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Sample records for absorbing material ram

  1. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel-cobalt magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, Ku, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under -20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth).

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of BaFe12O19/Poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) Composites Coatings as Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasria, Nia; Ardhyananta, H.; Fajarin, R.; Widyastuti

    2017-07-01

    This research shows the processing and design of radar absorbing material (RAM) based on barium hexaferrite (BaM) and poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) (PAni,PPy,PET). BaM was prepared by sol gel method with Ni-Zn doping at mole fraction of 0. 4 to obtain soft magnetic material. BaM/(PAni,PPy) composites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization method at ˜0 °C. (BaM/PET) composite was prepared by melt compounding at 220°C. The composites were coated on A-grade AH36 steel using Dallenbach Layer, Salisbury Screen and Jaumann Layer methods with thickness of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The composites were evaluated using XRD, SEM, FTIR, VSM, LCM-meter and VNA. Results showed that doped BaM showed BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 structure. BaM/(PAni,PPy,PET) composites possessed globular morphology with M-O and C-H bonds. BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 exhibited the value of Ms and Hc, 56.6 emu/g and 60 Oe respectively. High electrical conductivity of 1.77744 × 10-5 S/cm was achieved of BaM/PAni composite. The maximum reflection loss (RL) was reached at - 48.720 dB and 8.1 GHz for BaM/PAni composite coating with 6 mm thickness at Jaumann Layer. These results indicated that BaM/PAni composite was a soft magnetic material with a high RL value that is suitable for RAM, which used in stealth technology on naval vessels.

  3. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  4. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  5. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  6. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  7. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  8. Limit analysis, rammed earth material and Casagrande test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nabouch, Ranime; Pastor, Joseph; Bui, Quoc-Bao; Plé, Olivier

    2018-02-01

    The present paper is concerned with the simulation of the Casagrande test carried out on a rammed earth material for wall-type structures in the framework of Limit Analysis (LA). In a preliminary study, the material is considered as a homogeneous Coulomb material, and existing LA static and kinematic codes are used for the simulation of the test. In each loading case, static and kinematic bounds coincide; the corresponding exact solution is a two-rigid-block mechanism together with a quasi-constant stress vector and a velocity jump also constant along the interface, for the three loading cases. In a second study, to take into account the influence of compressive loadings related to the porosity of the material, an elliptic criterion (denoted Cohesive Cam-Clay, CCC) is defined based on recent homogenization results about the hollow sphere model for porous Coulomb materials. Finally, original finite element formulations of the static and mixed kinematic methods for the CCC material are developed and applied to the Casagrande test. The results are the same than above, except that this time the velocity jump depends on the compressive loading, which is more realistic but not satisfying fully the experimental observations. Therefore, the possible extensions of this work towards non-standard direct methods are analyzed in the conclusion section.

  9. First Exploratory Study on the Ageing of Rammed Earth Material

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Quoc-Bao; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Rammed earth (RE) is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its “green” characteristics in the context of sustainable building. In this study, the ageing effects on RE material are studied on the walls which have been constructed and exposed for 22 years to natural weathering. First, mechanical characteristics of the “old” walls were determined by two approaches: in-situ dynamic measurements on the walls; laboratory tests on specimens which had been cut from the walls. Then, the walls’ soil was recycled and reused for manufacturing of new specimens which represented the initial state. Comparison between the compressive strength, the Young modulus of the walls after 22 years on site and that of the initial state enables to assess the ageing of the studied walls. PMID:28787920

  10. First Exploratory Study on the Ageing of Rammed Earth Material.

    PubMed

    Bui, Quoc-Bao; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2014-12-23

    Rammed earth (RE) is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its "green" characteristics in the context of sustainable building. In this study, the ageing effects on RE material are studied on the walls which have been constructed and exposed for 22 years to natural weathering. First, mechanical characteristics of the "old" walls were determined by two approaches: in-situ dynamic measurements on the walls; laboratory tests on specimens which had been cut from the walls. Then, the walls' soil was recycled and reused for manufacturing of new specimens which represented the initial state. Comparison between the compressive strength, the Young modulus of the walls after 22 years on site and that of the initial state enables to assess the ageing of the studied walls.

  11. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  12. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  13. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  14. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  15. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  16. Development of Coatings for Radar Absorbing Materials at X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Samarjit

    2018-03-01

    The present review gives a brief account on some of the technical features of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). The paper has been presented with a concentrated approach towards the material aspects for achieving enhanced radar absorption characteristics for its application as a promising candidate in stealth technology and electromagnetic interference (EMI) minimization problems. The effect of metal particles doping/dispersion in the ferrites and dielectrics has been discussed for obtaining tunable radar absorbing characteristics. A short theoretical overview on the development of absorber materials, implementation of genetic algorithm (GA) in multi-layering and frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) based multi-layer has also been presented for the development of radar absorbing coatings for achieving better absorption augmented with broadband features in order to counter the radar detection systems.

  17. Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Marhauser, Frank; Elliott, Thomas; Rimmer, Robert

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variationsmore » from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.« less

  18. TiO2-based memristors and ReRAM: materials, mechanisms and models (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Ella

    2014-10-01

    The memristor is the fundamental nonlinear circuit element, with uses in computing and computer memory. Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is a resistive switching memory proposed as a non-volatile memory. In this review we shall summarize the state of the art for these closely-related fields, concentrating on titanium dioxide, the well-utilized and archetypal material for both. We shall cover material properties, switching mechanisms and models to demonstrate what ReRAM and memristor scientists can learn from each other and examine the outlook for these technologies.

  19. Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: layered foam liner . Mater Des 30(9):3405–3413 Sethian J, Wiegmann A (2000) Structural boundary design via...Army Research Laboratory Wildman RA, Weile DS (2007) Geometry reconstruction of conduct- ing cylinders using genetic programming. IEEE Trans Antennas

  20. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of testsmore » and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.« less

  1. Shock Tube Test for Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-13

    rigid and lightweight foam material with a closed-cell structure, and a very high strength-to-weight ratio (7). It is commonly used as a sandwich...including application in helmet liners (8). Zorbium™ is the viscoelastic polyurethane foam used in military helmet suspension system pads (9). 8...viscoelastic polyurethane foam which shows strain rate dependent behavior when compressed. This is displayed by the significant difference in response

  2. Use of cork as absorbent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria; D'Alesio, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Cork is a green and sustainable material. At the end of its useful life, it can be disposed of into the environment without causing any damage. It can be used to improve the acoustics inside environments, as a system for the reduction of reverberation time. Sound absorption systems consist of cork panels mounted at a distance onto a rigid wall. The thickness of the cork panels considered are 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm. While the distances considered from the rigid wall are 3 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm. The absorption coefficient of the samples was measured in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube (tube of Kundt). Furthermore, the problems relating to the realization of sound-absorption systems composed of cork panels are also discussed.

  3. Hematite from Natural Iron Stones as Microwave Absorbing Material on X-Band Frequency Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuri, Mochamad

    2017-05-01

    This study has been investigated the effect of hematite as microwave absorbing materials (RAM) on X-Band frequency ranges. Hematite was succesfully processed by coprecipitation method and calcined at 500 °C for 5 hour. It was synthesized from natural iron stones from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraxtion (XRD), conductivity measurement, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), and Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The result was shown that hematite has conductivity value on (2.5-3).10-7 S/cm and be included as dielectric materials. The hysterisis curve was shown that hematite was a super paramagnetic materials. The product was mixed on paint with procentage 10% of total weight and coated on steel grade AH36 with spray methods. Then, the maximum of reflection loss on x - band’s frequency range (8,2-12,4) GHz was -7 dB on frequency of 10.5 GHz. It mean that almost 50% electromagnetic energy was absorbed by hematite.

  4. Absorbing Boundary Conditions For Optical Pulses In Dispersive, Nonlinear Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that provides absorbing boundary conditions for optical pulses in dispersive, nonlinear materials. A new numerical absorber at the boundaries has been developed that is responsive to the spectral content of the pulse. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of "light bullet" like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. Comparisons will be shown of calculations that use the standard boundary conditions and the new ones.

  5. Sound-absorbing slabs and structures based on granular materials (bound and unbound). [energy absorbing efficiency of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre-Lazar, S.; Popeea, G.

    1974-01-01

    Sound absorbing slabs and structures made up of bound or unbound granular materials are considered and how to manufacture these elements at the building site. The raw material is a single grain powder (sand, expanded blast furnace slag, etc.) that imparts to the end products an apparent porosity of 25-45% and an energy dissipation within the structure leading to absorption coefficients that can be compared with those of mineral wool and urethane.

  6. Prediction of microwave absorption properties of tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker radar absorbing material without prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jiang-Fan; Song, Zhong-Guo; Xi, Xiao-Li

    2017-07-01

    The radar absorbing material (RAM) containing a tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) has been proved to have good efficiency of microwave absorption. However, the available theoretical models, which are intended to predict the microwave absorbing properties of such an interesting composite, still cannot work well without some prior knowledge, like the measured effective electromagnetic parameters of the prepared T-ZnOw composite. Hence, we propose a novel predictive method here to calculate the reflectivity of T-ZnOw RAM without prior knowledge. In this method, the absorbing ability of this kind of material is divided into three main aspects: the unstructured background, the conductive network, and the nanostructured particle. Then, the attenuation properties of these three parts are represented, respectively, by three different approaches: the equivalent spherical particle and the static strong fluctuation theory, the equivalent circuit model obtained from the complex impedance spectra technology, and the combination of four different microscopic electromagnetic responses. The operational calculation scheme can be obtained by integrating these three absorption effects into the existing theoretical attenuation model. The reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of a T-ZnON/SiO2 composite in the range of 8-14 GHz shows that the proposed scheme can predict the microwave absorption properties of the T-ZnOw RAM. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of these three mechanisms indicates that, on the one hand, the background plays a dominant role in determining the real part of the effective permittivity of the T-ZnOw composite while the network and the particle are the decisive factors of its material loss; on the other hand, an zero-phase impedance, i.e., a pure resistance, with appropriate resonance characteristic might be a rational physical description of the attenuation property of the conductive network, but it is difficult to realize

  7. Application of Absorbable Hemostatic Materials Observed in Thyroid Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Yan

    2016-05-01

    To observe the application effects of the absorbable hemostatic materials in thyroid operation. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2015, 100 patients with thyroid surgery in our university affiliated hospital were selected as the research object. Randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Application of absorbable hemostatic hemostatic materials in the experimental group during the operation, the control group using the traditional mechanical methods of hemostasis hemostasis to observe the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, complications and hospital stay of the two groups. Results: The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage and hospital stay in the experimental group were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05); The satisfaction of patients in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant in the two groups (P < 0.05); There was no significant difference in the incidence of wound bleeding complications between the study group and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Absorbable hemostatic materials can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the success rate of surgery and patient satisfaction, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical thyroid surgery.

  8. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  9. Absorbable synthetic versus catgut suture material for perineal repair

    PubMed Central

    Kettle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 70% of women will experience some degree of perineal trauma following vaginal delivery and will require stitches. This may result in perineal pain and superficial dyspareunia. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of absorbable synthetic suture material as compared with catgut on the amount of short and long term pain experienced by mothers following perineal repair. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register. Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing absorbable synthetic (polyglycolic acid and polyglactin) with plain or chromic catgut suture for perineal repair in mothers after vaginal delivery. Data collection and analysis Trial quality was assessed independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the second reviewer. Main results Eight trials were included. Compared with catgut, the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups were associated with less pain in first three days (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.71). There was also less need for analgesia (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.77) and less suture dehiscence (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.70). There was no significant difference in long term pain (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 1.08). Removal of suture material was significantly more common in the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.56 to 2.58). There was no difference in the amount of dyspareunia experienced by women. Authors’ conclusions Absorbable synthetic suture material (in the form of polyglycolic acid and polyglactin sutures) for perineal repair following childbirth appears to decrease women’s experience of short-term pain. The length of time taken for the synthetic material to be absorbed is of concern. A trial addressing the use of polyglactin has recently been completed and this has

  10. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  11. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  12. Design of broadband absorber using 2-D materials for thermo-photovoltaic cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sajal; Prajapati, Y. K.

    2018-04-01

    Present study is done to analyze a nano absorber for thermo-photovoltaic cell application. Optical absorbance of two-dimensional materials is exploited to achieve high absorbance. It is found that few alternating layers of graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide provide high absorbance of electromagnetic wave in visible as well as near infrared region. Four transition metal dichalcogenides are considered and found that most of these provide perfect absorbance for almost full considered wavelength range i.e. 200-1000 nm. Demonstrated results confirm the extended operating region and improved absorbance of the proposed absorber in comparison to the existing absorbers made of different materials. Further, absorber performance is improved by using thin layers of gold and chromium. Simple geometry of the proposed absorber also ensures easy fabrication.

  13. Intrinsic Hydrophobicity of Rammed Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, M.; Stone, C.; Balintova, M.; Grul, R.

    2015-11-01

    Rammed earth is well known for its vapour diffusion properties, its ability to regulate humidity within the built environment. Rammed earth is also an aesthetically iconic material such as marble or granite and therefore is preferably left exposed. However exposed rammed earth is often coated with silane/siloxane water repellents or the structure is modified architecturally (large roof overhangs) to accommodate for the hydrophilic nature of the material. This paper sets out to find out optimal hydrophobicity for rammed earth based on natural composite fibres and surface coating without adversely affecting the vapour diffusivity of the material. The material is not required to be waterproof, but should resist at least driving rain. In order to evaluate different approaches to increase hydrophobicity of rammed earth surface, peat fibres and four types of repellents were used.

  14. Competitive light absorbers in photoactive dental resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Shortall, Adrian C; Palin, William M

    2012-08-01

    The absorbance profile of photoinitiators prior to, during and following polymerization of light curable resin-based materials will have a significant effect on the cure and color properties of the final material. So-called "colorless" photoinitiators are used in some light-activated resin-based composite restorative materials to lessen the yellowing effect of camphoroquinone (CQ) in order to improve the esthetic quality of dental restorations. This work characterizes absorption properties of commonly used photoinitiators, an acylphosphine oxide (TPO) and CQ, and assesses their influence on material discoloration. Dimethacrylate resin formulations contained low (0.0134 mol/dm(3)), intermediate (0.0405 mol/dm(3)) or high (0.0678 mol/dm(3)) concentrations of the photoinitiators and the inhibitor, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 0, 0.1 or 0.2% by mass. Disc shaped specimens (n = 3) of each resin were polymerized for 60s using a halogen light curing unit. Dynamic measurements of photoinitiator absorption, polymer conversion and reaction temperature were performed. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color change before and after cure. GLM three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p<0.001), where photoinitiator concentration (df = 2; F = 618.83)>photoinitiator type (df = 1; F = 176.12)>% BHT (df = 2, F = 13.17). BHT concentration affected the rate of polymerization and produced lower conversion in some of the CQ-based resins. Significant differences between photoinitiator type and concentrations were seen in color (where TPO resins became yellower and camphoroquinone resins became less yellow upon irradiation). Reaction temperature, kinetics and conversion also differed significantly for both initiators (p<0.001). Despite TPO-based resins producing a visually perceptible color change upon polymerization, the color change was significantly less than that produced with CQ-based resins. Although some photoinitiators such as TPO may be a

  15. PO calculation for reduction in radar cross section of hypersonic targets using RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song-hua; Guo, Li-xin; Pan, Wei-tao; Chen, Wei; Xiao, Yi-fan

    2018-06-01

    The radar cross section (RCS) reduction of hypersonic targets by radar absorbing materials (RAM) coating under different reentry cases is analyzed in the C and X bands frequency range normally used for radar detection. The physical optics method is extended to both the inhomogeneous plasma sheath and RAM layer present simultaneously. The simulation results show that the absorbing coating can reduce the RCS of the plasma cloaking system and its effectiveness is related to the maximum plasma frequency. Moreover, the amount of the RCS decrease, its maxima, and the corresponding optimal RAM thickness depend on the non-uniformity and parameters of the plasma sheath. In addition, the backward RCS of the flight vehicle shrouded by plasma shielding and man-made absorber is calculated and compared to the bare cone.

  16. Study of sound-absorbing properties of glass-fiber reinforced materials used in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, V. E.; Habibova, R. R.; Shafigullin, L. N.

    2017-09-01

    Modern engineering makes high demands to the noise level in the passenger compartment or cabin of KAMAZ. An effective means of dealing with noise is to use sound absorbing materials produced by the automotive industry. To increase sound-absorbing capacity of materials and structures using glass fibre reinforced polyurethane foams (PUF) obtained by the technology Fiber Composite Spraying.

  17. Highly Absorbing Metal Nanolaminates for Bi-Material THz Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HIGHLY ABSORBING...Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is...Government. IRB Protocol number: N/A. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b

  18. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  19. Stability of an arch type shock absorber made of a rubber-like material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabrits, Sergey A.; Kolpak, Eugeny P.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers the stability problem of an arch shock absorber made of a rubber-like material. As a model, the nonlinear theory of thin shells from elastomers K.F. Chernykh is used. The case of symmetrical and asymmetrical deformation of an arch shock absorber under symmetrical compression is investigated. The possibility of asymmetric bifurcation is evaluated depending on the boundary conditions.

  20. Optimization on microwave absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes and magnetic oxide composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingdong, Chen; Huangzhong, Yu; Xiaohua, Jie; Yigang, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the physical principle of interaction between electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic medium, the relationship between microwave absorbing coefficient (MAC) and the electromagnetic parameters of materials was established. With the composite materials of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and paraffin as an example, optimization on absorbing properties of CNTs/magnetic oxide composite materials was studied at the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and a conclusion is drawn that the MAC is the biggest at the same frequency, when the CNTs is 10 wt% in the composite materials. Through study on the relationship between complex permeability and MAC, another interesting conclusion is drawn that MAC is obviously affected by the real part of complex permeability, and increasing real part of complex permeability is beneficial for improving absorbing properties. The conclusion of this paper can provide a useful reference for the optimization research on the microwave absorbing properties of CNTs/ferrite composite materials.

  1. A Wide Band Absorbing Material Design Using Band-Pass Frequency Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Dianliang; Zhou, Li

    2018-03-01

    Based on the high frequency advantage characteristics of the Fe based absorbing coating, a method for designing the structure of broadband absorbing structure by using frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed. According to the transmission and reflection characteristic of the different size FSS structure, the frequency variation characteristic was simulated. Secondly, the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the high frequency broadband absorbing materials, including the single and double magnetic layer material. Finally, the absorbing characteristics in iron layer were analyzed as the band pass FSS structure was embedded, the results showed that the band-pass FSS had the influence on widening the absorbing frequency. As the FSS was set as the bottom layer, it was effective to achieve the good absorbing property in low frequency and the high frequency absorbing performance was not weakened, because the band-pass FSS led the low frequency absorption and the high frequency shielding effect. The results of this paper are of guiding significance for designing and manufacturing the broadband absorbing materials.

  2. Wide band design on the scaled absorbing material filled with flaky CIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Gao, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Zichang; Liao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The scaled target measurement is an important method to get the target characteristic. Radar absorbing materials are widely used in the low detectable target, considering the absorbing material frequency dispersion characteristics, it makes designing and manufacturing scaled radar absorbing materials on the scaled target very difficult. This paper proposed a wide band design method on the scaled absorbing material of the thin absorption coating with added carbonyl iron particles. According to the theoretical radar cross section (RCS) of the plate, the reflection loss determined by the permittivity and permeability was chosen as the main design factor. Then, the parameters of the scaled absorbing materials were designed using the effective medium theory, and the scaled absorbing material was constructed. Finally, the full-size coating plate and scaled coating plates (under three different scale factors) were simulated; the RCSs of the coating plates were numerically calculated and measured at 4 GHz and a scale factor of 2. The results showed that the compensated RCS of the scaled coating plate was close to that of the full-size coating plate, that is, the mean deviation was less than 0.5 dB, and the design method for the scaled material was very effective.

  3. Negative Refraction in a Uniaxial Absorbent Dielectric Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chin-Te

    2009-01-01

    Refraction of light from an isotropic dielectric medium to an anisotropic dielectric material is a complicated phenomenon that can have several different characteristics not usually discussed in electromagnetics textbooks for undergraduate students. With a simple problem wherein the refracting material is uniaxial with its optic axis normal to the…

  4. Photochemical aging of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol material.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Neha; Moussa, Samar G; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-04-11

    Dark reactions of methylglyoxal with NH4(+) in aqueous aerosols yield light-absorbing and surface-active products that can influence the physical properties of the particles. Little is known about how the product mixture and its optical properties will change due to photolysis as well as oxidative aging by O3 and OH in the atmosphere. Here, we report the results of kinetics and product studies of the photochemical aging of aerosols formed by atomizing aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal and ammonium sulfate. Experiments were performed using aerosol flow tube reactors coupled with an aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometer (Aerosol-CIMS) for monitoring gas- and particle-phase compositions. Particles were also impacted onto quartz windows in order to assess changes in their UV-visible absorption upon oxidation. Photooxidation of the aerosols leads to the formation of small, volatile organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, and glyoxylic acid. The atmospheric lifetime of these species during the daytime is predicted to be on the order of minutes, with photolysis being an important mechanism of degradation. The lifetime with respect to O3 oxidation was observed to be on the order of hours. O3 oxidation also leads to a net increase in light absorption by the particles due to the formation of additional carbonyl compounds. Our results are consistent with field observations of high brown carbon absorption in the early morning.

  5. 3D-Printing ‘Smarter’ Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-08-29

    Foams are, by nature, disordered materials studded with air pockets of varying sizes. Lack of control over the material’s architecture at the micrometer or nanometer scale can make it difficult to adjust the foam’s basic properties. But Eric Duoss and a team of Livermore researchers are using additive manufacturing to develop “smarter” silicone cushions. By architecting the structure at the micro scale, they are able to control macro-scale properties previously unachievable with foam materials.

  6. Method of Synthesizing a Novel Absorbent Titanosilicate Material (UPRM-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo (Inventor); Primera-Pedrozo, Jose N (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A titanium silicate variant named UPRM-5 was prepared using tetraethylammonium hydroxide as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Successful detemplation was achieved via ion exchange with NH4Cl. Effective functionalization was obtained after ion exchanging the detemplated material using SrCl2 and BaCl2. Adsorption of CO2 at 25 deg C in Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials activated at different temperatures. For low partial pressures, the observed CO2 adsorption capacities increased as follows: NH4-UPRM-5 less than Sr-UPRM-5 less than Ba-UPRM-5. Both the Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials exhibited outstanding selectivity for CO2 over CH4, N2 and O2.

  7. Plasmonic detection of possible defects in multilayer nanohole array consisting of essential materials in simplified STT-RAM cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri-Moshkenani, Parinaz; Khan, Mohammad Wahiduzzaman; Zhao, Qiancheng; Krivorotov, Ilya; Nilsson, Mikael; Bagherzadeh, Nader; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2017-08-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures are highly used for sensing purposes since they support plasmonic modes which make them highly sensitive to the refractive index change of their surrounding medium. Therefore, they can also be used to detect changes in optical properties of ultrathin layer films in a multilayer plasmonic structure. Here, we investigate the changes in optical properties of ultrathin films of macro structures consisting of STT-RAM layers. Among the highest sensitive plasmonic structures, nanohole array has attracted many research interest because of its ease of fabrication, small footprint, and simplified optical alignment. Hence it is more suitable for defect detection in STT-RAM geometries. Moreover, the periodic nanohole pattern in the nanohole array structure makes it possible to couple the light to the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode supported by the structure. To assess the radiation damages and defects in STT-RAM cells we have designed a multilayer nanohole array based on the layers used in STT-RAM structure, consisting 4nm- Ta/1.5nm-CoFeB/2nm-MgO/1.5nm-CoFeB/4nm-Ta layers, all on a 300nm silver layer on top of a PEC boundary. The nanoholes go through all the layers and become closed by the PEC boundary on one side. The dimensions of the designed nanoholes are 313nm depth, 350nm diameter, and 700nm period. Here, we consider the normal incidence of light and investigate zeroth-order reflection coefficient to observe the resonance. Our simulation results show that a 10% change in refractive index of the 2nm-thick MgO layer leads to about 122GHz shift in SPP resonance in reflection pattern.

  8. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

    2014-06-01

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  9. Determining the Absorbance Spectra of Photochromic Materials From Measured Spectrophotometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1998-01-01

    If a two-state photochromic material is optically bleached, the absorbance spectrum data measured by a spectrophotometer is in general comprised of components from both the ground state and the upper state. Under general conditions, it may be difficult to extract the actual upper state spectrum from the spectrum of the bleached material. A simple algorithm is presented here for the recovery of the pure absorbance spectra of the upper state of a material such as bacteriorhodopsin, given single wavelength bleaching illumination, steady-state conditions, and accurate knowledge of phototransition rates and thermal decay rates.

  10. A Study of the Failure of Joints in Composite Material Fuel Cells Due to Hydraulic Ram Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    H co PSw Z QW <H W CO 33 PS4 o CO O CM \\ Q> 00 vO m CO CM N ra Figure VI.B.l THICKNESS MODEL 55 it acts upon on the membrane, gives the force to be...ability of the joint to carry the loads created by hydraulic ram loading. It would also make the manufacturing procedure easier, less time consuming , and...70 less expensive. Cutting holes and channels in a composite plate not only alters the behavior and load carrying capa- bility of the plate, but it is

  11. Absorber Materials for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis; Chervenak, James; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred; Sadleir, Jack; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; hide

    2007-01-01

    Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) can provide high spatial and energy resolution necessary for x-ray astronomy. High quantum efficiency and uniformity of response can be achieved with a suitable absorber material, in which absorber x-ray stopping power, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity are relevant parameters. Here we compare these parameters for bismuth and gold. We have fabricated electroplated gold, electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, and evaporated gold/evaporated bismuth 8x8 absorber arrays and find that a correlation exists between the residual resistance ratio (RRR) and thin film microstructure. This finding indicates that we can tailor absorber material conductivity via microstructure alteration, so as to permit absorber thermalization on timescales suitable for high energy resolution x-ray microcalorimetry. We show that by incorporating absorbers possessing large grain size, including electroplated gold and electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, into our current Mo/Au TES, devices with tunable heat capacity and energy resolution of 2.3 eV (gold) and 2.1 eV (gold/bismuth) FWHM at 6 keV have been fabricated.

  12. Hydric characterisation of rammed earth samples for different lime concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudani, Lucile; Fabbri, Antonin; Woloszyn, Monika; Grillet, Anne-Cécile; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2018-04-01

    The rehabilitation of ancient rammed earth houses, as well as the use of earthen materials in modern constructions, are a growing matter of concern, especially in area such as Rhône-Alpes, France, where 40% of old constructions are in rammed earth. A current pathology observed for this type of construction is related to the rising damps, for which the water from the ground is absorbed by the wall. This situation leads to a very saturated state. As it has been proven that the compressive strength is altered by the presence of water in the pores, a better understanding on high relative humidity range is necessary to be able to predict the mechanical behavior of buildings and thus ensure a better risk assessment. The present study describes experimental results of the water uptake experiments and moisture storage at high relative humidities.

  13. Improving impact resistance of ceramic materials by energy absorbing surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.; Seretsky, J.

    1974-01-01

    Energy absorbing surface layers were used to improve the impact resistance of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics. Low elastic modulus materials were used. In some cases, the low elastic modulus was achieved using materials that form localized microcracks as a result of thermal expansion anisotropy, thermal expansion differences between phases, or phase transformations. In other cases, semi-vitreous or vitreous materials were used. Substantial improvements in impact resistance were observed at room and elevated temperatures.

  14. Potential application of a homogeneous and anisotropic slab as an angle insensitive absorbing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiaoning; Niu, Tiaoming; Wang, Jing; Mei, Zhonglei; Qin, Jiayong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a flat and incident angle independence absorbing material is proposed and numerically verified in the optical spectrum. A homogeneous and anisotropic dielectric slab as a non-reflecting layer is first reviewed, and a feasible realization strategy of the slab is then given by using layered isotropic materials. When the loss components of the constitutive materials are not zero, the slab will work as an angle insensitive absorbing layer, and the absorption rate augments with increase of the losses. As the numerical verifications, the field distributions of a metallic cylinder and a triangular metallic object individually covered by the designed absorbing layer are demonstrated. The simulation results show that the designed absorbing layer can efficiently absorb the incident waves with the property of incident angle independence at the operation frequency. This homogeneous slab can be used in one and two dimensional situations for the realization of an invisibility cloak, a carpet cloak and even a skin cloak, if it is used to conformally cover target objects.

  15. Characterization and preparation of p(U-MMA-An) interpenetrating polymer network damping and absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Qingshan; Zhuo, Yuguo; Hong, Wei; Lv, Wenfeng; Xing, Guangzhong

    2014-06-01

    P(U-MMA-ANI) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) damping and absorbing material is successfully synthesized by PANI particles served as an absorbing agent with the microemulsion polymerization and P(U-MMA) foam IPN network structure for substrate materials with foaming way. P(U-MMA-ANI) IPN is characterized by the compression mechanical performance testing, TG-DSC, and DSC. The results verify that the P(U-MMA) IPN foam damping material has a good compressive strength and compaction cycle property, and the optimum content of PMMA was 40% (mass) with which the SEM graphs do not present the phase separation on the macro level between PMMA and PU, while the phase separation was observed on the micro level. The DTG curve indicates that because of the formation of P(U-MMA) IPN, the decomposition temperature of PMMA and the carbamate in PU increases, while that of the polyol segment in PU has almost no change. P(U-MMA-ANI) IPN foam damping and absorbing material is obtained by PANI particles served as absorbing agent in the form of filler, and PMMA in the form of micro area in substrate material. When the content of PANI was up to 2.0% (mass), the dissipation factor of composites increased, and with the increasing of frequency the dissipation factor increased in a straight line.

  16. Acoustic behavior of a fibrous bulk material. [Kevlar 29 sound absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1979-01-01

    A semiempirical model is presented describing the acoustic behavior of Kevlar 29, a bulk absorbing material. The model is based on an approximate solution to the one-dimensional equations representing conservation of fluctuating mass, momentum and energy. By treating the material as a momentum sink, theoretical expressions of the material complex propagation constants and characteristic impedance were derived in terms of a single constant. Evaluating the constant at a single frequency for a particular specimen, excellent agreement between prediction and measurement was achieved for a large range of sound frequencies and material porosities and thicknesses. Results show that Kevlar 29 absorbs sound efficiently even at low frequencies. This is explained in terms of a frequency dependent material phase speed.

  17. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  18. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Radway, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber withoutmore » vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250

  19. A study of the switching mechanism and electrode material of fully CMOS compatible tungsten oxide ReRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, W. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Lai, E. K.; Lee, F. M.; Lin, Y. Y.; Chuang, Alfred T. H.; Chang, K. P.; Yao, Y. D.; Chou, T. H.; Lin, H. M.; Lee, M. H.; Shih, Y. H.; Hsieh, K. Y.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO X ) resistive memory (ReRAM), a two-terminal CMOS compatible nonvolatile memory, has shown promise to surpass the existing flash memory in terms of scalability, switching speed, and potential for 3D stacking. The memory layer, WO X , can be easily fabricated by down-stream plasma oxidation (DSPO) or rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of W plugs universally used in CMOS circuits. Results of conductive AFM (C-AFM) experiment suggest the switching mechanism is dominated by the REDOX (Reduction-oxidation) reaction—the creation of conducting filaments leads to a low resistance state and the rupturing of the filaments results in a high resistance state. Our experimental results show that the reactions happen at the TE/WO X interface. With this understanding in mind, we proposed two approaches to boost the memory performance: (i) using DSPO to treat the RTO WO X surface and (ii) using Pt TE, which forms a Schottky barrier with WO X . Both approaches, especially the latter, significantly reduce the forming current and enlarge the memory window.

  20. Optical response of strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials: Application to paper degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missori, M.; Pulci, O.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Kupchak, I.; Bagniuk, J.; Łojewska, J.; Conte, A. Mosca

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new noninvasive and nondestructive approach to recover scattering and absorption coefficients from reflectance measurements of highly absorbing and optically inhomogeneous media. Our approach is based on the Yang and Miklavcic theoretical model of light propagation through turbid media, which is a generalization of the Kubelka-Munk theory, extended to accommodate optically thick samples. We show its applications to paper, a material primarily composed of a web of fibers of cellulose, whose optical properties are strongly governed by light scattering effects. Samples studied were ancient and industrial paper sheets, aged in different conditions and highly absorbing in the ultraviolet region. The recovered experimental absorptions of cellulose fibers have been compared to theoretical ab initio quantum-mechanical computational simulations carried out within time-dependent density functional theory. In this way, for each sample, we evaluate the absolute concentration of different kinds of oxidized groups formed upon aging and acting as chromophores causing paper discoloration. We found that the relative concentration of different chromophores in cellulose fibers depends on the aging temperature endured by samples. This clearly indicates that the oxidation of cellulose follows temperature-dependent reaction pathways. Our approach has a wide range of applications for cellulose-based materials, like paper, textiles, and other manufactured products of great industrial and cultural interest, and can potentially be extended to other strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials.

  1. An antibacterial and absorbable silk-based fixation material with impressive mechanical properties and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Pu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Guan; Feng, Xinglong; Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Qingshui; Xia, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Implant-associated infections and non-absorbing materials are two important reasons for a second surgical procedure to remove internal fixation devices after an orthopedic internal fixation surgery. The objective of this study was to produce an antibacterial and absorbable fixation screw by adding gentamicin to silk-based materials. The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro by plate cultivation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also investigated the properties, such as the mechanical features, swelling properties, biocompatibility and degradation, of gentamicin-loaded silk-based screws (GSS) in vitro. The GSS showed significant bactericidal effects against S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity remained high even after 4 weeks of immersion in protease solution. In addition, the GSS maintained the remarkable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility of pure silk-based screws (PSS). Interestingly, after gentamicin incorporation, the degradation rate and water-absorbing capacity increased and decreased, respectively. These GSS provide both impressive material properties and antibacterial activity and have great potential for use in orthopedic implants to reduce the incidence of second surgeries.

  2. Super water-absorbing new material from chitosan, EDTA and urea.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Abathodharanan; Dhamodharan, Raghavachari

    2015-12-10

    A new, super water-absorbing, material is synthesized by the reaction between chitosan, EDTA and urea and named as CHEDUR. CHEDUR is probably formed through the crosslinking of chitosan molecules (CH) with the EDTA-urea (EDUR) adduct that is formed during the reaction. CHEDUR as well as the other products formed in control reactions are characterized extensively. CHEDUR exhibits a very high water uptake capacity when compared with chitosan, chitosan-EDTA adduct, as well as a commercial diaper material. A systematic study was done to find the optimum composition as well as reaction conditions for maximum water absorbing capacity. CHEDUR can play a vital role in applications that demand the rapid absorption and slow release of water such as agriculture, as a three in one new material for the slow release of urea, water and other metal ions that can be attached through the EDTA component. The other potential advantage of CHEDUR is that it can be expected to degrade in soil based on its chitosan backbone. The new material with rapid and high water uptake could also find potential applications as biodegradable active ingredient of the diaper material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  4. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range.

    PubMed

    González, M; Crespo, M; Baselga, J; Pozuelo, J

    2016-05-19

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.

  5. RAM Technology Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-03

    characteristics. 4 2 Example of MOS scaling. 18 3 RAM chip area comparison. 31 4 Summary of RAM switching response. 34 5 Summary of RAM power dissipation...array to retain the data after power is removed (volatility). The level of chip complexity is that of the most complex arrays in current production and is...4) ..4 L) . C U ~~~~ -- -- t 0 -, 4 4 . . Data in the Read-Only-Memory is defined by the metallization pattern during chip fabrication. The stored

  6. Lightweight and efficient microwave absorbing materials based on walnut shell-derived nano-porous carbon.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xu; Wang, Lixi; Zhu, Hongli; Guan, Yongkang; Zhang, Qitu

    2017-06-08

    Lightweight microwave absorbing materials have drawn tremendous attention. Herein, nano-porous biomass carbon materials have been prepared by carbonization with a subsequent potassium hydroxide activation of walnut shells and the microwave absorption properties have also been investigated. The obtained samples have large specific surface areas with numerous micropores and nanopores. The sample activated at 600 °C with a specific surface area of 736.2 m 2 g -1 exhibits the most enhanced microwave absorption performance. It has the maximum reflection loss of -42.4 dB at 8.88 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss below -10 dB) is 1.76 GHz (from 8.08 GHz to 9.84 GHz), corresponding to a thickness of 2 mm. Additionally, the effective absorption bandwidth can reach 2.24 GHz (from 10.48 GHz to 12.72 GHz) when the absorber thickness is 1.5 mm. Three-dimensional porous architecture, interfacial polarization relaxation loss, and the dipolar relaxation loss make a great contribution to the excellent microwave absorption performance. In contrast, the non-activated sample with lower specific surface area (435.3 m 2 g -1 ) has poor microwave absorption performance due to a poor dielectric loss capacity. This comparison highlights the role of micropores and nanopores in improving the dielectric loss property of porous carbon materials. To sum up, porous biomass carbon has great potential to become lightweight microwave absorbers. Moreover, KOH is an efficient activation agent in the fabrication of carbonaceous materials.

  7. Utilizing strongly absorbing materials for low-loss surface-wave nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Nicolai B.; Franz, Philipp; Heckmann, Jan; Pufahl, Karsten; Woggon, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Optical media endowed with large nonlinear susceptibilities are highly prized for their employment in frequency conversion and the generation of nonclassical states of light. Although the presence of an optical resonance can greatly increase the nonlinear response (e.g., in epsilon-near-zero materials), the non-negligible increase in linear absorption often precludes the application of such materials in nonlinear optics. Absorbing materials prepared as thin films, however, can support a low-loss surface wave: the long-range surface exciton polariton (LRSEP). Its propagation lifetime increases with greater intrinsic absorption and reduced film thickness, provided that the film is embedded in a transparent medium (symmetric cladding). We explore LRSEP propagation in a molybdenum film by way of a prism-coupling configuration. Our observations show that excitation of the LRSEP mode leads to a dramatic increase in the yield of second-harmonic generation. This implies that the LRSEP mode is an effective vehicle for utilizing the nonlinear response of absorbing materials.

  8. Influence of the electromagnetic parameters on the surface wave attenuation in thin absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinrui; Li, Dongmeng; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rongzhou

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the relationships between the surface wave attenuation properties and the electromagnetic parameters of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). In order to conveniently obtain the attenuation constant of TM surface waves over a wide frequency range, the simplified dispersion equations in thin absorbing materials were firstly deduced. The validity of the proposed method was proved by comparing with the classical dispersion equations. Subsequently, the attenuation constants were calculated separately for the absorbing layers with hypothetical relative permittivity and permeability. It is found that the surface wave attenuation properties can be strongly tuned by the permeability of RAM. Meanwhile, the permittivity should be appropriate so as to maintain high cutoff frequency. The present work provides specific methods and designs to improve the attenuation performances of radar absorbing materials.

  9. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  10. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  11. SQL-RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro, Victor O.; Casey, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    SQL-RAMS (where "SQL" signifies Structured Query Language and "RAMS" signifies Rocketdyne Automated Management System) is a successor to the legacy version of RAMS -- a computer program used to manage all work, nonconformance, corrective action, and configuration management on rocket engines and ground support equipment at Stennis Space Center. The legacy version resided in the File-Maker Pro software system and was constructed in modules that could act as standalone programs. There was little or no integration among modules. Because of limitations on file-management capabilities in FileMaker Pro, and because of difficulty of integration of FileMaker Pro with other software systems for exchange of data using such industry standards as SQL, the legacy version of RAMS proved to be limited, and working to circumvent its limitations too time-consuming. In contrast, SQL-RAMS is an integrated SQL-server-based program that supports all data-exchange software industry standards. Whereas in the legacy version, it was necessary to access individual modules to gain insight into a particular workstatus document, SQL-RAMS provides access through a single-screen presentation of core modules. In addition, SQL-RAMS enables rapid and efficient filtering of displayed statuses by predefined categories and test numbers. SQL-RAMS is rich in functionality and encompasses significant improvements over the legacy system. It provides users the ability to perform many tasks, which in the past required administrator intervention. Additionally, many of the design limitations have been corrected, allowing for a robust application that is user centric.

  12. SQL-RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro, Victor O.; Casey, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    SQL-RAMS (where "SQL" signifies Structured Query Language and "RAMS" signifies Rocketdyne Automated Management System) is a successor to the legacy version of RAMS a computer program used to manage all work, nonconformance, corrective action, and configuration management on rocket engines and ground support equipment at Stennis Space Center. The legacy version resided in the FileMaker Pro software system and was constructed in modules that could act as stand-alone programs. There was little or no integration among modules. Because of limitations on file-management capabilities in FileMaker Pro, and because of difficulty of integration of FileMaker Pro with other software systems for exchange of data using such industry standards as SQL, the legacy version of RAMS proved to be limited, and working to circumvent its limitations too time-consuming. In contrast, SQL-RAMS is an integrated SQL-server-based program that supports all data-exchange software industry standards. Whereas in the legacy version, it was necessary to access individual modules to gain insight to a particular work-status documents, SQL-RAMS provides access through a single-screen presentation of core modules. In addition, SQL-RAMS enable rapid and efficient filtering of displayed statuses by predefined categories and test numbers. SQL-RAMS is rich in functionality and encompasses significant improvements over the legacy system. It provides users the ability to perform many tasks which in the past required administrator intervention. Additionally many of the design limitations have been corrected allowing for a robust application that is user centric.

  13. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  14. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Crespo, M.; Baselga, J.; Pozuelo, J.

    2016-05-01

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scheme of hydrogenated derivative of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (HDGEBA) and m-xylylenediamine; X-ray diffractograms of pristine CNT

  15. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  16. Thermally switchable meta-material absorber involving vanadium dioxide semiconductor-metal transition for thermo photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendelala, Fathi; Cheknane, Ali; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2018-01-01

    A new switchable absorber design using meta-materials for thermo photovoltaic applications is proposed here. Conventional absorbents are normally non-adjustable with narrow band-widths and polarization-dependence. The present study describes an alternative infrared absorber structure with tunable characteristics. The absorber is based on VO2 which exhibits transition from semiconductor to metallic conductor by thermal effect. With this design, the results show that wide-band absorption can be achieved. The absorption bandwidth can be improved from 15.94 to 36.75 THz. With 40.42% relative shift in the peak frequency, a maximum absorption efficiency of 99% can be achieved. This structure design is polarization-independent of normal incident radiations, and may accommodate radiations from wide oblique angles. These new features make the new thermally adjustable absorber potentially useful in thermo-photovoltaic conversion devices.

  17. Measurements of the light-absorbing material inside cloud droplets and its effect on cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twohy, C. H.; Clarke, A. D.; Warren, Stephen G.; Radke, L. F.; Charleson, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the measurements of light-absorbing aerosol particles made previously have been in non-cloudy air and therefore provide no insight into aerosol effects on cloud properties. Here, researchers describe an experiment designed to measure light absorption exclusively due to substances inside cloud droplets, compare the results to related light absorption measurements, and evaluate possible effects on the albedo of clouds. The results of this study validate those of Twomey and Cocks and show that the measured levels of light-absorbing material are negligible for the radiative properties of realistic clouds. For the measured clouds, which appear to have been moderately polluted, the amount of elemental carbon (EC) present was insufficient to affect albedo. Much higher contaminant levels or much larger droplets than those measured would be necessary to significantly alter the radiative properties. The effect of the concentrations of EC actually measured on the albedo of snow, however, would be much more pronounced since, in contrast to clouds, snowpacks are usually optically semi-infinite and have large particle sizes.

  18. Shock-absorbing effect of shoe insert materials commonly used in management of lower extremity disorders.

    PubMed

    Shiba, N; Kitaoka, H B; Cahalan, T D; Chao, E Y

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of 3 shock-absorbing materials was compared by determining impact characteristics with a drop test method and also by testing the effect of each material when used as a shoe insert in 16 asymptomatic subjects. Peak vertical ground reaction force (F1, F2, F3) and temporal force factors (T1, T2, T3) were obtained with a force plate at a high-frequency sampling rate. Impact force, impact time, impact slope, and impact energy were determined. A standard weight was dropped from 3 heights on each material covering the force plate while reduction of peak force was compared. Impact force was attenuated most effectively by Insert 3 (polymeric foam rubber) and averaged 11% less than that in shoes without inserts. Impact time was increased for all 3 inserts. Impact slope and impact energy were reduced significantly in Insert 3. There was a significant difference in peak vertical force F1 for all 3 inserts, in vertical force F2 for Insert 2 (viscoelastic polymeric material), and in vertical force F3 for Insert 2. Drop-test studies showed that at all ball heights, the highest mean peak force was observed consistently in Insert 2.

  19. Evaluation of tensile strength of surgical synthetic absorbable suture materials: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, V.; Nichani, Ashish Sham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of surgical synthetic absorbable sutures over a period of 14 days under simulated oral conditions. Methods Three suture materials (polyglycolic acid [PGA], polyglactin [PG] 910, and poly (glycolide-co-є-caprolactone) [PGC]) were used in 4-0 and 5-0 gauges. 210 suture samples (35 of each material and gauge) were used. All of the samples were tested preimmersion and 1 hour and 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days postimmersion. The tensile strength of each suture material and gauge was assessed. The point of breakage and the resorption pattern of the sutures were also assessed. Results During the first 24 hours of immersion, all 4-0 and 5-0 samples of PGA, PG 910, and PGC maintained their initial tensile strength. At baseline (preimmersion), there was a statistically significant (P<0.001) difference in the tensile strengths between the 4-0 and 5-0 gauge of PGA, PG 910, and PGC. PGA 4-0 showed the highest tensile strength until day 10. At 7 days, all the 4-0 sutures of the three materials had maintained their tensile strength with PGA 4-0 having significantly greater (P=0.003) tensile strength compared to PG. Conclusions 4-0 sutures are stronger and have greater tensile strength than 5-0 sutures. The PGA 4-0 suture showed the highest tensile strength at the end of day 10. PMID:23837127

  20. Light absorbing material (soot) in rainwater and in aerosol particles in the Maldives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, L.; EngströM, J. E.; Praveen, S.; Rodhe, H.

