. K.; Kelley, R. L.; Moseley, S. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Juda, M.; McCammon, D.; Zhang, J.

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated the use of evaporated tin and bismuth films as the absorbing materials in X-ray calorimeters. When the films were deposited directly on monolithic silicon calorimeters, the output signal from both Sn and Bi devices was strongly dependent on the location of the absorption event relative to the ion-implanted thermistors, presumably indicating thermistor sensitivity to a non-thermal spectrum of phonons. With Sn films we also observed that a component of the thermalization proceeded slowly, relative to a complete thermalization reference. The thermalization function could be modified by trapping magnetic flux within the film. In order to distinguish thermalization effects in the films from the thermistor sensitivity to energetic phonons, we deposited Sn and Bi films on thin Si substrates which we then affixed to calorimeters using epoxy. With glued Sn films, we were able to attain as good as 13.6 eV resolution of 6 keV X-rays with no excess broadening of the line beyond the width of the baseline, while similarly made Bi devices showed excess broadening.

  16. Thermal conversion of an Fe₃O₄@metal-organic framework: a new method for an efficient Fe-Co/nanoporous carbon microwave absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingmiao; Ji, Guangbin; Liu, Wei; Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Shang, Chaomei; Cheng, Yan; Du, Youwei

    2015-08-14

    A novel FeCo nanoparticle embedded nanoporous carbon composite (Fe-Co/NPC) was synthesized via in situ carbonization of dehydro-ascorbic acid (DHAA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a metal-organic framework (zeolitic imidazolate framework-67, ZIF-67). The molar ratio of Fe/Co significantly depends on the encapsulated content of Fe3O4 in ZIF-67. The composites filled with 50 wt% of the Fe-Co/NPC-2.0 samples in paraffin show a maximum reflection loss (RL) of -21.7 dB at a thickness of 1.2 mm; in addition, a broad absorption bandwidth for RL < -10 dB which covers from 12.2 to 18 GHz can be obtained, and its minimum reflection loss and bandwidth (RL values exceeding -10 dB) are far greater than those of commercial carbonyl iron powder under a very low thickness (1-1.5 mm). This study not only provides a good reference for future preparation of carbon-based lightweight microwave absorbing materials but also broadens the application of such kinds of metal-organic frameworks.

  17. Operando Lithium Dynamics in the Li-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode Material via Neutron Diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Haodong; An, Ke; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; ...

    2016-04-06

    Neutron diffraction under operando battery cycling is used to study the lithium and oxygen dynamics of high Li-rich Li(Li x/3Ni (3/8-3x/8)Co (1/4-x/4)Mn (3/8+7x/24)O 2 (x = 0.6, HLR) and low Li-rich Li(Li x/3Ni (1/3-x/3)Co (1/3-x/3)Mn(1/3+x/3)O 2 (x = 0.24, LLR) compounds that exhibit different degrees of oxygen activation at high voltage. The measured lattice parameter changes and oxygen position show largely contrasting changes for the two cathodes where the LLR exhibits larger movement of oxygen and lattice contractions in comparison to the HLR that maintains relatively constant lattice parameters and oxygen position during the high voltage plateau until the endmore » of charge. Density functional theory calculations show the presence of oxygen vacancy during the high voltage plateau; changes in the lattice parameters and oxygen position are consistent with experimental observations. Lithium migration kinetics for the Li-rich material is observed under operando conditions for the first time to reveal the rate of lithium extraction from the lithium layer, and transition metal layer is related to the different charge and discharge characteristics. At the beginning of charging, the lithium extraction predominately occurs within the lithium layer. The lithium extraction from the lithium layer slows down and extraction from the transition metal layer evolves at a faster rate once the high voltage plateau is reached.« less

  18. Recent progress in layered double hydroxide based materials for electrochemical capacitors: design, synthesis and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingming; Zhao, Qunxing; Li, Bing; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan; Chen, Changyun

    2017-10-19

    As representative two-dimensional (2D) materials, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have received increasing attention in electrochemical energy storage and conversion because of the facile tunability between their composition and morphology. The high dispersion of active species in layered arrays, the simple exfoliation into monolayer nanosheets and chemical modification offer the LDHs an opportunity as active electrode materials in electrochemical capacitors (ECs). LDHs are favourable in providing large specific surface areas, good transport features as well as attractive physicochemical properties. In this review, our purpose is to provide a detailed summary of recent developments in the synthesis and electrochemical performance of the LDHs. Their composites with carbon (carbon quantum dots, carbon black, carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene/graphene oxides), metals (nickel, platinum, silver), metal oxides (TiO 2 , Co 3 O 4 , CuO, MnO 2 , Fe 3 O 4 ), metal sulfides/phosphides (CoS, NiCo 2 S 4 , NiP), MOFs (MOF derivatives) and polymers (PEDOT:PSS, PPy (polypyrrole), P(NIPAM-co-SPMA) and PET) are also discussed in this review. The relationship between structures and electrochemical properties as well as the associated charge-storage mechanisms is discussed. Moreover, challenges and prospects of the LDHs for high-performance ECs are presented. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of ECs with LDH based electrode materials.

  19. Atomic-scale friction modulated by potential corrugation in multi-layered graphene materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Chunqiang, E-mail: chunqiang.zhuang@bjut.edu.cn; Liu, Lei

    2015-03-21

    Friction is an important issue that has to be carefully treated for the fabrication of graphene-based nano-scale devices. So far, the friction mechanism of graphene materials on the atomic scale has not yet been clearly presented. Here, first-principles calculations were employed to unveil the friction behaviors and their atomic-scale mechanism. We found that potential corrugations on sliding surfaces dominate the friction force and the friction anisotropy of graphene materials. Higher friction forces correspond to larger corrugations of potential energy, which are tuned by the number of graphene layers. The friction anisotropy is determined by the regular distributions of potential energy.more » The sliding along a fold-line path (hollow-atop-hollow) has a relatively small potential energy barrier. Thus, the linear sliding observed in macroscopic friction experiments may probably be attributed to the fold-line sliding mode on the atomic scale. These findings can also be extended to other layer-structure materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) and graphene-like BN sheets.« less

  20. Progress on Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices of 2D Layered Semiconducting Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhenxing; Jiang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Cheng, Ruiqing; Zhan, Xueying; Xu, Kai; Wang, Fengmei; Zhang, Yu; He, Jun

    2017-09-01

    2D layered semiconducting materials (2DLSMs) represent the thinnest semiconductors, holding many novel properties, such as the absence of surface dangling bonds, sizable band gaps, high flexibility, and ability of artificial assembly. With the prospect of bringing revolutionary opportunities for electronic and optoelectronic applications, 2DLSMs have prospered over the past twelve years. From materials preparation and property exploration to device applications, 2DLSMs have been extensively investigated and have achieved great progress. However, there are still great challenges for high-performance devices. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the recent breakthroughs in device optimization based on 2DLSMs, particularly focussing on three aspects: device configurations, basic properties of channel materials, and heterostructures. The effects from device configurations, i.e., electrical contacts, dielectric layers, channel length, and substrates, are discussed. After that, the affect of the basic properties of 2DLSMs on device performance is summarized, including crystal defects, crystal symmetry, doping, and thickness. Finally, we focus on heterostructures based on 2DLSMs. Through this review, we try to provide a guide to improve electronic and optoelectronic devices of 2DLSMs for achieving practical device applications in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Optimization of X-ray Absorbers for TES Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyomoto, Naoko; Sadleir, John E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Saab, Tarek; Bandler, Simon; Kilbourne, Caroline; Chervenak, James; Talley, Dorothy; Finkbeiner, Fred; Brekosky, Regis

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the thermal, electrical, and structural properties of Bi and BiCu films that are being developed as X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for imaging X-ray spectroscopy. Bi could be an ideal material for an X-ray absorber due to its high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity, but it has a low thermal conductivity, which can result in position dependence of the pulses in the absorber. In order to improve the thermal conductivity, we added Cu layers in between the Bi layers. We measured electrical and thermal conductivities of the films around 0.1 K(sub 1) the operating temperature of the TES calorimeter, to examine the films and to determine the optimal thickness of the Cu layer. From the electrical conductivity measurements, we found that the Cu is more resistive on the Bi than on a Si substrate. Together with an SEM picture of the Bi surface, we concluded that the rough surface of the Bi film makes the Cu layer resistive when the Cu layer is not thick enough t o fill in the roughness. From the thermal conductivity measurements, we determined the thermal diffusion constant to be 2 x l0(exp 3) micrometers squared per microsecond in a film that consists of 2.25 micrometers of Bi and 0.1 micrometers of Cu. We measured the position dependence in the film and found that its thermal diffusion constant is too low to get good energy resolution, because of the resistive Cu layer and/or possibly a very high heat capacity of our Bi films. We show plans to improve the thermal diffusion constant in our BiCu absorbers.

  2. Design of a five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber using two resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Tianhua; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Qiaofen

    2018-05-01

    We present a polarization-insensitive five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber composed of two metallic circular rings and a metallic ground film separated by a dielectric layer. The calculated results show that the absorber has five distinctive absorption bands whose peaks are greater than 99% on average. The physical origin of the absorber originates from the combination of dipolar, hexapolar, and surface plasmon resonance of the patterned metallic structure, which is different from the work mechanism of previously reported absorbers. In addition, the influence of the structural parameters on the absorption spectra is analyzed to further confirm the origin of the five-band absorption peaks. The proposed absorber has potential applications in terahertz imaging, refractive index sensing, and material detecting.

  3. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Slab Waveguide Structure Consisting of Chiral Nihility Claddings and Negative-Index Material Core Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Alaa N. Abu; Taya, Sofyan A.; Elwasife, Khitam Y.

    2018-06-01

    The dispersion equation of an asymmetric three-layer slab waveguide, in which all layers are chiral materials is presented. Then, the dispersion equation of a symmetric slab waveguide, in which the claddings are chiral materials and the core layer is negative index material, is derived. Normalized cut-off frequencies, field profile, and energies flow of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized modes are derived and plotted. We consider both odd and even guided modes. Numerical results of guided low-order modes are provided. Some novel features, such as abnormal dispersion curves, are found.

  4. Neutron reflectometry on highly absorbing films and its application to 10B4C-based neutron detectors

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, F.; Khaplanov, A.; Devishvili, A.; Schmidt, S.; Höglund, C.; Birch, J.; Dennison, A. J. C.; Gutfreund, P.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Van Esch, P.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool used for studies of surfaces and interfaces. The absorption in the typical studied materials is neglected and this technique is limited only to the reflectivity measurement. For strongly absorbing nuclei, the absorption can be directly measured by using the neutron-induced fluorescence technique which exploits the prompt particle emission of absorbing isotopes. This technique is emerging from soft matter and biology where highly absorbing nuclei, in very small quantities, are used as a label for buried layers. Nowadays, the importance of absorbing layers is rapidly increasing, partially because of their application in neutron detection; a field that has become more active also due to the 3He-shortage. We extend the neutron-induced fluorescence technique to the study of layers of highly absorbing materials, in particular 10B4C. The theory of neutron reflectometry is a commonly studied topic; however, when a strong absorption is present the subtle relationship between the reflection and the absorption of neutrons is not widely known. The theory for a general stack of absorbing layers has been developed and compared to measurements. We also report on the requirements that a 10B4C layer must fulfil in order to be employed as a converter in neutron detection. PMID:26997902

  5. New multifunctional materials obtained by the intercalation of anionic dyes into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate followed by dispersion into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA).

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wypych, Fernando

    2009-02-15

    Different anionic blue and orange dyes have been immobilized on a zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn(5)(OH)(8)(NO(3))(2)nH(2)O--Zn-OH-NO(3)) by anion exchange with interlayer and/or outer surface nitrate ions of the layered matrix. Orange G (OG) was totally intercalated, orange II (OII) was partially intercalated, while Niagara blue 3B (NB) and Evans blue (EV) were only adsorbed at the outer surface. Several composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)--PVA were prepared by casting through the dispersion of the hybrid material (Zn-OH-OG) into a PVA aqueous solution and evaporation of water in a vacuum oven. The obtained composite films were transparent, colored, and capable of absorbing UV radiation. Improved mechanical properties were also obtained in relation to the nonfilled PVA films. These results demonstrate the onset of a new range of potential applications for layered hydroxide salts in the preparation of polymer composite multifunctional materials.

