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Sample records for absorptiometry dxa method

  1. Bone geometry, structure and mineral distribution using Dual energy X ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Cleek, Tammy

    1993-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used method of analyzing regional and whole body changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and areal (g/sq cm) bone mineral density (BMD). However, BMC and BMD do not provide direct measures of long bone geometry, structure, or strength nor do regional measurements detect localized changes in other regions of the same bone. The capabilities of DXA can be enhanced significantly by special processing of pixel BMC data which yields cross-sectional geometric and structural information. We have extended this method of analysis in order to develop non-uniform structural beam models of long bones.

  2. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis and fracture risk assessment; WHO-criteria, T- and Z-score, and reference databases.

    PubMed

    Dimai, Hans P

    2016-12-29

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD). Since the early nineties of the past century, the diagnostic categories "normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis", as recommended by a WHO working Group, are based on this concept. Thus, DXA is still the globally accepted "gold-standard" method for the noninvasive diagnosis of osteoporosis. Another score obtained from DXA measurement, termed Z-score, describes the number of SDs by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected for age and sex. Although not intended for diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults, it nevertheless provides information about an individual's fracture risk compared to peers. DXA measurement can either be used as a "stand-alone" means in the assessment of an individual's fracture risk, or incorporated into one of the available fracture risk assessment tools such as FRAX® or Garvan, thus improving the predictive power of such tools. The issue which reference databases should be used by DXA-device manufacturers for T-score reference standards has been recently addressed by an expert group, who recommended use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) databases for the hip reference standard but own databases for the lumbar spine. Furthermore, in men it is recommended use female reference databases for calculation of the T-score and use male reference databases for calculation of Z-score.

  3. Absorbed dose measurements in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    PubMed

    Bezakova, E; Collins, P J; Beddoe, A H

    1997-02-01

    In this study a predominantly film dosimetric method was used to measure the effective dose from posteroanterior (PA) lumbar spine and proximal femur scans performed on a Lunar DPX-L machine. Because of the very low dose rate in scanning mode, the depth dose data were determined using a stationary detector configuration. The characteristic curve for the film (Kodak TMAT-H) was obtained and depth dose measurements were made using slabs of "solid water". The film was calibrated using a superficial X-ray unit (calibrated against a standard traceable to a national standard). To assess the change in film response with beam hardening at depth, the film was exposed to calibration beams of different half value layer (HVL). The HVL of the DXA beam was determined for surface and depth doses using aluminium filters and a diamond detector (an energy independent device). All measurements were performed three times. Beam size was measured using film, and the scan areas and times were determined by scanning phantoms. The dose from a scan was calculated using Dsc = DTscAb/Asc, where D = dose rate (stationary), Tsc = scan time, Ab = beam area, and Asc = scan area. Organ doses were determined using an anatomical atlas and ICRP 23 female reference. All film measurements had good precision (coefficient of variation < 4%). There was little variation in film sensitivity with change in HVL (< 1% change for the first three HVLs) and consequently no corrections were applied to the depth dose data. Skin entrance dose was 11.5 microGy. Effective dose in females was 0.19 microSv for the PA lumbar spine. For the proximal femur scan, the effective dose was 0.14 microSv (ovaries included) and 0.023 microSv (ovaries excluded) for pre-menopausal and pos-menopausal women, respectively.

  4. Cortical thickness estimation of the proximal femur from multi-view dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaousis, N.; Gee, A. H.; Treece, G. M.; Poole, K. E. S.

    2013-02-01

    Hip fracture is the leading cause of acute orthopaedic hospital admission amongst the elderly, with around a third of patients not surviving one year post-fracture. Although various preventative therapies are available, patient selection is difficult. The current state-of-the-art risk assessment tool (FRAX) ignores focal structural defects, such as cortical bone thinning, a critical component in characterizing hip fragility. Cortical thickness can be measured using CT, but this is expensive and involves a significant radiation dose. Instead, Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the preferred imaging modality for assessing hip fracture risk and is used routinely in clinical practice. Our ambition is to develop a tool to measure cortical thickness using multi-view DXA instead of CT. In this initial study, we work with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) derived from CT data as a surrogate for DXA scans: this enables us to compare directly the thickness estimates with the gold standard CT results. Our approach involves a model-based femoral shape reconstruction followed by a data-driven algorithm to extract numerous cortical thickness point estimates. In a series of experiments on the shaft and trochanteric regions of 48 proximal femurs, we validated our algorithm and established its performance limits using 20 views in the range 0°-171°: estimation errors were 0:19 +/- 0:53mm (mean +/- one standard deviation). In a more clinically viable protocol using four views in the range 0°-51°, where no other bony structures obstruct the projection of the femur, measurement errors were -0:07 +/- 0:79 mm.

  5. Methodology review: using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the assessment of body composition in athletes and active people.

    PubMed

    Nana, Alisa; Slater, Gary J; Stewart, Arthur D; Burke, Louise M

    2015-04-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is rapidly becoming more accessible and popular as a technique to monitor body composition, especially in athletic populations. Although studies in sedentary populations have investigated the validity of DXA assessment of body composition, few studies have examined the issues of reliability in athletic populations and most studies which involve DXA measurements of body composition provide little information on their scanning protocols. This review presents a summary of the sources of error and variability in the measurement of body composition by DXA, and develops a theoretical model of best practice to standardize the conduct and analysis of a DXA scan. Components of this protocol include standardization of subject presentation (subjects rested, overnight-fasted and in minimal clothing) and positioning on the scanning bed (centrally aligned in a standard position using custom-made positioning aids) as well as manipulation of the automatic segmentation of regional areas of the scan results. Body composition assessment implemented with such protocol ensures a high level of precision, while still being practical in an athletic setting. This ensures that any small changes in body composition are confidently detected and correctly interpreted. The reporting requirements for studies involving DXA scans of body composition include details of the DXA machine and software, subject presentation and positioning protocols, and analysis protocols.

  6. DXA performance in a pediatric population: precision of body composition measurements in healthy term-born infants using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth; Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Bech Jensen, Jens-Erik; Lade Rasmussen, Anne Mette; Pryds, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been hailed as a golden standard for measuring body composition in adults but remains to be fully assessed for the infant population. A total of 64 newborn infants were allocated to 1 of 3 groups. All underwent 2 Hologic Discovery A DXA scans. Suboptimal scans were reconstructed, and an investigation into the success of adjustment was carried out. Depending on group, the factors of weight change and repositioning were investigated. Test-retest variation and coefficients of variation for DXA body composition estimates were calculated. Furthermore, the effects of flannel sheets and breast milk were investigated using a pediatric phantom. Reconstruction of suboptimal scans resulted in more accurate body weight estimates. Moderate weight change and repositioning had no significant effect on the variation between scans. No significant body composition changes occurred between scans. The test-retest variation varied between 6.3% and 11.8%. Flannel sheets and breast milk affected DXA results significantly. High precision of DXA measurements was obtained in our newborn population. Reconstructing scans is a viable way of correcting minor movement artifacts. Moderate weight changes and repositioning have no significant effect on DXA results, whereas flannel sheets and milk do.

  7. Relationships among dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and ultrasound measurements of body composition of swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In three separate studies (156 pigs total), DXA, BIA, and ultrasound were compared as methods for measuring live body composition of pigs at 60 and 100-110 kg BWt. DXA measured total body fat and lean content, BIA measurements of resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were used to calculate total body l...

  8. Assessment of EchoMRI-AH versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry by iDXA to measure human body composition

    PubMed Central

    Marlatt, Kara L.; Greenway, Frank; Ravussin, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background Comparison of percent fat mass across different body composition analysis devices is important given variation in technology accuracy and precision, as well as the growing need for cross-validation of devices often applied across longitudinal studies. Subjects/Methods We compared EchoMRI-AH and Lunar iDXA quantification of percent body fat (PBF) in 84 adults (43M, 41F) with mean age 39.7±15.9 y and BMI 26.2±5.3 kg/m2. Results PBF correlated strongly between devices (r>0.95, p<0.0001). A prediction equation was derived in half of the subjects, and the other half were used to cross-validate the proposed equation (EchoMRI-AH PBF=[0.94*iDXA PBF]+[0.14*Age]+[3.3*Female]−8.83). Mean PBF difference (predicted–measured) in the validation group was not different from 0 (diff=0.27%, 95%CI: −0.42–0.96, p=0.430). Bland-Altman plots showed a bias with higher measured PBF on EchoMRI-AH versus iDXA in all 84 subjects (β=0.13, p<0.0001). Conclusions The proposed prediction equation was valid in our cross-validation sample, and has the potential to be applied across multicenter studies. PMID:27901030

  9. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    PubMed

    Tinggaard, J; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C; Husby, S; Christiansen, L; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T K; Grandjean, P; Main, K M; Andersen, H R

    2016-07-01

    Many modern pesticides have endocrine disrupting abilities and early-life exposure may affect growth and disease risk later in life. Previously, we reported associations between prenatal pesticide exposure and higher childhood body fat content measured by anthropometry. The associations were affected by child PON1 Q192R genotype. We aimed to study whether prenatal pesticide exposure was still associated with body fat content and distribution in the children at puberty and the potential impact of both maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype. In this prospective cohort study of 247 children born by occupationally exposed or unexposed women (greenhouse workers and controls) two follow-up examinations (age 10-15 and 11-16 years) including simple anthropometry, skinfold measurements, pubertal staging and blood sampling were performed. Total and regional fat% was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat percentage (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p < 0.05). Stratified by sex, the associations were significant in girls (total fat: β = 0.7 SDS, android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p < 0.05), but not in boys. Carrying the R-allele (child or mother, separately, or both) augmented the differences between exposed and unexposed children (total fat: β = 1.0 SDS, β = 0.8 SDS, p < 0.05, respectively, and β = 1.2 SDS, p < 0.01). No exposure-related differences were found if either the child or mother had the QQ wild-type. At age 11-16, exposed children tended to have a higher total fat% estimated by skinfolds than unexposed children (p = 0.06). No significant associations between prenatal exposure and body mass index or waist circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android

  10. Seven-site versus three-site method of body composition using BodyMetrix ultrasound compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Marissa N; Johnson, Kelly E; Juvancic-Heltzel, Judith A; Kappler, Rachele M; Richardson, Laura; Jamieson, Scott; Otterstetter, Ronald

    2015-10-22

    Obesity is a steadily growing epidemic affecting all segments of the population including college-aged students. The weight gain that is evidenced amid the transitional stage of college years increases the risks associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The BodyMetrix® BX-2000 (ULTRA) using a seven-site method has been evaluated against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for estimation of body composition, which has yielded conflicting results. To date, no studies have compared the three-site method Jackson and Pollock three-site method to DXA.

  11. Assessment of adiposity in psoriatic patients by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry compared to conventional methods*

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Michelle dos Santos; Bavoso, Nádia Couto; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Lauria, Márcio Weissheimer; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis; Machado-Pinto, Jackson

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease that shares mediators of inflammation with psoriasis, such as TNF-α and IL-6. The relationship between these two conditions involves factors such as predisposition and response to therapy, in addition to an association with cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of adiposity as determined by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) evaluation in patients with psoriasis. METHODS BMI, WC and body composition by DXA were measured in 42 psoriatic patients without joint complaints and in 41 control patients using standard procedures. In the comparison between cases and controls, we used Pearson’s Χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The difference between the diverse classification methods for obesity was evaluated using McNemar’s test. To test the level of agreement between those variables, we used the weighted kappa coefficient. RESULTS There was no difference in the prevalence of obesity among cases and controls. Both BMI and WC had low agreement with measures of body fat evaluated by DXA. With the use of DXA scanning, prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with psoriasis was 83.3%, which constitutes a strong evidence of the need for intervention on this metabolic parameter. CONCLUSION Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was more capable of identifying obesity compared with BMI and WC both in psoriatic and control patients. PMID:27192512

  12. A study on the effects of a calcium drug on the bone mineral density (BMD) by using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of osteoporosis might contain errors caused by the calcium drug used in the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. This study conducted a lumbar spine phantom experiment to examine whether a calcium drug can influence the measured values of the bone mineral density (BMD) because of the drug taken by a real patient remaining undigested in the stomach. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure the BMD for a calcium-drug in an equipment-dedicated lumbar spine phantom and 10 patients selected for the BMD measurement. Three types of drugs that are prescribed in actual clinical practice calcium drugs were used for the phantom experiment, and the drugs were divided into a fixed dose, 1/2 of the fixed dose, 1/4 of the fixed dose and 1/8 of the fixed dose. Without the drugs included, the phantom was scanned 60 times continuously to calculate the baseline BMD. The BMD was measured as the calcium drug coated with paraffin was placed in the lumbar vertebra 2 and the soft tissue region of the phantom. To determine when the drug was invisible to the naked eye are measured, the BMD at different drug dilutions. The measurements were conducted three times to calculate the mean. In the patient experiment, patients were selected who visited hospital after taking the drug before measuring the BMD. After a certain time had passed, the BMD was measured again to examine the difference in images and the change in BMD values due to the calcium-drug intake. The BMD measurements of lumbar 1-4 in the phantom were higher, with statistical significant, than the least significant change (LSC) in the bone region for all three drugs (Ca carbonate, Ca citrate and Ca cholecalciferol), showing a significant increase. On the other hand, there was no significant change in the soft tissue. When Ca Cholecalciferol was used in a fixed dose, the BMD of L2 increased by 11.6%, showing the largest increase among the drugs examined, but only a 2.8% increase in the BMD of L1

  13. Evaluating accuracy of structural geometry by DXA methods with an anthropometric proximal femur phantom.

    PubMed

    Khoo, B C C; Beck, T J; Brown, K; Price, R I

    2013-09-01

    DXA-derived bone structural geometry has been reported extensively but lacks an accuracy standard. In this study, we describe a novel anthropometric structural geometry phantom that simulates the proximal femur for use in assessing accuracy of geometry measurements by DXA or other X-ray methods. The phantom consists of seven different interchangeable neck modules with geometries that span the range of dimensions in an adult human proximal femur, including those representing osteoporosis. Ten repeated hip scans of each neck module using two current DXA scanner models were performed without repositioning. After scanner specific calibration, hip structure analysis was used to derive structural geometry. Scanner performance was similar for the two manufacturers. DXA-derived HSA geometric measurements were highly correlated with values derived directly from phantom geometry and position; R² between DXA and phantom measures were greater than 94% for all parameters, while precision error ranged between 0.3 and 3.9%. Despite high R² there were some systematic geometry errors for both scanners that were small for outer diameter, but increasing with complexity of geometrical parameter; e.g. buckling ratio. In summary, the anthropometric phantom and its fabrication concept were shown to be appropriate for evaluating proximal femoral structural geometry in two different DXA systems.

  14. Body Segment Inertial Parameters of elite swimmers Using DXA and indirect Methods.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marcel; Lyttle, Andrew; El-Sallam, Amar; Benjanuvatra, Nat; Blanksby, Brian

    2013-01-01

    As accurate body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs) are difficult to obtain in motion analysis, this study computed individual BSIPs from DXA scan images. Therefore, by co-registering areal density data with DXA grayscale image, the relationship between pixel color gradient and the mass within the pixel area could be established. Thus, one can calculate BSIPs, including segment mass, center of mass (COM) and moment of inertia about the sagittal axis (Ixx). This technique calculated whole body mass very accurately (%RMSE of < 1.5%) relatively to results of the generic DXA scanner software. The BSIPs of elite male and female swimmers, and young adult Caucasian males (n = 28), were computed using this DXA method and 5 other common indirect estimation methods. A 3D surface scan of each subject enabled mapping of key anthropometric variables required for the 5 indirect estimation methods. Mass, COM and Ixx were calculated for seven body segments (head, trunk, head + trunk, upper arm, forearm, thigh and shank). Between-group comparisons of BSIPs revealed that elite female swimmers had the lowest segment masses of the three groups (p < 0.05). Elite male swimmers recorded the greatest inertial parameters of the trunk and upper arms (p < 0.05). Using the DXA method as the criterion, the five indirect methods produced errors greater than 10% for at least one BSIP in all three populations. Therefore, caution is required when computing BSIPs for elite swimmers via these indirect methods, DXA accurately estimated BSIPs in the frontal plane. Key PointsElite swimmers have significantly different body segment inertial parameters than young adult Caucasian males.The errors computed from indirect BSIP estimation methods are large regardless whether applied to elite swimmers or young adult Caucasian males.No indirect estimation method consistently performed best.

  15. The prediction of total skeletal muscle mass in a Caucasian population - comparison of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Pourhassan, Maryam; Braun, Wiebke; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred J

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy X-ray (DXA) is an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure skeletal muscle mass. DXA assesses lean body mass (LBM), and MRI measures skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655) developed MRI-based algorithms to estimate whole-body SMM by DXA. These algorithms were based on an ethnically mixed study population (Kim et al., Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655). It is unclear whether Kim's algorithms are accurate in an exclusive Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to validate Kim's equation in a Caucasian population of 346 subjects. SMMMRI was assessed using MRI, and LBM and BMCDXA were measured by DXA and fat mass (FMADP ) by air-displacement plethysmographie (ADP). SMMMRI and predicted SMM were highly correlated (r = 0·944; P<0·05). The standard error of estimate of the regression equation was 2·4 kg. However, Bland-Altman plots showed a significant (P<0·001) systematic bias between SMMMRI (median 25·1 kg; IQ 20·2-31·1 kg) and predicted SMM (median 26·3 kg; IQ 22·6-33·0 kg), overestimating SMM by 9·8%. Multiple regression analyses showed that weight explained 4·4% of the variance in the differences between SMMMRI and predicted SMM with the major part unexplained. Kim's algorithm has a systematic unexplained bias and is not recommended in Caucasians.

  16. Body composition in older community-dwelling adults with hip fracture: portable field methods validated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Villani, Anthony M; Miller, Michelle; Cameron, Ian D; Kurrle, Susan; Whitehead, Craig; Crotty, Maria

    2013-04-14

    Ageing is associated with weight loss and subsequently poor health outcomes. The present study assessed agreement between two field methods, bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and corrected arm muscle area (CAMA) for assessment of body composition against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the reference technique. Agreement between two predictive equations estimating skeletal muscle mass (SMM) from BIS against SMM from DXA was also determined. Assessments occurred at baseline < 14 d post-surgery (n 79), and at 6 months (6M; n 75) and 12 months (12M; n 63) in community-living older adults after surgical treatment for hip fracture. The 95 % limits of agreement (LOA) between BIS and DXA, CAMA and DXA and the equations and DXA were assessed using Bland-Altman analyses. Mean bias and LOA for fat-free mass (FFM) between BIS and DXA were: baseline, 0.7 (-10.9, 12.4) kg; 6M, - 0.5 (-20.7, 19.8) kg; 12M, 0.1 (-8.7, 8.9) kg and for SMM between CAMA and DXA were: baseline, 0.3 (-11.7, 12.3) kg; 6M, 1.3 (-4.5, 7.1) kg; 12M, 0.9 (-5.4, 7.2) kg. Equivalent data for predictive equations against DXA were: equation 1: baseline, 15.1 (-9.5, 20.6) kg; 6M, 17.1 (-12.0, 22.2) kg; 12M, 17.5 (-13.0, 22.0) kg; equation 2: baseline, 12.6 (-7.3, 19.9) kg; 6M, 14.4 (-9.7, 19.1) kg; 12M, 14.8 (-10.7, 18.9) kg. Proportional bias (BIS: β = -0.337, P< 0.001; CAMA: β = -0.294, P< 0.001) was present at baseline but not at 6M or 12 M. Clinicians should be cautious in using these field methods to predict FFM and SMM, particularly in the acute care setting. New predictive equations would be beneficial.

  17. Agreement of bioelectric impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition evaluation in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ziai, S; Coriati, A; Chabot, K; Mailhot, M; Richter, M V; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition in cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with increased mortality and can lead to fat-free (FFM) and fat mass (FM) loss. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used and validated to measure FFM and FM. DXA's high cost has led to the utilization of less costly techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The aim of this study was to determine the agreement of FFM, FM and %FM measurements taken with DXA and BIA in adults with CF. We measured FFM, FM and %FM in 34 adults with CF with a leg-to-leg BIA and an iDXA and determined agreement using Bland-Altman analysis. While DXA and BIA measurements were well correlated (r > 0.8), mean biases between both methods were between 8 and 11%. BIA underestimated FM and %FM and overestimated FFM. In a clinical research setting where these measurements are used to phenotype patients, BIA cannot replace DXA.

  18. Comparison of bone density measurement techniques: DXA and Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Keenan, M J; Hegsted, M; Jones, K L; Delany, J P; Kime, J C; Melancon, L E; Tulley, R T; Hong, K D

    1997-11-01

    The standard method for determination of density (g/cm3) of bones from small animals has been the application of Archimedes' principle. A recent development has been software for the determination of "density" (g/cm2) of small animal bones with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared Archimedes' principle and DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) in the measurement of the densities of whole and hollowed femurs of 5- to 6-month-old retired female breeder rats. In an attempt to ensure detectable treatment differences, rats were used from a low-vitamin D Holtzman and a supplemental-vitamin D Sprague-Dawley colony. Whole femur densities were higher for supplemental-vitamin D colony rats than for low vitamin D rats using both techniques (Archimedes' principle, p < 0.002; DXA, p < 0.005), and the densities from the two techniques were highly correlated (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Actual density values were higher for Archimedes' principle than for DXA. Other variables such as femur ash weight and calcium content were also highly correlated to densities with both techniques. Hollowed femur density values were higher than whole femur values with Archimedes' principle but lower with DXA. Colony effects for hollowed femur densities were diminished with Archimedes' principle (p < 0.03) and eliminated with DXA (p < 0.53). Investigation of whole bones is more biologically relevant, and both techniques were effective in detecting differences between whole femurs from low-vitamin D and supplemental-vitamin D colony rats.

  19. Correlation of visceral adipose tissue measured by Lunar Prodigy dual X-ray absorptiometry with MRI and CT in older men.

    PubMed

    Cheung, A S; de Rooy, C; Hoermann, R; Gianatti, E J; Hamilton, E J; Roff, G; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is important to understand obesity-related comorbidities. We hypothesized that dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of VAT would correlate with traditional gold standards of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in older men. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between VAT measured simultaneously by DXA and MRI (n=95) in a cohort of older males participating in a randomized trial of testosterone replacement for diabetes. We also correlated DXA with single-slice CT (n=102) in a cohort of older males undergoing testosterone deprivation for prostate cancer. Lunar Prodigy DXA scanners using enCORE software was used to measure VAT. DXA VAT volume strongly correlated with MRI VAT volume (r=0.90, P<0.0001) and CT VAT area (r=0.83, P<0.0001). As DXA assesses VAT volume in a smaller compartment than MRI, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated DXA systematically underestimated VAT by an approximately 30% proportional bias. DXA VAT volume measured by Lunar Prodigy DXA scanners correlate well with gold standard MRI and CT quantification methods, and provides a low radiation, efficient, cost-effective option. Future clinical studies examining the effects of interventions on body composition and regional fat distribution may find DXA an appropriate volumetric method to quantify VAT.

  20. Assessing body composition in healthy newborn infants: reliability of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Godang, Kristin; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Voldner, Nanna; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Frøslie, Kathrine F; Nøtthellen, Jacob; Henriksen, Tore; Bollerslev, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to measure body composition in newborns; however, data on DXA accuracy are limited. We investigated the reliability of body composition measurements by DXA. The present study included 207 normal-term newborn babies, recruited from a larger study on the determinants of birth weight in healthy pregnancies (STORK) between 2005 and 2008. Reliability analysis of total fat mass (FM(DxA)), fat-free mass, lean mass (LM(DxA)), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were based on 2 DXA scans of 50 neonates. We also performed a comparison analysis for DXA (FM(DxA)) measurements and caliper (CLP) or circumference (CF) measurements of trunk and extremities (performed on all neonates, n=207). Reliability: All intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were satisfactory to excellent for total body and the extremity-compartment FM(DxA), LM(DxA), BMD, and BMC; ICC ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 but with a lower ICC for trunk FM(DxA). For comparison analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficients for CLP vs DXA and CF vs DXA ranged from 0.48 to 0.79 and 0.41 to 0.77, respectively. Quadriceps CLP and CF measurements correlated best with the most reliable DXA results, whereas more modest correlations were found for the trunk region. DXA measurements of body composition demonstrated good reliability and can be used as a reference method in neonates. CLP and CF measurements are appropriate for larger cohorts or when DXA is unavailable, and they provide fair rough estimations of fat mass.

  1. Total and regional body volumes derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry output.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joseph P; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A

    2013-01-01

    Total body volume is an important health metric used to measure body density, shape, and multicompartmental body composition but is currently only available through underwater weighing or air displacement plethysmography (ADP). The objective of this investigation was to derive an accurate body volume from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-reported measures for advanced body composition models. Volunteers received a whole body DXA scan and an ADP measure at baseline (N = 25) and 6 mo (N = 22). Baseline measures were used to calibrate body volume from the reported DXA masses of fat, lean, and bone mineral content. A second population (N = 385) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to estimate the test-retest precision of regional (arms, legs, head, and trunk) and total body volumes. Overall, we found that DXA-volume was highly correlated to ADP-volume (R² = 0.99). The 6-mo change in total DXA-volume was highly correlated to change in ADP-volume (R² = 0.98). The root mean square percent coefficient of variation precision of DXA-volume measures ranged from 1.1% (total) to 3.2% (head). We conclude that the DXA-volume method can measure body volume accurately and precisely, can be used in body composition models, could be an independent health indicator, and is useful as a prospective or retrospective biomarker of body composition.

  2. Method and apparatus for multiple-projection, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Jr., Harry K. (Inventor); Beck, Thomas J. (Inventor); Feldmesser, Howard S. (Inventor); Magee, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for advanced, multiple-projection, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning systems include combinations of a conical collimator; a high-resolution two-dimensional detector; a portable, power-capped, variable-exposure-time power supply; an exposure-time control element; calibration monitoring; a three-dimensional anti-scatter-grid; and a gantry-gantry base assembly that permits up to seven projection angles for overlapping beams. Such systems are capable of high precision bone structure measurements that can support three dimensional bone modeling and derivations of bone strength, risk of injury, and efficacy of countermeasures among other properties.

  3. Non-invasive methods for the determination of body and carcass composition in livestock: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound: invited review.

    PubMed

    Scholz, A M; Bünger, L; Kongsro, J; Baulain, U; Mitchell, A D

    2015-07-01

    The ability to accurately measure body or carcass composition is important for performance testing, grading and finally selection or payment of meat-producing animals. Advances especially in non-invasive techniques are mainly based on the development of electronic and computer-driven methods in order to provide objective phenotypic data. The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation. The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively. The electromagnetic signal produced by the instrument may originate from mechanical energy such as sound waves (ultrasound - US), 'photon' radiation (X-ray-computed tomography - CT, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - DXA) or radio frequency waves (magnetic resonance imaging - MRI). The signals detected by the corresponding instruments are processed to measure, for example, tissue depths, areas, volumes or distributions of fat, muscle (water, protein) and partly bone or bone mineral. Among the above techniques, CT is the most accurate one followed by MRI and DXA, whereas US can be used for all sizes of farm animal species even under field conditions. CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation. A combination of simple US and more expensive CT, MRI or DXA might be applied for farm animal selection programs in a stepwise approach.

  4. Photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.

  5. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency and Body Composition Measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Eight-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotte, Sari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Metsämuuronen, Jari; Rintala, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim was to examine the association between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and objectively measured body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: A study of 304 eight-year-old children in Finland. FMS were assessed with the "Test of gross motor development," 2nd ed. Total body fat…

  6. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N.

    2010-05-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated RST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the RST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA RST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA RST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the RST values. The DXA RST values were strongly associated with the RST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted RST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured RST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA RST is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  7. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N

    2010-05-07

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R(ST) value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R(ST) concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R(ST) values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R(ST) value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body (40)K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R(ST) values. The DXA R(ST) values were strongly associated with the R(ST) values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted R(ST) to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R(ST) (mean +/- SD, 1.389 +/- 0.024 versus 1.341 +/- 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 +/- 12.0% versus 24.9 +/- 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA R(ST) is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  8. Longitudinal DXA Studies: Minimum scanning interval for pediatric assessment of body fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, has led to the increased use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessment of body fat mass (TBF) in pediatric populations. We examined DXA precision, in order to determine suitable scanning intervals for the measurement of change...

  9. Reproducibility and accuracy of body composition assessments in mice by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Solveig; Carmody, Jill; Boozer, Carol N; Leduc, Charles A; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and reproducibility of dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA; PIXImus(™)) and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR; Bruker Optics) for the measurement of body composition of lean and obese mice. SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Thirty lean and obese mice (body weight range 19-67 g) were studied. Coefficients of variation for repeated (x 4) DXA and NMR scans of mice were calculated to assess reproducibility. Accuracy was assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results of ten mice to chemical carcass analyses. Accuracy of the respective techniques was also assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results obtained with ground meat samples to chemical analyses. Repeated scans of 10-25 gram samples were performed to test the sensitivity of the DXA and NMR methods to variation in sample mass. RESULTS: In mice, DXA and NMR reproducibility measures were similar for fat tissue mass (FTM) (DXA coefficient of variation [CV]=2.3%; and NMR CV=2.8%) (P=0.47), while reproducibility of lean tissue mass (LTM) estimates were better for DXA (1.0%) than NMR (2.2%) (

    DXA overestimated (vs chemical composition) LTM (+1.7 ± 1.3 g [SD], ~ 8%, P <0.001) as well as FTM (+2.0 ± 1.2 g, ~ 46%, P <0.001). NMR estimated LTM and FTM virtually identical to chemical composition analysis (LTM: -0.05 ± 0.5 g, ~0.2%, P =0.79) (FTM: +0.02 ± 0.7 g, ~15%, P =0.93). DXA and NMR-determined LTM and FTM measurements were highly correlated with the corresponding chemical analyses (r(2)=0.92 and r(2)=0.99 for DXA LTM and FTM, respectively; r(2)=0.99 and r(2)=0.99 for NMR LTM and FTM, respectively.) Sample mass did not affect accuracy in assessing chemical composition of small ground meat samples by either DXA or NMR. CONCLUSION: DXA and NMR provide comparable levels of reproducibility in measurements of body composition lean and obese mice. While DXA and NMR measures are highly correlated with chemical analysis measures, DXA consistently

  10. Reproducibility and accuracy of body composition assessments in mice by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsdottir, Solveig; Carmody, Jill; Boozer, Carol N.; Leduc, Charles A.; Leibel, Rudolph L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy and reproducibility of dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA; PIXImus™) and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR; Bruker Optics) for the measurement of body composition of lean and obese mice. Subjects and measurements Thirty lean and obese mice (body weight range 19–67 g) were studied. Coefficients of variation for repeated (x 4) DXA and NMR scans of mice were calculated to assess reproducibility. Accuracy was assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results of ten mice to chemical carcass analyses. Accuracy of the respective techniques was also assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results obtained with ground meat samples to chemical analyses. Repeated scans of 10–25 gram samples were performed to test the sensitivity of the DXA and NMR methods to variation in sample mass. Results In mice, DXA and NMR reproducibility measures were similar for fat tissue mass (FTM) (DXA coefficient of variation [CV]=2.3%; and NMR CV=2.8%) (P=0.47), while reproducibility of lean tissue mass (LTM) estimates were better for DXA (1.0%) than NMR (2.2%) (

    DXA overestimated (vs chemical composition) LTM (+1.7 ± 1.3 g [SD], ~ 8%, P <0.001) as well as FTM (+2.0 ± 1.2 g, ~ 46%, P <0.001). NMR estimated LTM and FTM virtually identical to chemical composition analysis (LTM: −0.05 ± 0.5 g, ~0.2%, P =0.79) (FTM: +0.02 ± 0.7 g, ~15%, P =0.93). DXA and NMR-determined LTM and FTM measurements were highly correlated with the corresponding chemical analyses (r2=0.92 and r2=0.99 for DXA LTM and FTM, respectively; r2=0.99 and r2=0.99 for NMR LTM and FTM, respectively.) Sample mass did not affect accuracy in assessing chemical composition of small ground meat samples by either DXA or NMR. Conclusion DXA and NMR provide comparable levels of reproducibility in measurements of body composition lean and obese mice. While DXA and NMR measures are highly correlated with chemical analysis measures, DXA consistently overestimates LTM

  11. Comparison of total and segmental body composition using DXA and multifrequency bioimpedance in collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Snarr, Ronald L; Leatherwood, Matthew D; Chamberlain, Nik A; Redding, Melvenia L; Flatt, Andrew A; Moon, Jordan R; Williford, Henry N

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the agreement between multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring body fat percentage (BF%), fat-free mass (FFM), and total body and segmental lean soft tissue (LST) in collegiate female athletes. Forty-five female athletes (age = 21.2 ± 2.0 years, height = 166.1 ± 7.1 cm, weight = 62.6 ± 9.9 kg) participated in this study. Variables measured through BIA and DXA were as follows: BF%, FFM, and LST of the arms (ARMS(LST)), the legs (LEGS(LST)), the trunk (TRUNK(LST)), and the total body (TOTAL(LST)). Compared with the DXA, the InBody 720 provided significantly lower values for BF% (-3.3%, p < 0.001) and significantly higher values for FFM (2.1 kg, p < 0.001) with limits of agreement (1.96 SD of the mean difference) of ±5.6% for BF% and ±3.7 kg for FFM. No significant differences (p < 0.008) existed between the 2 devices (InBody 720-DXA) for ARMS(LST) (0.05 kg), TRUNK(LST) (0.14 kg), LEGS(LST) (-0.4 kg), and TOTAL(LST) (-0.21 kg). The limits of agreement were ±0.79 kg for ARMS(LST), ±2.62 kg for LEGS(LST), ±3.18 kg for TRUNK(LST), and ±4.23 kg for TOTAL(LST). This study found discrepancies in BF% and FFM between the 2 devices. However, the InBody 720 and DXA appeared to provide excellent agreement for measuring total body and segmental LST. Therefore, the InBody 720 may be a rapid noninvasive method to assess LST in female athletes when DXA is not available.

  12. Determination of thigh volume in youth with anthropometry and DXA: agreement between estimates.

    PubMed

    Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Malina, Robert M; Simões, Filipe; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Martins, Raul A; Vaz Ronque, Enio R; Petroski, Edio L; Minderico, Claudia; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the agreement between estimates of thigh volume (TV) with anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy school children. Participants (n=168, 83 boys and 85 girls) were school children 10.0-13.9 years of age. In addition to body mass, height and sitting height, anthropometric dimensions included those needed to estimate TV using the equation of Jones & Pearson. Total TV was also estimated with DXA. Agreement between protocols was examined using linear least products regression (Deming regressions). Stepwise regression of log-transformed variables identified variables that best predicted TV estimated by DXA. The regression models were then internally validated using the predicted residual sum of squares method. Correlation between estimates of TV was 0.846 (95%CI: 0.796-0.884, Sy·x=0.152 L). It was possible to obtain an anthropometry-based model to improve the prediction of TVs in youth. The total volume by DXA was best predicted by adding body mass and sum of skinfolds to volume estimated with the equation of Jones & Pearson (R=0.972; 95%CI: 0.962-0.979; R (2)=0.945).

  13. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the ‘Gold Standard’ Tarnished?