    2010-08-01

    Simultaneous measurements of soot (absorbing material at 528 nm) and inorganic ions in aerosol and precipitation at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during the period May 2005 to February 2007 have made it possible to calculate the washout ratio (WR) of these components as a measure of how efficiently they are scavenged by precipitation. On the basis of air trajectories the data have been separated into days with polluted air arriving from the Indian subcontinent in a northeasterly sector during winter and clean monsoon days with southerly flow from the Indian Ocean. The average soot concentration was a factor of 10 higher in the former situations. Despite considerable scatter for individual days, a systematic pattern emerged when the WR for the different components were compared with each other. During the monsoon season the WR for soot was similar to that of sulfate and other fine mode aerosol components, indicating that soot containing particles in these situations were efficient as cloud condensation nuclei. The origin of the light absorbing material during the monsoon season is unclear. During the polluted winter days, on the other hand, the WR for soot was three times smaller than that of sulfate. This indicates that, even after a travel time of several days, the soot containing particles from India have retained much of their hydrophobic property. The low WR and the infrequent rain during this season probably contribute to extending the atmospheric lifetime of soot well beyond several days. Surprisingly high concentrations of non-sea-salt calcium were measured during the monsoon season, substantially higher than during the winter season. The origin of these high values could be long-range transport from the Australian or African continents. Another possibility might be exopolymer gels derived from the ocean surface microlayer.

  1. Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric and photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Ilya; West, D Vincent; Torres, Maria; Gou, Gaoyang; Stein, David M; Wu, Liyan; Chen, Guannan; Gallo, Eric M; Akbashev, Andrew R; Davies, Peter K; Spanier, Jonathan E; Rappe, Andrew M

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectrics have recently attracted attention as a candidate class of materials for use in photovoltaic devices, and for the coupling of light absorption with other functional properties. In these materials, the strong inversion symmetry breaking that is due to spontaneous electric polarization promotes the desirable separation of photo-excited carriers and allows voltages higher than the bandgap, which may enable efficiencies beyond the maximum possible in a conventional p-n junction solar cell. Ferroelectric oxides are also stable in a wide range of mechanical, chemical and thermal conditions and can be fabricated using low-cost methods such as sol-gel thin-film deposition and sputtering. Recent work has shown how a decrease in ferroelectric layer thickness and judicious engineering of domain structures and ferroelectric-electrode interfaces can greatly increase the current harvested from ferroelectric absorber materials, increasing the power conversion efficiency from about 10(-4) to about 0.5 per cent. Further improvements in photovoltaic efficiency have been inhibited by the wide bandgaps (2.7-4 electronvolts) of ferroelectric oxides, which allow the use of only 8-20 per cent of the solar spectrum. Here we describe a family of single-phase solid oxide solutions made from low-cost and non-toxic elements using conventional solid-state methods: [KNbO3]1 - x[BaNi1/2Nb1/2O3 - δ]x (KBNNO). These oxides exhibit both ferroelectricity and a wide variation of direct bandgaps in the range 1.1-3.8 electronvolts. In particular, the x = 0.1 composition is polar at room temperature, has a direct bandgap of 1.39 electronvolts and has a photocurrent density approximately 50 times larger than that of the classic ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 material. The ability of KBNNO to absorb three to six times more solar energy than the current ferroelectric materials suggests a route to viable ferroelectric semiconductor-based cells for solar energy conversion and

  2. The Ram's Horn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassias, John A., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The summer-fall and winter-spring numbers of the journal, "The Ram's Horn," contain these articles: "The Text as Dramatic Departure"; "The Dartmouth Language Outreach Approach to Spanish for Police Action"; "The Dartmouth Intensive Language Model (DILM) in Florida: John Rassias with High School Teachers";…

  3. 2D Homologous Perovskites as Light-Absorbing Materials for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Duyen H; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-06-24

    We report on the fabrication and properties of the semiconducting 2D (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)(n-1)Pb(n)I(3n+1) (n = 1, 2, 3, and 4) perovskite thin films. The band gaps of the series decrease with increasing n values, from 2.24 eV (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1) to 1.52 eV CH3NH3PbI3 (n = ∞). The compounds exhibit strong light absorption in the visible region, accompanied by strong photoluminescence at room temperature, rendering them promising light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. Moreover, we find that thin films of the semi-2D perovskites display an ultrahigh surface coverage as a result of the unusual film self-assembly that orients the [Pb(n)I(3n+1)](-) layers perpendicular to the substrates. We have successfully implemented this 2D perovskite family in solid-state solar cells, and obtained an initial power conversion efficiency of 4.02%, featuring an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 929 mV and a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 9.42 mA/cm(2) from the n = 3 compound. This result is even more encouraging considering that the device retains its performance after long exposure to a high-humidity environment. Overall, the homologous 2D halide perovskites define a promising class of stable and efficient light-absorbing materials for solid-state photovoltaics and other applications.

  4. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  5. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  6. Fabrication of Organic Radar Absorbing Materials: A Report on the TIF Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    thickness, permittivity and permeability. The ability to measure the permittivity and permeability is an essential requirement for designing an optimised...absorber. And good optimisations codes are required in order to achieve the best possible absorber designs . In this report, the results from a...through measurement of their conductivity and permittivity at microwave frequencies. Methods were then developed for optimising the design of

  7. Tunable broadband near-infrared absorber based on ultrathin phase-change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Er-Tao; Gu, Tong; Guo, Shuai; Zang, Kai-Yan; Tu, Hua-Tian; Yu, Ke-Han; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lee, Young-Pak; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a tunable broadband near-infrared light absorber was designed and fabricated with a simple and lithography free approach by introducing an ultrathin phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) layer into the metal-dielectric multilayered film structure with the structure parameters as that: SiO2 (72.7 nm)/Ge2Sb2Te5 (6.0 nm)/SiO2 (70.2 nm)/Cu (>100.0 nm). The film structure exhibits a modulation depth of ∼72.6% and an extinction ratio of ∼8.8 dB at the wavelength of 1410 nm. The high light absorption (95%) of the proposed film structure at the wavelength of 450 nm in both of the amorphous and crystalline phase of GST, indicates that the intensity of the reflectance in the infrared region can be rapidly tuned by the blue laser pulses. The proposed planar layered film structure with layer thickness as the only controllable parameter and large reflectivity tuning range shows the potential for practical applications in near-infrared light modulation and absorption.

  8. Development Radar Absorber Material using Rice Husk Carbon for Anechoic Chamber Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulpadrianto, Z.; Yohandri, Y.; Putra, A.

    2018-04-01

    The developments of radar technology in Indonesia are very strategic due to the vast territory and had a high-level cloud cover more than 55% of the time. The objective of this research is to develop radar technology facility in Indonesia using local natural resources. The target of this research is to present a low cost and satisfy quality of anechoic chambers. Anechoic chamber is a space designed to avoid reflection of EM waves from outside or from within the room. The reflection coefficient of the EM wave is influenced by the medium imposed by the EM wave. In laboratory experimental research has been done the development of material radar absorber using rice husk. The rice husk is activated using HCl and KOH by stirring using a magnetic stirrer for 1 Hours. The results of rice husk activation were measured using a Vector Network Analyzer by varying the thickness of the ingredients and the concentration of the activation agent. The VNA measurement is obtained reflection coefficient of -12dB and. -6.22dB for 1M HCL and KOH at thickness 10mm, respectively.

  9. A Novel, Real-Valued Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Radar Absorbing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, John Michael

    2004-01-01

    A novel, real-valued Genetic Algorithm (GA) was designed and implemented to minimize the reflectivity and/or transmissivity of an arbitrary number of homogeneous, lossy dielectric or magnetic layers of arbitrary thickness positioned at either the center of an infinitely long rectangular waveguide, or adjacent to the perfectly conducting backplate of a semi-infinite, shorted-out rectangular waveguide. Evolutionary processes extract the optimal physioelectric constants falling within specified constraints which minimize reflection and/or transmission over the frequency band of interest. This GA extracted the unphysical dielectric and magnetic constants of three layers of fictitious material placed adjacent to the conducting backplate of a shorted-out waveguide such that the reflectivity of the configuration was 55 dB or less over the entire X-band. Examples of the optimization of realistic multi-layer absorbers are also presented. Although typical Genetic Algorithms require populations of many thousands in order to function properly and obtain correct results, verified correct results were obtained for all test cases using this GA with a population of only four.

  10. Measured Wavelength-Dependent Absorption Enhancement of Internally Mixed Black Carbon with Absorbing and Nonabsorbing Materials.

    PubMed

    You, Rian; Radney, James G; Zachariah, Michael R; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2016-08-02

    Optical absorption spectra of laboratory generated aerosols consisting of black carbon (BC) internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials (ammonium sulfate, AS, and sodium chloride, NaCl) and BC with a weakly absorbing brown carbon surrogate derived from humic acid (HA) were measured across the visible to near-IR (550 to 840 nm). Spectra were measured in situ using a photoacoustic spectrometer and step-scanning a supercontinuum laser source with a tunable wavelength and bandwidth filter. BC had a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) of 7.89 ± 0.25 m(2) g(-1) at λ = 550 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 1.03 ± 0.09 (2σ). For internally mixed BC, the ratio of BC mass to the total mass of the mixture was chosen as 0.13 to mimic particles observed in the terrestrial atmosphere. The manner in which BC mixed with each material was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AS/BC and HA/BC particles were fully internally mixed, and the BC was both internally and externally mixed for NaCl/BC particles. The AS/BC, NaCl/BC, and HA/BC particles had AAEs of 1.43 ± 0.05, 1.34 ± 0.06, and 1.91 ± 0.05, respectively. The observed absorption enhancement of mixed BC relative to the pure BC was wavelength dependent for AS/BC and decreased from 1.5 at λ = 550 nm with increasing wavelength while the NaCl/BC enhancement was essentially wavelength independent. For HA/BC, the enhancement ranged from 2 to 3 and was strongly wavelength dependent. Removal of the HA absorption contribution to enhancement revealed that the enhancement was ≈1.5 and independent of wavelength.

  11. Study of earth abundant tco and absorber materials for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Tejas

    In order to make photovoltaic power generation a sustainable venture, it is necessary to use cost-effective materials in the manufacture of solar cells. In this regard, AZO (Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide) and CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide) have been studied for their application in thin film solar cells. While AZO is a transparent conducting oxide, CZTS is a photovoltaic absorber. Both AZO and CZTS consist of earth abundant elements and are non-toxic in nature. Highly transparent and conductive AZO thin films were grown using RF sputtering. The influence of deposition parameters such as working pressure, RF power, substrate temperature and flow rate on the film characteristics was investigated. The as-grown films had a high degree of preferred orientation along the (002) direction which enhanced at lower working pressures, higher RF powers and lower substrate temperatures. Williamson-Hall analysis on the films revealed that as the working pressure was increased, the nature of stress and strain gradually changed from being compressive to tensile. The fall in optical transmission of the films was a consequence of free carrier absorption resulting from enhanced carrier density due to incorporation of Al atoms or oxygen vacancies. The optical and electrical properties of the films were described well by the Burstein-Moss effect. CZTS absorber layers were grown using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at a deposition temperature of 350 C and subsequently annealed in a sulfurization furnace. Measurements from XRD and Raman spectra confirmed the presence of pure single phase Cu2ZnSnS4. Texture analysis of as-deposited and annealed CZTS films indicated that the (112) plane which is characteristic of the kesterite phase was preferred. The grain size increased from 50 nm to 100 nm on conducting post-deposition annealing. CZTS films with stoichiometric composition yielded a band gap of 1.5 eV, which is optimal for solar energy conversion. The variation of tin in the film changed its

  12. The design of broadband radar absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suk, Go H.

    1990-09-01

    There has been a growing and widespread interest in radar absorbing material technology. As the name implies, radar absorbing materials or RAM's are coatings whose electric and magnetic properties have been selected to allow the absorption of microwave energy at discrete or broadband frequencies. In military applications low radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle may be required in order to escape detection while a covert mission is being carried on. These requirements have led to the very low observable or stealth technology that reduces the probability of detection of an aircraft. The design of radar absorbing materials is limited by constraints on the allowable volume and weight of the surface coating, and it is difficult to design a broadband radar absorbing structure in limited volume. This thesis investigates the use of lossy dielectric materials of high dielectric permittivity in multilayer composites for the production of low radar cross section (RCS). The analysis is done by computing the plane wave reflection coefficient at the exterior surface of the composite coating by means of a computer program which selects layer parameters which determine low reflection coefficients for electromagnetic radiation under constraint of limited layer thickness as well as maximum frequency bandwidth.

  13. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised ofmore » boron trioxide and sassolite (H 3BO 3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.« less

  14. Absorbed dose measurement in low temperature samples:. comparative methods using simulated material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ruth; Harris, Anthony; Winters, Martell; Howard, Betty; Mellor, Paul; Patil, Deepak; Meiner, Jason

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing need to reliably measure absorbed dose in low temperature samples, especially in the pharmaceutical and tissue banking industries. All dosimetry systems commonly used in the irradiation industry are temperature sensitive. Radiation of low temperature samples, such as those packaged with dry ice, must therefore take these dosimeter temperature effects into consideration. This paper will suggest a method to accurately deliver an absorbed radiation dose using dosimetry techniques designed to abrogate the skewing effects of low temperature environments on existing dosimetry systems.

  15. [Reaction of the fibrose eyeball covering upon the suture material synthetic and absorbable "Dexon". (Experimental study) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Olah, Z

    1979-11-01

    The present paper deals with the results of 20 eyes of experimentally operated laboratory animals, whose perforating wounds (of cornea and those of sclerocorneal region) have been suturated with a new type of absorbable synthetic suture material "Dexon" thickness being 6-0. The synthetic absorbable suture material "Dexon" is made of polyglycol acid, and it has been introduced to market by the firm Davis and Geck (U.S.A.). The inflammatory tissue reaction to the presence of the suture material "Dexon" is prominent and can by compared to the reaction to chromic resorbable suture materials (catgut or collagen). The suture material "Dexon" start to resorb in the course of the 2nd-3rd weeks after operation. The suture material "Dexon" can be used at an advantage in the operation where it is possible to cover the knots by a conjuctival lobe (in sclerocorneal region or in strabismus surgery) in this way the tendency to overgrowing of epithelial cells along the suture channels can be prevented. The "Dexon" material is sufficiently flexible and firm and has no antigenic properties, therefore it appears very prospective for ophthalmosurgery.

  16. Reliability evaluation of CMOS RAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvo, C. J.; Sasaki, A. T.

    The results of an evaluation of the reliability of a 1K x 1 bit CMOS RAM and a 4K x 1 bit CMOS RAM for the USAF are reported. The tests consisted of temperature cycling, thermal shock, electrical overstress-static discharge and accelerated life test cells. The study indicates that the devices have high reliability potential for military applications. Use-temperature failure rates at 100 C were 0.54 x 10 to the -5th failures/hour for the 1K RAM and 0.21 x 10 to the -5th failures/hour for the 4K RAM. Only minimal electrostatic discharge damage was noted in the devices when they were subjected to multiple pulses at 1000 Vdc, and redesign of the 7 Vdc quiescent parameter of the 4K RAM is expected to raise its field threshold voltage.

  17. A Two-Step Absorber Deposition Approach To Overcome Shunt Losses in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Using Tin Sulfide as a Proof-of-Concept Material System

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmann, Vera; Chakraborty, Rupak; Rekemeyer, Paul H.

    2016-08-31

    As novel absorber materials are developed and screened for their photovoltaic (PV) properties, the challenge remains to reproducibly test promising candidates for high-performing PV devices. Many early-stage devices are prone to device shunting due to pinholes in the absorber layer, producing 'false-negative' results. Here, we demonstrate a device engineering solution toward a robust device architecture, using a two-step absorber deposition approach. We use tin sulfide (SnS) as a test absorber material. The SnS bulk is processed at high temperature (400 degrees C) to stimulate grain growth, followed by a much thinner, low-temperature (200 degrees C) absorber deposition. At a lowermore » process temperature, the thin absorber overlayer contains significantly smaller, densely packed grains, which are likely to provide a continuous coating and fill pinholes in the underlying absorber bulk. We compare this two-step approach to the more standard approach of using a semi-insulating buffer layer directly on top of the annealed absorber bulk, and we demonstrate a more than 3.5x superior shunt resistance Rsh with smaller standard error ..sigma..Rsh. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate a lower density of pinholes in the SnS absorber bulk when using the two-step absorber deposition approach. We correlate those findings to improvements in the device performance and device performance reproducibility.« less

  18. Thin and Broadband Two-Layer Microwave Absorber in 4-12 GHz with Developed Flaky Cobalt Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Neeraj; Singh, Jaydeep; Puthucheri, Smitha; Singh, Dharmendra

    2018-03-01

    Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs) in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz are essential for the stealth and communication applications. Researchers came up with effective MAMs for the higher frequency regions, i.e., 8.0-18.0 GHz, while absorbers with comparable properties in the lower frequency band are still not in the limelight. Designing a MAM for the lower frequency range is a critical task. It is known that the factors governing the absorption in this frequency predominantly depend on the permeability and conductivity of the material, whereas the shape anisotropy of the particles can initiate different absorption mechanisms like multiple internal reflections, phase cancellations, surface charge polarization and enhanced conductivity that can promote the microwave absorption towards lower frequencies. But the material alone may not serve the purpose of getting broad absorption bandwidth. With the effective use of advanced electromagnetic technique like multi-layering this problem may be solved. Therefore, in this paper, a material with shape anisotropy (cobalt flakes with high shape anisotropy) has been prepared and a two-layer structure is developed which gives the absorption bandwidth in 4.17-12.05 GHz at a coating thickness of 2.66 mm.

  19. Thin and Broadband Two-Layer Microwave Absorber in 4-12 GHz with Developed Flaky Cobalt Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Neeraj; Singh, Jaydeep; Puthucheri, Smitha; Singh, Dharmendra

    2018-05-01

    Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs) in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz are essential for the stealth and communication applications. Researchers came up with effective MAMs for the higher frequency regions, i.e., 8.0-18.0 GHz, while absorbers with comparable properties in the lower frequency band are still not in the limelight. Designing a MAM for the lower frequency range is a critical task. It is known that the factors governing the absorption in this frequency predominantly depend on the permeability and conductivity of the material, whereas the shape anisotropy of the particles can initiate different absorption mechanisms like multiple internal reflections, phase cancellations, surface charge polarization and enhanced conductivity that can promote the microwave absorption towards lower frequencies. But the material alone may not serve the purpose of getting broad absorption bandwidth. With the effective use of advanced electromagnetic technique like multi-layering this problem may be solved. Therefore, in this paper, a material with shape anisotropy (cobalt flakes with high shape anisotropy) has been prepared and a two-layer structure is developed which gives the absorption bandwidth in 4.17-12.05 GHz at a coating thickness of 2.66 mm.

  20. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  1. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  2. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph (Inventor); Marder, Seth (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are disclosed. Many of these compositions are compounds satisfying the formulae D-.PI.-D, A-.PI.-A, D-A-D and A-D-A, wherein D is an electron donor group, A is an electron acceptor group and .PI. comprises a bridge of .pi.-conjugated bonds connecting the electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups. In A-D-A and D-A-D compounds, the .pi. bridge is substituted with electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups, respectively. Also disclosed are methods that generate an electronically excited state of a compound, including those satisfying one of these formulae. The electronically excited state is achieved in a method that includes irradiating the compound with light. Then, the compound is converted to a multi-photon electronically excited state upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of light. The sum of the energies of all of the absorbed photons is greater than or equal to the transition energy from a ground state of the compound to the multi-photon excited state. The energy of each absorbed photon is less than the transition energy between the ground state and the lowest single-photon excited state of the compound is less than the transition energy between the multi-photon excited state and the ground state.

  3. Remote Attitude Measurement Sensor (RAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Remote attitude measurement sensor (RAMS) offers a low-cost, low-risk, proven design concept that is based on mature, demonstrated space sensor technology. The electronic design concepts and interpolation algorithms were tested and proven in space hardware like th Retroreflector Field Tracker and various star trackers. The RAMS concept is versatile and has broad applicability to both ground testing and spacecraft needs. It is ideal for use as a precision laboratory sensor for structural dynamics testing. It requires very little set-up or preparation time and the output data is immediately usable without integration or extensive analysis efforts. For on-orbit use, RAMS rivals any other type of dynamic structural sensor (accelerometer, lidar, photogrammetric techniques, etc.) for overall performance, reliability, suitability, and cost. Widespread acceptance and extensive usage of RAMS will occur only after some interested agency, such as OAST, adopts the RAMS concept and provides the funding support necessary for further development and implementation of RAMS for a specific program.

  4. Quantitation of absorbed or deposited materials on a substrate that measures energy deposition

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick G.; Bakajin, Olgica; Vogel, John S.; Bench, Graham

    2005-01-18

    This invention provides a system and method for measuring an energy differential that correlates to quantitative measurement of an amount mass of an applied localized material. Such a system and method remains compatible with other methods of analysis, such as, for example, quantitating the elemental or isotopic content, identifying the material, or using the material in biochemical analysis.

  5. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  6. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  7. Two-Photon or Higher-Order Absorbing Optical Materials for Generation of Reactive Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  8. Atomistic mechanisms of ReRAM cell operation and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sumeet C.

    2018-01-01

    We present results from first-principles-based modeling that captures functionally important physical phenomena critical to cell materials selection, operation, and reliability for resistance-switching memory technologies. An atomic-scale description of retention, the low- and high-resistance states (RS), and the sources of intrinsic cell-level variability in ReRAM is discussed. Through the results obtained from density functional theory, non-equilibrium Green’s function, molecular dynamics, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations; the role of variable-charge vacancy defects and metal impurities in determining the RS, the LRS-stability, and electron-conduction in such RS is reported. Although, the statistical electrical characteristics of the oxygen-vacancy (Ox-ReRAM) and conductive-bridging RAM (M-ReRAM) are notably different, the underlying similar electrochemical phenomena describing retention and formation/dissolution of RS are being discussed.

  9. Measurement and Simulation of Thermal Conductivity of Hafnium-Aluminum Thermal Neutron Absorber Material

    DOE PAGES

    Guillen, Donna Post; Harris, William H.

    2016-05-11

    A metal matrix composite (MMC) material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) intermetallic particles in an aluminum matrix has been identified as a promising material for fast-flux irradiation testing applications. This material can filter thermal neutrons while simultaneously providing high rates of conductive cooling for experiment capsules. Our purpose is to investigate effects of Hf-Al material composition and neutron irradiation on thermophysical properties, which were measured before and after irradiation. When performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the irradiated specimens, a large exotherm corresponding to material annealment was observed. Thus, a test procedure was developed to perform DSC and laser flashmore » analysis (LFA) to obtain the specific heat and thermal diffusivity of pre- and post-annealment specimens. This paper presents the thermal properties for three states of the MMC material: (1) unirradiated, (2) as-irradiated, and (3) irradiated and annealed. Microstructure-property relationships were obtained for the thermal conductivity. These relationships are useful for designing components from this material to operate in irradiation environments. Furthermore, the ability of this material to effectively conduct heat as a function of temperature, volume fraction Al 3Hf, radiation damage and annealing is assessed using the MOOSE suite of computational tools.« less

  10. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  11. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  12. Limitations of Cs3Bi2I9 as lead-free photovoltaic absorber materials.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Biplab; Wu, Bo; Mulmudi, Hemant Kumar; Guet, Claude; Weber, Klaus; Sum, Tze Chien; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Mathews, Nripan

    2018-01-17

    Lead (Pb) halide perovskites have attracted tremendous attention in recent years due to their rich optoelectronic properties, which have resulted in more than 22% power conversion efficient photovoltaics. Nevertheless, Pb-metal toxicity remains a huge hurdle for extensive applications of these compounds. Thus, alternative compounds with similar optoelectronic properties need to be developed. Bismuth possesses similar electronic structure as that of lead with the presence of ns2 electrons that exhibit rich structural variety as well as interesting optical and electronic properties. Herein, we critically assess Cs3Bi2I9 as a candidate for thin-film solar cell absorber. Despite a reasonable optical bandgap (~2eV) and absorption coefficient, the power conversion efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 mesoscopic solar cells was found to be severely lacking, limited by poor photocurrent density. The efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 solar cell can be slightly improved by changing the stoichiometry of the precursor solutions. We have investigated the possible reasons behind the poor performance of Cs3Bi2I9 by transient absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Comparison between thin-films and single crystals highlights the presence of intrinsic defects in thin-films which act as nonradiative recombination centers.

  13. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectricmore » properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm) infrared absorber.« less

  14. 3D-Printing ‘Smarter’ Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    Foams are, by nature, disordered materials studded with air pockets of varying sizes. Lack of control over the material’s architecture at the micrometer or nanometer scale can make it difficult to adjust the foam’s basic properties. But Eric Duoss and a team of Livermore researchers are using additive manufacturing to develop “smarter” silicone cushions. By architecting the structure at the micro scale, they are able to control macro-scale properties previously unachievable with foam materials.

  15. Canyon transfer neutron absorber to fissile material ratio analysis. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmons, J.S.

    1994-03-04

    Waste tank fissile material and non-fissile material estimates are used to evaluate criticality safety for the existing sludge inventory and batches of sludge sent to Extended Sludge Processing (ESP). This report documents the weight ratios of several non-fissile waste constituents to fissile waste constituents from canyon reprocessing waste streams. Weight ratios of Fe, Mn, Al, Mi, and U-238 to fissile material are calculated from monthly loss estimates from the F and H Canyon Low Heat Waste (LHW) and High Heat Waste (HHW) streams. The monthly weight ratios for Fe, Mn and U-238 are then compared to calculated minimum safe weightmore » ratios. Documented minimum safe weight ratios for Al and Ni to fissile material are currently not available. Total mass data for the subject sludge constituents is provided along with scatter plots of the monthly weight ratios for each waste stream.« less

  16. Flexural properties and shock-absorbing capabilities of new face guard materials reinforced with fiberglass cloth.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keisuke; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Churei, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

     Experimental materials incorporating fiberglass cloth were used to develop a thin and lightweight face guard (FG). This study aims to evaluate the effect of fiberglass reinforcement on the flexural and shock absorption properties compared with conventional thermoplastic materials.  Four commercial 3.2-mm and 1.6-mm medical splint materials (Aquaplast, Polyform, Co-polymer, and Erkodur) and two experimental materials were examined for use in FGs. The experimental materials were prepared by embedding two or four sheets of a plain woven fiberglass cloth on both surfaces of 1.5-mm Aquaplast. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a three-point bending test. The shock absorption properties were evaluated for a 5200-N impact load using the first peak intensity with a load cell system and the maximum stress with a film sensor system.  The flexural strength (74.6 MPa) and flexural modulus (6.3 GPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly greater than those of the 3.2-mm commercial specimens, except for the flexural strength of one product. The first peak intensity (515 N) and maximum stress (2.2 MPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly lower than those of the commercial 3.2-mm specimens, except for one product for each property. These results suggest that the thickness and weight of the FG can be reduced using the experimental fiber-reinforced material. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Demonstration of passive saturable absorber by utilizing MWCNT-ABS filament as starting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuikafly, S. N. F.; Ahmad, F.; Ibrahim, M. H.; Latif, A. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    This work demonstrated a stable passively Q-switched laser with the employment MWCNTs dispersed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin (MWCNTs-ABS) based filament as passive saturable absorber. The simple fabrication process of the SA is further explained, started from the process of extruding the filament through a 3D printer nozzle at 210 °C to reduce the diameter from 1.75 mm to 200 μm. It is then weighed to about 25 mg and mixed with 1 ml acetone before sonicated for 5 minutes to dissolve the ABS. The resultant MWCNTs-acetone suspension is dropped on a glass slide to be characterized using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. It is also drop-casted on the end of a fiber ferrule to be integrated in the laser cavity. The proposed work revealed that the laser oscillated at about 1558 nm with threshold input pump power of 22.54 mW and maximum input pump power of 108.8 mW. The increase in pump power resulted in the increase in repetition rate where the pulse train increases from 8.96 kHz to 39.34 kHz while the pulse width decreases from 33.58 μs to 5.14 μs. The generated pulsed laser yields a maximum of 1.01 mW and 5.53 nJ of peak power and pulse energy respectively. The signal-to-noise ratio of 40 dB indicates that the generated pulse is stable.

  18. Prediction of the niche effect for single flat panels with or without attached sound absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Sgard, Franck; Atalla, Noureddine; Nélisse, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The sound transmission loss (STL) of a test sample measured in sound transmission facilities is affected by the opening in which it is located. This is called the niche effect. This paper uses a modal approach to study the STL of a rectangular plate with or without an attached porous material located inside a box-shaped niche. The porous material is modeled as a limp equivalent fluid. The proposed model is validated by comparison with finite element/boundary element computations. Using a condensation of the pressure fields in the niche, the niche effect is interpreted in terms of a modification of the modal blocked pressure fields acting on the panel induced by the front cavity and by a modification of the radiation efficiency of the panel modes due to the presence of the back cavity. The modal approach is then used to investigate the impact of (1) the presence of a porous material attached to the panel on the niche effect and (2) the niche effect on the assessment of the porous material insertion loss. A simplified model for the porous material based on a transfer matrix approach is also proposed to predict the STL of the system and its validity is discussed.

  19. The physical properties of black carbon and other light-absorbing material emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Yokelson, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fortner, E.; Onasch, T. B.; Akagi, S. K.; Taylor, J.; Coe, H.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted from fires absorbs light, leading to visibility degradation as well as regional and global climate impacts. Fires also emit a wide range of trace gases and particulates that can interact with emitted BC and alter its optical properties and atmospheric lifetime. Non-BC particulate species emitted by fires can also scatter and absorb light, leading to additional effects on visibility. Recent work has shown that certain organic species can absorb light strongly at shorter wavelengths, giving it a brown or yellow color. This material has been classified as brown carbon, though it is not yet well defined. Land managers must find a balance between the negative impacts of prescribed fire emissions on visibility and air quality and the need to prevent future catastrophic wildfire as well as manage ecosystems for habitat restoration or other purposes. This decision process requires accurate assessments of the visibility impacts of fire emissions, including BC and brown carbon, which in turn depend on their optical properties. We present recent laboratory and aircraft measurements of black carbon and aerosol optical properties emitted from biomass burning. All measurement campaigns included a single particle soot photometer (SP2) instrument capable of providing size-resolved measurements of BC mass and number distributions and mixing state, which are needed to separate the BC and brown carbon contributions to total light absorption. The laboratory experiments also included a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer that provided accurate measurements of aerosol light absorption. The laboratory systems also characterized emissions after they had been treated with a thermal denuder to remove semi-volatile coatings, allowing an assessment of the role of non-BC coatings on bulk aerosol optical properties. Emissions were also aged in an environmental smog chamber to examine the role of secondary aerosol production on aerosol optical properties.

  20. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Kun; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss's and Stokes's theorems have been related to Green's theorem in a novel way.

  1. Dynamical Effects in Metal-Organic Frameworks: The Microporous Materials as Shock Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of nano-porous crystalline solids consisting of inorganic units coordinated to organic linkers. The unique molecular structures and outstanding properties with ultra-high porosity and tunable chemical functionality by various choices of metal clusters and organic ligands make this class of materials attractive for many applications. The complex and quite unique responses of these materials to mechanical loading including void collapse make them attractive for applications in energy absorption and storage. We will present using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate shock propagation in zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 and MOF-5. We find that for shock strengths above a threshold a two-wave structure develops with a leading elastic precursor followed by a second wave of structural collapse to relax the stress. Structural transition of MOFs in response to shock waves corresponds to the transition between two Hugoniot curves, and results in abrupt change in temperature. The pore-collapse wave propagates at slower velocity than the leading wave and weakens it, resulting in shock attenuation. Increasing piston speed results in faster propagation of pore-collapse wave, but the leading elastic wave remains unchanged below the overdriven regime. We discuss how the molecular structure of the MOFs and shock propagation direction affect the response of the materials and their ability to weaken shocks. Office of Naval Research, MURI 2012 02341 01.

  2. Toward “Green” Hybrid Materials: Core–Shell Particles with Enhanced Impact Energy Absorbing Ability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Restrained properties of “green” degradable products drive the creation of materials with innovative structures and retained eco-attributes. Herein, we introduce the creation of impact modifiers in the form of core–shell (CS) particles toward the creation of “green” composite materials. Particles with CS structure constituted of PLA stereocomplex (PLASC) and a rubbery phase of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-d,l-lactide) (P[CL-co-LA]) were successfully achieved by spray droplet atomization. A synergistic association of the soft P[CL-co-LA] and hard PLASC domains in the core–shell structure induced unique thermo-mechanical effects on the PLA-based composites. The core–shell particles enhanced the crystallization of PLA matrices by acting as nucleating agents. The core–shell particles functioned efficiently as impact modifiers with minimal effect on the composites stiffness and strength. These findings provide a new platform for scalable design of polymeric-based structures to be used in the creation of advanced degradable materials. PMID:29503773

  3. Analysis of SnS2 hyperdoped with V proposed as efficient absorber material.

    PubMed

    Seminovski, Yohanna; Palacios, Pablo; Wahnón, Perla

    2014-10-01

    Intermediate-band materials can improve the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells through the absorption of two subband-gap photons that allow extra electron-hole pair formations. Previous theoretical and experimental findings support the proposal that the layered SnS2 compound, with a band-gap of around 2 eV, is a candidate for an intermediate-band material when it is doped with a specific transition-metal. In this work we characterize vanadium doped SnS2 using density functional theory at the dilution level experimentally found and including a dispersion correction combined with the site-occupancy-disorder method. In order to analyze the electronic characteristics that depend on geometry, two SnS2 polytypes partially substituted with vanadium in symmetry-adapted non-equivalent configurations were studied. In addition the magnetic configurations of vanadium in a SnS2 2H-polytype and its comparison with a 4H-polytype were also characterized. We demonstrate that a narrow intermediate-band is formed, when these dopant atoms are located in different layers. Our theoretical predictions confirm the recent experimental findings in which a paramagnetic intermediate-band material in a SnS2 2H-polytype with 10% vanadium concentration is obtained.

  4. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  5. Elastic, Frictional, Strength and Dynamic Characteristics of the Bell Shape Shock Absorbers Made of MR Wire Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutkin, G. V.; Davydov, D. P.; Boyarov, K. V.; Volkova, T. V.

    2018-01-01

    The results of the mechanical characteristic experimental studies are presented for the shock absorbers of DKU type with the elastic elements of the bell shape made of MR material and obtained by the cold pressing of mutually crossing wire spirals with their inclusion in the array of reinforcing wire harnesses. The design analysis and the technology of MR production based on the methods of similarity theory and dimensional analysis revealed the dimensionless determined and determining parameters of elastic frictional, dynamic and strength characteristics under the static and dynamic loading of vibration isolators. The main similarity criteria of mechanical characteristics for vibration isolators and their graphical and analytical representation are determined, taking into account the coefficients of these (affine) transformations of the hysteresis loop family field.

  6. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-08-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications.

  7. Tunable microwave absorbing nano-material for X-band applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Imran; Naseem, Shahzad; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Khan, M. A.; Niaz, Shanawer; Rana, M. U.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of rare earth elements substitution in Sr1.96RE0.04Co2Fe27.80Mn0.2O46 (RE=Ce, Gd, Nd, La and Sm) X-type hexagonal ferrites prepared by using sol gel autocombustion method was studied. The XRD and FTIR analysis show the single phase of the prepared material. The lattice constants a (Å) and c (Å) varies with the additives. The particle size measured by Scherer formula for all the samples varies in the range of 54-100 nm and confirmed by the TEM analysis. The average grain size measured by SEM analysis lies in the range of 0.672-1.01 μm for all the samples. The Gd-substituted ferrite has higher value of coercivity (526.06 G) among all the samples which could be a good material for longitudinal recording media. The results also indicate that the Gd-substituted sample has maximum reflection loss of -25.2 dB at 11.878 GHz, can exhibit the best microwave absorption properties among all the substituted samples. Furthermore, the minimum value of reflection loss shifts towards the lower and higher frequencies with the substitution of rare earth elements which confirms that the microwave absorption properties can be tuned with the substitution of rare earth elements in pure ferrites. The peak value of attenuation constant at higher frequency agrees well the reflection loss data.

  8. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-01-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications. PMID:27501762

  9. Quantum storage of heralded polarization qubits in birefringent and anisotropically absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Christoph; Bussières, Félix; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-05-11

    Storage of quantum information encoded into heralded single photons is an essential constituent of long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters and of optical quantum information processing. The storage of photonic polarization qubits is, however, difficult because many materials are birefringent and have polarization-dependent absorption. Here we present a simple scheme that eliminates these polarization effects, and we demonstrate it by storing heralded polarization qubits into a solid-state quantum memory. The quantum memory is implemented with a biaxial yttrium orthosilicate (Y2SiO5) crystal doped with rare-earth ions. Heralded single photons generated from a filtered spontaneous parametric down-conversion source are stored, and quantum state tomography of the retrieved polarization state reveals an average fidelity of 97.5±0.4%, which is significantly higher than what is achievable with a measure-and-prepare strategy.

  10. Development of battering ram vibrator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F.; Chen, Z.; Lin, J.; Tong, X.

    2012-12-01

    This paper researched the battering ram vibrator system, by electric machinery we can control oil system of battering ram, we realized exact control of battering ram, after analyzed pseudorandom coding, code "0" and "1" correspond to rest and shake of battering ram, then we can get pseudorandom coding which is the same with battering ram vibrator. After testing , by the reference trace and single shot record, when we using pseudorandom coding mode, the ratio of seismic wavelet to correlation interfere is about 68 dB, while the general mode , the ratio of seismic wavelet to correlation interfere only is 27.9dB, by battering ram vibrator system, we can debase the correlation interfere which come from the single shaking frequency of battering ram, this system advanced the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data, which can give direction of the application of battering ram vibrator in metal mine exploration and high resolving seismic exploration.

  11. [Using UV-Vis Absorbance for Characterization of Maturity in Composting Process with Different Materials].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Yang; Xi, Bei-dou; Wei, Zi-min; Wang, Xing-lei; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Ding, Jei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the degree of humification in DOM during composting using different raw materials, and their effect on maturity of compost based on UV-Vis spectra measurements and chemometrics method. The raw materials of composting studied included chicken manure, pig manure, kitchen waste, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, straw waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste. During composting, the parameters of UV-Vis spectra of DOM, including SUVA254 , SUVA280 , E250/E365, E4/E6, E2/E4, E2/E6, E253/E203, E253/E220, A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 were calculated, Statistical analysis indicated that all the parameter were significantly changed during composting. SUVA254 and SUVA280 of DOM were continuously increased, E250/E365 and E4/E6 were continuously decreased in DOM, while A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 of DOM at the final stage were significantly different with those at other stages of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that the parameters were significantly correlated with each other except for E2/E4 and E235/E203. Furthermore, principal component analysis suggested that A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275~295 were reasonable parameters for assessing the compost maturity. To distinguish maturity degree among different composts, hierarchical cluster analysis, an integrated tool utilizing multiple UV-Vis parameters, was performed based on the data (A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275-295) of DOM derived from the final stage of composting. Composts from different sources were clustered into 2 groups. The first group included chicken manure, pig manure, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste characterized by a lower maturity degree, and the second group contained straw waste and kitchen waste associated with a higher maturity degree. The above results suggest that a multi-index of UV-Vis spectra could accurately evaluate the compost maturity

  12. Bottom-up approach for microstructure optimization of sound absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Camille; Chevillotte, Fabien; Panneton, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    Results from a numerical study examining micro-/macrorelations linking local geometry parameters to sound absorption properties are presented. For a hexagonal structure of solid fibers, the porosity phi, the thermal characteristic length Lambda('), the static viscous permeability k(0), the tortuosity alpha(infinity), the viscous characteristic length Lambda, and the sound absorption coefficient are computed. Numerical solutions of the steady Stokes and electrical equations are employed to provide k(0), alpha(infinity), and Lambda. Hybrid estimates based on direct numerical evaluation of phi, Lambda('), k(0), alpha(infinity), Lambda, and the analytical model derived by Johnson, Allard, and Champoux are used to relate varying (i) throat size, (ii) pore size, and (iii) fibers' cross-section shapes to the sound absorption spectrum. The result of this paper tends to demonstrate the important effect of throat size in the sound absorption level, cell size in the sound absorption frequency selectivity, and fibers' cross-section shape in the porous material weight reduction. In a hexagonal porous structure with solid fibers, the sound absorption level will tend to be maximized with a 48+/-10 microm throat size corresponding to an intermediate resistivity, a 13+/-8 microm fiber radius associated with relatively small interfiber distances, and convex triangular cross-section shape fibers allowing weight reduction.

  13. Efficiency of ablative loading of material upon the fast-electron transfer of absorbed laser energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Kasperczuk, A; Pisarczyk, T

    2006-05-31

    We present the results of experiments on the short-term irradiation of a solid material by a laser beam. The data testify to a rise in efficiency of the energy transfer from the laser pulse to a shock wave due to the fast-electron energy transfer. The experiments were performed with massive aluminium targets on the PALS iodine laser, whose pulse duration (0.4 ns) was much shorter than the time of shock decay and crater formation in the target (50-200 ns). The irradiation experiments were carried out using the fundamental laser harmonic (1.315 {mu}m) with an energy of 360 J. The greatermore » part of the experiments were performed for the radiation intensity exceeding 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}, which corresponded to the efficient generation of fast electrons under the conditions where the relatively long-wavelength iodine-laser radiation was employed. The irradiation intensity was varied by varying the laser beam radius for a specified pulse energy. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)« less

  14. Body Composition of Lambs and Rams Fed Complete Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, F.; Rianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the proportion of body water, protein and fat of lambs and rams. The material used in this study were 6 lambs (weighed of 15.92 kg), and 6 rams (weighed 23.31 kg). The sheep were fed a complete feed. In weeks 1, 5 and 9, the body composition (water, protein and body fat) was measured using the “urea space” method. The results showed that the proportion of water, protein and fat in the body of lambs and sheep differed significantly (P <0.01). The proportion of lambs’ body water in weeks 1, 5 and 9 were 58.71, 58.43 and 58.43%, respectively; while thoset of the rams were 58.40, 58.14% and 58.14%, respectively. The proportion of body protein of lambs in weeks 1, 5 and 9 were 11.84, 11.94 and 11.99%, respectively; while those of rams were 13.01; 13.01 and 13.03%, respectively. The proportion of body fat of lambs in weeks 1, 5 and 9 were 20.51, 20.87 and 20.87%, respectively; while those of rams were 20.9, 21.26 and 21.25%, respectively. Body water of lambs and rams week decreased from week 1 to 9. On the other hand, the proportion of body protein and fat increased. It is concluded that the proportion of body water was higher while the proportions of body protein and fat were lower in lambs as compared with those in rams.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of toe board energy-absorbing material for foot, ankle, and lower leg injury reduction.

    PubMed

    Patalak, John P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2018-02-17

    Since 2000, numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNRs), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets, and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging. Though the drivers' legs are well contained for lateral and vertical crashes, they remain largely unrestrained in frontal and frontal oblique crashes. Sled testing was conducted for the evaluation of an energy-absorbing (EA) toe board material to be used as a countermeasure for leg and foot injuries. Testing included baseline rigid toe boards, tests with EA material-covered toe boards, and pretest positioning of the 50th percentile male frontal Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower extremities. ATD leg and foot instrumentation included foot acceleration and tibia forces and moments. The sled test data were evaluated using established injury criteria for tibial plateau fractures, leg shaft fractures, and calcaneus, talus, ankle, and midfoot fractures. A polyurethane EA foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system.

  16. Fan/Ram Duct Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-01

    turbofan engine shutoff scheme, the ram duct flow conditions, and the Ian duct shutoff vane area transi- tion schedule. This loss will be...airflow. The performance of the turbofan is neglected until the main engine burner is ignited. At that time it is assumed that the turbo - fan...B. Transient Operation . . .. TRANSIENT TRANSITION TEST CASES A. Turbofan to Ramjet B. Ramjet to Turbo fan CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  17. Radar Absorbing Material Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    layer will depend on the angle of the incidence of the incoming wave. However, for large and ε µ values, the direction of the refracted ray in the...1995. 3. Federation of American Scientist Official Website (www.fas.org), 22 June 2003. 4. Asoke Bhattacharyya, D.L. Sengupta, Radar Cross Section

  18. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR)

    PubMed Central

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method (“rinse-wipe-rinse”) for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants. PMID:28152053

  19. Evaluation of absorbed dose in irradiated sugar-containing plant material (peony roots) by an ESR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of irradiated plant materials and sugar content was investigated by spectral analysis using peony roots. A weak background signal near g=2.005 was observed in the roots. After a 10 kGy irradiation, the ESR line broadened and the intensity increased, and the spectral characteristics were similar to a typical spectrum of irradiated food containing crystalline sugars. The free radical concentration was nearly stable 30 days after irradiation. The spectrum of peony root 30 days after irradiation was simulated using the summation of the intensities of six assumed components: radical signals derived from (a) sucrose, (b) glucose, (c) fructose, (d) cellulose, (e) the background signal near g=2.005 and (f) unidentified component. The simulated spectra using the six components were in agreement with the observed sample spectra. The intensity of sucrose radical signal in irradiated samples increased proportionally up to 20 kGy. In addition, the intensity of sucrose radical signals was strongly correlated with the sucrose contents of the samples. The results showed that the radiation sensitivity of sucrose in peony roots was influenced little by other plant constituents. There was also a good correlation between the total area of the spectra and the sucrose content, because the sucrose content was higher than that of other sugars in the samples. In peony roots, estimation of the absorbed dose from the ESR signal intensity may be possible by a calibration method based on the sucrose content.