  6. Design and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Tag Antenna for Mounting on or inside Material Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai

    There is great desire to employ passive UHF RFID tags for inventory tracking and sensing in a diversity of applications and environments. Owing to its battery-free operation, non-line-of sight detection, low cost, long read range and small form factor, each year billions of RFID tags are being deployed in retail, logistics, manufacturing, biomedical inventories, among many other applications. However, the performance of these RFID systems has not met expectations. This is because a tag's performance deteriorates significantly when mounted on or inside arbitrary materials. The tag antenna is optimized only for a given type of material at a certain location of placement, and detuning takes place when attached to or embedded in materials with dielectric properties outside the design range. Thereby, different customized tags may be needed for identifying objects even within the same class of products. This increases the overall cost of the system. Furthermore, conventional copper foil-based RFID tag antennas are prone to metal fatigue and wear, and cannot survive hostile environments where antennas could be deformed by external forces and failures occur. Therefore, it is essential to understand the interaction between the antenna and the material in the vicinity of the tag, and design general purpose RFID tag antennas possessing excellent electrical performance as well as robust mechanical structure. A particularly challenging application addressed here is designing passive RFID tag antennas for automotive tires. Tires are composed of multiple layers of rubber with different dielectric properties and thicknesses. Furthermore, metallic plies are embedded in the sidewalls and steel belts lie beneath the tread to enforce mechanical integrity. To complicate matters even more, a typical tire experiences a 10% stretching during the construction process. This dissertation focuses on intuitively understanding the interaction between the antenna and the material in the

  7. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  8. Modeling of layered anisotropic composite material based on effective medium theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yang; Song, Jiming

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient method to simulate multilayered anisotropic composite material with effective medium theory. Effective permittivity, permeability and orientation angle for a layered anisotropic composite medium are extracted with this equivalent model. We also derive analytical expressions for effective parameters and orientation angle with low frequency (LF) limit, which will be shown in detail. Numerical results are shown in comparing extracted effective parameters and orientation angle with analytical results from low frequency limit. Good agreements are achieved to demonstrate the accuracy of our efficient model.

  9. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  10. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution‐based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed. PMID:27840793

  11. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorenko, Y. G., E-mail: y.fedorenko@liverpool.ac.uk; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.

    2015-10-28

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gapmore » states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe.« less

  12. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E., E-mail: kan@obisp.oscsbras.ru; Makushenko, R. K.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2}more » adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.« less

  13. Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Roland; Walker, Bryce C; Schmidt, Sebastian S; Zander, Ole; Weber, Alfons; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Humberto; Just, Justus; Klaus, Manuela; Agrawal, Rakesh; Unold, Thomas

    2013-11-07

    The selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals is a promising route for the fabrication of low-cost thin film solar cells. However, the reaction pathway of this process is not completely understood. Here, the evolution of phase formation, grain size, and elemental distributions is investigated during the selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle precursor thin films by synchrotron-based in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis as well as by ex situ electron microscopy. The precursor films are heated in a closed volume inside a vacuum chamber in the presence of selenium vapor while diffraction and fluorescence signals are recorded. The presented results reveal that during the selenization the cations diffuse to the surface to form large grains on top of the nanoparticle layer and the selenization of the film takes place through two simultaneous reactions: (1) a direct and fast formation of large grained selenides, starting with copper selenide which is subsequently transformed into Cu2ZnSnSe4; and (2) a slower selenization of the remaining nanoparticles. As a consequence of the initial formation of copper selenides at the surface, the subsequent formation of CZTSe starts under Cu-rich conditions despite an overall Cu-poor composition of the film. The implications of this process path for the film quality are discussed. Additionally, the proposed growth model provides an explanation for the previously observed accumulation of carbon from the nanoparticle precursor beneath the large grained layer.

  14. Absorber for solar power.

    PubMed

    Powell, W R

    1974-10-01

    A simple, economical absorber utilizing a new principle of operation to achieve very low reradiation losses while generating temperatures limited by material properties of quartz is described. Its performance is analyzed and indicates approximately 90% thermal efficiency and 73% conversion efficiency for an earth based unit with moderately concentrated (~tenfold) sunlight incident. It is consequently compatible with the most economic of concentrator mirrors (stamped) or mirrors deployable in space. Space applications are particularly attractive, as temperatures significantly below 300 K are possible and permit even higher conversion efficiency.

  15. Electrochemical Effects of Atomic Layer Deposition on Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Isaac David

    One of the greatest challenges of modern society is to stabilize a consistent energy supply that will meet our growing energy demand while decreasing the use of fossil fuels and the harmful green house gases which they produce. Developing reliable and safe solutions has driven research into exploring alternative energy sources for transportation including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For the foreseeable future, though, rechargeable batteries appear to be the most practically viable power source. To deploy LIBs in next-generation vehicles, it is essential to develop electrodes with durability, high energy density, and high power. Unfortunately, the power capability of LIBs is generally hindered by Li+-ion diffusion in micrometer-sized materials and the formation of an insulating solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the surface of the active material. In addition, degradation of the battery material due to chemical and electrochemical reactions with the electrolyte lead to both capacity fade and safety concerns both at room and higher temperatures. The current study focuses on mitigating these issues for high voltage cathode materials by both using nanoscale particles to improve Li+-ion diffusion and using ultrathin nanoscale coatings to protect the battery materials from undesirable side reactions. The electrode material is coated with Al2O3 using atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is a method to grow conformal thin films with atomic thickness (angstrom level control) using sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. First, nano-LiCoO 2 is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ALD coatings and demonstrates a profound increase in rate performance (>250% improvement) over generally employed micrometer-sized particles. Second, the cathode materials LiNi 0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, LiNi0.33Mn 0.33Co0.33O2, LiMn2O4, and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were used to demonstrate the benefits ALD coatings have on thermal runaway. The results show a

  16. Rational design of new electrolyte materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütter, Christoph; Husch, Tamara; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Passerini, Stefano; Balducci, Andrea; Korth, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The development of new electrolytes is a centerpiece of many strategies to improve electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) devices. We present here a computational screening-based rational design approach to find new electrolyte materials. As an example application, the known chemical space of almost 70 million compounds is investigated in search of electrochemically more stable solvents. Cyano esters are identified as especially promising new compound class. Theoretical predictions are validated with subsequent experimental studies on a selected case. These studies show that based on theoretical predictions only, a previously untested, but very well performing compound class was identified. We thus find that our rational design strategy is indeed able to successfully identify completely new materials with substantially improved properties.

  17. All-optically tunable EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces hybridized with thin phase change material layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronijevic, Emilija; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), a pump-induced narrow transparency window within the absorption region of a probe, had offered new perspectives in slow-light control in atomic physics. For applications in nanophotonics, the implementation on chip-scaled devices has later been obtained by mimicking this effect by metallic metamaterials. High losses in visible and near infrared range of metal-based metamaterialls have recently opened a new field of all-dielectric metamaterials; a proper configuration of high refractive index dielectric nanoresonators can mimick this effect without losses to get high Q, slow-light response. The next step would be the ability to tune their optical response, and in this work we investigate thin layers of phase change materials (PCM) for all-optical control of EIT-like all-dielectric metamaterials. PCM can be nonvolatively and reversibly switched between two stable phases that differ in optical properties by applying a visible laser pulse. The device is based on Si nanoresonators covered by a thin layer of PCM GeTe; optical and transient thermal simulations have been done to find and optimize the fabrication parameters and switching parameters such as the intensity and duration of the pulse. We have found that the EIT-like response can be switched on and off by applying the 532nm laser pulse to change the phase of the upper GeTe layer. We strongly believe that such approach could open new perspectives in all-optically controlled slow-light metamaterials.

  18. Expedient Membrane-Encapsulated Soil Layer (Mesl) Construction In Cold Weather

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-07-01

    A new method of constructing membrane-encapsulated soil layers (MESLs) using plastic membranes, geotextiles, tapes for sealing the membranes, and absorbents for drying the soil was demonstrated. These materials would allow construction of a MESL in c...

  19. Emission Spectroscopic Boundary Layer Investigation during Ablative Material Testing in Plasmatron.

    PubMed

    Helber, Bernd; Chazot, Olivier; Hubin, Annick; Magin, Thierry E

    2016-06-09

    Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) allowed the first humans to safely return to Earth from the moon and are still considered as the only solution for future high-speed reentry missions. But despite the advancements made since Apollo, heat flux prediction remains an imperfect science and engineers resort to safety factors to determine the TPS thickness. This goes at the expense of embarked payload, hampering, for example, sample return missions. Ground testing in plasma wind-tunnels is currently the only affordable possibility for both material qualification and validation of material response codes. The subsonic 1.2MW Inductively Coupled Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics is able to reproduce a wide range of reentry environments. This protocol describes a procedure for the study of the gas/surface interaction on ablative materials in high enthalpy flows and presents sample results of a non-pyrolyzing, ablating carbon fiber precursor. With this publication, the authors envisage the definition of a standard procedure, facilitating comparison with other laboratories and contributing to ongoing efforts to improve heat shield reliability and reduce design uncertainties. The described core techniques are non-intrusive methods to track the material recession with a high-speed camera along with the chemistry in the reactive boundary layer, probed by emission spectroscopy. Although optical emission spectroscopy is limited to line-of-sight measurements and is further constrained to electronically excited atoms and molecules, its simplicity and broad applicability still make it the technique of choice for analysis of the reactive boundary layer. Recession of the ablating sample further requires that the distance of the measurement location with respect to the surface is known at all times during the experiment. Calibration of the optical system of the applied three spectrometers allowed quantitative comparison. At the fiber scale

  20. Versatile technique for assessing thickness of 2D layered materials by XPS

    DOE PAGES

    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Jespersen, Michael; Zakharov, Dmitry N.; ...

    2018-02-07

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized as a versatile method for thickness characterization of various two-dimensional (2D) films. Accurate thickness can be measured simultaneously while acquiring XPS data for chemical characterization of 2D films having thickness up to approximately 10 nm. For validating the developed technique, thicknesses of few-layer graphene (FLG), MoS 2 and amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) layer, produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) respectively, were accurately measured. The intensity ratio between photoemission peaks recorded for the films (C 1s, Mo 3d, B 1s) andmore » the substrates (Cu 2p, Al 2p, Si 2p) is the primary input parameter for thickness calculation, in addition to the atomic densities of the substrate and the film, and the corresponding electron attenuation length (EAL). The XPS data was used with a proposed model for thickness calculations, which was verified by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement of thickness for all the films. The XPS method determines thickness values averaged over an analysis area which is orders of magnitude larger than the typical area in cross-sectional TEM imaging, hence provides an advanced approach for thickness measurement over large areas of 2D materials. The study confirms that the versatile XPS method allows rapid and reliable assessment of the 2D material thickness and this method can facilitate in tailoring growth conditions for producing very thin 2D materials effectively over a large area. Furthermore, the XPS measurement for a typical 2D material is non-destructive and does not require special sample preparation. Furthermore, after XPS analysis, exactly the same sample can undergo further processing or utilization.« less

  1. Versatile technique for assessing thickness of 2D layered materials by XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Jespersen, Michael; Zakharov, Dmitry N.; Hu, Jianjun; Paul, Rajib; Kumar, Anurag; Pacley, Shanee; Glavin, Nicholas; Saenz, David; Smith, Kyle C.; Fisher, Timothy S.; Voevodin, Andrey A.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized as a versatile method for thickness characterization of various two-dimensional (2D) films. Accurate thickness can be measured simultaneously while acquiring XPS data for chemical characterization of 2D films having thickness up to approximately 10 nm. For validating the developed technique, thicknesses of few-layer graphene (FLG), MoS2 and amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) layer, produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) respectively, were accurately measured. The intensity ratio between photoemission peaks recorded for the films (C 1s, Mo 3d, B 1s) and the substrates (Cu 2p, Al 2p, Si 2p) is the primary input parameter for thickness calculation, in addition to the atomic densities of the substrate and the film, and the corresponding electron attenuation length (EAL). The XPS data was used with a proposed model for thickness calculations, which was verified by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement of thickness for all the films. The XPS method determines thickness values averaged over an analysis area which is orders of magnitude larger than the typical area in cross-sectional TEM imaging, hence provides an advanced approach for thickness measurement over large areas of 2D materials. The study confirms that the versatile XPS method allows rapid and reliable assessment of the 2D material thickness and this method can facilitate in tailoring growth conditions for producing very thin 2D materials effectively over a large area. Furthermore, the XPS measurement for a typical 2D material is non-destructive and does not require special sample preparation. Therefore, after XPS analysis, exactly the same sample can undergo further processing or utilization.