    PubMed Central

    Hands, Beth; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Mountain, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Methods and Results 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:27622523

  14. 3D-DXA: Assessing the Femoral Shape, the Trabecular Macrostructure and the Cortex in 3D from DXA images.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Ludovic; Martelli, Yves; Fonolla, Roger; Steghofer, Martin; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Malouf, Jorge; Romera, Jordi; Barquero, Luis Miguel Del Rio

    2017-01-01

    The 3D distribution of the cortical and trabecular bone mass in the proximal femur is a critical component in determining fracture resistance that is not taken into account in clinical routine Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) examination. In this paper, a statistical shape and appearance model together with a 3D-2D registration approach are used to model the femoral shape and bone density distribution in 3D from an anteroposterior DXA projection. A model-based algorithm is subsequently used to segment the cortex and build a 3D map of the cortical thickness and density. Measurements characterising the geometry and density distribution were computed for various regions of interest in both cortical and trabecular compartments. Models and measurements provided by the "3D-DXA" software algorithm were evaluated using a database of 157 study subjects, by comparing 3D-DXA analyses (using DXA scanners from three manufacturers) with measurements performed by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The mean point-to-surface distance between 3D-DXA and QCT femoral shapes was 0.93 mm. The mean absolute error between cortical thickness and density estimates measured by 3D-DXA and QCT was 0.33 mm and 72 mg/cm(3). Correlation coefficients (R) between the 3D-DXA and QCT measurements were 0.86, 0.93, and 0.95 for the volumetric bone mineral density at the trabecular, cortical, and integral compartments respectively, and 0.91 for the mean cortical thickness. 3D-DXA provides a detailed analysis of the proximal femur, including a separate assessment of the cortical layer and trabecular macrostructure, which could potentially improve osteoporosis management while maintaining DXA as the standard routine modality.

  15. Cost effectiveness analysis of BMD referral for DXA using ultrasound as a selective pre-screen in a group of women with low trauma Colles' fractures.

    PubMed

    Sim, M F; Stone, M; Johansen, A; Evans, W

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of bone density (BMD) are central to the World Health Organisation (WHO) approach to the definition of osteoporosis. Dual energy X- ray absorptiometry (DXA) remains the gold standard technique for measuring the bone mineral density (BMD) but Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) is an attractive alternative method of bone assessment because it is easy to use and relatively inexpensive. It has been suggested that QUS could be used as a selective population pre-screen, to maximise the cost effectiveness of referral for DXA assessment of BMD. We set out to examine how such an approach might perform in the assessment of women with low trauma Colles' fracture. In 46 women aged 50-80 (mean 67) years we used DXA to measure BMD at lumbar spine and hip, and heel bone ultrasound to measure Broad Band Attenuation (BUA) and Velocity of Sound (VOS). We calculated local costs of pounds sterling 45 for DXA and pounds sterling 15 for QUS. We identified a BUA threshold of 60 dB/MHz as most cost effective as pre-screen, and calculated a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 84% in identifying those subjects who were subsequently identified as having osteoporosis by DXA. DXA assessment of all patients had a cost of pounds sterling 77 per osteoporotic subject identified. We examined the cost-effectiveness of using QUS as a pre-screen, only referring subjects for more expensive DXA assessment if BUA was less than 60 dB/MHz. However this approach had no advantage, still costing pounds sterling 78 per osteoporotic subject identified. QUS assessment does not appear cost-effective as a pre-screen for DXA, even in this high risk group of women with low trauma Colles' fracture. A QUS pre-screen would only be cost-effective if the scan could be performed at a substantially lower cost.

  16. Comparison of Anthropometry to Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A New Prediction Equation for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Swan, Pamela D.; DeSimone, Rosemarie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of three recommended anthropometric equations for women and then develop an updated prediction equation using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The percentage of body fat (%BF) by anthropometry was significantly correlated (r = .896-. 929; p [is less than] .01) with DXA, but each equation…

  17. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of birds: an examination of excised skeletal specimens.

    PubMed

    Dirrigl, F J; Dalsky, G P; Warner, S E

    2004-08-01

    The ability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure bone mineral content and density of bird bones has received little attention. This paper represents the first comprehensive study of the methods, precision, and reproducibility of DXA (GE-Lunar DPX-L) for the uniquely shaped, thin and pneumatic bones of birds. Skeletal elements and portions represented by 26 regions of interest (ROIs) are presented and evaluated for the gallinaceous bird species, wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Using Lunar small animal software and the methods described in this paper, photodensitometry of bird bones is possible and opens new opportunities for using birds in clinical models in veterinarian science, osteoporosis studies, space biology, and even archaeological and paleontological research.

  18. Dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

  19. Body composition at 6 months of life: comparison of air displacement plethysmography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Chandler-Laney, Paula C

    2012-11-01

    Body composition assessment during infancy is important because it is a critical period for obesity risk development, thus valid tools are needed to accurately, precisely, and quickly determine both fat and fat-free mass. The purpose of this study was to compare body composition estimates using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) at 6 months old. We assessed the agreement between whole body composition using DXA and ADP in 84 full-term average-for-gestational-age boys and girls using DXA (Lunar iDXA v11-30.062; Infant whole body analysis enCore 2007 software, GE, Fairfield, CT) and ADP (Infant Body Composition System v3.1.0, COSMED USA, Concord, CA). Although the correlations between DXA and ADP for %fat (r = 0.925), absolute fat mass (r = 0.969), and absolute fat-free mass (r = 0.945) were all significant, body composition estimates by DXA were greater for both %fat (31.1 ± 3.6% vs. 26.7 ± 4.7%; P < 0.001) and absolute fat mass (2,284 ± 449 vs. 1,921 ± 492 g; P < 0.001), and lower for fat-free mass (5,022 ± 532 vs. 5,188 ± 508 g; P < 0.001) vs. ADP. Inter-method differences in %fat decreased with increasing adiposity and differences in fat-free mass decreased with increasing infant age. Estimates of body composition determined by DXA and ADP at 6 months of age were highly correlated, but did differ significantly. Additional work is required to identify the technical basis for these rather large inter-method differences in infant body composition.

  20. Comparison of circumference measures and height-weight tables with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessment of body composition in r.o.t.c. Cadets.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Kelly L; Mitchell, Katherine M; Pritchett, Robert C; Gee, David L

    2017-03-13

    Height-weight tables and circumference measures are used by the U.S. Army to predict body composition because they require little equipment/expertise. However, agreement between the Army's new 2002 circumference equation and an established laboratory technique has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to quantify agreement in body fat percentages between the Army's circumference measures (taping) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); second to determine categorical agreement between height-weight tables and DXA. Male Reserve Officer Training Corps (R.O.T.C.) cadets (N=23; 20.6 ± 1.6 years, 179.1 ± 6.6 cm; 81.4 ± 10.3 kg) were taped according to Army protocol to predict body fat. % body fat prediction was compared to DXA via a Bland-Altman Plot with ±2-4% body fat established as a zone of agreement (ZOA). 13/23 cadets fell outside the ZOA. No cadet was over the compliance threshold (20-22% fat) using the tape method, however with DXA, 7/23 cadets were non-compliant. Height-weight tables provided a moderate level of categorical agreement with DXA. The results depict poor agreement between taping and DXA, as taping generally underestimated % body fat. Compared to taping, heightweight tables were better able to identify excess fat weight.

  1. Body composition in young female eating-disorder patients with severe weight loss and controls: evidence from the four-component model and evaluation of DXA

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J C K; Haroun, D; Williams, J E; Nicholls, D; Darch, T; Eaton, S; Fewtrell, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Whether fat-free mass (FFM) and its components are depleted in eating-disorder (ED) patients is uncertain. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used to assess body composition in pediatric ED patients; however, its accuracy in underweight populations remains unknown. We aimed (1) to assess body composition of young females with ED involving substantial weight loss, relative to healthy controls using the four-component (4C) model, and (2) to explore the validity of DXA body composition assessment in ED patients. Subjects/Methods: Body composition of 13 females with ED and 117 controls, aged 10–18 years, was investigated using the 4C model. Accuracy of DXA for estimation of FFM and fat mass (FM) was tested using the approach of Bland and Altman. Results: Adjusting for age, height and pubertal stage, ED patients had significantly lower whole-body FM, FFM, protein mass (PM) and mineral mass (MM) compared with controls. Trunk and limb FM and limb lean soft tissue were significantly lower in ED patients. However, no significant difference in the hydration of FFM was detected. Compared with the 4C model, DXA overestimated FM by 5±36% and underestimated FFM by 1±9% in ED patients. Conclusion: Our study confirms that ED patients are depleted not only in FM but also in FFM, PM and MM. DXA has limitations for estimating body composition in individual young female ED patients. PMID:26173868

  2. Quantitating the effect of prosthesis design on femoral remodeling using high-resolution region-free densitometric analysis (DXA-RFA).

    PubMed

    Farzi, Mohsen; Morris, Richard M; Penny, Jeannette; Yang, Lang; Pozo, Jose M; Overgaard, Søren; Frangi, Alejandro F; Wilkinson, J Mark

    2017-02-07

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard method used to study bone mineral density (BMD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, the subtle, spatially-complex changes in bone mass due to strain-adaptive bone remodeling relevant to different prosthesis designs are not readily resolved using conventional DXA analysis. DXA region free analysis (DXA RFA) is a novel computational image analysis technique that provides a high-resolution quantitation of periprosthetic BMD. Here we applied the technique to quantitate the magnitude and areal size of periprosthetic BMD changes using scans acquired during two previous randomized clinical trials (2004 to 2009); one comparing three cemented prosthesis design geometries, and the other comparing a hip resurfacing versus a conventional cementless prosthesis. DXA RFA resolved subtle differences in magnitude and area of bone remodeling between prosthesis designs not previously identified in conventional DXA analyses. A mean bone loss of 10.3%, 12.1%, and 11.1% occurred for the three cemented prostheses within a bone area fraction of 14.8%, 14.4%, and 6.2%, mostly within the lesser trochanter (P < 0.001). For the cementless prosthesis, a diffuse pattern of bone loss (-14.3%) was observed at the shaft of femur in a small area fraction of 0.6% versus no significant bone loss for the hip resurfacing prosthesis (P < 0.001). BMD increases were observed consistently at the greater trochanter for all prostheses except the hip-resurfacing prosthesis, where BMD increase was widespread across the metaphysis (P < 0.001). DXA RFA provides high-resolution insights into the effect of prosthesis design on the local strain environment in bone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. BEYOND DXA: ADVANCES IN CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF NEW BONE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowska, Monika; Bilezikian, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is generally a very useful tool for assessing bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. However, observational studies have shown that in certain instances, BMD as measured by DXA systematically over- or underestimates fracture risk. We herein describe the clinical conundrums encountered when assessing fracture risk by DXA in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism or type 2 diabetes and those of Chinese ethnicity. Furthermore, we discuss how advanced imaging technology that examines skeletal microarchitecture is furthering our understanding of fracture risk in these clinical situations. PMID:27214295

  4. Reconstructing the 3D shape and bone mineral density distribution of the proximal femur from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Tristan; Humbert, Ludovic; De Craene, Mathieu; Del Rio Barquero, Luis M; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-12-01

    The accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis has gained increasing importance due to the aging of our society. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established criterion in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This measure, however, is limited by its two-dimensionality. This work presents a method to reconstruct both the 3D bone shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from a single DXA image used in clinical routine. A statistical model of the combined shape and BMD distribution is presented, together with a method for its construction from a set of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans. A reconstruction is acquired in an intensity based 3D-2D registration process whereby an instance of the model is found that maximizes the similarity between its projection and the DXA image. Reconstruction experiments were performed on the DXA images of 30 subjects, with a model constructed from a database of QCT scans of 85 subjects. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the reconstructions with the same subject QCT scans. The method presented here can potentially improve the diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment from the low radiation dose and low cost DXA devices currently used in clinical routine.

  5. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: The Tiger Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized t...

  6. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  7. Simultaneous screening for osteoporosis at CT colonography: bone mineral density assessment using MDCT attenuation techniques compared with the DXA reference standard.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Lee, Lawrence J; del Rio, Alejandro Muñoz; Lauder, Travis; Bruce, Richard J; Summers, Ron M; Pooler, B Dustin; Binkley, Neil

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of lumbar spine attenuation measurement for bone mineral density (BMD) assessment at screening computed tomographic colonography (CTC) using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Two-hundred and fifty-two adults (240 women and 12 men; mean age 58.9 years) underwent CTC screening and central DXA BMD measurement within 2 months (mean interval 25.0 days). The lowest DXA T-score between the spine and hip served as the reference standard, with low BMD defined per World Health Organization as osteoporosis (DXA T-score ≤ -2.5) or osteopenia (DXA T-score between -1.0 and -2.4). Both phantomless quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and simple nonangled region-of-interest (ROI) multi-detector CT (MDCT) attenuation measurements were applied to the T(12) -L(5) levels. The ability to predict osteoporosis and low BMD (osteoporosis or osteopenia) by DXA was assessed. A BMD cut-off of 90 mg/mL at phantomless QCT yielded 100% sensitivity for osteoporosis (29 of 29) and a specificity of 63.8% (143 of 224); 87.2% (96 of 110) below this threshold had low BMD and 49.6% (69 of 139) above this threshold had normal BMD at DXA. At L(1) , a trabecular ROI attenuation cut-off of 160 HU was 100% sensitive for osteoporosis (29 of 29), with a specificity of 46.4% (104 of 224); 83.9% (125 of 149) below this threshold had low BMD and 57.5% (59/103) above had normal BMD at DXA. ROI performance was similar at all individual T(12) -L(5) levels. At ROC analysis, AUC for osteoporosis was 0.888 for phantomless QCT [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.780-0.946] and ranged from 0.825 to 0.853 using trabecular ROIs at single lumbar levels (0.864; 95% CI 0.752-0.930 at multivariate analysis). Supine-prone reproducibility was better with the simple ROI method compared with QCT. It is concluded that both phantomless QCT and simple ROI attenuation measurements of the lumbar spine are effective for BMD screening at CTC

  8. The Ability of Lumbar Spine DXA and Phalanx QUS to Detect Previous Fractures in Young Thalassemic Patients With Hypogonadism, Hypothyroidism, Diabetes, and Hepatitis-B: A 2-Year Subgroup Analysis From the Taranto Area of Apulia Region

    PubMed Central

    Neglia, Cosimo; Peluso, Angelo; di Rosa, Salvatore; Ferrarese, Antonio; Di Tanna, Gianluca; Caiaffa, Vincenzo; Benvenuto, Marco; Cozma, Alexandru; Chitano, Giovanna; Agnello, Nadia; Paladini, Daniele; Baldi, Nicola; Distante, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Prisco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a leading cause of morbidity in patients affected by β-thalassemia major or intermediate; we aimed to assess the association between demineralization observed in young thalassemic patients. Methods: A total of 88 patients with β-thalassemia were recruited at Microcitemia Center of Taranto Hospital under the Prevention Osteoporosis and Fractures research project from 2008 to 2010. All the patients were screened with both dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS). T score and Z score values were obtained for each subject. Results: The overall prevalence of demineralization was 84% with DXA and 70% with QUS, whereas normality was found in 16% of patients screened with DXA and in 30% of cases with QUS. Hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis-B, and the presence of previous fragility fractures were significantly associated with the demineralization status (lower T scores values) both with DXA and QUS. Conclusion: Our data confirm that DXA and QUS examinations are both useful for detecting bone demineralization in thalassemic patients. PMID:23652868

  9. Technical principles of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Blake, G M; Fogelman, I

    1997-07-01

    Since its introduction nearly ten years ago, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become the single most widely used technique for performing bone densitometry studies. One reason for its popularity is the ability of DXA systems to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and proximal femur, the two most common sites for osteoporotic fractures. Other advantages of DXA include the exceptionally low radiation dose to patients, short scan times, high resolution images, good precision and inherent stability of calibration. For these reasons DXA scans are widely used to diagnose osteoporosis, assist making decisions in treatment, and as a follow-up response to therapy. Another important application has been the use of DXA in many clinical trials of new treatments for osteoporosis. Since the first generation pencil beam DXA systems became available, the most significant technical innovation has been the introduction of fan beam systems with shorter scan times, increased patient throughput, and improved image quality. New clinical applications include the measurement of lateral spine and total body BMD, body composition, and vertebral morphometry. Despite these advances, posteroanterior (PA) spine and proximal femur scans remain the most widely used application because of their utility in treatment decisions and monitoring response to therapy.

  10. Dual x-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2011-04-01

    Dual x-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. We discuss the physics of the method and exhibit its limitations and show it is related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the x-ray absorption coefficients of materials.

  11. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  12. 3D bone mineral density distribution and shape reconstruction of the proximal femur from a single simulated DXA image: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmarsh, Tristan; Humbert, Ludovic; De Craene, Mathieu; del Río Barquero, Luis M.; Fritscher, Karl; Schubert, Rainer; Eckstein, Felix; Link, Thomas; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2010-03-01

    Area Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is an established criterion in the evaluation of hip fracture risk. The evaluation from these planar images, however, is limited to 2D while it has been shown that proper 3D assessment of both the shape and the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) distribution improves the fracture risk estimation. In this work we present a method to reconstruct both the 3D bone shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from a single DXA image. A statistical model of shape and a separate statistical model of the BMD distribution were automatically constructed from a set of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans. The reconstruction method incorporates a fully automatic intensity based 3D-2D registration process, maximizing the similarity between the DXA and a digitally reconstructed radiograph of the combined model. For the construction of the models, an in vitro dataset of QCT scans of 60 anatomical specimens was used. To evaluate the reconstruction accuracy, experiments were performed on simulated DXA images from the QCT scans of 30 anatomical specimens. Comparisons between the reconstructions and the same subject QCT scans showed a mean shape accuracy of 1.2mm, and a mean density error of 81mg/cm3. The results show that this method is capable of accurately reconstructing both the 3D shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from DXA images used in clinical routine, potentially improving the diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessments at a low radiation dose and low cost.

  13. Comparison of DXA Scans and Conventional X-rays for Spine Morphometry and Bone Age Determination in Children.

    PubMed

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Knoop, Kai; Semler, Oliver; Kuhr, Kathrin; Hellmich, Martin; Schoenau, Eckhard; Koerber, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Conventional lateral spine and hand radiographs are the standard tools to evaluate vertebral morphometry and bone age in children. Beside bone mineral density analyses, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements with lower radiation exposure provide high-resolution scans which are not approved for diagnostic purposes. Data about the comparability of conventional radiographs and DXA in children are missing yet. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate whether conventional hand and spine radiographs can be replaced by DXA scans to diminish radiation exposure. Thirty-eight children with osteogenesis imperfecta or secondary osteoporosis or short stature (male, n=20; age, 5.0-17.0 yr) were included and assessed once by additional DXA (GE iDXA) of the spine or the left hand. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to express agreement between X-ray and iDXA assessment. Evaluation of the spine morphometry showed reasonable agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC for fish-shape, 0.75; for wedge-shape, 0.65; and for compression fractures, 0.70). Bone age determination showed excellent agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC, 0.97). IDXA-scans of the spine in a pediatric population should be used not only to assess bone mineral density but also to evaluate anatomic structures and vertebral morphometry. Therefore, iDXA can replace some radiographs in children with skeletal diseases.

  14. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Crook, Tina A; Armbya, Narain; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M; Andres, Aline

    2012-12-01

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in measuring body fat mass in children at ages 3 to 5 years compared with a criterion method, deuterium oxide dilution (D(2)O), which estimates total body water and a commonly used methodology, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A prospective, cross-sectional cohort of 66 healthy children (35 girls) was recruited in the central Arkansas region between 2007 and 2009. Weight and height were obtained using standardized procedures. Fat mass (%) was measured using ADP, DXA, and D(2)O. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate the precision of the ADP techniques against D(2)O and DXA in children at ages 3 to 5 years. ADP concordance correlation coefficient for fat mass was weak (0.179) when compared with D(2)O. Bland-Altman plots revealed a low accuracy and large scatter of ADP fat mass (%) results (mean=-2.5, 95% CI -20.3 to 15.4) compared with D(2)O. DXA fat mass (%) results were more consistent although DXA systematically overestimated fat mass by 4% to 5% compared with D(2)O. Compared with D(2)O, ADP does not accurately assess percent fat mass in children aged 3 to 5 years. Thus, D(2)O, DXA, or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance may be considered better options for assessing fat mass in young children.

  15. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Bedogni, Giorgio; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Mornati, Daniela; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents and to develop and validate new equations for predicting body composition from BIA using DXA as the reference method. Body composition was assessed in fifty-eight obese children and adolescents (BMI 34.4 (SD 4.9) kg/m(2)) aged 10-17 years by DXA, ADP and BIA. ADP body fat content was estimated from body density using equations devised by Siri (ADP(Siri)) and Lohman (ADP(Lohman)). In the whole sample, the Bland-Altman test showed that ADP(Siri) and ADP(Lohman) underestimated percentage fat mass (%FM) by 2.1 (SD 3.4) and by 3.8 (SD 3.3) percent units (P<0.001), respectively, compared to DXA. In addition, compared to DXA, BIA underestimated %FM by 5.8 (SD 4.6) percent units in the whole group (P<0.001). A new prediction equation (FFM (kg) = 0.87 x (stature(2)/body impedance) + 3.1) was developed on the pooled sample and cross-validated on an external group of sixty-one obese children and adolescents. The difference between predicted and measured FFM in the external group was -1.6 (SD 2.9) kg (P<0.001) and FFM was predicted accurately (error < 5%) in 75% of subjects. In conclusion, DXA, ADP and the BIA are not interchangeable for the assessment of %FM in severely obese children and adolescents. The new prediction equation offers an alternative approach to DXA for the estimation of body composition in severely obese children and adolescents.

  16. Measurement precision of body composition variables in elite wheelchair athletes, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Keil, Mhairi; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 12 elite male wheelchair basketball players (age 31 ± 7 years, BMI 21 ± 2 kg/m(2) and onset of disability 25 ± 9 years). Two whole body scans were performed on each participant in the supine position on the same day, using Lunar Prodigy Advance DXA (GE Lunar, Madison, WI, USA). Participants dismounted from the scanning table and were repositioned in-between the first and second scan. Whole body coefficient of variation (CV) values for bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM) and soft tissue lean mass (LTM) were all <2.0%. With the exclusion of arm FM (CV = 7.8%), CV values ranged from 0.1 to 3.7% for all total body and segmental measurements of BMC, FM and LTM. The least significant change that can be attributed to the effect of treatment intervention in an individual is 1.0 kg, 1.1 kg, 0.12 kg for FM, LTM, and BMC, respectively. This information can be used to determine meaningful changes in body composition when assessed using the same methods longitudinally. Whilst there may be challenges in the correct positioning of an individual with disability that can introduce greater measurement error, DXA is a highly reproducible technique in the estimation of total and regional body composition of elite wheelchair basketball athletes.

  17. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  18. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Beyond Bone Mineral Density Determination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Significant improvements in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concerning quality, image resolution and image acquisition time have allowed the development of various functions. DXA can evaluate bone quality by indirect analysis of micro- and macro-architecture of the bone, which and improve the prediction of fracture risk. DXA can also detect existing fractures, such as vertebral fractures or atypical femur fractures, without additional radiologic imaging and radiation exposure. Moreover, it can assess the metabolic status by the measurement of body composition parameters like muscle mass and visceral fat. Although more studies are required to validate and clinically use these parameters, it is clear that DXA is not just for bone mineral densitometry. PMID:26996419

  19. Comparison of Bioimpedance and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Measurement of Fat Mass in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Molfino, Alessio; Don, Burl R.; Kaysen, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat mass (FM) is measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but is expensive and not portable. Multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measures total body water (TBW) and intracellular and extracellular water (ICW, ECW). Fat mass (FM) is calculated subtracting Fat Free Mass (FFM) from weight assuming fractional hydration of FFM of 0.73. Hemodialysis patients (HD), however, have non physiologic expansion of ECW. Our aim was to apply a model to estimate FM in HD and controls. Methods We estimated the hydration of FFM in healthy subjects (C) and HD with BIS (Impedimed multifrequency) assuming hydration of 0.73 or using a formula allowing ECW and ICW to vary, deriving a value for FM accounting for variances in ECW and ICW. FM was measured by DXA (Hologic Discovery W) in 25 C and in 11 HD. We measured TBW, ECW and ICW with BIS and calculated FM using either Weight - TBW/.73 or with a formula accounting for variations in ECW/ICW to estimate FM. Results ECW/ICW was greater in HD than in C (0.83±0.08 vs 0.76± 0.04; p=0.001). FM (Kg) measured by DXA, or estimated from TBW using constant hydration or accounting for variations in ECW/ICW were not significantly different in C or in HD. Values obtained by all methods correlated (p<0.001) and none of the Bland-Altman plots regressed (r2=0.00). FM measured by DXA and by BIS in both C and HD combined correlated (r2=0.871). Conclusion Expansion of ECW in HD is statistically significant, however the effect on hydration of FFM is insufficient to cause significant deviation from values derived using a hydration value of 0.73 within the range of expansion of ECW in the HD population studied here. PMID:23689544

  20. Repeatability of Volume and Regional Body Composition Measurements of the Lower Limb Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Zerahn, Bo; Juul, Sarah; Hendel, Helle W; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hölmich, Lisbet R

    Lower limb lymphedema is a dynamic condition in which tissue composition and volume measurements are affected. Various definitions of lower limb lymphedema exist but volume differences between the limbs are widely used. It is therefore necessary to have a readily available noninvasive measurement technique allowing multiple measurements of the lower limbs. This study investigated the repeatability of duplicate volume and regional body composition measurements of the lower limb using the GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner Prodigy (GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI). Twenty-seven participants (54 limbs), 14 women and 13 men aged 33-71 years with body mass index ranging from 14 to 32 kg/m(2) were recruited. Duplicate whole-body DXA scans were performed with repositioning between examinations. Regions of interest were manually drawn for the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and total volume was calculated using the density of bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass. The repeatability of the volume of the lower limb and regional thigh and lower leg tissue composition (bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass) was good with intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.97 to 0.99, and narrow limits of agreement on the Bland-Altman plots. These results confirm DXA to be a highly repeatable method for volume and tissue composition measurements of the lower limb. In a population at risk of lymphedema, DXA offers a clinically readily available noninvasive method allowing multiple measurements of volume and tissue composition on a routine basis, important for diagnosing, monitoring, managing, and researching lymphedema.

  1. Fatness of female field hockey players: Comparison of estimates with different methods.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Konarski, J M; Malina, R M; Rachwalski, K; Leszczyński, P; Ziółkowska-Łajp, E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare relative body fat (% fat) in female field hockey players using several methods with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. Participants were 31 Polish hockey players 16-30 years of age, 17 national and 14 youth level. Percent body fat was estimated by DXA (reference method), conventional and segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and predicted from skinfolds (SKF). National and youth team members did not differ in estimated body fat. Correlations between BIA and skinfold estimates of % fat and DXA % fat though significant, were moderate. Both % fat SKF and % fat SBIA differed significantly from % fat DXA, while estimated % fat BIA and % fat DXA did not differ. Limits of agreement were narrow for conventional BIA (-1.20 to 1.71% fat), followed by segmental BIA (3.72-6.09% fat) and broadest for SKF (5.97-9.28% fat). Differences between DXA % fat and estimated % fat with SKF and SBIA increased from the leanest to fattest athletes, whereas conventional BIA overestimated % fat relative to DXA in the small sample of individuals with low relative fatness and underestimated % fat in individuals with elevated relative fatness. Estimated % fat from conventional BIA most closely approximated DXA % fat in this sample of female field hockey players suggesting that the method may be suitable for field surveys to monitor body composition during the season.

  2. Is calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation a valid index of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mass in children?

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, R.; Nogueira, R. C.; Beck, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the current study was to assess whether calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) can predict whole body and regional dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mass in healthy, Australian children and adolescents at different stages of maturity. Methods A total of 389 boys and girls across a wide age range (four to 18 years) volunteered to participate. The estimated age of peak height velocity (APHV) was used to classify children into pre-, peri-, and post-APHV groups. BUA was measured at the non-dominant heel with quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) (Lunar Achilles Insight, GE), while bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were examined at the femoral neck, lumbar spine and whole body (DXA, XR-800, Norland). Associations between BUA and DXA-derived measures were examined with Pearson correlations and linear regression. Participants were additionally ranked in quartiles for QUS and DXA measures in order to determine agreement in rankings. Results For the whole sample, BUA predicted 29% of the study population variance in whole body BMC and BMD, 23% to 24% of the study population variance in lumbar spine BMC and BMD, and 21% to 24% of the variance in femoral neck BMC and BMD (p < 0.001). BUA predictions were strongest for the most mature participants (pre-APHV R2 = 0.03 to 0.19; peri-APHV R2 = 0.05 to 0.17; post-APHV R2 = 0.18 to 0.28) and marginally stronger for girls (R2 = 0.25-0.32, p < 0.001) than for boys (R2 = 0.21-0.27, p < 0.001). Agreement in quartile rankings between QUS and DXA measures of bone mass was generally poor (27.3% to 38.2%). Conclusion Calcaneal BUA has a weak to moderate relationship with DXA measurements of bone mass in children, and has a tendency to misclassify children on the basis of quartile rankings. Cite this article: B. K. Weeks, R. Hirsch, R. C. Nogueira, B. R. Beck. Is calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation a valid index of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mass

  3. Automated assessment of exclusion criteria for DXA lumbar spine scans.

    PubMed

    Barden, Howard S; Markwardt, Paul; Payne, Randy; Hawkins, Brent; Frank, Matt; Faulkner, Kenneth G

    2003-01-01

    Modern bone densitometry systems using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) automatically analyze lumbar spine scans and provide clinically important information concerning spine bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Lumbar spine BMD accurately reflects skeletal health and fracture risk in most cases, but degenerative diseases associated with aging may lead to the formation of reactive bone (osteophytes) and other confounding conditions that elevate BMD without a concomitant increase in bone strength or decrease in fracture risk. Automated densitometry software known as computer-aided densitometry (CAD) (GE Medical Systems Lunar) assists the user in identifying scans with common acquisition and analysis irregularities known to influence BMD values. Visual examination of 231 female spine scans measured with DXA found abnormal conditions that could influence BMD results in 29% of scans. The sensitivity and specificity of several criteria for identifying scans with conditions that could influence BMD were determined. A good criterion for identifying scans with abnormal conditions was a T-score difference of greater than 0.9 or 1.0 between L1-L4 mean and individual vertebrae. Criteria for excluding affected vertebrae were determined. Exclusion of affected vertebrae resulted in a mean BMD decrease of nearly 0.6 SD (T-score) among affected scans.

  4. Simulated increases in body fat and errors in bone mineral density measurements by DXA and QCT.

    PubMed

    Yu, Elaine W; Thomas, Bijoy J; Brown, J Keenan; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2012-01-01

    Major alterations in body composition, such as with obesity and weight loss, have complex effects on the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The effects of altered body fat on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements are unknown. We scanned a spine phantom by DXA and QCT before and after surrounding with sequential fat layers (up to 12 kg). In addition, we measured lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD by DXA and trabecular spine BMD by QCT in 13 adult volunteers before and after a simulated 7.5 kg increase in body fat. With the spine phantom, DXA BMD increased linearly with sequential fat layering at the normal (p < 0.01) and osteopenic (p < 0.01) levels, but QCT BMD did not change significantly. In humans, fat layering significantly reduced DXA spine BMD values (mean ± SD: -2.2 ± 3.7%, p = 0.05) and increased the variability of measurements. In contrast, fat layering increased QCT spine BMD in humans (mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 2.5%, p = 0.05). Fat layering did not change mean DXA BMD of the femoral neck or total hip in humans significantly, but measurements became less precise. Associations between baseline and fat-simulation scans were stronger for QCT of the spine (r(2)= 0.97) than for DXA of the spine (r(2)= 0.87), total hip (r(2) = 0.80), or femoral neck (r(2)= 0.75). Bland-Altman plots revealed that fat-associated errors were greater for DXA spine and hip BMD than for QCT trabecular spine BMD. Fat layering introduces error and decreases the reproducibility of DXA spine and hip BMD measurements in human volunteers. Although overlying fat also affects QCT BMD measurements, the error is smaller and more uniform than with DXA BMD. Caution must be used when interpreting BMD changes in humans whose body composition is changing.

  5. Dual X-ray absorptiometry accurately predicts carcass composition from live sheep and chemical composition of live and dead sheep.

    PubMed

    Pearce, K L; Ferguson, M; Gardner, G; Smith, N; Greef, J; Pethick, D W

    2009-01-01

    Fifty merino wethers (liveweight range from 44 to 81kg, average of 58.6kg) were lot fed for 42d and scanned through a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as both a live animal and whole carcass (carcass weight range from 15 to 32kg, average of 22.9kg) producing measures of total tissue, lean, fat and bone content. The carcasses were subsequently boned out into saleable cuts and the weights and yield of boned out muscle, fat and bone recorded. The relationship between chemical lean (protein+water) was highly correlated with DXA carcass lean (r(2)=0.90, RSD=0.674kg) and moderately with DXA live lean (r(2)=0.72, RSD=1.05kg). The relationship between the chemical fat was moderately correlated with DXA carcass fat (r(2)=0.86, RSD=0.42kg) and DXA live fat (r(2)=0.70, RSD=0.71kg). DXA carcass and live animal bone was not well correlated with chemical ash (both r(2)=0.38, RSD=0.3). DXA carcass lean was moderately well predicted from DXA live lean with the inclusion of bodyweight in the regression (r(2)=0.82, RSD=0.87kg). DXA carcass fat was well predicted from DXA live fat (r(2)=0.86, RSD=0.54kg). DXA carcass lean and DXA carcass fat with the inclusion of carcass weight in the regression significantly predicted boned out muscle (r(2)=0.97, RSD=0.32kg) and fat weight, respectively (r(2)=0.92, RSD=0.34kg). The use of DXA live lean and DXA live fat with the inclusion of bodyweight to predict boned out muscle (r(2)=0.83, RSD=0.75kg) and fat (r(2)=0.86, RSD=0.46kg) weight, respectively, was moderate. The use of DXA carcass and live lean and fat to predict boned out muscle and fat yield was not correlated as weight. The future for the DXA will exist in the determination of body composition in live animals and carcasses in research experiments but there is potential for the DXA to be used as an online carcass grading system.

  6. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry reference data for GE Lunar systems.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Levine, Michael A; Steinberg, Dee; Wacker, Wynn; Barden, Howard S; Ergun, David; Wu, Xin P

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) includes adult and pediatric comparisons for total body bone and body composition results. Because dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements from different manufacturers are not standardized, NHANES reference values currently are applicable only to a single make and model of Hologic DXA system. The purpose of this study was to derive body composition reference curves for GE Healthcare Lunar DXA systems. Published values from the NHANES 1999-2004 survey were acquired from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Using previously reported cross-calibration equations between Hologic and GE-Lunar, we converted the total body and regional bone and soft-tissue measurements from NHANES 1999-2004 to GE-Lunar values. The LMS (LmsChartMaker Pro Version 3.5) curve fitting method was used to generate GE-Lunar reference curves. Separate curves were generated for each sex and ethnicity. The reference curves were also divided into pediatric (≤20 years old) and adult (>20 years old) groups. Adult reference curves were derived as a function of age. Additional relationships of pediatric DXA values were derived as a function of height, lean mass, and bone area. Robustness was tested between Hologic and GE-Lunar Z-score values. The NHANES 1999-2004 survey included a sample of 20,672 participants' (9630 female) DXA scans. A total of 8056 participants were younger than 20 yr and were included in the pediatric reference data set. Participants enrolled in the study who weighed more than 136 kg (over scanner table limit) were excluded. The average Z-scores comparing the new GE-Lunar reference curves are close to zero, and the standard deviation of the Z-scores are close to one for all variables. As expected, all measurements on the GE-Lunar reference curves for participants younger than 20 yr increase monotonically with age. In the adult population, most of the curves are constant at younger

  7. Assessment of body composition in Indian adults: comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and isotope dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Taylor, Amy; Wells, Jonathan C; Radhakrishna, K V; Kinra, Sanjay; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Kurpad, A V; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-10-14

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and isotope dilution technique have been used as reference methods to validate the estimates of body composition by simple field techniques; however, very few studies have compared these two methods. We compared the estimates of body composition by DXA and isotope dilution (18O) technique in apparently healthy Indian men and women (aged 19-70 years, n 152, 48 % men) with a wide range of BMI (14-40 kg/m2). Isotopic enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The agreement between the estimates of body composition measured by the two techniques was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. The mean age and BMI were 37 (sd 15) years and 23·3 (sd 5·1) kg/m2, respectively, for men and 37 (sd 14) years and 24·1 (sd 5·8) kg/m2, respectively, for women. The estimates of fat-free mass were higher by about 7 (95 % CI 6, 9) %, those of fat mass were lower by about 21 (95 % CI - 18, - 23) %, and those of body fat percentage (BF%) were lower by about 7·4 (95 % CI - 8·2, - 6·6) % as obtained by DXA compared with the isotope dilution technique. The Bland-Altman analysis showed wide limits of agreement that indicated poor agreement between the methods. The bias in the estimates of BF% was higher at the lower values of BF%. Thus, the two commonly used reference methods showed substantial differences in the estimates of body composition with wide limits of agreement. As the estimates of body composition are method-dependent, the two methods cannot be used interchangeably.