  20. Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Thin film Photovoltaic Absorber Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandur, Abhishek; White, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) has become the subject of intense interest because it is an ideal candidate absorber material for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap (1.5 eV), high absorption coefficient (104 cm-1) and abundant elemental components. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) provides excellent control over film composition since thin films are deposited under high vacuum with excellent stoichiometry transfer from the target. CZTS thin films were deposited using PLD from a stoichiometrically close CZTS target (Cu2.6Zn1.1Sn0.7S3.44). The effects of laser energy fluence and substrate temperature and post-deposition sulfur annealing on the surface morphology, composition and optical absorption have been investigated. Optimal CZTS thin films exhibited a band gap of 1.54 eV with an absorption coefficient of 4x104cm-1. A solar cell utilizing PLD grown CZTS with the structure SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO showed a conversion efficiency of 5.85% with Voc = 376 mV, Jsc = 38.9 mA/cm2 and Fill Factor, FF = 0.40.

  1. Research and Applications Modules (RAM), phase B study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The research and applications modules (RAM) system is discussed. The RAM is a family of payload carrier modules that can be delivered to and retrieved from earth orbit by the space shuttle. The RAM's capability for implementing a wide range of manned and man-tended missions is described. The rams have evolved into three types; (1) pressurized RAMs, (2) unpressurized RAMs, and (3) pressurizable free-flying RAMs. A reference experiment plan for use as a baseline in the derivation and planning of the RAM project is reported. The plan describes the number and frequency of shuttle flights dedicated to RAM missions and the RAM payloads for the identified flights.

  2. Panel Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MECHEL, F. P.

    2001-11-01

    A plane wave is incident on a simply supported elastic plate covering a back volume; the arrangement is surrounded by a hard baffle wall. The plate may be porous with a flow friction resistance; the back volume may be filled either with air or with a porous material. The back volume may be bulk reacting (i.e., with sound propagation parallel to the plate) or locally reacting. Since this arrangement is of some importance in room acoustics, Cremer in his book about room acoustics [1] has presented an approximate analysis. However, Cremer's analysis uses a number of assumptions which make his solution, in his own estimate, unsuited for low frequencies, where, on the other hand, the arrangement mainly is applied. This paper presents a sound field description which uses modal analysis. It is applicable not only in the far field, but also near the absorber. Further, approximate solutions are derived, based on simplifying assumptions like Cremer has used. The modal analysis solution is of interest not only as a reference for approximations but also for practical applications, because the aspect of computing time becomes more and more unimportant (the 3D-plots presented below for the sound field were evaluated with modal analysis in about 6 s).

  3. ACS Science Data Buffer Check/Self-Tests for CS Buffer RAM and MIE RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, V.

    2001-07-01

    The ACS Science Buffer RAM is checked for bit flips during SAA passages. This is followed by a Control Section {CS} self-test consisting of writing/reading a specified bit pattern from each memory location in Buffer RAM and a similar test for MIE RAM. The MIE must be placed in BOOT mode for its self-test. The CS Buffer RAM self-test as well as the bit flip tests are all done with the CS in Operate.

  4. ACS Science Data Buffer Check/Self-Tests for CS Buffer RAM and MIE RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan

    2005-07-01

    The ACS Science Buffer RAM is checked for bit flips during SAA passages. Thisis followed by a Control Section {CS} self-test consisting of writing/reading a specified bit pattern from each memory location in Buffer RAM and a similar test for MIE RAM. The MIE must be placed in BOOT mode for its self-test. The CS Buffer RAM self-test as well as the bit flip tests are all done with the CS in Operate.

  5. Nickel Nanoparticle Encapsulated in Few-Layer Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Supported by Nitrogen-Doped Graphite Sheets as a High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Material.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haoran; Yan, Feng; Li, Chunyan; Zhu, Chunling; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2018-01-10

    Herein we develop a facile strategy for fabricating nickel particle encapsulated in few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene supported by graphite carbon sheets as a high-performance electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbing material. The obtained material exhibits sheetlike morphology with a lateral length ranging from a hundred nanometers to 2 μm and a thickness of about 23 nm. Nickel nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 20 nm were encapsulated in about six layers of nitrogen-doped graphene. As applied for electromagnetic absorbing material, the heteronanostructures exhibit excellent electromagnetic wave absorption property, comparable to most EMW absorbing materials previously reported. Typically, the effective absorption bandwidth (the frequency region falls within the reflection loss below -10 dB) is up to 8.5 GHz at the thicknesses of 3.0 mm for the heteronanostructures with the optimized Ni content. Furthermore, two processes, carbonization at a high temperature and subsequent treatment in hot acid solution, were involved in the preparation of the heteronanostructures, and thus, mass production was achieved easily, facilitating their practical applications.

  6. Analysis of ramming settlement based on dissipative principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hao; Yu, Kaining; Chen, Changli; Li, Changrong; Wang, Xiuli

    2018-03-01

    The deformation of soil is a kind of dissipative structure under the action of dynamic compaction. The macroscopic performance of soil to steady state evolution is the change of ramming settlement in the process of dynamic compaction. based on the existing solution of dynamic compaction boundary problem, calculated ramming effectiveness (W) and ramming efficiency coefficient( η ). For the same soil, ramming efficiency coefficient is related to ramming factor λ = M/ρr3. By using the dissipative principle to analyze the law between ramming settlements and ramming times under different ramming energy and soil density, come to the conclusion that: Firstly, with the increase of ramming numbers, ramming settlement tends to a stable value, ramming effectiveness coefficient tends to a stable value. Secondly, under the condition of the same single ramming energy, the soil density of before ramming has effect on ramming effectiveness of previous ramming, almost no effect on ramming effectiveness of subsequent ramming. Thirdly, under the condition of the same soil density, different ramming energy correspond to different steady-state, the cumulative ramming settlement and steady-state increase with ramming energy.

  7. Light scattering by dust particles (PROGRA2 experiment): size and structure effects for transparent and absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.-B.; Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    1- Introduction Cometary and possibly interplanetary dust particles seem to be mainly made of agglomerates of submicron and micron-sized grains. These particles are among the most primitive in our solar system. Regoliths on asteroidal and planetary surfaces seem to be loose materials produced by impinging meteorites on the surface of small bodies. Comparing their physical properties is thus fundamental to understand their evolution. To interpret remote observations of solar light scattered by dust particles and regoliths, it is necessary to use numerical and experimental simulations [1,2,3]. 2- PROGRA2 experiment PROGRA2 instruments are polarimeters; the light sources are two randomly polarized lasers (632.8 nm and 543.5 nm). Levitating particles (in microgravity or lifted by an air-draught) are studied by imaging polarimetry. Details on the instruments can be found in [4,5]. 3- Samples Two kinds of samples are studied: compact particles in the (1-400) micrometer size range and fluffy aggregates in the same size range, made from submicron and micronsized grains. The materials are transparent silica and absorbing carbon. Some deposited particles are huge agglomerates of micron-sized grains produced by random ballistic deposition of single grains [6,7] or produced by evaporation of mixtures in alcohol of fluffy aggregates of submicron-sized grains. Two samples are made of silica spheres coated by a carbonaceous black compound. Cometary analogues are mixtures of silica and amorphous carbon or Mg-Fe silicates mixed with amorphous carbon. 4- Results Phase curves and their main parameters (negative polarization at small phase angles and maximum polarization, Pmax, at 90-100° phase angle) for the different materials will be compared and related to the physical properties. For example, it is well known by numerical simulations and/or by experiments that the maximum polarization decreases when the size (submicrometer range) of the grains increases [2,8,9]. An inverse rule

  8. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    PubMed

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Spyridis, Panagiotis; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Carrier, David R; Pataky, Todd C

    2016-01-01

    Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the "spermaceti organ" and "junk," that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of the total length of the whale. Recognized as playing an important role in echolocation, previous studies have also attributed the complex structural configuration of the spermaceti organ and junk to acoustic sexual selection, acoustic prey debilitation, buoyancy control, and aggressive ramming. Of these additional suggested functions, ramming remains the most controversial, and the potential mechanical roles of the structural components of the spermaceti organ and junk in ramming remain untested. Here we explore the aggressive ramming hypothesis using a novel combination of structural engineering principles and probabilistic simulation to determine if the unique structure of the junk significantly reduces stress in the skull during quasi-static impact. Our analyses indicate that the connective tissue partitions in the junk reduce von Mises stresses across the skull and that the load-redistribution functionality of the former is insensitive to moderate variation in tissue material parameters, the thickness of the partitions, and variations in the location and angle of the applied load. Absence of the connective tissue partitions increases skull stresses, particularly in the rostral aspect of the upper jaw, further hinting of the important role the architecture of the junk may play in ramming events. Our study also found that impact loads on the spermaceti organ generate lower skull stresses than an impact on the junk. Nevertheless, whilst an impact on the spermaceti organ would

  10. A self-testing dynamic RAM chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Hayes, J. P.

    1985-02-01

    A novel approach to making very large dynamic RAM chips self-testing is presented. It is based on two main concepts: on-chip generation of regular test sequences with very high fault coverage, and concurrent testing of storage-cell arrays to reduce overall testing time. The failure modes of a typical 64 K RAM employing one-transistor cells are analyzed to identify their test requirements. A comprehensive test generation algorithm that can be implemented with minimal modification to a standard cell layout is derived. The self-checking peripheral circuits necessary to implement this testing algorithm are described, and the self-testing RAM is briefly evaluated.

  11. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  12. Use of absorbent materials in on-line coupled reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography via the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Díaz-Plaza, Eva María; Cortés, Jose Manuel; Villén, Jesús; Herraiz, Marta

    2008-11-21

    The use of absorbents as retaining materials in the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface (TOTAD) of an on-line coupled reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography system (RPLC-GC) is proposed for the first time. A comparative study of an adsorbent (Tenax TA) and two absorbents, namely polydimethylsiloxane and poly(50% phenyl/50% methylsiloxane) is performed to establish the best experimental conditions for the automated and simultaneous determination of 15 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticide residues in olive oil. The proposed method provides satisfactory repeatability (RSDs lower, in general, than 8.5%) and sensitivity (limits of detection ranging from 0.6 to 81.9 microg/L) for the investigated compounds.

  13. Liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry for determination of isoflavones in soy standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Melissa M; Bedner, Mary; Reitz, Manuela; Burdette, Carolyn Q; Nelson, Michael A; Yen, James H; Sander, Lane C; Rimmer, Catherine A

    2017-02-01

    Two independent analytical approaches, based on liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, have been developed for determination of isoflavones in soy materials. These two methods yield comparable results for a variety of soy-based foods and dietary supplements. Four Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assist the food and dietary supplement community in method validation and have been assigned values for isoflavone content using both methods. These SRMs include SRM 3234 Soy Flour, SRM 3236 Soy Protein Isolate, SRM 3237 Soy Protein Concentrate, and SRM 3238 Soy-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. A fifth material, SRM 3235 Soy Milk, was evaluated using the methods and found to be inhomogeneous for isoflavones and unsuitable for value assignment. Graphical Abstract Separation of six isoflavone aglycones and glycosides found in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3236 Soy Protein Isolate.

  14. A facile fabrication of chemically converted graphene oxide thin films and their uses as absorber materials for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelifard, Mehdi; Darudi, Hosein

    2016-07-01

    There is a great interest in the use of graphene sheets in thin film solar cells with low-cost and good-optoelectronic properties. Here, the production of absorbent conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin films was investigated. RGO thin films were prepared from spray-coated graphene oxide (GO) layers at various substrate temperature followed by a simple hydrazine-reducing method. The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characterizations of graphene oxide (GO) and RGO thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a phase shift from GO to RGO due to hydrazine treatment, in agreement with the FTIR spectra of the layers. FESEM images clearly exhibited continuous films resulting from the overlap of graphene nanosheets. The produced low-cost thin films had high absorption coefficient up to 1.0 × 105 cm-1, electrical resistance as low as 0.9 kΩ/sq, and effective optical band gap of about 1.50 eV, close to the optimum value for solar conversion. The conductive absorbent properties of the reduced graphene oxide thin films would be useful to develop photovoltaic cells.

  15. COS Science Data Buffer Check/Self-Tests for CS Buffer RAM and DIB RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan

    2009-07-01

    The COS Science Buffer RAM is checked for bit flips during SAA passages. This is followed by a Control Section {CS} self-test consisting of writing/reading a specified bit pattern from each memory location in Buffer RAM and a similar test for DIB RAM. The DIB must be placed in BOOT mode for its self-test. The CS Buffer RAM self-test as well as the bit flip tests are all done with the CS in Operate.Supports Activity COS-03

  16. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Shunji; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Tanaka, Junzo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm⁻³ and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 ± 0.48 and 0.651 ± 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  17. Liquid Chromatography with Absorbance Detection and with Isotope-Dilution Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Isoflavones in Soy Standard Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa M.; Bedner, Mary; Gradl, Manuela; Burdette, Carolyn Q.; Nelson, Michael A.; Yen, James H.; Sander, Lane C.; Rimmer, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Two independent analytical approaches, based on liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, have been developed for determination of isoflavones in soy materials. These two methods yield comparable results for a variety of soy-based foods and dietary supplements. Four Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assist the food and dietary supplement community in method validation and have been assigned values for isoflavone content using both methods. These SRMs include SRM 3234 Soy Flour, SRM 3236 Soy Protein Isolate, SRM 3237 Soy Protein Concentrate, and SRM 3238 Soy-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. A fifth material, SRM 3235 Soy Milk, was evaluated using the methods and found to be inhomogeneous for isoflavones and unsuitable for value assignment. PMID:27832301

  18. A comparative study between different approaches to improve the RCS of a compact double-layer absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hakim, H. A.; Mahmoud, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, straightforward and efficient techniques have been addressed into double-layer structure to enlarge the operating bandwidth to include the X, Ku and K bands, in addition to increase the electromagnetic wave absorption for wide varieties of incident angles and both polarization types. To increase the band-stop resonating frequency up to 26 GHz, an additional layer of meta-surface, circuit analog radar absorber material (CAR), or a thin radar absorber material (RAM) layer is engineered. The synthesized layers are designed based on optimization process with genetic algorithm (GA) through numerical technique (Ansoft design software HFSS) for both transmission line (T.L) and the free space method to get optimal material properties suitable for the design. For different approaches, the designed structures achieved a reflectivity value less than -16 dB on average in the desired bandwidth from 8 to 26 GHz for TE/TM modes with incidence angle up to 50o.

  19. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  20. Ram-pressure feeding of supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, Bianca M.; Jaffé, Yara L.; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Radovich, Mario; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Fritz, Jacopo; Bettoni, Daniela; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fasano, Giovanni; Bellhouse, Callum; Hau, George; Omizzolo, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    When a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy accretes matter, it gives rise to a highly energetic phenomenon: an active galactic nucleus. Numerous physical processes have been proposed to account for the funnelling of gas towards the galactic centre to feed the black hole. There are also several physical processes that can remove gas from a galaxy, one of which is ram-pressure stripping by the hot gas that fills the space between galaxies in galaxy clusters. Here we report that six out of a sample of seven ‘jellyfish’ galaxies—galaxies with long ‘tentacles’ of material that extend for dozens of kiloparsecs beyond the galactic disks—host an active nucleus, and two of them also have galactic-scale ionization cones. The high incidence of nuclear activity among heavily stripped jellyfish galaxies may be due to ram pressure causing gas to flow towards the centre and triggering the activity, or to an enhancement of the stripping caused by energy injection from the active nucleus, or both. Our analysis of the galactic position and velocity relative to the cluster strongly supports the first hypothesis, and puts forward ram pressure as another possible mechanism for feeding the central supermassive black hole with gas.

  1. Ram-pressure feeding of supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Poggianti, Bianca M; Jaffé, Yara L; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Radovich, Mario; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Fritz, Jacopo; Bettoni, Daniela; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fasano, Giovanni; Bellhouse, Callum; Hau, George; Omizzolo, Alessandro

    2017-08-16

    When a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy accretes matter, it gives rise to a highly energetic phenomenon: an active galactic nucleus. Numerous physical processes have been proposed to account for the funnelling of gas towards the galactic centre to feed the black hole. There are also several physical processes that can remove gas from a galaxy, one of which is ram-pressure stripping by the hot gas that fills the space between galaxies in galaxy clusters. Here we report that six out of a sample of seven 'jellyfish' galaxies-galaxies with long 'tentacles' of material that extend for dozens of kiloparsecs beyond the galactic disks-host an active nucleus, and two of them also have galactic-scale ionization cones. The high incidence of nuclear activity among heavily stripped jellyfish galaxies may be due to ram pressure causing gas to flow towards the centre and triggering the activity, or to an enhancement of the stripping caused by energy injection from the active nucleus, or both. Our analysis of the galactic position and velocity relative to the cluster strongly supports the first hypothesis, and puts forward ram pressure as another possible mechanism for feeding the central supermassive black hole with gas.

  2. FPS-RAM: Fast Prefix Search RAM-Based Hardware for Forwarding Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Kuroda, Yasuto; Inoue, Kazunari; Ata, Shingo; Oka, Ikuo

    Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is becoming very popular for designing high-throughput forwarding engines on routers. However, TCAM has potential problems in terms of hardware and power costs, which limits its ability to deploy large amounts of capacity in IP routers. In this paper, we propose new hardware architecture for fast forwarding engines, called fast prefix search RAM-based hardware (FPS-RAM). We designed FPS-RAM hardware with the intent of maintaining the same search performance and physical user interface as TCAM because our objective is to replace the TCAM in the market. Our RAM-based hardware architecture is completely different from that of TCAM and has dramatically reduced the costs and power consumption to 62% and 52%, respectively. We implemented FPS-RAM on an FPGA to examine its lookup operation.

  3. Apollo couch energy absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, C. J.; Drexel, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Load attenuators for the Apollo spacecraft crew couch and its potential applications are described. Energy absorption is achieved through friction and cyclic deformation of material. In one concept, energy absorption is accomplished by rolling a compressed ring of metal between two surfaces. In another concept, energy is absorbed by forcing a plastically deformed washer along a rod. Among the design problems that had to be solved were material selection, fatigue life, ring slippage, lubrication, and friction loading.

  4. Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike

    2010-07-01

    In 3 experiments, participants reacted with religious zeal to anxious uncertainty threats that have caused reactive approach motivation (RAM) in past research (see McGregor, Nash, Mann, & Phills, 2010, for implicit, explicit, and neural evidence of RAM). In Study 1, results were specific to religious ideals and did not extend to merely superstitious beliefs. Effects were most pronounced among the most anxious and uncertainty-averse participants in Study 1 and among the most approach-motivated participants in Study 2 (i.e., with high Promotion Focus, Behavioral Activation, Action Orientation, and Self-Esteem Scale scores). In Studies 2 and 3, anxious uncertainty threats amplified even the most jingoistic and extreme aspects of religious zeal. In Study 3, reactive religious zeal occurred only among participants who reported feeling disempowered in their everyday goals in life. Results support a RAM view of empowered religious idealism for anxiety management (cf. Armstrong, 2000; Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsch, & Nash, 2009).

  5. Wireless data over RAM's Mobitex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Mobeen

    1995-12-01

    Mobitex is a mobile data technology standard created by Eritel, now a wholly owned subsidiary of Ericsson, that has been in existence for about a decade. Originally designed as a low speed (1.2 kbps) data system with a voice dispatch overlay, it was significantly enhanced in 1990 for use in North America and the UK. The enhanced system is a data-only system using cellular architecture and multi-channel frequency reuse, store-and-forward capability, and an 8 kbps over-the-air data rate. The mission of RAM Mobile Data USA Limited Partnership ('RAM') is to provide high quality, cost efficient, wireless data communications solutions in its targeted market segments. RAM's Mobitex network is currently one of the two networks providing two way wireless data services nationwide using a long distance service provider of the customer's choice.

  6. Synthesis and characterizations of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles/carbon nanotube composite as an efficient absorber material for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Sa, K.; Alam, I.; Mahakul, P. C.; Raiguru, J.; Subramanyam, B. V. R. S.; Mahanandia, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this energy crisis era, the urgent calls for clean energy converter realizes the importance of photovoltaic device, which offers the highest probability of delivering a sustainable way of harvesting solar energy. The active absorber layer has its significance towards the performance of photovoltaic device by absorbing solar light and creating electron-hole pair inside layer. Being a direct p-type semiconductor, Cu2ZnSnS4 generally referred as CZTS has emerged as potential absorber towards photovoltaics application in recent decades as it offers the advantage of tunable band gap near optimal region ˜1.45-1.65 eV favorably match the solar spectrum and a high absorption coefficient ˜104 cm-1. The further improvement in the performance of CZTS based photovoltaics has involved the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Semiconductors hybridized with carbonaceous materials (CNTs) have been the center of attraction in the scientific community with beneficial contribution in enhancing optoelectronic properties. The incorporation of CNTs shows effectiveness in charge carrier transfer pathways which ultimately could enhance the photo conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic device cell (PVC). Here, a facile hydrothermal one-pot synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles and MWCNTs composite towards photovoltaics application is reported. The phase and structural analysis of CZTS nanoparticles as well as CZTS/MWCNTs composite is done by XRD. From FERSEM and TEM (LRTEM & HRTEM) analysis the CZTS nanoparticles decorated over the surface of MWCNTs is confirmed. The optical band gap of CZTS/MWCNTs composite is estimated to be 1.62 eV from UV-Visible spectra.

  7. Preparation of Superparamagnetic Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 Particle by Coprecipitation-Sonochemical Method for Radar Absorbing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufiq, A.; Bahtiar, S.; Sunaryono; Hidayat, N.; Hidayat, A.; Mufti, N.; Diantoro, M.; Fuad, A.; Munasir; Rahmawati, R.; Adi, W. A.; Pratapa, S.; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    One of many applications of spinel ferrite nanoparticles is related to their performance as radar absorbing materials. In this work, we report developing synthesis method through combined coprecipitation-sonochemical routes in preparing Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle from iron sand in Indonesia as a vital raw material. The structure, size, morphology, and elements of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle were investigated via X-Ray diffractometry and Transmission/Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM/SEM) combining Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The magnetic properties of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle were characterized by using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Furthermore, the reflection loss character of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle was determined via Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). From the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the XRD data, it can be identified that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 particle formed a spinel cubic structure in a single phase with the lattice parameter of approximately 8.401 Å. It is known from the TEM image that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 particle had a size of about 9.7 nm and tended to agglomerate. Furthermore, the data analysis of the M(H) curve presented that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle has a superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization of approximately 43 emu/g. Finally, the data analysis of the reflection loss as a function of frequency showed that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle performs as a radar absorbing material with the absorption performance of approximately -11.0 dB at the frequency of 10.8 GHz

  8. Structural Responses and Finite Element Modeling of Hakka Tulou Rammed Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sranislawski, Daniel

    Hakka Tulous are rammed earth structures that have survived the effects of aging and natural elements upwards of even over a thousand years. These structures have housed the Hakka people of the Fujian Province, China in natural yet modern housing that has provided benefits over newer building materials. The key building material, rammed earth, which is used for the walls of the Hakka Tulou structures, has provided structural stability along with thermal comfort to the respective inhabitants of the Hakka Tulous. Through material testing and analysis this study has examined how the Tulou structures have maintained their structural stability while also providing thermal comfort. Reports of self healing cracks in the rammed earth walls were also analyzed for their validity in this study. The study has found that although the story of the self healing crack cannot be validated, there is reason to believe that with the existence of lime, some type of autogenous healing could occur on a small scale. The study has also found, through the use of nondestructive testing, that both the internal wooden systems (flooring, roof, and column support) and the rammed earth walls, are still structurally sound. Also, rammed earth's high thermal mass along with the use of sufficient shading has allowed for a delay release of heat energy from the walls of the Tulous, thus providing thermal comfort that can be felt during both night and day temperatures. The Hakka Tulou structures have been found to resist destruction from natural disasters such as strong earthquakes even when more modern construction has not. Through finite element modeling, this study has shown that the high volume of rammed earth used in the construction of the Hakka Tulous helps dissipate lateral force energy into much lower stresses for the rammed earth wall. This absorption of lateral force energy allows the rammed earth structures to survive even the strongest of earthquakes experienced in the region. The Hakka

  9. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-11-01

    The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epitaxial Bi2 FeCrO6 Multiferroic Thin Film as a New Visible Light Absorbing Photocathode Material.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Huang, Wei; Mi, Zetian; Serpone, Nick; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico

    2015-08-26

    Ferroelectric materials have been studied increasingly for solar energy conversion technologies due to the efficient charge separation driven by the polarization induced internal electric field. However, their insufficient conversion efficiency is still a major challenge. Here, a photocathode material of epitaxial double perovskite Bi(2) FeCrO(6) multiferroic thin film is reported with a suitable conduction band position and small bandgap (1.9-2.1 eV), for visible-light-driven reduction of water to hydrogen. Photoelectrochemical measurements show that the highest photocurrent density up to -1.02 mA cm(-2) at a potential of -0.97 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode is obtained in p-type Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film photocathode grown on SrTiO(3) substrate under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. In addition, a twofold enhancement of photocurrent density is obtained after negatively poling the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film, as a result of modulation of the band structure by suitable control of the internal electric field gradient originating from the ferroelectric polarization in the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) films. The findings validate the use of multiferroic Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin films as photocathode materials, and also prove that the manipulation of internal fields through polarization in ferroelectric materials is a promising strategy for the design of improved photoelectrodes and smart devices for solar energy conversion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Determination of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets by liquid chromatography with absorbance detection.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Sharpless, Katherine E; Yen, James H; Rimmer, Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of selected fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets have been determined by two independent LC methods, with measurements performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This SRM has been prepared as part of a collaborative effort between NIST and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. The SRM is also intended to support the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database that is being established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The methods used at NIST to determine the concentration levels of vitamins A and E, and beta-carotene in the SRM used RPLC with absorbance detection. The relative precision of these methods ranged from 2 to 8% for the analytes measured. SRM 3280 is primarily intended for use in validating analytical methods for the determination of selected vitamins, carotenoids, and elements in multivitamin/multielement tablets and similar matrixes.

  12. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    PubMed

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Static RAM data recorder for flight tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, D. C.; Eklund, T. F. F.

    A static random access memory (RAM) data recorder has been developed to recover strain and acceleration data during development tests of high-speed earth penetrating vehicles. Bilevel inputs are also available for continuity measurements. An iteration of this system was modified for use on water entry evaluations.

  14. Dynamic-RAM Data Storage Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic random-access-memory (RAM) data delay and storage unit developed to insure data received from satellite is stored and not lost when satellite is not within range of ground station. Stores 256K of serial data, with independent read and write capability.

  15. Projectile Combustion Effects on Ram Accelerator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitale, Saarth Anjali

    University of Washington Abstract Projectile Combustion Effects on Ram Accelerator Performance Saarth Anjali Chitale Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Prof. Carl Knowlen William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics The ram accelerator facility at the University of Washington is used to propel projectiles at supersonic velocities. This concept is similar to an air-breathing ramjet engine in that sub-caliber projectiles, shaped like the ramjet engine center-body, are shot through smooth-bore steel-walled tubes having an internal diameter of 38 mm. The ram accelerator propulsive cycles operate between Mach 2 to 10 and have the potential to accelerate projectile to velocities greater than 8 km/s. The theoretical thrust versus Mach number characteristics can be obtained using knowledge of gas dynamics and thermodynamics that goes into the design of the ram accelerator. The corresponding velocity versus distance profiles obtained from the test runs at the University of Washington, however, are often not consistent with the theoretical predictions after the projectiles reach in-tube Mach numbers greater than 4. The experimental velocities are typically greater than the expected theoretical predictions; which has led to the proposition that the combustion process may be moving up onto the projectile. An alternative explanation for higher than predicted thrust, which is explored here, is that the performance differences can be attributed to the ablation of the projectile body which results in molten metal being added to the flow of the gaseous combustible mixture around the projectile. This molten metal is assumed to mix uniformly and react with the gaseous propellant; thereby enhancing the propellant energy release and altering the predicted thrust-Mach characteristics. This theory predicts at what Mach number the projectile will first experience enhanced thrust and the corresponding velocity-distance profile. Preliminary results are in good agreement

  16. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectivelymore » recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.« less

  17. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  18. Characterization and MCNP simulation of neutron energy spectrum shift after transmission through strong absorbing materials and its impact on tomography reconstructed image.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Boucenna, A

    2012-10-01

    An ideal neutron radiograph, for quantification and 3D tomographic image reconstruction, should be a transmission image which exactly obeys to the exponential attenuation law of a monochromatic neutron beam. There are many reasons for which this assumption does not hold for high neutron absorbing materials. The main deviations from the ideal are due essentially to neutron beam hardening effect. The main challenges of this work are the characterization of neutron transmission through boron enriched steel materials and the observation of beam hardening. Then, in our work, the influence of beam hardening effect on neutron tomographic image, for samples based on these materials, is studied. MCNP and FBP simulation are performed to adjust linear attenuation coefficients data and to perform 2D tomographic image reconstruction with and without beam hardening corrections. A beam hardening correction procedure is developed and applied based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the projections data. Results from original and corrected 2D reconstructed images obtained shows the efficiency of the proposed correction procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research and Applications Modules (RAM). Phase B study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and characteristics of the Research and Applications Module (RAM) system is discussed. The RAM system is a family of payload carriers that can be delivered to and retrieved from low earth orbit by the space shuttle. The RAM payload carriers are used to support diverse technological and scientific investigations. The NASA study objectives, the relationship of the RAM payload carriers to other systems in the orbital space program, and recommendations for additional effort are presented.

  20. The Contributions Regarding the Use of Microwave to Obtain Modeling Gypsum for Phonic-Absorbent Construction and Orthopedic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, P. A.; Ungur, P. A.; Caraban, A.; Marcu, F.

    2009-11-01

    The paper has presented some experiments realized at "Congips" Co. Oradea and University of Oradea, regarding of increase machining efficiency and quality for modeling gypsum plaster by using of microwave energy to gypsum ore roast. The elaboration process of microwave energy for modeling gypsum plaster has done on electromagnetic waves properties and specific properties for dielectric materials. Microwaves are radiations of electromagnetic waveform nature, determine by pulsations of electrical-E) and magnetically-H components of electromagnetic wave in interdependence with Maxwell equations. The gypsum ore is calcium sulphate dehydrate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) using at modeling gypsum plaster fabrication, which is calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4ṡ1/2H2O), that has behavior of dielectric with losses. The gypsum ore getting in microwave field, in conditions of predictable pressure and temperature has transformed in modeling gypsum plaster, by quick lost of a part from crystallization water. The processing time is very short, which due to a great productivity and machining efficiency, finally of low process cost. All of these recommend continuing the research at pilot station level.

  1. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  2. COS Side 2 Science Data Buffer Check/Self-Tests for CS Buffer RAM and DIB RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    The COS Science Buffer RAM is checked for bit flips during SAA passages. This is followed by a Control Section {CS} self-test consisting of writing/reading a specified bit pattern from each memory location in Buffer RAM and a similar test for DIB RAM. The DIB must be placed in BOOT mode for its self-test. The CS Buffer RAM self-test as well as the bit flip tests are all done with the CS in Operate.

  3. Recognition of a heritage in danger: rammed-earth architecture in Lyon city, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Dorothée

    2018-04-01

    Historically, man has built with what he had underfoot: if the earthen construction is a tradition of 11 000 years old, the technique of the rammed earth (earth rammed in a formwork) is relatively new since it appeared for the first time in Tunisia in 814 BC. Exported in France, rammed earth is established mainly in Rhône-Alpes Region which has an ideal soil, rich in gravel, sand, silt and clay. Traditionally associated with the rural world, rammed earth heritage is also present in urban centers. The city of Lyon is one of the rare European cities to concentrate a large proportion of rammed earth buildings: the inventories made show that they are present in almost all the districts as well as in the suburban areas. This high density could be explained by the phenomenon of rural exodus experienced by Lyon during the nineteenth century. The agricultural populations, attracted by the prosperity of the city, then settled at the doors of this city, bringing their know-how by building with the cheaper and easier material available: earth. Rammed earth buildings are therefore located on bounder areas between the countryside and the city. They are thus found on lands that were once outside the city walls. With the advent of the industrial era at the end of the 19th century and the appearance of concrete, rammed earth constructions gradually disappeared. The constructions that we see today are therefore prior to 1900. Varied, ranging from detached houses to the 6-storey buildings, they stand as a testimony to a know-how that finds a particular resonance today, while the environmental and economic concerns are at the forefront. Little known, they constitute a heritage in danger that should be rediscovered.

  4. Characterization of the Mechanical Strength, Resorption Properties, and Histologic Characteristics of a Fully Absorbable Material (Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate—PHASIX Mesh) in a Porcine Model of Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Deeken, Corey R.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) is a naturally derived, absorbable polymer. P4HB has been manufactured into PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug designs for soft tissue repair. The objective of this study was to evaluate mechanical strength, resorption properties, and histologic characteristics in a porcine model. Methods. Bilateral defects were created in the abdominal wall of n = 20 Yucatan minipigs and repaired in a bridged fashion with PHASIX Mesh or P4HB Plug fixated with SorbaFix or permanent suture, respectively. Mechanical strength, resorption properties, and histologic characteristics were evaluated at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks (n = 5 each). Results. PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug repairs exhibited similar burst strength, stiffness, and molecular weight at all time points, with no significant differences detected between the two devices (P > 0.05). PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug repairs also demonstrated significantly greater burst strength and stiffness than native abdominal wall at all time points (P < 0.05), and material resorption increased significantly over time (P < 0.001). Inflammatory infiltrates were mononuclear, and both devices exhibited mild to moderate granulation tissue/vascularization. Conclusions. PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug demonstrated significant mechanical strength compared to native abdominal wall, despite significant material resorption over time. Histological assessment revealed a comparable mild inflammatory response and mild to moderate granulation tissue/vascularization. PMID:23781348

  5. Ram Pressure Stripping: Observations Meet Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Past, Matthew; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Sharon, Keren

    2017-01-01

    Ram pressure stripping occurs when a galaxy falls into the potential well of a cluster, removing gas and dust as the galaxy travels through the intracluster medium. This interaction leads to filamentary gas tails stretching behind the galaxy and plays an important role in galaxy evolution. Previously, these “jellyfish” galaxies had only been observed in nearby clusters, but recently, higher redshift (z > 0.3) examples have been found from HST data imaging.Recent work has shown that cosmic rays injected by supernovae can cause galactic disks to thicken due to cosmic ray pressure. We run three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of ram pressure stripping including cosmic rays to compare to previous models. We study how the efficiency of the ram pressure stripping of the gas, and the morphology of the filamentary tails, depend on the magnitude of the cosmic ray pressure support. We generate mock X-ray images and radio polarization data. Simultaneously, we perform an exhaustive search of the HST archive to increase the sample of jellyfish galaxies and compare selected cases to simulations.

  6. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  7. Effect of breed and age on sexual behaviour of rams.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Bizelis, Joseph A

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to highlight the problems that arise during the reproduction between thin-tailed rams and fat-tailed ewes. At the same time, particular emphasis laid on the influence of sheep breed, sheep age, time after ram introduction and day of the ewe estrus cycle on ram and ewe sexual behaviour. Rams were subjected to sexual performance tests by being individually exposed to 12 ewes for 3 h daily, 19 consecutive days. The 16 rams of the experiment were separated according to their age (9 and 21 months old) and breed (Chios and Karagouniki), and the 96 ewes of Chios fat-tailed breed, were divided by age (9 and 21 months old). The main characteristics of courtship behaviour, like sniffing, nudging, flehmen response and following were recorded and studied in detail. Mature Chios rams, which were the only one with previous experience of Chios ewes, exhibited higher rates of sexual interest per ewe than the other rams (P < 0.05). On the other hand, rams sniffed and nudged more young than mature ewes (P < 0.05), probably due to the fact that young ewes did not express intense symptoms of estrus. Young rams exhibited substandard sexual interest towards mature ewes, when they first came in contact with them (P < 0.05). In general, Karagouniki thin-tailed rams exhibited reduced rates of mating behaviour when they courted with Chios fat-tailed ewes in comparison with Chios rams (P < 0.05). Moreover, as the time after ram introduction passed, the frequency and duration of sexual behaviour components decreased (P < 0.001). Finally, the effect of the day of the experiment was only significant in the case of sniffing, which increased during the first 2 days and then declined and stabilized (P < 0.01). As it was demonstrated, ram age and ram breed played a fundamental role in the exhibition of sexual interest elements.

  8. Review of Radar Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Symposium, 1990. AP-S. Merging technologies for the 90’s. Digest 1990, 3, 1212. (30) Nortier, J. R., Van der Neut , C.A., Baker, D.E. Microwave Journal...1987, 219. (31) Kasevich, R. S.; Broderick, F., US Patent 5223849. 1993. (32) Van Der Plas, G., Barel, A., Schweicher, E. Antennas and Propagation

  9. The ram accelerator - A chemically driven mass launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaloupis, P.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1988-01-01

    The ram accelerator, a chemically propelled mass driver, is presented as a viable new approach for directly launching acceleration-insensitive payloads into low earth orbit. The propulsion principle is similar to that of a conventional air-breathing ramjet. The cargo vehicle resembles the center-body of a ramjet and travels through a tube filled with a pre-mixed fuel and oxidizer mixture. The launch tube acts as the outer cowling of the ramjet and the combustion process travels with the vehicle. Two drive modes of the ram accelerator propulsion system are described, which when used in sequence are capable of accelerating the vehicle to as high as 10 km/sec. The requirements are examined for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500 km orbit with a minimum of on-board rocket propellant for circularization maneuvers. It is shown that aerodynamic heating during atmospheric transit results in very little ablation of the nose. An indirect orbital insertion scenario is selected, utilizing a three step maneuver consisting of two burns and aerobraking. An on-board propulsion system using storable liquid propellants is chosen in order to minimize propellant mass requirements, and the use of a parking orbit below the desired final orbit is suggested as a means to increase the flexibility of the mass launch concept. A vehicle design using composite materials is proposed that will best meet the structural requirements, and a preliminary launch tube design is presented.

  10. HVOF repair of steering rams for the USS Saipan

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, A.L.; Jones, S.A.; Wykle, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The steering rams aboard the USS Saipan (LHA-2) were badly corroded after 18 years of service. These rams are hydraulically operated and change the angle of the ship`s rudder. This corrosion allowed excessive leaking of hydraulic fluid into the machinery space. Permanent repairs were required as the ship has more than 20 years of service life remaining. Two methods of repair were considered, chrome plating and a HVOF applied coating. The size, 13 in. diameter and 15 ft in length, posed a significant problem for either process. The cost of the repair was similar but the time for completion wasmore » better with the HVOF process since chrome plating would have to be accomplished off yard. The HVOF process was not available within the shipyard at the time and the process and material to be used had not been approved. Extensive testing was required to get approval to proceed, a facility to accomplish the work had to be built, and the operators and HVOF procedure had to be qualified. After completion of spraying, single point machining and honing was used to obtain the required surface finish. This was the largest single HVOF coating applied by the Navy and great interest to all concerned.« less

  11. Synthesis and microwave absorbing characteristics of functionally graded carbonyl iron/polyurethane composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R. B.; Liang, W. F.; Wu, C. H.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-05-01

    Radar absorbing materials (RAMs) also known as microwave absorbers, which can absorb and dissipate incident electromagnetic wave, are widely used in the fields of radar-cross section reduction, electromagnetic interference (EMI) reduction and human health protection. In this study, the synthesis of functionally graded material (FGM) (CI/Polyurethane composites), which is fabricated with semi-sequentially varied composition along the thickness, is implemented with a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the microwave absorption efficiency and bandwidth of FGM. For impedance matching and broad-band design, the original 8-layered FGM was obtained by the GA method to calculate the thickness of each layer for a sequential stacking of FGM from 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 65, 70 and 75 wt% of CI fillers. The reflection loss of the original 8-layered FGM below -10 dB can be obtained in the frequency range of 5.12˜18 GHz with a total thickness of 9.66 mm. Further optimization reduces the number of the layers and the stacking sequence of the optimized 4-layered FGM is 20, 30, 65, 75 wt% with thickness of 0.8, 1.6, 0.6 and 1.0 mm, respectively. The synthesis and measurement of the optimized 4-layered FGM with a thickness of 4 mm reveal a minimum reflection loss of -25.2 dB at 6.64 GHz and its bandwidth below - 10 dB is larger than 12.8 GHz.

  12. Thermalization of X-rays in evaporated tin and bismuth films used as the absorbing materials in X-ray calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, C. K.; Kelley, R. L.; Moseley, S. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Juda, M.; McCammon, D.; Zhang, J.

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated the use of evaporated tin and bismuth films as the absorbing materials in X-ray calorimeters. When the films were deposited directly on monolithic silicon calorimeters, the output signal from both Sn and Bi devices was strongly dependent on the location of the absorption event relative to the ion-implanted thermistors, presumably indicating thermistor sensitivity to a non-thermal spectrum of phonons. With Sn films we also observed that a component of the thermalization proceeded slowly, relative to a complete thermalization reference. The thermalization function could be modified by trapping magnetic flux within the film. In order to distinguish thermalization effects in the films from the thermistor sensitivity to energetic phonons, we deposited Sn and Bi films on thin Si substrates which we then affixed to calorimeters using epoxy. With glued Sn films, we were able to attain as good as 13.6 eV resolution of 6 keV X-rays with no excess broadening of the line beyond the width of the baseline, while similarly made Bi devices showed excess broadening.

  13. Thermal conversion of an Fe₃O₄@metal-organic framework: a new method for an efficient Fe-Co/nanoporous carbon microwave absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingmiao; Ji, Guangbin; Liu, Wei; Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Shang, Chaomei; Cheng, Yan; Du, Youwei

    2015-08-14

    A novel FeCo nanoparticle embedded nanoporous carbon composite (Fe-Co/NPC) was synthesized via in situ carbonization of dehydro-ascorbic acid (DHAA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a metal-organic framework (zeolitic imidazolate framework-67, ZIF-67). The molar ratio of Fe/Co significantly depends on the encapsulated content of Fe3O4 in ZIF-67. The composites filled with 50 wt% of the Fe-Co/NPC-2.0 samples in paraffin show a maximum reflection loss (RL) of -21.7 dB at a thickness of 1.2 mm; in addition, a broad absorption bandwidth for RL < -10 dB which covers from 12.2 to 18 GHz can be obtained, and its minimum reflection loss and bandwidth (RL values exceeding -10 dB) are far greater than those of commercial carbonyl iron powder under a very low thickness (1-1.5 mm). This study not only provides a good reference for future preparation of carbon-based lightweight microwave absorbing materials but also broadens the application of such kinds of metal-organic frameworks.

  14. Absorber for solar power.

    PubMed

    Powell, W R

    1974-10-01

    A simple, economical absorber utilizing a new principle of operation to achieve very low reradiation losses while generating temperatures limited by material properties of quartz is described. Its performance is analyzed and indicates approximately 90% thermal efficiency and 73% conversion efficiency for an earth based unit with moderately concentrated (~tenfold) sunlight incident. It is consequently compatible with the most economic of concentrator mirrors (stamped) or mirrors deployable in space. Space applications are particularly attractive, as temperatures significantly below 300 K are possible and permit even higher conversion efficiency.

  15. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  16. Incorporation of RAM techniques into simulation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. C., Jr.; Haire, M. J.; Schryver, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    This work concludes that reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analytical techniques can be incorporated into computer network simulation modeling to yield an important new analytical tool. This paper describes the incorporation of failure and repair information into network simulation to build a stochastic computer model to represent the RAM Performance of two vehicles being developed for the US Army: The Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) and the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV). The AFAS is the US Army's next generation self-propelled cannon artillery system. The FARV is a resupply vehicle for the AFAS. Both vehicles utilize automation technologies to improve the operational performance of the vehicles and reduce manpower. The network simulation model used in this work is task based. The model programmed in this application requirements a typical battle mission and the failures and repairs that occur during that battle. Each task that the FARV performs--upload, travel to the AFAS, refuel, perform tactical/survivability moves, return to logistic resupply, etc.--is modeled. Such a model reproduces a model reproduces operational phenomena (e.g., failures and repairs) that are likely to occur in actual performance. Simulation tasks are modeled as discrete chronological steps; after the completion of each task decisions are programmed that determine the next path to be followed. The result is a complex logic diagram or network. The network simulation model is developed within a hierarchy of vehicle systems, subsystems, and equipment and includes failure management subnetworks. RAM information and other performance measures are collected which have impact on design requirements. Design changes are evaluated through 'what if' questions, sensitivity studies, and battle scenario changes.