  2. Versatile technique for assessing thickness of 2D layered materials by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Jespersen, Michael; Zakharov, Dmitry N.

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized as a versatile method for thickness characterization of various two-dimensional (2D) films. Accurate thickness can be measured simultaneously while acquiring XPS data for chemical characterization of 2D films having thickness up to approximately 10 nm. For validating the developed technique, thicknesses of few-layer graphene (FLG), MoS 2 and amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) layer, produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) respectively, were accurately measured. The intensity ratio between photoemission peaks recorded for the films (C 1s, Mo 3d, B 1s) andmore » the substrates (Cu 2p, Al 2p, Si 2p) is the primary input parameter for thickness calculation, in addition to the atomic densities of the substrate and the film, and the corresponding electron attenuation length (EAL). The XPS data was used with a proposed model for thickness calculations, which was verified by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement of thickness for all the films. The XPS method determines thickness values averaged over an analysis area which is orders of magnitude larger than the typical area in cross-sectional TEM imaging, hence provides an advanced approach for thickness measurement over large areas of 2D materials. The study confirms that the versatile XPS method allows rapid and reliable assessment of the 2D material thickness and this method can facilitate in tailoring growth conditions for producing very thin 2D materials effectively over a large area. Furthermore, the XPS measurement for a typical 2D material is non-destructive and does not require special sample preparation. Furthermore, after XPS analysis, exactly the same sample can undergo further processing or utilization.« less

  3. Emission Spectroscopic Boundary Layer Investigation during Ablative Material Testing in Plasmatron

    PubMed Central

    Helber, Bernd; Chazot, Olivier; Hubin, Annick; Magin, Thierry E.

    2016-01-01

    Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) allowed the first humans to safely return to Earth from the moon and are still considered as the only solution for future high-speed reentry missions. But despite the advancements made since Apollo, heat flux prediction remains an imperfect science and engineers resort to safety factors to determine the TPS thickness. This goes at the expense of embarked payload, hampering, for example, sample return missions. Ground testing in plasma wind-tunnels is currently the only affordable possibility for both material qualification and validation of material response codes. The subsonic 1.2MW Inductively Coupled Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics is able to reproduce a wide range of reentry environments. This protocol describes a procedure for the study of the gas/surface interaction on ablative materials in high enthalpy flows and presents sample results of a non-pyrolyzing, ablating carbon fiber precursor. With this publication, the authors envisage the definition of a standard procedure, facilitating comparison with other laboratories and contributing to ongoing efforts to improve heat shield reliability and reduce design uncertainties. The described core techniques are non-intrusive methods to track the material recession with a high-speed camera along with the chemistry in the reactive boundary layer, probed by emission spectroscopy. Although optical emission spectroscopy is limited to line-of-sight measurements and is further constrained to electronically excited atoms and molecules, its simplicity and broad applicability still make it the technique of choice for analysis of the reactive boundary layer. Recession of the ablating sample further requires that the distance of the measurement location with respect to the surface is known at all times during the experiment. Calibration of the optical system of the applied three spectrometers allowed quantitative comparison. At the fiber scale

  4. Versatile technique for assessing thickness of 2D layered materials by XPS.

    PubMed

    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y; Jespersen, Michael; Zakharov, Dmitry N; Hu, Jianjun; Paul, Rajib; Kumar, Anurag; Pacley, Shanee; Glavin, Nicholas; Saenz, David; Smith, Kyle C; Fisher, Timothy S; Voevodin, Andrey A

    2018-03-16

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized as a versatile method for thickness characterization of various two-dimensional (2D) films. Accurate thickness can be measured simultaneously while acquiring XPS data for chemical characterization of 2D films having thickness up to approximately 10 nm. For validating the developed technique, thicknesses of few-layer graphene (FLG), MoS 2 and amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) layer, produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) respectively, were accurately measured. The intensity ratio between photoemission peaks recorded for the films (C 1s, Mo 3d, B 1s) and the substrates (Cu 2p, Al 2p, Si 2p) is the primary input parameter for thickness calculation, in addition to the atomic densities of the substrate and the film, and the corresponding electron attenuation length (EAL). The XPS data was used with a proposed model for thickness calculations, which was verified by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement of thickness for all the films. The XPS method determines thickness values averaged over an analysis area which is orders of magnitude larger than the typical area in cross-sectional TEM imaging, hence provides an advanced approach for thickness measurement over large areas of 2D materials. The study confirms that the versatile XPS method allows rapid and reliable assessment of the 2D material thickness and this method can facilitate in tailoring growth conditions for producing very thin 2D materials effectively over a large area. Furthermore, the XPS measurement for a typical 2D material is non-destructive and does not require special sample preparation. Therefore, after XPS analysis, exactly the same sample can undergo further processing or utilization.

  5. Soil hydraulic material properties and layered architecture from time-lapse GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Stefan; Roth, Kurt

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the subsurface material distribution and its effective soil hydraulic material properties is essential to predict soil water movement. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a noninvasive and nondestructive geophysical measurement method that is suitable to monitor hydraulic processes. Previous studies showed that the GPR signal from a fluctuating groundwater table is sensitive to the soil water characteristic and the hydraulic conductivity function. In this work, we show that the GPR signal originating from both the subsurface architecture and the fluctuating groundwater table is suitable to estimate the position of layers within the subsurface architecture together with the associated effective soil hydraulic material properties with inversion methods. To that end, we parameterize the subsurface architecture, solve the Richards equation, convert the resulting water content to relative permittivity with the complex refractive index model (CRIM), and solve Maxwell's equations numerically. In order to analyze the GPR signal, we implemented a new heuristic algorithm that detects relevant signals in the radargram (events) and extracts the corresponding signal travel time and amplitude. This algorithm is applied to simulated as well as measured radargrams and the detected events are associated automatically. Using events instead of the full wave regularizes the inversion focussing on the relevant measurement signal. For optimization, we use a global-local approach with preconditioning. Starting from an ensemble of initial parameter sets drawn with a Latin hypercube algorithm, we sequentially couple a simulated annealing algorithm with a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The method is applied to synthetic as well as measured data from the ASSESS test site. We show that the method yields reasonable estimates for the position of the layers as well as for the soil hydraulic material properties by comparing the results to references derived from ground

  6. AFM investigation of effect of absorbed water layer structure on growth mechanism of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer on oxidized silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaowei; Zheng, Yanjun, E-mail: zhengyj@cup.edu.cn; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-06-28

    The growth mechanism of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayer on a silicon oxide surface at various relative humidities has been investigated. Atomic force microscopy images show that excess water may actually hinder the nucleation and growth of OTS islands. A moderate amount of water is favorable for the nucleation and growth of OTS islands in the initial stage; however, the completion of the monolayer is very slow in the final stage. The growth of OTS islands on a low-water-content surface maintains a relatively constant speed and requires the least amount of time. The mobility of water molecules is thought tomore » play an important role in the OTS monolayers, and a low-mobility water layer provides a steady condition for OTS monolayer growth.« less

  7. AFM investigation of effect of absorbed water layer structure on growth mechanism of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer on oxidized silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; Zheng, Yanjun; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-06-01

    The growth mechanism of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayer on a silicon oxide surface at various relative humidities has been investigated. Atomic force microscopy images show that excess water may actually hinder the nucleation and growth of OTS islands. A moderate amount of water is favorable for the nucleation and growth of OTS islands in the initial stage; however, the completion of the monolayer is very slow in the final stage. The growth of OTS islands on a low-water-content surface maintains a relatively constant speed and requires the least amount of time. The mobility of water molecules is thought to play an important role in the OTS monolayers, and a low-mobility water layer provides a steady condition for OTS monolayer growth.

  8. Message-passing-interface-based parallel FDTD investigation on the EM scattering from a 1-D rough sea surface using uniaxial perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Guo, L-X; Zeng, H; Han, X-B

    2009-06-01

    A message-passing-interface (MPI)-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for the electromagnetic scattering from a 1-D randomly rough sea surface is presented. The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different processors is illustrated for one sea surface realization, and the computation time of the parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced compared to a single-process implementation. Finally, some numerical results are shown, including the backscattering characteristics of sea surface for different polarization and the bistatic scattering from a sea surface with large incident angle and large wind speed.

  9. Stable high-power saturable absorber based on polymer-black-phosphorus films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dong; Li, Mingkun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Wending; Lu, Hua; Song, Kun; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), a rising two-dimensional material with a layer-number-dependent direct bandgap of 0.3-1.5 eV, is very interesting for optoelectronics applications from near- to mid-infrared wavebands. In the atmosphere, few-layer BP tends to be oxidized or degenerated during interacting with lasers. Here, we fabricate few-layer BP nanosheets based on a liquid exfoliation method using N-methylpyrrolidone as the dispersion liquid. By incorporating BP nanosheets with polymers (polyvinyl alcohol or high-melting-point polyimide), two flexible filmy BP saturable absorbers are fabricated to realize passive mode locking in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The polymer-BP saturable absorber, especially the polyimide-BP saturable absorber, can prevent the oxidation or water-induced etching under high-power laser illuminations, providing a promising candidate for Q-switchers, mode lockers, and light modulators.

  10. Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Jia, Yichen

    2014-07-21

    Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are the two major types of layered materials under intensive investigation. However, the zero-bandgap nature of graphene and the relatively low mobility in TMDCs limit their applications. Here we reintroduce black phosphorus (BP), the most stable allotrope of phosphorus with strong intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, to the layered-material family. For 15-nm-thick BP, we measure a Hall mobility of 1,000 and 600 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) for holes along the light (x) and heavy (y) effective mass directions at 120 K. BP thin films also exhibit large and anisotropic in-plane optical conductivity from 2 to 5 μm. Field-effect transistors using 5 nm BP along x direction exhibit an on-off current ratio exceeding 10(5), a field-effect mobility of 205 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), and good current saturation characteristics all at room temperature. BP shows great potential for thin-film electronics, infrared optoelectronics and novel devices in which anisotropic properties are desirable.

  11. Characterization of Elastic-plastic Material Properties for IMC Layer of ENEPIG by Using Reverse Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Choi, Jae-Boong; Kim, Young-Jin; Ji, Kum-Young

    2010-05-01

    Recently, the reliability assurance of lead-free solder to prevent environmental contamination is quite important issue for chip-scale packaging. Although lots of efforts have been devoted to the solder undergone drop, shear and creep loads, there was a little research on IMC due primarily to its thickness restriction and geometric irregularity. However, the IMC is known as the weakest layer governing failures of the solder joint. The present work is to characterize realistic material properties of the IMC for ENEPIG process. Lee's modified reverse algorithm was adopted to determine elastic-plastic stress-strain curve and so forth, after examining several methods, which requires inherently elastic data. In this context, a series of nano-indentation tests as well as corresponding simulations were carried out by changing indentation depths from 200 to 400 nm and strain rates from 0.05 to 0.10 1/s. It would be conclude that effect of strain rate is relatively small and IMC layer should be more than 5 times of indentation depth when using the recommended method, which are applicable to generate realistic material properties for further diverse structural integrity simulations.

  12. Imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy of the boundary layer plume from laser irradiated polymers and carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Roberto I.