  8. Comparison of femoral neck BMD evaluation obtained using Lunar DXA and QCT with asynchronous calibration from CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Bodeen, Gabriel; Brett, Alan; Brown, J Keenan; Binkley, Neil

    2015-01-01

    For patients undergoing screening computed tomography colonography (CTC), an opportunity exists for bone mineral density (BMD) screening without additional radiation exposure using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). This study investigated the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-equivalent QCT Computed Tomography X-Ray Absorptiometry (CTXA) analysis at the hip obtained using CTC examinations using a retrospective asynchronous calibration of patient scans. A cohort of 33 women, age 61.3 (10.6) yr (mean [standard deviation]), had routine CTC using various GE LightSpeed CT scanner models followed after 0-9 mo by a DXA hip BMD examination using a GE Lunar Prodigy machine. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and T-scores of the proximal femur were measured from either prone or supine CTC examinations using Mindways QCT Pro software following standard workflow except that the CT scanners were asynchronously calibrated by phantoms scanned retrospectively of the CTC examination without the subject present. CTXA and DXA aBMD were highly correlated (R2=0.907) with a linear relationship of DXA_BMD=1.297*CTXA_BMD+0.048. The standard error of estimate (SEE) on the linear fit was 0.053 g/cm2. CTXA and DXA T-scores showed a linear relationship of DXA_T-score=1.034*CTXA_T-score+0.3 and an SEE of 0.379 T-scores. CTXA and DXA aBMD and T-score measurements showed good correlation despite asynchronous scan acquisition and retrospective QCT calibration. The SEE of 0.053 g/cm2 is on par with the literature comparing Hologic and Lunar DXA devices. The observed relationship between CTXA and Lunar DXA aBMD matches predictions from published cross-calibrations relating CTXA to DXA aBMD measurement. Thus, opportunistic use of CTXA T-scores obtained at the time of CTC could enhance osteoporosis screening.

  9. Differences in geriatric anthropometric data between DXA-based subject-specific estimates and non-age-specific traditional regression models.

    PubMed

    Chambers, April J; Sukits, Alison L; McCrory, Jean L; Cham, Rakie

    2011-08-01

    Age, obesity, and gender can have a significant impact on the anthropometrics of adults aged 65 and older. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in body segment parameters derived using two methods: (1) a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) subject-specific method (Chambers et al., 2010) and (2) traditional regression models (de Leva, 1996). The impact of aging, gender, and obesity on the potential differences between these methods was examined. Eighty-three healthy older adults were recruited for participation. Participants underwent a whole-body DXA scan (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Mass, length, center of mass, and radius of gyration were determined for each segment. In addition, traditional regressions were used to estimate these parameters (de Leva, 1996). A mixed linear regression model was performed (α = 0.05). Method type was significant in every variable of interest except forearm segment mass. The obesity and gender differences that we observed translate into differences associated with using traditional regressions to predict anthropometric variables in an aging population. Our data point to a need to consider age, obesity, and gender when utilizing anthropometric data sets and to develop regression models that accurately predict body segment parameters in the geriatric population, considering gender and obesity.

  10. Anthropometric indices as measures of body fat assessed by DXA in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhaohui; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Cai, Jianwen; Koontz, Michaela B; Stevens, June

    2015-01-01

    Objective Anthropometrics are commonly used indices of total and central adiposity. No study has compared anthropometric measurements to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements as correlates of cardiovascular risks in a nationally representative sample of youth. We aimed to evaluate the validity of anthropometrics compared to DXA-assessed adiposity in relation to cardiovascular risks in youth aged 8-19 years. Methods Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 (n=7013). We examined the correlations between anthropometric and DXA measures of adiposity (i.e., body mass index (BMI) versus percent fat mass (%FM) and fat mass index, and waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) versus percent trunk fat mass (%TFM)) with nine cardiovascular risks, stratified by sex and age, or race-ethnicity. Results Anthropometric and DXA adiposity measures were significantly correlated with insulin (r: 0.48 to 0.66), C-reactive protein (r: 0.47 to 0.58), triglycerides (r: 0.15 to 0.41), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, r: −0.44 to −0.22), systolic blood pressure (SBP, r: 0.10 to 0.31), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r: 0.09 to 0.30), total cholesterol (TC, r: 0.01 to 0.29) and glucose (r: 0.05 to 0.20). Only in all youth, BMI was more strongly correlated with SBP (0.22 vs. 0.12, P<0.0001) and HDL-C (−0.34 vs. −0.25, P<0.0001) than %FM; WC but not WHtR was more strongly correlated with HDL-C (−0.37 vs. −0.30, P<0.0001) but less strongly associated with TC (0.12 vs. 0.21, P<0.0001) than %TFM. Conclusions DXA adiposity measures do not produce stronger associations with cardiovascular risk factors in youth than BMI or WC. PMID:26405434

  11. A long femur scan field does not alter proximal femur bone mineral density measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fergus Eoin; Hocking, Jane; Cournoyer, Susan; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James

    2011-01-01

    A longer dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) femur scan field might be useful for the detection of atypical, subtrochanteric femur fractures (ASFF). Thirty adult subjects underwent triplicate measures of femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA using a conventional (i.e., short) and a longer femur scan field. Differences in measured BMD between the 2 scan field lengths were small and less than the precision error inherent in DXA testing. A longer proximal femur scan field does not substantially alter BMD measurements made at the FN and TH and may be useful for the detection of ASFF in clinical practice.

  12. A novel approach to fracture-risk-assessment in osteoporosis by ROI-oriented application of the Minkowski-functionals to dual x-ray absorptiometry scans of the hip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Panteleon, Alexandra; Vogel, Tobias; Burklein, Dominik; Reiser, Maximilian

    2008-03-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur represent the worst complication in osteoporosis with a mortality rate of up to 50% during the first post-traumatic year. Bone mineral density (BMD) as obtained from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a good predictor of fracture risk. However, there is a considerable overlap in the BMD-results between individuals who have fractured and those who have not. As DXA uses highly standardized radiographic projection images to obtain the densitometric information, it can be postulated that these images contain much more information than just mineral density. Lately, geometric dimensions, e.g. hip axis length (HAL) or femoral neck axis length (FNAL), are considered in conjunction with BMD, which may allow to enhance the predictive potential of bone mass measurements. In recent studies we sucessfully introduced a novel methodology for topological analysis of multi-dimensional graylevel datasets, that, for instance, allows to predict the ultimate mechanical strength of femoral bone specimens. The new topolocial parameters are based on the so called Minkowski Functionals (MF), which represent a set of topographical descriptors that can be used universally. Since the DXA-images are multi-graylevel datasets in 2D obtained in a standardized way, they are ideally suited to be processed by the new method. In this study we introduce a novel algorithm to evaluate DXA-scans of the proximal femur using quantitative image analysis procedures based on the MF in 2D. The analysis is conducted in four defined regions of interest in analogy to the standard densitometric evaluation. The objective is to provide a tool to identifiy individuals with critically reduced mechanical competence of the hip. The result of the new method is compared with the evaluation bone mineral density obtained by DXA, which - at present - is the clinical standard of reference.

  13. Comparison of two bioelectrical impedance analysis devices with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in the estimation of body composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Han-E; Li, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Guang; Xu, Li; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Xing-Shan; Sato, Tetsuya; Cao, Qi-Yun; Chen, Ke-Min; Li, Biao

    2013-01-01

    We compared a 4-limb bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system, HBF 359 (Omron), and a 2-limb foot-to-foot device, BC 532 (Tanita), with the standard dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for the measurement of body fat percentage (BF), skeletal muscle mass percentage (SMM, or fat-free mass [FFM] for BC 532), and visceral fat level (VF). Body composition was measured in 200 healthy volunteers (100 men and 100 women, mean age 48 years) by HBF 359 and BC 532 and by DXA and MRI. The agreement was assessed by correlation analysis and paired t-test. The correlation coefficients between BIA and DXA or MRI ranged from 0.71 to 0.89 for BF, SMM, and VF by HBF 359 and from 0.77 to 0.90 for BF, FFM, and VF by BC 532 in all subjects and in men and women separately (p < 0.001 for all). Compared with DXA, HBF 359 significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated BF by -5.8% in men and -9.6% in women. Compared with MRI, the corresponding underestimatons (negative) or overestimations (positive) by HBF 359 in men and women were, respectively, +1.9% (p = 0.02) and +1.7% (p = 0.10) for SMM, and +13.3% (p < 0.001) and -8.5% (p = 0.006), for VF. The corresponding values by BC 532 in men and women were -10.7 and -6.2% for BF, -1.4 and -2.5% for FFM, and +20.4 and -18.0% for VF. The BIA devices are accurate in the estimation of body composition, especially skeletal muscle mass or FFM.

  14. Best Practices for Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurement and Reporting: International Society for Clinical Densitometry Guidance.

    PubMed

    Lewiecki, E Michael; Binkley, Neil; Morgan, Sarah L; Shuhart, Christopher R; Camargos, Bruno Muzzi; Carey, John J; Gordon, Catherine M; Jankowski, Lawrence G; Lee, Joon-Kiong; Leslie, William D

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technology that is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The clinical utility of DXA is highly dependent on the quality of the scan acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Clinicians are best equipped to manage patients when BMD measurements are correct and interpretation follows well-established standards. Poor-quality acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of DXA data may mislead referring clinicians, resulting in unnecessary diagnostic evaluations, failure to evaluate when needed, inappropriate treatment, or failure to provide medical treatment, with potentially ineffective, harmful, or costly consequences. Misallocation of limited healthcare resources and poor treatment decisions can be minimized, and patient care optimized, through meticulous attention to DXA instrument calibration, data acquisition and analysis, interpretation, and reporting. This document from the International Society for Clinical Densitometry describes quality standards for BMD testing at DXA facilities worldwide to provide guidance for DXA supervisors, technologists, interpreters, and clinicians. High-quality DXA testing is necessary for correct diagnostic classification and optimal fracture risk assessment, and is essential for BMD monitoring.

  15. Associations between pQCT-based fat and muscle area and density and DXA-based total and leg soft tissue mass in healthy women and men

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Thiebaud, Robert S; Chen, Zhaojing; Karabulut, Murat; Kim, So Jung; Bemben, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) can be used for muscle and fat area and density assessments. These may independently influence muscle and fat mass measurements from Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Objective To determine associations between pQCT-derived soft tissue density and area measures and DXA-derived soft tissue mass. Methods Linear regression models were developed based on BMI and calf fat and muscle cross-sectional area (FCSA and MCSA) and density measured by pQCT in healthy women (n=76) and men (n=82) aged 20–59 years. Independent variables for these models were leg and total bone-free lean mass (BFLM) and fat mass (FM) measured by DXA. Results Sex differences (p<0.01) were found in both muscle (Mean±SE: Women: 78.6±0.4; Men: 79.9 ± 0.2 mg/cm3) and fat (Women: 0.8±0.4 Men: 9.1±0.6 mg/cm3) density. BMI, fat density, and age (R2=0.86, p<0.01) best accounted for the variability in total FM. FCSA, BMI, and fat density explained the variance in leg FM (R2=0.87, p<0.01). MCSA and muscle density explained the variance in total (R2=0.65, p<0.01) and leg BFLM (R2=0.70, p<0.01). Conclusion Calf muscle and fat area and density independently predict lean and fat tissue mass. PMID:25524966

  16. Skeletal Recovery Following Long-Duration Spaceflight Missions as Determined by Preflight and Postflight DXA Scans of 45 Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Evans, H. J.; Sung, H. G.; Spector, E. R.; Lang, T. F.; Oganov, V. S.; Bakulin, A. V.; Shackelford, L. C.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The loss of bone mineral in astronauts during spaceflight has been investigated throughout the more than 40 years of bone research in space. Consequently, it is a medical requirement at NASA that changes in bone mass be monitored in crew members by measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This report is the first to evaluate medical data to address the recovery of bone mineral that is lost during spaceflight. Methods: DXA scans are performed before and after flight in astronauts who serve on long-duration missions (4-6 months) to ensure that medical standards for flight certification are met, to evaluate the effects of spaceflight and to monitor the restoration to preflight BMD status after return to Earth. Through cooperative agreements with the Russian Space Agency, the Bone and Mineral Lab at NASA Johnson Space Center (Houston, TX), also had access to BMD data from cosmonauts who had flown on long-duration missions yielding data from a total of 45 individual crew members. Changes in BMD (between 56 different sets of pre- and postflight measurements) were plotted as a function of time (days after landing); plotted data were fitted to an exponential mathematical model that determined i) BMD change at day 0 after landing and ii) the number of days after which 50% of the lost bone was recovered ("Recovery Half-Life"). These fits were performed for BMD of the lumbar spine, trochanter, pelvis, femoral neck and calcaneus. Results: In sum, averaged losses of bone mineral after spaceflight ranged between 2-9% for sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. The fitted postflight BMD values predicted a 50% recovery of bone loss for all sites within 9 months.

  17. [Body composition analysis in patients with cystic fibrosis. Comparison of 3 methods: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and skinfold measurements].

    PubMed

    Beaumesnil, M; Chaillou, E; Wagner, A-C; Rouquette, A; Audran, M; Giniès, J-L

    2011-04-01

    Nutritional status must be closely monitored in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study compared three methods of measuring body composition in CF patients and then examined the relationships between two simple anthropometric markers of nutritional status - tricipital skinfold thickness (TSK) and arm muscular circumference (AMC) - and the results given by each method. Fifty-five patients with CF, 27 females and 28 males, participated in this study. The mean age at the time of the study was 14 ± 5 years, ranging from 4 to 29 years. The four skinfolds (SK) and arm circumference were measured in all patients and fat mass (FM) and AMC were calculated. Fifty patients underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and 38 underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The values for FM as calculated by the three methods were highly correlated, as were the values for lean body mass (LM) (p<0.001). The LM assessed by anthropometry was overestimated by 8 ± 4% compared with DEXA and by 6 ± 7% compared with BIA. BIA overestimated LM by 4 ± 6% compared with DEXA (p<0.001). The LM values measured by SK, DEXA, and BIA were highly correlated with AMC (p<0.001) and FM calculated using these three techniques were highly correlated with TSK (p<0.001). The measurement of TSK and AMC are simple and rapid ways to evaluate body composition. The excellent correlation between the three methods used to measure body composition suggests that they are valid for use in patients with CF, but the results were not identical. The measurement from each technique must be interpreted according to its own norms and comparisons can only be made if the same technique is used in the same patient.

  18. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults.

  19. Utilization of DXA Bone Mineral Densitometry in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Issue Systematic reviews and analyses of administrative data were performed to determine the appropriate use of bone mineral density (BMD) assessments using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the associated trends in wrist and hip fractures in Ontario. Background Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Bone Mineral Density Assessment Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry bone densitometers measure bone density based on differential absorption of 2 x-ray beams by bone and soft tissues. It is the gold standard for detecting and diagnosing osteoporosis, a systemic disease characterized by low bone density and altered bone structure, resulting in low bone strength and increased risk of fractures. The test is fast (approximately 10 minutes) and accurate (exceeds 90% at the hip), with low radiation (1/3 to 1/5 of that from a chest x-ray). DXA densitometers are licensed as Class 3 medical devices in Canada. The World Health Organization has established criteria for osteoporosis and osteopenia based on DXA BMD measurements: osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that is >2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD for normal young adults (i.e. T-score <–2.5), while osteopenia is defined as BMD that is more than 1 standard deviation but less than 2.5 standard deviation below the mean for normal young adults (i.e. T-score< –1 & ≥–2.5). DXA densitometry is presently an insured health service in Ontario. Clinical Need   Burden of Disease The Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) found that 16% of Canadian women and 6.6% of Canadian men have osteoporosis based on the WHO criteria, with prevalence increasing with age. Osteopenia was found in 49.6% of Canadian women and 39% of Canadian men. In Ontario, it is estimated that nearly 530,000 Ontarians have some degrees of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis-related fragility fractures occur most often in the wrist, femur and pelvis. These fractures, particularly those in the hip, are associated with increased

  20. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  1. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Saarelainen, J.; Hakulinen, M.; Rikkonen, T.; Kröger, H.; Tuppurainen, M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Honkanen, R.; Hujo, M.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21–72 years) underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2–L4 (n = 72), proximal femur (n = 72), and total body (n = 62) measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r = 0.962–0.995; p < 0.0001). The average iDXA BMD values were 1.5%, 0.5%, and 0.9% higher than those of Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2–L4) (p < 0.0001), femoral neck (p = 0.048), and total hip (p < 0.0001), respectively. Total body BMD values measured with the iDXA were −1.3% lower (p < 0.0001) than those measured with the Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine. PMID:27239366

  2. Usefulness of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound stiffness for the evaluation of bone health in HIV-1-infected subjects: comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Ceci, Fabrizio; Cacciatore, Francesco; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mezzaroma, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD) alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the “gold standard” technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate bone mineral status in a group of 158 HIV-1-infected subjects. The primary endpoint was the feasibility of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) as a screening tool for BMD. All subjects were receiving stable cART and were virologically suppressed (HIV-RNA <37 copies/mL) from at least 12 months. Calcaneal QUS parameters were analyzed to obtain information on bone mass and microarchitecture. The results were compared with those obtained by DXA. Results No correlations were found between DXA/QUS parameters and demographic or HIV-1-specific characteristics, also including cART strategies. In the univariate analyses BMD, QUS indexes, and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool scores conversely showed significant associations with one or more demographic or HIV-1-related variables. Moreover, a significant relationship between calcaneal quantitative ultrasound index/stiffness and femoral/lumbar BMD values from DXA was described. The multivariate analysis showed an independent association between calcaneal quantitative ultrasound index/stiffness and body mass index, higher CD4+ T-cell numbers and low 25-OH D2/D3 vitamin D levels <10 ng/mL (P-values: 0.004, 0.016, and 0.015, respectively). Conclusion As an alternative and/or integrative examination to DXA, calcaneal QUS could be proposed as a useful screening in HIV-1-infected

  3. A comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure total and segmental body composition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Siobhan; O'Neill, Cian; Sohun, Rhoda; Jakeman, Philip

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of BIA in the measurement of total body composition and regional fat and the fat free mass in the healthy young adults. Four hundred and three healthy young adults (167 women and 236 men) aged 18-29 years were recruited from the Mid-West region of Ireland. Multi frequency, eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used to measure the total body and segmental (arm, leg and trunk) fat mass and the fat free mass. BIA was found to underestimate the percentage total body fat in men and women (p < 0.001). This underestimate increased in men with >24.6% body fat and women with >32% body fat (p < 0.001). Fat tissue mass in the trunk segment was overestimated by 2.1 kg (p < 0.001) in men and underestimated by 0.4 kg (p < 0.001) in women. BIA was also found to underestimate the fat free mass in the appendages by 1.0 kg (p < 0.001) in men and 0.9 kg (p < 0.001) in women. Compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis underestimates the total body fat mass and overestimates fat free mass in healthy young adults. BIA should, therefore, be used with caution in the measurement of total body composition in women and men with >25% total body fat. Though statistically significant, the small difference (~ 4%) between the methods indicates that the BIA may be used interchangeably with DXA in the measurement of appendicular fat free mass in healthy young adults.

  4. Validation of dual x-ray absorptiometry for body-composition assessment of rats exposed to dietary stressors.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Hall, C B; Marchello, M J; Siders, W A

    2001-01-01

    Evidence of the validity and accuracy of dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure soft-tissue composition of laboratory rats with altered body composition associated with nutritional perturbations is lacking. We compared DXA determinations made in prone and supine positions with measurements of chemical composition of 49 male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed the basal AIN-93 growth diet, were fed the basal diet modified to contain 30% fat, were fasted for 2 d, were limit fed 6 g of the basal diet daily for 1 wk, or were treated with furosemide (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 h before DXA). DXA produced similar estimates of body mass and soft-tissue composition in the prone and supine positions. DXA estimates of body composition were significantly correlated with reference composition values (R(2) = 0.371-0.999). DXA discriminated treatment effects on body mass, fat-free and bone-free mass, fat mass, and body fatness; it significantly underestimated body mass (1% to 2%) and fat-free and bone-free mass (3%) and significantly overestimated fat mass and body fatness (3% to 25%). The greatest errors occurred in treatment groups in which body mass was diminished and body hydration was decreased. These findings suggest that DXA can determine small changes in fat-free, bone-free mass in response to obesity and weight loss. Errors in DXA determination of fat mass and body fatness associated with extra corporeal fluid and dehydration indicate the need for revision of calculation algorithms for soft-tissue determination.

  5. Comparison of methods to assess change in children’s body composition123

    PubMed Central

    Elberg, Jane; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Sebring, Nancy G; Salaita, Christine; Keil, Margaret; Robotham, Delphine; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about how simpler and more available methods to measure change in body fatness compare with criterion methods such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in children. Objective Our objective was to determine the ability of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and formulas based on triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate changes in body fat over time in children. Design Eighty-six nonoverweight and overweight boys (n = 34) and girls (n = 52) with an average age of 11.0 ± 2.4 y underwent ADP, TSF measurement, BIA, and DXA to estimate body fatness at baseline and 1 ± 0.3 y later. Recent equations were used to estimate percentage body fat by TSF measurement (Dezenberg equation) and by BIA (Suprasongsin and Lewy equations). Percentage body fat estimates by ADP, TSF measurement, and BIA were compared with those by DXA. Results All methods were highly correlated with DXA (P < 0.001). No mean bias for estimates of percentage body fat change was found for ADP (Siri equation) compared with DXA for all subjects examined together, and agreement between body fat estimation by ADP and DXA did not vary with race or sex. Magnitude bias was present for ADP relative to DXA (P < 0.01). Estimates of change in percentage body fat were systematically overestimated by BIA equations (1.37 ± 6.98%; P < 0.001). TSF accounted for only 13% of the variance in percentage body fat change. Conclusion Compared with DXA, there appears to be no noninvasive and simple method to measure changes in children’s percentage body fat accurately and precisely, but ADP performed better than did TSF or BIA. ADP could prove useful for measuring changes in adiposity in children. PMID:15213029

  6. Reliability of 2 Different Positioning Protocols for Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurement of Body Composition in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary J; Byrne, Nuala; Nana, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an accepted time-efficient method of body composition assessment for total body and regional fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and bone mineral content (BMC), but for longitudinal monitoring the measurements must be sufficiently reliable. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of a new positioning protocol (Nana et al) with the current reference (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]) protocol and investigate their within-protocol precision. Thirty healthy adults (16 females and 14 males) underwent 4 whole-body DXA scans in succession with full repositioning between scans. The scan order was randomized, with 2 scans undertaken in accordance with the current NHANES protocol and 2 using the Nana et al protocol. Magnitudes of typical errors of measurement and changes in the mean of DXA body composition estimates were assessed as standardized effect sizes. The Nana et al protocol repositioning produced trivial typical errors for total body across all LM estimates except for FM in the arms and trunk which were moderately substantial. The NHANES protocol produced similar typical errors for all measurements in LM except for FM and BMC in the trunk and arms which were substantially larger than the smallest worthwhile effect. The difference between protocols produced substantially large typical errors in estimations of both total body FM and regional FM and BMC, but differences in LM were all less than the smallest worthwhile effect. Although both protocols demonstrated acceptable intratest reliability, the Nana et al protocol produced enhanced precision in regional (arms and trunk) FM and BMC. The protocols were substantially different in body composition assessment especially for FM and thus should not to be interchanged. Anecdotally, subjects felt more comfortable and supported during the scan with the Nana et al protocol.

  7. Evaluation of mandibular bone mineral density using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique in edentulous subjects living in an endemic fluorosis region

    PubMed Central

    Buyukkaplan, US; Guldag, MU

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fluoride is one of the biological trace elements with a strong affinity for osseous, cartilaginous and dental tissue. The dental and skeletal effects of high fluoride intake have already been studied in the literature, but little is known about the effects of high fluoride intake on edentulous mandibles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fluoride intake on mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique in edentulous individuals with systemic fluorosis. Methods 32 people who were living in an endemic fluorosis area since birth and 31 people who were living in a non-endemic fluorosis area since birth (control group) participated in this study. Systemic fluorosis was diagnosed in the patients using the sialic acid (NANA)/glycosaminoglycan (GAG) ratio. The BMDs of the mandibles were determined by the DXA technique. Results The serum NANA/GAG ratios in the fluorosis group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference in mandibular BMD measurements (p < 0.05) between the systemic fluorosis and control groups, as measured by the DXA technique. Mandibular body BMD measurements were higher in the fluorosis group (1.25 ± 0.24 g cm−2) than in the control group (1.01 ± 0.31 g cm−2). Conclusions The results of the study showed that fluoride intake higher than the optimum level causes increased mandibular BMD in edentulous individuals. Further dose-related studies are needed to determine the effects of high fluoride intake on bony structures of the stomatognathic system. PMID:22241885

  8. Quantitative Comparison of 2 Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Systems in Assessing Body Composition and Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Chafi, Hatim; Guo, Beibei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Murray, Kori B; Zheng, Jolene; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in body composition measurement and evaluation. Because of its numerous applications, the probability of instrument discrepancies has increased dramatically. This study quantitatively compares 2 different DXA systems. In this study, 96 subjects (60 female and 36 male, aged 19-82 years) were recruited and scanned using a General Electric Lunar iDXA and a Hologic Discovery scanner. Four measurements (percent fat, total mass, bone mineral density [BMD], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were quantitatively compared in the whole body and in specific anatomic regions (arms, legs, trunk, android, gynoid, head, ribs, and pelvis). A simple linear regression of each measurement was performed to examine the correlation between the 2 systems. Percent fat, total mass, BMC, and BMD were highly correlated between the 2 DXA systems, with correlation r values greater than 0.854 for both the whole body and the individual anatomic regions except for BMC and BMD in ribs. The high correlation between the 2 DXA systems with systematic differences enabled development of calibration equations for extending the multisystem measurements to advanced quantitative analyses.

  9. Stochastic predictors from the DXA scans of human lumbar vertebrae are correlated with the microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Tvinnereim, Amy; Lowe, Timothy; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to provide a novel stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) from the Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans of human lumbar vertebrae and identify the stochastic predictors that were correlated with the microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone. Eighteen human lumbar vertebrae with intact posterior elements from 5 cadaveric spines were scanned in the posterior-anterior projection using a Hologic densitometer. The BMD map of human vertebrae was obtained from the raw data of DXA scans by directly operating on the transmission measurements of low- and high-energy X-ray beams. Stochastic predictors were calculated by fitting theoretical models onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map, rather than grayscale images, from DXA scans. In addition, microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone were measured from the 3D images of human vertebrae acquired using a Micro-CT scanner. Significant correlations were observed between stochastic predictors and microarchitecture parameters. The sill variance, representing the standard deviation of the BMD map to some extent, had significantly positive correlations with bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and connectivity density. The sill variance was also negatively associated with bone surface to volume ratio and trabecular separation. This study demonstrates that the stochastic assessment of the inhomogeneous distribution of BMD from DXA scans of human lumbar vertebrae can reveal microarchitecture information of trabecular bone. However, future studies are needed to examine the potential of stochastic predictors from routine clinical DXA scans in providing bone fragility information complementary to BMD.

  10. Errors in dual energy x-ray absorptiometry estimation of body composition induced by hypohydration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Nidia; Galloway, Stuart D R

    2015-02-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a popular tool to determine body composition (BC) in athletes, and is used for analysis of fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) or fat mass (FM) gain/loss in response to exercise or nutritional interventions. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of exercise-heat stress induced hypohydration (HYP, >2% of body mass (BM) loss) vs. maintenance of euhydration (EUH) on DXA estimates of BC, sum of skinfolds (SF), and impedance (IMP) measurements in athletes. Competitive athletes (23 males and 15 females) recorded morning nude BM for 7 days before the first main trial. Measurements on the first trial day were conducted in a EUH condition, and again after exercise-heat stress induced HYP. On the second trial day, fluid and electrolyte losses were replaced during exercise using a sports drink. A reduction in total BM (1.6 ± 0.4 kg; 2.3 ± 0.4% HYP) and total FFST (1.3 ± 0.4 kg), mainly from trunk (1.1 ± 0.5 kg), was observed using DXA when participants were HYP, reflecting the sweat loss. Estimated fat percent increased (0.3 ± 0.3%), however, total FM did not change (0.1 ± 0.2 kg). SF and IMP declined with HYP (losses of 1.5 ± 2.9% and 1.6 ± 3% respectively) suggesting FM loss. When EUH was maintained there were no significant changes in BM, DXA estimates, or SF values pre to post exercise, but IMP still declined. We conclude that use of DXA for FFST assessment in athletes must ensure a EUH state, particularly when considering changes associated with nutritional or exercise interventions.

  11. Reliability and intermethod agreement for body fat assessment among two field and two laboratory methods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, Juan P; Mesana, Maria I; Poortvliet, Eric; Ortega, Francisco B; Polito, Angela; Nagy, Eniko; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge about reliability and intermethods agreement for body fat (BF) is of interest for assessment, interpretation, and comparison purposes. It was aimed to examine intra- and inter-rater reliability, interday variability, and degree of agreement for BF using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements in European adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents (25 females) from Zaragoza and 30 (14 females) from Stockholm, aged 13-17 years participated in this study. Two trained raters in each center assessed BF with Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry (DXA only in Zaragoza). Intermethod agreement and reliability were studied using a 4-way ANOVA for the same rater on the first day and two additional measurements on a second day, one each rater. Technical error of measurement (TEM) and percentage coefficient of reliability (%R) were also reported. No significant intrarater, inter-rater, or interday effect was observed for %BF for any method in either of the cities. In Zaragoza, %BF was significantly different when measured by Bod-Pod and BIA in comparison with anthropometry and DXA (all P < 0.001). The same result was observed in Stockholm (P < 0.001), except that DXA was not measured. Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry are reliable for %BF repeated assessment within the same day by the same or different raters or in consecutive days by the same rater. Bod-Pod showed close agreement with BIA as did DXA with anthropometry; however, Bod-Pod and BIA presented higher values of %BF than anthropometry and DXA.

  12. Agreement of BMI-Based Equations and DXA in Determining Body-Fat Percentage in Adults With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Nickerson, Brett S; Bicard, Sara C; Russell, Angela R; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate measurements of body-fat percentage (BF%) in 4 body-mass-index- (BMI) -based equations and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Ten male and 10 female adults with DS volunteered for this study. Four regression equations for estimating BF% based on BMI previously developed by Deurenberg et al. (DE(BMI-BF%)), Gallagher et al. (GA(BMI-BF%)), Womersley & Durnin (WO(BMI-BF%)), and Jackson et al. (JA(BMI-BF%)) were compared with DXA. There was no significant difference (p = .659) in mean BF% values between JA(BMI-BF%) (BF% = 40.80% ± 6.3%) and DXA (39.90% ± 11.1%), while DE(BMI-BF%) (34.40% ± 9.0%), WO(BMI-BF%) (35.10% ± 9.4%), and GA(BMI-BF%) (35.10% ± 9.4%) were significantly (p < .001) lower. The limits of agreement (1.96 SD of the constant error) varied from 9.80% to 16.20%. Therefore, BMI-based BF% equations should not be used in individuals with DS.

  13. Measurement error of DXA: interpretation of fat and lean mass changes in obese and non-obese children.

    PubMed

    Wosje, Karen S; Knipstein, Brittany L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2006-01-01

    Information on reproducibility of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is essential because DXA is frequently used by clinicians and researchers to assess body composition changes. We estimated measurement error and absolute and relative smallest detectable differences (SDDs) for fat, lean, and bone mass in children. The SDD is the change necessary to be confident that the change is not a consequence of measurement error. Duplicate whole body DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA) scans were obtained on 32 obese and 34 non-obese children ages 6-19 yr. Absolute (kg) and relative (coefficient of variation) measurement error and SDD were calculated. Absolute SDDs for fat and lean were higher for obese (1.39 and 1.30 kg, respectively) than for non-obese children (0.42 and 0.47 kg, respectively). The %SDD for fat was lower for obese (3.58%) than non-obese children (5.24%), but for lean the %SDD was higher for obese (2.60%) than non-obese children (1.32%). The SDDs for bone mass were similar for obese and non-obese children. An obese child must lose or gain more absolute fat and lean mass than a non-obese child to be confident that the change is not a reflection of measurement error. Overall, SDD values for fat, lean, and bone mass are low.

  14. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  15. Precision Error in Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Measurements in Elite Male Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew J; Oldroyd, Brian; Smith, Debbie; Lees, Matthew J; Brightmore, Amy; Till, Kevin; Jones, Benjamin; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is becoming increasingly popular in both clinical and sports science settings. Obesity, characterized by high fat mass (FM), is associated with larger precision errors; however, precision error for athletic groups with high levels of lean mass (LM) are unclear. Total (TB) and regional (limbs and trunk) body composition were determined from 2 consecutive total body scans (GE Lunar iDXA) with re-positioning in 45 elite male rugby league players (age: 21.8 ± 5.4 yr; body mass index: 27.8 ± 2.5 kg m(-1)). The root mean squared standard deviation (percentage co-efficient of variation) were TB bone mineral content: 24g (1.7%), TB LM: 321 g (1.6%), and TB FM: 280 g (2.3%). Regional precision values were superior for measurements of bone mineral content: 4.7-16.3 g (1.7-2.1%) and LM: 137-402 g (2.0-2.4%), than for FM: 63-299 g (3.1-4.1%). Precision error of DXA body composition measurements in elite male rugby players is higher than those reported elsewhere for normal adult populations and similar to those reported in those who are obese. It is advised that caution is applied when interpreting longitudinal DXA-derived body composition measurements in male rugby players and population-specific least significant change should be adopted.

  16. Detecting meaningful body composition changes in athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Colyer, Steffi L; Roberts, Simon P; Robinson, Jonathan B; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Salo, Aki I T

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging is considered to provide a valid and reliable estimation of body composition when stringent scanning protocols are adopted. However, applied practitioners are not always able to achieve this level of control and the subsequent impact on measurement precision is not always taken into account when evaluating longitudinal body composition changes. The primary aim of this study was to establish the reliability of DXA in an applied elite sport setting to investigate whether real body composition changes can be detected. Additionally, the performance implications of these changes during the training year were investigated. Forty-eight well-trained athletes (from four diverse sports) underwent two DXA scans using a 'real-world' approach (with limited pre-scan controls), typically within 48 h, to quantify typical error of measurement (TEM). Twenty-five athletes underwent further scans, before and after specific training and competition blocks. 'True' body composition changes were evaluated using 2  ×  TEM thresholds. Twelve bob skeleton athletes also performed countermovement jump and leg press tests at each time point. Many 'true' body composition changes were detected and coincided with the primary training emphases (e.g. lean mass gains during hypertrophy-based training). Clear relationships (r  ±  90% CI) were observed between performance changes (countermovement jump and leg press) and changes in lean mass (0.53  ±  0.26 and 0.35  ±  0.28, respectively) and fat mass (-0.44  ±  0.27 and  -0.37  ±  0.28, respectively). DXA was able to detect real body composition changes without the use of stringent scanning controls. Associations between changes in body composition and performance demonstrated the potential influence of these changes on strength and power indices.

  17. [Photodensitometry: microdensitometry (MD): digital image processing method (DIP)].