  17. Optimizing Clinical Drug Product Performance: Applying Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) and the BioRAM Scoring Grid.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Paul A; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia; Martinez, Marilyn N; Mistry, Hitesh B; Crison, John R; Polli, James E; Cruañes, Maria T; Serajuddin, Abu T M; Müllertz, Anette; Cook, Jack A; Selen, Arzu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) and the BioRAM Scoring Grid is to facilitate optimization of clinical performance of drug products. BioRAM strategy relies on therapy-driven drug delivery and follows an integrated systems approach for formulating and addressing critical questions and decision-making (J Pharm Sci. 2014,103(11): 3777-97). In BioRAM, risk is defined as not achieving the intended in vivo drug product performance, and success is assessed by time to decision-making and action. Emphasis on time to decision-making and time to action highlights the value of well-formulated critical questions and well-designed and conducted integrated studies. This commentary describes and illustrates application of the BioRAM Scoring Grid, a companion to the BioRAM strategy, which guides implementation of such an integrated strategy encompassing 12 critical areas and 6 assessment stages. Application of the BioRAM Scoring Grid is illustrated using published literature. Organizational considerations for implementing BioRAM strategy, including the interactions, function, and skillsets of the BioRAM group members, are also reviewed. As a creative and innovative systems approach, we believe that BioRAM is going to have a broad-reaching impact, influencing drug development and leading to unique collaborations influencing how we learn, and leverage and share knowledge. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. PADDLEFISH BUCCAL FLOW VELOCITY DURING RAM SUSPENSION FEEDING AND RAM VENTILATION

    PubMed

    Cech; Cheer

    1994-01-01

    A micro-thermistor probe was inserted into the buccal cavity of freely swimming paddlefish to measure flow velocity during ram ventilation, ram suspension feeding and prey processing. Swimming speed was measured from videotapes recorded simultaneously with the buccal flow velocity measurements. Both swimming velocity and buccal flow velocity were significantly higher during suspension feeding than during ram ventilation. As the paddlefish shifted from ventilation to feeding, buccal flow velocity increased to approximately 60 % of the swimming velocity. During prey processing, buccal flow velocity was significantly higher than the swimming velocity, indicating that prey processing involves the generation of suction. The Reynolds number (Re) for flow at the level of the paddlefish gill rakers during feeding is about 30, an order of magnitude lower than the Re calculated previously for pump suspension-feeding blackfish. These data, combined with data available from the literature, indicate that the gill rakers of ram suspension-feeding teleost fishes may operate at a substantially lower Re than the rakers of pump suspension feeders.

  19. Robotic Assisted Microsurgery - RAMS FY'97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    JPL and Microdexterity Systems collaborated to develop new surgical capabilities. They developed a Robot Assisted Microsurgery (RAM) tool for surgeons to use for operating on the eye, ear, brain, and blood vessels with unprecedented dexterity. A surgeon can hold the surgical instrument with motions of 6 degrees of freedom with an accuracy of 25 microns in a 70 cu cm workspace. In 1996 a demonstration was performed to remove a microscopic particle from a simulated eyeball. In 1997, tests were performed at UCLA to compare telerobotics with mechanical operations. In 5 out of 7 tests, the RAM tool performed with a significant improvement of preciseness over mechanical operation. New design features include: (1) amplified forced feedback; (2) simultaneous slave robot instrumentation; (3) index control switch on master handle; and (4) tool control switches. Upgrades include: (1) increase in computational power; and (2) installation of hard disk memory storage device for independent operation and independent operation of forceps. In 1997 a final demonstration was performed using 2 telerobotics simultaneously in a microsurgery suture procedure to close a slit in a thin sheet of latex rubber which extended the capabilities of microsurgery procedures. After completing trials and demonstrations for the FDA the potential benefits for thousands of operations will be exposed.

  20. The rams horn in western history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  1. Ram Pressure Stripping of Galaxy JO201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Greta; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Jaffé, Yara; Bellhouse, Callum; Bianca Poggianti

    2017-01-01

    Despite the discovery of the morphology-density relation more than 30 years ago, the process driving the evolution of spiral galaxies into S0s in clusters is still widely debated. Ram pressure stripping--the removal of a galaxy's interstellar medium by the pressure of the intracluster medium through which it orbits--may help explain galactic evolution and quenching in clusters. MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) observational data of galaxy JO201 in cluster Abell 85 reveal it to be a jellyfish galaxy--one with an H-alpha emitting gas tail on only one side. We model the possible orbits for this galaxy, constrained by the cluster mass profile, line of sight velocity, and projected distance from the cluster center. Using Enzo, an adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code, we simulate effects of ram pressure on this galaxy for a range of possible orbits. We present comparisons of both the morphology and velocity structure of our simulated galaxy to the observations of H-alpha emission.

  2. HyRAM V1.0 User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, Katrina M.; Zumwalt, Hannah Ruth; Clark, Andrew Jordan

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models (HyRAM) is a prototype software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. The HyRAM toolkit integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing the impact of hydrogen hazards, including thermal effects from jet fires and thermal pressure effects from deflagration. HyRAM version 1.0 incorporates generic probabilities for equipment failures for nine types of components, and probabilistic models for the impact of heat flux on humans and structures, with computationally and experimentally validated models of various aspects of gaseous hydrogen releasemore » and flame physics. This document provides an example of how to use HyRAM to conduct analysis of a fueling facility. This document will guide users through the software and how to enter and edit certain inputs that are specific to the user-defined facility. Description of the methodology and models contained in HyRAM is provided in [1]. This User’s Guide is intended to capture the main features of HyRAM version 1.0 (any HyRAM version numbered as 1.0.X.XXX). This user guide was created with HyRAM 1.0.1.798. Due to ongoing software development activities, newer versions of HyRAM may have differences from this guide.« less

  3. Low temperature selective absorber research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzenberg, S. A.; Silberglitt, R.

    1982-04-01

    Research carried out since 1979 on selective absorbers is surveyed, with particular attention given to the low-temperature coatings seen as promising for flat plate and evacuated tube applications. The most thoroughly investigated absorber is black chrome, which is highly selective and is the most durable low-temperature absorber. It is believed that other materials, because of their low cost and lower content of strategic materials, may eventually supplant black chrome. Among these candidates are chemically converted black nickel; anodically oxidized nickel, zinc, and copper composites; and nickel or other low-cost multilayer coatings. In reviewing medium and high-temperature research, black chrome, multilayer coatings and black cobalt are seen as best medium-temperature candidates. For high temperatures, an Al2O3/Pt-Al203 multilayer composite or the zirconium diboride coating is preferred.

  4. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  5. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  6. Sexual behaviour of rams: male orientation and its endocrine correlates.

    PubMed

    Resko, J A; Perkins, A; Roselli, C E; Stellflug, J N; Stormshak, F K

    1999-01-01

    The components of heterosexual behaviour in rams are reviewed as a basis for understanding partner preference behaviour. A small percentage of rams will not mate with oestrous females and if given a choice will display courtship behaviour towards another ram in preference to a female. Some of the endocrine profiles of these male-oriented rams differ from those of heterosexual controls. These differences include reduced serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and oestrone, reduced capacity to produce testosterone in vitro, and reduced capacity to aromatize androgens in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus of the brain. Our observation that aromatase activity is significantly lower in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area of male-oriented rams than in female-oriented rams may indicate an important neurochemical link to sexual behaviour that should be investigated. The defect in steroid hormone production by the adult testes of the male-oriented ram may represent a defect that can be traced to the fetal testes. If this contention is correct, partner preference behaviour of rams may also be traceable to fetal development and represent a phenomenon of sexual differentiation.

  7. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  8. A simple parameterization of aerosol emissions in RAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letcher, Theodore

    Throughout the past decade, a high degree of attention has been focused on determining the microphysical impact of anthropogenically enhanced concentrations of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) on orographic snowfall in the mountains of the western United States. This area has garnered a lot of attention due to the implications this effect may have on local water resource distribution within the Region. Recent advances in computing power and the development of highly advanced microphysical schemes within numerical models have provided an estimation of the sensitivity that orographic snowfall has to changes in atmospheric CCN concentrations. However, what is still lacking is a coupling between these advanced microphysical schemes and a real-world representation of CCN sources. Previously, an attempt to representation the heterogeneous evolution of aerosol was made by coupling three-dimensional aerosol output from the WRF Chemistry model to the Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) (Ward et al. 2011). The biggest problem associated with this scheme was the computational expense. In fact, the computational expense associated with this scheme was so high, that it was prohibitive for simulations with fine enough resolution to accurately represent microphysical processes. To improve upon this method, a new parameterization for aerosol emission was developed in such a way that it was fully contained within RAMS. Several assumptions went into generating a computationally efficient aerosol emissions parameterization in RAMS. The most notable assumption was the decision to neglect the chemical processes in formed in the formation of Secondary Aerosol (SA), and instead treat SA as primary aerosol via short-term WRF-CHEM simulations. While, SA makes up a substantial portion of the total aerosol burden (much of which is made up of organic material), the representation of this process is highly complex and highly expensive within a numerical

  9. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  11. Ram-Jet off Design Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, Roberto; Ghezzi, Umberto

    2002-01-01

    In this work it is intended to study the off-design performances of a ram jet engine. To this purpouse it has been analyzed in a first time the behaviour of an ideal engine, that means to not consider the losses in the various components, or, under a thermodynamic point of view, to consider the fluid transformation through the air intake and exhaust nozzle, remembering that in a ram jet there are not rotating components as compressor and turbine, isentropic. Referring to the ram-jet scheme of fig.1. we can say, neglecting the fuel introduced, that the air mass flow rate throughout the engine is constant. If we consider the two control sections 4 and 8, respectively the throat section of the converging-diverging supersonic inlet and the throat section of the discharge nozzle, the condition of constant mass flow leads to the relation: m4 =f (M 4 ) m8 = m 4 = m8 We can imaging that the throat section # 4 is always choked for any value of the flight Mach number M0. This means that the throat section 4 is adjusted at any value of M0 so that the flow Mach number in 4 is equal to unity. In this it follows: R. Andriani, U. Ghezzi1 Since in an ideal case T t8 The relation [1] allows to determine the T8 temperature, that represent the maximum cycle temperature, for different operating conditions, as flight Mach number and altitude. We then have two cases: the first is A8 (nozzle throat section) fixed, and the second is A8 variable. In the first case the maximum temperature T8 is univocally determined by the operating condition. In the second case A8 can be varied so to maintain T8 at a chosen value. The graphic of fig.2 shows the first case. In particular it has been considered as design point an altitude of 15000 meters and a flight Mach number equal to 2. In this condition it has been evaluated the section A8 for unity mass flow rate. At the same altitude, varying the flight Mach number, with the section A4 always choked, the graphic shows the variation of the maximum

  12. Highly efficient special sound absorbing solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionescu, M.; Petre-Lazar, S.

    1974-01-01

    Highly efficient special sound absorbing structures with the following criteria are considered: (1) A distribution surface of the sound absorbing material greater than that of the building element on which the structure is placed; (2) The highest possible absorption coefficient in the widest possible frequency band; and (3) adaptability to different construction and aesthetic conditions.

  13. Ram pressure stripping in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, C.; Combes, F.; Dasyra, K.; Salomé, P.; Braine, J.

    2015-10-01

    Gas can be violently stripped from their galaxy disks in rich clusters, and be dispersed over 100 kpc-scale tails or plumes. Young stars have been observed in these tails, suggesting they are formed in situ. This will contribute to the intracluster light, in addition to tidal stripping of old stars. We want to quantify the efficiency of intracluster star formation. We present CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) observations, made with the IRAM-30 m telescope, towards the ram-pressure stripped tail northeast of NGC 4388 in Virgo. We selected HII regions found all along the tails, together with dust patches, as observing targets. We detect molecular gas in 4 positions along the tail, with masses between 7 × 105 to 2 × 106M⊙. Given the large distance from the NGC 4388 galaxy, the molecular clouds must have formed in situ, from the HI gas plume. We compute the relation between surface densities of star formation and molecular gas in these regions, and find that the star formation has very low efficiency. The corresponding depletion time of the molecular gas can be up to 500 Gyr and more. Since this value exceeds a by far Hubble time, this gas will not be converted into stars, and will stay in a gaseous phase to join the intracluster medium.

  14. New River Geothermal Exploration (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Miller, Clay

    2013-11-15

    The New River Geothermal Exploration (DOE Award No. EE0002843) is located approximately 25km south of the Salton Sea, near town of Brawley in Imperial County and approximately 150km east of San Diego, California. A total of 182 MT Logger sites were completed covering the two separate Mesquite and New River grids. The data was collected over a frequency range of 320Hz to 0.001Hz with variable site spacing. A number of different inversion algorithms in 1D, 2D and 3D were used to produce resistivity-depth profiles and maps of subsurface resistivity variations over the survey area. For 2D inversions, a total of eighteen lines were constructed in east-west and north-south orientations crossing the entire survey area. For MT 3D inversion, the New River property was divided in two sub-grids, Mesquite and New River areas. The report comprises of two parts. For the first part, inversions and geophysical interpretation results are presented with some recommendations of the potential targets for future follow up on the property. The second part of the report describes logistics of the survey, survey parameters, methodology and the survey results (data) in digital documents. The report reviews a Spartan MT survey carried out by Quantec Geoscience Limited over the New River Project in California, USA on behalf of Ram Power Inc. Data was acquired over a period of 29 days from 2010/06/26 to 2010/07/24.

  15. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2014-01-01

    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  16. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  17. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  18. The rapid mode of calcium uptake into heart mitochondria (RaM): comparison to RaM in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Buntinas, L; Gunter, K K; Sparagna, G C; Gunter, T E

    2001-04-02

    A mechanism of Ca(2+) uptake, capable of sequestering significant amounts of Ca(2+) from cytosolic Ca(2+) pulses, has previously been identified in liver mitochondria. This mechanism, the Rapid Mode of Ca(2+) uptake (RaM), was shown to sequester Ca(2+) very rapidly at the beginning of each pulse in a sequence [Sparagna et al. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27510-27515]. The existence and properties of RaM in heart mitochondria, however, are unknown and are the basis for this study. We show that RaM functions in heart mitochondria with some of the characteristics of RaM in liver, but its activation and inhibition are quite different. It is feasible that these differences represent different physiological adaptations in these two tissues. In both tissues, RaM is highly conductive at the beginning of a Ca(2+) pulse, but is inhibited by the rising [Ca(2+)] of the pulse itself. In heart mitochondria, the time required at low [Ca(2+)] to reestablish high Ca(2+) conductivity via RaM i.e. the 'resetting time' of RaM is much longer than in liver. RaM in liver mitochondria is strongly activated by spermine, activated by ATP or GTP and unaffected by ADP and AMP. In heart, RaM is activated much less strongly by spermine and unaffected by ATP or GTP. RaM in heart is strongly inhibited by AMP and has a biphasic response to ADP; it is activated at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations. Finally, an hypothesis consistent with the data and characteristics of liver and heart is presented to explain how RaM may function to control the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in each tissue. Under this hypothesis, RaM functions to create a brief, high free Ca(2+) concentration inside mitochondria which may activate intramitochondrial metabolic reactions with relatively small amounts of Ca(2+) uptake. This hypothesis is consistent with the view that intramitochondrial [Ca(2+)] may be used to control the rate of ADP phosphorylation in such a way as to minimize the probability of

  19. 10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  20. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  1. Lateral Stability of a Dynamic Ram Air Cushion Vehicle

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-08-01

    The lateral stability derivatives of a dynamic ram air cushion vehicle in a rectangular guideway were measured using a ship model towing tank. Lift and pitching moment are also reported. The primary lateral derivatives are all stabilizing, with signi...

  2. Energy absorber uses expanded coiled tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical shock mitigating device, based on working material to its failure point, absorbs mechanical energy by bending or twisting tubing. It functions under axial or tangential loading, has no rebound, is area independent, and is easy and inexpensive to build.

  3. MHD simulations of ram pressure stripping of a disc galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Martínez, Mariana; Gómez, Gilberto C.; Pérez-Villegas, Ángeles

    2018-05-01

    The removal of the interstellar medium (ISM) of disc galaxies through ram pressure stripping (RPS) has been extensively studied in numerous simulations. Nevertheless, the role of magnetic fields (MFs) on the gas dynamics in this process has been hardly studied, although the MF influence on the large-scale disc structure is well established. With this in mind, we present a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of face-on RPS of a disc galaxy to study the impact of the galactic MF in the gas stripping. The main effect of including a galactic MF is a flared disc. When the intracluster medium wind hits this flared disc, oblique shocks are produced at the interaction interface, where the ISM is compressed, generating a gas inflow from large radii towards the central regions of the galaxy. This inflow is observed for {˜ } 150 {Myr} and may supply the central parts of the galaxy with material for star formation while the outskirts of the disc are being stripped of gas, thus the oblique shocks can induce and enhance the star formation in the remaining disc. We also observed that the MF alters the shape and structure of the swept gas, giving a smooth appearance in the magnetized case and clumpier and filamentary-like morphology in the hydro case. Finally, we estimated the truncation radius expected for our models using the Gunn-Gott criterion and found that that is in agreement with the simulations.

  4. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  5. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Kim, Minjin; Smith, Rory

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gasmore » disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.« less

  6. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Smith, Rory; Jaffé, Yara; Kim, Minjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Nantais, Julie; Candlish, Graeme; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gas disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.

  7. The effect of reactive ion etch (RIE) process conditions on ReRAM device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, K.; Holt, J.; Olin-Ammentorp, W.; Alamgir, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.; Cady, N. C.

    2017-09-01

    The recent surge of research on resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices has resulted in a wealth of different materials and fabrication approaches. In this work, we describe the performance implications of utilizing a reactive ion etch (RIE) based process to fabricate HfO2 based ReRAM devices, versus a more unconventional shadow mask fabrication approach. The work is the result of an effort to increase device yield and reduce individual device size. Our results show that choice of RIE etch gas (SF6 versus CF4) is critical for defining the post-etch device profile (cross-section), and for tuning the removal of metal layers used as bottom electrodes in the ReRAM device stack. We have shown that etch conditions leading to a tapered profile for the device stack cause poor electrical performance, likely due to metal re-deposition during etching, and damage to the switching layer. These devices exhibit nonlinear I-V during the low resistive state, but this could be improved to linear behavior once a near-vertical etch profile was achieved. Device stacks with vertical etch profiles also showed an increase in forming voltage, reduced switching variability and increased endurance.

  8. Solar sustained plasma/absorber conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Krascella, N. L.; Kendall, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    A space power system concept was evaluated which uses concentrated solar energy to heat a working fluid to temperatures as high as 4000 K. The high temperature working fluid could be used for efficient electric power production in advanced thermal or magnetohydrodynamic conversion cycles. Energy absorber configurations utilizing particles or cesium vapor absorber material were investigaed. Results of detailed radiant heat transfer calculations indicated approximately 86 percent of the incident solar energy could be absorbed within a 12-cm-dia flowing stream of gas borne carbon particles. Calculated total energy absorption in the cesium vapor seeded absorber configuration ranged from 34 percent to 64 percent of the incident solar energy. Solar flux concentration ratios of between approximately 3000 and 10,000 will be required to sustain absorber temperatures in the range from 3000 K to 4000 K.

  9. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  10. Origin of the OFF state variability in ReRAM cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaoru, Iulia; Khiat, Ali; Li, Qingjiang; Berdan, Radu; Papavassiliou, Christos; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2014-04-01

    This work exploits the switching dynamics of nanoscale resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cells with particular emphasis on the origin of the observed variability when cells are consecutively cycled/programmed at distinct memory states. It is demonstrated that this variance is a common feature of all ReRAM elements and is ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments that expand across the active core, independently of the material employed as the active switching core, the causal physical switching mechanism, the switching mode (bipolar/unipolar) or even the unit cells' dimensions. Our hypothesis is supported through both experimental and theoretical studies on TiO2 and In2O3 : SnO2 (ITO) based ReRAM cells programmed at three distinct resistive states. Our prototypes employed TiO2 or ITO active cores over 5 × 5 µm2 and 100 × 100 µm2 cell areas, with all tested devices demonstrating both unipolar and bipolar switching modalities. In the case of TiO2-based cells, the underlying switching mechanism is based on the non-uniform displacement of ionic species that foster the formation of conductive filaments. On the other hand, the resistive switching observed in the ITO-based devices is considered to be due to a phase change mechanism. The selected experimental parameters allowed us to demonstrate that the observed programming variance is a common feature of all ReRAM devices, proving that its origin is dependent upon randomly oriented local disorders within the active core that have a substantial impact on the overall state variance, particularly for high-resistive states.

  11. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  12. Operational Advances in Ring Current Modeling Using RAM-SCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, S.; Welling, D. T.; Zaharia, S. G.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2010-12-01

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determining the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. “Virtual Satellite” capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code’s outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.

  13. Ram Pressure Stripping Made Easy: An Analytical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köppen, J.; Jáchym, P.; Taylor, R.; Palouš, J.

    2018-06-01

    The removal of gas by ram pressure stripping of galaxies is treated by a purely kinematic description. The solution has two asymptotic limits: if the duration of the ram pressure pulse exceeds the period of vertical oscillations perpendicular to the galactic plane, the commonly used quasi-static criterion of Gunn & Gott is obtained which uses the maximum ram pressure that the galaxy has experienced along its orbit. For shorter pulses the outcome depends on the time-integrated ram pressure. This parameter pair fully describes the gas mass fraction that is stripped from a given galaxy. This approach closely reproduces results from SPH simulations. We show that typical galaxies follow a very tight relation in this parameter space corresponding to a pressure pulse length of about 300 Myr. Thus, the Gunn & Gott criterion provides a good description for galaxies in larger clusters. Applying the analytic description to a sample of 232 Virgo galaxies from the GoldMine database, we show that the ICM provides indeed the ram pressures needed to explain the deficiencies. We also can distinguish current and past strippers, including objects whose stripping state was unknown.

  14. Three-Dimensional Hierarchical MoS2 Nanosheets/Ultralong N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianlian; Zhang, Shen; Yan, Feng; Li, Chunyan; Zhu, Chunling; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2018-04-25

    Here, we report a simple method to grow thin MoS 2 nanosheets (NSs) on the ultralong nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes through anion-exchange reaction. The MoS 2 NSs are grown on ultralong nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube surfaces, leading to an interesting three-dimensional hierarchical structure. The fabricated hybrid nanotubes have a length of approximately 100 μm, where the MoS 2 nanosheets have a thickness of less than 7.5 nm. The hybrid nanotubes show excellent electromagnetic wave attenuation performance, with the effective absorption bandwidth of 5.4 GHz at the thicknesses of 2.5 mm, superior to the pure MoS 2 nanosheets and the MoS 2 nanosheets grown on the short N-doped carbon nanotube surfaces. The experimental results indicate that the direct growth of MoS 2 on the ultralong nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube surfaces is a key factor for the enhanced electromagnetic wave attenuation property. The results open the avenue for the development of ultralong transition metal dichalcogenides for electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  15. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  16. The behavioral component of the ram effect: the influence of ram sexual behavior on the induction of estrus in anovulatory ewes.

    PubMed

    Perkins, A; Fitzgerald, J A

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether the sexual behavior of the ram affects the ram effect. Rams exhibiting either high (HP) or low (LP) levels of sexual performance (on the basis of serving capacity tests) were exposed to 89 anestrous ewes for 28 d. Thirty-two anestrous ewes were not exposed to rams. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of estrus induction by HP (n = 4) vs LP (n = 4) rams. Plasma progesterone concentration was used as an index of ovarian activity. Groups of ewes were exposed to either an HP or an LP ram in a .32-ha pasture. Courtship behaviors of rams were recorded for 6 h on the initial day of exposure and for 30-min periods on alternate days thereafter. A greater percentage of ewes exposed to HP rams ovulated (95%) compared with ewes exposed to LP rams (78%) (P < .02). On the 1st d of exposure, the HP rams exhibited more courtship behavior and spent more time near the ewes (P < .04). The HP rams spent more time within 1 m of ewes during the 28-d exposure. There were no differences in the amount of contact with rams (LP or HP) between rise in progesterone indicate of ovulation tended to occur earlier (P = .06) in ewes penned with HP rams. A greater percentage of ewes exposed to LP rams (P = .03) had early elevations of progesterone with no concurrent sexual behavior. These data imply that in addition to a pheromone the sexual behavior of the ram may be important in initiating ovarian cycle activity.

  17. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  18. Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.; Heung, Leung K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

  19. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  20. Design of a Ram Accelerator mass launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Ram Accelerator, a chemically propelled, impulsive mass launch system, is presented as a viable concept for directly launching acceleration-insensitive payloads into low Earth orbit. The principles of propulsion are based on those of an airbreathing supersonic ramjet. The payload vehicle acts as the ramjet centerbody and travels through a fixed launch tube that acts as the ramjet outer cowling. The launch tube is filled with premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixtures that combust at the base of the vehicle and produce thrust. Two modes of in-tube propulsion involving ramjet cycles are used in sequence to accelerate the vehicle from 0.7 km/sec to 9 km/sec. Requirements for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500-km circular orbit, with a minimum amount of onboard rocket propellant for orbital maneuvers, are examined. It is shown that in-tube propulsion requirements dictate a launch tube length of 5.1 km to achieve an exit velocity of 9 km/sec, with peak accelerations not to exceed 1000 g's. Aerodynamic heating due to atmospheric transit requires minimal ablative protection and the vehicle retains a large percentage of its exit velocity. An indirect orbital insertion maneuver with aerobraking and two apogee burns is examined to minimize the required onboard propellant mass. An appropriate onboard propulsion system design to perform the required orbital maneuvers with minimum mass requirements is also determined. The structural designs of both the launch tube and the payload vehicle are examined using simple structural and finite element analysis for various materials.

  1. Data requirements for verification of ram glow chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    A set of questions is posed regarding the surface chemistry producing the ram glow on the space shuttle. The questions surround verification of the chemical cycle involved in the physical processes leading to the glow. The questions, and a matrix of measurements required for most answers, are presented. The measurements include knowledge of the flux composition to and from a ram surface as well as spectroscopic signatures from the U to visible to IR. A pallet set of experiments proposed to accomplish the measurements is discussed. An interim experiment involving an available infrared instrument to be operated from the shuttle Orbiter cabin is also be discussed.

  2. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  3. Crystal Structure Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Absorber Material BaFe12-xTix/2Znx/2O19Based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delina, M.; Nenni, N.; Adi, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    The optimization of BaFe12-xTix/2Znx/2O19 (x=2.2; 2.4; 2.6; 2.8)single phase composition have been performed. The materials were synthesized by solid state reaction method through mechanical milling technique.The materials were made from the mixture of oxide materials, which are BaCO3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and ZnO. The mixture was milled for five hours using a High Energy Milling (HEM), was dried at 100°C in the Oven and then was sintered at 1000°C for five hours in the Furnace. The phase identification of BaFe12-xTix/2Znx/2O19 (x=2.2; 2.4; 2.6; 2.8) were carried out by using a Match Program while the crystal structure analysis were investigated by using a General Structure Analysis System (GSAS) program. The refinement results of x-ray diffraction pattern showed that the sample of x ≤ 2.4 have a BaFe12O19 single phase while the sample of x> 2.4 have two phases, which are BaFe12O19 and ZnFe2O4 phases. The surface morphology of sample and the element of sample were identified through an analysis of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data.

  4. GASP. IX. Jellyfish galaxies in phase-space: an orbital study of intense ram-pressure stripping in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Yara L.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Smith, Rory; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fasano, Giovanni; Fritz, Jacopo; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Bettoni, Daniela; Hau, George; Biviano, Andrea; Bellhouse, Callum; McGee, Sean

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that galaxies falling into clusters can experience gas stripping due to ram pressure by the intra-cluster medium. The most spectacular examples are galaxies with extended tails of optically bright stripped material known as `jellyfish'. We use the first large homogeneous compilation of jellyfish galaxies in clusters from the WINGS and OmegaWINGS surveys, and follow-up MUSE observations from the GASP MUSE programme to investigate the orbital histories of jellyfish galaxies in clusters and reconstruct their stripping history through position versus velocity phase-space diagrams. We construct analytic models to define the regions in phase-space where ram-pressure stripping is at play. We then study the distribution of cluster galaxies in phase-space and find that jellyfish galaxies have on average higher peculiar velocities (and higher cluster velocity dispersion) than the overall population of cluster galaxies at all cluster-centric radii, which is indicative of recent infall into the cluster and radial orbits. In particular, the jellyfish galaxies with the longest gas tails reside very near the cluster cores (in projection) and are moving at very high speeds, which coincides with the conditions of the most intense ram pressure. We conclude that many of the jellyfish galaxies seen in clusters likely formed via fast (˜1-2 Gyr), incremental, outside-in ram-pressure stripping during first infall into the cluster in highly radial orbits.

  5. Shock absorber servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tool to assist in the servicing of a shock absorber wherein the shock absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the shock absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.

  6. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  7. The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

  8. RAM simulation model for SPH/RSV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, J.C.; Primm, A.H.; Nelson, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The US Army`s Project Manager, Crusader is sponsoring the development of technologies that apply to the Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH), formerly the Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS), and Resupply Vehicle (RSV), formerly the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV), weapon system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently performing developmental work in support of the SPH/PSV Crusader system. Supportive analyses of reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) aspects were also performed for the SPH/RSV effort. During FY 1994 and FY 1995 OPNL conducted a feasibility study to demonstrate the application of simulation modeling for RAM analysis of the Crusader system. Following completion ofmore » the feasibility study, a full-scale RAM simulation model of the Crusader system was developed for both the SPH and PSV. This report provides documentation for the simulation model as well as instructions in the proper execution and utilization of the model for the conduct of RAM analyses.« less

  9. Design and analysis of hydraulic ram water pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, N. S. M.; Gamil, S. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Safar, M. J. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Kazim, M. N. F. M.; Nasir, N. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    The current pumping system (DC water pump) for agriculture is powered by household electricity, therefore, the cost of electricity will be increased due to the higher electricity consumption. In addition, the water needs to be supplied at different height of trees and different places that are far from the water source. The existing DC water pump can pump the water to 1.5 m height but it cost money for electrical source. The hydraulic ram is a mechanical water pump that suitable used for agriculture purpose. It can be a good substitute for DC water pump in agriculture use. The hydraulic ram water pumping system has ability to pump water using gravitational energy or the kinetic energy through flowing source of water. This project aims to analyze and develop the water ram pump in order to meet the desired delivery head up to 3 meter height with less operation cost. The hydraulic ram is designed using CATIA software. Simulation work has been done using ANSYS CFX software to validate the working concept. There are three design were tested in the experiment study. The best design reached target head of 3 m with 15% efficiency and flow rate of 11.82l/min. The results from this study show that the less diameter of pressure chamber and higher supply head will create higher pressure.

  10. Initiation of combustion in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Burnham, E. A.; Knowlen, C.; Hertzberg, A.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The methodology for initiating stable combustion in a ram accelerator operating in the thermally choked mode is presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a high velocity ramjet-in-tube projectile launcher whose principle of operation is similar to that of an airbreathing ramjet. The subcaliber projectile travels supersonically through a stationary tube filled with a premixed combustible gas mixture. In the thermally choked propulsion mode subsonic combustion takes place behind the base of the projectile and leads to thermal choking, which stabilizes a normal shock system on the projectile, thus producing forward thrust. Projectiles with masses in the 45-90 g range have been accelerated to velocities up to 2650 m/sec in a 38 mm bore, 16 m long accelerator tube. Operation of the ram accelerator is started by injecting the projectile into the accelerator tube at velocities in the 700 - 1300 m/sec range by means of a conventional gas gun. A specially designed obturator, which seals the bore of the gun during this initial acceleration, enters the ram accelerator together with the projectile. The interaction of the obturator with the propellant gas ignites the gas mixture and establishes stable combustion behind the projectile.

  11. The neurobiology of sexual partner preferences in rams.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Charles E; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep does not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol.

  12. Timber management planning with timber ram and goal programming

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Field

    1978-01-01

    By using goal programming to enhance the linear programming of Timber RAM, multiple decision criteria were incorporated in the timber management planning of a National Forest in the southeastern United States. Combining linear and goal programming capitalizes on the advantages of the two techniques and produces operationally feasible solutions. This enhancement may...

  13. Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A lightweight, inexpensive shock-absorbing system, developed by Langley Research Center 20 years ago, is now in service as safety device for an automated railway at Duke University Medical Center. The transportation system travels at about 25 miles per hour, carrying patients, visitors, staff and cargo. At the end of each guideway of the system are "frangible," (breakable) tube "buffers." If a slowing car fails to make a complete stop at the terminal, it would bump and shatter the tubes, absorbing energy that might otherwise jolt the passengers or damage the vehicle.

  14. Prenatal programming of sexual partner preference: the ram model.

    PubMed

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2009-03-01

    In our laboratory, the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that approximately 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurones of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurones constitute a nascent oSDN as early as day 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by day 135 of gestation when it is two-fold larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from days 30-90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram foetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving

  15. Application of ICP-OES to the determination of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin films used as absorber materials in solar cell devices.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Caballero, Raquel; Guillén, Cecilia; Gutiérrez, María Teresa; Rucandio, María Isabel

    2005-05-01

    CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 [CIGS; x=Ga/(In+Ga)] thin films are among of the best candidates as absorber materials for solar cell applications. The material quality and main properties of the polycrystalline absorber layer are critically influenced by deviations in the stoichiometry, particularly in the Cu/(In+Ga) atomic ratio. In this work a simple, sensitive and accurate method has been developed for the quantitative determination of these thin films by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed method involves an acid digestion of the samples to achieve the complete solubilization of CIGS, followed by the analytical determination by ICP-OES. A digestion procedure with 50% HNO3 alone or in the presence of 10% HCl was performed to dissolve those thin films deposited on glass or Mo-coated glass substrates, respectively. Two analytical lines were selected for each element (Cu 324.754 and 327.396 nm, Ga 294.364 and 417.206 nm, In 303.936 and 325.609 nm, Se 196.090 and 203.985 nm, and Mo 202.030 and 379.825 nm) and a study of spectral interferences was performed which showed them to be suitable, since they offered a high sensitivity and no significant inter-element interferences were detected. Detection limits for all elements at the selected lines were found to be appropriate for this kind of application, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 1.5% for all elements with the exception of Se (about 5%). The Cu/(In+Ga) atomic ratios obtained from the application of this method to CIGS thin films were consistent with the study of the structural and morphological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    larger than that in the latter. A nonlinear absorber design has been proposed comprising of thin beams as elastic elements. The geometric configuration of the proposed design has been shown to provide cubic stiffness nonlinearity in torsion. The values of design variables, namely the strength of nonlinearity alpha and torsional stiffness kalpha, were obtained by optimizing dimensions and material properties of the beams for a maximum vibration energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber. A parametric study has also been conducted to analyze the effect of the magnitude of excitation provided to the system on the performance of a nonlinear absorber. It has been shown that the nonlinear absorber turns out to be more effective in terms of energy dissipation as compared to a linear absorber with an increase in the excitation level applied to the system.

  17. Operational advances in ring current modeling using RAM-SCB

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T; Jordanova, Vania K; Zaharia, Sorin G

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determiningmore » the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. 'Virtual Satellite' capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code's outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.« less

  18. Progress on the Ram Wing Concept with Emphasis on Lateral Dynamics

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental efforts conducted at the Transportation Systems Center in the ram wing program are described. Glide Tests were performed using a simple ram wing model operating in an open rectangular trough 50 ft long. Lift drag ratios o...

  19. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  20. Windsock memory COnditioned RAM (CO-RAM) pressure effect: Forced reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörös, Z.; Facskó, G.; Khodachenko, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) is a key physical concept explaining the addition of magnetic flux to the magnetotail and closed flux lines back-motion to the dayside magnetosphere. This scenario elaborated by Dungey (1963) can explain many aspects of solar wind-magnetosphere interaction processes, including substorms. However, neither the Dungey model nor its numerous modifications were able to explain fully the onset conditions for MR in the tail. In this paper, we introduce new onset conditions for forced MR in the tail. We call our scenario the "windsock memory conditioned ram pressure effect." Our nonflux transfer-associated forcing is introduced by a combination of the large-scale windsock motions exhibiting memory effects and solar wind dynamic pressure actions on the nightside magnetopause during northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Using global MHD Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation version 4 simulation results, upstream data from Wind, magnetosheath data from Cluster 1 and distant tail data from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun mission, we show that the simultaneous occurrence of vertical windsock motions of the magnetotail and enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure introduces strong nightside disturbances, including enhanced electric fields and persistent vertical cross-tail shear flows. These perturbations, associated with a stream interaction region in the solar wind, drive MR in the tail during episodes of northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We detect MR indirectly, observing plasmoids in the tail and ground-based signatures of earthward moving fast flows. We also consider the application to solar system planets and close-in exoplanets, where the proposed scenario can elucidate some new aspects of solar/stellar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  1. Evaluation of Magnetoresistive RAM for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidecker, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is a non-volatile memory that exploits electronic spin, rather than charge, to store data. Instead of moving charge on and off a floating gate to alter the threshold voltage of a CMOS transistor (creating different bit states), MRAM uses magnetic fields to flip the polarization of a ferromagnetic material thus switching its resistance and bit state. These polarized states are immune to radiation-induced upset, thus making MRAM very attractive for space application. These magnetic memory elements also have infinite data retention and erase/program endurance. Presented here are results of reliability testing of two space-qualified MRAM products from Aeroflex and Honeywell.

  2. Operation of polycarbonate projectiles in the ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Timothy

    The ram accelerator is a hypervelocity launcher with direct space launch applications in which a sub-caliber projectile, analogous to the center-body of a ramjet engine, flies through fuel and oxidizer that have been premixed in a tube. Shock interactions in the tube ignite the propellant upon entrance of the projectile and the combustion travels with it, creating thrust on the projectile by stabilizing a high pressure region of gas behind it. Conventional ram accelerator projectiles consist of aluminum, magnesium, or titanium nosecones and bodies. An experimental program has been undertaken to determine the performance of polycarbonate projectiles in ram accelerator operation. Experimentation using polycarbonate projectiles has been divided into two series: determining the lower limit for starting velocity (i.e., less than 1100 m/s) and investigating the upper velocity limit. To investigate the influence of body length and starting velocity, a newly developed "combustion gun" was used to launch projectiles to their initial velocities. The combustion gun uses 3-6 m of ram accelerator test section as a breech and 4-6 m of the ram accelerator test section as a launch tube. A fuel-oxidizer mix is combusted in the breech using a spark plug or electric match and bursts a diaphragm, accelerating the ram projectile to its entrance velocity. The combustion gun can be operated at modest fill pressures (20 bar) but can only launch to relatively low velocities (approximately 1000 m/s) without destroying the projectile and obturator upon launch. Projectiles were successfully started at entrance velocities as low as 810 m/s and projectile body lengths as long as 91 mm were used. The tests investigating the upper Mach number limits of polycarbonate projectiles used the conventional single-stage light-gas gun because of its ability to reach higher velocities with a lower acceleration launch. It was determined that polycarbonate projectiles have an upper velocity limit in the

  3. A wideband absorber for television studios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, M. D. M.

    The acoustic treatment in BBC television has taken various forms to date, all of which have been relatively expensive, some of which provide inadequate absorption. An investigation has been conducted into the possibilities of producing a new type of wideband absorber which would be more economic, also taking installation time into account, than earlier designs. This Report describes the absorption coefficient measurements made on various combinations of materials, from which a wideband sound absorber has been developed. The absorber works efficiently between 50 Hz and 10 kHz, is simple and easy to construct using readily available materials, and is fire resistant. The design lends itself, if necessary, to on-site fine tuning, and savings in the region of 50 percent can be achieved in terms of cost and space with respect to previous designs.

  4. Translatory shock absorber for attitude sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.; Morgan, I. T., Jr.; Kirby, C. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A translatory shock absorber is provided for mounting an attitude sensor thereon for isolating a sensor from translatory vibrations. The translatory shock absorber includes a hollow block structure formed as one piece to form a parallelogram. The absorber block structure includes a movable top plate for supporting the attitude sensor and a fixed base plate with opposed side plates interposed between. At the junctions of the side plates, and the base and top plates, there are provided grooves which act as flexible hinges for attenuating translatory vibrations. A damping material is supported on a pedestal which is carried on the base plate between the side plates thereof. The top of the damping material rests against the bottom surface of the top plate for eliminating the resonant peaks of vibration.

  5. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  6. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  7. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  8. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  9. Applications of the ram accelerator to hypervelocity aerothermodynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    A ram accelerator used as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerodynamics research is presented. It is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled down a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Ram accelerator operation has been demonstrated at 39 mm and 90 mm bores, supporting the proposition that this launcher concept can be scaled up to very large bore diameters of the order of 30-60 cm. It is concluded that high quality data obtained from the tube wall and projectile during the aceleration process itself are very useful for understanding aerothermodynamics of hypersonic flow in general, and for providing important CFD validation benchmarks.

  10. Investigation of starting transients in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, E. A.; Hinkey, J. B.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the starting transients of the thermally choked ram accelerator is presented in this paper. Construction of a highly instrumented tube section and instrumentation inserts provide high resolution experimental pressure, luminosity, and electromagnetic data of the starting transients. Data obtained prior to and following the entrance diaphragm show detailed development of shock systems in both combustible and inert mixtures. With an evacuated launch tube, starting the diffuser is possible at any Mach number above the Kantrowitz Mach number. The detrimental effects and possible solutions of higher launch tube pressures and excessive obturator leakage (blow-by) are discussed. Ignition of a combustible mixture is demonstrated with both perforated and solid obturators. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Data obtained from these starting experiments enhance the understanding of the ram accelerator, as well as assist in the validation of unsteady, chemically reacting CFD codes.

  11. Numerical simulations of the superdetonative ram accelerator combusting flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soetrisno, Moeljo; Imlay, Scott T.; Roberts, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of projectile canting and fins on the ram accelerator combusting flowfield and the possible cause of the ram accelerator unstart are investigated by performing axisymmetric, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional calculations. Calculations are performed using the INCA code for solving Navier-Stokes equations and a guasi-global combustion model of Westbrook and Dryer (1981, 1984), which includes N2 and nine reacting species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2, H, O2, O, OH, and H2O), which are allowed to undergo a 12-step reaction. It is found that, without canting, interactions between the fins, boundary layers, and combustion fronts are insufficient to unstart the projectile at superdetonative velocities. With canting, the projectile will unstart at flow conditions where it appears to accelerate without canting. Unstart occurs at some critical canting angle. It is also found that three-dimensionality plays an important role in the overall combustion process.

  12. 86. Photocopied August 1978. CLAY RAMMING EQUIPMENT IN OPERATION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Photocopied August 1978. CLAY RAMMING EQUIPMENT IN OPERATION IN THE POWER HOUSE IN 1910. A PILE OF CLAY USED TO FILL THE WASHED-OUT AREAS BENEATH THE FOUNDATIONS IS SHOWN IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION BESIDE THE FILLER PIPE. THE WEIGHT USED TO FORCE THE CLAY DOWN UNDER THE FOUNDATIONS IS SHOWN PRESSING ON THE PLUNGER PIPE. (542) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. The Alcoa ram fastener: A reusable blind rivet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewalt, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Results of tensile, shear, fatigue and accelerated weathering tests are presented for the ram fastener, a reusable, single unit blind rivet. The effects of variations in hole size, grip length and sheet thickness on strength properties of the fastener were determined. The test results show these fasteners to have strength characteristics suitable for light structural applications. Exposure to accelerated weathering did not impair their performance.

  14. Tracing ram-pressure stripping with warm molecular hydrogen emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H., E-mail: sivanandam@dunlap.utoronto.ca

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H{sub 2} emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H{sub 2} emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ∼ 115-160 K) and a hot (T ∼ 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} with masses of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The warm H{sub 2} is anomalously bright compared with normal star-formingmore » galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H{sub 2} is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H{sub 2} tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H{sub 2} within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 μm is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The Hα and 24 μm luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.« less

  15. Radiation Response of Emerging FeRAM Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. N.; Scheick, L. Z.

    2001-01-01

    The test results of measurements performed on two different sizes of ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) suggest the degradation is due to the low radiation tolerance of sense amplifiers and reference voltage generators which are based on commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This paper presents total ionizing dose (TID) testing of 64Kb Ramtron FM1608 and 256Kb Ramtron FM1808.

  16. The effect of cushion-ram pulsation on hot stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgrebe, Dirk; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Kunke, Andreas; Polster, Stefan; Kriechenbauer, Sebastian; Mauermann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Hot stamping is an important technology for manufacturing high-strength components. This technology offers the possibility to achieve significant weight reductions. In this study, cushion-ram pulsation (CRP), a new technology for hot stamping on servo-screw presses, was investigated and applied for hot stamping. Compared to a conventional process, the tests yielded a significantly higher drawing depth. In this paper, the CRP technology and the first test results with hot stamping were described in comparison to the conventional process.

  17. Investigating EMIC Wave Dynamics with RAM-SCB-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, V. K.; Fu, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S.; Welling, D. T.; Yu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The distribution of ring current ions and electrons in the inner magnetosphere depends strongly on their transport in realistic electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields and concurrent energization or loss. To investigate the high variability of energetic particle (H+, He+, O+, and electron) fluxes during storms selected by the GEM Surface Charging Challenge, we use our kinetic ring current model (RAM) two-way coupled with a 3-D magnetic field code (SCB). This model was just extended to include electric field calculations, making it a unique, fully self-consistent, anisotropic ring current-atmosphere interactions model, RAM-SCB-E. Recently we investigated electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability in a local plasma using both linear theory and nonlinear hybrid simulations and derived a scaling formula that relates the saturation EMIC wave amplitude to initial plasma conditions. Global dynamic EMIC wave maps obtained with our RAM-SCB-E model using this scaling will be presented and compared with statistical models. These plasma waves can affect significantly both ion and electron precipitation into the atmosphere and the subsequent patterns of ionospheric conductance, as well as the global ring current dynamics.

  18. Ram accelerator direct space launch system - New concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The ram accelerator, a chemically driven ramjet-in-tube device is a new option for direct launch of acceleration-insensitive payloads into earth orbit. The projectile is the centerbody of a ramjet and travels through a tube filled with a premixed fuel-oxidizer mixture. The tube acts as the cowl of the ramjet. A number of new concepts for a ram accelerator space launch system are presented. The velocity and acceleration capabilities of a number of ram accelerator drive modes, including several new modes, are given. Passive (fin) stabilization during atmospheric transit is investigated and found to be promising. Gasdynamic heating in-tube and during atmospheric transit is studied; the former is found to be severe, but may be alleviated by the selection of the most suitable drive modes, transpiration cooling, or a hydrogen gas core in the launch tube. To place the payload in earth orbit, scenarios using one impulse and three impulses (with an aeropass) and a new scenario involving an auxiliary vehicle are studied. The auxiliary vehicle scenario is found to be competitive regarding payload, and requires a much simpler projectile, but has the disadvantage of requiring the auxiliary vehicle.