    The high-energy laser (HEL) lethality community needs for enhanced laser weapons systems requires a better understanding of a wide variety of emerging threats. In order to reduce the dimensionality of laser-materials interaction it is necessary to develop novel predictive capabilities of these events. The objective is to better understand the fundamentals of laser lethality testing by developing empirical models from hyperspectral imagery, enabling a robust library of experiments for vulnerability assessments. Emissive plumes from laser irradiated fiberglass reinforced polymers (FRP), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and porous graphite targets were investigated primarily using a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Polymer and graphite targets were irradiated with a continuous wave (cw) fiber lasers. Data was acquired with a spectral resolution of 2 cm-1 and spatial resolution as high as 0.52 mm2 per pixel. Strong emission from H2O, CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons were observed in the MWIR between 1900-4000 cm-1. A single-layer radiative transfer model was developed to estimate spatial maps of temperature and column densities of CO and CO2 from the hyperspectral imagery of the boundary layer plume. The spectral model was used to compute the absorption cross sections of CO and CO2, using spectral line parameters from the high temperature extension of the HITRAN. Also, spatial maps of gas-phase temperature and methyl methacrylate (MMA) concentration were developed from laser irradiated carbon black-pigmented PMMA at irradiances of 4-22 W/cm2. Global kinetics interplay between heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion kinetics are shown from experimental observations at high spatial resolutions. Overall the boundary layer profile at steady-state is consistent with CO being mainly produced at the surface by heterogeneous reactions followed by a rapid homogeneous combustion in the boundary layer towards buoyancy.

  13. Highly efficient computer algorithm for identifying layer thickness of atomically thin 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jekwan; Cho, Seungwan; Park, Soohyun; Bae, Hyemin; Noh, Minji; Kim, Beom; In, Chihun; Yang, Seunghoon; Lee, Sooun; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Jehyun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Shim, Woo-Young; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kim, Dohun; Choi, Hyunyong

    2018-03-01

    The fields of layered material research, such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have demonstrated that the optical, electrical and mechanical properties strongly depend on the layer number N. Thus, efficient and accurate determination of N is the most crucial step before the associated device fabrication. An existing experimental technique using an optical microscope is the most widely used one to identify N. However, a critical drawback of this approach is that it relies on extensive laboratory experiences to estimate N; it requires a very time-consuming image-searching task assisted by human eyes and secondary measurements such as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which are necessary to ensure N. In this work, we introduce a computer algorithm based on the image analysis of a quantized optical contrast. We show that our algorithm can apply to a wide variety of layered materials, including graphene, MoS2, and WS2 regardless of substrates. The algorithm largely consists of two parts. First, it sets up an appropriate boundary between target flakes and substrate. Second, to compute N, it automatically calculates the optical contrast using an adaptive RGB estimation process between each target, which results in a matrix with different integer Ns and returns a matrix map of Ns onto the target flake position. Using a conventional desktop computational power, the time taken to display the final N matrix was 1.8 s on average for the image size of 1280 pixels by 960 pixels and obtained a high accuracy of 90% (six estimation errors among 62 samples) when compared to the other methods. To show the effectiveness of our algorithm, we also apply it to TMD flakes transferred on optically transparent c-axis sapphire substrates and obtain a similar result of the accuracy of 94% (two estimation errors among 34 samples).

  14. Material transport in a convective surface mixed layer under weak wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensa, Jean A.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Poje, Andrew C.; Imberger, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Flows in the upper ocean mixed layer are responsible for the transport and dispersion of biogeochemical tracers, phytoplankton and buoyant pollutants, such as hydrocarbons from an oil spill. Material dispersion in mixed layer flows subject to diurnal buoyancy forcing and weak winds (| u10 | = 5m s-1) are investigated using a non-hydrostatic model. Both purely buoyancy-forced and combined wind- and buoyancy-forced flows are sampled using passive tracers, as well as 2D and 3D particles to explore characteristics of horizontal and vertical dispersion. It is found that the surface tracer patterns are determined by the convergence zones created by convection cells within a time scale of just a few hours. For pure convection, the results displayed the classic signature of Rayleigh-Benard cells. When combined with a wind stress, the convective cells become anisotropic in that the along-wind length scale gets much larger than the cross-wind scale. Horizontal relative dispersion computed by sampling the flow fields using both 2D and 3D passive particles is found to be consistent with the Richardson regime. Relative dispersion is an order of magnitude higher and 2D surface releases transition to Richardson regime faster in the wind-forced case. We also show that the buoyancy-forced case results in significantly lower amplitudes of scale-dependent horizontal relative diffusivity, kD(ℓ), than those reported by Okubo (1970), while the wind- and buoyancy-forced case shows a good agreement with Okubo's diffusivity amplitude, and the scaling is consistent with Richardson's 4/3rd law, kD ∼ ℓ4/3. These modeling results provide a framework for measuring material dispersion by mixed layer flows in future observational programs.

  15. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  16. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  17. First-principles theory of doping in layered oxide electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Khang

    2017-12-01

    Doping lithium-ion battery electrode materials Li M O2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn) with impurities has been shown to be an effective way to optimize their electrochemical properties. Here, we report a detailed first-principles study of layered oxides LiCoO2, LiNiO2, and LiMnO2 lightly doped with transition-metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) and non-transition-metal (Mg, Al) impurities using hybrid-density-functional defect calculations. We find that the lattice site preference is dependent on both the dopant's charge and spin states, which are coupled strongly to the local lattice environment and can be affected by the presence of codopant(s), and the relative abundance of the host compound's constituting elements in the synthesis environment. On the basis of the structure and energetics of the impurities and their complexes with intrinsic point defects, we determine all possible low-energy impurity-related defect complexes, thus providing defect models for further analyses of the materials. From a materials modeling perspective, these lightly doped compounds also serve as model systems for understanding the more complex, mixed-metal, Li M O2 -based battery cathode materials.

  18. Sub-nanometer milling of layered materials by a focused Helium Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongzhou; Fox, Daniel; Zhou, Yangbo; O'Connell, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The modification of the structure and geometry of materials at the nanoscale can be used to tailor their properties. A controllable process which can achieve this is required for the development of next generation nano-devices. We used the highly focused beam of helium ions in a helium ion microscope (HIM) to fabricate nanostructures within various layered materials such as graphene, MoS2, TiO2 and Mn2O3. Arbitrary patterns can be defined in order to produce structures such as nanoribbons. The edge configuration of atoms in such structures plays a large role in defining their properties. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) were used to analyse the structure of the materials after milling. The direct milling of the materials by the helium ions means this approach is suitable for a wide range of nanomaterials. Complex structures can be realized via sophisticated beam control. This also results in the ability to mill along different directions in a crystal, producing edges with different configurations.

  19. Effect of band-aligned double absorber layers on photovoltaic characteristics of chemical bath deposited PbS/CdS thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ho Yeon, Deuk; Chandra Mohanty, Bhaskar; Lee, Seung Min; Soo Cho, Yong

    2015-09-23

    Here we report the highest energy conversion efficiency and good stability of PbS thin film-based depleted heterojunction solar cells, not involving PbS quantum dots. The PbS thin films were grown by the low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) process at relatively low temperatures. Compared to the quantum dot solar cells which require critical and multistep complex procedures for surface passivation, the present approach, leveraging the facile modulation of the optoelectronic properties of the PbS films by the CBD process, offers a simpler route for optimization of PbS-based solar cells. Through an architectural modification, wherein two band-aligned junctions are stacked without any intervening layers, an enhancement of conversion efficiency by as much as 30% from 3.10 to 4.03% facilitated by absorption of a wider range of solar spectrum has been obtained. As an added advantage of the low band gap PbS stacked over a wide gap PbS, the devices show stability over a period of 10 days.

  20. Permeability analysis of Asbuton material used as core layers of water resistance in the body of dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, H.; Tjaronge, M. W.; Thaha, A.; Djamaluddin, R.

    2017-11-01

    In order to increase consumption of the local materials and national products, large reserves of Asbuton material about 662.960 million tons in the Buton Islands became an alternative as a waterproof core layer in the body of dam. The Asbuton material was used in this research is Lawele Granular Asphalt (LGA). This study was an experimental study conducted in the laboratory by conducting density testing (content weight) and permeability on Asbuton material. Testing of the Asbuton material used Falling Head method to find out the permeability value of Asbuton material. The data of test result to be analyzed are the relation between compaction energy and density value also relation between density value and permeability value of Asbuton material. The result shows that increases the number of blow apply to the Asbuton material at each layer will increase the density of the Asbuton material. The density value of Asbuton material that satisfies the requirements for use as an impermeable core layer in the dam body is 1.53 grams/cm3. The increase the density value (the weight of the contents) of the Asbuton material will reduce its permeability value of the Asbuton material.

  1. The Layer of Kevlar Angle-interlock Woven Fabric Effect on the Tensile Properties of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wan-Chen; Guo, Xu-Yi; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Shang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    This article is based on the structure of three-dimensional angle-interlock longitudinal.The 3-layer, 5-layer, 7-layer and 9-layer of angle-interlock 3D fabrics are woven on sample weaving machine respectively with the 1500D Kevlar fiber twist filament produced by United States DuPont. At the same time, Kevlar plain weave fabric is woven, and three, five, seven and nine layers’ fabric are to be compared. In the process of VARTM composite technology, epoxy resin is matrix material, acetone is diluent, triethylene tetramine is curing agent and the five different fabrics are the reinforced materials respectively. Finally, eight different three-dimensional woven fabric composites were prepared. In this paper, the tensile properties of eight kinds of three-dimensional woven fabric composites were tested respectively.Finally, it is concluded that the five-layer angle-interlock woven fabric prepared by Kevlar fiber shows the best tensile property.

  2. Directionally Antagonistic Graphene Oxide-Polyurethane Hybrid Aerogel as a Sound Absorber.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kang, Yeonjune; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2018-06-21

    Innovative sound absorbers, the design of which is based on carbon nanotubes and graphene derivatives, could be used to make more efficient sound absorbing materials because of their excellent intrinsic mechanical and chemical properties. However, controlling the directional alignments of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials, such as restacking, alignment, and dispersion, has been a challenging problem when developing sound absorbing forms. Herein, we present the directionally antagonistic graphene oxide-polyurethane hybrid aerogel we developed as a sound absorber, the physical properties of which differ according to the alignment of the microscopic graphene oxide sheets. This porous graphene sound absorber has a microporous hierarchical cellular structure with adjustable stiffness and improved sound absorption performance, thereby overcoming the restrictions of both geometric and function-orientated functions. Furthermore, by controlling the inner cell size and aligned structure of graphene oxide layers in this study, we achieved remarkable improvement of the sound absorption performance at low frequency. This improvement is attributed to multiple scattering of incident and reflection waves on the aligned porous surfaces, and air-viscous resistance damping inside interconnected structures between the urethane foam and the graphene oxide network. Two anisotropic sound absorbers based on the directionally antagonistic graphene oxide-polyurethane hybrid aerogels were fabricated. They show remarkable differences owing to the opposite alignment of graphene oxide layers inside the polyurethane foam and are expected to be appropriate for the engineering design of sound absorbers in consideration of the wave direction.

  3. Structured Metal Film as Perfect Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    With standing U-shaped resonators, fish-spear-like resonator has been designed for the first time as the building block to assemble perfect absorbers. The samples have been fabricated with two-photon polymerization process and FTIR measurement results support the effectiveness of the perfect absorber design. In such a structure the polarization-dependent resonance occurs between the tines of the spears instead of the conventional design where the resonance occurs between the metallic layers separated by a dielectric interlayer. The incident light neither transmits nor reflects back which results in unit absorbance. The power of light is trapped between the tines of spears and finally be absorbed. The whole structure is covered with a continuous metallic layer with good thermo-conductance, which provides an excellent approach to deal with heat dissipation, is enlightening in exploring metamaterial absorbers.

  4. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption.

  5. Delithiated states of layered cathode materials: doping and dispersion interaction effects on the structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Roman; Zolotarev, Pavel; Bobrikov, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    Here we present results of density functional theory (DFT) study of delithiated structures of layered LiNiO2 (LNO, Li12Ni12O24 model) cathode material and its doped analogue LiNi0.833Co0.083Al0.083O2 (N10C1A1, Li12Ni10CoAlO24 model). The paper is aimed at independent elucidation of doping and dispersion interaction effects on the structural stability of cathode materials studied. For this purpose, the LNO and N10C1A1 configurational spaces consisting of 87 and 4512 crystallographically independent configurations (obtained starting from 2×2×1 supercell of R-3m structure of LNO) are optimized within a number of DFT models. Based on a comparison of the calculated dependencies for the lattice parameters with the results of in situ neutron diffraction experiments, the most pronounced effect of cathode material stabilization is due to the dispersion interaction. In turn, the doping effect is found to affect cathode structure behavior at the latest stages of delithiation only.