    PubMed

    Ohama, K; Sanada, M; Nakagawa, H

    1994-09-01

    The principles of microdensitometry (MD) and digital image processing method (DIP), as well as the application of these methods to measure bone mineral density in clinical practice, were mentioned in the report. MD and DIP assess bone mineral content and bone mineral density by analyzing relative contrast of the metacarpus II on X-ray image. However, the parameters obtained by these methods have been reported to be closely related to lumber vertebral bone mineral density and whole-body bone mineral content as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Being easy to use, MD and DIP are adequate for the screening of osteoporosis. Once any reduction in bone mineral content or bone mineral density is shown by MD or DIP, it is recommendable to measure bone mineral density of vertebrae and femoral neck by DXA.

  18. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all P< 0.001). The average estimated BF%BIA8 (22.54 ± 9.48%) was significantly lower than the average BF%DXA (26.26 ± 11.18%). The BF%BIA8 was overestimated in the male subgroup (BF%DXA< 15%), compared to BF%DXA by 0.45%, respectively. In the other subgroups, the BF%BIA8 values were all underestimated. Standing BIA estimating body fat percentage in Chinese participants have a high correlation, but underestimated on normal and high obesity degree in both male and female subjects. PMID:27467065

  19. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Solomon C. Y.; Powell, Alice; Khow, Kareeann S. F.; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of −1.09 kg (CI: −0.84–−1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72–2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (−0.32 kg (CI: −0.66–0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14–1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA. PMID:27043617

  20. Techniques for undertaking dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole-body scans to estimate body composition in tall and/or broad subjects.

    PubMed

    Nana, Alisa; Slater, Gary J; Hopkins, Will G; Burke, Louise M

    2012-10-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is becoming a popular tool to measure body composition, owing to its ease of operation and comprehensive analysis. However, some people, especially athletes, are taller and/or broader than the active scanning area of the DXA bed and must be scanned in sections. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of DXA measures of whole-body composition summed from 2 or 3 partial scans. Physically active young adults (15 women, 15 men) underwent 1 whole-body and 4 partial DXA scans in a single testing session under standardized conditions. The partial scanning areas were head, whole body from the bottom of the chin down, and right and left sides of the body. Body-composition estimates from whole body were compared with estimates from summed partial scans to simulate different techniques to accommodate tall and/or broad subjects relative to the whole-body scan. Magnitudes of differences in the estimates were assessed by standardization. In simulating tall subjects, summation of partial scans that included the head scan overestimated whole-body composition by ~3 kg of lean mass and ~1 kg of fat mass, with substantial technical error of measurement. In simulating broad subjects, summation of right and left body scans produced no substantial differences in body composition than those of the whole-body scan. Summing partial DXA scans provides accurate body-composition estimates for broad subjects, but other strategies are needed to accommodate tall subjects.

  1. Bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of changes in body composition following exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miyatani, Masae; Yang, Pearl; Thomas, Scott; Craven, B Catharine; Oh, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to compare the level of agreement between leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessing changes in body composition following exercise intervention among individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty-four adults with T2DM, age 53.2 ± 9.1 years; BMI 30.8 ± 5.9 kg/m(2) participated in a 6-month exercise program with pre and post intervention assessments of body composition. Fat free mass (FFM), % body fat (%FM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by LBIA (TBF-300A) and DXA. LBIA assessments of changes in %FM and FM post intervention showed good relative agreements with DXA variables (P < 0.001). However, Bland-Altman plot(s) indicated that there were systematic errors in the assessment of the changes in body composition using LBIA compared to DXA such that, the greater the changes in participant body composition, the greater the disparity in body composition data obtained via LBIA versus DXA data (FFM, P = 0.013; %FM, P < 0.001; FM, P < 0.001). In conclusion, assessment of pre and post intervention body composition implies that LBIA is a good tool for assessment qualitative change in body composition (gain or loss) among people with T2DM but is not sufficiently sensitive to track quantitative changes in an individual's body composition.

  2. Current methods and advances in bone densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Gluer, C. C.; Majumdar, S.; Blunt, B. A.; Genant, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    Bone mass is the primary, although not the only, determinant of fracture. Over the past few years a number of noninvasive techniques have been developed to more sensitively quantitate bone mass. These include single and dual photon absorptiometry (SPA and DPA), single and dual X-ray absorptiometry (SXA and DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). While differing in anatomic sites measured and in their estimates of precision, accuracy, and fracture discrimination, all of these methods provide clinically useful measurements of skeletal status. It is the intent of this review to discuss the pros and cons of these techniques and to present the new applications of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MRI) in the detection and management of osteoporosis.

  3. Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Whole Body Composition of Bone Tissue in Rheumatoid Arthritis – a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    POPESCU, Claudiu; BOJINCA, Violeta; OPRIS, Daniela; IONESCU, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of bone tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concentrated on regions of interest that were used to diagnose osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the whole body bone tissue (wbBT) of RA patients with healthy subjects and to identify the RA variables which significantly predict wbBT. Methods: The study was cross-sectionally designed to include postmenopausal RA patients and age-matched healthy female controls. All 107 RA patients and all 104 controls underwent clinical examination, laboratory tests and whole body DXA composition, which recorded total and regional bone indices. Non-parametric standard statistical test and regression models after data normalization were used to assess correlations, associations and differences. Results: Compared to controls, RA patients had significantly lower whole body and regional bone mass (14.9 kg compared to 15.5 kg; p = 0.031). Disease duration (r = -0.402 ; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = -0.279; p = 0.015) and inflammation (2.5% wbBT compared to 2.9%; p = 0.043), radiographic damage (14.3 kg compared to 16.2 kg; p < 0.001), disease activity scores (r = -0.275 ; p = 0.018 for HAQ) are significantly correlated/associated with lower wbBT. Clinical structural damage is associated with lower wbBT and it can significantly predict them (R2 = 0.014; p = 0.001), while glucocorticoid treatment, even in low doses, was associated with lower wbBT percent (2.6% compared to 2.8%; p = 0.045). Treatment with biologics was associated with a lower rate of whole body osteoporosis (0% compared to 22.2%; p = 0.013). Conclusions: The main associated factors with the generalized bone loss in female RA patients are disease duration and disease activity. Clinical structural damage is the most powerful predictor of the whole body bone loss. These results suggest a general disturbance of skeletal bone metabolism in RA and could explain a greater risk of fragility fractures of non

  4. In vivo body composition in autochthonous and conventional pig breeding groups by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging under special consideration of Cerdo Ibérico.

    PubMed

    Kremer, P V; Fernández-Fígares, I; Förster, M; Scholz, A M

    2012-12-01

    The improvement of carcass quality is one of the main breeding goals in pig production. To select appropriate breeding animals, it is of major concern to exactly and reliably analyze the body composition in vivo. Therefore, the objective of the study was to examine whether the combination of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to reliably analyze quantitative and qualitative body composition characteristics of different pig breeding groups in vivo. In this study, a total of 77 pigs were studied by DXA and MRI at an average age of 154 days. The pigs originated from different autochthonous or conventional breeds or crossbreeds and were grouped into six breed types: Cerdo Ibérico (Ib); Duroc × Ib (Du_Ib); White Sow Lines (WSL, including German Landrace and German Large White); Hampshire/Pietrain (Pi_Ha, including Hampshire, Pietrain × Hampshire (PiHa) and Pietrain × PiHa); Pietrain/Duroc (Pi_Du, including Pietrain × Duroc (PiDu) and Pietrain × PiDu); crossbred WSL (PiDu_WSL, including Pietrain × WSL and PiDu × WSL). A whole-body scan was performed by DXA with a GE Lunar DPX-IQ in order to measure the amount and percentage of fat tissue (FM; %FM), lean tissue (LM; %LM) and bone mineral, whereas a Siemens Magnetom Open with a large body coil was used for MRI in the thorax region between 13th and 14th vertebrae in order to measure the area of the loin (LA) and the above back fat area (FA) of both body sides. A GLM procedure using SAS 9.2 was used to analyze the data. As expected, the native breed Ib followed by Du_Ib crossbreeds showed the highest %FM (27.2%, 25.0%) combined with the smallest LA (46.2 cm2, 73.6 cm2), whereas Ib had the lowest BW at an average age of 154 days. Pigs with Pi_Ha origin presented the least %FM (12.4%) and largest LA (99.5 cm2). The WSL and PiDu_WSL showed an intermediate body composition. Therefore, it could be concluded that DXA and MRI and especially their combination

  5. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19–30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 – 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 – 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level. PMID:26557191

  6. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19-30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 - 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 - 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level.

  7. Measuring body composition in dogs using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rae, L S; Vankan, D M; Rand, J S; Flickinger, E A; Ward, L C

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-five healthy, neutered, mixed breed dogs were used to determine the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) to predict accurately fat-free mass (FFM) in dogs using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured FFM as reference. A second aim was to compare MFBIA predictions with morphometric predictions. MFBIA-based predictors provided an accurate measure of FFM, within 1.5% when compared to DXA-derived FFM, in normal weight dogs. FFM estimates were most highly correlated with DXA-measured FFM when the prediction equation included resistance quotient, bodyweight, and body condition score. At the population level, the inclusion of impedance as a predictor variable did not add substantially to the predictive power achieved with morphometric variables alone; in individual dogs, impedance predictors were more valuable than morphometric predictors. These results indicate that, following further validation, MFBIA could provide a useful tool in clinical practice to objectively measure FFM in canine patients and help improve compliance with prevention and treatment programs for obesity in dogs.

  8. Agreement Between pQCT- and DXA-Derived Indices of Bone Geometry, Density, and Theoretical Strength in Females of Varying Age, Maturity, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dowthwaite, Jodi Noelle; Flowers, Portia PE; Scerpella, Tamara Ann

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of bone mass, geometry, density, and strength are critical in bone research and clinical studies. For peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), single and repeated measurements are particularly adversely affected by movement and positional variation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)–derived indices may alleviate these problems and provide useful alternative assessments. To evaluate this hypothesis, distal radius DXA and pQCT indices were compared in 101 healthy females aged 8.0 to 22.8 years (prepuberty to adulthood), reflecting a broad range of body sizes, physical maturity, and activity exposures. At the diaphysis, correlations were ρ =+0.74 to +0.98, with strong intermethod agreement for most indices. At the metaphysis, correlations were ρ =+0.64 to +0.97; intermethod agreement improved with modifications to the simplified geometric formulas more closely reflecting metaphyseal bone geometry. Further improvements may be possible because skeletal size and maturity-related biases in agreement were detected. Overall, DXA-derived indices may provide a useful assessment of bone geometry, density, and theoretical strength contingent on appropriate consideration of their limitations. PMID:21611973

  9. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures.

    PubMed

    Hangartner, Thomas N; Warner, Sarah; Braillon, Pierre; Jankowski, Larry; Shepherd, John

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for the International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference of 2013 in Tampa, Florida, Task Force 2 was created as 1 of 3 task forces in the area of body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The assignment was to review the literature, summarize the relevant findings, and formulate positions covering (1) accuracy and precision assessment, (2) acquisition of DXA body composition measures in patients, and (3) considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. There were 6 primary questions proposed to the task force by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry board and expert panel. Based on a series of systematic reviews, 14 new positions were developed, which are intended to augment and define good clinical practice in quantitative assessment of body composition by DXA.

  10. Black hole artifacts-a new potential pitfall for DXA accuracy?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah L; Lopez-Ben, Robert; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Fineberg, Naomi; Tubbs, R Shane; Yester, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    Certain types of metallic objects apparently have high attenuation (a white image) on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan images, but instead show up as black (black hole artifacts). When small, these artifacts may easily be missed on visual inspection. We hypothesized that such "black hole" artifacts could have a significant effect on bone mineral density (BMD) results. Human use approval (Institutional Review Board [IRB]) was obtained to publish patient scans and an IRB waiver was obtained for nonhuman research. We placed individual surgical clips and cassettes of clips of tantalum, stainless steel and titanium, and a bullet over the third lumbar vertebra (L3) of a Hologic spine phantom. In addition, 4 or 8 individual tantalum or stainless steel clips and tantalum squares were placed over L3 of cadaveric spines (high-density spine L1-L4 BMD=1.049 g/cm2) and low-density spine BMD (L1-L4 BMD=0.669 g/cm2) with attached soft tissues. Stainless steel and titanium clips scanned as white objects with DXA. A bullet and tantalum clips scanned black (black holes). All clip types were visible on single-energy scans as white objects. Eight tantalum clips significantly lowered L3 BMD compared to 4 or 0 clips in the high-density spine. There were no significant differences in BMD L1-L4 between 0, 4, and 8 tantalum clips in the high-density spine. In the low-density spine, 8 tantalum clips over L3 had significantly lower BMD compared to 4 tantalum clips overlying L3 and 4 clips lateral to L3 and 4 clips over L3. All of these scenarios had lower L3 BMD than no tantalum clips overlying L3. The BMD of L1-L4 was lowest with 8 clips at L3, but was not significantly different than no clips overlying L3. Eight tantalum clips lateral to L3 was significantly higher than no clips over L3. Black hole artifacts can occur in DXA scans containing certain metals like tantalum surgical clips. Although these surgical clips could decrease BMD at a localized area, they do not

  11. Agreement between bioelectrical impedance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in assessing fat, lean and bone mass changes in adults after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Duncan J; Chan, Natalie T-Y; Tse, Michael A; Joe, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the agreement of a commercially available bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device in measuring changes in fat, lean and bone mass over a 10-week lifestyle intervention, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference. A sample of 136 volunteers (18-66 years) underwent a physical activity intervention to enhance lean mass and reduce fat mass. BIA (Tanita BC545) and DXA (Hologic Explorer) measures of whole-body composition were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. After an average of 74 ± 18 days intervention, DXA showed significant changes in 2 of 3 outcome variables: reduced fat mass of 0.802 ± 1.092 kg (P < 0.001), increased lean mass of 0.477 ± 0.966 kg (P < 0.001); minor non-significant increase of 0.007 ± 0.041 kg of bone mass (P = 0.052). The respective changes in BIA measures were a significant reduction of 0.486 ± 1.539 kg fat (P < 0.001), but non-significant increases of 0.084 ± 1.201 kg lean mass (P = 0.425), and 0.014 ± 0.091 kg bone (P = 0.074). Significant, but moderately weak, correlations were seen in absolute mass changes between DXA and BIA: 0.511 (fat), 0.362 (lean) and 0.172 (bone). Compared to DXA, BIA demonstrated mediocre agreement to changes in fat mass, but poor agreement to lean mass changes. BIA significantly underestimated the magnitude of changes in fat and lean mass compared to DXA.

  12. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999–2004 with additional visualization methods

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bo; Ng, Bennett K.; Shepherd, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition. These reference curves displayed differentiation between males and females during puberty and sharper limb LMI declines during late adulthood for males. For adults ages 30–50, females had 39%, 83%, and 47% larger arm, leg, and trunk FMI values than males, respectively. Males had 49%, 20%, and 15% higher regional LMI values than females for the arms, legs, and trunk respectively. The leg FMI and LMI of black females were 14% and 15% higher respectively than those of Hispanic and white females. White and Hispanic males had 37% higher trunk FMI values than black males. Hispanic females had 20% higher trunk FMI than white and black females. These data underscore the importance of accounting for sex and ethnicity in studies of regional composition. This study is the first to produce regional LMI and FMI reference tables and curves from the NHANES dataset. These reference curves provide a framework useful in studies and research involving sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, and other studies of compositional phenotypes. Further, the software tool we provide for visualizing regional composition will prove useful in monitoring progress in physical therapy, diets, or other attempts to attain healthier compositions. PMID:28346492

  13. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999-2004 with additional visualization methods.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Benjamin J; Fan, Bo; Ng, Bennett K; Shepherd, John A

    2017-01-01

    Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition. These reference curves displayed differentiation between males and females during puberty and sharper limb LMI declines during late adulthood for males. For adults ages 30-50, females had 39%, 83%, and 47% larger arm, leg, and trunk FMI values than males, respectively. Males had 49%, 20%, and 15% higher regional LMI values than females for the arms, legs, and trunk respectively. The leg FMI and LMI of black females were 14% and 15% higher respectively than those of Hispanic and white females. White and Hispanic males had 37% higher trunk FMI values than black males. Hispanic females had 20% higher trunk FMI than white and black females. These data underscore the importance of accounting for sex and ethnicity in studies of regional composition. This study is the first to produce regional LMI and FMI reference tables and curves from the NHANES dataset. These reference curves provide a framework useful in studies and research involving sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, and other studies of compositional phenotypes. Further, the software tool we provide for visualizing regional composition will prove useful in monitoring progress in physical therapy, diets, or other attempts to attain healthier compositions.

  14. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity.

  15. Association between bone indices assessed by DXA, HR-pQCT and QCT scans in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Jakobsen, Niels Frederik Breum; Moser, Emil; Sikjaer, Tanja; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT), high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are commonly used when assessing bone mass and structure in patients with osteoporosis. Depending on the imaging technique and measuring site, different information on bone quality is obtained. How well these techniques correlate when assessing central as well as distal skeletal sites has not been carefully assessed to date. One hundred and twenty-five post-menopausal women aged 56-82 (mean 63) years were studied using DXA scans (spine, hip, whole body and forearm), including trabecular bone score (TBS), QCT scans (spine and hip) and HR-pQCT scans (distal radius and tibia). Central site measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by QCT correlated significantly at the hip (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Distal site measurements of density at the radius as assessed by DXA and HR-pQCT were also associated (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Correlations between distal and central site measurements of the hip and of the tibia and radius showed weak to moderate correlation between vBMD by HR-pQCT and QCT (r = -0.27 to 0.54). TBS correlated with QCT at the lumbar spine (r = 0.35) and to trabecular indices of HR-pQCT at the radius and tibia (r = -0.16 to 0.31, p < 0.01). There was moderate to strong agreement between measuring techniques when assessing the same skeletal site. However, when assessing correlations between central and distal sites, the associations were only weak to moderate. Our data suggest that the various techniques measure different characteristics of the bone, and may therefore be used in addition to rather than as a replacment for imaging in clinical practice.

  16. Estimates of volumetric bone density from projectional measurements improve the discriminatory capability of dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jergas, M.; Breitenseher, M.; Gluer, C. C.; Yu, W.; Genant, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether estimates of volumetric bone density from projectional scans of the lumbar spine have weaker associations with height and weight and stronger associations with prevalent vertebral fractures than standard projectional bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), we obtained posteroanterior (PA) dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), lateral supine DXA (Hologic QDR 2000), and quantitative computed tomography (QCT, GE 9800 scanner) in 260 postmenopausal women enrolled in two trials of treatment for osteoporosis. In 223 women, all vertebral levels, i.e., L2-L4 in the DXA scan and L1-L3 in the QCT scan, could be evaluated. Fifty-five women were diagnosed as having at least one mild fracture (age 67.9 +/- 6.5 years) and 168 women did not have any fractures (age 62.3 +/- 6.9 years). We derived three estimates of "volumetric bone density" from PA DXA (BMAD, BMAD*, and BMD*) and three from paired PA and lateral DXA (WA BMD, WA BMDHol, and eVBMD). While PA BMC and PA BMD were significantly correlated with height (r = 0.49 and r = 0.28) or weight (r = 0.38 and r = 0.37), QCT and the volumetric bone density estimates from paired PA and lateral scans were not (r = -0.083 to r = 0.050). BMAD, BMAD*, and BMD* correlated with weight but not height. The associations with vertebral fracture were stronger for QCT (odds ratio [QR] = 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.90-5.27), eVBMD (OR = 2.87; CI 1.80-4.57), WA BMDHol (OR = 2.86; CI 1.80-4.55) and WA-BMD (OR = 2.77; CI 1.75-4.39) than for BMAD*/BMD* (OR = 2.03; CI 1.32-3.12), BMAD (OR = 1.68; CI 1.14-2.48), lateral BMD (OR = 1.88; CI 1.28-2.77), standard PA BMD (OR = 1.47; CI 1.02-2.13) or PA BMC (OR = 1.22; CI 0.86-1.74). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for QCT and all estimates of volumetric BMD were significantly higher compared with standard PA BMD and PA BMC. We conclude that, like QCT, estimates of volumetric bone density from paired PA and lateral scans are

  17. DXA measurements in Rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass.

    PubMed

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine; Andersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jytte Bieber; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2011-09-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients with RTT do have low BMD when correcting for smaller bones by examination with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared areal BMD (aBMD(spine) and aBMD(total hip) ) and volumetric bone mineral apparent density (vBMAD(spine) and vBMAD(neck) ) in 61 patients and 122 matched healthy controls. Further, spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD of patients were associated with clinical risk factors of low BMD, low-energy fractures, MECP2 mutation groups, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Patients with RTT had reduced bone size on the order of 10% and showed lower values of spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD (p < .001) adjusted for age, pubertal status, and body mass index (BMI). aBMD(spine) , vBMAD(spine) , and aBMD(total hip) were associated with low-energy fractures (p < .05). Walking was significantly associated to aBMD(total hip) and vBMAD(neck) adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). Further, vBMAD(neck) was significantly associated to a diagnosis of epilepsy, antiepileptic treatment, and MECP2 mutation group, but none of the associations with vBMAD(neck) remained clinically significant in a multiple adjusted model including age and BMI. Neither aBMD(spine) , vBMAD(spine) , nor aBMD(total hip) were significantly associated with epilepsy, antiepileptic treatment, MECP2 mutation group, XCI, or vitamin D status. Low bone mass and small bones are evident in RTT, indicating an apparent low-bone-formation phenotype.

  18. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p < 0.00001) and BMI (r = 0.668; p < 0.00001). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was seen in 2119 (46.1%) and 536 (13.8%), respectively, according to World Health Organization definition and 64.0% and 31.1%, respectively, as per Indian guidelines. Percent total body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  19. Can geometry-based parameters from pQCT and material parameters from quantitative ultrasound (QUS) improve the prediction of radial bone strength over that by bone mass (DXA)?

    PubMed

    Hudelmaier, M; Kuhn, V; Lochmüller, E M; Well, H; Priemel, M; Link, T M; Eckstein, F

    2004-05-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis is generally based on the assessment of bone mineral content with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) but does not account for the spatial distribution and inherent material properties of the tissue. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) permits one to measure the compartment-specific density and geometry-based parameters of cortical bone. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are associated with material properties of cortical bone. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that pQCT and cortical QUS provide additional information to DXA in predicting structural strength of the distal radius. The intact right arm and the isolated left radius were harvested from 70 formalin-fixed cadavers (age 79+/-11 years). The bone mineral content (BMC) was assessed with DXA at the radial metaphysis and shaft. pQCT was also used at the metaphysis and the shaft, while QUS was employed only at the shaft. The failure loads of the radius were assessed by use of a 3-point bending test (isolated radius) and a complex fall simulation (intact arm). The BMC (DXA) displayed a correlation of r=0.96 with the failure moments in 3-point bending ( P<0.001). The correlation between failure load and geometry-based parameters (pQCT) ranged from r=0.85 to r=0.96 and was r=0.64 for the speed of sound (QUS) ( P <0.001). Cortical thickness (pQCT) improved the prediction marginally (r=0.964) in combination with DXA. For the fall simulation, the correlation coefficients were r=0.76 for BMC (DXA) of the shaft, r=0.83 for metaphyseal bone content (pQCT), r=0.55 for QUS, and ranged from r=0.59 to r=0.74 for geometry-based parameters at the shaft (pQCT). pQCT and QUS parameters provided no significant improvement versus DXA alone. Measurement of bone mass by DXA or pQCT thus appears to be sufficient as a surrogate of mechanical strength and fracture risk of the distal radius.

  20. Characterization of Low Bone Mass in Young Patients with Thalassemia by DXA, pQCT and Markers of Bone Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Vichinsky, Elliott P.; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Huang, James; Bachrach, Laura K.; Sawyer, Aenor J.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) suggest that up to 70% of adults with thalassemia major (Thal) have low bone mass. However, few studies have controlled for body size and pubertal delay, variables known to affect bone mass in this population. In this study, bone mineral content and areal density (BMC, aBMD) of the spine and whole body were assessed by DXA, and volumetric BMD and cortical geometries of the distal tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in subjects with Thal (n=25, 11 male, 10 to 30 yrs) and local controls (n=34, 15 male, 7 to 30 yrs). Z-scores for bone outcomes were calculated from reference data from a large sample of healthy children and young adults. Fasting blood and urine were collected, pubertal status determined by self-assessment and dietary intake and physical activity assessed by written questionnaires. Subjects with Thal were similar in age, but had lower height, weight and lean mass index Z-scores (all p<0.001) compared to controls. DXA aBMD was significantly lower in Thal compared to controls at all sites. Adult Thal subjects (>18 yrs, n=11) had lower tibial trabecular vBMD (p=0.03), cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference and section modulus Z-scores (all p<0.01) compared to controls. Cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, and periosteal circumference Z-scores (p=0.02) were significantly lower in young Thal (≤18 yrs, n=14) compared to controls. In separate multivariate models, tibial cortical area, BMC, and thickness and spine aBMD and whole body BMC Z-scores remained lower in Thal compared to controls after adjustment for gender, lean mass and/or growth deficits (all p<0.01). Tanner stage was not predictive in these models. Osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, was significantly reduced in Thal compared to controls after adjusting for age, puberty and whole body BMC (p=0.029). In summary, we have found evidence of skeletal deficits that cannot

  1. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  2. National protocol for quality assurance in DXA-bone densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavchev, A.; Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Vassileva, J.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis becomes largely one of the most important socially significant and costly diseases. Modern techniques (DXA, US) are applied for bone densitometry. The paper presents a protocol for quality assurance especially of DXA-bone densitometers including quality control made in compliance with international standards (ISCD, IOF). The methodology has been tested in practice by measurements on site-functional assessment, entrance dose, radiation protection, calibration, in-vitro precision. It is expected to raise the quality of the diagnostic process in concert with the EU Medical Directive 97/43 particularly for population screening and sensitive groups. The protocol is an essential part of the National Program for constraining osteoporosis which has been elaborated at the Ministry of Health and at present under implementation throughout the country. It aims at reducing the risk, factors spreading, at diminishing the fracture risk the morbidity and the mortality from osteoporosis. An integral multidisciplinary approach to the problem solving is applied as well as training on three levels — doctors, patients, population, which effectively will contribute for obtaining real results in preventing osteoporosis.

  3. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured regional body composition least significant change: effect of region of interest and gender in athletes.

    PubMed

    Buehring, Bjoern; Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Johnson, Brian; Haller, Irina; Binkley, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used to evaluate body composition in athletes. Knowledge of measurement precision is essential for monitoring body composition changes over time. This study begins characterizing DXA body composition precision in 60 (30 males and 30 females) Division 1 athletes focusing on gender, regional, and tissue type differences. Two total body scans with repositioning between were performed on the same day. Least significant change (LSC) for the root-mean-square deviation (LSCRMSD) and the percent coefficient of variation (LSC%CV) for total, lean, and fat mass was calculated for 6 regions of interest. The effect of gender, region, tissue type, and mass on the standard deviation (SD) and percent coefficient of variation (%CV) between the 2 scans was evaluated using repeated measures regression analysis. Statistically significant effects of gender, region, tissue type, and mass on SD and %CV were noted. To generalize, a nonlinear positive relationship between LSCRMSD and mass and a nonlinear negative relationship between LSC%CV and mass were observed. In conclusion, DXA body composition LSC varies among genders, regions, tissues, and mass. As such, when evaluating serial body composition in athletes, especially if assessing regional change, knowledge of precision in individuals of similar body size and gender to the population of interest is needed.

  4. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-04-13

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements.

  5. A multinational study to develop universal standardization of whole-body bone density and composition using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, John A; Fan, Bo; Lu, Ying; Wu, Xiao P; Wacker, Wynn K; Ergun, David L; Levine, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to assess bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition, but measurements vary among instruments from different manufacturers. We sought to develop cross-calibration equations for whole-body bone density and composition derived using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems. This multinational study recruited 199 adult and pediatric participants from a site in the US (n = 40, ages 6 through 16 years) and one in China (n = 159, ages 5 through 81 years). The mean age of the participants was 44.2 years. Each participant was scanned on both GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic Discovery or Delphi DXA systems on the same day (US) or within 1 week (China) and all scans were centrally analyzed by a single technologist using GE Healthcare Lunar Encore version 14.0 and Hologic Apex version 3.0. Paired t-tests were used to test the results differences between the systems. Multiple regression and Deming regressions were used to derive the cross-conversion equations between the GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic whole-body scans. Bone and soft tissue measures were highly correlated between the GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic and systems, with r ranging from 0.96 percent fat [PFAT] to 0.98 (BMC). Significant differences were found between the two systems, with average absolute differences for PFAT, BMC, and BMD of 1.4%, 176.8 g and 0.013 g/cm(2) , respectively. After cross-calibration, no significant differences remained between GE Healthcare Lunar measured results and the results converted from Hologic. The equations we derived reduce differences between BMD and body composition as determined by GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic systems and will facilitate combining study results in clinical or epidemiological studies.

  6. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the calcaneus: age-related changes in trabecular structure and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouyang, X.; Selby, K.; Lang, P.; Engelke, K.; Klifa, C.; Fan, B.; Zucconi, F.; Hottya, G.; Chen, M.; Majumdar, S.; Genant, H. K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, together with specialized image processing techniques, was applied to the quantitative measurement of age-related changes in calcaneal trabecular structure. The reproducibility of the technique was assessed and the annual rates of change for several trabecular structure parameters were measured. The MR-derived trabecular parameters were compared with calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD), measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the same subjects. Sagittal MR images were acquired at 1.5 T in 23 healthy women (mean age: 49.3 +/- 16.6 [SD]), using a three-dimensional gradient echo sequence. Image analysis procedures included internal gray-scale calibration, bone and marrow segmentation, and run-length methods. Three trabecular structure parameters, apparent bone volume (ABV/TV), intercept thickness (I.Th), and intercept separation (I.Sp) were calculated from the MR images. The short- and long-term precision errors (mean %CV) of these measured parameters were in the ranges 1-2% and 3-6%, respectively. Linear regression of the trabecular structure parameters vs. age showed significant correlation: ABV/TV (r2 = 33.7%, P < 0.0037), I.Th (r2 = 26.6%, P < 0.0118), I.Sp (r2 = 28.9%, P < 0.0081). These trends with age were also expressed as annual rates of change: ABV/TV (-0.52%/year), I.Th (-0.33%/year), and I.Sp (0.59%/year). Linear regression analysis also showed significant correlation between the MR-derived trabecular structure parameters and calcaneal BMD values. Although a larger group of subjects is needed to better define the age-related changes in trabecular structure parameters and their relation to BMD, these preliminary results demonstrate that high-resolution MRI may potentially be useful for the quantitative assessment of trabecular structure.

  7. Comparing non contrast computerized tomography criteria versus dual X-ray absorptiometry as predictors of radio-opaque upper urinary tract stone fragmentation after electromagnetic shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Diaa A; Elgammal, Mohammed A; ElGanainy, Ehab O; Hageb, Adel; Mohammed, Khaled; El-Taher, Ahmed Mohamed; Mostafa, Mostafa Mohamed; Ahmed, Abdelfatah Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in comparison to non contrast computed tomography (NCCT) density as possible predictors of upper urinary tract stone disintegration by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). This study included 100 consecutive patients, with solitary renal stone 0.5-2 cm or upper ureteral stone up to 1 cm. DXA to calculate stone mineral density (SMD) and stone mineral content (SMC) was done. NCCT was performed to measure Hounsfield units (HU). SWL was performed with an electromagnetic lithotripsy, plain X-ray documented disintegration after SWL. Successful treatment was defined as stone free or complete fragmentation after 1 or 2 sessions of SWL. The impact of patients age, sex, body mass index, stone laterality, location, volume, length, mean SMC and SMD, HU and Hounsfield density (HD), skin to stone distance (SSD) and number of shock waves were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Only 76 patients were available for follow-up. Success of disintegration was observed in 50 out of 76 patients (65.8 %). On multivariate analysis, SMC and number of shock wave were the significant independent factors affecting SWL outcome (p = 0.04 and p = 0.000, respectively). SMC as detected by DXA is a significant predictor of success of stone disintegration by SWL. SMC measured by DXA is more accurate than HU measured by CT. Patients with high stone mineral content (SMC greater than 0.65 g) should be directly offered another treatment option.

  8. The effect of 99mTc on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement of body composition and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Dupont, Anders; Alslev, Louise; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Whether the γ-emission by radioisotopes influences the outcome of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antecedent administration of 99mTc on DXA measurements regarding body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) using a K-edge filter scanner. The phantom measurements were performed by placing a urinary bladder phantom containing 40 mL of radioisotope solution on the pelvic region of a whole-body phantom. Twenty-seven patients attending our department for a routine examination involving the administration of a tracer marked with 99mTc were included. The patients underwent a whole-body DXA scan before and within 2 h after tracer injection using a GE/Lunar Prodigy scanner. Control scans were performed on 40 volunteers, who had not received any radioactive tracer. In both phantom and patient measurements, we found a significant dose-related decrease in fat mass and BMD and a corresponding increase in fat-free mass (p < 0.001). Based on the linear regression analysis, we suggest upper dose limits for the measurement of BMD at 0.77 μSv/h and body composition at 0.21 μSv/h (dose rate measured at a distance of 1m from the patient). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results of DXA scans performed in close temporal proximity to procedures involving the administration of 99mTc.

  9. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M. Carola

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research. PMID:28090446

  10. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; Oei, Edwin H G

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research.

  11. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  12. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and micro-computed tomography techniques are discordant for bone density and geometry measurements in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mak, Ivy L; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Weiler, Hope A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to examine agreement among bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) estimates obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and micro-computed tomography (μCT) against high-resolution μCT and bone ash of the guinea pig femur. Middle-aged (n = 40, 86 weeks) male guinea pigs underwent in vivo followed by ex vivo DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A) scanning for intact and excised femur BMC and areal density. To assess bone architecture and strength, excised femurs were scanned on pQCT (Stratec XCT 2000L) as well as on two μCT scanners (LaTheta LCT-200; Skyscan 1174), followed by three-point bending test. Reproducibility was determined using triplicate scans; and agreement assessed using Bland-Altman plots with reference methods being high-resolution μCT (Skyscan) for BMD and bone ashing for BMC. All techniques showed satisfactory ex vivo precision (CV 0.05-4.3 %). However, bias compared to the reference method was highest (207.5 %) in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) measured by LaTheta, and unacceptable in most total femur and cortical bone measurements. Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BV/TV derived by LaTheta and pQCT at the distal metaphysis were biased from the Skyscan by an average of 49.3 and 207.5 %, respectively. Variability of vBMD, BV/TV and cross-sectional area at the diaphysis ranged from -5.5 to 30.8 %. LaTheta best quantified total femur BMC with an upper bias of 3.3 %. The observed differences among imaging techniques can be attributable to inherent dissimilarity in construction design, calibration, segmentation and scanning resolution used. These bone imaging tools are precise but are not comparable, at least when assessing guinea pig bones.