  19. High spatial resolution measurements in a single stage ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a ramjet-in-tube device which operates in a manner similar to that of a conventional ramjet. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Utilization of special highly instrumented sections of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with high resolution. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) in a single stage gas mixture are presented and reveal the three-dimensional character of the flow field induced by projectile fins and the canting of the fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, three-dimensional CFD code. The knowledge gained from these experiments and simulations is useful in understanding the underlying nature of ram accelerator propulsive regimes, as well as assisting in the validation of three-dimensional CFD coded which model unsteady, chemically reactive flows.

  20. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  1. Shock absorbing mount for electrical components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, R. F., Jr.; Mayne, R. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A shock mount for installing electrical components on circuit boards is described. The shock absorber is made of viscoelastic material which interconnects the electrical components. With this system, shocks imposed on one component of the circuit are not transmitted to other components. A diagram of a typical circuit is provided.

  2. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  3. Ram locus is a key regulator to trigger multidrug resistance in Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Alexander; James, Chloë E; Fanning, Séamus; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Davin-Regli, Anne

    2018-02-01

    Several genetic regulators belonging to AraC family are involved in the emergence of MDR isolates of E. aerogenes due to alterations in membrane permeability. Compared with the genetic regulator Mar, RamA may be more relevant towards the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Focusing on the global regulators, Mar and Ram, we compared the amino acid sequences of the Ram repressor in 59 clinical isolates and laboratory strains of E. aerogenes. Sequence types were associated with their corresponding multi-drug resistance phenotypes and membrane protein expression profiles using MIC and immunoblot assays. Quantitative gene expression analysis of the different regulators and their targets (porins and efflux pump components) were performed. In the majority of the MDR isolates tested, ramR and a region upstream of ramA were mutated but marR or marA were unchanged. Expression and cloning experiments highlighted the involvement of the ram locus in the modification of membrane permeability. Overexpression of RamA lead to decreased porin production and increased expression of efflux pump components, whereas overexpression of RamR had the opposite effects. Mutations or deletions in ramR, leading to the overexpression of RamA predominated in clinical MDR E. aerogenes isolates and were associated with a higher-level of expression of efflux pump components. It was hypothesised that mutations in ramR, and the self-regulating region proximal to ramA, probably altered the binding properties of the RamR repressor; thereby producing the MDR phenotype. Consequently, mutability of RamR may play a key role in predisposing E. aerogenes towards the emergence of a MDR phenotype.

  4. New Solutions for Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    One can also readily plot transverse stiffness versus axial compression , shown in Figure 8, by relating the axial compression force, N, to the...displacement of 1 μm was applied at the center-top of the beam at the same time as the beam ends were subjected to varying axial compressive ...Figure 8 for varying amounts of axial compression . The results indicate a very good agreement between the analytical and FEA models. The slight

  5. Effect of suction on the mechanical characteristics of uniformly compacted rammed earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hajjar, A.; Chauhan, P.; Prime, N.; Plé, O.

    2018-04-01

    Rammed earth, in the current environmental situation, is an alternative construction technique which can help in reducing energy and raw material consumption owing to its “sustainable” characteristics. To fully understand its behavior and properties, recent scientific investigations consider it as a compacted unsaturated material with suction as its one of the main sources of strength. Eathern constructions face, over their lifetime, variations in the suction state which have a significant impact on their mechanical characteristics. In the present contribution, unconfined compression tests are performed, with and without unload-reload cycles, on homogeneously compacted samples subjected to various suction conditions. This study shows that both the unconfined compressive strength and Young modulus reduce with the reduction of suction states. Suction also seems to influence the amount of plastic strains and damage phenomenon. Indeed, the soils analyzed are slightly active and shows both plasticity behavior and damage phenomenon.

  6. Energy-Absorbing Beam Member

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An energy-absorbing (EA) beam member and having a cell core structure is positioned in an aircraft fuselage proximate to the floor of the aircraft. The cell core structure has a length oriented along a width of the fuselage, a width oriented along a length of the fuselage, and a depth extending away from the floor. The cell core structure also includes cell walls that collectively define a repeating conusoidal pattern of alternating respective larger and smaller first and second radii along the length of the cell core structure. The cell walls slope away from a direction of flight of the aircraft at a calibrated lean angle. An EA beam member may include the cell core structure and first and second plates along the length of the cell core structure on opposite edges of the cell material.

  7. On the definition of absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  8. Intrascleral outflow after deep sclerectomy with absorbable and non-absorbable implants in the rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Kałużny, Jakub J; Grzanka, Dariusz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Niewińska, Alicja; Kałużny, Bartłomiej J; Grzanka, Alina

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the study is an analysis of intrascleral drainage vessels formed in rabbits' eyes after non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) with absorbable and non-absorbable implants, and comparison to eyes in which surgery was performed without implanted material. NPDS was carried out in 12 rabbits, with implantation of non-absorbable methacrylic hydrogel (N=10 eyes) or absorbable cross-linked sodium hyaluronate (N=6 eyes), or without any implant (N=8 eyes). All the animals were euthanized 1 year after surgery. Twenty-one eyeballs were prepared for light microscopy and 3 were prepared for transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Aqueous humour pathways were stained with ferritin in 6 eyeballs. By light microscopy, small vessels adjacent to the areas of scarring were the most common abnormality. Vessel density was significantly higher in operated sclera compared to normal, healthy tissue, regardless of the type of implant used. The average vessel densities were 2.18±1.48 vessels/mm2 in non-implanted sclera, 2.34±1.69 vessels/mm2 in eyes with absorbable implants, and 3.64±1.78 vessels/mm2 in eyes with non-absorbable implants. Analysis of iron distribution in ferritin-injected eyes showed a positive reaction inside new aqueous draining vessels in all groups. TEM analysis showed that the ultrastructure of new vessels matched the features of the small veins. Aqueous outflow after NPDS can be achieved through the newly formed network of small intrascleral veins. Use of non-absorbable implants significantly increases vessel density in the sclera adjacent to implanted material compared to eyes in which absorbable implants or no implants were used.

  9. The New S-RAM Air Variable Compressor/Expander for Heat Pump and Waste Heat to Power Application

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R; Jestings, Lee; Conde, Ricardo

    S-RAM Dynamics (S-RAM) has designed an innovative heat pump system targeted for commercial and industrial applications. This new heat pump system is more efficient than anything currently on the market and utilizes air as the refrigerant instead of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, leading to lower operating costs, minimal environmental costs or concerns, and lower maintenance costs. The heat pumps will be manufactured in the United States. This project was aimed at determining the feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing to make the heat exchanger device for the new heat pump system. ORNL and S-RAM Dynamics collaborated on determining the prototype performance andmore » subsequently printing of the prototype using additive manufacturing. Complex heat exchanger designs were fabricated using the Arcam electron beam melting (EBM) powder bed technology using Ti-6Al-4V material. An ultrasonic welding system was utilized in order to remove the powder from the small openings of the heat exchanger. The majority of powder in the small chambers was removed, however, the amount of powder remaining in the heat exchanger was a function of geometry. Therefore, only certain geometries of heat exchangers could be fabricated. SRAM Dynamics evaluated a preliminary heat exchanger design. Although the results of the additive manufacturing of the heat exchanger were not optimum, a less complex geometry was demonstrated. A sleeve valve was used as a demonstration piece, as engine designs from S-RAM Dynamics require the engine to have a very high density. Preliminary designs of this geometry were successfully fabricated using the EBM technology.« less

  10. Seasonal influence on sperm parameters, scrotal measurements, and serum testosterone in Ouled Djellal breed rams in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Belkadi, S.; Safsaf, B.; Heleili, N.; Tlidjane, M.; Belkacem, L.; Oucheriah, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of seasonal variations on testosterone serum concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference, and some sperm parameters in rams living in a semi-arid region of eastern part of Algeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken monthly from eight Ouled Djellal rams, aged between 3 and 4 years, in the Technical Institute of Breeding “ITELV” located at Ain M’lila City. Sperm were collected by an electro-ejaculator once a month for 1 year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter: 3 times/season). Results: Mean values of volume, mass motility, live sperm, and scrotal circumference were higher during spring (p<0.05) with 1.23±0.26 mL, 3.39±1.07, 79.16±15.82%, and 36.29±1.91 cm, respectively; whereas, the sperm concentration was higher during autumn with 1.19±0.56×109 spz/ml compared to 0.46±0.13×109 spz/mL to spring. The season influenced significantly the percentage of abnormal sperm (p<0.05), especially during winter (6.47±2.12%), but had no influence on the weight of rams. Seasonal hormonal activity was high with 4.89±2.06 ng/mL and 3.09±1.35 ng/mL of testosterone in mating seasons (spring and autumn, respectively), knowing that the sexual season is not marked too much in these latitude. Conclusion: We can conclude that testosterone concentration is strongly correlated with the scrotal circumference and that the season has a significant influence on spermatic parameters, and that despite the large variations in sperm production, the rams can be used throughout the year. PMID:29391691

  11. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Faupel, Franz; Elbahri, Mady

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface _lasmon). These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on) perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented. PMID:28788511

  12. Absorbent properties of carboxymethylated fiber, hydroentangled nonwoven and regenerated cellulose: a comparative study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercially-available, bleached cotton fibers, rayon, and their hydroentangled counterparts were carboxymethylated to produce cellulosic products with increased absorbency. These cellulose materials were tested for absorbance, spectroscopic properties, degree of substitution and carding ability. Ca...

  13. Pressure Characteristics of a Diffuser in a Ram RDE Propulsive Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-21

    Continuous detonation Rotating-detonation- engine Ethylene-air Diffuser Pressure feedback Modeling and simulation Office of Naval Research 875 N. Randolph...RDE PROPULSIVE DEVICE INTRODUCTION This report focuses on the diffuser of a ram Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) device. A ram RDE is a ramjet with...the constant pressure combustion chamber replaced with a Rotating Detonation Engine combustor to accomplish pressure gain combustion. A ram engine

  14. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  15. Ram seminal plasma improves pregnancy rates in ewes cervically inseminated with ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 hours.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2012-01-15

    In this study, we compared pregnancy rates obtained using ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 h, with ram or bull seminal plasma (SP) added to TRIS-egg yolk extender. During the breeding period, 670 adult Corriedale ewes were cervically inseminated with semen (2 × 10(8) sperm in a volume of 0.2 mL) from eight adult Corriedale rams. Ejaculates, obtained using an artificial vagina, were split into three aliquots and diluted with the following: TRIS-egg yolk based extender (T), T + 30% ram SP (R), or T + 30% bull SP (B). Samples were refrigerated and stored at 5 °C for 24 h until used for AI. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasonography 35 to 40 d after AI. Pregnancy rate was not affected by ram (P = 0.77) or breeding period (P = 0.43), and there were no interactions between extender and ram (P = 0.94), or extender and breeding period (P = 0.24). However, there was an effect of extender (P = 0.0009) on pregnancy rates; ram SP, but not bull SP, increased pregnancy rates compared with extender without SP (49.7, 38.1, and 31.1%, for R, B, and T respectively). In conclusion, ram SP added to TRIS-egg yolk extender had a beneficial effect on the pregnancy rate of ram sperm stored at 5 °C for 24 h and used for cervical insemination of ewes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Malaysian Trichoderma isolates using random amplified microsatellites (RAMS).

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Tan, Soon Guan; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Fatihah, Nur Hasan Nudin; Hasan, Md Mainul

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are commercially applied as biocontrol agents against numerous plant pathogenic fungi due to their production of antifungal metabolites, competition for nutrients and space, and mycoparasitism. However, currently the identification of Trichoderma species from throughout the world based on micro-morphological descriptions is tedious and prone to error. The correct identification of Trichoderma species is important as several traits are species-specific. The Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS) analysis done using five primers in this study showed different degrees of the genetic similarity among 42 isolates of this genus. The genetic similarity values were found to be in the range of 12.50-85.11% based on a total of 76 bands scored in the Trichoderma isolates. Of these 76 bands, 96.05% were polymorphic, 3.95% were monomorphic and 16% were exclusive bands. Two bands (250 bp and 200 bp) produced by primer LR-5 and one band (250 bp) by primer P1A were present in all the Trichoderma isolates collected from healthy and infected oil palm plantation soils. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA of the RAMS marker data showed that T. harzianum, T. virens and T. longibrachiatum isolates were grouped into different clades and lineages. In this study we found that although T. aureoviride isolates were morphologically different when compared to T. harzianum isolates, the UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the majority isolates of T. aureoviride (seven from nine) were closely related to the isolates of T. harzianum.

  17. Space shuttle ram glow: Implication of NO2 recombination continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, S.

    1985-01-01

    The ram glow data gathered to data from imaging experiments on space shuttle suggest the glow is a continuum (within 34 angstrom resolution); the continuum shape is such that the peak is near 7000 angstroms decreasing to the blue and red, and the average molecular travel leading to emission after leaving the surface is 20 cm (assuming isotropic scattering from the surface). Emission continuum is rare in molecular systems but the measured spectrum does resemble the laboratory spectrum of NO2 (B) recombination continuum. The thickness of the observed emission is consistent with the NO2 hypothesis given an exit velocity of approx. 2.5 km/sec (1.3 eV) which leaves approx. 3.7 eV of ramming OI energy available for unbonding the recombined NO2 from the surface. The NO2 is formed in a 3-body recombination of OI + NO + m = NO2 + m where OI originates from the atmosphere and NO is chemically formed on the surface from atmospheric NI and OI. The spacecraft surface then acts as the n for the reaction: Evidence exists from orbital mass spectrometer data that the NO and NO2 chemistry described in this process does occur on surfaces of spectrometer orifices in orbit. Surface temperature effects are likely a factor in the NO sticking efficiency and, therefore, glow intensities.

  18. Space shuttle Ram glow: Implication of NO2 recombination continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, S.

    1985-09-01

    The ram glow data gathered to data from imaging experiments on space shuttle suggest the glow is a continuum (within 34 angstrom resolution); the continuum shape is such that the peak is near 7000 angstroms decreasing to the blue and red, and the average molecular travel leading to emission after leaving the surface is 20 cm (assuming isotropic scattering from the surface). Emission continuum is rare in molecular systems but the measured spectrum does resemble the laboratory spectrum of NO2 (B) recombination continuum. The thickness of the observed emission is consistent with the NO2 hypothesis given an exit velocity of approx. 2.5 km/sec (1.3 eV) which leaves approx. 3.7 eV of ramming OI energy available for unbonding the recombined NO2 from the surface. The NO2 is formed in a 3-body recombination of OI + NO + m = NO2 + m where OI originates from the atmosphere and NO is chemically formed on the surface from atmospheric NI and OI. The spacecraft surface then acts as the n for the reaction: Evidence exists from orbital mass spectrometer data that the NO and NO2 chemistry described in this process does occur on surfaces of spectrometer orifices in orbit. Surface temperature effects are likely a factor in the NO sticking efficiency and, therefore, glow intensities.

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation of ram extrusion of bread dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Wanigasooriya, L.; Charalambides, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental and numerical study on ram extrusion of bread dough was conducted. A laboratory ram extrusion rig was designed and manufactured, where dies with different angles and exit radii were employed. Rate dependent behaviour was observed from tests conducted at different extrusion speeds, and higher extrusion pressure was reported for dies with decreasing exit radius. A finite element simulation of extrusion was performed using the adaptive meshing technique in Abaqus. Simulations using a frictionless contact between the billet and die wall showed that the model underestimates the response at high entry angles. On the other hand, when the coefficient of friction value was set to 0.09 as measured from friction experiments, the dough response was overestimated, i.e. the model extrusion pressure was much higher than the experimentally measured values. When a critical shear stress limit, τmax, was used, the accuracy of the model predictions improved. The results showed that higher die angles require higher τmax values for the model and the experiments to agree.

  20. Effect of Ram and Zenith Exposure on the Optical Properties of Polymers in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yuachun; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Leneghan, Halle; Asmar, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    The temperature of spacecraft is influenced by the solar absorptance and thermal emittance of the external spacecraft materials. Optical and thermal properties can degrade over time in the harsh low Earth orbital (LEO) space environment where spacecraft external materials are exposed to various forms of radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. Therefore, it is important to test the durability of spacecraft materials in the space environment. One objective of the Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments was to determine the effect of LEO space exposure on the optical properties of various spacecraft polymers. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. Samples were flown in ram, wake or zenith directions, receiving varying amounts of atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure. Total and diffuse reflectance and transmittance of flight and corresponding control samples were obtained post-flight using a Cary 5000 UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer. Integrated air mass zero solar absorptance (s) of the flight and control samples were computed from the total transmittance and reflectance, and compared. The optical data are compared with similar polymers exposed to space for four years as part of MISSE 2, and with atomic oxygen erosion data, to help understand the degradation of these polymers in the space environment. Results show that prolonged space exposure increases the solar absorptance of some materials. Knowing which polymers remain stable will benefit future spacecraft design.

  1. Novel Ultraviolet Light Absorbing Polymers For Optical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddi, Namassivaya; Yamada, Akira; Dunks, Gary B.

    1988-07-01

    Ultraviolet light absorbing monomers have been developed that can be copolymerized with acrylates. The composition of the resultant stable copolymers can be adjusted to totally block the transmission of light below about 430 nm. Fabrication of lenses from the materials is accomplished by lathe cutting and injection molding procedures. These ultraviolet light absorbing materials are non-mutagenic and non-toxic and are currently being used in intraocular lenses.

  2. Electromagnetic, morphological and structural characterization of microwave absorbers based on POMA/magnetic filament composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Pinto, Simone; Machado, João Paulo Barros; Gomes, Newton A. S.; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to combine dielectric and magnetic properties of different materials in an unique composite. For this, poly(o-methoxyaniline), POMA, was chemically synthesized in situ on magnetic metallic filaments (MF). The obtained composite was inserted into an epoxy resin matrix in the proportions of 40, 50 and 70%, in weight (wt%). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD) and electromagnetic measurements. On the last case, the measurements considered the reflectivity and the complex parameters of electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). Specimens with different thicknesses were evaluated by reflectivity. XRD results show that the filaments are based on Fe-α steel and SEM analyses show the good incorporation of POMA/MF in the epoxy resin composite. The complex parameters show that the real component of permittivity shows the largest variation with the POMA/MF concentration increasing in epoxy resin and the loss tangent indicates that the magnetic losses are preponderant on dielectric ones. The reflectivity measurements show that the 5 mm-specimen with 50 wt% of POMA/MF presents the best result of attenuation (-21.5 dB, i.e. above 99% of attenuation). Already, the sample containing 70 wt% shows the worst performance (up to -9.0 dB). The increase of POMA/MF concentration in epoxy resin confers maximum attenuation values for less thick specimens. The results show that the combination of dielectric and magnetic materials in a composite contributes for the improvement of microwave absorbing performance, and extends the possibilities of RAM processing with different characteristics.

  3. The utility of nanowater for ram semen cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Patkowski, Krzysztof; Oszczęda, Zdzisław; Jelkin, Igor; Kosiek, Anna; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Szymanowska, Anna; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Zieba, Dorota A; Bartlewski, Pawel M

    2015-01-01

    Nanowater (NW; water declusterized in the low-temperature plasma reactor) has specific physicochemical properties that could increase semen viability after freezing and hence fertility after artificial insemination (AI) procedures. The main goal of this study was to evaluate ram semen quality after freezing in the media containing NW. Ejaculates from 10 rams were divided into two equal parts, diluted in a commercially available semen extender (Triladyl®; MiniTüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany) prepared with deionized water (DW) or NW, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility and morphology using the sperm class analyzer system and light microscopy. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed to determine the size of extracellular water crystals in frozen semen samples. Survival time at room temperature, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations post-thawing as well as conception/lambing rates after laparoscopic intrauterine AI of 120 ewes were also determined. There were no significant differences between DW and NW groups in sperm progressive motility (26.4 ± 12.2 and 30.8 ± 12.4%) or survival time (266.6 ± 61.3 and 270.9 ± 76.7 min) after thawing and no differences in the percentages of spermatozoa with various morphological defects before or after freezing. There were, however, differences (P < 0.05) in AspAT (DW: 187.1 ± 160.4 vs. NW: 152.7 ± 118.3 U/l) and ALP concentrations (DW: 2198.3 ± 1810.5 vs. NW: 1612.1 ± 1144.8 U/l) in semen samples post-thawing. Extracellular water crystals were larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates frozen in NW-containing media. Ultrasonographic examinations on day 40 post-AI revealed higher (P < 0.05) conception rates in ewes inseminated with NW (78.3%) compared with DW semen (58.3%), and the percentages of ewes that carried lambs to term were 73.3% and 45.0% in NW and DW groups, respectively (P

  4. The utility of nanowater for ram semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Grygier, Joanna; Patkowski, Krzysztof; Oszczęda, Zdzisław; Jelkin, Igor; Kosiek, Anna; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Szymanowska, Anna; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Zieba, Dorota A; Bartlewski, Pawel M

    2015-05-01

    Nanowater (NW; water declusterized in the low-temperature plasma reactor) has specific physicochemical properties that could increase semen viability after freezing and hence fertility after artificial insemination (AI) procedures. The main goal of this study was to evaluate ram semen quality after freezing in the media containing NW. Ejaculates from 10 rams were divided into two equal parts, diluted in a commercially available semen extender (Triladyl®; MiniTüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany) prepared with deionized water (DW) or NW, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility and morphology using the sperm class analyzer system and light microscopy. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed to determine the size of extracellular water crystals in frozen semen samples. Survival time at room temperature, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations post-thawing as well as conception/lambing rates after laparoscopic intrauterine AI of 120 ewes were also determined. There were no significant differences between DW and NW groups in sperm progressive motility (26.4 ± 12.2 and 30.8 ± 12.4%) or survival time (266.6 ± 61.3 and 270.9 ± 76.7 min) after thawing and no differences in the percentages of spermatozoa with various morphological defects before or after freezing. There were, however, differences (P < 0.05) in AspAT (DW: 187.1 ± 160.4 vs. NW: 152.7 ± 118.3 U/l) and ALP concentrations (DW: 2198.3 ± 1810.5 vs. NW: 1612.1 ± 1144.8 U/l) in semen samples post-thawing. Extracellular water crystals were larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates frozen in NW-containing media. Ultrasonographic examinations on day 40 post-AI revealed higher (P < 0.05) conception rates in ewes inseminated with NW (78.3%) compared with DW semen (58.3%), and the percentages of ewes that carried lambs to term were 73.3% and 45.0% in NW and DW groups, respectively (P < 0.01). In summary, the use of a semen

  5. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  6. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  7. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  8. Laser Boost of a Small Interstellar Ram Jet to Obtain Operational Velocity. Implications for the DM Rocket/Ram Jet Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcott Beckwith, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    In other conference research papers, Beckwith obtained a maximum DM mass/energy value of up to 5 TeV, as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a dark matter ram jet. The consequences are from assuming that axions are CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then ρWarm-Dark-Matter would dominate not only structure formation in early universe formation, but would also influence the viability of the DM ram jet applications for interstellar travel. The increase in convertible DM mass makes the ram jet a conceivable option. This paper in addition to describing the scientific issues leading to that 5 TeV mass for DM also what are necessary and sufficient laser boost systems which would permit a ram net to become operational.

  9. Metamaterial Absorber Based Multifunctional Sensor Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Z.; Mamedov, A. M.; Ozbay, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study metamaterial based (MA) absorber sensor, integrated with an X-band waveguide, is numerically and experimentally suggested for important application including pressure, density sensing and marble type detecting applications based on rectangular split ring resonator, sensor layer and absorber layer that measures of changing in the dielectric constant and/or the thickness of a sensor layer. Changing of physical, chemical or biological parameters in the sensor layer can be detected by measuring the resonant frequency shifting of metamaterial absorber based sensor. Suggested MA based absorber sensor can be used for medical, biological, agricultural and chemical detecting applications in microwave frequency band. We compare the simulation and experimentally obtained results from the fabricated sample which are good agreement. Simulation results show that the proposed structure can detect the changing of the refractive indexes of different materials via special resonance frequencies, thus it could be said that the MA-based sensors have high sensitivity. Additionally due to the simple and tiny structures it could be adapted to other electronic devices in different sizes.

  10. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  11. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  12. NGC 4438: Ram pressure sweeping of a tidally disrupted galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, J. E.; Vangorkom, Jacqueline H.

    1990-01-01

    NGC 4438 is the highly HI deficient peculiar spiral in the center of the Virgo cluster. Observations are given of the neutral hydrogen emission obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA) in the D-array configuration. These observations map out the total HI as determined from single dish measurements, and show the hydrogen to be confined to a region about one third the size of the optical disk and displaced to the side of the galaxy opposite M87. The hydrogen content of the galaxy is over an order of magnitude less than that expected for a galaxy of its type. The data suggest that the HI deficiency is a result of ram pressure stripping of the gas in the outer regions of the galaxy by the hot intracluster medium after being tidally perturbed.

  13. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  14. Environment, Ram Pressure, and Shell Formation in Holmberg II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M.; Carignan, C.

    2002-03-01

    Neutral hydrogen VLA D-array observations of the dwarf irregular galaxy HoII, a prototype galaxy for studies of shell formation, are presented. These were extracted from the multiconfiguration data set of Puche and colleagues. H I is detected to radii over 16' or 4R25, almost a factor of 2 better than previous studies. The total H I mass MHI=6.44×108 Msolar. The integrated H I map has a comet-like appearance, with a large but faint component extending to the northwest and the H I appearing compressed on the opposite side. This suggests that HoII is affected by ram pressure from an intragroup medium (IGM). The velocity field shows a clear rotating disk pattern, and a rotation curve corrected for asymmetric drift was derived. However, the gas at large radii may not be in equilibrium. Puche and colleagues' multiconfiguration data were also reanalyzed, and it is shown that they overestimated their fluxes by over 20%. The rotation curve derived for HoII is well defined for r<~10 kpc. For 10<~r<~18 kpc, however, velocities are only defined on the approaching side, such that this part of the rotation curve should be used with caution. An analysis of the mass distribution, using the whole extent of this rotation curve, yields a total mass of 6.3×109 Msolar, of which ~80% is dark. Similarly to what is seen in many dwarfs, there is more luminous mass in H I than in stars. One peculiarity, however, is that luminous matter dominates within the optical body of the galaxy and dark matter only in the outer parts, analogous to what is seen in massive spirals rather than dwarfs. HoII lies northeast of the M81 Group's core, along with Kar 52 (M81 dwarf A) and UGC 4483. No signs of interaction are observed, however, and it is argued that HoII is part of the NGC 2403 subgroup, infalling toward M81. A case is made for ram pressure stripping and an IGM in the M81 Group. Stripping of the outer parts of the disk would require an IGM density nIGM>~4.0×10-6 atoms cm-3 at the location of

  15. Design of a ram accelerator mass launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarnio, Michael; Armerding, Calvin; Berschauer, Andrew; Christofferson, Erik; Clement, Paul; Gohd, Robin; Neely, Bret; Reed, David; Rodriguez, Carlos; Swanstrom, Fredrick

    1988-01-01

    The ram accelerator mass launch system has been proposed to greatly reduce the costs of placing acceleration-insensitive payloads into low earth orbit. The ram accelerator is a chemically propelled, impulsive mass launch system capable of efficiently accelerating relatively large masses from velocities of 0.7 km/sec to 10 km/sec. The principles of propulsion are based on those of a conventional supersonic air-breathing ramjet; however the device operates in a somewhat different manner. The payload carrying vehicle resembles the center-body of the ramjet and accelerates through a stationary tube which acts as the outer cowling. The tube is filled with premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixtures that burn in the vicinity of the vehicle's base, producing a thrust which accelerates the vehicle through the tube. This study examines the requirement for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500 km circular orbit with a minimum amount of on-board rocket propellant for orbital maneuvers. The goal is to achieve a 50 pct payload mass fraction. The proposed design requirements have several self-imposed constraints that define the vehicle and tube configurations. Structural considerations on the vehicle and tube wall dictate an upper acceleration limit of 1000 g's and a tube inside diameter of 1.0 m. In-tube propulsive requirements and vehicle structural constraints result in a vehicle diameter of 0.76 m, a total length of 7.5 m and a nose-cone half angle of 7 degrees. An ablating nose-cone constructed from carbon-carbon composite serves as the thermal protection mechanism for atmospheric transit.

  16. NGC 3312: A victim of ram pressure sweeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, P. M.; Richter, O.-G.; Vangorkom, Jacqueline H.; Ferguson, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are undertaking a volume limited survey of the Hydra I cluster in neutral hydrogen using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array (VLA). The main purpose is to study the effects of a dense environment on the gaseous component of the galaxies. Observational evidence has been accumulating recently that ram pressure sweeping does occur in the centers of clusters, but it is possible that tidal interactions play a role as well. Results of high resolution HI imaging of NGC 3312, the large peculiar spiral near the cluster center are presented. Hydra I (= A1060) is the nearest rich cluster beyond Virgo and, as such, presents a unique opportunity to do a complete survey of a cluster. It is similar to the Virgo cluster in many of its general physical characteristics, such as size, x ray luminosity, velocity dispersion, and galaxy content (high spiral fraction). However, Hydra I appears to be more regular and relaxed. This is evident in the x ray distribution in its central region, which is radially symmetric and centered on the dominant galaxy, NGC 3311, a cD-like elliptical. The observed x ray luminosity implies a central gas density of 4.5 x 10 to the 3rd power cm(-3). Gallagher (1978) argued from optical images of NGC 3312 that this galaxy might be an ideal candidate to directly study effects of the ram pressure process; it might currently be undergoing stripping of its interstellar medium. The researchers' data are consistent with this suggestion, but other origins of the peculiar appearance cannot yet be ruled out.

  17. User's guide for RAM. Volume II. Data preparation and listings

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.B.; Novak, J.H.

    1978-11-01

    The information presented in this user's guide is directed to air pollution scientists having an interest in applying air quality simulation models. RAM is a method of estimating short-term dispersion using the Gaussian steady-state model. These algorithms can be used for estimating air quality concentrations of relatively nonreactive pollutants for averaging times from an hour to a day from point and area sources. The algorithms are applicable for locations with level or gently rolling terrain where a single wind vector for each hour is a good approximation to the flow over the source area considered. Calculations are performed for eachmore » hour. Hourly meteorological data required are wind direction, wind speed, temperature, stability class, and mixing height. Emission information required of point sources consists of source coordinates, emission rate, physical height, stack diameter, stack gas exit velocity, and stack gas temperature. Emission information required of area sources consists of southwest corner coordinates, source side length, total area emission rate and effective area source-height. Computation time is kept to a minimum by the manner in which concentrations from area sources are estimated using a narrow plume hypothesis and using the area source squares as given rather than breaking down all sources into an area of uniform elements. Options are available to the user to allow use of three different types of receptor locations: (1) those whose coordinates are input by the user, (2) those whose coordinates are determined by the model and are downwind of significant point and area sources where maxima are likely to occur, and (3) those whose coordinates are determined by the model to give good area coverage of a specific portion of the region. Computation time is also decreased by keeping the number of receptors to a minimum. Volume II presents RAM example outputs, typical run streams, variable glossaries, and Fortran source codes.« less

  18. Ram Pressure Stripping and Morphological Transformation in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Michael; West, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The two largest spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster, NGC4911 and NGC4921, exhibit signs of being vigorously ram-pressure stripped by the hot intracluster medium. HST ACS and WFC3 images have revealed galactic scale shock fronts, giant "Pillars of Creation", rivulets of dust, and spatially coherent star formation in these grand design spirals. All evidence points to these galaxies being stressed by a global external source which can only be the hot intracluster medium (ICM). Inspired by these examples, we have obtained HST WFC3 imaging of five additional large spirals to search for and investigate the effects of ram pressure stripping across the wider Coma cluster. The results are equally spectacular as the first two examples. The geometry of the interactions in some cases allows us to estimate the various time scales involved, including gas flows out of the disk leading to creation of the ICM, and the attendant triggered star formation in the galaxy disks. The global star formation patterns and wholesale tidal stripping of matter yield insights into the spatial and temporal ISM-ICM interactions driving the evolution of galaxies in clusters and ultimately transforming their morphologies from spiral to S0. These processes, much more common in the early Universe, led to the wholesale morphological transformation of Hubble types during the assembly of rich clusters, when the intergalactic populations and hot ICM were first being created and laid down from such stripping and destruction of their member galaxies.We also report on two instrumental aspects of WFC3: 1) using the filter pair F350LP and F600LP to create an extremely broad pseudo Blue-Red color to achieve the greatest observing efficiency with HST, and 2) a WFC3 CCD effect which leads to apparent quantization of background counts, making automatic sky determination challenging when using drizzlepac routines.

  19. Absorbable Antimicrobial Battlefield Hemostat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    to graphene sheet and carbon nanotubes . Coupled with ABTS, the GQDs can be used for the detection of hydrogen peroxide with the limit of detection......dressing could be made of any material that is compatible to our coating solvent. Examples include gelatin based and cellulose based substrates. The

  20. mRNA Cap Methyltransferase, RNMT-RAM, Promotes RNA Pol II-Dependent Transcription.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dhaval; Lombardi, Olivia; Schweikert, Gabriele; Dunn, Sianadh; Suska, Olga; Cowling, Victoria H

    2018-05-01

    mRNA cap addition occurs early during RNA Pol II-dependent transcription, facilitating pre-mRNA processing and translation. We report that the mammalian mRNA cap methyltransferase, RNMT-RAM, promotes RNA Pol II transcription independent of mRNA capping and translation. In cells, sublethal suppression of RNMT-RAM reduces RNA Pol II occupancy, net mRNA synthesis, and pre-mRNA levels. Conversely, expression of RNMT-RAM increases transcription independent of cap methyltransferase activity. In isolated nuclei, recombinant RNMT-RAM stimulates transcriptional output; this requires the RAM RNA binding domain. RNMT-RAM interacts with nascent transcripts along their entire length and with transcription-associated factors including the RNA Pol II subunits SPT4, SPT6, and PAFc. Suppression of RNMT-RAM inhibits transcriptional markers including histone H2BK120 ubiquitination, H3K4 and H3K36 methylation, RNA Pol II CTD S5 and S2 phosphorylation, and PAFc recruitment. These findings suggest that multiple interactions among RNMT-RAM, RNA Pol II factors, and RNA along the transcription unit stimulate transcription. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  2. Inspection of Stryker Engines Evaluated Using SCPL in a 20K Mile RAM-D Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Availability, Maintainability, and Durability (RAM-D) test. The Caterpillar 3126 engine as tested was removed from the IAV Stryker, an 18 ton 8-wheeled...The objective of this work was to complete a tear down and inspection of two CAT 3126 engines as used in the IAV Stryker. A 20k mile RAM-D test was

  3. Single-Event Effect Response of a Commercial ReRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Label, Kenneth A.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Wilcox, Edward; Buchner, Stephen; Khachatrian, Ani; Roche, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We show heavy ion test results of a commercial production-level ReRAM. The memory array is robust to bit upsets. However the ReRAM system is vulnerable to SEFIs due to upsets in peripheral circuits, including the sense amplifier.

  4. Effect of ram semen extenders and supplements on computer assisted sperm analysis parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study evaluated the effects of ram semen extender and extender supplementation on computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) parameters positively correlated with progressive motility. Semen collected from 5 rams was distributed across treatment combinations consisting of either TRIS citrate (T) or ...

  5. RANGE RAM: a long-term planning method for managing grazing lands

    Treesearch

    Henricus C. Jansen

    1976-01-01

    Range RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a computerized planning method designed to assist range managers in developing and selecting alternatives in spatial and temporal allocation of resources. The technique is applicable at the frest or district management levels, or their equivalents. Range RAM can help formulate plans that maximize the production of range outputs...

  6. Analytical Studies of the Lift and Roll Stability of a Ram Air Cushion Vehicle

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-12-01

    A ram air cushion vehicle (a type of ram wing) is described schematically and compared with a conventional air cushion vehicle design. The nonlinear equations for the flow in the cushion region are derived. A review is made of the most recent literat...

  7. Innovative Anti Crash Absorber for a Crashworthy Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Michele; Marulo, Francesco; Montesarchio, Bruno; Bruno, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    This paper defines an innovative concept to anti-crash absorber in composite material to be integrated on the landing gear as an energy-absorbing device in crash conditions to absorb the impact energy. A composite cylinder tube in carbon fiber material is installed coaxially to the shock absorber cylinder and, in an emergency landing gear condition, collapses in order to enhance the energy absorption performance of the landing system. This mechanism has been developed as an alternative solution to a high-pressure chamber installed on the Agusta A129 CBT helicopter, which can be considered dangerous when the helicopter operates in hard and/or crash landing. The characteristics of the anti-crash device are presented and the structural layout of a crashworthy landing gear adopting the developed additional energy absorbing stage is outlined. Experimental and numerical results relevant to the material characterization and the force peaks evaluation of the system development are reported. The anti-crash prototype was designed, analysed, optimized, made and finally the potential performances of a landing gear with the additional anti-crash absorber system are tested by drop test and then correlated with a similar test without the anti-crash system, showing that appreciable energy absorbing capabilities and efficiencies can be obtained in crash conditions.

  8. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  9. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  10. Characterization of Time-Dependent Behavior of Ramming Paste Used in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orangi, Sakineh; Picard, Donald; Alamdari, Houshang; Ziegler, Donald; Fafard, Mario

    2015-12-01

    A new methodology was proposed for the characterization of time-dependent behavior of materials in order to develop a constitutive model. The material used for the characterization was ramming paste, a porous material used in an aluminum electrolysis cell, which is baked in place under varying loads induced by the thermal expansion of other components of the cell. In order to develop a constitutive model representing the paste mechanical behavior, it was necessary to get some insight into its behavior using samples which had been baked at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 1000 °C. Creep stages, effect of testing temperature on the creep, creep-recovery, as well as nonlinear creep were observed for designing a constitutive law. Uniaxial creep-recovery tests were carried out at two temperatures on the baked paste: ambient and higher. Results showed that the shape of creep curves was similar to a typical creep; recovery happened and the creep was shown to be nonlinear. Those experimental observations and the identification of nonlinear parameters of developed constitutive model demonstrated that the baked paste experiences nonlinear viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior at different temperatures.

  11. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin (<1 micron), polarization independent, extremely efficient absorbers (in principle being capable to reach A > 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  12. Brief review of emerging photovoltaic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    Photovoltaic solar cells have recently made significant commercial progress and are on track toward meeting more than 1% of global energy demand. However, further research is needed on photovoltaic technologies that face no scalability constraints in generating more than 10% of the world's electricity. This 2017 article briefly reviews emerging photovoltaic absorber materials, focusing on research progress over the past 2-3 years. Particular emphasis is given to emerging solar cell absorbers -- for example, SnS, Sb 2Se 3, Cu 2SnS 3, and CuSbSe 2 -- related to established solar cell technologies such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2, and CH 3NH 3PbImore » 3. Lastly, the general publication and performance trends are discussed, and the promising future research directions are pointed out.« less

  13. Brief review of emerging photovoltaic absorbers

    DOE PAGES

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2017-02-08

    Photovoltaic solar cells have recently made significant commercial progress and are on track toward meeting more than 1% of global energy demand. However, further research is needed on photovoltaic technologies that face no scalability constraints in generating more than 10% of the world's electricity. This 2017 article briefly reviews emerging photovoltaic absorber materials, focusing on research progress over the past 2-3 years. Particular emphasis is given to emerging solar cell absorbers -- for example, SnS, Sb 2Se 3, Cu 2SnS 3, and CuSbSe 2 -- related to established solar cell technologies such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2, and CH 3NH 3PbImore » 3. Lastly, the general publication and performance trends are discussed, and the promising future research directions are pointed out.« less

  14. Development of an innovative solar absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, Gavin

    Solar thermal systems have great potential to replace or reduce the dependence of conventional fossil fuel based heating technologies required for space and water heating. Specifically solar domestic hot water systems can contribute 50-75% of the annual thermal load. To date residential users have been slow to purchase and install systems, primarily due to the large monetary investment required to purchase and install a system. Recent innovations in materials design and manufacturing techniques, offer opportunities for the development of absorber plate designs that have the potential to reduce cost, increase efficiency and reduce payback periods. Consequently, this design study was conducted in conjunction with industrial partners to develop an improved absorber based on roll bond manufacturing that can be produced at reduced cost with comparable or greater thermal efficiency.

  15. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  16. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  17. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  18. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  19. Optimization of the acoustic absorption coefficients of certain functional absorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocsa, V.; Biborosch, L.; Veres, A.; Halpert, E.; Lorian, R.; Botos, T.

    1974-01-01

    The sound absorption coefficients of some functional absorbents (mineral wool plates) are determined by the reverberation chamber method. The influence of the angle of inclination of the sound absorbing material with respect to the surface to be treated is analyzed as well as the influence of the covering index, defined as the ratio of the designed area of a plate and the area of the treated surface belonging to another plate. As compared with the conventional method of applying sound-absorbing plates, the analyzed structures have a higher technological and economical efficiency. The optimum structure corresponds to an angle of inclination of 15 deg and a covering index of 0.8.

  20. Burnable absorber arrangement for fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, R.L.; Townsend, D.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor core whose operation is characterized by a substantial proportion of steam voids with concomitantly reduced moderation toward the top of the core when the reactor is in its hot operating condition. The reduced moderation leads to slower burnup and greater conversion ratio in an upper core region so that when the reactor is in its cold shut down condition the resulting relatively increased moderation in the upper core region is accompanied by a reactivity profile that peaks in the upper core region. A fuel assembly is described comprising; a component of fissile materialmore » distributed over a substantial axial extent of the fuel assembly; and a component of neutron absorbing material having an axial distribution characterized by an enhancement in an axial zone of the fuel assembly, designated the cold shutdown control zone, corresponding to at least a portion of the axial region of the core when the cold shutdown reactivity peaks. The aggregate amount of neutron absorbing material in the cold shutdown zone of the fuel assembly is greater than the aggregate amount of neutron absorbing material in the axial zones of the fuel assembly immediately above and immediately below the cold shutdown control zone whereby the cold shutdown reactivity peak is reduced relative to the cold shutdown reactivity in the zones immediately above and immediately below the cold shutdown control zone. The cold shutdown zone has an axial extent measured from the bottom of the fuel assembly in the range between 68-88 percent of the height of the fissile material in the fuel assembly.« less

  1. Influence of grazing management on the seasonal change in testicular morphology in Corriedale rams.

    PubMed

    Bielli, A; Pedrana, G; Gastel, M T; Castrillejo, A; Moraña, A; Lundeheim, N; Forsberg, M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1999-06-28

    The present study was conducted: (a) to determine the degree of seasonal variation in testis stereology in Corriedale rams between autumn and winter; (b) to test the hypothesis that testis stereology of Corriedale rams grazing native pastures during autumn and winter would differ from those of Corriedale rams grazing sown pastures and supplemented with grain during the same period; and (c) to determine whether Sertoli cell numbers differ in adult rams between the breeding season (autumn) and the following non-breeding season (winter). Twenty experimental animals were studied. Six rams (autumn control group, C-A) that had been grazing on native pasture (stocking rate = 2-3 animals ha(-1)) were castrated at the beginning of the experiment (March, early autumn). Seven rams (winter control group, C-W) continued to graze on native pasture at the same stocking rate until the end of the experiment (August, late winter). Another seven rams (treated group, T) grazed on improved pasture (stocking rate = 1-2 animals ha(-1)) and were supplemented with 1 kg grain ram(-1) day(-1) until the end of the experiment. Live weight, scrotal circumference, serum testosterone concentration and selected testicular stereological parameters were measured. The treatment did not impede the winter reduction in testicular activity and reduced its magnitude slightly (group T) compared with controls (group C-W). Sertoli cell numbers were higher in autumn (group C-A) than in winter, both on native (group C-W) and sown pastures (group T). Diminishing Sertoli cell numbers between autumn and the following winter suggest the occurrence of that Sertoli cell death during this period. The results indicate that, although the reproductive activity of Corriedale rams is moderately seasonal, a restricted change in grazing and grain supplementation can only modify it to a limited extent.

  2. Heart rate patterns during courtship and mating in rams and in estrous and nonestrous ewes ().

    PubMed

    Orihuela, A; Omaña, J C; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the heart rate (HR) patterns in rams mated with estrous or nonestrous ewes and in mated estrous and nonestrous ewes () during courtship and mating. For this purpose, HR and behavior were recorded using a radio telemetry recording system and a closed-circuit television system with video recording, respectively. Rams were joined with either an estrous ( = 10) or a nonestrous ( = 10) ewe that was restrained in a stanchion by the neck. Data were continuously recorded until each ram performed 3 ejaculations. Eight days later, the HR of the 10 estrous and 10 nonestrous ewes was recorded during mating. Although the time between entrance into the yard and the first ejaculation was similar across rams, rams that mounted estrous ewes were faster at attaining their second (3min5s ± 17 s vs. 5min28s ± 18 s) and third (7min58s ± 45 s vs. 12 min ± 1min14s) ejaculations (all < 0.05). By contrast, no differences in HR were observed between rams that interacted with estrous versus nonestrous ewes. In all cases, HR reached maximum values immediately after each ejaculation and the HR pattern was similar across ejaculations (first, second, and third). Although HR was similar between estrous and nonestrous ewes before mating, nonestrous ewes had higher HR ( < 0.05) during mating. In summary, 1) rams that mated estrous ewes displayed shorter interejaculation periods but HR did not differ between groups of rams during any ejaculation (first, second, or third), 2) HR for both groups of rams peaked shortly after each ejaculation, and 3) HR increased more in nonestrous than in estrous ewes while mating.