  6. Experimental study of thermal conductivity of pyrolysised materials by means of a flat layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniushkin, V. D.; Popov, S. K.; Sidenkov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    Recycling of tires is currently a very important task. One of the areas of recycling tires is their low-temperature pyrolysis to produce marketable products - liquid fraction and a solid coke residue. For the development of the pyrolysis installation it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the coke residue at different temperatures of pyrolysis of initial material. As a property of matter, thermal conductivity depends in general on temperature and pressure. For materials with some structure, such as porous materials, the thermal conductivity depends on the characteristics of the structure. The thermal conductivity of the porous coke residue at pyrolysis temperatures of 300 0C, 400 0C, 500 0C and atmospheric pressure was studied experimentally at the laboratory unit of the department of “Theoretical basis of heat engineering” using the method of the flat layer in the temperature range 5…100 0C. Experimentally proved temperature dependencies of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the coke residue are built to improve the accuracy of calculations of constructive and regime parameters of the pyrolysis installation.

  7. Nanoarchitectured materials composed of fullerene-like spheroids and disordered graphene layers with tunable mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Wang, Erik F.; Yan, Hongping; Kono, Yoshio; Wen, Bin; Bai, Ligang; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Junfeng; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Wang, Yanbin; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-02-01

    Type-II glass-like carbon is a widely used material with a unique combination of properties including low density, high strength, extreme impermeability to gas and liquid and resistance to chemical corrosion. It can be considered as a carbon-based nanoarchitectured material, consisting of a disordered multilayer graphene matrix encasing numerous randomly distributed nanosized fullerene-like spheroids. Here we show that under both hydrostatic compression and triaxial deformation, this high-strength material is highly compressible and exhibits a superelastic ability to recover from large strains. Under hydrostatic compression, bulk, shear and Young’s moduli decrease anomalously with pressure, reaching minima around 1-2 GPa, where Poisson’s ratio approaches zero, and then revert to normal behaviour with positive pressure dependences. Controlling the concentration, size and shape of fullerene-like spheroids with tailored topological connectivity to graphene layers is expected to yield exceptional and tunable mechanical properties, similar to mechanical metamaterials, with potentially wide applications.

  8. Smart skin spiral antenna with chiral absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-05-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest toward designing 'smart skins' for aircraft. The smart skin is a composite layer which may contain conformal radars, conformal microstrip antennas or spiral antennas for electromagnetic applications. These embedded antennas will give rise to very low radar cross section (RCS) or can be completely 'hidden' to tracking radar. In addition, they can be used to detect, monitor or even jam other unwanted electromagnetic field signatures. This paper is designed to address some technical advances made to reduce the size of spiral antennas using tunable dielectric materials and chiral absorbers. The purpose is to design, develop and fabricate a thin, wideband, conformal spiral antenna architecture that is structurally integrable and which uses advanced Penn State dielectric and absorber materials to achieve wideband ground planes, and together with low RCS. Traditional practice has been to design radome and antenna as separate entities and then resolve any interface problems during an integration phase. A structurally integrable conformal antenna, however, demands that the functional components be highly integrated both conceptually and in practice. Our concept is to use the lower skin of the radome as a substrate on which the radiator can be made using standard photolithography, thick film or LTCC techniques.

  9. Characteristics of absorbing aerosols during winter foggy period over the National Capital Region of Delhi: Impact of planetary boundary layer dynamics and solar radiation flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, S.; Tiwari, S.; Mishra, A.; Singh, S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Singh, Surender; Attri, S. D.

    2017-05-01

    Severe air pollution in the northern India coupled with the formation of secondary pollutants results in severe fog conditions during the winter. Black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) play a vital role within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to degrade atmospheric visibility. These species were continuously monitored during the winter of 2014 in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. The average BC concentration was 8.0 ± 3.1 μg/m3 with the January mean (11.1 ± 5.4 μg/m3) approximately two times higher than February (5.9 ± 2.1 μg/m3). The average PM2.5 concentration was 137 ± 67 μg/m3 with monthly area-average maximum and minima in December and February, respectively. Higher concentrations of BC at 10:00 local standard time LST (8.5 μg/m3) and 22:00 LST (9.7 μg/m3) were consistently observed and assigned to morning and evening rush-hour traffic across Delhi. Daily average solar fluxes, varied between 17.9 and 220.7 W/m2 and had a negative correlation (r = - 0.5) with BC during fog episodes. Ventilation coefficient (VC) reduced from 'no fog' to fog phase over Palam Airport (PLM) (0.49) times and Hindon Airport (HND) (0.28) times and from fog to prolonged fog (> 14 h) phase over PLM (0.35) times and HND (0.41) times, respectively, indicating high pollution over the NCR of Delhi. Ground measurements showed that daily mean aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD500) varied between 0.32 and 1.18 with mean AOD500 nm being highest during the prolonged fog (> 14 h) episodes (0.98 ± 0.08) consistent with variations in PM2.5 and BC. Angstrom exponent (α) and Angstrom turbidity coefficient (β) were found to be > 1 and 0.2, respectively, during fog showing the dominance of fine mode particles in the atmosphere.

  10. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved bymore » isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.« less

  11. Low temperature selective absorber research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzenberg, S. A.; Silberglitt, R.

    1982-04-01

    Research carried out since 1979 on selective absorbers is surveyed, with particular attention given to the low-temperature coatings seen as promising for flat plate and evacuated tube applications. The most thoroughly investigated absorber is black chrome, which is highly selective and is the most durable low-temperature absorber. It is believed that other materials, because of their low cost and lower content of strategic materials, may eventually supplant black chrome. Among these candidates are chemically converted black nickel; anodically oxidized nickel, zinc, and copper composites; and nickel or other low-cost multilayer coatings. In reviewing medium and high-temperature research, black chrome, multilayer coatings and black cobalt are seen as best medium-temperature candidates. For high temperatures, an Al2O3/Pt-Al203 multilayer composite or the zirconium diboride coating is preferred.

  12. Few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Lee, Jae Sung; Jun, Yongseok

    2015-09-21

    We report the synthesis of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets using a facile hydrothermal method and their electrochemical charge storage behavior. A systematic study of the structure and morphology of the as-synthesized MoSe2 nanosheets was performed. The downward peak shift in the Raman spectrum and the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the formation of few-layered nanosheets. The electrochemical energy-storage behavior of MoSe2 nanosheets was also investigated for supercapacitor applications in a symmetric cell configuration. The MoSe2 nanosheet electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 198.9 F g(-1) and the symmetric device showed 49.7 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1). A capacitance retention of approximately 75% was observed even after 10 000 cycles at a high charge-discharge current density of 5 A g(-1). The two-dimensional MoSe2 nanosheets exhibited a high specific capacitance and good cyclic stability, which makes it a promising electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  13. Electronic properties of moire superlattice bands in layered two dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jeil

    2014-03-01

    When atomically thin two-dimensional materials are layered they often form incommensurate non-crystalline structures that exhibit long period moiré patterns when examined by scanning probes. In this talk, I will present a theoretical method which can be used to derive an effective Hamiltonian for these twisted van der Waals heterostructures using input from ab initio calculations performed on short-period crystalline structures. I will argue that the effective Hamiltonian can quantitatively describe the electronic properties of these layered systems for arbitrary twist angle and lattice constants. Applying this method to the important cases of graphene on graphene and graphene on hexagonal-boron nitride, I will present a series of experimentally observable quantities that can be extracted from their electronic structure, including their density of states and local density of states as a function of twist angle, and compare with available experiments. Work done in collaboration with Allan MacDonald, Shaffique Adam, Arnaud Raoux, Zhenhua Qiao, and Ashley DaSilva; and supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation Fellowship NRF-NRFF2012-01.

  14. Recent advances in pericentriolar material organization: ordered layers and scaffolding gels.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew M; Sampson, Josephina; Shak, Caroline; Shackleton, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The centrosome is an unusual organelle that lacks a surrounding membrane, raising the question of what limits its size and shape. Moreover, while electron microscopy (EM) has provided a detailed view of centriole architecture, there has been limited understanding of how the second major component of centrosomes, the pericentriolar material (PCM), is organized. Here, we summarize exciting recent findings from super-resolution fluorescence imaging, structural biology, and biochemical reconstitution that together reveal the presence of ordered layers and complex gel-like scaffolds in the PCM. Moreover, we discuss how this is leading to a better understanding of the process of microtubule nucleation, how alterations in PCM size are regulated in cycling and differentiated cells, and why mutations in PCM components lead to specific human pathologies.

  15. Recent advances in pericentriolar material organization: ordered layers and scaffolding gels

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Andrew M.; Sampson, Josephina; Shak, Caroline; Shackleton, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The centrosome is an unusual organelle that lacks a surrounding membrane, raising the question of what limits its size and shape. Moreover, while electron microscopy (EM) has provided a detailed view of centriole architecture, there has been limited understanding of how the second major component of centrosomes, the pericentriolar material (PCM), is organized. Here, we summarize exciting recent findings from super-resolution fluorescence imaging, structural biology, and biochemical reconstitution that together reveal the presence of ordered layers and complex gel-like scaffolds in the PCM. Moreover, we discuss how this is leading to a better understanding of the process of microtubule nucleation, how alterations in PCM size are regulated in cycling and differentiated cells, and why mutations in PCM components lead to specific human pathologies. PMID:29026530

  16. Band Gap Tuning in 2D Layered Materials by Angular Rotation.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Gonzalez, Javier; Carranco-Rodríguez, Jesús Alfredo; Enríquez-Carrejo, José L; Mani-Gonzalez, Pierre G; Domínguez-Esquivel, José Manuel; Ramos, Manuel

    2017-02-08

    We present a series of computer-assisted high-resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) simulations to determine Moiré patters by induced twisting effects between slabs at rotational angles of 3°, 5°, 8°, and 16°, for molybdenum disulfide, graphene, tungsten disulfide, and tungsten selenide layered materials. In order to investigate the electronic structure, a series of numerical simulations using density functional methods (DFT) methods was completed using Cambridge serial total energy package (CASTEP) with a generalized gradient approximation to determine both the band structure and density of states on honeycomb-like new superlattices. Our results indicated metallic transitions when the rotation approached 8° with respect to each other laminates for most of the two-dimensional systems that were analyzed.

  17. Band Gap Tuning in 2D Layered Materials by Angular Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Polanco-Gonzalez, Javier; Carranco-Rodríguez, Jesús Alfredo; Enríquez-Carrejo, José L.; Mani-Gonzalez, Pierre G.; Domínguez-Esquivel, José Manuel; Ramos, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    We present a series of computer-assisted high-resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) simulations to determine Moiré patters by induced twisting effects between slabs at rotational angles of 3°, 5°, 8°, and 16°, for molybdenum disulfide, graphene, tungsten disulfide, and tungsten selenide layered materials. In order to investigate the electronic structure, a series of numerical simulations using density functional methods (DFT) methods was completed using Cambridge serial total energy package (CASTEP) with a generalized gradient approximation to determine both the band structure and density of states on honeycomb-like new superlattices. Our results indicated metallic transitions when the rotation approached 8° with respect to each other laminates for most of the two-dimensional systems that were analyzed. PMID:28772507

  18. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Halogen-Free Polymeric Materials on Nylon/Cotton Blend for Flame Retardant Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    phosphate) and renewable materials such as chitosan , phytic acid and graphene oxide [18–26]. However, polysiloxane containing FR materials have...98:627–634. 24. Laufer G, Kirkland C, Cain AA, Grunlan JC. Clay– chitosan nanobrick walls: completely renewable gas barrier and flame-retardant

  19. TiAlN/TiAlON/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} tandem absorber for high temperature solar selective applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barshilia, Harish C.; Selvakumar, N.; Rajam, K. S.

    2006-11-06

    A tandem absorber of TiAlN/TiAlON/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is prepared using a magnetron sputtering process. The graded composition of the individual component layers of the tandem absorber produces a film with a refractive index increasing from the surface to the substrate, which exhibits a high absorptance (0.95) and a low emittance (0.07). The tandem absorber is stable in air up to 600 deg. C for 2 h, indicating its importance for high temperature solar selective applications. The thermal stability of the tandem absorber is attributed to high oxidation resistance and microstructural stability of the component materials at higher temperatures.

  20. Insights into the structural effects of layered cathode materials for high voltage sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Gui -Liang; Amine, Rachid; Xu, Yue -Feng; ...