  13. Association of Coronary Aortic Calcium with Abdominal Aortic Calcium Detected on Lateral Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Spine Images

    PubMed Central

    Schousboe, John T.; Claflin, Diane; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The association of abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) on lateral spine bone densitometry with coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been reported. We studied 33 men and 73 women who had CAC scored with electron beam computed tomography at the 8th visit of the Rancho Bernardo study and lateral spine dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images fully evaluable for AAC done at the 9th study visit. The association between CAC level and AAC tertile was assessed by ordinal logistic regression. The odds ratio of having a higher level of CAC score for those in the top tertile of AAC score (24-point scale score ≥ 5) was 6.42 (95% C.I. 2.28 – 18.1) and on an 8-point scale (score ≥ 3) was 3.38 (95% C.I. 1.26 – 9.07), compared to those with AAC scores in the bottom tertiles, adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, smoking status, and diabetes. A 24-point AAC score of ≥ 5 had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 70% to detect a high CAC score (≥ 400 units). An 8-point AAC score ≥ 3 had a sensitivity of 45% and a specificity of 78%. In conclusion, a high level of AAC on lateral spine DXA is strongly associated with coronary artery disease and may be commonly encountered since bone densitometry is indicated in all women age ≥ 65 and all men age ≥ 70. Its presence should be reported to the patient's physician to identify and manage modifiable risk factors. PMID:19616658

  14. Correlation of a feline muscle mass score with body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Michel, Kathryn E; Anderson, Wendy; Cupp, Carolyn; Laflamme, Dorothy P

    2011-10-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) systems primarily assess body fat. Both overweight and underweight animals may have loss of lean tissue that may not be noted using standard BCS systems. Catabolism of lean tissue can occur rapidly, may account for a disproportionate amount of body mass loss in sick cats and can have deleterious consequences for outcome. Therefore, along with evaluation of body fat, patients should undergo evaluation of muscle mass. The aims of the present study were first to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of a 4-point feline muscle mass scoring (MMS) system and second to assess the convergent validity of MMS by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). MMS was as follows: 3, normal muscle mass; 2, slight wasting; 1, moderate wasting; 0, severe wasting. For the first aim, forty-four cats were selected for evaluation based on age and BCS, and for the second aim, thirty-three cats were selected based on age, BCS and MMS. Cats were scored by ten different evaluators on three separate occasions. Body composition was determined by DXA. Inter- and intra-rater agreement were assessed using kappa analysis. Correlation between MMS and BCS, age, percentage lean body mass and lean body mass (LBM) was determined using Spearman's rank-order correlation. The MMS showed moderate inter-rater agreement in cats that scored normal or severely wasted (κ = 0.48-0.53). Intra-rater agreement was substantial (κ = 0.71-0.73). The MMS was significantly correlated with BCS (r 0.76, P < 0.0001), age (r - 0.75, P < 0.0001), LBM (g) (r 0.62, P < 0.0001) and percentage LBM (r - 0.49, P < 0.0035). Additional investigation is needed to determine whether the MMS can be refined and to assess its clinical applicability.

  15. Some applications of gamma absorptiometry and spectrometry for the control of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guery, M.

    1991-02-01

    In nuclear fuels, and neutrons absorbers used in control rods, the thermal power generated is locally dependent on the concentration of the fissile or absorbing nucleus. In order to control the homogeneity of such materials, non-destructive methods using either gamma absorptiometry or gamma spectrometry were developed; some applications of these methods are presented in this paper. The fuel of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is frequently composed of UO 2 and ThO 2 spherical particles dispersed in a carbon matrix; the axial distribution of the particles along the fuel rods can be controlled in two ways: with gamma absorptiometry the heavy elements atoms (U+Th) can be detected but without discrimination between U and Th; with gamma spectrometry, separate distributions of uranium and thorium, deduced from the intensity of characteristic gamma rays are obtained. In nuclear power plants (PWR, FBR) the control rods are made usually with boron carbide (B 4C) pellets. By mean of gamma absorptiometry scanning the density distribution along the axis and the radius of the pellets are obtained. The originality of the method consists in the use of a self-calibration process, then the knowledge of the mass absorption coefficient is not required to perform the examinations. A computerized apparatus has been developed for these controls.

  16. Measurement of the subcutaneous fat in the distal forearm by single photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hassager, C.; Borg, J.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-02-01

    The influence of subcutaneous fat on single photon (/sup 125/I) absorptiometry (SPA) measurement of bone mineral content of the distal forearm was investigated. A fat correction model was tested by measurements on eight lean subjects with different amounts of porcine fat around their forearm, and further validated from measurements on 128 females. In addition, it is shown that the fat content in the distal forearm can be measured by SPA with a short-term precision at 1.9% in an obese subject and that it correlates well with total body fat (r2 = .7) measured by dual photon absorptiometry, skinfold thickness (r2 = .5), and body mass index (r2 = .6). By using this method in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, hormonal substitutional therapy significantly decreased the forearm fat content without affecting the body weight in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  17. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  18. Elemental quantification using multiple-energy x-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozul, N.; Davis, G. R.; Anderson, P.; Elliott, J. C.

    1999-03-01

    A novel implementation of multiple-energy x-ray absorptiometry (MEXA) for elemental quantification has been developed. Species are resolved on the basis of their differential attenuation spectra across a wide energy range, ideally including absorption edges. By measuring the incident and exiting x-ray spectra and using known values of mass attenuation coefficients over selected energy bands, the density line integral of the species along the x-ray path can be calculated from all the selected energy channels simultaneously by non-linear least squares methods. Effects of `escape' peak phenomena are modelled and corrections for them are included in the MEXA software. The applications of MEXA are illustrated by single measurements on aluminium and zirconium foils, quantitation of aqueous KI diffusing into a porous solid, simultaneous measurement of acidic diffusant 0957-0233/10/3/023/img1 and porous solid with which it reacts and which it dissolves and microtomographic reconstructions of liquid and solid specimens containing caesium and/or iodine.

  19. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry derived structural geometry for stress fracture prediction in male U.S. Marine Corps recruits.

    PubMed

    Beck, T J; Ruff, C B; Mourtada, F A; Shaffer, R A; Maxwell-Williams, K; Kao, G L; Sartoris, D J; Brodine, S

    1996-05-01

    A total of 626 U.S. male Marine Corps recruits underwent anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the femoral midshaft and the distal third of the tibia prior to a 12 week physical training program. Conventionally obtained frontal plane DXA scan data were used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as to derive the cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, section modulus, and bone width in the femur, tibia, and fibula. During training, 23 recruits (3.7%) presented with a total of 27 radiologically confirmed stress fractures in various locations in the lower extremity. After excluding 16 cases of shin splints, periostitis, and other stress reactions that did not meet fracture definition criteria, we compared anthropometric and bone structural geometry measurements between fracture cases and the remaining 587 normals. There was no significant difference in age (p = 0.8), femur length (p = 0.2), pelvic width (p = 0.08), and knee width at the femoral condyles (p = 0.06), but fracture cases were shorter (p = 0.01), lighter (p = 0.0006), and smaller in most anthropometric girth dimensions (p < 0.04). Fracture case bone cross-sectional areas (p < 0.001), moments of inertia (p < 0.001), section moduli (p < 0.001), and widths (p < 0.001) as well as BMD (p < 0.03) were significantly smaller in the tibia and femur. After correcting for body weight differences, the tibia cross-sectional area (p = 0.03), section modulus (p = 0.05), and width (p = 0.03) remained significantly smaller in fracture subjects. We conclude that both small body weight and small diaphyseal dimensions relative to body weight are factors predisposing to the development of stress fractures in this population. These results suggest that bone structural geometry measurements derived from DXA data may provide a simple noninvasive methodology for assessing the risk of stress fracture.

  20. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  1. Comparison of resting and total energy expenditure in peritoneal dialysis patients and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    El-Kateb, S; Sridharan, S; Farrington, K; Davenport, A

    2016-11-01

    Under basal resting conditions muscle metabolism is reduced, whereas metabolism increases with physical activity. We wished to determine whether there was an association between resting energy expenditure (REE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and lean body mass (LBM). We determined REE and TEE by recently validated equations, using doubly labelled isotopic water, and LBM by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We studied 87 patients, 50 male (57.4%), 25 diabetic (28.7%), mean age 60.3±17.6 years, with a median PD treatment of 11.4 (4.7-29.5) months. The mean weight was 70.1±17.7 kg with a REE of 1509±245 kcal/day and TEE 1947±378 kcal/day. REE was associated with body size (weight r=0.78 and body mass index (BMI) r=0.72) and body composition (LBM r=0.77, lean body mass index (LBMI) r=0.76, r=0.62), all P<0.001). For TEE, there was an association with weight r=0.58, BMI r=0.49 and body composition (LBM r=0.64, LBMI (r=0.54), all P<0.001). We compared LBMI measured by DXA and that estimated by the Boer equation using anthropomorphic measurements, which overestimated and underestimated LBM for smaller patients and heavier patients, respectively. Muscle metabolism is reduced at rest and increases with physical activity. Whereas previous reports based on REE did not show any association with LBM, we found an association between both REE and TEE, using a recently validated equation derived from dialysis patients, and LBM measured by DXA scanning. Estimation of muscle mass from anthropomorphic measurements systematically overestimated LBM for small patients and conversely underestimated for heavier patients.

  2. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players.

    PubMed

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A W; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost-effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes.

  3. Recent methods for assessing osteoporosis and fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In the management and treatment of osteoporosis, the target is to assess fracture risk and the end-point is to prevent fractures. Traditionally, measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the standard method for diagnosing osteoporosis, in addition to assessing fracture risk and therapeutic effects. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can quantify volumetric BMD, and cancellous bone can be measured independently of surrounding cortical bone and aortic calcification. Hip structure analysis (HSA) is a method using the DXA scan image and provides useful data for assessing hip fracture risk. Recently, new tools to assess osteoporosis and fracture risk have been developed. One of the recent advances has been the development of the FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool), which is helpful in conveying fracture risk to patients and providing treatment guidance to clinicians. Another advance is the finite element (FE) method based on data from computed tomography (CT), which is useful for assessing bone strength, fracture risk, and therapeutic effects on osteoporosis. In selecting the most appropriate drug for osteoporosis treatment, assessment by bone metabolic markers is an important factor. In this review, recent patents for assessing osteoporosis and fracture risk are discussed.

  4. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism does not affect bone mass as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography and quantitative bone ultrasound in Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    Roncero-Martin, Raul; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F.; Santos-Vivas, Mercedes; Vera, Vicente; Martínez-Alvárez, Mariana; Rey-Sanchez, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The results of studies examining the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy on bone have generated considerable interest but also controversy. The present research aims to evaluate the effects of L-T4 treatment on different skeletal sites in women. Material and methods A group of 45 premenopausal (mean age: 43.62 ±6.65 years) and 180 postmenopausal (mean age: 59.51 ±7.90 years) women with SCH who were undergoing L-T4 replacement therapy for at least 6 months were compared to 58 pre- and 180 postmenopausal women with SCH (untreated) matched for age. The mean doses of L-T4 were 90.88 ±42.59 µg/day in the premenopausal women and 86.35 ±34.11 µg/day in the postmenopausal women. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm. Results No differences were observed between patients and untreated controls in these bone measurements except in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (p = 0.0214) in postmenopausal women, which was greater in treated women than in untreated controls. Conclusions Our results indicate that adequate metabolic control through replacement treatment with L-T4 in pre- and postmenopausal women does not affect bone mass. PMID:26528344

  5. Body composition analysis of inter-county Gaelic athletic association players measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Davies, Robert W; Toomey, Clodagh; McCormack, William; Hughes, Katie; Cremona, Alexandra; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Gaelic Football and Hurling are two sporting codes within the Gaelic Athletic Association. The purpose of this study was to report the body composition phenotype of inter-county Gaelic athletic association players, comparing groups by code and field position. 190 senior, male, outfield inter-county players (144 hurlers and 46 Gaelic footballers) were recruited. Stature and body mass was measured, estimates of three components of body composition, i.e., lean mass, fat mass and bone mineral content was obtained by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and normative data for Gaelic athletic association athletes by code and position was compared. Other than in the midfield, there was limited difference in body composition between codes or playing position. Stature-corrected indices nullified any existing group differences between midfielders for both codes. Further comparisons with a non-athletic control group (n = 431) showed no difference for body mass index (BMI); however, the athletic group has a lower fat mass index, with a greater lean mass in accounting for the matched BMI between groups. In addition to providing previously unknown normative data for the Gaelic athletic association athlete, a proportional and independent tissue evaluation of body composition is given.

  6. Breast Density Assessment by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Women and Girls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    of this project among adult women and adolescent girls, who will be recruited as mothers and daughters, will be to 1. Correlate breast density...girls. Our hypotheses are as follows: 1. DXA imaging can provide a valid assessment of breast density in adult women and in young girls. 2. DXA...among adult women and adolescent girls, who will be recruited as mothers and daughters, are to: 1. Correlate breast density measured by DXA with

  7. Predicting Bone Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone from DXA, MRI, and Fractal Dimensional Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigan, Timothy P.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Hogan, Harry A.; Shackleford, Linda; Webster, Laurie; LeBlanc, Adrian; Lin, Chen; Evans, Harlan

    1997-01-01

    This project was aimed at making predictions of bone mechanical properties from non-invasive DXA and MRI measurements. Given the bone mechanical properties, stress calculations can be made to compare normal bone stresses to the stresses developed in exercise countermeasures against bone loss during space flight. These calculations in turn will be used to assess whether mechanical factors can explain bone loss in space. In this study we assessed the use of T2(sup *) MRI imaging, DXA, and fractal dimensional analysis to predict strength and stiffness in cancellous bone.

  8. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  9. An evaluation of sex and body weight determination from the proximal femur using DXA technology and its potential for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Bruce P

    2005-01-29

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a rarely used technology in forensic anthropology. These densitometers quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and thus introduce new variables which are important for the application of forensic anthropology. This study investigates the importance of these variables and of this technology using bone scans of the proximal femur in sex and body weight determination. Two data sets from studies conducted at the University of Alabama at Birmingham were examined. The first study had 41 White patients, of which there were 17 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 61 to 79 years and in weight from 99 to 242 lb. The following variables were utilized from the DXA scans: BMD in the femoral neck, greater trochanter and in Ward's triangle. A manual ruler in the software facilitated measurements on the minimum neck diameter and shaft diameter just below the lesser trochanter from each scan. The second study had 128 female patients, 71 of which were Black and 57 were White. They ranged in age from 23 to 47 1/2 years and they weighed between 31 1/2 and 98 1/4 kg. The same variables were examined on these DXA scans as in the first study, with the addition of BMC of the femoral neck and the deletion of the minimum shaft diameter below the lesser trochanter. The first study showed statistically significant sex determination relationships (p < 0.02, t-tests for equality of means) at the supero-inferior femoral neck and lesser trochanter diameters, and from BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified sex over 92% of the original grouped cases using these variables. Multiple regression analysis using body weight as the dependent variable and various measures of the proximal femur as independent variables shows that while they are statistically significant and they have reasonably high R2 values up to 0.49; nevertheless, their standard errors of the

  10. Performance of five phalangeal QUS parameters in the evaluation of gonadal-status, age and vertebral fracture risk compared with DXA.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Carlina V; Cepollaro, Chiara; de Terlizzi, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Passariello, Roberto

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to study the value of five different quantified ultrasound (QUS) parameters-amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS), Ultrasound Bone Profile Index (UBPI), fast-wave amplitude (FWA), bone transmission time (BTT) and signal dynamic (SDY)-measured at the phalanges of the hand in discriminating women with vertebral fracture and their relationship with some determinants of bone mass, in particular age and gonadal status compared with lumbar spine and hip dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We included 791 women aged 35-84 y, divided into pre-menopause, early menopause and late postmenopause groups on the basis of gonadal status and years since menopause (YSM). The presence of vertebral fracture was evaluated radiographically. All QUS parameters were very sensitive to changes in early postmenopause, with a doubled decrease in early postmenopausal with respect to late postmenopause. In particular AD-SoS and BTT decreases were markedly high in the early postmenopause group. In the late menopause group, similar decreases were observed for AD-SoS, UBPI and hip bone mineral density (BMD). In the multiple logistic model, DXA and QUS significantly discriminate women with and without fractures (p < 0.0001); odds ratio (OR) was higher at lumbar spine BMD (OR 4.01), FWA (OR 3.88), AD-SoS (OR 3.81) and total hip BMD (OR 3.77). Even adjusting the logistic model for age, height, weight, lumbar spine and total hip BMD, all QUS parameters remained significantly predictive of vertebral fracture. AD-SoS showed the best performances both in terms of OR and ROC analysis. QUS parameters show a different behavior in evaluating the effect on bone mass of the time since menopause; AD-SoS and BTT showed a high sensitivity to first changes in bone tissue after menopause. After correction for potential confounders, AD-SoS showed the same ability of lumbar spine BMD in discriminating women with or without vertebral fractures and in the prediction

  11. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gotfredsen, A; Pødenphant, J; Nilas, L; Christiansen, C

    1989-04-01

    We investigated the discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMDspine) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMCforearm) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMDspine and BMCforearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMDspine or BMCforearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures (not significant in spinal fracture patients). BMCforearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMDspine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMDspine or BMCforearm, whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements.

  12. Reference Values of Total Lean Mass, Appendicular Lean Mass, and Fat Mass Measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in a Healthy Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Ambrosi, Regina; Szulc, Pawel; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific reference values of total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean body mass (ALBM), and fat mass (FM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data in a healthy Mexican population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 9518 healthy subjects 7-89 years of age participating in the baseline measurement of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Using DXA, LBM, ALBM, and FM were measured. Using these data, LBM index (LBMI), ALBM index (ALBMI), and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. LMI, ALMI, and FMI were calculated as the LBM, ALBM, and FM kg divided by the height in meters squared. Males and females were analyzed separately; sex-specific means and standard deviations for LBM, ALBM, FM, LBMI, ALBMI, and FMI were calculated. A total of 2829 males and 6694 females were included in the final analysis. Strong sex gaps were observed after 12 years in LBM, ALBM, LBMI, and ALBMI (P < 0.01). LBM and ALBM values continue to increase for males up to age 20; females plateaued approximately after age 15. Significant sex differences were also observed for FM and FMI. Significant sex- and age-related differences exist in LBM, ALBM, and FM in the Mexican population. In addition, given the null data available in this area, these reference values may be useful in the evaluation of a variety of childhood and adult abnormalities involving lean body mass deficits, mainly in the assessment of muscle wasting, with important medical and epidemiological uses.

  13. Precision and accuracy of in vivo bone mineral measurement in rats using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, S; Vandromme, J; Neve, J; Aguilera, A; Muregancuro, A; Peretz, A; Kinthaert, J; Ham, H

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring bone mineral content at different sites of the skeleton in rats. In vitro the reproducibility error was very small (< 1%), but in vivo the intra-observer variability ranged from 0.9% to 6.0%. Several factors have been shown to affect in vivo reproducibility: the reproducibility was better when the results were expressed as bone mineral density (BMD) rather than bone mineral content (BMC), intra-observer variability was better than the inter-observer variability, and a higher error was observed for the tibia compared with that for vertebrae and femur. The accuracy of measurement at the femur and tibia was assessed by comparing the values with ash weight and with biochemically determined calcium content. The correlation coefficients (R) between the in vitro BMC and the dry weight or the calcium content were higher than 0.99 for both the femur and the tibia. SEE ranged between 0.0 g (ash weight) and 2.0 mg (Ca content). Using in vitro BMC, ash weight could be estimated with an accuracy error close to 0 and calcium content with an error ranging between 0.82% and 6.80%. The R values obtained between the in vivo and in vitro BMC were 0.98 and 0.97 respectively for femur and tibia, with SEE of 0.04 and 0.02 g respectively. In conclusion, the in vivo precision of the technique was found to be too low. To be of practical use it is important in the design of experimentation to try to reduce the measurement error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Resulting Shifts in Percentile and Standard Placements after Comparison of the BOD POD and DXA

    PubMed Central

    HEDEN, TIMOTHY; SHEPARD, STEVE; SMITH, JOHN; COVINGTON, KAY; LECHEMINANT, JAMES

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the BOD POD® when compared to the DXA and if placement on a percentile chart and standard table is affected by any differences between the two measures. A total of 244 (27.7 ± 10.8 yrs, 77.3 ± 16.1 kg, 171.4 ± 10.1 cm, 26.31 ± 5.42 BMI) males and females between the ages of 18 and 52 were recruited to participate in this study. The participant’s body fat percentage (%BF) was tested in random order on the BOD POD® and DXA during a 30-minute session following manufacturer’s guidelines and procedures. Dependent t-test indicated the %BF measured by the BOD POD® (23.4% ± 12.8) was significantly lower when compared to the DXA (29.5% ± 12.1), p = .001. The Pearson’s Product moment correlation was 0.95 (p = .001), indicating a very strong relationship between the two instruments. Using estimates of %BF from the BOD POD® also resulted in more favorable shifts on a percentile chart and standard table. Since a high correlation was evident between the two, the BOD POD® can be used as an instrument to track %BF changes over time during a diet and/or exercise intervention. However, caution should be made when classifying %BF with percentile charts or standard tables using the BOD POD® %BF estimates. PMID:27182302

  15. Body composition assessment of English Premier League soccer players: a comparative DXA analysis of first team, U21 and U18 squads.

    PubMed

    Milsom, Jordan; Naughton, Robert; O'Boyle, Andy; Iqbal, Zafar; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2015-01-01

    Professional soccer players from the first team (1st team, n = 27), under twenty-one (U21, n = 21) and under eighteen (U18, n = 35) squads of an English Premier League soccer team were assessed for whole body and regional estimates of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Per cent body fat was lower in 1st team (10.0 ± 1.6) compared with both U21 (11.6 ± 2.5, P = 0.02) and U18 (11.4 ± 2.6, P = 0.01) players. However, this difference was not due to variations (P = 0.23) in fat mass between squads (7.8 ± 1.6 v. 8.8 ± 2.1 v. 8.2 ± 2.4 kg, respectively) but rather the presence of more lean mass in 1st team (66.9 ± 7.1 kg, P < 0.01) and U21 (64.6 ± 6.5 kg, P = 0.02) compared with U18 (60.6 ± 6.3 kg) players. Accordingly, fat mass index was not different (P = 0.138) between squads, whereas lean mass index was greater (P < 0.01) in 1st team players (20.0 ± 1.1 kg · m(-2)) compared with U18 players (18.8 ± 1.4 kg · m(-2)). Differences in lean mass were also reflective of higher lean tissue mass in all regions, for example, upper limbs/lower limbs and trunk. Data suggest that training and nutritional interventions for younger players should therefore be targeted to lean mass growth as opposed to body fat loss.

  16. Determination of oxygen content in magnesium and its alloys by inert gas fusion-infrared absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Akira; Achiwa, Hatsumi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Uemoto, Michihisa; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2011-01-01

    A method for the determination of the oxygen content in magnesium and magnesium alloys has been developed. Inert gas fusion-infrared absorptiometry was modified by introducing a multistep heating process; a sample containing oxygen is fused with tin to form an eutectic mixture at 900°C in a graphite crucible, followed by a subsequent gradual temperature increase of up to 2000°C, which enables the evaporation of magnesium from the mixture, and subsequent solidification at the rim of the crucible. Residual tin including magnesium oxide remained at the bottom of the crucible. The oxygen in the tin is measured by a conventional inert gas fusion (IGF) method. From a comparison with the results of charged particle activation analysis, the IGF method is considered to be an attractive candidate for measuring the oxygen content in Mg and its alloys.

  17. Cross-mode bioelectrical impedance analysis in a standing position for estimating fat-free mass validated against dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Chun; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Hsiao, An-Chi; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used to assess body composition. Cross-mode (left hand to right foot, Z(CR)) BIA presumably uses the longest current path in the human body, which may generate better results when estimating fat-free mass (FFM). We compared the cross-mode with the hand-to-foot mode (right hand to right foot, Z(HF)) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. We hypothesized that when comparing anthropometric parameters using stepwise regression analysis, the impedance value from the cross-mode analysis would have better prediction accuracy than that from the hand-to-foot mode analysis. We studied 264 men and 232 women (mean ages, 32.19 ± 14.95 and 34.51 ± 14.96 years, respectively; mean body mass indexes, 24.54 ± 3.74 and 23.44 ± 4.61 kg/m2, respectively). The DXA-measured FFMs in men and women were 58.85 ± 8.15 and 40.48 ± 5.64 kg, respectively. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to construct sex-specific FFM equations. The correlations of FFM measured by DXA vs. FFM from hand-to-foot mode and estimated FFM by cross-mode were 0.85 and 0.86 in women, with standard errors of estimate of 2.96 and 2.92 kg, respectively. In men, they were 0.91 and 0.91, with standard errors of the estimates of 3.34 and 3.48 kg, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement of -6.78 to 6.78 kg for FFM from hand-to-foot mode and -7.06 to 7.06 kg for estimated FFM by cross-mode for men, and -5.91 to 5.91 and -5.84 to 5.84 kg, respectively, for women. Paired t tests showed no significant differences between the 2 modes (P > .05). Hence, cross-mode BIA appears to represent a reasonable and practical application for assessing FFM in Chinese populations.

  18. Adiposity assessed by anthropometric measures has a similar or greater predictive ability than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures for abdominal aortic calcification in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xianwen; Scott, David; Hodge, Allison; Khan, Belal; Khan, Nayab; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Ebeling, Peter R; Sanders, Kerrie M

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether adiposity assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) compared to simple anthropometric assessments, are more predictive of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a risk factor for atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional study of 312 participants (60.3 % female) aged 70.6 ± 5.6 years was conducted in 2010-2011. AAC was assessed by radiography. Adiposity was estimated for whole body, trunk, android, gynoid and visceral regions using DXA in addition to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). WHR [tertile 1 as reference, OR (95 % CI) for tertile 3: 3.62 (1.35-9.72)] and android to gynoid fat ratio [tertile 3: 2.87 (1.03-8.01)] were independent predictors of AAC severity among men. Positive associations with AAC severity were observed for WC [tertile 1 as reference, OR for tertile 3: 2.46 (1.12-5.41)], % trunk fat mass [tertile 2: 3.26 (1.52-7.03)], % android fat mass [tertile 2: 2.42 (1.13-5.18), tertile 3: 2.20 (1.02-4.73)] and visceral fat area [tertile 2: 2.28 (1.06-4.87), tertile 3: 2.32 (1.01-5.34)] among women. Indices of total body composition, BMI and % body fat mass were not associated with AAC severity in either men or women. Simple anthropometric measures, WHR and WC were the best predictors of AAC severity in men and women respectively, although higher android to gynoid fat ratio and central fat, assessed by DXA, were also predictive of higher risks of AAC severity in men and women respectively. Our findings add to existing evidence that relatively inexpensive and easily obtained anthropometric measures can be clinically useful indicators of atherosclerosis risk.

  19. [Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Ilizarov lower extremity lengthening: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wroński, S; Wojciechowski, P; Wójcik, K; Kusz, D

    1999-01-01

    Ilizarov method for lower extremity lengthening has been employed in 107 patients. Some 25% of numerous complications are bony union disturbances. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for assessment of new bone formation was introduced to reduce these problems. Detailed densitometry methodology developed on the ground of 93 measurements in 11 patients is presented. Pre-operative measurement was followed by subsequent evaluations done every 3 weeks after the onset of distraction. DEXA was capable of showing the callus 3-4 weeks earlier than conventional radiography. DEXA allows for adjusting the pace of lengthening to the extent of new bone mineralization, evaluation of lengthening achieved, determining the timing for safe removal of the apparatus. The need for temporary rearranging of the apparatus and troublesome image analysis are among the drawbacks of the method.

  20. [Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in children with chronic diseases].

    PubMed

    Feber, J; Janda, J; Krasnićanova, H

    2000-04-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) can be used for the measurement of bone density at the level of lumbar spine, whole body scan, and also for the measurement of bone mass content (BMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat body mass (FBM). Although this method has been originally developed for the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis in adults, it is used in children with chronic diseases like chronic renal failure, chronic gastrointestinal and rheumatological diseases. However, children with chronic disease often demonstrate statural growth disturbances and decreased growth velocity. Therefore, their actual height does not correspond to the actual chronological age. Normal values of DEXA for a given age are based on data from children with normal height. Interpretation of DEXA regardless of the actual height, which is usually stunted, may lead to false conclusions and wrong therapeutic attitudes. Thus, when interpreting results obtained in such patients a few transformations and calculations should be done.

  1. In vivo precision of the GE lunar iDXA for the assessment of lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and total body bone mineral density in severely obese patients.

    PubMed

    Carver, Tamara E; Christou, Nicolas V; Court, Olivier; Lemke, Hannah; Andersen, Ross E

    2014-01-01

    No study has evaluated the precision of the GE Lunar iDXATM (GE Healthcare) in measuring bone mineral density (BMD) among severely obese patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the precision of the GE Lunar iDXATM for assessing BMD, including the lumbar spine L1-L4, L2-L4, the total hip, femoral neck, and total body in a severely obese population (body mass index [BMI]>40 kg/m(2)). Sixty-four severely obese participants with a mean age of 46 ± 11 yr, BMI of 49 ± 6 kg/m(2), and a mean body mass of 136.8 ± 20.4 kg took part in this investigation. Two consecutive iDXA scans (with repositioning) of the total body (total body BMD [TBBMD]), lumbar spine (L1-L4 and L2-L4), total hip (total hip BMD [THBMD]), and femoral neck (femoral neck BMD [FNBMD]) were conducted for each participant. The coefficient of variation (CV), the root mean square (RMS) averages of standard deviations of repeated measurements, the corresponding 95% least significant change, and intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated. In addition, analysis of bias and coefficients of repeatability were calculated. The results showed a high level of precision for total body (TBBMD), lumbar spine (L1-L4), and total hip (THBMD) with values of RMS: 0.013, 0.014, and 0.011 g/cm(2); CV: 0.97%, 1.05%, and 0.99%, respectively. Precision error for the femoral neck was 2.34% (RMS: 0.025 g/cm(2)) but still represented high reproducibility. ICCs in all dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements were 0.99 with FNBMD having the lowest at 0.98. Coefficients of repeatability for THBMD, FNBMD, L1-L4, L2-L4, and TBBMD were 0.0312, 0.0688, 0.0383, 0.0493, and 0.0312 g/cm(2), respectively. The Lunar iDXA demonstrated excellent precision for BMD measurements and is the first study to assess reproducibility of the GE Lunar iDXA with severely obese adults.

  2. [DEXA (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and DPA (dual photon absorptiometry) in densitometry of the femoral neck: correlation of the measurements of three commercially available instruments].

    PubMed

    Hübsch, P; Schneider, B; Seidl, G; Kalchhauser, G; Klaushofer, K; Popovic, R

    1991-07-01

    The bone mineral density measurements of three different instruments at the femoral head were compared using 12 cadaver specimens. Two of these instruments were operated by x-rays (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry = DEXA), whereas one system was based on a gadolinium source (dual photon absorptiometry = DPA). Although excellent correlation between the measurements was obtained (r greater than 0,9), the measurements of one of the DEXA-instruments were significantly higher than the measurements of the two other systems. We conclude that a comparison of bone mineral density measurements obtained on different densitometry instruments may pose problems. Follow-up examinations should be done on one single densitometry unit.

  3. Measurement of bone by dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

    PubMed

    Mazess, R B; Barden, H S

    1988-01-01

    Bone densitometry is essential for (a) confirming a diagnosis of osteoporosis, (b) determining the degree of osteopenia and risk of fracture, and (c) monitoring the response of bone to therapeutic agents. Fracture risk at specific axial fracture sites (spine, proximal femur), is associated directly with bone mineral density (BMD) at these sites. ROC analysis demonstrates that the diagnostic sensitivity of spine and femur BMD for spine and/or femur fracture is substantially superior to BMD of appendicular sites in the immediate postmenopausal period. Femoral neck BMD affords high diagnostic sensitivity for proximal femur fracture even in the elderly. Recent prospective studies have shown that bone densitometry can predict future fractures in postmenopausal women. Conventional DPA with 153Gd provides high accuracy for total body, spine, and femur BMD with adequate clinical precision of 1%, 2% and 3%, respectively. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), using either switched kVp or by k-edge filtering, offers better precision; typically the precision error is halved. The higher flux available from x-ray sources provides other advantages over DPA, including: improved spatial resolution (2 vs 4 mm), reduced radiation exposure (1 vs 2 mrem), and decreased scan times (3 to 10X). Improved DPA systems, with automatic gain stabilization to minimize drift, could offer clinical precision comparable to DEXA but the scan time and spatial resolution remain as before. Both DPA and DEXA allow detection of therapeutic efficacy in individual patients over the first year or two of therapy.

  4. Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Pediatric Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nilesh M.; Raphael, Bram; Guteirrez, Ivan; Quinn, Nicolle; Mitchell, Paul D.; Litman, Heather J.; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the agreement of multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry with reference methods for body composition assessment in children with intestinal failure (IF). Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study in children 14 years of age or younger with IF resulting from either short bowel syndrome (SBS) or motility disorders. Bland Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between BIA and deuterium dilution in measuring total body water (TBW) and lean body mass (LBM); and between BIA and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) techniques in measuring LBM and FM. Fat mass (FM) and percent body fat (%BF) measurements by BIA and anthropometry, were also compared in relation to those measured by deuterium dilution. Results Fifteen children with IF, median (IQR) age 7.2 (5.0, 10.0) years, 10 (67%) male, were studied. BIA and deuterium dilution were in good agreement with a mean bias (limits of agreement) of 0.9 (-3.2, 5.0) for TBW (L) and 0.1 (-5.4 to 5.6) for LBM (kg) measurements. The mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF measurements were 0.4 (-3.8, 4.6) kg and 1.7 (-16.9, 20.3)% respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 12/14 (86%) subjects for TBW and LBM, and in 11/14 (79%) for FM and %BF measurements. Mean bias (limits) for LBM (kg) and FM (kg) between BIA and DXA were 1.6 (-3.0 to 6.3) kg and -0.1 (-3.2 to 3.1) kg, respectively. Mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF between anthropometry and deuterium dilution were 0.2 (-4.2, 4.6) and -0.2 (-19.5 to 19.1), respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 10/14 (71%) subjects. Conclusions In children with intestinal failure, TBW and LBM measurements by multifrequency BIA method were in agreement with isotope dilution and DXA methods, with small mean bias. In comparison to deuterium dilution, BIA was comparable to anthropometry for FM and %BF assessments with small mean bias. However, the limits of agreement

  5. Use of DXA-Based Structural Engineering Models of the Proximal Femur to Discriminate Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lang; Peel, Nicola; Clowes, Jackie A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Eastell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Several DXA-based structural engineering models (SEMs) of the proximal femur have been developed to estimate stress caused by sideway falls. Their usefulness in discriminating hip fracture has not yet been established and we therefore evaluated these models. The hip DXA scans of 51 postmenopausal women with hip fracture (30 femoral neck, 17 trochanteric, and 4 unspecified) and 153 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were reanalyzed using a special version of Hologic’s software that produced a pixel-by-pixel BMD map. For each map, a curved-beam, a curved composite-beam, and a finite element model were generated to calculate stress within the bone when falling sideways. An index of fracture risk (IFR) was defined over the femoral neck, trochanter, and total hip as the stress divided by the yield stress at each pixel and averaged over the regions of interest. Hip structure analysis (HSA) was also performed using Hologic APEX analysis software. Hip BMD and almost all parameters derived from HSA and SEM were discriminators of hip fracture on their own because their ORs were significantly >1. Because of the high correlation of total hip BMD to HSA and SEM-derived parameters, only the bone width discriminated hip fracture independently from total hip BMD. Judged by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, the trochanteric IFR derived from the finite element model was significant better than total hip BMD alone and similar to the total hip BMD plus bone width in discriminating all hip fracture and femoral neck fracture. No index was better than total hip BMD for discriminating trochanteric fractures. In conclusion, the finite element model has the potential to replace hip BMD in discriminating hip fractures. PMID:18767924

  6. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan J; Svalastoga, Eiliv L; Bjornvad, Charlotte R

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a reference method for assessing body composition but is seldom `accessible in veterinary settings. Computed tomography (CT) can provide similar body composition estimates and we propose that it can be used in body composition studies in animals. We compared CT and DEXA data from 73 healthy adult neutered domestic cats. Three approaches for measuring adipose tissue percentage from full-body CT scans were explored. By examining the frequency distribution of voxels by Hounsfield unit (HU) value, it is possible to calculate a fat index (Fat%) that is in close agreement with the fat percentages obtained from DEXA scans. Fat% values obtained by the best of the methods had a mean difference of 0.96% (95% confidence interval 0.33-1.59%) from the DEXA results. Fat% obtained by the other two methods were characterized by good correlation but poor agreement and in one of the methods, the difference between the values from the two modalities was proportional to their mean. By using CT, it is possible to obtain body composition estimates that are in close agreement with those available using DEXA. While the significance of individual Fat% measurements obtained from CT can be difficult to interpret and to compare between centers, CT can contribute to research studies concerned either with nutrition or with obesity-related disorders.