  3. The Magellanic Stream System. I. Ram-Pressure Tails and the Relics of the Collision Between the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200-300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n h = 10-4 cm-3 at 50-70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L MS. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  4. Hubble space telescope imaging of decoupled dust clouds in the ram pressure stripped Virgo spirals NGC 4402 and NGC 4522

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Anne; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P., E-mail: anne.abramson@yale.edu, E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu

    We present the highest-resolution study to date of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies undergoing ram pressure stripping, using Hubble Space Telescope BVI imaging of NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, Virgo Cluster spirals that are well known to be experiencing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure. We find that throughout most of both galaxies, the main dust lane has a fairly well-defined edge, with a population of giant molecular cloud (GMC) sized (tens- to hundreds-of-pc scale), isolated, highly extincting dust clouds located up to ∼1.5 kpc radially beyond it. Outside of these dense clouds, the area has little or no diffusemore » dust extinction, indicating that the clouds have decoupled from the lower-density ISM material that has already been stripped. Several of the dust clouds have elongated morphologies that indicate active ram pressure, including two large (kpc scale) filaments in NGC 4402 that are elongated in the projected ICM wind direction. We calculate a lower limit on the H I + H{sub 2} masses of these clouds based on their dust extinctions and find that a correction factor of ∼10 gives cloud masses consistent with those measured in CO for clouds of similar diameters, probably due to the complicating factors of foreground light, cloud substructure, and resolution limitations. Assuming that the clouds' actual masses are consistent with those of GMCs of similar diameters (∼10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), we estimate that only a small fraction (∼1%-10%) of the original H I + H{sub 2} remains in the parts of the disks with decoupled clouds. Based on Hα images, a similar fraction of star formation persists in these regions, 2%-3% of the estimated pre-stripping star formation rate. We find that the decoupled cloud lifetimes may be up to 150-200 Myr.« less

  5. THE MAGELLANIC STREAM SYSTEM. I. RAM-PRESSURE TAILS AND THE RELICS OF THE COLLISION BETWEEN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200–300 Myr ago, which has stripped theirmore » gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n{sub h} = 10{sup −4} cm{sup −3} at 50–70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L{sub MS}. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.« less

  6. Shear Ram Verification Test Protocol (VTP) Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Lindley, Roy A.; Braun, Joseph C.

    A blowout preventer (BOP) is a critical component used on subsea oil and gas wells during drilling, completion, and workover operations on the U. S. outer continental shelf (OCS). The purpose of the BOP is to seal oil and gas wells, and in the case of an emergency well-control event, to prevent the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons. One of the most important components of the BOP is the hydraulically operated blind shear ram (BSR) that shears drilling-related components, such as drill pipes, casings, tubings, and wire-related tools that may have been placed in the well. In addition to shearing thesemore » components, the BSR must form a seal to keep hydrocarbons within the well bore, even when under the highest well-fluid pressures expected. The purpose of this document is for Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide an independent view, based on current regulations, and best practices for testing and confirming the operability and suitability of BSRs under realistic (or actual) well conditions.« less

  7. Microscopic modeling of nitride intersubband absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Ines; Allerman, A. A.; Wierer, J. J.; Moseley, M.; Skogen, E. J.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Vawter, G. A.

    III-nitride intersubband structures have recently attracted much interest because of their potential for a wide variety of applications ranging from electro-optical modulators to terahertz quantum cascade lasers. To overcome present simulation limitations we have developed a microscopic absorbance simulator for nitride intersubband devices. Our simulator calculates the band structure of nitride intersubband systems using a fully coupled 8x8 k.p Hamiltonian and determines the material response of a single period in a density-matrix-formalism by solving the Heisenberg equation including many-body and dephasing contributions. After calculating the polarization due to intersubband transitions in a single period, the resulting absorbance of a superlattice structure including radiative coupling between the different periods is determined using a non-local Green's-function formalism. As a result our simulator allows us to predict intersubband absorbance of superlattice structures with microscopically determined lineshapes and linewidths accounting for both many-body and correlation contributions. This work is funded by Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin.

  8. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOEpatents

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  9. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO 2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO 2 removal was achieved with greater thanmore » 95% CO 2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO 2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.« less

  10. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved bymore » isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.« less

  11. Piston-rotaxanes as molecular shock absorbers.

    PubMed

    Sevick, E M; Williams, D R M

    2010-04-20

    We describe the thermomechanical response of a new molecular system that behaves as a shock absorber. The system consists of a rodlike rotaxane connected to a piston and tethered to a surface. The response of this system is dominated by the translational entropy of the rotaxane rings and can be calculated exactly. The force laws are contrasted with those for a rigid rod and a polymer. In some cases, the rotaxanes undergo a sudden transition to a tilted state when compressed. These piston-rotaxanes provide a potential motif for the design of a new class of materials with a novel thermomechanical response.

  12. Absorption-induced scattering and surface plasmon out-coupling from absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; O'Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between absorbers and plasmonic metasurfaces can give rise to unique optical properties not present for either of the individual materials and can influence the performance of a host of optical sensing and thin-film optoelectronic applications. Here we identify three distinct mode types of absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces: localized and propagating surface plasmons and a previously unidentified optical mode type called absorption-induced scattering. The extinction of the latter mode type can be tuned by controlling the morphology of the absorber coating and the spectral overlap of the absorber with the plasmonic modes. Furthermore, we show that surface plasmons are backscattered when the crystallinity of the absorber is low but are absorbed for more crystalline absorber coatings. This work furthers our understanding of light–matter interactions between absorbers and surface plasmons to enable practical optoelectronic applications of metasurfaces. PMID:26271900

  13. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  14. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    DOE PAGES

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer; ...

    2018-03-30

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  15. Simulation, fabrication and characterization of THz metamaterial absorbers.

    PubMed

    Grant, James P; McCrindle, Iain J H; Cumming, David R S

    2012-12-27

    Metamaterials (MM), artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be found in nature, have been widely explored since the first theoretical(1) and experimental demonstration(2) of their unique properties. MMs can provide a highly controllable electromagnetic response, and to date have been demonstrated in every technologically relevant spectral range including the optical(3), near IR(4), mid IR(5) , THz(6) , mm-wave(7) , microwave(8) and radio(9) bands. Applications include perfect lenses(10), sensors(11), telecommunications(12), invisibility cloaks(13) and filters(14,15). We have recently developed single band(16), dual band(17) and broadband(18) THz metamaterial absorber devices capable of greater than 80% absorption at the resonance peak. The concept of a MM absorber is especially important at THz frequencies where it is difficult to find strong frequency selective THz absorbers(19). In our MM absorber the THz radiation is absorbed in a thickness of ~ λ/20, overcoming the thickness limitation of traditional quarter wavelength absorbers. MM absorbers naturally lend themselves to THz detection applications, such as thermal sensors, and if integrated with suitable THz sources (e.g. QCLs), could lead to compact, highly sensitive, low cost, real time THz imaging systems.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Tracked Ram Air Cushion Vehicle

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    The results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a tracked ram air cushion vehicle are presented. Experiments have been conducted both in a wind tunnel with a model and section of guidewa...

  17. Reliable Acquisition of RAM Dumps from Intel-Based Apple Mac Computers over FireWire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Pavel; Almansoori, Afrah

    RAM content acquisition is an important step in live forensic analysis of computer systems. FireWire offers an attractive way to acquire RAM content of Apple Mac computers equipped with a FireWire connection. However, the existing techniques for doing so require substantial knowledge of the target computer configuration and cannot be used reliably on a previously unknown computer in a crime scene. This paper proposes a novel method for acquiring RAM content of Apple Mac computers over FireWire, which automatically discovers necessary information about the target computer and can be used in the crime scene setting. As an application of the developed method, the techniques for recovery of AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) conversation fragments from RAM dumps are also discussed in this paper.

  18. Basic and applied studies of the ram accelerator as a hypervelocity projectile launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, Adam P.; Knowlen, Carl

    1993-12-01

    The potential of using ram accelerator technology for an impulsive launcher of autonomously guided interceptors, such as the LEAP, has been studied during this contract period. In addition, fundamental investigations on some of the engineering issues which must be addressed for enabling ram accelerator propulsive modes to operate at 4 km/sec have been undertaken. An experimental investigation of the gas dynamic limits of ram accelerator operation has demonstrated the existence of two distinct limiting mechanisms that must be accounted for when designing projectiles for these launchers. Other experiments were conducted to make detailed pressure measurements of the flow fields at the tube walls to study the effects of projectile canting. Results from this LEAP launcher study and the experimental investigations indicate that the ram accelerator technology is well suited for applications as a transportable launcher capable of meeting the needs of theater ballistic missile defense missions.

  19. Aerodynamics of Tracked Ram Air Cushion Vehicles - Effects of Pitch Attitude and Upper Surface Flow

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-12-01

    Three types of experiments were conducted on geometrically similar model of a Tracked Ram Air Cushion Vehicle (TRACV). The first consisted of wind tunnel tests with the vehicle model positioned within a short segment of stationary guideway. In the se...

  20. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  1. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, Youngpak

    2015-09-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  2. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-01-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet–height and diameter– and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials. PMID:26354891

  3. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-09-10

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  4. Prolactin variants in ram adenohypophyses vary with season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. M.; Deaver, D. R.; Peters, J. L.; Loeper, D. C.; Toth, B. E.; Derr, J. A.; Hymer, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of PRL in sheep is affected by photoperiod being highest during the spring and summer, lowest in fall and winter. The objectives of this study were to determine if 1) the production of variant forms of PRL, and 2) immuno- and bioactivities of PRL (iPRL and bPRL) differ during times of the year selected to represent periods of low, transitional and high PRL secretion. Twelve mature rams were maintained on pasture and killed in October, December, and April (n = 4/month). Individual pituitary glands were dispersed, cells obtained, and fixed for immunocytochemical flow cytometry, extracted with 0.01 N NaHCO3 or cultured in serum-free, defined media. The Mr of PRL extracted from cells immediately following dispersion ranged from 14-140K, with significantly more bands greater than 40K being detected from rams sacrificed in December than from those killed in October and April (P less than 0.01). No bands of PRL greater than 25K were observed when samples were reduced with beta-mercaptoethanol prior to electrophoresis, indicating that the high Mr forms were disulfide-linked aggregates. Culture media from October and April contained variants of PRL that ranged from 22-40K but those greater than 25K were generally not observed from cells harvested during December. Extracts of cells after 24 h in culture contained fewer high Mr species during December than had been present in initial extracts from that month. In contrast, during April more high Mr intracellular forms were present after culture than had been detected prior to culture during that month. The percentage of lactotrophs averaged 50.0 +/- 2.5, 47.4 +/- 5.7, and 59.4 +/- 5.5 for October, December, and April, respectively. Initial lactotroph content (pg/lactotroph) of iPRL was higher (P = 0.06) in April (46.0 +/- 17.0) when compared to October and December (8.0 +/- 2.0 and 20.0 +/- 10.0, respectively). In contrast, the bPRL content of initial extracts was higher (P = 0.05) in December (267.0 +/- 68.0) than

  5. Basic and Applied Studies of the RAM Accelerator as a Hypervelocity Projectile Launcher

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-10

    The quasi-steady, one-dimensional "blackbox" model of thermally choked ram accelerator performance 18 that has been widely used by the authors and...the thermal choke point is assumed to be in equilibrium, the conditions can be determined by an equilibrium chemistry combustion routine. This model ...to operation, the details of the flow field must be examined. I The simplest model of the thermally choked ram accelerator flow field treats the flow

  6. Radiation immune RAM semiconductor technology for the 80's. [Random Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, W. A.; Panagos, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents current and short term future characteristics of RAM semiconductor technologies which were obtained by literature survey and discussions with cognizant Government and industry personnel. In particular, total ionizing dose tolerance and high energy particle susceptibility of the technologies are addressed. Technologies judged compatible with spacecraft applications are ranked to determine the best current and future technology for fast access (less than 60 ns), radiation tolerant RAM.

  7. Infertility in a Ram Associated with a Knobbed Acrosome Abnormality of the Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Savage, N. C.

    1984-01-01

    A yearling Rambouillet ram with an asymmetrical scrotum was examined for potential breeding soundness prior to use in a synchronized mating program in a purebred flock of 20 ewes. Initial sperm cell evaluation revealed 78% knobbed acrosomes associated with few other abnormalities of the head and midpiece. Use of the ram resulted in no conception in one group of ten synchronized ewes. One month later, the proportion of sperm cells with knobbed acrosomes was 80%. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422370

  8. Multi-wavelength access gate for WDM-formatted words in optical RAM row architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitsios, D.; Alexoudi, T.; Vagionas, C.; Miliou, A.; Kanellos, G. T.; Pleros, N.

    2013-03-01

    Optical RAM has emerged as a promising solution for overcoming the "Memory Wall" of electronics, indicating the use of light in RAM architectures as the approach towards enabling ps-regime memory access times. Taking a step further towards exploiting the unique wavelength properties of optical signals, we reveal new architectural perspectives in optical RAM structures by introducing WDM principles in the storage area. To this end, we demonstrate a novel SOAbased multi-wavelength Access Gate for utilization in a 4x4 WDM optical RAM bank architecture. The proposed multiwavelength Access Gate can simultaneously control random access to a 4-bit optical word, exploiting Cross-Gain-Modulation (XGM) to process 8 Bit and Bit channels encoded in 8 different wavelengths. It also suggests simpler optical RAM row architectures, allowing for the effective sharing of one multi-wavelength Access Gate for each row, substituting the eight AGs in the case of conventional optical RAM architectures. The scheme is shown to support 10Gbit/s operation for the incoming 4-bit data streams, with a power consumption of 15mW/Gbit/s. All 8 wavelength channels demonstrate error-free operation with a power penalty lower than 3 dB for all channels, compared to Back-to-Back measurements. The proposed optical RAM architecture reveals that exploiting the WDM capabilities of optical components can lead to RAM bank implementations with smarter column/row encoders/decoders, increased circuit simplicity, reduced number of active elements and associated power consumption. Moreover, exploitation of the wavelength entity can release significant potential towards reconfigurable optical cache mapping schemes when using the wavelength dimension for memory addressing.

  9. Absorber for microwave investigation in the open space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Roman; Smólski, Bogusław; Głuszewski, Wojciech; Przesmycki, Rafał; Rudyk, Karol

    2017-04-01

    In some circumstances there is a need to realize the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) investigation not in the specialized anechoic chamber but in the open space. Typical absorbers used in anechoic chamber to reduce the reflected rays from walls and floor, such as ferrite plates and graphite cones, are not suitable in the open space. In the work the investigation of the flexible absorbing material intended to the liquidation of the radiation reflected from the ground has been presented. As an absorbing material the metallic-glass with graphite was elaborated. This material was additionally exposed to the ionizing radiation in the dose of 100 kGy in the radioactive gamma source. The permittivity, permeability as well as the shielding properties have been analyzed.

  10. [Castration in the bull calf and ram lamb].

    PubMed

    Steiner, A; Janett, F

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the accepted techniques of pain relief and castration and guidelines of how to best perform these painful interventions in an animal-friendly way under Swiss conditions. Calves should be castrated at the age of 14 days or less, at least 10 minutes after local anesthesia with lidocaine, applying a single rubber ring. Concurrently, a NSAID should be administered intravenously (ketoprofen, 3 mg/kg of bodyweight) and Tetanus-serum subcutaneously (off label use). If possible, ketoprofen(4.5 mg/kg BW) should be orally administered for 3 - 5 days postoperatively. At 10 days after applying the rubber ring, the dried-off scrotum including the rubber ring should be removed with a clean knife or a scalpel. Local anesthesia is not necessary for this procedure. Ram lambs should be castrated at the age of 14 days or less, at least 10 minutes after local anesthesia with lidocaine, applying a rubber ring. The toxic dose of 4 mg lidocaine/kg BW (corresponds to 1 ml lidocaine 2 % per lamb of 5 kg BW) should not be exceeded. Concurrently, a NSAID (off label use) and Tetanus-serum should be administered systemically. Immunization against GnRH represents an animal-friendly and economically feasible alternative to rubber ring castration. With two immunizations at an interval of 3 - 4 weeks testicular development can be inhibited for at least 3 months and the onset of puberty clearly delayed. However, a specific vaccine for use in ruminants is currently registered neither in Switzerland nor in Europe.

  11. Use of gonadotropin releasing hormone to improve reproductive responses of ewes introduced to rams during seasonal anestrus.

    PubMed

    Jordan, K M; Inskeep, E K; Knights, M

    2009-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted on anestrous ewes of Suffolk, Dorset, and Katahdin breeding to examine the potential value of GnRH to improve ovulation and pregnancy in response to introduction of rams. In Experiment 1, treatment with GnRH 2d after treatment with progesterone (P(4); 25mg i.m.) at introduction of rams was compared to treatment with P(4) alone at the time of introduction of rams. Treatment with GnRH did not increase percentages of ewes with a corpus luteum (CL) 14d after introduction of rams, pregnant 32d after treatment with PGF(2)alpha 14d after introduction of rams, or percent of treated ewes lambing to all services. In Experiment 2, treatments with GnRH on day 2, 7, or both after introduction of rams were compared. Treatments did not differ in mean estrous response, percentages of ewes with a detectable CL or number of CL present on day 11, or mean pregnancy and lambing rates. Therefore, neither one nor two injections of GnRH at these times appeared to be effective to induce anestrous ewes to breed. In Experiment 3, treatments compared included GnRH 4d before introduction of rams, GnRH 4d before and 1d after introduction of rams, ram introduction alone, and treatment with P(4) (25mg i.m.) at the time of introduction of rams. Percentages of ewes with concentrations of P(4) greater than 1ng/mL (indicating formation of CL had occurred) 7d after ram introduction tended to be greater (P<0.07) in ewes treated with GnRH or P(4) than in control ewes treated with ram introduction alone. However, there was no difference in P(4) concentrations between groups by day 11 or 12 after introduction of rams. Estrous response rates and percentages of ewes pregnant 95d after PGF(2)alpha was administered (on day 12 after introduction of rams) tended to be greater (P=0.08 and 0.06, respectively) in ewes treated with GnRH or P(4) than in ewes exposed to rams only. There was no difference in response variables between ewes treated with GnRH 4d before introduction of

  12. Wave Absorber with Fine Weatherability for Improving ETC Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yu; Matsumoto, Kouta; Okada, Osamu; Hashimoto, Osamu

    Wave absorber of rubber sheet containing natural rubber and EPDM is designed, fabricated and measured for improving ETC environment. As a result, proposed absorption material has fine weatherability and wave absorption satisfied with ETC standard can be realized theoretically before and after the weatherability test if the thickness of absorber is fabricated at the ranging from 2.26mm to 2.52mm. Moreover, absorber sheet sample based on theoretical values is fabricated and are measured. As a result, 20dB or more is also confirmed at the incident angle ranging from 5 to 55 degrees experimentally. Therefore, the wave absorber with fine weatherability being satisfied with ETC standard can be realized.

  13. Broadband planar multilayered absorbers tuned by VO2 phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao; Ji, Chunhui; Lu, Lulu; Li, Zhe; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Jun; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Xu, Jimmy; Liu, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    The metal-insulator transition makes vanadium dioxide an attractive material for developing reconfigurable optoelectronic components. Here we report on dynamically tunable broadband absorbers consisting of planar multilayered thin films. By thermally triggering the phase transition of vanadium dioxide, the effective impedance of multilayered structures is tuned in or out of the condition of impedance matching to free-space, leading to switchable broadband absorptions. Two types of absorbers are designed and demonstrated by using either the insulating or metallic state of vanadium dioxide at the impedance matched condition. The planar multilayered absorbers exhibit tunable absorption bands over the wavelength ranges of 5-9.3 μm and 3.9-8.2 μm, respectively. A large modulation depth up to 88% is measured. The demonstrated broadband absorbance tunability is of potential interest for reconfigurable bolometric sensing, camouflaging, and modulation of mid-infrared lights.

  14. eRAM: encyclopedia of rare disease annotations for precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinmeng; An, Zhongxin; Ming, Yue; Guo, Yongli; Li, Wei; Liang, Yunxiang; Guo, Dongming; Li, Xin; Tai, Jun; Chen, Geng; Jin, Yaqiong; Liu, Zhimei; Ni, Xin; Shi, Tieliu

    2018-01-04

    Rare diseases affect over a hundred million people worldwide, most of these patients are not accurately diagnosed and effectively treated. The limited knowledge of rare diseases forms the biggest obstacle for improving their treatment. Detailed clinical phenotyping is considered as a keystone of deciphering genes and realizing the precision medicine for rare diseases. Here, we preset a standardized system for various types of rare diseases, called encyclopedia of Rare disease Annotations for Precision Medicine (eRAM). eRAM was built by text-mining nearly 10 million scientific publications and electronic medical records, and integrating various data in existing recognized databases (such as Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), Human Phenotype Ontology, Orphanet, OMIM, GWAS). eRAM systematically incorporates currently available data on clinical manifestations and molecular mechanisms of rare diseases and uncovers many novel associations among diseases. eRAM provides enriched annotations for 15 942 rare diseases, yielding 6147 human disease related phenotype terms, 31 661 mammalians phenotype terms, 10,202 symptoms from UMLS, 18 815 genes and 92 580 genotypes. eRAM can not only provide information about rare disease mechanism but also facilitate clinicians to make accurate diagnostic and therapeutic decisions towards rare diseases. eRAM can be freely accessed at http://www.unimd.org/eram/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Overview of the response of anoestrous ewes to the ram effect.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, R; Forsberg, M; Rubianes, E

    2004-01-01

    The present review summarises knowledge of the reproductive response of anoestrous ewes to the introduction of rams - in other words, the ram effect. The ovarian and endocrine response, the factors that determine whether ewes will respond or not (associated with both the stimulus and the receptivity of the ewes) and some aspects of practical management are discussed. Information on the use of the ram effect to stimulate post-partum, prepubertal and cyclic ewes is also given. New insights are provided on ovarian response patterns, including recently collected information on luteal responses. The existence of delayed ovulation (5-7 days after the introduction of the rams) followed by luteal phases of normal or short length, luteal cysts and luteinised follicles is reported after scanning the ovaries with ultrasound. Endocrine parameters for depth of anoestrus, such as LH pulsatility and FSH concentrations, and how the concentrations of these hormones should be considered are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the observation of spontaneous, higher LH pulsatility and higher FSH concentrations in anoestrous ewes that respond to rams with luteal phases than in those that fail to respond. The use of progestogen priming and single progestogen administration and the possible advantages for synchronisation of oestrus are also discussed. Other factors that should be considered before the ram effect is applied, such as the strength of the stimulus and some practical considerations, are also included.

  16. Determination of fatty acid profile in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Torres, M A; Bravo, S; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in male reproductive function because they are associated with membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction, sperm motility and viability, but limited information exists about the fatty acid profile of ram semen. Our aim was to determine the fatty acid composition in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Sixty ejaculates were obtained from three ram (20 ejaculates/ram) using artificial vagina. Ram spermatozoa (RS) and seminal plasma (SP) were separated using centrifugation, and the fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Total lipids obtained in ram spermatozoa were 1.8% and 1.6% in seminal plasma. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was proportionally major in SP (66.6%) that RS (49.9%). The highest proportions of SFA corresponded to C4:0 (RS = 16.3% and SP = 28.8%) and C16:0 (RS = 16.3% and PS = 20%). The most important unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 44.9% in RS and 31.5% in SP. The profile of fatty acid and their proportions showed differences between spermatozoa and seminal plasma. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Binder of Sperm Proteins 1 and 5 have contrasting effects on the capacitation of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Pini, Taylor; de Graaf, Simon P; Druart, Xavier; Tsikis, Guillaume; Labas, Valerie; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana Paula; Gadella, Barend M; Leahy, Tamara

    2018-06-01

    Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs) are the most abundant seminal plasma protein family in the ram and bull. They have been extensively studied in the bull but less is known about their function in ovine seminal plasma and current knowledge suggests that BSPs may have different effects in these two species. In the bull, they facilitate capacitation and destabilize the sperm membrane during in vitro handling, whereas in the ram, they appear to stabilize the sperm membrane and prevent cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. Further investigation into the effects of BSPs on ram spermatozoa under capacitating conditions is required to further clarify their physiological roles in the ram. We investigated the effects of Binder of Sperm Proteins 1 and 5 on epididymal ram spermatozoa in conditions of low, moderate, and high cAMP. BSPs had minimal effects on sperm function in low-cAMP conditions, but caused significant changes under cAMP upregulation. BSP1 stabilized the membrane and qualitatively reduced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, but significantly increased cholesterol efflux and induced spontaneous acrosome reactions. BSP5 slightly increased spontaneous acrosome reactions and caused sperm necrosis. However, BSP5 had minimal effects on membrane lipid order and cholesterol efflux and did not inhibit protein tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that under maximal cAMP upregulation, BSP1 affected ram spermatozoa in a manner comparable to bull spermatozoa, while BSP5 did not.

  18. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  19. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  20. Failure mechanisms in energy-absorbing composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; David, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Quasi-static tests are described for determination of the energy-absorption properties of composite crash energy-absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens were used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. These mechanisms are important for selecting composite materials for energy-absorbing structures, such as helicopter and aircraft sub-floors. Finite element models of the failure processes are described that could be the basis for materials selection and future design procedures for crashworthy structures.

  1. Smart skin spiral antenna with chiral absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-05-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest toward designing 'smart skins' for aircraft. The smart skin is a composite layer which may contain conformal radars, conformal microstrip antennas or spiral antennas for electromagnetic applications. These embedded antennas will give rise to very low radar cross section (RCS) or can be completely 'hidden' to tracking radar. In addition, they can be used to detect, monitor or even jam other unwanted electromagnetic field signatures. This paper is designed to address some technical advances made to reduce the size of spiral antennas using tunable dielectric materials and chiral absorbers. The purpose is to design, develop and fabricate a thin, wideband, conformal spiral antenna architecture that is structurally integrable and which uses advanced Penn State dielectric and absorber materials to achieve wideband ground planes, and together with low RCS. Traditional practice has been to design radome and antenna as separate entities and then resolve any interface problems during an integration phase. A structurally integrable conformal antenna, however, demands that the functional components be highly integrated both conceptually and in practice. Our concept is to use the lower skin of the radome as a substrate on which the radiator can be made using standard photolithography, thick film or LTCC techniques.

  2. [Study of new blended chemical absorbents to absorb CO2].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lian; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Yan, Shui-Ping; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2007-11-01

    Three kinds of blended absorbents were investigated on bench-scale experimental bench according to absorption rate and regeneration grade to select a reasonable additive concentration. The results show that, among methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine (PZ) mixtures, comparing MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4 (m : m) with MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.2 (m : m), the absorption rate is increased by about 70% at 0.2 mol x mol(-1). When regeneration lasting for 40 min, regeneration grade of blended absorbents with PZ concentration of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 is decreased to 83.06%, 77.77% and 76.67% respectively while 91.04% for PZ concentration of 0. MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4(m : m) is a suitable ratio for MDEA/PZ mixtures as absorption and regeneration properties of the blended absorbents are all improved. The aqueous blends with 10% primary amines and 2% tertiary amines could keep high CO2 absorption rate, and lower regeneration energy consumption. Adding 2% 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) to 10% diethanolamine (DEA), the blended amine solvents have an advantage in absorption and regeneration properties over other DEA/AMP mixtures. Blended solvents, which consist of a mixture of primary amines with a small amount of tertiary amines, have the highest absorption rate among the three. And mixed absorbents of secondary amines and a small amount of sterically hindered amines have the best regeneration property. To combine absorption and regeneration properties, blends with medium activator addition to tertiary amines are competitive.

  3. A ram-pressure threshold for star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    In turbulent fragmentation, star formation occurs in condensations created by converging flows. The condensations must be sufficiently massive, dense and cool to be gravitationally unstable, so that they start to contract; and they must then radiate away thermal energy fast enough for self-gravity to remain dominant, so that they continue to contract. For the metallicities and temperatures in local star-forming clouds, this second requirement is only met robustly when the gas couples thermally to the dust, because this delivers the capacity to radiate across the full bandwidth of the continuum, rather than just in a few discrete spectral lines. This translates into a threshold for vigorous star formation, which can be written as a minimum ram pressure PCRIT ˜ 4 × 10-11 dyne. PCRIT is independent of temperature, and corresponds to flows with molecular hydrogen number density n_{{H_2.FLOW}} and velocity vFLOW satisfying n_{{H_2.FLOW}} v_{FLOW}^2≳ 800 cm^{-3} (km s^{-1})^2. This in turn corresponds to a minimum molecular hydrogen column density for vigorous star formation, N_{{H_2.CRIT}} ˜ 4 × 10^{21} cm^{-2} (ΣCRIT ˜ 100 M⊙ pc-2), and a minimum visual extinction AV, CRIT ˜ 9 mag. The characteristic diameter and line density for a star-forming filament when this threshold is just exceeded - a sweet spot for local star formation regions - are 2RFIL ˜ 0.1 pc and μFIL ˜ 13 M⊙ pc-2. The characteristic diameter and mass for a prestellar core condensing out of such a filament are 2RCORE ˜ 0.1 pc and MCORE ˜ 1 M⊙. We also show that fragmentation of a shock-compressed layer is likely to commence while the convergent flows creating the layer are still ongoing, and we stress that, under this circumstance, the phenomenology and characteristic scales for fragmentation of the layer are fundamentally different from those derived traditionally for pre-existing layers.

  4. Continuous exposure to sexually active rams extends estrous activity in ewes in spring.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Flores, J A; Keller, M; Duarte, G; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual activity in sheep is under photoperiodic control, which is the main environmental factor responsible for the seasonality of reproduction. However, other natural environmental factors such as presence of conspecifics can slightly influence the timing of onset and offset of the breeding season. In goats, we have found that the continuous presence of bucks that were rendered sexually active out of season by previous exposure to long days, prevented goats from displaying seasonal anestrus, which suggests that the relative contribution of photoperiod in controlling seasonal anestrus should be reevaluated in small ruminant species. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of sexually active rams that had been stimulated by artificial photoperiod and melatonin implants, reduces seasonal anestrus in sheep, by prolonging ovulatory activity in spring. Ewes were assigned to one of two groups (n = 16 and 15), which were housed in two separate barns, and kept in contact, either with the treated or the control rams between March and July. Vasectomized rams were either exposed to 2 months of long days followed by the insertion of three subcutaneous melatonin implants (treated rams, n = 8), or exposed to natural light conditions (control rams, n = 2). Estrus was monitored daily, and weekly plasma progesterone analyses indicated ovulatory activity. Ewes that were exposed to treated rams exhibited a higher proportion of monthly estrus than ewes exposed to the control rams (P < 0.05). Thirteen of 15 ewes (one ewe was not considered because of the presence of persistent CL) exposed to stimulated rams exhibited estrous behavior in a cyclic manner. In contrast, all ewes exposed to control rams stopped estrous activity for a period of time during the study, such that this group exhibited a significantly longer anestrous season (mean ± standard error of the mean 89 ± 9 days) than did the ewes housed with treated rams (26 ± 10 days; P < 0

  5. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDIES OF SPECTACULAR RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING OF A GALAXY: DISCOVERY OF AN X-RAY ABSORPTION FEATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Liyi; Makishima, Kazuo; Yagi, Masafumi

    We report the detection of an X-ray absorption feature near the galaxy M86 in the Virgo cluster. The absorber has a column density of 2-3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, and its position coincides with the peak of an intracluster H I cloud which was removed from the galaxy NGC 4388 presumably by ram pressure. These results indicate that the H I cloud is located in front of M86 along the line-of-sight, and suggest that the stripping was primarily created by an interaction between NGC 4388 and the hot plasmas of the Virgo cluster, not the M86 halo. By calculatingmore » an X-ray temperature map, we further detected an X-ray counterpart of the H I cloud up to ≈3' south of M86. It has a temperature of 0.89 keV and a mass of ∼4.5 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, exceeding the estimated H I gas mass. The high hot-to-cold gas ratio in the cloud indicates a significant evaporation of the H I gas, probably by thermal conduction from the hotter cluster plasma with a sub-Spitzer rate.« less

  6. Kinematics of ram filter feeding and beat-glide swimming in the northern anchovy Engraulis mordax.

    PubMed

    Carey, Nicholas; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2017-08-01

    In the dense aquatic environment, the most adept swimmers are streamlined to reduce drag and increase the efficiency of locomotion. However, because they open their mouth to wide gape angles to deploy their filtering apparatus, ram filter feeders apparently switch between diametrically opposite swimming modes: highly efficient, streamlined 'beat-glide' swimming, and ram filter feeding, which has been hypothesized to be a high-cost feeding mode because of presumed increased drag. Ram filter-feeding forage fish are thought to play an important role in the flux of nutrients and energy in upwelling ecosystems; however, the biomechanics and energetics of this feeding mechanism remain poorly understood. We quantified the kinematics of an iconic forage fish, the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax , during ram filter feeding and non-feeding, mouth-closed beat-glide swimming. Although many kinematic parameters between the two swimming modes were similar, we found that swimming speeds and tailbeat frequencies were significantly lower during ram feeding. Rather than maintain speed with the school, a speed which closely matches theoretical optimum filter-feeding speeds was consistently observed. Beat-glide swimming was characterized by high variability in all kinematic parameters, but variance in kinematic parameters was much lower during ram filter feeding. Under this mode, body kinematics are substantially modified, and E. mordax swims more slowly and with decreased lateral movement along the entire body, but most noticeably in the anterior. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic effects that come with deployment of the filtering anatomy may limit behavioral options during foraging and result in slower swimming speeds during ram filtration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Stable fixation with absorbable sutures in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Linz, C; Kunz, F; Krauß, J; Böhm, H; Wirth, C; Hartmann, S; Wirbelauer, J; Schweitzer, T

    2016-05-01

    The present study analyses the exclusive use of absorbable suture material (Vicryl(®), Ethicon, Germany) in the fixation of transposed bone segments in craniofacial surgery without modification of the osteotomy design. Among 129 children up to 24 months of age, osteosynthesis was conducted exclusively with Vicryl(®) sutures. The stability of postoperative results was evaluated and possible foreign body reactions were examined within the framework of clinical and radiological routine checks. All examined children exhibited stable postoperative conditions while the length of hospital stay was not affected. X-ray examinations of the skull in two planes demonstrated good bony union in all cases. Relevant foreign body reactions were not observed. The exclusive application of absorbable suture material enables stable and cost effective osteosynthesis. Significant foreign body reactions were not observed. The exclusive use of absorbable sutures did not alter the osteotomy design. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  9. Wideband-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Injected Liquid Metal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-08-22

    Metamaterial absorbers can provide good solutions for radar-cross-section (RCS) reduction. In spite of their attractive features of thinness, lightness, and low cost, resonant metamaterial absorbers have a drawback of narrow bandwidth. For practical radar applications, wideband absorbers are necessary. In this paper, we propose a wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using liquid metal. In order to reduce RCS both for X-band and C-band, the switchable Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator is introduced. The JC resonator consists of slotted circular rings, chip resistors, and microfluidic channels. The JC resonator is etched on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), and the microfluidic channels are laser-etched on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can switch the absorption frequency band by injecting a liquid metal alloy into the channels. The performance of the absorber was demonstrated through full-wave simulation and through measurements employing prototypes. The experimental results showed absorption ratios of over 90% from 7.43 GHz to 14.34 GHz, and from 5.62 GHz to 7.3 GHz, with empty channels and liquid metal-filled channels, respectively. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the C-band (4-8 GHz) and the X-band (8-12 GHz) by injecting liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) into the channels.

  10. Wideband-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Injected Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-08-01

    Metamaterial absorbers can provide good solutions for radar-cross-section (RCS) reduction. In spite of their attractive features of thinness, lightness, and low cost, resonant metamaterial absorbers have a drawback of narrow bandwidth. For practical radar applications, wideband absorbers are necessary. In this paper, we propose a wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using liquid metal. In order to reduce RCS both for X-band and C-band, the switchable Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator is introduced. The JC resonator consists of slotted circular rings, chip resistors, and microfluidic channels. The JC resonator is etched on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), and the microfluidic channels are laser-etched on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can switch the absorption frequency band by injecting a liquid metal alloy into the channels. The performance of the absorber was demonstrated through full-wave simulation and through measurements employing prototypes. The experimental results showed absorption ratios of over 90% from 7.43 GHz to 14.34 GHz, and from 5.62 GHz to 7.3 GHz, with empty channels and liquid metal-filled channels, respectively. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the C-band (4-8 GHz) and the X-band (8-12 GHz) by injecting liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) into the channels.

  11. Characterization of Bi and Fe co-doped PZT capacitors for FeRAM.

    PubMed

    Cross, Jeffrey S; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Wada, Satoshi; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2010-08-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has been in mass production for over 15 years. Higher polarization ferroelectric materials are needed for future devices which can operate above about 100 °C. With this goal in mind, co-doping of thin Pb(Zr 40 ,Ti 60 )O 3 (PZT) films with 1 at.% Bi and 1 at.% Fe was examined in order to enhance the ferroelectric properties as well as characterize the doped material. The XRD patterns of PZT-5% BiFeO 3 (BF) and PZT 140-nm thick films showed (111) orientation on (111) platinized Si wafers and a 30 °C increase in the tetragonal to cubic phase transition temperature, often called the Curie temperature, from 350 to 380 °C with co-doping, indicating that Bi and Fe are substituting into the PZT lattice. Raman spectra revealed decreased band intensity with Bi and Fe co-doping of PZT compared to PZT. Polarization hysteresis loops show similar values of remanent polarization, but square-shaped voltage pulse-measured net polarization values of PZT-BF were higher and showed higher endurance to repeated cycling up to 10 10 cycles. It is proposed that Bi and Fe are both in the +3 oxidation state and substituting into the perovskite A and B sites, respectively. Substitution of Bi and Fe into the PZT lattice likely creates defect dipoles, which increase the net polarization when measured by the short voltage pulse positive-up-negative-down (PUND) method.

  12. Characterization of Bi and Fe co-doped PZT capacitors for FeRAM

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Jeffrey S; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Wada, Satoshi; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has been in mass production for over 15 years. Higher polarization ferroelectric materials are needed for future devices which can operate above about 100 °C. With this goal in mind, co-doping of thin Pb(Zr40,Ti60)O3 (PZT) films with 1 at.% Bi and 1 at.% Fe was examined in order to enhance the ferroelectric properties as well as characterize the doped material. The XRD patterns of PZT-5% BiFeO3 (BF) and PZT 140-nm thick films showed (111) orientation on (111) platinized Si wafers and a 30 °C increase in the tetragonal to cubic phase transition temperature, often called the Curie temperature, from 350 to 380 °C with co-doping, indicating that Bi and Fe are substituting into the PZT lattice. Raman spectra revealed decreased band intensity with Bi and Fe co-doping of PZT compared to PZT. Polarization hysteresis loops show similar values of remanent polarization, but square-shaped voltage pulse-measured net polarization values of PZT-BF were higher and showed higher endurance to repeated cycling up to 1010 cycles. It is proposed that Bi and Fe are both in the +3 oxidation state and substituting into the perovskite A and B sites, respectively. Substitution of Bi and Fe into the PZT lattice likely creates defect dipoles, which increase the net polarization when measured by the short voltage pulse positive-up-negative-down (PUND) method. PMID:27877349

  13. PT-symmetric laser absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2010-09-15

    In a recent work, Y. D. Chong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010)] proposed the idea of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) as the time-reversed counterpart of a laser, in which a purely incoming radiation pattern is completely absorbed by a lossy medium. The optical medium that realizes CPA is obtained by reversing the gain with absorption, and thus it generally differs from the lasing medium. Here it is shown that a laser with an optical medium that satisfies the parity-time (PT) symmetry condition {epsilon}(-r)={epsilon}*(r) for the dielectric constant behaves simultaneously as a laser oscillator (i.e., it canmore » emit outgoing coherent waves) and as a CPA (i.e., it can fully absorb incoming coherent waves with appropriate amplitudes and phases). Such a device can thus be referred to as a PT-symmetric CPA laser. The general amplification or absorption features of the PT CPA laser below lasing threshold driven by two fields are determined.« less

  14. Lessons Learned from Application of System and Software Level RAMS Analysis to a Space Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N.; Esper, A.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this article represents the results of applying RAMS analysis to a critical space control system, both at system and software levels. The system level RAMS analysis allowed the assignment of criticalities to the high level components, which was further refined by a tailored software level RAMS analysis. The importance of the software level RAMS analysis in the identification of new failure modes and its impact on the system level RAMS analysis is discussed. Recommendations of changes in the software architecture have also been proposed in order to reduce the criticality of the SW components to an acceptable minimum. The dependability analysis was performed in accordance to ECSS-Q-ST-80, which had to be tailored and complemented in some aspects. This tailoring will also be detailed in the article and lessons learned from the application of this tailoring will be shared, stating the importance to space systems safety evaluations. The paper presents the applied techniques, the relevant results obtained, the effort required for performing the tasks and the planned strategy for ROI estimation, as well as the soft skills required and acquired during these activities.

  15. Galactic star formation enhanced and quenched by ram pressure in groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    We investigate how ram pressure of intragroup and intracluster medium can influence the spatial and temporal variations of star formation (SF) of disc galaxies with halo masses (Mh) ranging from 1010 to 1012 M⊙ (i.e. from dwarf irregular to Milky Way-type) in groups and clusters with 1013 ≤ Mh/M⊙ ≤ 1015 by using numerical simulations with a new model for time-varying ram pressure. The long-term evolution of SF rates and Hα morphologies corresponding to the distributions of star-forming regions are particularly investigated for different model parameters. The principal results are as follows. Whether ram pressure can enhance or reduce SF depends on Mh of disc galaxies and inclination angles of gas discs with respect to their orbital directions for a given orbit and a given environment. For example, SF can be moderately enhanced in disc galaxies with Mh = 1012 M⊙ at the pericentre passages in a cluster with Mh = 1014 M⊙ whereas it can be completely shut down (`quenching') for low-mass discs with Mh = 1010 M⊙. Ram pressure can reduce the Hα-to-optical-disc-size ratios of discs and the level of the reduction depends on Mh and orbits of disc galaxies for a given environment. Disc galaxies under strong ram pressure show characteristic Hα morphologies such as ring-like, one-sided and crescent-like distributions.

  16. Polymers used to absorb fats and oils: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    One approach to problem of excessive oils and fats is to develop method by which oil is absorbed into solid mixture for elimination as solid waste. Materials proposed for these purposes are cross-linked (network) polymers that have high affinity for aliphatic substances, i. e., petroleum, animal, and vegetable oils.

  17. Cu-In Halide Perovskite Solar Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Yang, Dongwen; Sun, Yuanhui; Li, Tianshu; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Liping; Zunger, Alex

    2017-05-17

    The long-term chemical instability and the presence of toxic Pb in otherwise stellar solar absorber APbX 3 made of organic molecules on the A site and halogens for X have hindered their large-scale commercialization. Previously explored ways to achieve Pb-free halide perovskites involved replacing Pb 2+ with other similar M 2+ cations in ns 2 electron configuration, e.g., Sn 2+ or by Bi 3+ (plus Ag + ), but unfortunately this showed either poor stability (M = Sn) or weakly absorbing oversized indirect gaps (M = Bi), prompting concerns that perhaps stability and good optoelectronic properties might be contraindicated. Herein, we exploit the electronic structure underpinning of classic Cu[In,Ga]Se 2 (CIGS) chalcopyrite solar absorbers to design Pb-free halide perovskites by transmuting 2Pb to the pair [B IB + C III ] such as [Cu + Ga] or [Ag + In] and combinations thereof. The resulting group of double perovskites with formula A 2 BCX 6 (A = K, Rb, Cs; B = Cu, Ag; C = Ga, In; X = Cl, Br, I) benefits from the ionic, yet narrow-gap character of halide perovskites, and at the same time borrows the advantage of the strong Cu(d)/Se(p) → Ga/In(s/p) valence-to-conduction-band absorption spectra known from CIGS. This constitutes a new group of CuIn-based Halide Perovskite (CIHP). Our first-principles calculations guided by such design principles indicate that the CIHPs class has members with clear thermodynamic stability, showing direct band gaps, and manifesting a wide-range of tunable gap values (from zero to about 2.5 eV) and combination of light electron and heavy-light hole effective masses. Materials screening of candidate CIHPs then identifies the best-of-class Rb 2 [CuIn]Cl 6 , Rb 2 [AgIn]Br 6 , and Cs 2 [AgIn]Br 6 , having direct band gaps of 1.36, 1.46, and 1.50 eV, and theoretical spectroscopic limited maximal efficiency comparable to chalcopyrites and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 . Our finding offers a new routine for designing new-type Pb-free halide perovskite solar

  18. Effects of Long-Term Flutamide Treatment during Development on Sexual Behavior and Hormone Responsiveness in Rams

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Charles E.; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred; Estill, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) exposure during midgestation differentiates neural circuits controlling sex-specific behaviors and patterns of gonadotropin secretion in male sheep. T acts through androgen receptors (AR) and/or after aromatization to estradiol and binding to estrogen receptors. The current study assessed the role of AR activation in male sexual differentiation. We compared rams that were exposed to the AR antagonist flutamide (Flu) throughout the critical period (i.e. day 30 – 90 of gestation) to control rams and ewes that received no prenatal treatments. The external genitalia of all Flu rams were phenotypically female. Testes were positioned subcutaneously in the inguinal region of the abdomen, exhibited seasonally impaired androgen secretion and were azospermic. Flu rams displayed male-typical precopulatory and mounting behaviors, but could not intromit or ejaculate because they lacked a penis. Flu rams exhibited greater mounting behavior than control rams, and like controls, showed sexual partner preferences for estrous ewes. Neither control nor Flu rams responded to estradiol treatments with displays of female-typical receptive behavior or LH surge responses; whereas all control ewes responded as expected. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus in Flu rams was intermediate in volume between control rams and ewes and significantly different from both. . These results indicate that prenatal antiandrogen exposure is not able to block male sexual differentiation in sheep and suggest that compensatory mechanisms intervene to maintain sufficient androgen stimulation during development. PMID:27005749

  19. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  20. CAN IBEX DETECT INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM OR OXYGEN FROM ANTI-RAM DIRECTIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Park, J.