    2017-06-08

    Cathode materials are critical to the energy density, power density and safety of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, we performed a comprehensive study to elucidate and exemplify the interplay mechanism between phase structures, interfacial microstrain and electrochemical properties of layered-structured Na xNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 cathode materials for high voltage SIBs. The electrochemical test results showed that Na xNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 with an intergrowth P2/O3/O1 structure demonstrates better electrochemical performance and better thermal stability than Na xNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 with P2/O3 binary-phase integration and Na xNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 where only the P phase ismore » dominant. This result is caused by the distinct interfacial microstrain development during the synthesis and cycling of the P2/O3/O1 phase. In operando high energy X-ray diffraction further revealed that the intergrowth P2/O1/O3 cathode can inhibit the irreversible P2–O2 phase transformation and simultaneously improve the structure stability of the O3 and O1 phases during cycling. Here, we believe that interfacial microstrain can serve as an indispensable bridge to guide future design and synthesis of high performance SIB cathode materials and other high energy battery materials.« less

  1. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    Design of functional hybrids lies at the very core of synthetic chemistry as it has enabled the development of an unlimited number of solids displaying unprecedented or even improved properties built upon the association at the molecular level of quite disparate components by chemical design. Multifunctional hybrids are a particularly appealing case among hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Here, chemical knowledge is used to deploy molecular components bearing different functionalities within a single solid so that these properties can coexist or event interact leading to unprecedented phenomena. From a molecular perspective, this can be done either by controlled assembly of organic/inorganic molecular tectons into an extended architecture of hybrid nature or by intercalation of organic moieties within the empty channels or interlamellar space offered by inorganic solids with three-dimensional (MOFs, zeolites, and mesoporous hosts) or layered structures (phosphates, silicates, metal dichalcogenides, or anionic clays). This Account specifically illustrates the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the preparation of magnetic hybrids, in line with the development of soft inorganic chemistry processes (also called "Chimie Douce"), which has significantly contributed to boost the preparation hybrid materials based on solid-state hosts and subsequent development of applications. Several features sustain the importance of LDHs in this context. Their magnetism can be manipulated at a molecular level by adequate choice of constituting metals and interlayer separation for tuning the nature and extent of magnetic interactions across and between planes. They display unparalleled versatility in accommodating a broad range of anionic species in their interlamellar space that encompasses not only simple anions but chemical systems of increasing dimensionality and functionalities. Their swelling characteristics allow for their exfoliation in organic solvents with high

  2. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  3. Polymeric ionic liquid based on magnetic materials fabricated through layer-by-layer assembly as adsorbents for extraction of pesticides.

    PubMed

    He, Lijun; Cui, Wenhang; Wang, Yali; Zhao, Wenjie; Xiang, Guoqiang; Jiang, Xiuming; Mao, Pu; He, Juan; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-11-03

    In this study, layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayer films on magnetic silica provided a convenient and controllable way to prepare polymeric ionic liquid-based magnetic adsorbents. The resulting particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The data showed that the magnetic particles had more homogeneous spherical shapes with higher saturation magnetization when compared to those obtained by free radical polymerization method. This facilitated the convenient collection of magnetic particles, with higher extraction repeatability. The extraction performance of the multilayer polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbents was evaluated by magnetic solid-phase extraction of four pesticides including quinalphos, fenthion, phoxim, and chlorpropham. The data suggested that the extraction efficiency depended on the number of layers in the film. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized, and good linearity ranging from 2 to 250μgL -1 was obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9994-0.9998. Moreover, the proposed method presented low limit of detection (0.5μgL -1 , S/N=3) and limit of quantification (1.5μgL -1 , S/N=10), and good repeatability expressed by the relative standard deviation (2.0%-4.6%, n=5). The extraction recoveries of four pesticides were found to range from 58.9% to 85.8%. The reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing environmental water samples, and the results revealed satisfactory spiked recovery, relative standard deviation, and selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving quality of textile wastewater with organic materials as multi soil layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyadi; Widijanto, H.; Pranoto; Dewi, AK

    2016-02-01

    On agricultural land, fresh water is needed especially for irrigation. Alternative ways to fulfill needs of fresh water is by utilizing wastewater from industry. Wastewater that produced in the industry in Surakarta is over flowing especially textile wastewater. Wastewater that produced from industry has many pollutants that affected decreasing fresh water quality for irrigation. Multi Soil Layering (MSL) is one of method that utilize the soil ability as main media by increasing its function of soil structure to purify wastewater, so it does not contaminate the environment and reusable. This research was purposed to know affectivity of organic materials (such as rice straw, baggase, sawdust, coconut fibre, and corncob) and dosage (5%, 10% and 25%) in MSL, also get alternative purification ways with easy and cheaper price as natural adsorbent. This study using field and laboratory experiment. The result shows that MSL can be an alternative method of purification of wastewater. The appropriate composition of organic materials that can be used as adsorbent is MSL with wood sawdust 10% dosage because it can increase pH, decrease the number of Cr, ammonia, and phosphate but less effective to decrease BOD and COD.

  5. Design of Functional Layered Oxide Materials Through Understanding Structure-Property Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Megan E.

    A fundamental understanding of structure-property relationships is imperative in the rational design of new materials for tailored applications. In this dissertation, structureproperty relationships are exploited in layered oxides and their composite materials. Recent advances in characterization techniques have allowed for more in-depth investigations into both the atomic level structure and properties of these materials. This dissertation focuses on understanding the structure-property relationships in supported catalytic systems and ferroelectric materials to aid in the rational design of functional materials. In Chapter 2, a correlation between the enthalpy of nanoparticle adsorption to oxide supports and the subsequent growth of these nanoparticles as a function of temperature is investigated. When deposited onto layered niobium oxide and tantalum oxide supports, rhodium hydroxide nanoparticles remain small and evenly dispersed upon heating to 750 °C. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, the bonding enthalpy of rhodium hydroxide nanoparticles to oxide supports is quantified for the first time under the wet synthetic conditions of catalyst preparation. Rh(OH)3 is concluded to have a strong, covalent interaction with the early transition metal oxide supports, and the interfacial bonding is hypothesized to occur through Rh - O - Nb bonding. Chapter 3 extends the studies in Chapter 2 to include supported metal, metal oxide, and metal hydroxide nanoparticles in the cobalt, nickel and copper triads. The data confirms a strong correlation between the heats of interaction and stability of the supported nanoparticles. Both experimental data and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the support and nanoparticle compositions impact the heat of interaction and that the qualitative periodic trends of the metal bonding interaction are independent of the metal oxidation state. A strong bond is shown computationally to arise from the formation of mixed d

  6. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  7. Optimization of Perfect Absorbers with Multilayer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Voti, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    We study wide-angle and broadband perfect absorbers with compact multilayer structures made of a sequence of ITO and TiN layers deposited onto a silver thick layer. An optimization procedure is introduced for searching the optimal thicknesses of the layers so as to design a perfect broadband absorber from 400 nm to 750 nm, for a wide range of angles of incidence from 0{°} to 50{°}, for both polarizations and with a low emissivity in the mid-infrared. We eventually compare the performances of several optimal structures that can be very promising for solar thermal energy harvesting and collectors.

  8. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis and microwave absorbing characteristics of functionally graded carbonyl iron/polyurethane composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R. B.; Liang, W. F.; Wu, C. H.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-05-01

    Radar absorbing materials (RAMs) also known as microwave absorbers, which can absorb and dissipate incident electromagnetic wave, are widely used in the fields of radar-cross section reduction, electromagnetic interference (EMI) reduction and human health protection. In this study, the synthesis of functionally graded material (FGM) (CI/Polyurethane composites), which is fabricated with semi-sequentially varied composition along the thickness, is implemented with a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the microwave absorption efficiency and bandwidth of FGM. For impedance matching and broad-band design, the original 8-layered FGM was obtained by the GA method to calculate the thickness of each layer for a sequential stacking of FGM from 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 65, 70 and 75 wt% of CI fillers. The reflection loss of the original 8-layered FGM below -10 dB can be obtained in the frequency range of 5.12˜18 GHz with a total thickness of 9.66 mm. Further optimization reduces the number of the layers and the stacking sequence of the optimized 4-layered FGM is 20, 30, 65, 75 wt% with thickness of 0.8, 1.6, 0.6 and 1.0 mm, respectively. The synthesis and measurement of the optimized 4-layered FGM with a thickness of 4 mm reveal a minimum reflection loss of -25.2 dB at 6.64 GHz and its bandwidth below - 10 dB is larger than 12.8 GHz.

  10. Shear bond strength between an indirect composite layering material and feldspathic porcelain-coated zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of both feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks and priming agents on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia frameworks. A total of 462 airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks were divided into three groups: untreated disks (ZR-AB), airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain, (ZR-PO-AB), and hydrofluoric acid-etched zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). Indirect composite (Estenia C&B) was bonded to zirconia specimens with no (CON) or one of four priming agents--Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + activator), Estenia Opaque primer, or Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB)--with or without an opaque material (Estenia C&B Opaque). All specimens were tested for shear bond strength before and after 20,000 thermocycles. The Steel-Dwass test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare shear bond strength. In ZR-AB specimens, the initial bond strength of the CPB and CPB + Activator groups was significantly higher as compared with the other three groups (P < 0.05), whereas the PLB and CPB + Activator groups had the highest pre- and post-thermocycling bond strengths in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens. Among CON disks without opaque material, bond strength was significantly lower in ZR-AB specimens than in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens (P < 0.05). Feldspathic porcelain coating of a Katana zirconia framework enhanced the bond strength of Estenia C&B indirect composite to zirconia independent of surface treatment. The use of a silane coupling agent and opaque material yields durable bond strength between the indirect composite and feldspathic-porcelain-coated zirconia. The results of the present study suggest that feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks is an effective method to obtain clinically acceptable bond strengths of a layering indirect

  11. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  12. Simultaneous sound velocity and thickness measurement by the ultrasonic pitch-catch method for corrosion-layer-forming polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Masahiro; Takizawa, Shota; Sakai, Tetsuya; Arao, Yoshihiko; Kubouchi, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    Since thermosetting resins have excellent resistance to chemicals, fiber reinforced plastics composed of such resins and reinforcement fibers are widely used as construction materials for equipment in chemical plants. Such equipment is usually used for several decades under severe corrosive conditions so that failure due to degradation may result. One of the degradation behaviors in thermosetting resins under chemical solutions is "corrosion-layer-forming" degradation. In this type of degradation, surface resins in contact with a solution corrode, and some of them remain asa corrosion layer on the pristine part. It is difficult to precisely measure the thickness of the pristine part of such degradation type materials by conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic testing, because the sound velocity depends on the degree of corrosion of the polymeric material. In addition, the ultrasonic reflection interface between the pristine part and the corrosion layer is obscure. Thus, we propose a pitch-catch method using a pair of normal and angle probes to measure four parameters: the thicknesses of the pristine part and the corrosion layer, and their respective sound velocities. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by measuring a two-layer sample and a sample including corroded parts. The results demonstrate that the pitch-catch method can successfully measure the four parameters and evaluate the residual thickness of the pristine part in the corrosion-layer-forming sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural and Chemical Evolution of Li- and Mn-rich Layered Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Pinghong; Gu, Meng

    2015-02-24

    Lithium (Li)- and manganese-rich (LMR) layered-structure materials are very promising cathodes for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, their voltage fading mechanism and its relationships with fundamental structural changes are far from being sufficiently understood. Here we report the detailed phase transformation pathway in the LMR cathode (Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2) during cycling for the samples prepared by hydro-thermal assistant method. It is found the transformation pathway of LMR cathode is closely correlated to its initial structure and preparation conditions. The results reveal that LMR cathode prepared by HA approach experiences a phase transformation from the layered structure to a LT-LiCoO2 type defectmore » spinel-like structure (Fd-3m space group) and then to a disordered rock-salt structure (Fm-3m space group). The voltage fade can be well correlated with the Li ion insertion into octahedral sites, rather than tetrahedral sites, in both defect spinel-like structure and disordered rock-salt structure. The reversible Li insertion/removal into/from the disordered rock-salt structure is ascribed to the Li excess environment that can satisfy the Li percolating in the disordered rock-salt structure despite the increased kinetic barrier. Meanwhile, because of the presence of a great amount of oxygen vacancies, a significant decrease of Mn valence is detected in the cycled particle, which is below that anticipated for a potentially damaging Jahn-Teller distortion (+3.5). Clarification of the phase transformation pathway, cation redistribution, oxygen vacancy and Mn valence change undoubtedly provides insights into a profound understanding on the voltage fade, and capacity degradation of LMR cathode. The results also inspire us to further enhance the reversibility of LMR cathode via improving its surface structural stability.« less