  7. Sex- and age-related differences in femoral neck cross-sectional structural changes in mainland Chinese men and women measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Tang, Min; Guo, Bin; Shang, JingJie; Tang, Yongjin; Xu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We investigated age-related changes in estimated bone strength and cross-sectional structure of the femoral neck (FN) in mainland Chinese men and women (according to age and sex) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 3855 healthy adults (2713 women, 1142 men; ages 25-91years) were analyzed by FN bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and hip structural/strength analysis (HSA), including cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus (Z), periosteal diameter (PD), endocortical diameter (ED), and cortical thickness (CT) using DXA. HSA differences between age and sex groups were adjusted for body weight, height and FN BMD. Trends according to age were estimated by linear regression analysis. There was no inverse correlation between HSA parameters and age in young adults. Some HSA parameters (CSMI, CSA, Z, CT) decreased significantly with age, whereas PD and ED increased significantly. Older adults had less estimated bone strength and CT and higher PD and ED (p<0.05) than young adults. Men had greater increases in PD and ED than women across all ages. FN strength decreases with age in both sexes, caused by FN cross-sectional structural deterioration. Indirect comparison of our data with those from other populations showed less age-related FN periosteal apposition in Chinese than Caucasian men, but similar amounts in women. This may partly explain different male/female hip fracture rates among ethnic groups. Chinese men have more structural disadvantages regarding FN geometry during aging than Caucasian men, possibly conferring added susceptibility to hip fracture.

  8. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen López

    2011-06-15

    Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Ward's triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Ward's triangle area.

  9. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-02-17

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  10. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components

    PubMed Central

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-01-01

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed. PMID:25083118

  11. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-02-01

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  12. Reference data and percentile curves of body composition measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Yi; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Xu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have evident value in evaluating skeletal and muscular status in growing children and adolescents. This study aimed to generate age-related trends for body composition in Chinese children and adolescents, and to establish gender-specific reference percentile curves for the assessment of muscle-bone status. A total of 1541 Chinese children and adolescents aged from 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured for total body and total body less head (TBLH). After 14 years, total body LM was significantly higher in boys than girls (p < 0.001). However, total body FM was significantly higher in girls than boys in age groups 13-19 years (p < 0.01). Both LM and FM were consistent independent predictors of total body and subcranial bone mass in both sexes, even after adjustment for the well-known predictors of BMC. The results of multiple linear regression identified LM as the stronger predictor of total body and subcranial skeleton BMC while the fat mass contributed less. For all the subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between total body LM, height, total body BMC and subcranial BMC (p < 0.01). Subcranial BMC had a better correlation with LM than total body BMC. We have also presented gender-specific percentile curves for LM-for-height and BMC-for-LM which could be used to evaluate and follow various pediatric disorders with skeletal manifestations in this population.

  13. Photon absorptiometry for non-invasive measurement of bone mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Belsky, J.; Gelfman, N.; Miller, K.; Davies, T.

    1984-08-01

    Bone mineral content of the distal radius was determined in 106 patients by single photon absorptiometry using iodine-125 monochromatic source. The technique provided a reliable means to assess the degree of mineral loss in conditions such as osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis, subjects on long-term steroid therapy, and those with diabetes mellitus. It is more sensitive than conventional radiography and completely noninvasive compared to bone biopsy. It is suggested that photon absorptiometry is a simple, sensitive, and reliable technique for assessment and follow-up of the bone mineral content in a host of disorders associated with bone demineralization.

  14. Comparison of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dual photon absorptiometry for bone mineral measurements of the lumbar spine

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dunn, W.L.; Brown, M.L.; Morin, R.L.; Riggs, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    A new x-ray-based (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) instrument for measurement of bone mineral in the spine and hips was compared with a commercial dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) instrument that uses a 153Gd source (DP3, Lunar Radiation Corporation). Measurements were made on phantoms and lumbar spines of patients to study accuracy, precision, limitations, and compatibility of results between instruments. Both instruments measure bone mineral of integral bone in terms of area bone density with an entrance exposure of less than 5 mR. For spinal bone mineral measurements, the DEXA instrument had a shorter scanning time and higher resolution images than the DPA system. The DEXA instrument also showed better precision in a spine phantom and reduced influence of thickness for patient measurement. For bone mineral content, accuracy was about equal for both instruments; for measurements of the area of the region of interest, accuracy was better with the DEXA instrument. With both instruments, fat had little effect on bone mineral density in bone phantom studies. Measurements on both instruments were influenced by the location of a bone phantom within the photon beam. Results in patients showed good correlation (r = 0.988) for bone mineral density. Measurements of bone mineral density in patients were consistently lower with the DEXA instrument because of better accuracy in area measurements. The new x-ray-based instrument is a major advance in bone mineral absorptiometry and provides improved, yet less expensive, measurements in research and clinical applications.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the calcaneus: preliminary assessment of trabecular bone-dependent regional variations in marrow relaxation time compared with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Selby, K.; Blunt, B. A.; Jergas, M.; Newitt, D. C.; Genant, H. K.; Majumdar, S.

    1996-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Marrow transverse relaxation time (T2*) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may be related to the density and structure of the surrounding trabecular network. We investigated regional variations of T2* in the human calcaneus and compared the findings with bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by dual X-ray absorpiometry (DXA). Short- and long-term precisions were evaluated first to determine whether MR imaging would be useful for the clinical assessment of disease status and progression in osteoporosis. METHODS: Gradient-recalled echo MR images of the calcaneus were acquired at 1.5 T from six volunteers. Measurements of T2* were compared with BMD and (for one volunteer) conventional radiography. RESULTS: T2* values showed significant regional variation; they typically were shortest in the superior region of the calcaneus. There was a linear correlation between MR and DXA measurements (r = .66 for 1/T2* versus BMD). Differences in T2* attributable to variations in analysis region-of-interest placement were not significant for five of the six volunteers. Sagittal MR images had short- and long-term precision errors of 4.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For DXA, the precision was 1.3% (coefficient of variation). CONCLUSION: MR imaging may be useful for trabecular bone assessment in the calcaneus. However, given the large regional variations in bone density and structure, the choice of an ROI is likely to play a major role in the accuracy, precision, and overall clinical efficacy of T2* measurements.

  16. Validation of a New Skinfold Prediction Equation Based on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cowan, Celsi; Thyfault, John; LaFontaine, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Skinfold prediction equations recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine underestimate body fat percentage. The purpose of this research was to validate an alternative equation for men created from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Two hundred ninety-seven males, aged 18-65, completed a skinfold assessment and dual energy x-ray…

  17. Comparison of the Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometers for Assessing Total and Regional Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon A; Petri, Robert M; Hunter, Heather L; Raju, Dheeraj; Gower, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the agreement of the Lunar Prodigy with the newer Lunar iDXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer for determining total body and regional (arms, legs, trunk) bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), lean tissue mass (LTM), total body mass, and percent fat. Ninety-two healthy adult males (n = 36) and females (n = 56) were scanned consecutively on the iDXA and the Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers. For iDXA, relative to Prodigy, paired t tests indicated significantly lower estimates for total body and regional BMD and BMC (p < 0.001). Measures of total body and trunk FM, LTM, and percent fat did not differ between the instruments. In regional analyses, estimates of FM and percent fat were greater, and that of LTM was lower, in the arms (p < 0.001). In contrast, iDXA estimates of LTM were higher in the legs (p < 0.001). All body composition measures were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analyses indicated that significant bias existed between iDXA and Prodigy for total body and regional BMD estimates (p < 0.001) such that iDXA underestimated BMD to a greater extent in persons with higher values. In addition, iDXA overestimation bias existed for FM in total body, arms, and legs, and the overestimation was primarily observed in participants with greater body fat (p < 0.001). When combining or comparing data from iDXA with those from Prodigy, investigators should be aware that certain total body and regional estimates are significantly different. The greatest percent differences were observed for arm BMD, FM, and percent fat.

  18. Head, Neck, Trunk and Pelvis Tissue Mass Predictions for Young Adults using Anthropometric Measures and DXA.

    PubMed

    Gyemi, Danielle L; Kahelin, Charles; George, Nicole C; Andrews, David M

    2017-03-24

    Accurate prediction of wobbling mass (WM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) of living people using regression equations developed from anthropometric measures (lengths, circumferences, breadths, skinfolds) has previously been reported, but only for the extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate comparable equations for the head, neck, trunk and pelvis of young adults (38 males, 38 females). Equations were validated using actual tissue masses from an independent sample of 13 males and 13 females by manually segmenting full body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans. Prediction equations exhibited adjusted R(2) values ranging from .249 to .940, with more explained variance for LM and WM than BMC and FM, especially for the head and neck. Mean relative errors between predicted and actual tissue masses ranged from -11.07% (trunk FM) to 7.61% (neck FM). Actual and predicted tissue masses from all equations were significantly correlated (R(2) = .329 to .937), except head BMC (R(2) = .046). These results show promise for obtaining in-vivo head, neck, trunk and pelvis tissue mass estimates in young adults. Further research is needed to improve head and neck FM and BMC predictions and develop tissue mass prediction equations for older populations.

  19. Irreversible bone loss in osteomalacia. Comparison of radial photon absorptiometry with iliac bone histomorphometry during treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Parfitt, A M; Rao, D S; Stanciu, J; Villanueva, A R; Kleerekoper, M; Frame, B

    1985-01-01

    entirely due to cortical thinning because of increased net endosteal resorption; the resultant expansion of the marrow cavity offset the modest loss of fractional trabecular mineralized bone. We conclude: in osteomalacia there is a large irreversible and a small reversible bone mineral deficit at both proximal and distal radial sites, in similar proportion to the iliac cortex but of smaller magnitude; the anatomic basis of the irreversible bone mineral deficit at all three sites that persists despite correction of the mineralization defect by appropriate treatment is thinning of cortical bone, most likely owing to prolonged secondary hyperparathyroidism; (c) there is no evidence that the proportion of trabecular bone in the distal radius at any site proximal to the radioulnar joint has any relevance to the interpretation of measurements made at that site; (d) there are at least three functional subdivisions of trabecular bone depending on proximity to hematopoietic marrow, fatty marrow, or synovium; and (e) single photon absorptiometry of the radius is an excellent method for measuring cortical bone mass in the appendicular skeleton, but is of little value for the assessment of changes in trabecular bone status. Images PMID:4077986

  20. Imaging-Based Methods for Non-invasive Assessment of Bone Properties Influenced by Mechanical Loading.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Norma J; Lorbergs, Amanda L

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the most common in vivo imaging-based research tools used to assess bone properties that are influenced by mechanical loading associated with exercise, habitual physical activity, or disease states. Bone is a complex metabolically active tissue that adapts to changes in mechanical loading by altering the amount and spatial organization of mineral. Method: Using a narrative review design, the authors provide an overview of bone biology and biomechanics to emphasize the importance of bone size scale, porosity, and degree of mineralization when interpreting measures acquired using quantitative ultrasound (QUS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and finite element analysis (FEA). For each imaging modality, basic imaging principles, typical outcome measures associated with changes in mechanical loading, and salient features for physiotherapists are described. Main Results: While each imaging modality has strengths and limitations, currently CT-based methods are best suited for determining the effects of mechanical loading on bone properties—particularly in the peripheral skeleton. Conclusions: Regardless of the imaging technology used, the physiotherapist must carefully consider the assumptions of the imaging-based method, the clinical context, the nature of the change in mechanical loading, and the expected time course for change in bone properties.

  1. Precision error in dual-photon absorptiometry related to source age

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.D.; Wasnich, R.D.; Vogel, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    An average, variable precision error of up to 6% related to source age was observed for dual-photon absorptiometry of the spine in a longitudinal study of bone mineral content involving 393 women. Application of a software correction for source decay compensated for only a portion of this error. The authors conclude that measurement of bone-loss rates using serial dual-photon bone mineral measurements must be interpreted with caution.

  2. Measurement of spine and total body mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Young, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of Gd-153 dual-photon absorptiometry at 43 and 100 keV to measure individual-bone and total-body bone minerals is discussed in a survey of recent studies on humans, phantoms, and monkeys. Precision errors of as low as 1 percent have been achieved in vivo, suggesting the use of sequential measurements in studies of immobilization and space-flight effects.

  3. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 1. Magiscan

    SciTech Connect

    Hausmann, E.; Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Fallon, J.

    1982-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that /sup 125/I absorptiometry gives an accurate and sensitive measure of alveolar bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between alveolar bone mass determined by /sup 125/I absorptiometry and bone density obtained by analysis of standardized intraoral radiographs by the Magiscan System. A defect of increasing size was made at one site of the alveolar bone in a human skull. The amount of bone remaining at each step was calculated using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. Standardized radiographs were also taken at each step and the relative density in the area of the defect was determined by the Magiscan System. The Magiscan's System Computer Memory permits analysis of identical areas on a longitudinal series of films of the same alveolar bone location. The results indicate that in estimating amounts of alveolar bone the Magiscan analysis of standardized intraoral radiography is similar in sensitivity and accuracy to /sup 125/I absorptiometry.

  4. Examining the efficiency and interdependence of US credit and stock markets through MF-DFA and MF-DXA approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Nor, Safwan Mohd; Mensi, Walid; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the power law properties of 11 US credit and stock markets at the industry level. We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) to first investigate the relative efficiency of credit and stock markets and then evaluate the mutual interdependence between CDS-equity market pairs. The scaling exponents of the MF-DFA approach suggest that CDS markets are relatively more inefficient than their equity counterparts. However, Banks and Financial credit markets are relatively more efficient. Basic Materials (both CDS and equity indices) is the most inefficient sector of the US economy. The cross-correlation exponents obtained through MF-DXA also suggest that the relationship of the CDS and equity sectors within and across markets is multifractal for all pairs. Within the CDS market, Basic Materials is the most dependent sector, whereas equity market sectors can be divided into two distinct groups based on interdependence. The pair-wise dependence between Basic Materials sector CDSs and the equity index is also the highest. The degree of cross-correlation shows that the sectoral pairs of CDS and equity markets belong to a persistent cross-correlated series within selected time intervals.

  5. Single- and dual-photon absorptiometry in osteoporosis and osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-10-01

    Single- and dual-photon absorptiometric methods have been used in the past to identify populations at risk for bone loss, to define the osteoporotic syndrome in terms of bone mass, and to evaluate treatment regimens to prevent bone loss. Technical improvements have made these procedures available for the nontraumatic measurement of bone mineral in the management of the individual patient suspected of having osteoporosis or other bone loss. This requires a different approach to data interpretation because decisions have to be made on the basis of a single measurement. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia cannot be distinguished by bone mineral measurements because both are characterized by a decrease in content of bone mineral. Bone mineral measurements can be used to assess the risk of fracture and, with it, the severity of bone loss. This allows treatment decisions to be made. Repeated measurements made under well-defined conditions allow estimation of long-term rate of bone loss and monitoring of treatment effect. 38 references.

  6. Noninvasive Ultrasound Imaging for Bone Quality Assessment Using Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnosis, μCT, DXA Measurements, and Mechanical Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Xia, Yi; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Rubin, Clint; Gruber, Barry

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by decreased bone mass and progressive deterioration of the microstructure, affecting both mineral density and bone's fragility. Current diagnoses are only measuring apparent bone mineral density (AppBMD). Using our newly developed scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, we evaluated the ability of quantitative ultrasound in noninvasively predicting bone's quantity and quality on 19 human cadaver calcanei. Results show that ultrasound attenuation image on intact calcaneus represents bone mass distribution. High correlation (R=0.82) exists between SCAD determined broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and DXA determined AppBMD at the calcaneus, as well as in the AppBMD result at femoral neck (R=0.81). SCAD determined BUA and ultrasound velocity (UV) are highly correlated with the micro-CT and mechanical testing determined bone quantity and quality parameters. These results suggest that image-based quantitative ultrasound is able to identify ROI and predict both bone mass and strength.

  7. Measurement of composition changes using dual-photon absorptiometry in obese patients undergoing semistarvation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, H; Nishizawa, Y; Yamashita, N; Furumitsu, Y; Hagiwara, S; Ochi, H; Morii, H

    1990-03-01

    The changes in total fat mass (TFM) and lean body mass (LBM) under semistarvation treatment were measured by dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) in this study. Three females with massive obesity were followed over two periods consuming a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Although LBM changes attributed to water shifts related to sodium balance were observed, DPA proved sensitive enough to measure LBM and TFM changes in semistarvation treatment. LBM measured by DPA did not change significantly following 4 weeks of VLCD. However, TFM decreased significantly (70.9 +/0 24.1 kg to 62.4 +/- 21.7 kg) and paralleled body weight.

  8. X-ray absorptiometry of the breast using mammographic exposure factors: application to units featuring automatic beam quality selection.

    PubMed

    Kotre, C J

    2010-06-01

    A number of studies have identified the relationship between the visual appearance of high breast density at mammography and an increased risk of breast cancer. Approaches to quantify the amount of glandular tissue within the breast from mammography have so far concentrated on image-based methods. Here, it is proposed that the X-ray parameters automatically selected by the mammography unit can be used to estimate the thickness of glandular tissue overlying the automatic exposure sensor area, provided that the unit can be appropriately calibrated. This is a non-trivial task for modern mammography units that feature automatic beam quality selection, as the number of tube potential and X-ray target/filter combinations used to cover the range of breast sizes and compositions can be large, leading to a potentially unworkable number of curve fits and interpolations. Using appropriate models for the attenuation of the glandular breast in conjunction with a constrained set of physical phantom measurements, it is demonstrated that calibration for X-ray absorptiometry can be achieved despite the large number of possible exposure factor combinations employed by modern mammography units. The main source of error on the estimated glandular tissue thickness using this method is shown to be uncertainty in the measured compressed breast thickness. An additional correction for this source of error is investigated and applied. Initial surveys of glandular thickness for a cohort of women undergoing breast screening are presented.

  9. Unexplained high BMD in DXA-scanned patients is generalized throughout the skeleton and characterized by thicker cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, S; Amstrup, A K; Moser, E; Jakobsen, N F B; Mosekilde, L; Vestergaard, P; Rejnmark, L

    2015-04-01

    Unexplained high bone mineral density (BMD) is a rare condition and the mechanisms responsible are yet to be described in detail. The aim of the study was to identify patients with unexplained high BMD from a local DXA database and compare their radiological phenotype with an age- and a gender-matched group of population-based controls. We defined high BMD as a DXA Z-score ≥ + 2.5 at the total hip and lumbar spine. We characterized the findings as "unexplained" if no osteodegenerative changes, bone metabolic disease, or arthritis at the hip or lumbar spine was observed. All participants were investigated with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), QCT, DXA, fasting blood samples, a 24-h urine sample, and questionnaires. The DXA database contained data on 25,118 patients. Initially, 138 (0.55%) potential participants with high BMD were identified, and during the study ten additional cases were identified from new DXA scans. Sixty-seven patients accepted to participate in the study, and among these we identified 15 women and one man with unexplained high BMD. These 15 women had higher BMD throughout the skeleton relative to controls, similar area/volume at the hip and the distal extremities, a higher number of trabeculae, which was thicker than in the controls, and a higher finite element estimated bone strength. The 15 women were heavier and had a higher fat mass then controls. We conclude that patients with unexplained high BMD have a generalized high BMD phenotype throughout their skeleton, which is characterized with a denser microarchitecture.

  10. Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the “gold standard” to determine BF%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was −6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = −12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied. PMID:27916871

  11. Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo

    2016-11-30

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the "gold standard" to determine BF%. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was -6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = -12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied.

  12. Body composition in heavy smokers: comparison of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rom, O; Reznick, A Z; Keidar, Z; Karkabi, K; Aizenbud, D

    2015-01-01

    Smokers tend to have lower body mass index, on one hand, and increased abdominal obesity, on the other hand. Also, low levels of lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) were found among older smokers compared with non-smokers. This altered body composition and its consequences raise the need for simple and reliable methods for assessment of body composition in smokers. This study aimed to compare body composition assessment by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (sBIA) with the reference method, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Body composition was measured by sBIA (Tanita BC-545) and DEXA (Hologic) in 49 heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day, mean age 43.8±12.0). The comparison included correlations and differences between measurements obtained using the two methods as well as the Blande-Altman analysis. Whole-body fat mass (FM) and LM measured by the two methods were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9, p<0.001). Compared with DEXA, sBIA significantly overestimated whole-body LM and BMC (1,126 g and 382 g, respectively, p<0.01). The Bland-Altman analysis revealed a good agreement for whole-body FM and LM, but a poor agreement for BMC. The segmental FM percentage and LM were also highly correlated (r>0.9, p<0.001). However, sBIA significantly overestimated LM of the trunk and legs and underestimated the appendicular FM percentage. Verified by DEXA, sBIA provides reliable measures of whole-body LM, FM, and trunk FM in heavy smokers. A lesser degree of agreement was found for BMC, appendicular LM, and FM.

  13. Comparison of body composition with bioelectric impedance (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) among Singapore Chinese.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Victor Govindaswamy, Visvasuresh; Hwa, Chia Yong; Shun, Lim Meng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the agreement of bioelectric impedance (BIA) with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) among Singapore Chinese adults. Hundred subjects [63 healthy males (age: 25.2±0.5 yrs; weight: 69.7±1.9 kg; BMI: 22.8±0.4 kg m⁻²) and 37 females (age: 22.9±0.3 yrs; weight: 51.8±0.8 kg; BMI: 20.2±0.4 kg m⁻²)] were selected and body fat percentage (%BF) was measured by DEXA and BIA. Paired t test and coefficient of correlation statistics were utilized to compare the relationship between %BF(BIA) and %BF(DEXA). Bland and Altman plot was employed to investigate the agreement of %BF(BIA) with %BF(DEXA). The limits of agreement between different methods were defined as mean (M; bias)±1.96SD of the difference between the methods (95% confidence interval; CI). %BF(BIA), when compared to %BF(DEXA), revealed non-significant underestimation of %BF in females (24.1%<24.4%, p>0.05) and significant overestimation in males (15.5%<17.7%, p<0.01). There was good absolute agreement between %BF(BIA) and %BF(DEXA) among the whole cohort (1.3±6.9%) as well as among both genders (male: 2.2±6.7%, female: -0.3±6.1%) due to small mean differences between both methods. However, wider limits of agreement were revealed for %BF(BIA) among whole cohort and as well as on gender basis. The results indicate a good agreement between BIA and DEXA in measuring %BF among Singapore Chinese adults, but may not be a suitable method of measuring %BF for clinical purposes among this population due to wider limits of agreement.

  14. Techniques for deriving tissue structure from multiple projection dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Jr., Harry K. (Inventor); Beck, Thomas J. (Inventor); Feldmesser, Howard S. (Inventor); Magee, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Techniques for deriving bone properties from images generated by a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry apparatus include receiving first image data having pixels indicating bone mineral density projected at a first angle of a plurality of projection angles. Second image data and third image data are also received. The second image data indicates bone mineral density projected at a different second angle. The third image data indicates bone mineral density projected at a third angle. The third angle is different from the first angle and the second angle. Principal moments of inertia for a bone in the subject are computed based on the first image data, the second image data and the third image data. The techniques allow high-precision, high-resolution dual-energy x-ray attenuation images to be used for computing principal moments of inertia and strength moduli of individual bones, plus risk of injury and changes in risk of injury to a patient.

  15. Body Composition Comparison: Bioelectric Impedance Analysis with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Adult Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Company, Joe; Ball, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the DF50 (ImpediMed Ltd, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Australia) bioelectrical impedance analysis device using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as the criterion in two groups: endurance athletes and power athletes. The secondary purpose was to develop accurate body fat…

  16. Assessing Body Composition of Children and Adolescents Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfolds, and Electrical Impedance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Angela; Kelsey, Laurel; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron L.; Myrer, J. William; Vehrs, Pat R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of percent body fat estimates in 177 boys and 154 girls between 12-17 years of age, percent body fat was assessed once using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and twice using the sum of two skinfolds and three bioelectrical impedance analysis devices. The assessments were repeated on 79 participants on a…

  17. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-05-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using /sup 125/I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare /sup 125/I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. At each site the /sup 125/I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it.

  18. Predicting Football Players' Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Using Standard Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jonathan M.; Lambert, Brad S.; Martin, Steven E.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population specific and might not be accurate for football athletes. Objective: To develop multiple regression equations using standard anthropometric measurements to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry %Fat (DEXA%Fat) in collegiate football players. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA football athletes (age  =  20 ± 1 years, height  =  185.6 ± 6.5 cm, mass  =  103.1 ± 20.4 kg, DEXA%Fat  =  19.5 ± 9.1%) participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants had the following measures: (1) body composition testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; (2) skinfold measurements in millimeters, including chest, triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal (SFAB), and thigh; and (3) standard circumference measurements in centimeters, including ankle, calf, thigh, hip (AHIP), waist, umbilical (AUMB), chest, wrist, forearm, arm, and neck. Regression analysis and fit statistics were used to determine the relationship between DEXA%Fat and each skinfold thickness, sum of all skinfold measures (SFSUM), and individual circumference measures. Results: Statistical analysis resulted in the development of 3 equations to predict DEXA%Fat: model 1, (0.178 • AHIP) + (0.097 • AUMB) + (0.089 • SFSUM) − 19.641; model 2, (0.193 • AHIP) + (0.133 • AUMB) + (0.371 • SFAB) − 23.0523; and model 3, (0.132 • SFSUM) + 3.530. The R2 values were 0.94 for model 1, 0.93 for model 2, and 0.91 for model 3 (for all, P < .001). Conclusions: The equations developed provide an accurate way to assess DEXA

  19. Body fat from body density: Underwater weighing vs. dual-photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Aulet, M.; Thornton, J.C.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1989-06-01

    We measured fat in 286 healthy volunteers by underwater weighing (FUWW) and dual-photon absorptiometry (FDPA) to develop a translation table for the differing results from these entirely different techniques and to study the sources of these differences. In 99 males and 187 females aged 19-94 yr, fatness was 7-47%. Prediction equations are presented for FUWW-FDPA (delta F), density of lean body mass (DLBM), and FDPA. FUWW and FDPA were significantly different from each other (P less than 0.01). Calculated DLBM is less than the assumed constant of 1.10 (P less than 0.01), ranging widely from 1.05 to 1.13 and being highly correlated with the ratio of total body bone mineral to lean body mass (TBBM/LBM). delta F, the differences between FUWW and FDPA measurements in individual subjects, varied widely (-7 to +11% in males and -18 to +13% in females). The difference was positively correlated with the DLBM. FUWW was no better than anthropometrics in equations for predicting FDPA. The FDPA predicted from anthropometrics showed smaller standard errors than when FUWW was used. Neither anthropometrics nor FUWW equations are clearly superior to those previously available.

  20. Wool Base determination using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

    PubMed

    Kröger, Chris; Murray Bartle, C; West, John G; van Rensburg, Brendon

    2006-12-01

    An industry grade dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner was calibrated for Wool Base determination. The calibration used 201 Crossbred and Merino wool samples, and a further 72 samples to validate the calibration. The prediction correlation had the smallest residual standard deviation (RSD) when the independently measured mean fibre diameter (MFD) was included in the multiple regression analysis. Best results were achieved when separate calibrations were used for individual wool breeds. The RSD for the Merino calibration set of 44 samples was 1.88, when the MFD was included in the regression, and 2.1 without. The RSD for 144 Crossbred samples was 1.73 including the MFD, and 2.59 without. The validation trial with 46 Crossbred and 24 Merino wool samples resulted in RSD of 2.35 and 2.23, respectively. An excellent DEXA repeatability was achieved at a standard deviation of approximately 0.2%. Improvement of the calibration is expected from concurrent laboratory testing and scanning. The research shows the promising potential for DEXA as a tool to determine Wool Base.

  1. CZT detector for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wear, James; Buchholz, Michael; Payne, Randall K.; Gorsuch, Darrell; Bisek, Joseph; Ergun, David L.; Grosholz, Joe; Falk, Ron

    2000-12-01

    A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector has been developed for a bone densitometer that uses dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to determine bone mineral density in vivo. A linear array of 16 discrete CZT detectors is used with a narrow fan-shaped x-ray beam to scan the patient. Each detector is 3 mm thick and 7 mm by 3 mm in area and has simple planar contacts. The x-ray beam has two broad energy lobes with effective energies of approximately 38 keV and approximately 65 keV. The energy sensitivity of the CZT detectors allows discrimination between low and high energy x-rays. Using DEXA, the relative difference in these two count rates permits a quantitative measurement of the real densities of bone mineral and soft tissue. The detectors demonstrate good performance characteristics and stable operation in a clinical environment. This paper discusses the suitability of CZT for use in DEXA applications and describes its successful implementation and performance in this bone densitometer.

  2. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moure, Alessandro; Reichmann, Peter; Remigio Gamba, Humberto

    2003-12-01

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s-1, in steps of 1 mm s-1, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  3. Can forearm bone mineral density be measured with dxa in the supine position? A study in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhua; Xing, Yan; Zhou, Qi; Jin, Wenya; Wacker, Wynn; Barden, Howard S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to confirm that forearm bone mineral density (BMD) results obtained with the patient in the supine position are equivalent to results obtained with patient in the sitting position. The subjects were a Chinese sample of 82 healthy adults (35 males and 47 females; age: 22.5-59.8 yr; body mass index: 17.6-32.4). Forearm BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, with the forearm positioned in the sitting and supine positions. Repeated measurements were available for some subjects, and the average of the repeats for those subjects were used in the analysis. The standard enCORE software (GE Lunar, Madison, WI) adjustment for supine position was applied to the BMD values obtained in the supine position for 33% radius, ultradistal (UD) radius, and radius total regions of interest (ROIs) to give sitting-equivalent values. The supine sitting-equivalent results were regressed on the sitting values through the origin. There were statistically significant differences in the UD and total-radius forearm results between supine sitting-equivalent BMD and sitting BMD. The correlation coefficients of UD and total radius were 0.967 and 0.976, respectively. There was no significant difference between supine sitting-equivalent BMD and sitting BMD in the 33% radius forearm BMD. The correlation coefficient of 33% radius was 0.956. For Chinese subjects, there was no significant difference in BMD for the 33% radius, the only ROI recommended for diagnosis by ISCD. Forearm scans could be accomplished with the patient suitably positioned for the routine lumbar spine and proximal femur scans.

  4. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: the effects of beam hardening on bone density measurements.

    PubMed

    Blake, G M; McKeeney, D B; Chhaya, S C; Ryan, P J; Fogelman, I

    1992-01-01

    X-ray tubes have superseded radionuclide sources for dual photon absorptiometry of the spine and hip. However, the use of a polyenergetic spectrum is a potential source of error for x-ray absorptiometers since beam hardening may result in a nonlinear measurement scale for bone mineral density (BMD). A quantitative study of the effects of beam hardening on measurements made with a commercial dual energy x-ray scanner has been performed. Bone was represented by layers of aluminum of linearly increasing thickness which were scanned under water thicknesses ranging from 0 to 25 cm to represent different body thicknesses of soft tissue. Beam hardening had two effects on measured BMD: (i) at a constant true BMD, measured BMD varied with water thickness; (ii) at a constant water thickness, the BMD scale was not precisely linear. For conditions appropriate to spine and hip studies (BMD) values in the range 0.7 to 1.4 g/cm2 and body thickness between 15 and 25 cm) the maximum deviation of measured BMD from a linear scale was 0.023 g/cm2, while the root-mean-square deviation (0.01 g/cm2) was comparable to the measurement precision for a spine or femoral neck scan (about 1%). The largest departures from linearity were found to occur at the thinnest water thicknesses for BMD values in the range 0.2 to 0.6 g/cm2. The effect of scale nonlinearity on the results of longitudinal studies was examined: for a spine scan at 20-cm body thickness, measured changes in BMD slightly overestimated the true change and implied an error of 0.15%/year for a measurement of a true rate of loss of 3% year in a postmenopausal woman.

  5. Rapid small-animal dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, D W; Thornton, M M; Drost, D; Watson, P H; Fraher, L J; Hodsman, A B

    2000-12-01

    Although dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is an established technique for clinical assessment of areal bone mineral density (BMD), the spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, scan time, and availability of clinical DEXA systems may be limiting factors for small-animal investigations using a large number of specimens. To avoid these limitations, we have implemented a clinical digital radiography system to perform rapid area DEXA analysis on in vitro rat bone specimens. A crossed step-wedge (comprised of epoxy-based materials that mimic the radiographic properties of tissue and bone) was used to calibrate the system. Digital radiographs of bone specimens (pelvis, spine, femur, and tibia from sham-ovariectomized [SHAM] and ovariectomized [OVX] rats) were obtained at 40 kilovolt peak (kVp) and 125 kVp, and the resulting areal BMD values were compared with those obtained with a clinical fan-beam DEXA system (Hologics QDR 4500). Our investigation indicates that the cross-wedge calibrated (CWC) DEXA technique provides high-precision measurements of bone mineral content (BMC; CV = 0.6%) and BMD (CV = 0.8%) within a short acquisition time (<30 s). Areal BMD measurements reported by the CWC-DEXA system are within 8.5% of those reported by a clinical fan-beam scanner, and BMC values are within 5% of the known value of test specimens. In an in vivo application, the CWC-DEXA system is capable of reporting significant differences between study groups (SHAM and OVX) that are not reported by a clinical fan-beam DEXA system, because of the reduced variance and improved object segmentation provided by the CWC-DEXA system.

  6. Root hard-tissue demineralization rate measured by sup 125 I absorptiometry: Comparison with lesion-depth measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Almqvist, H.; Wefel, J.S.; Lagerloef, F. )

    1990-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare demineralization of root hard tissue, monitored by {sup 125}I absorptiometry, with lesion-depth measurements under polarized light microscopy. The intact roots of ten human molars, which had not been exposed to the oral environment, were divided into 39 cementum/dentin blocks and exposed to a buffer solution of pH 4.5 containing 2.2 mmol/L calcium and inorganic phosphate. After demineralization for 3.5, 7, 14, and 21 days, transmission measurements by {sup 125}I absorptiometry were performed, and one block from each tooth was taken out of the solution for lesion-depth measurement. The results showed a high degree of correlation (r = 0.952) between lesion depth and change in transmission, with a more rapid increase initially in both variables. A linear relationship with the square root of time was found. Conversion of transmission data to lesion-depth data was possible when this caries model system was used on cementum dentin blocks.

  7. Comparison of Body Composition Assessed by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and BMI in Current and Former U.S. Navy Service Members

    PubMed Central

    Gasier, Heath G.; Hughes, Linda M.; Young, Colin R.; Richardson, Annely M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known of the diagnostic accuracy of BMI in classifying obesity in active duty military personnel and those that previously served. Thus, the primary objectives were to determine the relationship between lean and fat mass, and body fat percentage (BF%) with BMI, and assess the agreement between BMI and BF% in defining obesity. Methods Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 462 males (20–91 years old) who currently or previously served in the U.S. Navy. A BMI of ≥ 30 kg/m2 and a BF% ≥ 25% were used for obesity classification. Results The mean BMI (± SD) and BF% were 28.8 ± 4.1 and 28.9 ± 6.6%, respectively, with BF% increasing with age. Lean mass, fat mass, and BF% were significantly correlated with BMI for all age groups. The exact agreement of obesity defined by BMI and BF% was fair (61%), however, 38% were misclassified by a BMI cut-off of 30 when obesity was defined by BF%. Conclusions From this data we determined that there is a good correlation between body composition and BMI, and fair agreement between BMI and BF% in classifying obesity in a group of current and former U.S. Navy service members. However, as observed in the general population, a significant proportion of individuals with excess fat are misclassified by BMI cutoffs. PMID:26197480

  8. Validation of a body condition scoring system in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): assessment of body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Summers, Laura; Clingerman, Karen J; Yang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle by palpation of key anatomic features. A previously published BCS system for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) uses a scale comprising both whole and half units, in which the midrange represents optimal body condition (3.0), lower values represent emaciated to lean conditions (1.0 to 2.0), and higher values (4.0 to 5.0) indicate excessive body fat. A valid BCS system is well described, relevant to the species, has agreement within and between raters, and is consistent with objective measures. Here we correlate the subjective BCS assigned during physical exam with percentage body fat as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Adult rhesus monkeys from an indoor-housed breeding colony were evaluated by the veterinary staff and assigned to 1 of 9 BCS score groups to give a minimum of 6 animals in each group. DEXA was used to obtain objective body composition measurements for macaques in each BCS group. Animals in the 'optimal' BCS group (3.0) had 25% body fat on average. Each full unit change in BCS was associated with an approximate 10% change in body fat percentage for macaques in the 2.0-to-5.0 BCS range. Absolute body fat in animals with BCS of 1.0 or 1.5 may be too low for accurate assessment by DEXA.