    To better constrain the parameters of the interstellar neutral flow, we searched the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX)-Lo database for helium and oxygen from the interstellar medium in the anti-ram direction in the three years (2009–2011) with the lowest background rates. We found that IBEX-Lo cannot observe interstellar helium from the anti-ram direction because the helium energy is too low for indirect detection by sputtering off the IBEX-Lo conversion surface. Our results show that this sputtering process has a low energy threshold between 25 and 30 eV, whereas the energy of the incident helium is only 10 eV for these observations.more » Interstellar oxygen, on the other hand, could in principle be detected in the anti-ram hemisphere, but the expected magnitude of the signal is close to the detection limit imposed by counting statistics and by the magnetospheric foreground.« less

  1. Antioxidant Effect of Xanthan Gum on Ram Sperm after Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed

    Gastal, G DA; Silva, E F; Mion, B; Varela Junior, A S; Rosa, C E; Corcini, C D; Mondadori, R G; Vieira, A D; Bianchi, I; Lucia, T

    Xanthan gum is used as thickener in media to preserve food products, having cryoprotectant and antioxidant properties that may be relevant for sperm cryopreservation. To evaluate the effects of adding xanthan gum to freezing extenders on post-thawing quality and oxidant activity of ram sperm. Ejaculates from seven rams extended TRIS-egg yolk-glycerol were split in three treatments including xanthan gum (0.15%; 0.20%; and 0.25%) and a control with no xanthan gum. After thawing, motility and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with 0.20% and 0.25% xanthan gum were lower than for the control (P < 0.05), but mitochondrial functionality and integrity of membrane, acrosome and DNA did not differ (P > 0.05). Xanthan gum at 0.20% and 0.25% may be an efficient antioxidant for frozen-thawed ram sperm, due to the reduction in ROS production.

  2. Electronic and thermally tunable infrared metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrekenhamer, David; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Brinkley, Matthew; Fan, Kebin; Peng, Fenglin; Montoya, John A.; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson; Padilla, Willie J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report a computational and experimental study using tunable infrared (IR) metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) to demonstrate frequency tunable (7%) and amplitude modulation (61%) designs. The dynamic tuning of each structure was achieved through the addition of an active material—liquid crystals (LC) or vanadium dioxide (VO2)-within the unit cell of the MMA architecture. In both systems, an applied stimulus (electric field or temperature) induced a dielectric change in the active material and subsequent variation in the absorption and reflection properties of the MMA in the mid- to long-wavelength region of the IR (MWIR and LWIR, respectively). These changes were observed to be reversible for both systems and dynamic in the LC-based structure.

  3. Review of radiation effects on ReRAM devices and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Velo, Yago; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Kozicki, Michael N.

    2017-08-01

    A review of the ionizing radiation effects on resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology and devices is presented in this article. The review focuses on vertical devices exhibiting bipolar resistance switching, devices that have already exhibited interesting properties and characteristics for memory applications and, in particular, for non-volatile memory applications. Non-volatile memories are important devices for any type of electronic and embedded system, as they are for space applications. In such applications, specific environmental issues related to the existence of cosmic rays and Van Allen radiation belts around the Earth contribute to specific failure mechanisms related to the energy deposition induced by such ionizing radiation. Such effects are important in non-volatile memory as the current leading technology, i.e. flash-based technology, is sensitive to the total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event effects. New technologies such as ReRAM, if competing with or complementing the existing non-volatile area of memories from the point of view of performance, also have to exhibit great reliability for use in radiation environments such as space. This has driven research on the radiation effects of such ReRAM technology, on both the conductive-bridge RAM as well as the valence-change memories, or OxRAM variants of the technology. Initial characterizations of ReRAM technology showed a high degree of resilience to TID, developing researchers’ interest in characterizing such resilience as well as investigating the cause of such behavior. The state of the art of such research is reviewed in this article.

  4. Parametric study on the performance of automotive MR shock absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołdasz, J.; Dzierżek, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper contains the results of a parametric study to explore the influence of various quantities on the performance range of semi-active automotive shock absorbers using the magnetorheological (MR) fluid under steady-state and transient excitations. The analysis was performed with simulated data and using a standard single-tube shock absorber configuration with a single-gap MR valve. Additionally, the impact of material variables and valves geometry was examined as the parameters were varied and its dynamic range studied.

  5. Influence of distiller's dried grains with solubles on ram lamb growth and reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Crane, Alison R; Redden, Reid R; Crouse, Matthew S; Kirsch, James D; Borowicz, Pawel P; Held, Jeffrey E; Swanson, Kendall C; Schauer, Christopher S

    2018-04-14

    The hypothesis of this experiment was that increasing the inclusion level of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diets would decrease semen quality but have no negative effects on growth performance. Following the removal of DDGS from the diet, it was hypothesized that the ram lambs would recover and become reproductively sound, independent of treatment. To test this hypothesis, Suffolk and Hampshire ram lambs (n = 112) were allocated to 4 treatments (n = 4 pens per treatment; 7 rams per pen) in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments were 60% corn, 25% oats, and 15% commercial lamb pellet (CON), 15% of the ration as DDGS substituted for corn (% DM basis; 15DDGS), 30% of the ration as DDGS substituted for corn (% DM basis; 30DDGS), and 45% of the ration as DDGS substituted for corn (% DM basis; 45DDGS). Lambs were fed for 112 d on their respective treatment, after which they were placed on the CON ration until day 168. Lambs were weighed on consecutive d at the beginning (days 0 and 1) and end (days 167 and 168) of the study. Scrotal circumference was measured on all lambs on days 84, 112, 140, and 168. Semen samples were collected on a subset of 64 rams (4 rams per pen) to evaluate semen quality on days 84, 112, 140, and 168. Blood samples were collected on the same subset of rams every 14 d throughout the study. A quadratic effect on BW on day 112 and overall BW (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively), ADG on day 112 and overall ADG (P = 0.02 and P = 0.02, respectively), DMI (P = 0.007) on day 112, and a cubic effect (P = 0.05) for overall G:F were observed. Overall and day 168 scrotal circumference had a quadratic (P = 0.05) response. A linear increase in spermatozoa concentration on day 168 was observed (P = 0.03) as DDGS concentration increased in the treatment diets, although rams in this stage of the study were no longer receiving DDGS. Overall, testosterone concentrations exhibited a linear decrease (P = 0.005) as DDGS increased

  6. A Search for Ram-pressure Stripping in the Hydra I Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ram-pressure stripping is a method by which hot interstellar gas can be removed from a galaxy moving through a group or cluster of galaxies. Indirect evidence of ram-pressure stripping includes lowered X-ray brightness in a galaxy due to less X-ray emitting gas remaining in the galaxy. Here we present the initial results of our program to determine whether cluster elliptical galaxies have lower hot gas masses than their counterparts in less rich environments. This test requires the use of the high-resolution imaging of the Chandra Observatory and we present our analysis of the galaxies in the nearby cluster Hydra I.

  7. A Search for Ram-pressure Stripping in the Hydra I Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B. A.

    2005-01-01

    Ram-pressure stripping is a method by which hot interstellar gas can be removed from a galaxy moving through a group or cluster of galaxies. Indirect evidence of ram-pressure stripping includes lowered X- ray brightness in a galaxy due to less X-ray emitting gas remaining in the galaxy. Here we present the initial results of our program to determine whether cluster elliptical galaxies have lower hot gas masses than their counterparts in less rich environments. This test requires the use of the high-resolution imaging of the Chundru Observatory and we present our analysis of the galaxies in the nearby cluster Hydra I.

  8. Error analysis and prevention of cosmic ion-induced soft errors in static CMOS RAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, S. E.; Ochoa, A., Jr.; Dressendorfer, P. V.; Koga, P.; Kolasinski, W. A.

    1982-12-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with memory cells are known to cause temporary, random, bit errors in some designs. The sensitivity of polysilicon gate CMOS static RAM designs to logic upset by impinging ions has been studied using computer simulations and experimental heavy ion bombardment. Results of the simulations are confirmed by experimental upset cross-section data. Analytical models have been extended to determine and evaluate design modifications which reduce memory cell sensitivity to cosmic ions. A simple design modification, the addition of decoupling resistance in the feedback path, is shown to produce static RAMs immune to cosmic ray-induced bit errors.

  9. Reliability and Maintainability Model (RAM): User and Maintenance Manual. Part 2; Improved Supportability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the procedures for utilizing and maintaining the Reliability & Maintainability Model (RAM) developed by the University of Dayton for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose of the grant is to provide support to NASA in establishing operational and support parameters and costs of proposed space systems. As part of this research objective, the model described here was developed. This Manual updates and supersedes the 1995 RAM User and Maintenance Manual. Changes and enhancements from the 1995 version of the model are primarily a result of the addition of more recent aircraft and shuttle R&M data.

  10. A 16K-bit static IIL RAM with 25-ns access time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inabe, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Kawarada, K.; Miwa, H.; Ogiue, K.

    1982-04-01

    A 16,384 x 1-bit RAM with 25-ns access time, 600-mW power dissipation, and 33 sq mm chip size has been developed. Excellent speed-power performance with high packing density has been achieved by an oxide isolation technology in conjunction with novel ECL circuit techniques and IIL flip-flop memory cells, 980 sq microns (35 x 28 microns) in cell size. Development results have shown that IIL flip-flop memory cell is a trump card for assuring achievement of a high-performance large-capacity bipolar RAM, in the above 16K-bit/chip area.

  11. Optical RAM-enabled cache memory and optical routing for chip multiprocessors: technologies and architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleros, Nikos; Maniotis, Pavlos; Alexoudi, Theonitsa; Fitsios, Dimitris; Vagionas, Christos; Papaioannou, Sotiris; Vyrsokinos, K.; Kanellos, George T.

    2014-03-01

    The processor-memory performance gap, commonly referred to as "Memory Wall" problem, owes to the speed mismatch between processor and electronic RAM clock frequencies, forcing current Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) configurations to consume more than 50% of the chip real-estate for caching purposes. In this article, we present our recent work spanning from Si-based integrated optical RAM cell architectures up to complete optical cache memory architectures for Chip Multiprocessor configurations. Moreover, we discuss on e/o router subsystems with up to Tb/s routing capacity for cache interconnection purposes within CMP configurations, currently pursued within the FP7 PhoxTrot project.

  12. Reproductive performance of postpartum ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Silva, J C; Basto, Srl; Tenório Filho, F; Moura, M T; Silva Filho, M L; Oliveira, Mal

    2017-08-01

    The reproductive performance of postpartum Santa Inês (SI) and Morada Nova (MN) ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect was evaluated. Ewes from SI (n = 69) and MN (n = 69) breeds were randomly allocated to three groups of each breed (T1-ram effect only; T2-ram effect + insulin; T3-ram effect + progesterone). Progesterone concentrations (ηg/ml; mean ± SD) before and after introduction of rams (n = 6) were 0.51 ± 0.22 and 3.78 ± 0.68 (T1), 0.65 ± 0.21 and 3.77 ± 0.78 (T2) and 0.52 ± 0.21 and 3.84 ± 0.84 (T3) in SI ewes and 0.74 ± 0.19 and 3.71 ± 0.56 (T1), 0.70 ± 0.21 and 3.79 ± 0.75 (T2) and 0.81 ± 0.14 and 3.87 ± 0.80 (T3) in MN ewes, respectively. Thus, lower progesterone concentrations were found before the introduction of rams (p < .05). After the introduction of rams, preovulatory peaks of LH (ηg/ml) occurred at 28 (T1), 44 (T2) and 48 (T3) hr in SI ewes and at 64 (T1), 40 (T2) and 44 (T3) hr in MN ewes. The mean number of ovulations was similar between groups (p > .05), was 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.5 ± 0.54 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in SI ewes and 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.6 ± 0.51 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in MN ewes. In conclusion, the ram effect alone is effective at inducing and synchronizing oestrus in sheep under postpartum anoestrus, irrespective of hormone treatments. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Rich, Mélanie K; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-08-08

    Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots. We have carried out a transcript profiling experiment by RNAseq of mycorrhizal plants vs. non-mycorrhizal controls in wild type and ram1 mutants. The results show that the expression of early genes required for AM, such as the strigolactone biosynthetic genes and the common symbiosis signalling genes, is independent of RAM1. In contrast, genes that are involved at later stages of symbiosis, for example for nutrient exchange in cortex cells, require RAM1 for induction. RAM1 itself is highly induced in mycorrhizal roots together with many other transcription factors, in particular GRAS proteins. Since RAM1 has previously been shown to be directly activated by the common symbiosis signalling pathway through CYCLOPS, we conclude that it acts as an early transcriptional switch that induces many AM-related genes, among them genes that are essential for the development of arbuscules, such as STR, STR2, RAM2, and PT4, besides hundreds of additional RAM1-dependent genes the role of which in symbiosis remains to be explored. Taken together, these results indicate that the defect in the morphogenesis of the fungal arbuscules in ram1 mutants may be an indirect consequence of functional defects in the host, which interfere with nutrient exchange and possibly other functions on which the fungus depends.

  14. Repair of orbital floor fractures with absorbable gelatin film.

    PubMed

    Mermer, R W; Orban, R E

    1995-01-01

    Many materials have been utilized for the repair of orbital floor fractures. Absorbable gelatin film is a bioabsorbable sheeting material that is manufactured from denatured collagen. This material is appropriate for the repair of smaller orbital floor defects (5 mm or less) and trapdoor-type fractures; it is used with larger defects as an interpositional graft material between the periorbital tissues and as an orbital floor reconstruction plate or mesh. Sixteen cases consisting of both types of defects were retrospectively examined clinically and radiographically. Satisfactory results were obtained in all of these cases, including no adverse ocular signs or implant rejection, good facial form, good function, and acceptable postoperative radiography results.

  15. Reflection and Refraction of Light in Absorbing Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Koichi; Sasaki, Shosuke

    2018-05-01

    The results of a rigorous calculation of optical phenomena in absorbing media based on Maxwell's equations are reported. In the case of an absorbing dielectric, we assume a complex dielectric constant. We find an expression for the angle of refraction as a function of the incident angle and the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant, all of which are real. The amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves are calculated on the same footing. These amplitudes are shown to be complex, from which we deduce the magnitude and phase change of the reflection and transmission coefficients. The same argument applies to an absorbing magnetic material if we replace the complex dielectric constant by a complex magnetic permeability.

  16. Laser Beam Melting of Alumina: Effect of Absorber Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniz, Liliana; Colin, Christophe; Bartout, Jean-Dominique; Terki, Karim; Berger, Marie-Hélène

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic laser beam melting offers new manufacturing possibilities for complex refractory structures. Poor absorptivity in near infra-red wavelengths of oxide ceramics is overcome with absorber addition to ceramic powders. Absorbers affect powder bed densities and geometrical stability of melted tracks. Optimum absorber content is defined for Al2O3 by minimizing powder bed porosity, maximizing melting pool geometrical stability and limiting shrinkage. Widest stability fields are obtained with addition of 0.1 wt.% C and 0.5 wt.% β-SiC. Absorption coefficient values of Beer-Lambert law follow stability trends: they increase with C additions, whereas with β-SiC, a maximum is reached for 0.5 wt.%. Powder particle ejections are also identified. Compared to metallic materials, this ejection phenomenon can no longer be neglected when establishing a three-dimensional manufacturing strategy.

  17. Midwavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors with superlattice absorbers and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lin; Li, Lu; Lotfi, Hossein; Ye, Hao; Yang, Rui Q.; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a comparison study of the electrical and optical properties of a set of device structures with different numbers of cascade stages, type-II superlattice (T2SL) absorber thickness, and doping variations, as well as a noncurrent-matched interband cascade infrared photodetectors (ICIP) structure with equal absorbers. Multistage ICIPs were demonstrated to be capable of operating at high temperatures at zero-bias with superior carrier transport over comparable conventional one-stage detectors. Based on the temperature dependence and bias sensitivity of their responsivities with various absorber thicknesses, the diffusion length is estimated to be between 0.6 and 1.0 μm for T2SL materials at high temperatures (>250 K). A comparison of responsivities between current matched ICIPs with varied absorber thicknesses and noncurrent-matched ICIPs with equal absorbers shows that the current-matching among cascade stages is necessary to maximize responsivity. Additionally, electrical gain exceeding unity is demonstrated in these detectors in the reverse-illumination configuration.

  18. Objective assessment of sperm motion characteristics of Malpura ram lambs raised under intensive management system in semiarid tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Davendra; Joshi, Anil; Naqvi, S M K

    2010-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the semen production and sperm motion characteristics of ram lambs by computer-aided semen analysis technique. Eight Malpura rams were raised under intensive management system and were trained for semen collection at a weekly interval from the age of 6 months. Rams were scheduled for semen collection at a weekly interval up to 1 year of age to assess their potential for semen production and objective evaluation of semen quality. The average age of ram lambs at the time of first ejaculation was 219 days ranging from 186 to 245 days. The age of ram lambs significantly (p < 0.05) influenced sperm concentration, sperm velocities, and beat frequency of spermatozoa, which were higher in 9-12-month-old compared to 6-9-month-old ram lambs. However, the effect of age was not significant on semen volume, percent motility, percent rapid, medium or slow motile spermatozoa, percent linearity, percent straightness, amplitude of lateral head displacement, percent elongation, and area of sperm head. The body weight of ram lambs was significantly (p < 0.01) and positively correlated (r = 0.46) with age. The results indicate that Malpura ram lambs of 9-12 months of age raised under the intensive management system in a semiarid tropical environment can produce good quality of semen.

  19. Timber RAM. . .a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management

    Treesearch

    Daniel I. Navon

    1971-01-01

    Timber RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management. Timber RAM can produce cutting and reforestation schedules and related harvest and economic reports. Each schedule optimizes an index of performance, subject to periodic constraints on revenues, costs, and, harvest levels. Periodic...

  20. Novel quad-band terahertz metamaterial absorber based on single pattern U-shaped resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen

    2017-03-01

    A novel quad-band terahertz metamaterial absorber using four different modes of single pattern resonator is demonstrated. Four obvious frequencies with near-perfect absorption are realized. Near-field distributions of the four modes are provided to reveal the physical picture of the multiple-band absorption. Unlike most previous quad-band absorbers that typically require four or more patterns, the designed absorber has only one resonant structure, which is simpler than previous works. The presented quad-band absorber has potential applications in biological sensing, medical imaging, and material detection.

  1. Microwave absorbance properties of zirconium–manganese substituted cobalt nanoferrite as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Kishwar, E-mail: kknano@hotmail.com; Rehman, Sarish

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Good candidates for EM materials with low reflectivity. • Good candidates for broad bandwidth at microwave frequency. • Microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the Zr–Mn. • Higher the Zr–Mn content, the higher absorption rates for the electromagnetic radiation. • The predicted reflection loss shows that this can be used for thin ferrite absorber. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zr–Mn (x) substituted Co ferrite having chemical formula CoFe{sub 2−2x}Zr{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1–0.4) was prepared by co-precipitation technique. Combining properties such as structural, electrical, magnetic and reflection loss characteristics. Crystal structure and surface morphology of themore » calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By using two point probe homemade resistivity apparatus to find resistivity of the sample. Electromagnetic (EM) properties are measured through RF impedance/materials analyzer over 1 MHz–3 GHz. The room-temperature dielectric measurements show dispersion behavior with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Magnetic properties confirmed relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization on Zr–Mn composition. Curie temperature is also found to decrease linearly with addition of Zr–Mn. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of microwave reflection loss (RL) is carried out as a function of substitution, frequency, and thickness. Composition accompanying maximum microwave absorption is suggested.« less

  2. Imaging through atmospheric turbulence for laser based C-RAM systems: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buske, Ivo; Riede, Wolfgang; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    High Energy Laser weapons (HEL) have unique attributes which distinguish them from limitations of kinetic energy weapons. HEL weapons engagement process typical starts with identifying the target and selecting the aim point on the target through a high magnification telescope. One scenario for such a HEL system is the countermeasure against rockets, artillery or mortar (RAM) objects to protect ships, camps or other infrastructure from terrorist attacks. For target identification and especially to resolve the aim point it is significant to ensure high resolution imaging of RAM objects. During the whole ballistic flight phase the knowledge about the expectable imaging quality is important to estimate and evaluate the countermeasure system performance. Hereby image quality is mainly influenced by unavoidable atmospheric turbulence. Analytical calculations have been taken to analyze and evaluate image quality parameters during an approaching RAM object. In general, Kolmogorov turbulence theory was implemented to determine atmospheric coherence length and isoplanatic angle. The image acquisition is distinguishing between long and short exposure times to characterize tip/tilt image shift and the impact of high order turbulence fluctuations. Two different observer positions are considered to show the influence of the selected sensor site. Furthermore two different turbulence strengths are investigated to point out the effect of climate or weather condition. It is well known that atmospheric turbulence degenerates image sharpness and creates blurred images. Investigations are done to estimate the effectiveness of simple tip/tilt systems or low order adaptive optics for laser based C-RAM systems.

  3. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Harvey Cushing: two forefathers of neuroscience and neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Berridi, Grettel J; Pendleton, Courtney; Ruiz, Gabriel; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-11-01

    To summarize the extraordinary accomplishments, and the commonalities, between Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Harvey Williams Cushing. Existing literature describing the lives and achievements of Ramón y Cajal and Cushing, as well as personal communication, and the surgical records of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, from 1896 to 1912, were reviewed. Both Ramón y Cajal and Cushing were men of unusually broad interests and talents, and these shared characteristics undoubtedly influenced the career paths and scientific investigations they pursued. Although Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Harvey Williams Cushing never directly interacted, the links between them can be traced through some of their disciples, including Pío del Río Hortega, Wilder Penfield, and Percival Bailey. Ramón y Cajal and Cushing are widely considered the forefathers of neuroscience and neurosurgery, respectively, and their discoveries have made lasting impressions on both the scientific and medical communities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing interfertility data with random amplified microsatellites DNA (RAMS) studies in Ganoderma Karst. Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Nudin, Nur Fatihah Hasan; S, Siddiquee

    2012-03-01

    The taxonomy of the causal pathogen of basal stem rot of oil palms, Ganoderma is somewhat problematic at present. In order to determine the genetic distance relationship between G. boninense isolates and non-boninense isolates, a random amplified microsatellites DNA (RAMS) technique was carried out. The result was then compared with interfertility data of G. boninense that had been determined in previous mating studies to confirm the species of G. boninense. Dendrogram from cluster analysis based on UPGMA of RAMS data showed that two major clusters, I and II which separated at a genetic distance of 0.7935 were generated. Cluster I consisted of all the biological species G. boninense isolates namely CNLB, GSDK 3, PER 71, WD 814, GBL 3, GBL 6, OC, GH 02, 170 SL and 348781 while all non-boninense isolates namely G. ASAM, WRR, TFRI 129, G. RES, GJ, and CNLM were grouped together in cluster II. Although the RAMS markers showed polymorphisms in all the isolates tested, the results obtained were in agreement with the interfertility data. Therefore, the RAMS data could support the interfertility data for the identification of Ganoderma isolates.

  5. Towing Tank Tests on a Ram Wing in a Rectangular Guideway

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-07-01

    The object of the study was to set the theoretical and experimental basis for a preliminary design of a ram wing vehicle. A simplified one-dimensional mathematical model is developed in an attempt to estimate the stability derivatives of this type of...

  6. Integration of RAMS in LCC analysis for linear transport infrastructures. A case study for railways.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle-Cordón, Álvaro; Jiménez-Redondo, Noemi; Morales-Gámiz, F. J.; García-Villena, F. A.; Garmabaki, Amir H. S.; Odelius, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis is an economic technique used to assess the total costs associated with the lifetime of a system in order to support decision making in long term strategic planning. For complex systems, such as railway and road infrastructures, the cost of maintenance plays an important role in the LCC analysis. Costs associated with maintenance interventions can be more reliably estimated by integrating the probabilistic nature of the failures associated to these interventions in the LCC models. Reliability, Maintainability, Availability and Safety (RAMS) parameters describe the maintenance needs of an asset in a quantitative way by using probabilistic information extracted from registered maintenance activities. Therefore, the integration of RAMS in the LCC analysis allows obtaining reliable predictions of system maintenance costs and the dependencies of these costs with specific cost drivers through sensitivity analyses. This paper presents an innovative approach for a combined RAMS & LCC methodology for railway and road transport infrastructures being developed under the on-going H2020 project INFRALERT. Such RAMS & LCC analysis provides relevant probabilistic information to be used for condition and risk-based planning of maintenance activities as well as for decision support in long term strategic investment planning.

  7. Where Is the Individual? Comments on Nesselroade, Gerstorf, Hardy and Ram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2007-01-01

    Nesselroade, Gerstorf, Hardy, and Ram have done a marvelous job in discussing the methodological issues for a meaningful revival of the idiographic versus nomothetic debate that has flared up periodically over the past seven decades. Nesselroade et al. have previously attempted to resolve the paradox that all behavior occurs at the individual…

  8. SIMULATION OF SULFATE AEROSOL IN EAST ASIA USING MODELS-3/CMAQ WITH RAMS METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study attempts to address a few challenges in utilizing the flexibility of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. We apply the CMAQ system with the meteorological data provided by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and to a...

  9. Reversibility and safety of KISS1 metastasis suppressor gene vaccine in immunocastration of ram lambs

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility and safety of KISS1 metastasis suppressor (KISS1) gene vaccine in immunocastration. Methods Six eight-week old ram lambs were randomly divided into vaccinated and control groups. The vaccine (1 mg/ram lamb) was injected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 of the study. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before primary immunization and at weeks 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 22, and 30 after primary immunization. All ram lambs were slaughtered at 38 weeks of age, and samples were collected. Results The specific anti-KISS1 antibody titers in vaccinated animals were significantly higher and the serum testosterone level was significantly lower than those in the control groups from week 4 to 14 after primary immunization (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed at weeks 22 and 30 after the primary immunization. Similar results were also found for scrotal circumference, testicular weight, length, breadth, and spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules in week 30 after primary immunization. KS (KISS1-hepatitis B surface antigen S) fusion fragment of KISS1 gene vaccine was not detected in host cell genomic DNA of 9 tissues of the vaccinated ram lambs by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion The effects of KISS1 gene vaccine in immunocastration were reversible and no integration events were recorded. PMID:29268573

  10. Reversibility and safety of KISS1 metastasis suppressor gene vaccine in immunocastration of ram lambs.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan-Guo; Liu, Gui-Qiong; Jiang, Xun-Ping; Xiang, Xing-Long; Huang, Yong-Fu; Nie, Bin; Zhao, Jia-Yu; Nabeel, Ijaz; Tesema, Birhanu

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility and safety of KISS1 metastasis suppressor ( KISS1 ) gene vaccine in immunocastration. Six eight-week old ram lambs were randomly divided into vaccinated and control groups. The vaccine (1 mg/ram lamb) was injected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 of the study. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before primary immunization and at weeks 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 22, and 30 after primary immunization. All ram lambs were slaughtered at 38 weeks of age, and samples were collected. The specific anti- KISS1 antibody titers in vaccinated animals were significantly higher and the serum testosterone level was significantly lower than those in the control groups from week 4 to 14 after primary immunization (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed at weeks 22 and 30 after the primary immunization. Similar results were also found for scrotal circumference, testicular weight, length, breadth, and spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules in week 30 after primary immunization. KS ( KISS1 -hepatitis B surface antigen S ) fusion fragment of KISS1 gene vaccine was not detected in host cell genomic DNA of 9 tissues of the vaccinated ram lambs by polymerase chain reaction. The effects of KISS1 gene vaccine in immunocastration were reversible and no integration events were recorded.

  11. Evaluation of semen extenders for short-term storage of ram semen at 4° C

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preliminary studies found that progressive motility of ram sperm declined ~75% when stored at 4° C for 24 h, and continued to decline over time when using extenders supplemented with 5% egg yolk. The current study evaluated the effects of different combinations of extenders, ethylene glycol (EG), eg...

  12. Binder of Sperm Proteins protect ram spermatozoa from freeze-thaw damage.

    PubMed

    Pini, Taylor; Farmer, Kiri; Druart, Xavier; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana Paula; Tsikis, Guillaume; Labas, Valerie; Leahy, Tamara; de Graaf, Simon P

    2018-06-01

    Cryopreservation causes sub-lethal damage which limits the fertility of frozen thawed spermatozoa. Seminal plasma has been investigated as a cryoprotectant, but has yielded inconsistent results due to considerable variation in its constituents. Individual seminal plasma proteins offer an ideal alternative to whole seminal plasma, and several have been correlated with freezing success. Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs) are abundant ram seminal plasma proteins which have been suggested to have significant protective effects on ram spermatozoa during cold shock. This is in direct opposition to bull spermatozoa, where BSPs cause sperm deterioration during in vitro handling. We investigated the potential of BSP1 and BSP5 to prevent freezing associated damage to important functional parameters of ram spermatozoa. BSPs purified by size exclusion chromatography improved post thaw motility and penetration through artificial mucus. Highly purified BSP1 and BSP5, isolated by gelatin affinity and RP-HPLC, improved motility and membrane integrity, and reduced post thaw protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Exposure to BSP5 before freezing increased the amount of phosphatidylethanolamine on the sperm surface after thawing. Neither BSP1 nor BSP5 prevented freezing associated changes in membrane lipid disorder. These results suggest that BSPs may significantly improve freezing outcomes of ram spermatozoa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the Absorbing Aerosol Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Joyce; Zhang, Sophia

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to model the absorbing aerosol index and improve the biomass carbon inventories by optimizing the difference between TOMS aerosol index (AI) and modeled AI with an inverse model. Two absorbing aerosol types are considered, including biomass carbon and mineral dust. A priori biomass carbon source was generated by Liousse et al [1996]. Mineral dust emission is parameterized according to surface wind and soil moisture using the method developed by Ginoux [2000]. In this initial study, the coupled CCM1 and GRANTOUR model was used to determine the aerosol spatial and temporal distribution. With modeled aerosol concentrations and optical properties, we calculate the radiance at the top of the atmosphere at 340 nm and 380 nm with a radiative transfer model. The contrast of radiance at these two wavelengths will be used to calculate AI. Then we compare the modeled AI with TOMS AI. This paper reports our initial modeling for AI and its comparison with TOMS Nimbus 7 AI. For our follow-on project we will model the global AI with aerosol spatial and temporal distribution recomputed from the IMPACT model and DAO GEOS-1 meteorology fields. Then we will build an inverse model, which applies a Bayesian inverse technique to optimize the agreement of between model and observational data. The inverse model will tune the biomass burning source strength to reduce the difference between modelled AI and TOMS AI. Further simulations with a posteriori biomass carbon sources from the inverse model will be carried out. Results will be compared to available observations such as surface concentration and aerosol optical depth.

  14. Ultra-thin and -broadband microwave magnetic absorber enhanced by phase gradient metasurface incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ya; Wang, Jiafu; Li, Yongfeng; Pang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Lin; Xiang, Jiayu; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-05-01

    Based on the effect of anomalous reflection and refraction caused by the circularly cross-polarized phase gradient metasurface (PGM), an ultra-thin and -broadband composite absorber composed of metasurface and conventional magnetic absorbing film is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. In the case of keeping nearly the same thickness of absorbing layer, the equivalent thickness of magnetic absorbing film is enlarged by the effect of anomalous reflection and refraction, resulting in the expansion and improvement of the absorbing bandwidth and efficiency in low microwave frequency. A biarc metallic sub-cell for circularly crossed polarization is adopted to form a broadband phase gradient, by the means of rotating the Pancharatnam–Berry phases. As indicated in the experimental results, the fabricated 3.6 mm-thick absorber can averagely absorb microwave energy with the specular reflection below  ‑10 dB in the frequency interval of 2–12 GHz, which shows a good match with simulated results. Due to ultra-thin thickness and ultra-wide operating bandwidth, the proposed application of PGM in absorbing can provide an alternative way to enhance the absorbing property of current absorbing materials.

  15. A Fluidically Tunable Metasurface Absorber for Flexible Large-Scale Wireless Ethanol Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-08-06

    In this paper, a novel flexible tunable metasurface absorber is proposed for large-scale remote ethanol sensor applications. The proposed metasurface absorber consists of periodic split-ring-cross resonators (SRCRs) and microfluidic channels. The SRCR patterns are inkjet-printed on paper using silver nanoparticle inks. The microfluidic channels are laser-etched on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can detect changes in the effective permittivity for different liquids. Therefore, the absorber can be used for a remote chemical sensor by detecting changes in the resonant frequencies. The performance of the proposed absorber is demonstrated with full-wave simulation and measurement results. The experimental results show the resonant frequency increases from 8.9 GHz to 10.04 GHz when the concentration of ethanol is changed from 0% to 100%. In addition, the proposed absorber shows linear frequency shift from 20% to 80% of the different concentrations of ethanol.

  16. Investigation into the energy-absorbing properties of multilayered circular thin-walled tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Aidong; Liu, Chuanhua; Hu, Gongli; Gu, Hongjun

    2002-05-01

    With the rise in collision accident and the increase in requirement for resistance of blastproof structures in recent years, people attach much importance to the research and application of energy-absorbing device. In this paper the author calculates the specific strength, the specific hardness and ultimate internal force of a circular thin-walled tube by theoretic calculations, discusses the feasibility of using circular thin-walled tube as an energy-absorbing element, analyzes the energy-absorbing properties and the energy-absorbing mechanism through the energy-absorbing experiments using various materials and forms of arrangement, reaches the conclusion that the load-bearing capacity and energy-absorbing properties of multilayered tubes are superior to that of single tube, and puts forward the concept of 'grading tube'.

  17. Growing without a mother results in poorer sexual behaviour in adult rams.

    PubMed

    Damián, J P; Beracochea, F; Machado, S; Hötzel, M J; Banchero, G; Ungerfeld, R

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the absence of the mother during rearing has long-term effects on sexual behaviour and physiological reproductive parameters of adult rams. Two groups of rams were: (1) artificially reared, separated from their dams 24 to 36 h after birth (Week 0) and fed using sheep milk until 10 weeks of age (group AR, n=14); and (2) reared by their dams until 10 weeks of age (group DR, n=13). Sexual behaviour (tests of 20 min) and physiological reproductive parameters were analysed separately for the non-breeding (Weeks 42 to 64) and the breeding (Weeks 66 to 90) seasons. Body weight, scrotal circumference, gonado-somatic index, testosterone concentrations or sperm parameters were similar in both rearing conditions (AR v. DR) in both seasons. During the non-breeding season AR rams displayed fewer ano-genital sniffings (AR: 4.2±0.4 v. DR: 5.3±0.4, P=0.04) and matings (AR: 1.2±0.2 v. DR: 1.8±0.2, P=0.002) than DR rams. During the breeding season AR rams displayed fewer ano-genital sniffings (AR: 4.3±0.5 v. DR: 5.7±0.5, P=0.005), flehmen (AR: 0.7±0.2 v. DR: 1.1±0.2, P=0.03), mount attempts (AR: 1.4±0.2 v. DR: 2.1±0.2, P=0.04), and tended to mount less frequently (AR: 6.6±0.9 v. DR: 8.8±0.9, P=0.08) than DR rams. In conclusion, the absence of the mother during the rearing period negatively affected display of sexual behaviour towards oestrous ewes during a rams adult life in both breeding and non-breeding seasons. However, it did not affect testis size, testosterone secretion or sperm variables.

  18. Tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area of rams with high or low libido-A role for dopamine.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A C; Mirto, A J; Austin, K J; Roselli, C E; Alexander, B M

    2017-12-01

    Dopamine synthesis in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for the reinforcement of sexual behavior. The objective of this study determined if sexual stimuli initiates reward, and whether reward is attenuated in sexually inactive rams. Sexually active rams were exposed to urine from estrous (n=4) or ovariectomized (n=3) ewes with inactive rams (n=3) exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Following exposure, rams were exsanguinated and brains perfused. Alternating sections of the VTA were stained for Fos related antigens (FRA), tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity. Forebrain tissue, mid-sagittal ventral to the anterior corpus callosum, was stained for dopamine D 2 receptors. Concentrations of cortisol was determined prior to and following exposure. Exposure to ovariectomized-ewe urine in sexually active rams did not influence (P=0.6) FRA expression, but fewer (P<0.05) neurons were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase in the VTA. Sexually inactive rams had fewer (P<0.05) FRA and tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the VTA than sexually active rams following exposure to estrous ewe urine. VTA neurons staining positive for dopamine beta-hydroxylase did not differ by sexual activity (P=0.44) or urine exposure (P=0.07). Exposure to stimulus did not influence (P=0.46) numbers of forebrain neurons staining positive for dopamine D2 receptors in sexually active rams, but fewer (P=0.04) neurons stain positive in inactive rams. Serum concentrations of cortisol did not differ (P≥0.52) among rams prior to or following stimulus. In conclusion sexual inactivity is unlikely due to stress, but may be partially a result of decreased tyrosine hydroxylase and/or the response to dopamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  20. Investigation of the aerothermodynamics of hypervelocity reacting flows in the ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Bruckner, A. P.; Mattick, A. T.; Knowlen, C.

    1992-01-01

    New diagnostic techniques for measuring the high pressure flow fields associated with high velocity ram accelerator propulsive modes was experimentally investigated. Individual propulsive modes are distinguished by their operating Mach number range and the manner in which the combustion process is initiated and stabilized. Operation of the thermally choked ram accelerator mode begins by injecting the projectile into the accelerator tube at a prescribed entrance velocity by means of a conventional light gas gun. A specially designed obturator, which is used to seal the bore of the gun, plays a key role in the ignition of the propellant gases in the subsonic combustion mode of the ram accelerator. Once ignited, the combustion process travels with the projectile and releases enough heat to thermally choke the flow within several tube diameters behind it, thereby stabilizing a high pressure zone on the rear of the projectile. When the accelerating projectile approaches the Chapman-Jouguet detonation speed of the propellant mixture, the combustion region is observed to move up onto the afterbody of the projectile as the pressure field evolves to a distinctively different form that implies the presence of supersonic combustion processes. Eventually, a high enough Mach number is reached that the ram effect is sufficient to cause the combustion process to occur entirely on the body. Propulsive cycles utilizing on-body heat release can be established either by continuously accelerating the projectile in a single propellant mixture from low initial in-tube Mach numbers (M less than 4) or by injecting the projectile at a speed above the propellant's Chapman-Jouguet detonation speed. The results of experimental and theoretical explorations of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena and the effectiveness of the new diagnostic techniques are presented in this report.

  1. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  2. Design on the wide band absorber with low density based on the particle distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dianliang; Liu, Ting; Liu, Longbin; Xu, Yonggang

    2018-04-01

    In order to widen the absorbing band, an equivalent gradient structure absorber was designed based on the particle distribution. Firstly, the electromagnetic parameter of the absorbent with uniform dispersion was tested using the vector network analyzer in 8-18 GHz. Three different equivalent materials of the spherical, square and hexagon empty shape were designed. The scattering parameters and the monostatic reflection loss (RL) of the periodic structural materials were simulated in the commercial software. Then the effective permittivity and the permeability was derived by the Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm and fitted by Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. The results showed that the simulated reflectance and transmission parameters of equivalent composites with the different shapes were very close. The derived effective permittivity and permeability of the composite with different absorbent content was also close, and the average deviation was about 0.52 + j0.15 and 0.15 + j0.01 respectively. Finally, the wide band absorbing material was designed using the genetic algorithm. The optimized RL result showed that the absorbing composites with thickness 3 mm had an excellent absorbing property (RL <-10 dB) in 8-18 GHz, the equivalent absorber density could be decreased 30.7% compared with the uniform structure.

  3. Ultrathin and lightweight microwave absorbers made of mu-near-zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuomin; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    We present a theory of perfect absorption in a bilayer model composed of a mu-near-zero (MNZ) metamaterial (MM) absorbing layer on a metallic substrate. Our analytical solutions reveal that a MM layer with a large purely imaginary permeability and a moderate permittivity backed by a metallic plane has a zero reflection at normal incidence when the thickness is ultrathin. The impedance-mismatched metamaterial absorber (MA) can be 77.3% thinner than conventional impedance-matched MAs with the same material loss in order to get the same absorption. A microwave absorber using double-layered spiral MMs with a thickness of only about one percent of the operating wavelength is designed and realized. An absorption efficiency above 93% at 1.74 GHz is demonstrated experimentally at illumination angles up to 60 degrees. Our absorber is 98% lighter than traditional microwave absorbers made of natural materials working at the same frequencies. PMID:23803861

  4. Neutron-absorber release device

    DOEpatents

    VAN Erp, Jan B.; Kimont, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    A resettable device is provided for supporting an object, sensing when an environment reaches a critical temperature and releasing the object when the critical temperature is reached. It includes a flexible container having a material inside with a melting point at the critical temperature. The object's weight is supported by the solid material which gives rigidity to the container until the critical temperature is reached at which point the material in the container melts. The flexible container with the now fluid material inside has insufficient strength to support the object which is thereby released. Biasing means forces the container back to its original shape so that when the temperature falls below the melting temperature the material again solidifies, and the object may again be supported by the device.

  5. Role of the calcaneal heel pad and polymeric shock absorbers in attenuation of heel strike impact.

    PubMed

    Noe, D A; Voto, S J; Hoffmann, M S; Askew, M J; Gradisar, I A

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of the calcaneal heel pad, with and without augmentation by a polymeric shock absorbing material (Sorbothane 0050), to attenuate heel strike impulses has been studied using five fresh human cadaveric lower leg specimens. The specimens, instrumented with an accelerometer, were suspended and impacted with a hammer; a steel rod was similarly suspended and impacted. The calcaneal heel pad attenuated the peak accelerations by 80%. Attenuations of up to 93% were achieved by the shock absorbing material when tested against the steel rod; however, when tested in series with the calcaneal heel pad, the reduction in peak acceleration due to the shock absorbing material dropped to 18%. Any evaluation of the effectiveness of shock absorbing shoe materials must take into account their mechanical interaction with the body.

  6. Fabrication of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters with Ag:Er Sensor and Thick Electroplated Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummatov, Ruslan; Hall, John A.; Kim, Geon-Bo; Friedrich, Stephan; Cantor, Robin; Boyd, S. T. P.

    2018-05-01

    We are developing metallic magnetic calorimeters for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy for non-destructive assay of nuclear materials. Absorbers for these higher-energy photons can require substantial thickness to achieve adequate stopping power. We developed a new absorber fabrication process using dry-film photoresists to electroform cantilevered, thick absorbers. Gamma detectors with these absorbers have an energy resolution of 38 eV FWHM at 60 keV. In this report, we summarize modifications to STARCryo's "Delta 1000" process for our devices and describe the new absorber fabrication process.

  7. Laser fabrication of perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeikis, V.; Faniayeu, I.

    2018-01-01

    We describe design and characterization of electromagnetic metasurfaces consisting of sub-wavelength layers of artificially structured 3D metallic elements arranged into two-dimensional arrays. Such metasurfaces allow novel ways to control propagation, absorption, emission, and polarization state of electromagnetic waves, but their practical realization using traditional planar micro-/nano-fabrication techniques is extremely difficult at infra- red frequencies, where unit cell size must be reduced to few micrometers. We have addressed this challenge by using femtosecond direct laser write (DLW) technique as a high-resolution patterning tool for the fabrication of dielectric templates, followed by a simple metallization process. Functional metasurfaces consisting of metallic helices and vertical split-ring resonators that can be used as perfect absorbers and polarization converters at infra- red frequencies were obtained and characterized experimentally and theoretically. In the future they may find applications in narrow-band infra-red detectors and emitters, spectral filters, and combined into multi-functional, multi-layered structures.

  8. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  9. Activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and testicular development in prepubertal ram lambs with induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Y; D'Occhio, M J; Holland, M K; Setchell, B P

    1985-10-01

    Prepubertal (16 weeks old) ram lambs were used to investigate the effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on development of reproductive endocrine function. Over a period of 8 weeks, ram lambs were made hypothyroid (serum T4 less than or equal to 3 ng/ml compared with controls congruent to 30 ng/ml) by daily oral administration of methyl thiouracil or hyperthyroid (serum T4 congruent to 135 ng/ml) by daily sc injection of T4. Hyperthyroidism was associated with decreases in LH pulse frequency (2.25 +/- 0.75/12 h compared with controls 5.75 +/- 0.48/12 h), basal LH, and mean LH concentrations, together with arrested testicular growth and aspermatogenesis. Hypothyroid rams showed normal pubertal development. After iv injection of LHRH, hyperthyroid ram lambs showed similar LH responses to control and hypothyroid rams. Basal testosterone production (5.6 +/- 1.0 ng/min) and plasma testosterone concentrations after human CG (2.0 +/- 0.7 ng/ml) in hyperthyroid rams were significantly lower than in controls (67.5 +/- 24.0 ng/min and 5.2 +/- 1.0 ng/ml, respectively). It is concluded that retarded testicular development in hyperthyroid ram lambs results from changes in hypothalamo-pituitary activity manifested in a decreased LH pulse frequency.