  14. Layered tin monoselenide as advanced photothermal conversion materials for efficient solar energy-driven water evaporation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiandong; Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Yang, Guowei

    2018-02-08

    Solar energy-driven water evaporation lays a solid foundation for important photothermal applications such as sterilization, seawater desalination, and electricity generation. Due to the strong light-matter coupling, broad absorption wavelength range, and prominent quantum confinement effect, layered tin monoselenide (SnSe) holds a great potential to effectively harness solar irradiation and convert it to heat energy. In this study, SnSe is successfully deposited on a centimeter-scale nickel foam using a facile one-step pulsed-laser deposition approach. Importantly, the maximum evaporation rate of SnSe-coated nickel foam (SnSe@NF) reaches 0.85 kg m -2 h -1 , which is even 21% larger than that obtained with the commercial super blue coating (0.7 kg m -2 h -1 ) under the same condition. A systematic analysis reveals that its good photothermal conversion capability is attributed to the synergetic effect of multi-scattering-induced light trapping and the optimal trade-off between light absorption and phonon emission. Finally, the SnSe@NF device is further used for seawater evaporation, demonstrating a comparable evaporation rate (0.8 kg m -2 h -1 ) to that of fresh water and good stability over many cycles of usage. In summary, the current contribution depicts a facile one-step scenario for the economical and efficient solar-enabled SnSe@NF evaporation devices. More importantly, an in-depth analysis of the photothermal conversion mechanism underneath the layered materials depicts a fundamental paradigm for the design and application of photothermal devices based on them in the future.

  15. Generalized radiative transfer theory for scattering by particles in an absorbing gas: Addressing both spatial and spectral integration in multi-angle remote sensing of optically thin aerosol layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Xu, Feng; Diner, David J.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate the computational advantage gained by introducing non-exponential transmission laws into radiative transfer theory for two specific situations. One is the problem of spatial integration over a large domain where the scattering particles cluster randomly in a medium uniformly filled with an absorbing gas, and only a probabilistic description of the variability is available. The increasingly important application here is passive atmospheric profiling using oxygen absorption in the visible/near-IR spectrum. The other scenario is spectral integration over a region where the absorption cross-section of a spatially uniform gas varies rapidly and widely and, moreover, there are scattering particles embedded in the gas that are distributed uniformly, or not. This comes up in many applications, O2 A-band profiling being just one instance. We bring a common framework to solve these problems both efficiently and accurately that is grounded in the recently developed theory of Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT). In GRT, the classic exponential law of transmission is replaced by one with a slower power-law decay that accounts for the unresolved spectral or spatial variability. Analytical results are derived in the single-scattering limit that applies to optically thin aerosol layers. In spectral integration, a modest gain in accuracy is obtained. As for spatial integration of near-monochromatic radiance, we find that, although both continuum and in-band radiances are affected by moderate levels of sub-pixel variability, only extreme variability will affect in-band/continuum ratios.

  16. Changes in the structure of the surface layer of metal materials upon friction and electric current loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.

    2013-09-01

    Dependences of the electric conductivity of a contact and wear intensity of metal materials on the electric current density in sliding friction are obtained. It is established that alloying of the material basis leads to faster damage of the friction surface. The presence of about 40 аt.% oxygen in the surface layer is detected by the Auger spectrometry method. It is demonstrated by the x-ray diffraction method that FeO formed in the surface layer leads to an increase in the electric conductivity of the contact.

  17. Highly efficient special sound absorbing solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionescu, M.; Petre-Lazar, S.

    1974-01-01

    Highly efficient special sound absorbing structures with the following criteria are considered: (1) A distribution surface of the sound absorbing material greater than that of the building element on which the structure is placed; (2) The highest possible absorption coefficient in the widest possible frequency band; and (3) adaptability to different construction and aesthetic conditions.

  18. Van der Waals Layered Materials: Surface Morphology, Interlayer Interaction, and Electronic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Po-Chun

    The search for new ultrathin materials as the "new silicon" has begun. In this dissertation, I examine (1) the surface structure, including the growth, the crystal quality, and thin film surface corrugation of a monolayer sample and a few layers of MoS2 and WSe2, and (2) their electronic structure. The characteristics of these electronic systems depend intimately on the morphology of the surfaces they inhabit, and their interactions with the substrate or within layers. These physical properties will be addressed in each chapter. This thesis has dedicated to the characterization of mono- and a few layers of MoS2 and WSe2 that uses surface-sensitive probes such as low-energy electron microscopy and diffraction (LEEM and LEED). Prior to our studies, the characterization of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 has been generally limited to optical and transport probes. Furthermore, the heavy use of thick silicon oxide layer as the supporting substrate has been important in order to allow optical microscopic characterization of the 2D material. Hence, to the best of our knowledge, this has prohibited studies of this material on other surfaces, and it has precluded the discovery of potentially rich interface interactions that may exist between MoS 2 and its supporting substrate. Thus, in our study, we use a so-called SPELEEM system (Spectroscopic Photo-Emission and Low Energy Electron Microscopy) to address these imaging modalities: (1) real-space microscopy, which would allow locating of monolayer MoS2 samples, (2) spatially-resolved low-energy diffraction which would allow confirmation of the crystalline quality and domain orientation of MoS2 samples, and, (3) spatially-resolved spectroscopy, which would allow electronic structure mapping of MoS2 samples. Moreover, we have developed a preparation procedure for samples that yield, a surface-probe ready, ultra-clean, and can be transferred on an arbitrary substrate. To fully understand the physics in MoS2 such as direct

  19. Defect physics vis-à-vis electrochemical performance in layered mixed-metal oxide cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Khang; Johannes, Michelle

    Layered mixed-metal oxides with different compositions of (Ni,Co,Mn) [NCM] or (Ni,Co,Al) [NCA] have been used in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Yet their defect physics and chemistry is still not well understood, despite having important implications for the electrochemical performance. In this presentation, we report a hybrid density functional study of intrinsic point defects in the compositions LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM1/3) and LiNi1/3Co1/3Al1/3O2 (NCA1/3) which can also be regarded as model compounds for NCM and NCA. We will discuss defect landscapes in NCM1/3 and NCA1/3 under relevant synthesis conditions with a focus on the formation of metal antisite defects and its implications on the electrochemical properties and ultimately the design of NCM and NCA cathode materials.

  20. Intralanthanide Separation on Layered Titanium(IV) Organophosphate Materials via a Selective Transmetalation Process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenzhong; Hietala, Sami; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Hatanpää, Timo; Doshi, Bhairavi; Koivula, Risto

    2018-06-21

    The lanthanides (Ln) are an essential part of many advanced technologies. Our societal transformation toward renewable energy drives their ever-growing demand. The similar chemical properties of the Ln pose fundamental difficulties in separating them from each other, yet high purity elements are crucial for specific applications. Here, we propose an intralanthanide separation method utilizing a group of titanium(IV) butyl phosphate coordination polymers as solid-phase extractants. These materials are characterized, and they contain layered structures directed by the hydrophobic interaction of the alkyl chains. The selective Ln uptake results from the transmetalation reaction (framework metal cation exchange), where the titanium(IV) serves as sacrificial coordination centers. The "tetrad effect" is observed from a dilute Ln 3+ mixture. However, smaller Ln 3+ ions are preferentially extracted in competitive binary separation models between adjacent Ln pairs. The intralanthanide ion-exchange selectivity arises synergistically from the coordination and steric strain preferences, both of which follow the reversed Ln contraction order. A one-step aqueous separation of neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) is quantitatively achievable by simply controlling the solution pH in a batch mode, translating into a separation factor of greater than 2000 and 99.1% molar purity of Dy in the solid phase. Coordination polymers provide a versatile platform for further exploring selective Ln separation processes via the transmetalation process.

  1. All-optical control and super-resolution imaging of quantum emitters in layered materials.

    PubMed

    Kianinia, Mehran; Bradac, Carlo; Sontheimer, Bernd; Wang, Fan; Tran, Toan Trong; Nguyen, Minh; Kim, Sejeong; Xu, Zai-Quan; Jin, Dayong; Schell, Andreas W; Lobo, Charlene J; Aharonovich, Igor; Toth, Milos

    2018-02-28

    Layered van der Waals materials are emerging as compelling two-dimensional platforms for nanophotonics, polaritonics, valleytronics and spintronics, and have the potential to transform applications in sensing, imaging and quantum information processing. Among these, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is known to host ultra-bright, room-temperature quantum emitters, whose nature is yet to be fully understood. Here we present a set of measurements that give unique insight into the photophysical properties and level structure of hBN quantum emitters. Specifically, we report the existence of a class of hBN quantum emitters with a fast-decaying intermediate and a long-lived metastable state accessible from the first excited electronic state. Furthermore, by means of a two-laser repumping scheme, we show an enhanced photoluminescence and emission intensity, which can be utilized to realize a new modality of far-field super-resolution imaging. Our findings expand current understanding of quantum emitters in hBN and show new potential ways of harnessing their nonlinear optical properties in sub-diffraction nanoscopy.

  2. Synthesis of Fluorinated Graphene/CoAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Composites as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weijun; Li, Hongqiang; Song, Shaoxian

    2017-02-15

    CoAl-layered double hydroxide/fluorinated graphene (CoAl-LDH/FGN) composites were fabricated via a two-step hydrothermal method. The synthesized CoAl-LDH/FGN composites have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electrochemical measurements. The results indicated that the fluorinated carbon with various configuration forms were grafted onto the framework of graphene, and the C-F bond configuration and fluorine content could be tuned by the fluorination time. Most of semi-ionic C-F bonds were formed at an appropriate fluorination time and, then, converted into fluorine rich surface groups (such as CF 2 , CF 3 , etc.) which were electrochemically inactive as the fluorination time prolonged. Moreover, the CoAl-LDH/FGN composites prepared at the optimal fluorination time exhibited the highest specific capacitance (1222 F/g at 1 A/g), the best rate capability, and the most stable capacitance retention, which offered great promise as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  3. Multiple pass and multiple layer friction stir welding and material enhancement processes

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Zhili [Knoxville, TN; David, Stan A [Knoxville, TN; Frederick, David Alan [Harriman, TN

    2010-07-27

    Processes for friction stir welding, typically for comparatively thick plate materials using multiple passes and multiple layers of a friction stir welding tool. In some embodiments a first portion of a fabrication preform and a second portion of the fabrication preform are placed adjacent to each other to form a joint, and there may be a groove adjacent the joint. The joint is welded and then, where a groove exists, a filler may be disposed in the groove, and the seams between the filler and the first and second portions of the fabrication preform may be friction stir welded. In some embodiments two portions of a fabrication preform are abutted to form a joint, where the joint may, for example, be a lap joint, a bevel joint or a butt joint. In some embodiments a plurality of passes of a friction stir welding tool may be used, with some passes welding from one side of a fabrication preform and other passes welding from the other side of the fabrication preform.

  4. Creation of heterogeneous materials on the basis of B4C and Ni powders by the method of cold spraying with subsequent layer-by-layer laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Golyshev, A. A.; Kosarev, V. F.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.; Ryashin, N. S.; Filippov, A. A.; Shikalov, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    A method is proposed for creating principally new functionally graded heterogeneous materials on the basis of B4C ceramic powders with different mass fractions in the original mixture and plastic metallic additive of Ni by a combined method of cold spraying with subsequent layer-by-layer laser treatment. Mechanical properties of the resultant tracks are examined. It is shown that the track microhardness increases with increasing B4C concentration in the original mixture. The track structure is found to depend on the size of ceramic particles in the interval from 3 to 75 μm. Reduction of the B4C particle size (approximately by a factor of 2-3) inside the track owing to fragmentation under the action of the laser beam is observed for the first time.