  9. Bone density testing: science, the media, and patient care.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Micol S; Miller, Paul D; Lewiecki, E Michael; Bilezikian, John P

    2014-06-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an inexpensive, noninvasive, widely available method for diagnosing osteoporosis, assessing fracture risk, and monitoring the effects of therapy. By diagnosing high-risk patients before a fracture occurs, clinicians can intervene early to reduce fracture risk. Appropriate use of DXA results in money saving for healthcare systems that might otherwise be spent for fracture-related care. Recent reports of studies evaluating DXA screening criteria and intervals for retesting have received considerable media coverage, sometimes suggesting that DXA is expensive, over-utilized, and unnecessary. This may lead to more patients who might benefit from early detection of osteoporosis remaining undiagnosed. We advocate for the use of current clinical practice guidelines with individualization of patient care factors to determine the optimal intervals for DXA testing.

  10. A comparison of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and two bioelectrical impedance analyzers to measure body fat percentage and fat-free mass index in a group of Mexican young women.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Del Consuelo; Irigoyen-Camacho, Maria Esther; Huerta-Huerta, Raquel; Delgadillo-Velazquez, Jaime

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los estudios de obesidad requieren estimación de masa grasa (FM) y masa libre de grasa (FFM). Objetivo: Comparar dos equipos de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA) para estimar FM y FFM usando absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DXA) como referencia. Métodos: Estudio transversal. FM y FFM fueron evaluados por DXA y BIA: sistema pie-pie (FFS) y sistema mano-pie (HFS). Se realizaron pruebas t pareadas, coeficientes de correlación y análisis de Bland y Altman. Limites de acuerdo fueron calculados (CL). Resultados: Fueron estudiadas 175 mujeres (22,9 ± 2,2 años). Hubo diferencias significativas entre el promedio del porcentaje de grasa estimado por los equipos de BIA en comparación con DXA (FFS = 28,7%, HFS = 34,4% y DXA = 35,3%). La diferencia de medias del porcentaje de grasa entre HFS y DXA fue -0.96, (CL -5,29, 7,21). La diferencia de medias para FFS fue de -6,69,(CL -0,29, - 13.09) Hubo diferencias significativas entre las estimaciones de FFMI por BIA y DXA (FFS = 16,29, HFS = 14,95, DXA = 14,18). La diferencia de medias entre HFS y DXA fue = 0,78, (CL -2,27, 0,72) y la diferencia de medias de FFS fue -2,11: (CL -3,73 , -0,49). Conclusiones: Niveles diferentes de sesgo se observaron entre los equipos de BIA. El HFS parece ser más confiable que el FFS, sobre todo en la obtención de FFMI en mujeres jóvenes.

  11. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  12. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  13. DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY AND CALCULATED FRAX RISK SCORES MAY UNDERESTIMATE OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURE RISK IN VITAMIN D–DEFICIENT VETERANS WITH HIV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Kelly I.; Rubinsztain, Leon; Payan, John; Rentsch, Chris; Rimland, David; Tangpricha, Vin

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the utility of the World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) in assessing fracture risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and vitamin D deficiency. Methods This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients with co-existing vitamin D deficiency at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and the 10-year fracture risk was calculated by the WHO FRAX algorithm. Two independent radiologists reviewed lateral chest radiographs for the presence of subclinical vertebral fractures. Results We identified 232 patients with HIV and vitamin D deficiency. Overall, 15.5% of patients met diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis on DEXA, and 58% had low BMD (T-score between −1 and −2.5). The median risk of any major osteoporotic and hip fracture by FRAX score was 1.45 and 0.10%, respectively. Subclinical vertebral fractures were detected in 46.6% of patients. Compared to those without fractures, those with fractures had similar prevalence of osteoporosis (15.3% versus 15.7%; P>.999), low BMD (53.2% versus 59.3%; P = .419), and similar FRAX hip scores (0.10% versus 0.10%; P = .412). While the FRAX major score was lower in the nonfracture group versus fracture group (1.30% versus 1.60%; P = .025), this was not clinically significant. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of subclinical vertebral fractures among vitamin D–deficient HIV patients; however, DEXA and FRAX failed to predict those with fractures. Our results suggest that traditional screening tools for fragility fractures may not be applicable to this high-risk patient population. PMID:26684149

  14. Bone densitometry.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwang J

    2011-05-01

    Conventional radiographic methods allow physicians to visualize bone structure. However, they do not offer information on the bone mineral density (BMD), which can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Bone densitometry, by contrast, helps to detect bone mineral loss at an early stage because it provides accurate quantitative measurement of BMD. With an emphasis on quantification, shorter scanning time and precision, scientists have been developing BMD measurement devices that use absorption technique. They first developed single-energy absorptiometry (single-photon absorptiometry) by using I-125, which could measure BMD of peripheral bones. Single-photon absorptiometry was replaced by dual-energy absorptiometry (dual photon absorptiometry [DPA]) that used gadolinium-153. DPA had greater accuracy in measuring the BMD of central skeletal bones. Single-energy x-ray absorptiometry was also developed but it had limitations in measuring central skeletal BMD. In the mid-1980s, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was introduced and widely accepted for the early detection, treatment, and follow-up study of osteoporosis. There are several reasons for the popularity. DXA can measure BMD of posteroanterior spine and hip in a much shorter time than DPA while being capable of measuring BMD of peripheral bones. Other advantages include very low radiation doses to the patients, high image resolution, precision, and stable calibration of the instruments. In recent years, DXA has also been applied to lateral spine for the density of trabecular bone, to the whole body for the measurement of total body bone density and for the body composition, and to the spine for the vertebral fracture assessment. Still, posteroanterior spine and hip scans remain the most common applications of DXA because data on the normal range of BMD of the skeletal sites for different age, sex, and ethnic groups are compiled and made available with the devices, which gives the physician

  15. Novel single x-ray absorptiometry method to solve for volumetric breast density in mammograms with paddle tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Shepherd, John

    2007-03-01

    We report on the design and validation of a breast tissue equivalent phantom for automated measurement of breast composition in film/screen and digital mammography systems. This phantom is a multi-step phantom made of a single material and containing nine lead positioning markers around its periphery. The markers allow for the phantom position to be solved relative to the x-ray gantry. The phantom was adhered to the top of the mammographic compression paddle such that it projected an attenuation image onto the unused corner of the image without overlapping with CC- nor MLO-view breast edges. The markers and their centroids were identified using automatic morphological image processing operations. The phantom, and thus the paddle, orientation is then obtained by minimizing a simple least-square error function of the difference between a pseudo projection image of the phantom markers at known coordinates and the actual marker image. Fibroglandular-equivalent breast attenuation values were found directly from step phantom projections. Fat attenuation values were derived from the attenuation coefficient ratios of fat to fibroglandular tissue. Finally, breast density was calculated by comparing image pixel values to the fat/fibroglandular references at the same thickness. Multiple scans of a test object (a density step phantom with 7 densities) at nine different compression thicknesses and six paddle-tilt angles were acquired. We found the precision for determining the breast thickness to be 0.015 cm (standard deviation) and for determining individual paddle angles to be 0.05 degrees. Multiple clinical studies using the technique on film/screen and digital mammography machines are also currently under way.

  16. Long-term precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition measurements and association with their covariates.

    PubMed

    Powers, Cassidy; Fan, Bo; Borrud, Lori G; Looker, Anne C; Shepherd, John A

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have described the long-term repeatability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Even fewer studies have been performed with enough participants to identify possible precision covariates such as sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to investigate the long-term repeatability of both total and subregional body composition measurements and their associations with covariates in a large sample. Two valid whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were available for 609 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2000-2002. Participants with scan-quality issues were excluded. Participants varied in race and ethnicity, sex, age (mean 38.8±17.5; range 16-69 yr), and BMI (mean, 26.9±5.2; range 14.1-43.5 kg/m2). The length of time between scans ranged from 3 to 51 days (mean, 18.7±8.4). Precision error estimates for total body measures (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, lean mass, total mass, fat mass, and percent body fat) were calculated as root mean square percent coefficients of variation and standard deviations. The average root mean square percent coefficients of variation and root mean square standard deviations of the precision error for total body variables were 1.12 and 0.01 g/cm2 for bone mineral density, 1.14 and 27.3 g for bone mineral content, 1.97 and 505 g for fat mass, 1.46 and 760 g for lean mass, 1.10 and 858 g for total mass, and 1.80 and 0.59 for percent body fat. In general, only fat and lean masses were impacted by participant and scan qualities (obesity category, sex, the magnitude of the body composition variables, and time between scans). We conclude that long-term precision error values are impacted by BMI, and sex. Our long-term precision error estimates may be more suitable than short-term precision for calculating least significant change and monitoring time intervals.

  17. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    MAETANI, Ayami; ITOH, Megumi; NISHIHARA, Kahori; AOKI, Takahiro; OHTANI, Masayuki; SHIBANO, Kenichi; KAYANO, Mitsunori; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  18. Correspondence between theoretical models and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of femoral cross-sectional growth during adolescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Meulen, M. C.; Marcus, R.; Bachrach, L. K.; Carter, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed an analytical model of long bone cross-sectional ontogeny in which appositional growth of the diaphysis is primarily driven by mechanical stimuli associated with increasing body mass during growth and development. In this study, our goal was to compare theoretical predictions of femoral diaphyseal structure from this model with measurements of femoral bone mineral and geometry by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Measurements of mid-diaphyseal femoral geometry and structure were made previously in 101 Caucasian adolescents and young adults 9-26 years of age. The data on measured bone mineral content and calculated section modulus were compared with the results of our analytical model of cross-sectional development of the human femur over the same age range. Both bone mineral content and section modulus showed good correspondence with experimental measurements when the relationships with age and body mass were examined. Strong linear relationships were evident for both parameters when examined as a function of body mass.

  19. Distal metacarpal bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Methodological investigation and application in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Florescu, A; Pødenphant, J; Thamsborg, G; Hansen, M; Leffers, A M; Andersen, V

    1993-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed along the axis of the third metacarpal bone of the non-dominant hand and including metacarpal bones 2, 3, 4 and 5. The Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was calculated for the distal 1/4 of each metacarpal bone. Ten patients with seropositive, erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 10 healthy, sex- and age-matched persons were investigated twice. The average BMD in RA patients was 73.6% of the value found in normals. The coefficient of variation on double determinations (in patients and controls) was 0.9-3.0%. We suggest that dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning with the scanning procedure proposed here may be an important instrument for the quantification of disease progression.

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome in a competitive athlete and regional osteoporosis assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is rarely utilized in the clinical care of patients with complex regional pain syndrome, but may be useful for the non-invasive determination of regional bone fragility and fracture risk, as well as muscular atrophy and regional body composition. This is the first report in the literature of complex regional pain syndrome and musculoskeletal co-morbidities in an athlete, and is the first to focus on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the clinical assessment of complex regional pain syndrome. Case presentation In this report, we describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 complex regional pain syndrome. His body mass index was 29.4kg/m2 at the time of presentation. Despite severe complex regional pain syndrome in the left limb and long term use of a wheelchair, the patient participated in high-performance powerlifting. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed marked unilateral differences in bone strength and lean mass between the affected regions and the contralateral regions. Low bone mineral density for age was found in the left hip, with Z-scores ranging from −2.2 to −3.0, and the patient had previously suffered two fractures. Bone density Z-scores in the right hip and legs were normal. Conclusions Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a valuable tool for the clinical investigation of musculoskeletal health in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Regional osteoporosis in complex regional pain syndrome patients is complicated and should be investigated and monitored. Physical activity is possible for some complex regional pain syndrome patients, depending on the type of exercise and the region affected, and it may protect bone density and strength at non affected skeletal sites. PMID:24885227

  1. Effect of a novel procedure for limiting motion on body composition and bone estimates by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Rita; Miller, Freeman; Modlesky, Christopher M

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of using the BodyFIX (Medical Intelligence Inc, Schwabmunchen, Germany) to immobilize children during a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan on body composition and bone estimates. Overestimates of soft tissue and bone introduced by the BodyFIX were avoided by using a modified version of the system or were corrected by using mathematical models developed in this study.

  2. A comparative study of dual-X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasonography for the evaluating bone status in subjects with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Hayek, J; Tomai Pitinca, M D; Nuti, R; Gonnelli, S

    2014-09-01

    Rett syndrome, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is frequently characterized by a reduced bone mineral density (BMD) with an increased risk of fragility fractures. The aim of the study was to assess bone status by DXA technique and by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in subjects with Rett syndrome and to evaluate which DXA or QUS parameters better correlate with clinical features. In 156 Rett subjects (mean age 13.6 ± 8.2 years) and in 62 controls, we measured BMD at femoral neck (BMD-FN) and at total femur (BMD-TF). Apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMAD) was also calculated. In all subjects, QUS parameters at phalanges by Bone Profiler-IGEA (amplitude-dependent speed of sound: AD-SoS and bone transmission time: BTT) were evaluated. We found that both DXA parameters and QUS parameters were significantly lower in Rett subjects than in controls. All clinical characteristics were positively correlated to BMD-FN, BMD-TF, AD-SoS, and BTT (p < 0.001) but not with vBMAD-FN. All ultrasonographic parameters were significantly correlated to BMD-FN and BMD-TF, whereas vBMAD-FN showed only positive significant correlation with densitometric parameters (p < 001). In Rett subjects BMD-FN was predicted primarily by weight and movement capacity, whereas vBMAD-FN was predicted by weight, height, and calcium intake. Moreover, AD-SoS was predicted by weight, height, and age, while BTT was predicted only by height. In conclusion, in our study the performance of QUS at phalanges was similar to those of BMD at femur, therefore, both areal BMD at femur and QUS at phalanges (AD-SoS and BTT) may be equally useful in the evaluation of skeletal status in Rett patients.

  3. A mechanical model for predicting the probability of osteoporotic hip fractures based in DXA measurements and finite element simulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic hip fractures represent major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture, from BMD measurements. The combination of biomechanical models with clinical studies could better estimate bone strength and supporting the specialists in their decision. Methods A model to assess the probability of fracture, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics has been developed, evaluating the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. The model is intended for simulating the degenerative process in the skeleton, with the consequent lost of bone mass and hence the decrease of its mechanical resistance which enables the fracture due to different traumatisms. Clinical studies were chosen, both in non-treatment conditions and receiving drug therapy, and fitted to specific patients according their actual BMD measures. The predictive model is applied in a FE simulation of the proximal femur. The fracture zone would be determined according loading scenario (sideway fall, impact, accidental loads, etc.), using the mechanical properties of bone obtained from the evolutionary model corresponding to the considered time. Results BMD evolution in untreated patients and in those under different treatments was analyzed. Evolutionary curves of fracture probability were obtained from the evolution of mechanical damage. The evolutionary curve of the untreated group of patients presented a marked increase of the fracture probability, while the curves of patients under drug treatment showed variable decreased risks, depending on the therapy type. Conclusion The FE model allowed to obtain detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at femoral neck and intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric areas, which are the typical locations of osteoporotic hip fractures. The

  4. A 4-compartment model based validation of air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold technique & bio-electrical impedance for measuring body fat in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thomas, Tinku; Ashok, Sangeetha; J, Jayakumar; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Many methods are available for measuring body fat of an individual, each having its own advantages and limitations. The primary objective of the present study was to validate body fat estimates from individual methods using the 4-compartment (4C) model as reference. The second objective was to obtain estimates of hydration of fat free mass (FFM) using the 4C model. Methods: The body fat of 39 adults (19 men and 20 women) aged 20-40 yr was estimated using air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), 4-skinfold technique and bio-electrical impedance (BIA). Total body water was estimated using isotope dilution method. Results: All the methods underestimated body fat when compared to 4C model, except for DEXA and the mean difference from the reference was lowest for DEXA and ADP. The precision of the fat mass estimated from 4C model using the propagation of error was 0.25 kg, while the mean hydration factor obtained by the 4C model was found to be 0.74 ± 0.02 in the whole group of men and women. Interpretations & conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that DEXA and ADP methods can provide reasonably accurate estimates of body fat, while skinfold and bio-electrical impedance methods require the use of population specific equations. PMID:25027079

  5. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    ... density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. DEXA uses low- ...

  6. Ice core stratigraphy using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroger, Chris; Thomson, Julian; Bertler, Nancy; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    We are presenting a technique using x-rays to detect strata caused by density variation in 94 mm diameter ice cores. Moreover, high resolution density is determined. A 54 m long ice core retrieved from the Tasman Glacier of the Southern Alps in New Zealand has been x-ray scanned and the images were analysed. As a dual energy capable x-ray (DEXA) scanner was used, DEXA analysis techniques were used where appropriate, such as for the enhancement of strata visibility in the images. Density calculations though were based on a single energy model, using the fundamental law of x-ray attenuation. As the model does not precisely reflect realistic conditions, calibrations were made for the material properties and pixel scaling. Results of detected strata were compared to traditional visual light methods, where up to a depth of ~35 m better detail was achieved using x-rays. Density data was checked against the average volumetric density. Results compare well with the volumetric density, however a small bias exists, which at present requires further investigation.

  7. The use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess the impact of Eimeria infections in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Mitchell, Alva D; Jenkins, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    A number of parameters have been used to assess the impact ofcoccidiosis on chickens in clinical settings as well as in experimental studies. However, a rapid way to determine body composition would be useful to evaluate or compare responses to coccidia and could give further insight into the metabolic impact of infection. The current study evaluates the use of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to determine the impact of coccidiosis on body composition in chicks receiving inoculations with single or mixed species of Eimeria. Chicks infected with Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella had altered parameters of body composition as measured by DEXA at 6 days postinfection (PI). The greatest effects were noted in birds infected with E. acervulina or E. maxima, where lean mass and fat were reduced from control values about 75% and 85%, respectively. In chicks infected with E. tenella, tissue and fat were reduced about 10%. Bone mineral content (BMC) was about 75% of control values in birds infected with E. acervulina or E. maxima, but only E. acervulina altered bone mineral density (BMD). The decreases in BMC and BMD are likely due to malabsorption. In chicks receiving a mixed coccidian infection, all DEXA parameters were significantly decreased at 8 days PI compared with age-matched controls. As with single infections, BMD and BMC were significantly depressed (P < 0.05). Values of all DEXA parameters were near 92% of control values by day 16 PI. Analysis of all birds in the current study indicates DEXA tissue weight slightly underestimated the gravimetrically measured weight by about 3%. The current results demonstrate that DEXA is a potentially important tool for the rapid evaluation of the effect of coccidiosis on broiler chicks and suggest it can be useful for evaluation of vaccines and other disease controls.

  8. Accuracy of measurements of small changes in soft tissue mass by use of dual-photon absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Lands, L C; Heigenhauser, G J; Gordon, C; Jones, N L; Webber, C E

    1991-08-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) has recently been applied to the assessment of body composition. To evaluate the accuracy of DPA in detecting small changes in the lean soft tissue mass, we performed DPA with the use of the Norland 2600 Dichromatic densitometer on six healthy adult males before and after a 30-ml/kg transfusion of saline and before and after exercise in a warm environment, resulting in a greater than or equal to 1-kg weight loss. Absolute weight [baseline pretransfusion r2 = 0.999, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 590 g; posttransfusion r2 = 0.999, SEE = 300 g; baseline pretranspiration r2 = 0.999, SEE = 230 g; posttranspiration r2 = 0.999, SEE = 240 g] was accurately reflected in DPA total mass. Weight changes due to transfusion were poorly reflected by changes in DPA total mass (r2 = 0.417, SEE = 404 g). However, changes posttranspiration were accurately reflected in the DPA total mass (r2 = 0.886, SEE = 106 g posttranspiration). Similarly, weight changes due to transfusion were poorly measured by changes in DPA soft mass (r2 = 0.478, SEE = 365 g), but changes posttranspiration were highly correlated with DPA soft mass changes (r2 = 0.909, SEE = 92 g). Weight changes were not reflected by changes in the DPA lean soft tissue mass (r2 = 0.006, SEE = 1,737 posttransfusion, r2 = 0.094, SEE = 1,038 g posttranspiration). DPA-derived nonfat mass was highly correlated with skinfold-derived nonfat mass (r2 = 0.96, SEE = 2,400 g). Accuracy of total and soft tissue measurements implied correct mineral mass assessment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Rural vs. non-rural differences and longitudinal bone changes by DXA and pQCT in men aged 20-66 years: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny L; Wey, Howard E; Binkley, Teresa L; Beare, Tianna M; Minett, Maggie; Weidauer, Lee

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were differences in estimated means and rates of change in BMC, bone area, BMD and measures of bone geometry among men (n=544) from three distinct populations (Hutterite [rural], rural non-Hutterite, non-rural), and whether activity levels or calcium intake explain these population differences. Men were enrolled in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study and followed for 7.5 years to estimate means and rates of change in bone mass, density, size and geometry. Femoral neck (FN) and spine measurements were obtained every 18 months by DXA and distal radius (4% and 20%) measurements by pQCT. Activity measurements and calcium intake were obtained quarterly for the first 3 years and at 54, 72, and 90 months. Rural men had greater percent time in moderate plus vigorous activity (mean ± SD: 22 ± 10 vs. 15 ± 8%, p<0.001) and greater lean mass (69 ± 9 vs. 66 ± 10 kg, p=0.05) than non-rural men. Both rural populations (Hutterite and rural men) had larger femoral neck (FN) bone area and greater 20% radius cross-sectional area than non-rural men ([least square means ± SE] FN area: 5.90 ± 0.02 and 5.86 ± 0.02 vs. 5.76 ± 0.03 cm(2), p<0.001 and p=0.03 respectively and cross-sectional area: 171.0 ±1.3 and 165.5 ± 1.5 vs. 150.3 ± 1.6mm(2), both p<0.001). Despite lower cortical vBMD in Hutterite and rural men compared to non-rural men (1182 ± 2 and 1187 ± 2 vs. 1192 ± 2 mm(2), p<0.001 and p=0.06 respectively), bone strength (pSSI) was greater (429 ± 5 and 422 ± 5 vs. 376 ± 6 mm(3), both p<0.001). The rates of change in femoral neck BMC and aBMD and trabecular vBMD also differed by rural lifestyle, with greater losses among non-rural men in their 20s and 60s compared to both Hutterite and rural populations (time-by-age-by-group interactions, both p<0.01). Physical activity was not found to be a potential mediator of population differences. Baseline calcium intake was associated with FN aBMD (p=0.04), and

  10. Rural vs. non-rural differences and longitudinal bone changes by DXA and pQCT in men aged 20-66 years: A population-based study☆

    PubMed Central

    Specker, Bonny L.; Wey, Howard E.; Binkley, Teresa L.; Beare, Tianna M.; Minett, Maggie; Weidauer, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were differences in estimated means and rates of change in BMC, bone area, BMD and measures of bone geometry among men (n = 544) from three distinct populations (Hutterite [rural], rural non-Hutterite, non-rural), and whether activity levels or calcium intake explain these population differences. Men were enrolled in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study and followed for 7.5 years to estimate means and rates of change in bone mass, density, size and geometry. Femoral neck (FN) and spine measurements were obtained every 18 months by DXA and distal radius (4% and 20%) measurements by pQCT. Activity measurements and calcium intake were obtained quarterly for the first 3 years and at 54, 72, and 90 months. Rural men had greater percent time in moderate plus vigorous activity (mean ± SD: 22 ± 10 vs. 15 ±8%, p < 0.001) and greater lean mass (69 ± 9 vs. 66 ± 10 kg, p = 0.05) than non-rural men. Both rural populations (Hutterite and rural men) had larger femoral neck (FN) bone area and greater 20% radius cross-sectional area than non-rural men ([least square means ± SE] FN area: 5.90 ± 0.02 and 5.86 ± 0.02 vs. 5.76 ± 0.03 cm2, p < 0.001 and p = 0.03 respectively and cross-sectional area: 171.0 ± 1.3 and 165.5 ± 1.5 vs. 150.3 ± 1.6 mm2, both p < 0.001). Despite lower cortical vBMD in Hutterite and rural men compared to non-rural men (1182 ± 2 and 1187 ± 2 vs. 1192 ± 2 mm2, p < 0.001 and p = 0.06 respectively), bone strength (pSSI) was greater (429 ± 5 and 422 ± 5 vs. 376 ± 6 mm3, both p < 0.001). The rates of change in femoral neck BMC and aBMD and trabecular vBMD also differed by rural lifestyle, with greater losses among non-rural men in their 20s and 60s compared to both Hutterite and rural populations (time-by-age-by-group interactions, both p < 0.01). Physical activity was not found to be a potential mediator of population differences. Baseline calcium intake was associated with FN aBMD (p

  11. Recommended Methods for Monitoring Skeletal Health in Astronauts to Distinguish Specific Effects of Prolonged Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasadi, Lukas J.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Scott A.; Yardley, Gregory L.; Evans, Harlan J.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA uses areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to monitor skeletal health in astronauts after typical 180-day spaceflights. The osteoporosis field and NASA, however, recognize the insufficiency of DXA aBMD as a sole surrogate for fracture risk. This is an even greater concern for NASA as it attempts to expand fracture risk assessment in astronauts, given the complicated nature of spaceflight-induced bone changes and the fact that multiple 1-year missions are planned. In the past decade, emerging analyses for additional surrogates have been tested in clinical trials; the potential use of these technologies to monitor the biomechanical integrity of the astronaut skeleton will be presented. OVERVIEW: An advisory panel of osteoporosis policy-makers provided NASA with an evidence-based assessment of astronaut biomedical and research data. The panel concluded that spaceflight and terrestrial bone loss have significant differences and certain factors may predispose astronauts to premature fractures. Based on these concerns, a proposed surveillance program is presented which a) uses Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans of the hip to monitor the recovery of spaceflight-induced deficits in trabecular BMD by 2 years after return, b) develops Finite Element Models [FEM] of QCT data to evaluate spaceflight effect on calculated hip bone strength and c) generates Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] from serial DXA scans of the lumbar spine to evaluate the effect of age, spaceflight and countermeasures on this novel index of bone microarchitecture. SIGNIFICANCE: DXA aBMD is a widely-applied, evidence-based predictor for fractures but not applicable as a fracture surrogate for premenopausal females and males <50 years. Its inability to detect structural parameters is a limitation for assessing changes in bone integrity with and without countermeasures. Collective use of aBMD, TBS, QCT, and FEM analysis for astronaut surveillance could

  12. Comparison of dual-photon absorptiometry systems for total-body bone and soft tissue measurements: Dual-energy X-rays versus gadolinium 153

    SciTech Connect

    Russell-Aulet, M.; Wang, J.; Thornton, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-04-01

    A total of 81 subjects (41 males and 40 females) were scanned by dual-photon absorptiometry by 153Gd source (DPA; Lunar DP4) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Lunar-DPX) within a 24 h period. Total-body bone mineral density (TBMD), calcium content (Ca), and soft tissue mass (ST) were determined with a precision of about 1-1.5% using DPA and 0.5-1.0% using DEXA. Measurements of TBMD, Ca, ST, bone area (area), percentage fat, and regional bone mineral densities (BMD) were compared. Paired t-tests showed small but significant differences between all measurements. Correlations (r) for TBMD, Ca, area, ST, percentage fat, arm BMD, leg BMD, and trunk BMD were 0.99, 0.99, 0.97, 0.99, 0.97, 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98. There were small systematic differences for TBMD (less than 1%), calcium (3%), bone area (3%), soft tissue mass (7%), and percentage fat (9%) between the two approaches. Regression equations are given relating these measurements.

  13. Lean body mass by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and by urine and dialysate creatinine recovery in CAPD and pre-dialysis patients compared to normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, P K; Ladefoged, J; Olgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    The urinary creatinine excretion rate is a function of the muscle mass which, in normal subjects, is shown to be correlated with lean body mass. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has been shown to correlate well with other methods for the measurement of body composition. The purpose of the present study was to compare estimates of lean body mass (LBM) by DEXA scan with urine and dialysate creatinine recovery in uremic patients and in normal subjects. We included 63 normal subjects with a creatinine clearance of 60-120 mL/min, 30 uremic predialysis patients with creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min, and 20 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. LBM was measured by DEXA scan on the same day as urine collection and was estimated from creatinine recovery with and without correction for extrarenal creatinine clearance. Results from the normal subjects showed no difference in estimates of LBM by the different methods but, in predialysis and CAPD patients, a significant difference between methods of estimating LBM was found, even when correction for extrarenal clearance in uremic patients was performed. In normal subjects: DEXA 43.6 kg versus creatinine excretion 43.2 kg (NS). In predialysis patients: DEXA 47.8 kg versus 37.6 kg (p < 0.001) corrected 44.8 kg (p < 0.05). In CAPD patients: DEXA 47.2 kg versus 32 kg (p < 0.001) corrected 42.6 kg (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the urine and dialysate creatinine excretion is an inaccurate estimate of LBM, but reflects the muscle mass and, in that respect, is an important tool in the nutritional evaluation of uremic patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Association between Body Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density in Patients Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Ajman, UAE.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Tarek; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ahmed, Amal; Alshamsi, Salma Obaid Saeed; Al Ali, Mariyam Saif Salim Humaid Bin Bader; Al Balsooshi, Khawla Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is a good indicator for measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) which measures the density of minerals present in the bones using a special scan. This study was conducted to assess the association between BMI and status of BMD among 101 individuals who underwent Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. 39 subjects had normal and 62 had low bone mineral density. BMD was low in 82.4% of people with normal BMI, 78.1% among overweight, and 44.2% among obese. There was a statistically significant association between these two variables (P < .001). Low BMD was recorded in 59.1% of females and 76.9% of males. Association between advancing age and lower BMI is an important risk factor in the occurrence of low BMD.

  15. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats: evaluation of bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, M; Kirpensteijn, J; Nielsen, D H; Buelund, L; Hansen, M S

    2010-01-01

    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands. After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography.

  16. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ravn, P; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K; Christiansen, C

    1994-12-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year (SEE 0.2-0.9%/year, p < 0.001) and 0.6%/year (SEE 0.4-0.8%/year, p < 0.001), respectively. In the postmenopausal women aged 48-75 years, there was a highly significant exponential decay in BMD with age and years since menopause (YSM) in all regions (-0.58 < r < -0.48, p < 0.001). However, YSM was a better predictor of BMD than age. The decrease in BMD in the first 5 years postmenopause reached values of 9-13%. The estimated bone loss after 20 years was 17-30%, greatest in Ward's triangle and smallest in the intertrochanteric region. BMD correlated highly significantly with BMI (0.26 < r < 0.48, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the present study indicates a stable premenopausal bone mass of the proximal femur and a postmenopausal bone loss, which is influenced mainly by YSM within the first 10-15 years after menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming that low BMI constitutes a potential risk factor for osteoporosis.

  17. Utility of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessment of total and regional body composition varies between men and women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lindsey J; Erceg, David N; Schroeder, E Todd

    2012-07-01

    Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition may be an appropriate alternative to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We hypothesized that there would be no significant differences between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and either the Biospace (Los Angeles, CA, USA) InBody 520 or 720 multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis devices for total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean mass (ALM), trunk lean mass (TM), and total fat mass (FM) in 25 men and 25 women (including lean, healthy, and obese individuals according to body mass index), age 18 to 49 years, weight of 73.6 ± 15.4 kg. Both devices overestimated LBM in women (~2.5 kg, P < .001) and underestimated ALM in men (~3.0 kg, P < .05) and women (~1.0 kg, P < .05). The 720 overestimated FM in men (1.6 kg, P < .05) and underestimated TM in women (0.6 kg, P ≤ .05). Regression analyses in men revealed R² (0.87-0.91), standard error of the estimate (SEE; 2.3-2.8 kg), and limits of agreement (LOAs; 4.5-5.7 kg) for LBM; R(2) (0.62-0.87), SEE (1.5-2.6 kg), and LOA (3.2-6.0 kg) for ALM; R² (0.52-0.71), SEE (2.4-3.0 kg), and LOA (4.6-6.1 kg) for TM; and R(2) (0.87-0.93), SEE (1.9-2.6 kg), and LOA (5.9-6.2 kg) for FM. Regression analyses in women revealed R² (0.87-0.88), SEE (1.8-1.9 kg), and LOA (4.1-4.2 kg) for LBM; R² (0.78-0.79), SEE (1.4-1.5 kg), and LOA (2.7-2.9 kg) for ALM; R² (0.76-0.77), SEE (1.0 kg), and LOA (2.2-2.3 kg) for TM; and R² (0.95), SEE (2.2 kg), and LOA (4.3-4.4 kg) for FM. The InBody 520 and 720 are valid estimators of LBM and FM in men and of LBM, ALM, and FM in women; the 720 and 520 are valid estimators of TM in men and women, respectively.

  18. Skeletal status and soft tissue composition in astronauts. Tissue and fluid changes by radionuclide absorptiometry in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.; Mazess, R. B.; Wilson, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Research on the measurement of bone mineral content and body composition ranges from isotopic tracer methods and the adoption of clinical standards to osteoporosis therapy and the effects of nutritional factors on bone loss.

  19. Influence of a two-year steroid treatment on body composition as measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Vuillerot, Carole; Braillon, Pierre; Fontaine-Carbonnel, Stephanie; Rippert, Pascal; André, Elisabeth; Iwaz, Jean; Poirot, Isabelle; Bérard, Carole

    2014-06-01

    Steroids are nowadays routinely used as a long-term treatment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their effects on body composition were assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The study followed over 2 years 29 genetically confirmed DMD patients: 21 in the steroid-treated group and 8 in the steroid-naïve group. After 2 years of steroid treatment, the lean tissue mass values increased significantly (p<0.0001), the percentage of body fat mass remained practically constant (p=0.94) in comparison with the initial visit. In the steroid-naïve patients, there were no significant increases in the lean tissue mass but deterioration in body composition confirmed by a significant increase in the percentage of body fat mass. Besides, significant negative correlations were found between the percentage of body fat mass and the MFM total score (R=-0.79, n=76, p<0.0001). A 2-year steroid treatment improves significantly body composition of boys with DMD through a significant increase in lean tissue mass. We suggest that a thorough check of body composition should be carried out before steroid treatment discontinuation in case of overweight gain.

  20. Osteoporosis in patients with paralysis after spinal cord injury. A cross sectional study in 46 male patients with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Sabo, D; Blaich, S; Wenz, W; Hohmann, M; Loew, M; Gerner, H J

    2001-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, 46 male patients with paralysis after spinal cord injury (average age 32 years; injuries sustained from 1 to 26 years ago; 33 Frankel A, 13 Frankel B, C, D) were examined clinically and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Their bone mineral density (BMD) values were compared with age-related controls and correlated to clinical parameters. BMD was reduced in the proximal femur (p < 0.05) and the distal forearm (p < 0.05), but not in the lumbar spine. Demineralisation was influenced in the proximal femur (Z-score -2.95) by immobilisation after surgical treatment. Patients suffering from complete lesions had significantly lower BMD in the lumbar spine (-1.47) compared with patients with incomplete lesions (+0.02). BMD was not significantly influenced by the level of the lesion and the ambulatory status. Long-term monitoring showed significant demineralisation in the proximal femur (r = -0.36) and the distal forearm (r = -0.4), but not in the lumbar spine (r = -0.21). By correlating BMD with clinical parameters, it can be deduced that, firstly, immobilisation after surgical treatment should be reduced to a minimum; secondly, that every effort must be expended to prevent turning an incomplete into a complete lesion; and finally, that rehabilitation treatment should be lifelong.

  1. Evaluation of the effects of hypergravity exposure and caging restraint on bone mineralization in the Beagle by in vivo photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, G. L.; Berding, K. L.; Goldman, M.