  10. Tailored Buckling Microlattices as Reusable Light-Weight Shock Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Tobias; Findeisen, Claudio; Kadic, Muamer; Gumbsch, Peter; Wegener, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Structures and materials absorbing mechanical (shock) energy commonly exploit either viscoelasticity or destructive modifications. Based on a class of uniaxial light-weight geometrically nonlinear mechanical microlattices and using buckling of inner elements, either a sequence of snap-ins followed by irreversible hysteretic - yet repeatable - self-recovery or multistability is achieved, enabling programmable behavior. Proof-of-principle experiments on three-dimensional polymer microstructures are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  12. Growth performance and hematology of Djallonké rams fed haulms of four varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Ansah, Terry; Yaccub, Zanabongo I; Rahman, Nurudeen A

    2017-12-01

    The study was conducted to assess the chemical composition of the haulms of 4 dual-purpose groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties and their effects on the growth and hematology of Djallonké rams. The groundnut varieties were ICGV 97049 (Obolo), ICGX SM 87057 (Yenyawoso), RMP 12 (Azivivi) and Manipinta. Rams (live weight 15.0 ± 3.0 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 sole groundnut haulm meal (GHM) treatments, with 4 rams each in an individual pen per treatment (total n  = 16 rams). Samples of the groundnut haulms were milled and analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The CP concentration was higher ( P  < 0.05) in Azivivi, Manipinta and Yenyawoso than in Obolo. The highest ( P  < 0.05) NDF and ADF fractions were obtained in Obolo. Whilst no significant difference was reported in total and daily dry matter (DM) intake among the varieties, CP, NDF and ADF intake all differed between Obolo and other varieties. The apparent nutrient digestibility did not differ ( P  > 0.05) when the Djallonké rams were fed the haulms. However, significant differences were observed in final live weight and average daily live weight gain. Rams fed the Yenyawoso variety had higher ( P  < 0.05) final live weight and average daily live weight gain compared with those fed Obolo and Azivivi varieties. Consumption of any of the 4 varieties of groundnut haulms by Djallonké rams did not have any harmful effect on their red and white blood cell numbers and hemoglobin concentration. The study revealed that the different varieties of groundnut haulms differ in nutrient composition and also affect the growth performance of the rams. The Yenyawoso variety may be used as a sole diet for fattening Djallonké rams.

  13. The “Ram Effect”: A “Non-Classical” Mechanism for Inducing LH Surges in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chanvallon, Audrey; Dupont, Joëlle; Lardic, Lionel; Lomet, Didier; Martinet, Stéphanie; Scaramuzzi, Rex J.

    2016-01-01

    During spring sheep do not normally ovulate but exposure to a ram can induce ovulation. In some ewes an LH surge is induced immediately after exposure to a ram thus raising questions about the control of this precocious LH surge. Our first aim was to determine the plasma concentrations of oestradiol (E2) E2 in anoestrous ewes before and after the “ram effect” in ewes that had a “precocious” LH surge (starting within 6 hours), a “normal” surge (between 6 and 28h) and “late» surge (not detected by 56h). In another experiment we tested if a small increase in circulating E2 could induce an LH surge in anoestrus ewes. The concentration of E2 significantly was not different at the time of ram introduction among ewes with the three types of LH surge. “Precocious” LH surges were not preceded by a large increase in E2 unlike “normal” surges and small elevations of circulating E2 alone were unable to induce LH surges. These results show that the “precocious” LH surge was not the result of E2 positive feedback. Our second aim was to test if noradrenaline (NA) is involved in the LH response to the “ram effect”. Using double labelling for Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) we showed that exposure of anoestrous ewes to a ram induced a higher density of cells positive for both in the A1 nucleus and the Locus Coeruleus complex compared to unstimulated controls. Finally, the administration by retrodialysis into the preoptic area, of NA increased the proportion of ewes with an LH response to ram odor whereas treatment with the α1 antagonist Prazosin decreased the LH pulse frequency and amplitude induced by a sexually active ram. Collectively these results suggest that in anoestrous ewes NA is involved in ram-induced LH secretion as observed in other induced ovulators. PMID:27384667

  14. Freeze-Dried Carbon Nanotube Aerogels for High-Frequency Absorber Applications.

    PubMed

    Anoshkin, Ilya V; Campion, James; Lioubtchenko, Dmitri V; Oberhammer, Joachim

    2018-06-13

    A novel technique for millimeter wave absorber material embedded in a metal waveguide is proposed. The absorber material is a highly porous carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogel prepared by a freeze-drying technique. CNT aerogel structures are shown to be good absorbers with a low reflection coefficient, less than -12 dB at 95 GHz. The reflection coefficient of the novel absorber is 3-4 times lower than that of commercial absorbers with identical geometry. Samples prepared by freeze-drying at -25 °C demonstrate resonance behavior, while those prepared at liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 °C) exhibit a significant decrease in reflection coefficient, with no resonant behavior. CNT absorbers of identical volume based on wet-phase drying preparation show significantly worse performance than the CNT aerogel absorbers prepared by freeze-drying. Treatment of the freeze-dried CNT aerogel with n- and p-dopants (monoethanolamine and iodine vapors, respectively) shows remarkable improvement in the performance of the waveguide embedded absorbers, reducing the reflection coefficient by 2 dB across the band.

  15. A Flexible Metamaterial Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. R.; Zheng, Y. W.; Qin, L. M.; Wei, G. C.; Qin, Z. P.; Zhang, N. G.; Liu, K.; Li, S. Z.; Wang, S. X.

    2017-12-01

    We designed a THz matematerial absorber using metallic wires (MWs) and split resonant rings (SRRs). This matematerial absorber exhibits perfect absorption which up to 96% at 4.03 THz and is capable of wrapped around objects because of flexible polyimide dielectric substrate.

  16. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties of Amorphous Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7–50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was −25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at −10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. PMID:25007783

  17. Electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of amorphous carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-07-10

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7-50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was -25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at -10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2-18 GHz.

  18. Experimental realization of a terahertz all-dielectric metasurface absorber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Fan, Kebin; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-01-09

    Metamaterial absorbers consisting of metal, metal-dielectric, or dielectric materials have been realized across much of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated novel properties and applications. However, most absorbers utilize metals and thus are limited in applicability due to their low melting point, high Ohmic loss and high thermal conductivity. Other approaches rely on large dielectric structures and / or a supporting dielectric substrate as a loss mechanism, thereby realizing large absorption volumes. Here we present a terahertz (THz) all dielectric metasurface absorber based on hybrid dielectric waveguide resonances. We tune the metasurface geometry in order to overlap electric and magnetic dipole resonances at the same frequency, thus achieving an experimental absorption of 97.5%. A simulated dielectric metasurface achieves a total absorption coefficient enhancement factor of FT=140, with a small absorption volume. Our experimental results are well described by theory and simulations and not limited to the THz range, but may be extended to microwave, infrared and optical frequencies. The concept of an all-dielectric metasurface absorber offers a new route for control of the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation from surfaces with potential applications in energy harvesting, imaging, and sensing.

  19. Recycling of waste tyre rubber into oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zhou, M H

    2009-01-01

    The abundant and indiscriminant disposal of waste tyres has caused both health and environmental problems. In this work, we provide a new way to dispose off waste tyres by reusing the waste tyre rubber (WTR) for oil absorptive material production. To investigate this feasibility, a series of absorbents were prepared by graft copolymerization-blending method, using waste tyre rubber and 4-tert-butylstyrene (tBS) as monomers. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) were employed as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. The existence of graft-blends (WTR-g-tBS) was determined by FTIR spectrometry and verified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In addition, the thermal properties of WTR-g-tBS were confirmed by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oil absorbency of the grafted-blends increased with increases in either feed ratio of WTR to tBS or DVB concentration. This absorbency reached a maximum of 24.0gg(-1) as the feed ratio and DVB concentration were 60/40 and 1wt%, respectively, after which it decreased. At other ratios and concentrations the absorbency decreased. The gel fraction of grafted-blends increased with increasing concentration of DVB. Oil-absorption processes in pure toluene and crude oil diluted with toluene were found to adhere to first-order absorption kinetics. Furthermore, the oil-absorption rate in diluted crude oil was observed to be lower than pure toluene.

  20. Gold absorbing film for a composite bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragovan, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    The principles governing the design of metal films are reviewed, with attention also given to the choice of metals. A description is then given of the characteristics of a bolometer with a gold absorbing film. It is demonstrated that gold is effective as an absorbing film for a millimeter bolometer operated at 1.5 K. At 1.5 K, gold is significantly better than bismuth since gold has a lower heat capacity for the absorbing film. At 0.3 K, gold and bismuth are both suitable. It is pointed out that at temperatures below 0.3 K, a superconducting absorbing film can have a heat capacity low enough not to dominate the heat capacity of the detector; for this reason, it may give better performance than a nonsuperconducting absorbing film.

  1. Structured Metal Film as Perfect Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    With standing U-shaped resonators, fish-spear-like resonator has been designed for the first time as the building block to assemble perfect absorbers. The samples have been fabricated with two-photon polymerization process and FTIR measurement results support the effectiveness of the perfect absorber design. In such a structure the polarization-dependent resonance occurs between the tines of the spears instead of the conventional design where the resonance occurs between the metallic layers separated by a dielectric interlayer. The incident light neither transmits nor reflects back which results in unit absorbance. The power of light is trapped between the tines of spears and finally be absorbed. The whole structure is covered with a continuous metallic layer with good thermo-conductance, which provides an excellent approach to deal with heat dissipation, is enlightening in exploring metamaterial absorbers.

  2. Effects of aflatoxin on some haematological parameters and protective effectiveness of esterified glucomannan in Merino rams.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Nurcan; Dönmez, H H; Keskin, E; Kısadere, İ

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan + aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear.

  3. The young Ramón y Cajal as a cell-theory dissenter.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Ulises; Pretó, Juli; Lazcano, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    The intellectual development of scientists normally traverses several different phases as they mature in their professions. In many cases, strong support of certain ideas and theories gives way to more critical, productive views that set the stage for major theories and discoveries. This appears to have been the case of Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934). In his youth, he supported the protoplasmic theory of life, and as he matured he maintained a critical, yet open view of the cell theory, which postulated that life phenomena could not take place below the cellular level. In later years, however, an older and wiser Ramón y Cajal abandoned all traces of dissent and joined in fully supporting a refined version of cell theory, to which his own discoveries significantly contributed.

  4. Reliability and Maintainability model (RAM) user and maintenance manual. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the procedures for utilizing and maintaining the Reliability and Maintainability Model (RAM) developed by the University of Dayton for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The RAM model predicts reliability and maintainability (R&M) parameters for conceptual space vehicles using parametric relationships between vehicle design and performance characteristics and subsystem mean time between maintenance actions (MTBM) and manhours per maintenance action (MH/MA). These parametric relationships were developed using aircraft R&M data from over thirty different military aircraft of all types. This report describes the general methodology used within the model, the execution and computational sequence, the input screens and data, the output displays and reports, and study analyses and procedures. A source listing is provided.

  5. An automatic analyzer of solid state nuclear track detectors using an optic RAM as image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staderini, Enrico Maria; Castellano, Alfredo

    1986-02-01

    An optic RAM is a conventional digital random access read/write dynamic memory device featuring a quartz windowed package and memory cells regularly ordered on the chip. Such a device is used as an image sensor because each cell retains data stored in it for a time depending on the intensity of the light incident on the cell itself. The authors have developed a system which uses an optic RAM to acquire and digitize images from electrochemically etched CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the track count rate up to 5000 cm -2. On the digital image so obtained, a microprocessor, with appropriate software, performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation.

  6. Ram-recovery Characteristics of NACA Submerged Inlets at High Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Charles F; Frank, Joseph L

    1948-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of the characteristics of NACA submerged inlets on a model of a fighter airplane for Mach numbers from 0.30 to 0.875. The effects on the ram-recovery ratio at the inlets of Mach number, angle of attack, boundary-layer thickness on the fuselage, inlet location, and boundary-layer deflectors are shown. The data indicate only a slight decrease in ram-recovery ratio for the inlets ahead of or just behind the wing leading edge as Mach number increased, but showed large decreases at high Mach numbers for the inlets aft of the point of maximum thickness of the wing.

  7. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and the Spanish school of neurology.

    PubMed

    Andres-Barquin, Pedro J

    2002-11-01

    Advances in neurology are now possible thanks to the endeavours of a few scientists who in the past laid firm foundations for the study of the nervous system. Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) was one such pioneer of brain exploration and is acknowledged as the founder of modern neuroscience. He described the structure and organisation of virtually all parts of the nervous system and developed theories, including the neuron doctrine and the law of functional polarisation, that are the cornerstones of neuroscience. In addition to devoting his life to research, Ramón y Cajal was a dedicated teacher and mentor and created a school that greatly contributed to the flourishing of neurology.

  8. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Chojnacki, E.P.

    1994-05-31

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer. 9 figs.

  9. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Chojnacki, Eric P.

    1994-01-01

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer.

  10. Cryopreservation of ram semen in extenders containing soybean lecithin as cryoprotectant and hyaluronic acid as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Najafi, A; Najafi, M H; Zanganeh, Z; Sharafi, M; Martinez-Pastor, F; Adeldust, H

    2014-12-01

    A soybean lecithin-based extender supplemented with hyaluronic acid (HA) was assayed for effectiveness to improve the quality of frozen-thawed ram semen. HA has not been tested yet in an extender containing soybean lecithin for freezing ram semen. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of soybean lecithin at 1% or 1.5% along with HA at 0, 0.5 and 1 mg ml(-1) in a Tris-based extender on the motion characteristics, membrane integrity (HOST), viability, GSH peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, lipid peroxidation and acrosomal status after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from four Mehraban rams during the breeding season and frozen in the six lecithin×HA extenders. The extender containing 1.5% lecithin supplemented with no HA yielded higher total motility (52.5%±1.6), viability (55.8%±1.6) and membrane integrity (44.5%±1.7), but the effects of the lecithin concentration did not reach signification. Linearity-related parameters, ALH, BCF, lipid peroxidation, GSH-PX activity, morphology and acrosomal status were not affected by the extender composition. In general, adding HA significantly decreased sperm velocity (1 mg ml(-1) HA), total motility (only with 1.5% lecithin), viability (1 mg ml(-1) HA for 1% lecithin; both concentrations for 1.5% lecithin) and membrane integrity. In conclusion, adding HA to the freezing extender supplemented with soybean lecithin failed to improve quality-related variables in ram semen. Increasing the lecithin content could have a positive effect, but further studies are needed. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Factors influencing delivered mean airway pressure during nasal CPAP with the RAM cannula.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Jeffrey S; Sivieri, Emidio M; Abbasi, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    To measure mean airway pressure (MAP) delivered through the RAM Cannula® when used with a ventilator in CPAP mode as a function of percent nares occlusion in a simulated nasal interface/test lung model and to compare the results to MAPs using a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) interface with nares fully occluded. An artificial airway model was connected to a spontaneous breathing lung model in which MAP was measured at set NCPAP levels between 4 and 8 cmH2 O provided by a Dräger Evita XL® ventilator and delivered through three sizes of RAM cannulae. Measurements were performed with varying leakage at the nasal interface by decreasing occlusion from 100% to 29%, half-way prong insertion, and simulated mouth leakage. Comparison measurements were made using the Dräger BabyFlow® NCPAP interface with a full nasal seal. With simulated mouth closed, the Dräger interface delivered MAPs within 0.5 cmH2 O of set CPAP levels. For the RAM cannula, with 60-80% nares occlusion, overall delivered MAPs were 60 ± 17% less than set CPAP levels (P < 0.001). Further, MAP decreased progressively with decreasing percent nares occlusion. The simulated open mouth condition resulted in significantly lower MAPs to <1.7 cmH2 O. The one-half prong insertion depth condition, with closed mouth, yielded MAPs approximately 35 ± 9% less than full insertion pressures (P < 0.001). In our bench tests, the RAM interface connected to a ventilator in NCPAP mode failed to deliver set CPAP levels when applied using the manufacturer recommended 60-80% nares occlusion, even with closed mouth and full nasal prong insertion conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MSIX - A general and user-friendly platform for RAM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z. J.; Blemel, Peter

    The authors present a CAD (computer-aided design) platform supporting RAM (reliability, availability, and maintainability) analysis with efficient system description and alternative evaluation. The design concepts, implementation techniques, and application results are described. This platform is user-friendly because of its graphic environment, drawing facilities, object orientation, self-tutoring, and access to the operating system. The programs' independency and portability make them generally applicable to various analysis tasks.

  13. Biosecurity Risk Assessment Methodology (BioRAM) v. 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    CASKEY, SUSAN; GAUDIOSO, JENNIFER; SALERNO, REYNOLDS

    Sandia National Laboratories International Biological Threat Reduction Dept (SNL/IBTR) has an ongoing mission to enhance biosecurity assessment methodologies, tools, and guise. These will aid labs seeking to implement biosecurity as advocated in the recently released WHO's Biorisk Management: Lab Biosecurity Guidance. BioRAM 2.0 is the software tool developed initially using the SNL LDRD process and designed to complement the "Laboratory Biosecurity Risk Handbook" written by Ren Salerno and Jennifer Gaudioso defining biosecurity risk assessment methodologies.

  14. Identification of sperm subpopulations with defined motility characteristics in ejaculates from Ile de France rams.

    PubMed

    Bravo, J A; Montanero, J; Calero, R; Roy, T J

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to identify different motile sperm subpopulations in fresh ejaculates from six Ile de France rams, by using a computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) system, and to evaluate the effects of individual ram and season on population distribution. Overall sperm motility and individual kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa were evaluated for 125,312 spermatozoa, defined by curvilinear velocity (VCL), linear velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity coefficient (LIN), straightness coefficient (STR), wobble coefficient (WOB), mean amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and frequency of head displacement (BCF). A multivariate cluster analysis was carried out to classify these spermatozoa into a reduced number of subpopulations according to their movement patterns. The statistical analysis clustered the whole motile sperm population into five separate groups: subpopulation 1, constituted by rapid, progressive and non sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=126.41 μm/s, STR=92.87% and LIN=86.47%); subpopulation 2, characterized by progressive spermatozoa with moderate velocity (VCL=74.74 μm/s and STR=84.03%); subpopulation 3, represented by rapid, progressive and sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=130.45 μm/s, STR=76.02% and LIN=47.68%); subpopulation 4 represents rapid nonprogressive spermatozoa (VCL=128.69 μm/s and STR=44.09%); subpopulation 5 includes poorly motile, nonprogressive spermatozoa with a very irregular trajectory (VCL=36.81 μm/s and STR=47.04%). Our results show the existence of five subpopulations of motile spermatozoa in ram ejaculates. The frequency distribution of spermatozoa within subpopulations was quite similar for the six rams, and the five subpopulations turned out to be very stable along seasons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of antioxidants reduce lipid peroxidation and improve quality of crossbred ram sperm during its cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Banday, Mohamad Naiem; Lone, Farooz Ahmad; Rasool, Fabiha; Rashid, Muzamil; Shikari, Arif

    2017-02-01

    Ram sperm are subjected to extreme oxidative stress during their preservation at -196 °C resulting in reduced quality at post thaw. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antioxidants taurine, quercetin and reduced glutathione on the post thaw quality of crossbred ram sperm. A total of twenty four ejaculates from six crossbred rams were collected and extended with tris-based extender with no antioxidant (Control), with taurine (40 mM), quercetin (5 μg/ml) and reduced glutathione (5 mM). The post thaw sperm quality was determined by percent sperm motility, live sperm count, intact acrosome and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) reacted spermatozoa and lipid peroxidation was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) level both in seminal plasma and sperm cell. At post thaw, percent sperm motility and live sperm count were significantly (p < 0.05) higher for taurine than control and reduced glutathione but did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from quercetin. The percent HOST reacted spermatozoa were significantly higher for taurine than control, quercetin and reduced glutathione. Seminal plasma MDA level was significantly (p < 0.05) lower for taurine than control and non-significantly lower than quercetin and reduced glutathione. However, spermatic MDA level did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the control and antioxidants. In conclusion, taurine at 40 mM reduced lipid peroxidation and improved post thaw sperm quality of cryopreserved crossbred ram semen. Further, transportation time of semen samples in an ice chest at 4-5 °C may be included as a part of equilibration period, when collection shed and frozen semen unit are located at a distance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE ROLES OF RADIATION AND RAM PRESSURE IN DRIVING GALACTIC WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mahavir; Nath, Biman B., E-mail: mahavir@rri.res.in, E-mail: biman@rri.res.in

    We study gaseous outflows from disk galaxies driven by the combined effects of ram pressure on cold gas clouds and radiation pressure on dust grains. Taking into account the gravity due to disk, bulge, and dark matter halo, and assuming continuous star formation in the disk, we show that radiation or ram pressure alone is not sufficient to drive escaping winds from disk galaxies and that both processes contribute. We show that in the parameter space of star formation rate (SFR) and rotation speed of galaxies the wind speed in galaxies with rotation speeds v{sub c} {<=} 200 km s{supmore » -1} and SFR {<=} 100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} has a larger contribution from ram pressure, and that in high-mass galaxies with large SFR radiation from the disk has a greater role in driving galactic winds. The ratio of wind speed to circular speed can be approximated as v{sub w} / v{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 0.7}, [SFR/50{sub Sun }yr{sup -1}]{sup 0.4} [v{sub c}/120 km s{sup -1}]{sup -1.25}. We show that this conclusion is borne out by observations of galactic winds at low and high redshift and also of circumgalactic gas. We also estimate the mass loading factors under the combined effect of ram and radiation pressure, and show that the ratio of mass-loss rate to SFR scales roughly as v{sup -1}{sub c}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup -1}, where {Sigma}{sub g} is the gas column density in the disk.« less

  17. A CMOS Compatible, Forming Free TaO x ReRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lohn, A. J.; Stevens, J. E.; Mickel, P. R.

    2013-08-31

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) has become a promising candidate for next-generation high-performance non-volatile memory that operates by electrically tuning resistance states via modulating vacancy concentrations. Here, we demonstrate a wafer-scale process for resistive switching in tantalum oxide that is completely CMOS compatible. The resulting devices are forming-free and with greater than 1x10 5 cycle endurance.

  18. The Effects of Ram Pressure on the Cold Clouds in the Centers of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Tremblay, Grant

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the effect of ram pressure on the cold clouds in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters, and in particular, how it reduces cloud velocity and sometimes causes an offset between the cold gas and young stars. The velocities of the molecular gas in both observations and our simulations fall in the range of 100–400 km s‑1, which is much lower than expected if they fall from a few tens of kiloparsecs ballistically. If the intracluster medium (ICM) is at rest, the ram pressure of the ICM only slightly reduces the velocity of the clouds. When we assume that the clouds are actually “fluffier” because they are co-moving with a warm-hot layer, the velocity becomes smaller. If we also consider the active galactic nucleus wind in the cluster center by adding a wind profile measured from the simulation, the clouds are further slowed down at small radii, and the resulting velocities are in general agreement with the observations and simulations. Because ram pressure only affects gas but not stars, it can cause a separation between a filament and young stars that formed in the filament as they move through the ICM together. This separation has been observed in Perseus and also exists in our simulations. We show that the star-filament offset, combined with line-of-sight velocity measurements, can help determine the true motion of the cold gas, and thus distinguish between inflows and outflows.

  19. Interaction of milk proteins and Binder of Sperm (BSP) proteins from boar, stallion and ram semen.

    PubMed

    Plante, Geneviève; Lusignan, Marie-France; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian semen contains a family of closely related proteins known as Binder of SPerm (BSP proteins) that are added to sperm at ejaculation. BSP proteins extract lipids from the sperm membrane thereby extensively modifying its composition. These changes can ultimately be detrimental to sperm storage. We have demonstrated that bovine BSP proteins interact with major milk proteins and proposed that this interaction could be the basis of sperm protection by milk extenders. In the present study, we investigated if homologous BSP proteins present in boar, stallion and ram seminal plasma display a similar affinity for the milk proteins in order to assess whether the mechanism of sperm protection by milk for these species could be general. Skim milk was incubated with seminal plasma proteins (boar, stallion and ram), chromatographed on a Sepharose CL-4B column and protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Boar, stallion and ram BSP proteins displayed affinity for a milk protein fraction (F1) mainly composed of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and κ-casein. They also had affinity for another milk protein fraction (F2) composed mostly of casein micelles. However, stallion BSP showed higher affinity for the fraction (F1). These results further extend our view that the association of BSP proteins with milk proteins could be a general feature of the mechanism of mammalian sperm protection by milk to prevent detrimental effect of prolonged exposure of sperm to seminal plasma.

  20. NASA Space Science and a Search for Ram-Pressure Stripping in the Hydra I Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Beth

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Sciences and Exploration Directorate seeks to expand scientific knowledge through observational and theoretical research in the study of the Earth-Sun system, the solar system and the origins of life, and the birth and evolution of the universe. This talk will discuss some of the cutting-edge space science research being conducted at Goddard. In addition, I will discuss my research on ram-pressure stripping in cluster elliptical galaxies. Ram-pressure stripping is a method by which hot interstellar gas can be removed from a galaxy moving through a group or cluster of galaxies. Indirect evidence of ram-pressure stripping includes lowered X-ray brightness in a galaxy due to less X-ray emitting gas remaining in the galaxy. Here we present the initial results of our program to determine whether cluster elliptical galaxies have lower hot gas masses than their counterparts in less rich environments. This test requires the use of the high-resolution imaging of the Chandra Observatory and we present our analysis of the galaxies in the nearby cluster Hydra I.

  1. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

  2. A graphite based STT-RAM cell with reduction in switching current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghani, Ali; Peiravi, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) is a serious candidate for "universal memory" because of its non-volatility, fast access time, high density, good scalability, high endurance and relatively low power dissipation. However, problems with low write speed and large write current are important existing challenges in STT-RAM design and there is a tradeoff between them and data retention time. In this study, a novel STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) is proposed. First, the cross-section of the structure is selected to be an ellipse of 45 nm and 180 nm dimensions and a six-layer graphite is used as tunnel barrier. By passing a lateral current with a short pulse width (before applying STT current and independent of it) through four middle graphene layers of the tunnel barrier, a 27% reduction in the amplitude of the switching current (for fast switching time of 2 ns) or a 58% reduction in its pulse width is achieved without any reduction in data retention time. Finally, the effect of downscaling of technology on the proposed structure is evaluated. A reduction of 31.6% and 9% in switching current is achieved for 90 and 22 nm cell width respectively by passing sufficient current (100 μA with 0.1 ns pulse width) through the tunnel barrier. Simulations are done using Object Oriented Micro Magnetic Framework (OOMMF).

  3. System Verification Through Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (RAM) Analysis & Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs)

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.; Charles V. Park

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is authored by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype fourth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. A section in this document proposes that the NGNP will provide heat for process heat applications. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP is expected to meet high performance and availability targets relative to current state of the art systems and technology. One requirement for the NGNP is to provide heatmore » for the generation of hydrogen for large scale productions and this process heat application is required to be at least 90% or more available relative to other technologies currently on the market. To reach this goal, a RAM Roadmap was developed highlighting the actions to be taken to ensure that various milestones in system development and maturation concurrently meet required availability requirements. Integral to the RAM Roadmap was the use of a RAM analytical/simulation tool which was used to estimate the availability of the system when deployed based on current design configuration and the maturation level of the system.« less

  4. Recent results from the University of Washington's 38 mm ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Turenne, J. A.; Chew, G.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The ram accelerator is a propulsive device that accelerates projectiles using gasdynamic cycles similar to those which generate thrust in airbreathing ramjets. The projectile, analogous to the centerbody of a ramjet, travels supersonically through a stationary tube containing a gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixture. The projectile itself carries no onboard propellant. A combustion zone follows the projectile and stabilizes the shock structure. The resulting pressure distribution continuously accelerates the projectile. Several modes of ram accelerator operation have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. At velocities below the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation speed of the propellant mixture, the thermally choked propulsion mode accelerates the projectiles. At projectile velocities between approximately 90 and 110 percent of the C-J speed, a transdetonative propulsion mode occurs. At velocities beyond 110 percent of the C-J speed, projectiles experience superdetonative propulsion. This paper presents recent experimental results from these propulsion modes obtained with the University of Washington's 38-mm bore ram accelerator. Data from investigations with hydrogen diluted-gas mixtures are also introduced.

  5. Diesel NO{sub x} reduction by plasma-regenerated absorbent beds

    DOEpatents

    Wallman, P.H.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1998-02-10

    Reduction of NO{sub x} from diesel engine exhaust by use of plasma-regenerated absorbent beds is described. This involves a process for the reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates from diesel engines by first absorbing NO{sub x} onto a solid absorbent bed that simultaneously acts as a physical trap for the particulate matter, and second regenerating said solid absorbent by pulsed plasma decomposition of absorbed NO{sub x} followed by air oxidation of trapped particulate matter. The absorbent bed may utilize all metal oxides, but the capacity and the kinetics of absorption and desorption vary between different materials, and thus the composition of the absorbent bed is preferably a material which enables the combination of NO{sub x} absorption capability with catalytic activity for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Thus, naturally occurring or synthetically prepared materials may be utilized, particularly those having NO{sub x} absorption properties up to temperatures around 400 C which is in the area of diesel engine exhaust temperatures. 1 fig.

  6. Development of novel two-photon absorbing chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Joy E.; Slagle, Jonathan E.; McLean, Daniel G.; Sutherland, Richard L.; Krein, Douglas M.; Cooper, Thomas M.; Brant, Mark; Heinrichs, James; Kannan, Ramamurthi; Tan, Loon-Seng; Urbas, Augustine M.; Fleitz, Paul A.

    2006-08-01

    There has been much interest in the development of two-photon absorbing materials and many efforts to understand the nonlinear absorption properties of these dyes but this area is still not well understood. A computational model has been developed in our lab to understand the nanosecond nonlinear absorption properties that incorporate all of the measured one-photon photophysical parameters of a class of materials called AFX. We have investigated the nonlinear and photophysical properties of the AFX chromophores including the two-photon absorption cross-section, the excited state cross-section, the intersystem crossing quantum yield, and the singlet and triplet excited state lifetimes using a variety of experimental techniques that include UV-visible, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy, time correlated single photon counting, ultrafast transient absorption, and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The model accurately predicts the nanosecond nonlinear transmittance data using experimentally measured parameters. Much of the strong nonlinear absorption has been shown to be due to excited state absorption from both the singlet and triplet excited states. Based on this understanding of the nonlinear absorption and the importance of singlet and triplet excited states we have begun to develop new two-photon absorbing molecules within the AFX class as well as linked to other classes of nonlinear absorbing molecules. This opens up the possibilities of new materials with unique and interesting properties. Specifically we have been working on a new class of two-photon absorbing molecules linked to platinum poly-ynes. In the platinum poly-yne chromophores the photophysics are more complicated and we have just started to understand what drives both the linear and non-linear photophysical properties.

  7. A Broadband Micro-Machined Far-Infrared Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Datesman, A. M.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, K. H.; Quijada, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is greater than 0.95 from 1 to 20 terahertz (300-15 microns) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 degrees Kelvin. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers approximately 100 microns in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model.

  8. Molecular gas mass and star formation of 12 Virgo spiral galaxies along the ram pressure time sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Eun Jung; Kim, S.

    2014-01-01

    The ram pressure stripping is known as one of the most efficient mechanisms to deplete the ISM of a galaxy in the clusters of galaxies. As being affected continuously by ICM pressure, a galaxy may lose their gas that is the fuel of star formation, and consequently star formation rate would be changed. We select twelve Virgo spiral galaxies according to their stage of the ram pressure stripping event to probe possible consequences of star formation of spiral galaxies in the ram pressure and thus the evolution of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. We investigate the molecular gas properties, star formation activity, and gas depletion time along the time from the ram pressure peak. We also discussed the evolution of galaxies in the cluster.

  9. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  10. Vibration analysis on compact car shock absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, W. H.; Cheah, J. X.; Lam, C. K.; Lim, E. A.; Chuah, H. G.; Khor, C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Shock absorber is a part of the suspension system which provides comfort experience while driving. Resonance, a phenomenon where forced frequency is coinciding with the natural frequency has significant effect on the shock absorber itself. Thus, in this study, natural frequencies of the shock absorber in a 2 degree-of-freedom system were investigated using Wolfram Mathematica 11, CATIA, and ANSYS. Both theoretical and simulation study how will the resonance affect the car shock absorber. The parametric study on the performance of shock absorber also had been conducted. It is found that the failure tends to occur on coil sprung of the shock absorber before the body of the shock absorber is fail. From mathematical modelling, it can also be seen that higher vibration level occurred on un-sprung mass compare to spring mass. This is due to the weight of sprung mass which could stabilize as compared with the weight of un-sprung mass. Besides that, two natural frequencies had been obtained which are 1.0 Hz and 9.1 Hz for sprung mass and un-sprung mass respectively where the acceleration is recorded as maximum. In conclusion, ANSYS can be used to validate with theoretical results with complete model in order to match with mathematical modelling.

  11. Structural and optical properties of copper-coated substrates for solar thermal absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratesi, Stefano; De Lucia, Maurizio; Meucci, Marco; Sani, Elisa

    2016-10-01

    Spectral selectivity, i.e. merging a high absorbance at sunlight wavelengths to a low emittance at the wavelengths of thermal spectrum, is a key characteristics for materials to be used for solar thermal receivers. It is known that spectrally selective absorbers can raise the receiver efficiency for all solar thermal technologies. Tubular sunlight receivers for parabolic trough collector (PTC) systems can be improved by the use of spectrally selective coatings. Their absorbance is increased by deposing black films, while the thermal emittance is minimized by the use of properly-prepared substrates. In this work we describe the intermediate step in the fabrication of black-chrome coated solar absorbers, namely the fabrication and characterization of copper coatings on previously nickel-plated stainless steel substrates. We investigate the copper surface features and optical properties, correlating them to the coating thickness and to the deposition process, in the perspective to assess optimal conditions for solar absorber applications.

  12. Design of a five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber using two resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Tianhua; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Qiaofen

    2018-05-01

    We present a polarization-insensitive five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber composed of two metallic circular rings and a metallic ground film separated by a dielectric layer. The calculated results show that the absorber has five distinctive absorption bands whose peaks are greater than 99% on average. The physical origin of the absorber originates from the combination of dipolar, hexapolar, and surface plasmon resonance of the patterned metallic structure, which is different from the work mechanism of previously reported absorbers. In addition, the influence of the structural parameters on the absorption spectra is analyzed to further confirm the origin of the five-band absorption peaks. The proposed absorber has potential applications in terahertz imaging, refractive index sensing, and material detecting.

  13. Magnetic graphene enabled tunable microwave absorber via thermal control.

    PubMed

    Quan, L; Qin, F X; Li, Y H; Estevez, D; Fu, G J; Wang, H; Peng, H-X

    2018-06-15

    By synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) via a facile thermal annealing method, a fine control of the amount and location of doped nitrogen as well as the oxygen-containing functional groups is achieved with varying annealing temperature. The favorable magnetic properties have been achieved for N-doped rGO samples obtained at two temperatures of all NG samples, i.e., 500 °C and 900 °C with saturation magnetization of 0.63 emu g -1 and 0.67 emu g -1 at 2 K, respectively. This is attributed to the optimized competition of the N-doping and reduction process at 500 °C and the dominated reduction process at 900 °C. NG obtained at 300 °C affords the best overall absorbing performance: when the absorber thickness is 3.0 mm, the maximum absorption was -24.6 dB at 8.51 GHz, and the absorption bandwidth was 4.89 GHz (7.55-12.44 GHz) below -10 dB. It owes its large absorbing intensity to the good impedance match and significant dielectric loss. The broad absorption bandwidth benefits from local fluctuations of dielectric responses contributed by competing mechanisms. Despite the significant contribution from materials loss to the absorption, the one quarter-wavelength model is found to be responsible for the reflection loss peak positions. Of particular significance is that an appropriate set of electromagnetic parameters associated with reasonable reduction is readily accessible by convenient control of annealing temperature to modulate the microwave absorbing features of graphene. Thus, NG prepared by thermal annealing promises to be a highly efficient microwave absorbent.

  14. Magnetic graphene enabled tunable microwave absorber via thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, L.; Qin, F. X.; Li, Y. H.; Estevez, D.; Fu, G. J.; Wang, H.; Peng, H.-X.

    2018-06-01

    By synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) via a facile thermal annealing method, a fine control of the amount and location of doped nitrogen as well as the oxygen-containing functional groups is achieved with varying annealing temperature. The favorable magnetic properties have been achieved for N-doped rGO samples obtained at two temperatures of all NG samples, i.e., 500 °C and 900 °C with saturation magnetization of 0.63 emu g‑1 and 0.67 emu g‑1 at 2 K, respectively. This is attributed to the optimized competition of the N-doping and reduction process at 500 °C and the dominated reduction process at 900 °C. NG obtained at 300 °C affords the best overall absorbing performance: when the absorber thickness is 3.0 mm, the maximum absorption was ‑24.6 dB at 8.51 GHz, and the absorption bandwidth was 4.89 GHz (7.55–12.44 GHz) below ‑10 dB. It owes its large absorbing intensity to the good impedance match and significant dielectric loss. The broad absorption bandwidth benefits from local fluctuations of dielectric responses contributed by competing mechanisms. Despite the significant contribution from materials loss to the absorption, the one quarter-wavelength model is found to be responsible for the reflection loss peak positions. Of particular significance is that an appropriate set of electromagnetic parameters associated with reasonable reduction is readily accessible by convenient control of annealing temperature to modulate the microwave absorbing features of graphene. Thus, NG prepared by thermal annealing promises to be a highly efficient microwave absorbent.

  15. The collaborative effect of ram pressure and merging on star formation and stripping fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischko, J. C.; Steinhauser, D.; Schindler, S.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the effect of ram pressure stripping (RPS) on several simulations of merging pairs of gas-rich spiral galaxies. We are concerned with the changes in stripping efficiency and the time evolution of the star formation rate. Our goal is to provide an estimate of the combined effect of merging and RPS compared to the influence of the individual processes. Methods: We make use of the combined N-body/hydrodynamic code GADGET-2. The code features a threshold-based statistical recipe for star formation, as well as radiative cooling and modeling of galactic winds. In our simulations, we vary mass ratios between 1:4 and 1:8 in a binary merger. We sample different geometric configurations of the merging systems (edge-on and face-on mergers, different impact parameters). Furthermore, we vary the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in rough steps: the speed of the merging system relative to the ICM between 500 and 1000 km s-1, the ICM density between 10-29 and 10-27 g cm-3, and the ICM direction relative to the mergers' orbital plane. Ram pressure is kept constant within a simulation time period, as is the ICM temperature of 107 K. Each simulation in the ICM is compared to simulations of the merger in vacuum and the non-merging galaxies with acting ram pressure. Results: Averaged over the simulation time (1 Gyr) the merging pairs show a negligible 5% enhancement in SFR, when compared to single galaxies under the same environmental conditions. The SFRs peak at the time of the galaxies first fly-through. There, our simulations show SFRs of up to 20 M⊙ yr-1 (compared to 3 M⊙ yr-1 of the non-merging galaxies in vacuum). In the most extreme case, this constitutes a short-term (<50 Myr) SFR increase of 50 % over the non-merging galaxies experiencing ram pressure. The wake of merging galaxies in the ICM typically has a third to half the star mass seen in the non-merging galaxies and 5% to 10% less gas mass. The joint effect of RPS and merging, according

  16. CAUGHT IN THE ACT: STRONG, ACTIVE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING IN VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL NGC 4330

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Anne; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Crowl, Hugh H.

    We present a multi-wavelength study of NGC 4330, a highly inclined spiral galaxy in the Virgo Cluster which is a clear example of strong, ongoing intracluster medium-interstellar medium (ICM-ISM) ram pressure stripping. The H I has been removed from well within the undisturbed old stellar disk, to 50%-65% of R{sub 25}. Multi-wavelength data (WIYN BVR-H{alpha}, Very Large Array 21 cm H I and radio continuum, and Galaxy Evolution Explorer NUV and FUV) reveal several one-sided extraplanar features likely caused by ram pressure at an intermediate disk-wind angle. At the leading edge of the interaction, the H{alpha} and dust extinction curvemore » sharply out of the disk in a remarkable and distinctive 'upturn' feature that may be generally useful as a diagnostic indicator of active ram pressure. On the trailing side, the ISM is stretched out in a long tail which contains 10% of the galaxy's total H I emission, 6%-9% of its NUV-FUV emission, but only 2% of the H{alpha}. The centroid of the H I tail is downwind of the UV/H{alpha} tail, suggesting that the ICM wind has shifted most of the ISM downwind over the course of the past 10-300 Myr. Along the major axis, the disk is highly asymmetric in the UV, but more symmetric in H{alpha} and H I, also implying recent changes in the distributions of gas and star formation. The UV-optical colors indicate very different star formation histories for the leading and trailing sides of the galaxy. On the leading side, a strong gradient in the UV-optical colors of the gas-stripped disk suggests that it has taken 200-400 Myr to strip the gas from a radius of >8 to 5 kpc, but on the trailing side there is no age gradient. All our data suggest a scenario in which NGC 4330 is falling into the cluster center for the first time and has experienced a significant increase in ram pressure over the last 200-400 Myr. Many of the UV-bright stars that form outside the thin disk due to ram pressure will ultimately produce stellar thick disk and

  17. Reference intervals for serum reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential, and oxidative stress index in adult rams.

    PubMed

    Oikonomidis, Ioannis L; Kiosis, Evangelos A; Brozos, Christos N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria G

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish reference intervals for serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and oxidative stress index (OSi) in adult rams by use of controlled preanalytic and analytic procedures. ANIMALS 123 healthy 1- to 4-year-old rams of 2 Greek breeds (Chios [n = 62] and Florina [61]). PROCEDURES 4 hours after rams were fed, a blood sample was obtained from each ram, and serum was harvested. Concentrations of ROMs and BAP were measured colorimetrically on a spectrophotometric analyzer. The OSi was calculated as ROMs concentration divided by BAP concentration. Combined and breed-specific reference intervals were calculated by use of nonparametric and robust methods, respectively. Reference intervals were defined as the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles. RESULTS Reference intervals for ROMs, BAP, and OSi for all rams combined were 65 to 109 Carratelli units, 2,364 to 4,491 μmol/L, and 18.2 to 43.0 Carratelli units/(mmol/L), respectively. Reference intervals of Chios rams for ROMs, BAP, and OSi were 56 to 113 Carratelli units, 2,234 to 4,290 μmol/L, and 12.9 to 38.4 Carratelli units/(mmol/L), respectively. Reference intervals of Florina rams for ROMs, BAP, and OSi were 68 to 111 Carratelli units, 2,337 to 4,363 μmol/L, and 14.1 to 38.1 Carratelli units/(mmol/L), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Reference intervals calculated in this study can be used as a guide for the interpretation of ROMs, BAP, and OSi results in rams and, under appropriate conditions, can be adopted for use by veterinary laboratories.

  18. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.1 technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, Katrina; Hecht, Ethan; Reynolds, John Thomas

    The HyRAM software toolkit provides a basis for conducting quantitative risk assessment and consequence modeling for hydrogen infrastructure and transportation systems. HyRAM is designed to facilitate the use of state-of-the-art science and engineering models to conduct robust, repeatable assessments of hydrogen safety, hazards, and risk. HyRAM is envisioned as a unifying platform combining validated, analytical models of hydrogen behavior, a stan- dardized, transparent QRA approach, and engineering models and generic data for hydrogen installations. HyRAM is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. De- partment of Energy to increase access to technical data about hydrogen safety andmore » to enable the use of that data to support development and revision of national and international codes and standards. This document provides a description of the methodology and models contained in the HyRAM version 1.1. HyRAM 1.1 includes generic probabilities for hydrogen equipment fail- ures, probabilistic models for the impact of heat flux on humans and structures, and computa- tionally and experimentally validated analytical and first order models of hydrogen release and flame physics. HyRAM 1.1 integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing hydrogen hazards (thermal effects from jet fires, overpressure effects from deflagrations), and assessing impact on people and structures. HyRAM is a prototype software in active development and thus the models and data may change. This report will be updated at appropriate developmental intervals.« less

  19. Nanosecond and Picosecond Spectroscopy and Kinetics of Dynamic Absorbing Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-08

    pS i~n antenna ]"lti ’Ri" 4. Artit’r corctiption of ibactf.ria I rac’tirr (n’i htr owing chlracteristic tims’ of the carl c% entis in lite prinury...pliytin a. poor ovvrlap wt,4d overlai) Fi(; vRF ’ Ili, Franck ( tm~im di;tgram, loW mal stiapt’ channg’s Amo tc’nap and large shiape i’(langes goo(d

  20. The relationship between post-thaw sperm DNA integrity and non-return rate among Norwegian cross-bred rams.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, A B; Krogenæs, A; Nødtvedt, A; Farstad, W; Waterhouse, K

    2013-04-01

    With the aim of investigating the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and non-return rate (NRR) among Norwegian cross-bred rams, semen from 15 individuals was examined by flow cytometry. Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) quantifies the proportion of spermatozoa with denatured DNA after in situ acid treatment, and the four parameters % DFI, % HDS, MEAN DFI and SD DFI are all different measures of DNA denaturation and maturation. Field fertility, reported as NRR 25 days after insemination was based on all inseminations from a large-scale breeding programme and supplied by the Norwegian Association of Sheep and Goat Farmers. From each ram, four straws from four different weeks of the breeding season were analysed, and the associations between 25-day NRR and the mean of the four SCSA parameters were tested using a logistic regression model. The results revealed no association between fertility and % DFI or % HDS, while SD DFI and MEAN DFI showed a significant negative association with NRR. Further, the SCSA values varied significantly between ejaculates within ram among some of the rams in the study. However, no significant association was seen between these intra-individual differences in sperm DNA integrity and NRR. In conclusion, this study suggests an association between sperm DNA integrity and NRR for rams. However, further research must be conducted to confirm these findings and determine whether sperm DNA assessments can be applied to predict ram fertility. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.