  5. Multi-oxide active layer deposition using Applied Materials Pivot array coater for high-mobility metal oxide TFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun Chan; Scheer, Evelyn; Witting, Karin; Hanika, Markus; Bender, Marcus; Hsu, Hao Chien; Yim, Dong Kil

    2015-11-01

    By controlling a thin indium tin oxide (ITO), indium zinc oxide interface layer between gate insulator and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), the thin-film transistor (TFT) performance can reach higher mobility as conventional IGZO as well as superior stability. For large-area display application, Applied Materials static PVD array coater (Applied Materials GmbH & Co. KG, Alzenau, Germany) using rotary targets has been developed to enable uniform thin layer deposition in display industry. Unique magnet motion parameter optimization in Pivot sputtering coater is shown to provide very uniform thin ITO layer to reach TFT performance with high mobility, not only on small scale, but also on Gen8.5 (2500 × 2200 mm glass size) production system.

  6. Elimination of initial stress-induced curvature in a micromachined bi-material composite-layered cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruiwen; Jiao, Binbin; Kong, Yanmei; Li, Zhigang; Shang, Haiping; Lu, Dike; Gao, Chaoqun; Chen, Dapeng

    2013-09-01

    Micro-devices with a bi-material-cantilever (BMC) commonly suffer initial curvature due to the mismatch of residual stress. Traditional corrective methods to reduce the residual stress mismatch generally involve the development of different material deposition recipes. In this paper, a new method for reducing residual stress mismatch in a BMC is proposed based on various previously developed deposition recipes. An initial material film is deposited using two or more developed deposition recipes. This first film is designed to introduce a stepped stress gradient, which is then balanced by overlapping a second material film on the first and using appropriate deposition recipes to form a nearly stress-balanced structure. A theoretical model is proposed based on both the moment balance principle and total equal strain at the interface of two adjacent layers. Experimental results and analytical models suggest that the proposed method is effective in producing multi-layer micro cantilevers that display balanced residual stresses. The method provides a generic solution to the problem of mismatched initial stresses which universally exists in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices based on a BMC. Moreover, the method can be incorporated into a MEMS design automation package for efficient design of various multiple material layer devices from MEMS material library and developed deposition recipes.

  7. Recycling of waste tyre rubber into oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zhou, M H

    2009-01-01

    The abundant and indiscriminant disposal of waste tyres has caused both health and environmental problems. In this work, we provide a new way to dispose off waste tyres by reusing the waste tyre rubber (WTR) for oil absorptive material production. To investigate this feasibility, a series of absorbents were prepared by graft copolymerization-blending method, using waste tyre rubber and 4-tert-butylstyrene (tBS) as monomers. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) were employed as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. The existence of graft-blends (WTR-g-tBS) was determined by FTIR spectrometry and verified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In addition, the thermal properties of WTR-g-tBS were confirmed by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oil absorbency of the grafted-blends increased with increases in either feed ratio of WTR to tBS or DVB concentration. This absorbency reached a maximum of 24.0gg(-1) as the feed ratio and DVB concentration were 60/40 and 1wt%, respectively, after which it decreased. At other ratios and concentrations the absorbency decreased. The gel fraction of grafted-blends increased with increasing concentration of DVB. Oil-absorption processes in pure toluene and crude oil diluted with toluene were found to adhere to first-order absorption kinetics. Furthermore, the oil-absorption rate in diluted crude oil was observed to be lower than pure toluene.

  8. Layer by Layer Ex-Situ Deposited Cobalt-Manganese Oxide as Composite Electrode Material for Electrochemical Capacitor

    PubMed Central

    Rusi; Chan, P. Y.; Majid, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    The composite metal oxide electrode films were fabricated using ex situ electrodeposition method with further heating treatment at 300°C. The obtained composite metal oxide film had a spherical structure with mass loading from 0.13 to 0.21 mg cm-2. The structure and elements of the composite was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The electrochemical performance of different composite metal oxides was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). As an active electrode material for a supercapacitor, the Co-Mn composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 285 Fg-1 at current density of 1.85 Ag-1 in 0.5M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The best composite electrode, Co-Mn electrode was then further studied in various electrolytes (i.e., 0.5M KOH and 0.5M KOH/0.04M K3Fe(CN) 6 electrolytes). The pseudocapacitive nature of the material of Co-Mn lead to a high specific capacitance of 2.2 x 103 Fg-1 and an energy density of 309 Whkg-1 in a 0.5MKOH/0.04MK3Fe(CN) 6 electrolyte at a current density of 10 Ag-1. The specific capacitance retention obtained 67% of its initial value after 750 cycles. The results indicate that the ex situ deposited composite metal oxide nanoparticles have promising potential in future practical applications. PMID:26158447

  9. Layer by Layer Ex-Situ Deposited Cobalt-Manganese Oxide as Composite Electrode Material for Electrochemical Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Rusi; Chan, P Y; Majid, S R

    2015-01-01

    The composite metal oxide electrode films were fabricated using ex situ electrodeposition method with further heating treatment at 300°C. The obtained composite metal oxide film had a spherical structure with mass loading from 0.13 to 0.21 mg cm(-2). The structure and elements of the composite was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The electrochemical performance of different composite metal oxides was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). As an active electrode material for a supercapacitor, the Co-Mn composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 285 Fg(-1) at current density of 1.85 Ag(-1) in 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The best composite electrode, Co-Mn electrode was then further studied in various electrolytes (i.e., 0.5 M KOH and 0.5 M KOH/0.04 M K3Fe(CN) 6 electrolytes). The pseudocapacitive nature of the material of Co-Mn lead to a high specific capacitance of 2.2 x 10(3) Fg(-1) and an energy density of 309 Whkg(-1) in a 0.5 M KOH/0.04 M K3Fe(CN) 6 electrolyte at a current density of 10 Ag(-1). The specific capacitance retention obtained 67% of its initial value after 750 cycles. The results indicate that the ex situ deposited composite metal oxide nanoparticles have promising potential in future practical applications.

  10. Characteristics and issues of an EUVL mask applying phase-shifting thinner absorber for device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hwan-Seok; Lee, Dong-Gun; Ahn, Byung-Sup; Han, Hakseung; Huh, Sungmin; Kang, In-Yong; Kim, Hoon; Kim, Dongwan; Kim, Seong-Sue; Cho, Han-Ku

    2009-03-01

    Phase-shifting EUVL masks applying thinner absorber are investigated to design optimum mask structure with less shadowing problems. Simulations using S-Litho show that H-V bias in Si capping structure is higher than that of Ru capping since the high n (= 0.999) of Si increases sensible absorber height. Phase differences obtained from the patterned masks using the EUV CSM are well-matched with the calculated values using the practical refractive index of absorber materials. Although the mask with 62.4-nm-thick absorber, among the in-house masks, shows the closest phase ΔΦ(= 176°) to the out-of-phase condition, higher NILS and contrast as well as lower H-V bias are obtained with 52.4-nm-thick absorber (ΔΦ = 151°) which has higher R/R0 ratio. MET results also show that lithography performances including MEEF, PW, and resist threshold (dose), are improved with thinner absorber structure. However, low OD in EUVL mask, especially in thinner absorber structure, results in light leakage from the neighboring exposure shots, and thus an appropriate light-shielding layer should be introduced.

  11. Near-field Pressure Distributions to Enhance Sounds Transmission into Multi-layer Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    all contributed in some way to this document, whether they wanted to or not. Jelena Paripovic, Jake Miller, Chris Watson, and Daniel Woods worked on the...speeds labeled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5.10 Intensity in the center of the middle (surrogate) layer of the plastic - bounded...surrogate system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 5.11 Intensity in the middle layer of middle (surrogate) layer of the plastic

  12. Compound surface-plasmon-polariton waves guided by a thin metal layer sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric material and a structurally chiral material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-03-01

    Multiple compound surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves can be guided by a structure consisting of a sufficiently thick layer of metal sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric (HID) material and a dielectric structurally chiral material (SCM). The compound SPP waves are strongly bound to both metal/dielectric interfaces when the thickness of the metal layer is comparable to the skin depth but just to one of the two interfaces when the thickness is much larger. The compound SPP waves differ in phase speed, attenuation rate, and field profile, even though all are excitable at the same frequency. Some compound SPP waves are not greatly affected by the choice of the direction of propagation in the transverse plane but others are, depending on metal thickness. For fixed metal thickness, the number of compound SPP waves depends on the relative permittivity of the HID material, which can be useful for sensing applications.

  13. The design and performance of the nano-carbon based double layers flexible coating for tunable and high-efficiency microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danfeng; Hao, Zhifeng; Qian, Yannan; Zeng, Bi; Zhu, Haiping; Wu, Qibai; Yan, Chengjie; Chen, Muyu

    2018-05-01

    Nanocarbon-based materials are outstanding microwave absorbers with good dielectric properties. In this study, double-layer silicone resin flexible absorbing coatings, composed of carbon-coated nickel nanoparticles (Ni@C) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with low loading and a total thickness of 2 mm, were prepared. The reflection loss (RL) of the double-layer absorbing coatings has measured for frequencies between 2 and 18 GHz using the Arch reflecting testing method. The effects of the thickness and electromagnetic parameters of each layer and of the layer sequence on the absorbing properties were investigated. It is found that the measured bandwidth (RL ≤ - 10 dB) of the optimum double-layer structure in our experiment range achieves 3.70 GHz. The results indicated that the double coating structure composed of different materials has greater synergistic absorption effect on impedance matching than that of same materials with different loading. The maximum RL of S1 (5 wt% CNTs)/S3 (60 wt% Ni@C) double-layer absorbing coating composed of different materials (S1 and S3) was larger than the one achieved using either S1 or S3 alone with the same thickness. This was because double-layer coating provided a suitable matching layer and improve the interfacial impedance. It was also shown that absorbing peak value and frequency position can be adjusted by double-layer coating structure.

  14. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  15. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  16. Multi-Functional Surface Engineering for Li-Excess Layered Cathode Material Targeting Excellent Electrochemical and Thermal Safety Properties.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiaofei; Fu, Qiang; Pang, Qiang; Gao, Yu; Wei, Yingjin; Zou, Bo; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang

    2016-02-10

    The Li(Li(0.18)Ni(0.15)Co(0.15)Mn(0.52))O2 cathode material is modified by a Li4M5O12-like heterostructure and a BiOF surface layer. The interfacial heterostructure triggers the layered-to-Li4M5O12 transformation of the material which is different from the layered-to-LiMn2O4 transformation of the pristine Li(Li(0.18)Ni(0.15)Co(0.15)Mn(0.52))O2. This Li4M5O12-like transformation helps the material to keep high working voltage, long cycle life and excellent rate capability. Mass spectrometry, in situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope show that the Li4M5O12-like phase prohibits oxygen release from the material bulk at elevated temperatures. In addition, the BiOF coating layer protects the material from harmful side reactions with the electrolyte. These advantages significantly improve the electrochemical performance of Li(Li(0.18)Ni(0.15)Co(0.15)Mn(0.52))O2. The material shows a discharge capacity of 292 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C with capacity retention of 92% after 100 cycles. Moreover, a high discharge capacity of 78 mAh g(-1) could be obtained at 25 C. The exothermic temperature of the fully charged electrode is elevated from 203 to 261 °C with 50% reduction of the total thermal release, highlighting excellent thermal safety of the material.

  17. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Divan, Ralu; Gades, Lisa M.; Kenesei, Peter; ...

    2017-11-08

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth,more » and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. Lastly, we show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters.« less

  18. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Ralu; Gades, Lisa M.; Kenesei, Peter

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth,more » and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. Lastly, we show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters.« less

  19. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Daikang; Divan, Ralu; Gades, Lisa M.; Kenesei, Peter; Madden, Timothy J.; Miceli, Antonino; Park, Jun-Sang; Patel, Umeshkumar M.; Quaranta, Orlando; Sharma, Hemant; Bennett, Douglas A.; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathon D.; Hays-Wehle, James P.; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Swetz, Daniel S.; Ullom, Joel N.

    2017-11-01

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth, and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. We show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters.

  20. Energy absorber uses expanded coiled tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical shock mitigating device, based on working material to its failure point, absorbs mechanical energy by bending or twisting tubing. It functions under axial or tangential loading, has no rebound, is area independent, and is easy and inexpensive to build.