    1975-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral kinetics associated with normal development and the possible perturbations to bone development resulting from hypergravity exposure over a period of six months in developing Beagles. A series of seven measurements were performed at specific times with the first measurement prior to treatment and subsequent measurements at 2, 5, 9, 14, 20 and 26 weeks from the onset of the experiment. Four groups of six male Beagle pups, ranging in age from 85 to 92 days were studied. Two groups were chronically exposed to hypergravity treatments by centrifugation of 2.0 G (18.0 RPM, 11.7 ft radius) and 2.6 G (18.0 RPM, 19.8 ft radius) for the 26 week period. A third group of six dogs served as a caged control to evaluate possible changes due to confinement in small plexiglass cages similar to those of the centrifuge. Thus this control group was subjected to limited exercise due to caging restraint. The fourth group of animals was housed in open runs to allow exercise without the spatial confinement of the smaller plexiglass cages. Results show highly significant differences in body weight, bone length, increase in bone density of control group relative to other groups, and a decrease in bone mineral content in the two gravity treated groups.

  2. X-ray scatter correction for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: compensation of patient's lean/fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Darboux, Michel; Bordy, Thomas; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Gonon, Georges

    2004-05-01

    At CEA-LETI, a DEXA approach for systems using a digital 2D radiographic detector has been developed. It relies on an original X-rays scatter management method, based on a combined use of an analytical model and of scatter calibration data acquired through different thicknesses of Lucite slabs. Since Lucite X-rays interaction properties are equivalent to fat, the approach leads to a scatter flux map representative of a 100% fat region. However, patients" soft tissues are composed of lean and fat. Therefore, the obtained scatter map has to be refined in order to take into account the various fat ratios that can present patients. This refinement consists in establishing a formula relating the fat ratio to the thicknesses of Low and High Energy Lucite slabs leading to same signal level. This proportion is then used to compute, on the basis of X-rays/matter interaction equations, correction factors to apply to Lucite equivalent X-rays scatter map. Influence of fat ratio correction has been evaluated, on a digital 2D bone densitometer, with phantoms composed of a PVC step (simulating bone) and different Lucite/water thicknesses as well as on patients. The results show that our X-rays scatter determination approach can take into account variations of body composition.

  3. Calcification content quantification by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry with a 2D digital radiographic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean M.; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Darboux, Michel; Gonon, Georges; Bordy, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    In a previous paper (SPIE Medical Imaging 2001), a dual energy method for bone densitometry using a 2D digital radiographic detector has been presented. In this paper, calcium content quantification performance of the approach is precised. The main challenge is to achieve quantification using scatter-corrected dual energy acquisitions. Therefore a scatter estimation approach, based on an expression of scatter as a functional of the primary flux, has been developed. This expression is derived from the Klein and Nishina equation and includes tabulated scatter level values. The calcium quantification performances are validated on two configurations. A first one is issued from criteria developed by the French "Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur les Osteoporoses." It is based on the use of a phantom made of five 3mm thick PVC sheets in the form of five steps, representing five different bone mineral density values, included in a lucite container filled with water. Additional lucite plates can be put over the phantom. This phantom has been used for evaluation of quantification robustness versus patient thickness and composition variations, and for accuracy evaluation. The second configuration, composed of small calcified objects (representative of lung nodules), is used for evaluating capacities to differentiate calcified from non calcified nodules and to test calcium content quantification performance.

  4. Are adult patients with Laron syndrome osteopenic? A comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and volumetric bone densities.

    PubMed

    Benbassat, Carlos A; Eshed, Varda; Kamjin, Moshe; Laron, Zvi

    2003-10-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in IGF-I is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been noted in LS patients examined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), this technique does not take volume into account and may therefore underestimate the true bone density in patients with small bones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the BMD yielded by DEXA in our LS patients using estimated volumetric values. Volumetric density was calculated with the following formulas: bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) = bone mineral content (BMC)/(area)(3/2) for the lumbar spine and BMAD = BMC/area(2) for the femoral neck. The study sample included 12 patients (mean age, 43.9 yr; mean height, 123.7 cm). Findings were compared with 10 osteopenic subjects without developmental abnormalities (mean age, 56 yr; mean height, 164.8 cm) and 10 healthy control subjects matched for sex and age to the LS patients (mean height, 165.5 cm). BMAD in the LS group was 0.201 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3) at the lumbar spine and 0.201 +/- 0.04 g/cm(3) at the femoral neck; corresponding values for the osteopenic group were 0.130 +/- 0.01 and 0.140 +/- 0.01 g/cm(3), and for the controls, 0.178 +/- 0.03 and 0.192 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3). Although areal BMD was significantly lower in the LS and osteopenic subjects compared with controls (P < 0.02) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck, BMAD was low (P < 0.01) in the osteopenic group only. In conclusion, DEXA does not seem to be a reliable measure of osteoporosis in patients with LS.

  5. Changes in Body Fat Distribution on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Black South Africans Starting First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Zulfa; Levitt, Naomi; Lesosky, Maia; Maartens, Gary; Dave, Joel

    2016-10-01

    Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART. Body fat distribution was assessed using anthropometric measurements and DEXA scans at baseline and then at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after commencing ART. DEXA was also used to estimate abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Women gained more overall weight and more regional fat in all areas analyzed on DEXA scans. Women, not men, experienced a significant increasing trend in trunk fat and a significant decreasing trend in limb fat, when expressed as a percentage of total body fat. In men, the risk of developing lipoatrophy was more than two times greater than that of women, after adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, and ART regimen. Lipohypertrophy occurred similarly in men and women. VAT and SAT increased significantly in men and women, with women gaining considerably more than men. These findings are of great concern as an increased waist circumference is associated with increased mortality in HIV-infected populations. Further investigation is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the sex differences in changes in body fat distribution and its effects on cardiovascular risk.

  6. ADRB2 gene variants, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry body composition, and hypertension in Tobago men of African descent.

    PubMed

    Beason, Tracey Samantha; Bunker, Clareann H; Zmuda, Joseph M; Wilson, John W; Patrick, Alan L; Wheeler, Victor W; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2011-05-01

    Classic tissue effects of β(2)-adrenergic receptor activation include skeletal muscle glycogenolysis and vascular smooth muscle relaxation, factors relevant to obesity and hypertension, respectively. In a population-based study, we examined 2 common amino acid substitutions in the β(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) in relation to body composition and blood pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of 1893 African-descent men living in Tobago and participating in a prostate cancer screening study was performed. Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry body composition, and ADRB2 (Arg16Gly; Gln27Glu) genotype were determined. Twenty-six percent were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)), and 50% were hypertensive. ADRB2 Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu alleles were in linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.96, r(2) = 0.15). ADRB2 16Gly-containing and 27Glu-containing genotypes were equally frequent in low, medium, and high tertiles of percentage of body fat mass (16Gly-containing genotypes: 73.4%, 74.4%, and 74.5%, P(trend) = .66; 27Glu-containing genotypes: 27.6%, 23.8%, and 25.4%, P(trend) = .39) and in normal blood pressure, prehypertensive, and hypertensive men (16Gly-containing genotypes: 73.4%, 72.8%, and 74.4%, P(trend) = .61; 27Glu-containing genotypes: 25.6%, 24.1%, and 26.7%, P(trend) = .50). In a high-obesity and high-hypertension risk population with ancestry in common with African Americans, genetic variation defined by 2 common ADRB2 amino acid substitutions was not associated with body composition or hypertension.

  7. Three-compartment body composition changes in elite rugby league players during a super league season, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Harley, Jamie A; Hind, Karen; O'hara, John P

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the acute changes in body composition that occur over the course of a competitive season in elite rugby league players. Twenty elite senior players from an English Super League rugby league team underwent a total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan at 3 phases of a competitive season: preseason (February), midseason (June), and postseason (September). Body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass, percentage body fat, and bone mineral content (BMC) were reported at each phase. Between the start and midpoint of the season, BM, lean mass, FM, and body fat percentage showed no significant change (p > 0.05); however, BMC was significantly increased (+0.71%; 30.70 ± 38.00 g; p < 0.05). Between the midseason and postseason phase, BM and BMC showed no significant change (p > 0.05); however, significant changes were observed in lean mass (-1.54%; 1.19 ± 1.43 kg), FM (+4.09%; 0.57 ± 1.10 kg), and body fat percentage (+4.98%; 0.78 ± 1.09%; p < 0.05). The significant changes in body composition seen over the latter stages of the competitive season may have implications for performance capabilities at this important stage of competition. An increase in FM and decrease in lean mass may have a negative effect on the power/BM ratio, and therefore may be a cause for concern for playing, coaching, and medical staff. Coaching and strength and conditioning staff should aim to prescribe appropriate training and nutritional practices with the aim of maintaining the players' optimal body composition until the conclusion of the competitive season, in order that performance capabilities are maximized over the entire competition period.

  8. Evaluation of growth patterns and body composition in C57Bl/6J mice using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Megna, Rosario; Greco, Adelaide; Albanese, Sandra; Manfredi, Claudio; Brunetti, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The normal growth pattern of female C57BL/6J mice, from 5 to 30 weeks of age, has been investigated in a longitudinal study. Weight, body surface area (BS), and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated in forty mice. Lean mass and fat mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were monitored by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Weight and BS increased linearly (16.15 ± 0.64-27.64 ± 1.42 g; 51.13 ± 0.74-79.57 ± 2.15 cm(2), P < 0.01), more markedly from 5 to 9 weeks of age (P < 0.001). BMD showed a peak at 17 weeks (0.0548 ± 0.0011 g/cm(2) ∗ m, P < 0.01). Lean mass showed an evident gain at 9 (15.8 ± 0.8 g, P < 0.001) and 25 weeks (20.5 ± 0.3 g, P < 0.01), like fat mass from 13 to 17 weeks (2.0 ± 0.4-3.6 ± 0.7 g, P < 0.01). BMI and lean mass index (LMI) reached the highest value at 21 weeks (3.57 ± 0.02-0.284 ± 0.010 g/cm(2), resp.), like fat mass index (FMI) at 17 weeks (0.057 ± 0.009 g/cm(2)) (P < 0.01). BMI, weight, and BS showed a moderate positive correlation (0.45-0.85) with lean mass from 5 to 21 weeks. Mixed linear models provided a good prediction for lean mass, fat mass, and BMD. This study may represent a baseline reference for a future comparison of wild-type C57BL/6J mice with models of altered growth.

  9. Factors that determine body composition of female systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Sri Lanka: a comparative study using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, A; Lekamwasam, S; Dissanayake, S P; Munidasa, D

    2013-08-01

    Studies on body composition and its determinants among SLE patients are limited. Estimation of body composition, analysis of determinants and associations of different body compartments are important in planning long-term care of these patients. The aim of the study was to identify the changes in body composition among SLE patients and assess the effect of corticosteroid use, patient and disease-related variables on body composition. We compared lean mass, fat mass, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology, in a group of premenopausal women with SLE (n = 27) and an age-matched healthy group of women (n = 27). The median (IQR) duration of SLE was 3 (2-5) years while median (IQR) duration and dose of prednisolone therapy were 108 (88 - 172) weeks and 9730 (6160-15360) mg, respectively. No significant difference was observed in body mass index (BMI) or total fat mass between the two groups. SLE patients, however, had significantly lower lean mass (p < 0.001), BMD (p < 0.001) and BMC (p < 0.005) than healthy controls. Among cases, compared with lean mass, total body fat content showed stronger associations with total body BMD (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and total body BMC (r = 0.63, p < 0.01). When a stepwise regression model was fitted, lean mass among controls and total fat mass among cases emerged as the best predictors of BMC/BMD. No significant correlations were found between the disease duration or cumulative glucocorticosteroid dose and total body BMD, total body BMC, lean mass or total fat content in SLE patients.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of quantitative ultrasound as a technique for screening of osteoporotic fracture risk: report on a health technology assessment conducted in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Aidelsburger, Pamela; Hessel, Franz; Wasem, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Aim: On behalf of the German Agency for Health Technology Assessment (DAHTA@DIMDI) a rapid economic HTA was conducted. Aim of the HTA was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) for screening of osteoporotic fracture risk. Study population was formed by postmenopausal women. QUS was compared to the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the most frequently used method of measurement. Methods: According to the recommendations for rapid economic HTA a comprehensive literature search was conducted. Data of identified and relevant publications have been extracted in form of a qualitative and quantitative information synthesis. The authors calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for different screening procedures: (1) one-step proceeding comparing QUS with DXA, (2) two-step proceeding starting with QUS followed by DXA in pathologic cases. Results: An additional case diagnosed by DXA in a one-step proceeding rises additional costs of about 1,000 EURO. A two-step proceeding with QUS is cost-effective as long as the costs of one QUS examination are lower than 31%-51% of the costs of one DXA examination. Discussion: All considered studies showed methodological limitations. None of them included long term effects like avoided bone fractures. Considering long-term effects probably would change the results. Due to the weakness of data no concluding judgement about the cost-effectiveness of QUS can be given. PMID:19675686

  11. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  12. Muscle strength and soft tissue composition as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in women aged 18-87 years.

    PubMed

    Madsen, O R; Lauridsen, U B; Hartkopp, A; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) offers the possibility of assessing regional soft tissue composition, i.e. lean mass (LM) and fat mass: LM may be considered a measure of muscle mass. We examined age-related differences in LM, percentage fat (%fat) and muscle strength in 100 healthy non-athletic women aged 18-87 years. Relationships between muscle strength and leg LM in 20 elite female weight lifters and in 18 inactive women with previous hip fractures were also studied. The LM and %fat of the whole body, trunk, arms and legs were derived from a whole body DEXA scan. Isokinetic knee extensor strength (KES) and flexor strength (KFS) at 30 degrees.s-1 were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. The women aged 71-87 years had 35% lower KES and KFS than the women aged 18-40 years (P < 0.0001). Differences in LM were less pronounced. The LM of the legs, for instance, was 15% lower in the old than in the young women (P < 0.0001). In a multiple regression analysis with age, body mass, height and leg LM or KES as independent variables and KES or leg LM as the dependent variable, age was the most important predictor of KES (r(partial) = -0.74, P < 0.0001). The same applied to KFS. Body mass, not age, was the most important predictor of leg LM (r(partial) = 0.65, P < 0.0001) and of LM at all other measurement sites. The LM measured at different regions decreased equally with increasing age. The KES:leg LM ratio was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.70, P < 0.0001). The weight lifters had significantly higher KES:leg LM ratios than age-matched controls (+ 12%, P < 0.0001) and vice versa for the women with previous hip fractures (-36%, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, from our study it would seem that in healthy nonathletic women, age is a more important determinant of muscle strength than is LM as measured by DEXA. Muscle strengthening exercises and inactivity seem to have a considerably stronger influence on muscle strength than on LM.

  13. Estimation of the prevalence of low bone density in Canadian women and men using a population-specific DXA reference standard: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Tenenhouse, A; Joseph, L; Kreiger, N; Poliquin, S; Murray, T M; Blondeau, L; Berger, C; Hanley, D A; Prior, J C

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a prospective cohort study which will measure the incidence and prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures, and the effect of putative risk factors, in a random sample of 10,061 women and men aged > or = 25 years recruited in approximately equal numbers in nine centers across Canada. In this paper we report the results of studies to establish peak bone mass (PBM) which would be appropriate reference data for use in Canada. These reference data are used to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in Canadian women and men aged > or = 50 years. Participants were recruited via randomly selected household telephone listings. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using Hologic QDR 1000 or 2000 or Lunar DPX densitometers. BMD results for lumbar spine and femoral neck were converted to a Hologic base. BMD of the lumbar spine in 578 women and 467 men was constant to age 39 years giving a PBM of 1.042 +/- 0.121 g/cm2 for women and 1.058 +/- 0.127 g/cm2 for men. BMD at the femoral neck declined from age 29 years. The mean femoral neck BMD between 25 and 29 years was taken as PBM and was found to be 0.857 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for women and 0.910 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for men. Prevalence of osteoporosis, as defined by WHO criteria, in Canadian women aged > or = 50 years was 12.1% at the lumbar spine and 7.9% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 15.8%. In men it was 2.9% at the lumbar spine and 4.8% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 6.6%.

  14. A Comparison of Body Segment Inertial Parameter Estimation Methods and Joint Moment and Power Calculations During a Drop Vertical Jump in Collegiate Female Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Arena, Sara L; McLaughlin, Kelsey; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Smoliga, James M; Ford, Kevin R

    2017-02-01

    Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva(1) with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and (2) examine the effects of these BSIP estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division I soccer players were recruited. BSIPs of the shank and thigh (mass, COM location, and radius of gyration) were determined using de Leva's method and analysis of whole-body DXA scans. These estimates were used to determine peak knee joint moments and power during the DVJ. Compared with DXA, de Leva's method located the COM more distally in the shank (P = .008) and more proximally in the thigh (P < .001), and the radius of gyration of the thigh to be further from the thigh COM (P < .001). All knee joint moment and power measures were similar between methods. These findings suggest that BSIP estimation may vary between methods, but the impact on joint moment calculations during a dynamic task is negligible.

  15. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure the effects of a thirteen-week moderate to vigorous aquatic exercise and nutritional education intervention on percent body fat in adults with intellectual disabilities from group home settings.

    PubMed

    Casey, Amanda; Boyd, Colin; Mackenzie, Sasho; Rasmussen, Roy

    2012-05-01

    People with intellectual disability are more likely to be obese and extremely obese than people without intellectual disability with rates remaining elevated among adults, women and individuals living in community settings. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured the effects of a 13-week aquatic exercise and nutrition intervention on percent body fat in eight adults with intellectual disabilities (aged 41.0 ± 13.7 yrs) of varying fat levels (15%-39%) from two group homes. A moderate to vigorous aquatic exercise program lasted for the duration of 13 weeks with three, one-hour sessions held at a 25m pool each week. Nutritional assistants educated participants as to the importance of food choice and portion size. A two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test determined the impact of the combined intervention on body fat percentage and BMI at pre and post test. Median body fat percentage (0.8 %) and BMI (0.3 kg/m(2)) decreased following the exercise intervention, but neither were statistically significant, p = .11 and p = .55, respectively. The combined intervention was ineffective at reducing percent body fat in adults with intellectual disability according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. These results are in agreement with findings from exercise alone interventions and suggest that more stringent nutritional guidelines are needed for this population and especially for individuals living in group home settings. The study did show that adults with intellectual disability may participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity when given the opportunity.

  16. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  17. Bone density in patients with chondromalacia patella.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Iraj; Khazaeli, Shabnam; Hatami, Parta; Malekpour, Mahdi

    2010-06-01

    Chondromalacia of the patella is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in young women. The etiology of the disease is not well-understood but the initial lesion is a disorganization of collagenous structures. Since the disease is proposed to be due to generalized constitutional disturbance, we postulated that bony structures could also be involved. To investigate this hypothesis we measured the bone density of 286 patients with the diagnosis of chondromalacia of the patella during a 4-year period using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. We found a significant number of patients having low bone densities. This problem was more pronounced in men and in younger age groups. We suggest base-line bone density evaluation in all patients, treatment of osteopenia or osteoporosis in select patients and regular follow-ups using DXA.

  18. A systematic quality assurance study in bone densitometry devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncman, Duygu; Kovan, Hatice; Kovan, Bilal; Demir, Bayram; Turkmen, Cuneyt

    2015-07-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease and can result in devastating physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences. It occurs in women after menopause and affects most elderly. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used method for the measurement of areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) (g/cm2) .DXA is based on the variable absorption of X-ray by the different body components and uses high and low energy X-ray photons. There are two important values in the assessment of the DXA. These values are T-score and Z-score. The T-score is calculated by taking the difference between a patient's measured BMD with the mean BMD of the young normal population, matched for gender and ethnicity, and then by dividing the difference with the standard deviation (SD) of the BMD of the young normal population. T-score and also Z-score are directly depends on the Bone Mineral Density (BMD). BMD measurements should be made periodically in a patient life. But mostly, it is not possible with the same device. Therefore, in this study, for the quality assurance of bone densitometry devices, we evaluated the BMD results measured in the different Bone Densitometry (DXA) devices using a spine phantom.

  19. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population.

  20. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. PMID:27164119

  1. [Radiological diagnosis of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Issever, A S; Link, T M

    2011-02-01

    Having at their disposal a wide range of imaging techniques, radiologists play a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with osteoporosis. The radiological tests range from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is the only reference method accepted by the WHO, to conventional radiographs for fracture characterization, to more recent techniques for analyzing trabecular structure, and the findings are decisive in initiating correct management of osteoporosis patients. This review provides an overview of established radiological techniques and an outline of new diagnostic approaches.

  2. Validation of two portable bioelectrical impedance analyses for the assessment of body composition in school age children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Wen; Liao, Yu-San; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Hsiao, Pei-Lin; Chen, Yu-Yawn

    2017-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient and child-friendly method for longitudinal analysis of changes in body composition. However, most validation studies of BIA have been performed on adult Caucasians. The present cross-sectional study investigated the validity of two portable BIA devices, the Inbody 230 (BIA8MF) and the Tanita BC-418 (BIA8SF), in healthy Taiwanese children. Methods Children aged 7–12 years (72 boys and 78 girls) were recruited. Body composition was measured by the BIA8SF and the BIA8MF. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the reference method. Results There were strong linear correlations in body composition measurements between the BIA8SF and DXA and between the BIA8MF and DXA. Both BIAs underestimated fat mass (FM) and percentage body fat (%BF) relative to DXA in both genders The degree of agreement in lean body mass (LBM), FM, and %BF estimates was higher between BIA8MF and DXA than between BIA8SF and DXA. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) for LBM8MF met the criteria of substantial to perfect agreement whereas the ρc for FM8MF met the criteria of fair to substantial agreement. Bland-Altman analysis showed a clinically acceptable agreement between LBM measures by BIA8MF and DXA. The limit of agreement in %BF estimation by BIA and DXA were wide and the errors were clinically important. For the estimation of ALM, BIA8SF and BIA8MF both provided poor accuracy. Conclusions For all children, LBM measures were precise and accurate using the BIA8MF whereas clinically significant errors occurred in FM and %BF estimates. Both BIAs underestimated FM and %BF in children. Thus, the body composition results obtained using the inbuilt equations of the BIA8SF and BIA8MF should be interpreted with caution, and high quality validation studies for specific subgroups of children are required prior to field research. PMID:28158304

  3. Creation of an age-adjusted, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived trabecular bone score curve for the lumbar spine in non-Hispanic US White women.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Christine; Leib, Edward; Mossman, Ned; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Hans, Didier; McClung, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The trabecular bone score (TBS, Med-Imaps, Pessac, France) is an index of bone microarchitecture texture extracted from anteroposterior dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images of the spine. Previous studies have documented the ability of TBS of the spine to differentiate between women with and without fractures among age- and areal bone mineral density (aBMD)-matched controls, as well as to predict future fractures. In this cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 3 geographically dispersed facilities in the United States, we investigated age-related changes in the microarchitecture of lumbar vertebrae as assessed by TBS in a cohort of non-Hispanic US white American women. All subjects were 30 yr of age and older and had an L1-L4aBMDZ-score within ±2 SD of the population mean. Individuals were excluded if they had fractures, were on any osteoporosis treatment, or had any illness that would be expected to impact bone metabolism. All data were extracted from Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry devices (GE-Lunar, Madison, WI). Cross-calibrations between the 3 participating centers were performed for TBS and aBMD. aBMD and TBS were evaluated for spine L1-L4 but also for all other possible vertebral combinations. To validate the cohort, a comparison between the aBMD normative data of our cohort and US non-Hispanic white Lunar data provided by the manufacturer was performed. A database of 619 non-Hispanic US white women, ages 30-90 yr, was created. aBMD normative data obtained from this cohort were not statistically different from the non-Hispanic US white Lunar normative data provided by the manufacturer (p = 0.30). This outcome thereby indirectly validates our cohort. TBS values at L1-L4 were weakly inversely correlated with body mass index (r = -0.17) and weight (r = -0.16) and not correlated with height. TBS values for all lumbar vertebral combinations decreased significantly with age. There was a linear decrease of 16.0% (-2.47 T-score) in TBS at

  4. Assessment of trabecular bone quality in human cadaver calcaneus using scanning confocal ultrasound and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yixian; Xia, Yi; Lin, Wei; Rubin, Clinton; Gruber, Barry

    2004-10-01

    Microgravity and aging induced bone loss is a critical skeleton complication, occurring particularly in the weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) provide a unique method for evaluating bone strength and density. Using a newly developed scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, QUS assessment for bone quality in the real body region was evaluated. A total of 19 human cadaver calcanei, age 66 to 97 years old, were tested by both SCAD and nonscan mode. The scanning region covered an approximate 40×40 mm2 with 0.5 mm resolution. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz), energy attenuation (ATT, dB), and ultrasound velocity (UV, m/s) were measured. The QUS properties were then correlated to the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA. Correlations between BMD and QUS parameters were significantly improved by using SCAD as compared to nonscan mode, yielding correlations between BMD and SCAD QUS parameters as R=0.82 (BUA), and R=0.86 (est. BMD). It is suggested that SCAD is feasible for in vivo bone quality mapping. It can be potentially used for monitoring instant changes of bone strength and density. [Work supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (TD00207), and New York Center for Biotechnology.

  5. Periprosthetic bone density changes after MiniHipTM cementless femoral short stem: one-year results of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Ahmet; Sokkar, Sherif M.; Schmid, Gebhard; Filler, Timm J.; Abdelkafy, Ashraf; Jerosch, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the reaction of the femur to the implantation of the MiniHipTM in terms of: (1) bone density change during one year; (2) correlations between stem length, CCD (caput-collum-diaphyseal), femoral offset, T-value, and bone density; (3) other co-variables that influence the change of bone density. Patients and methods: MiniHipTM implant was performed for 62 patients. The age range of the patients who underwent treatment was 25–78 years. Periprothestic bone density was determined within two weeks postoperatively, after three, six, and twelve months utilizing the DEXA scan. Results: The highest change was observed in the first three months post-implantation, while significant decrease in density was recorded at proximal Gruen zones 1, 2, and 7, and at distal Gruen zone 4. The decrease in density reached a plateau between the third and sixth months after operation. Afterwards, bone density recovered up to the 12th postoperative month. The correlation analysis showed significant difference between Gruen zone 1 and stem size and CCD. The same significant trend was not reached for Gruen zone 7. Femoral offset showed no correlation. Covariance analysis was unable to establish connection of the results with diagnosis, pairings, or gender. Discussion: MiniHipTM densitometric results are promising and comparable to good results of the other representatives of the femoral neck partially-sustaining short stem prostheses with a lower proximal bone density reduction. Periprosthetic bone resorption is a multifactorial process where stem size, CCD angle, and patient-specific variables such as T-value have an impact on the periprosthetic bone remodeling. In particular, this applies to Gruen zone 1. PMID:27855776

  6. Texture analysis of clinical radiographs using radon transform on a local scale for differentiation between post-menopausal women with and without hip fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Körner, Markus; Baumert, Bernhard; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Reiser, Maximilian

    2011-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic condition characterized by demineralization and destruction of bone tissue. Fractures associated with the disease are becoming an increasingly relevant issue for public health institutions. Prediction of fracture risk is a major focus research and, over the years, has been approched by various methods. Still, bone mineral density (BMD) obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) remains the clinical gold-standard for diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis. However, DXA is restricted to specialized diagnostic centers and there exists considerable overlap in BMD results between populations of individuals with and without fractures. Clinically far more available than DXA is conventional x-ray imaging depicting trabecular bone structure in great detail. In this paper, we demonstrate that bone structure depicted by clinical radiographs can be analysed quantitatively by parameters obtained from the Radon Transform (RT). RT is a global analysis-tool for detection of predefined, parameterized patterns, e.g. straight lines or struts, representing suitable approximations of trabecular bone texture. The proposed algorithm differentiates between patients with and without fractures of the hip by application of various texture-metrics based on the Radon-Transform to standard x-ray images of the proximal femur. We consider three different regions-of-interest in the proximal femur (femoral head, neck, and inter-trochanteric area), and conduct an analysis with respect to correct classification of the fracture status. Performance of the novel approach is compared to DXA. We draw the conclusion that performance of RT is comparable to DXA and may become a useful supplement to densitometry for the prediction of fracture risk.

  7. Bone imaging and fracture risk assessment in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Sophie A; Nickolas, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Fractures are more common and are associated with greater morbidity and morality in patients with kidney disease than in members of the general population. Thus, it is troubling that in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients there has been a paradoxical increase in fracture rates over the past 20 years compared to the general population. Increased fracture incidence in CKD patients may be driven in part by the lack of screening for fracture risk. In the general population, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the clinical standard to stratify fracture risk, and its use has contributed to decreases in fracture incidence. In contrast, in CKD, fracture risk screening with DXA has been uncommon due to its unclear efficacy in predicting fracture and its inability to predict type of renal osteodystrophy. Recently, several prospective studies conducted in patients across the spectrum of kidney disease have demonstrated that bone mineral density measured by DXA predicts future fracture risk and that clinically relevant information regarding fracture risk is provided by application of the World Health Organization cutoffs for osteopenia and osteoporosis to DXA measures. Furthermore, novel high-resolution imaging tools, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have been used to elucidate the effects of kidney disease on cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and bone strength and to identify potential targets for strategies that protect against fractures. This review will discuss the updated epidemiology of fractures in CKD, fracture risk screening by DXA, and the utility of state-of-the art imaging methods to uncover the effects of kidney disease on the skeleton.

  8. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. PMID:26978397

  9. Prospective cohort study of spinal muscular atrophy types 2 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Petra; McDermott, Michael P.; Darras, Basil T.; Finkel, Richard S.; Sproule, Douglas M.; Kang, Peter B.; Oskoui, Maryam; Constantinescu, Andrei; Gooch, Clifton L.; Foley, A. Reghan; Yang, Michele L.; Tawil, Rabi; Chung, Wendy K.; Martens, William B.; Montes, Jacqueline; Battista, Vanessa; O'Hagen, Jessica; Dunaway, Sally; Flickinger, Jean; Quigley, Janet; Riley, Susan; Glanzman, Allan M.; Benton, Maryjane; Ryan, Patricia A.; Punyanitya, Mark; Montgomery, Megan J.; Marra, Jonathan; Koo, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the natural history of spinal muscular atrophy type 2 and type 3 (SMA 2/3) beyond 1 year and to report data on clinical and biological outcomes for use in trial planning. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 79 children and young adults with SMA 2/3 who participated in evaluations for up to 48 months. Clinically, we evaluated motor and pulmonary function, quality of life, and muscle strength. We also measured SMN2 copy number, hematologic and biochemical profiles, muscle mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the compound motor action potential (CMAP) in a hand muscle. Data were analyzed for associations between clinical and biological/laboratory characteristics cross-sectionally, and for change over time in outcomes using all available data. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, certain biological measures (specifically, CMAP, DXA fat-free mass index, and SMN2 copy number) and muscle strength measures were associated with motor function. Motor and pulmonary function declined over time, particularly at time points beyond 12 months of follow-up. Conclusion: The intermediate and mild phenotypes of SMA show slow functional declines when observation periods exceed 1 year. Whole body muscle mass, hand muscle compound motor action potentials, and muscle strength are associated with clinical measures of motor function. The data from this study will be useful for clinical trial planning and suggest that CMAP and DXA warrant further evaluation as potential biomarkers. PMID:23077013

  10. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repeatability for the BIA method was established from duplicate measurements. Body composition was then determined by BIA in 1139 girls and 1243 boys aged 7-16 years, who were randomly sampled in eight local primary and secondary schools to establish reference ranges.
RESULTS—The 95% limits of agreement between BIA and DXA methods were considered acceptable (−3.3 kg to −0.5 kg fat mass and −3.9 to 0.6% body fat). The percentage body fat increased with increasing age. Compared to the 1993 Hong Kong growth survey, these children had higher body mass index. Mean (SD) percentage body fat at 7years of age was 17.2% (4.4%) and 14.0% (3.4%) respectively for boys and girls, which increased to 19.3% (4.8%) and 27.8% (6.3%) at age 16.
CONCLUSION—Leg to leg BIA is a valid alternative method to DXA for the measurement of body fat. Provisional reference ranges for percentage body fat for Hong Kong Chinese children aged 7-16 years are provided.

 PMID:11517118

  11. REVIEW: Development of methods for body composition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.

    2006-07-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.

  12. Multiple frequency bioimpedance is an adequate tool to assess total and regional fat mass in HIV-positive patients but not to diagnose HIV-associated lipoatrophy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Metola, Luis; Sanz, Mercedes; Hernando, Luis; Martínez, Sagrario; Ramírez, Arsenio; Ramalle-Gomara, Enrique; Oteo, José A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome causes systemic metabolic alterations and psychological distress that worsen the quality of life of these patients. An early detection should be considered to efficiently treat it. Objective criteria or reference indices are needed for an early diagnosis. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is an operator-independent, repeatable and non-invasive method of body composition evaluation that is less expensive than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or CT scans. The aims of this pilot study were to validate the data obtained by BIA to measure fat mass in HIV-positive patients with/without lipoatrophy and to determine if BIA correctly diagnoses lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients. Methods Thirty-nine participants were included in this preliminary study. Fourteen were HIV-negative (eight men) whereas 25 were HIV-positive patients (17 men). Eleven of the HIV-positive patients were classified as lipoatrophic according to subjective evaluation by the physicians. Total and regional body composition was measured in basal conditions by DXA and by BIA. To obtain abdominal CT scan fat values, transverse slices with 6-mm thickness were acquired at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Results BIA measurements of total and regional body fat were significantly correlated with those obtained by DXA (p < 0.05 to <0.01) in HIV-positive patients. However, agreement between methods was poor as not very high ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient) values were observed. BIA and DXA showed higher ICC values in lipoatrophic patients. The visceral index obtained by BIA was correlated with total and visceral fat in L4 measured by CT scan (r = 0.607 and r = 0.617, respectively, p < 0.01) in HIV-positive patients. The Fat Mass Ratio (FMR) calculated by BIA did not correlate or agree with DXA values. Conclusions Multi-frequency BIA could be an effective method to evaluate the evolution of total and regional fat composition in HIV

  13. Development and validation of anthropometric prediction equations for estimation of lean body mass and appendicular lean soft tissue in Indian men and women.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Taylor, Amy; Wells, Jonathan C; Radhakrishna, K V; Kinra, Sanjay; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2013-10-15

    Lean body mass (LBM) and muscle mass remain difficult to quantify in large epidemiological studies due to the unavailability of inexpensive methods. We therefore developed anthropometric prediction equations to estimate the LBM and appendicular lean soft tissue (ALST) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Healthy volunteers (n = 2,220; 36% women; age 18-79 yr), representing a wide range of body mass index (14-44 kg/m(2)), participated in this study. Their LBM, including ALST, was assessed by DXA along with anthropometric measurements. The sample was divided into prediction (60%) and validation (40%) sets. In the prediction set, a number of prediction models were constructed using DXA-measured LBM and ALST estimates as dependent variables and a combination of anthropometric indices as independent variables. These equations were cross-validated in the validation set. Simple equations using age, height, and weight explained >90% variation in the LBM and ALST in both men and women. Additional variables (hip and limb circumferences and sum of skinfold thicknesses) increased the explained variation by 5-8% in the fully adjusted models predicting LBM and ALST. More complex equations using all of the above anthropometric variables could predict the DXA-measured LBM and ALST accurately, as indicated by low standard error of the estimate (LBM: 1.47 kg and 1.63 kg for men and women, respectively), as well as good agreement by Bland-Altman analyses (Bland JM, Altman D. Lancet 1: 307-310, 1986). These equations could be a valuable tool in large epidemiological studies assessing these body compartments in Indians and other population groups with similar body composition.

  14. Periprosthetic bone loss after insertion of an uncemented, customized femoral stem and an uncemented anatomical stem

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Customized femoral stems are designed to have a perfect fit and fill in the femur in order to achieve physiological load transfer and minimize stress shielding. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is regarded as an accurate method for detection of small alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) around hip prostheses. We present medium-term DXA results from a randomized study comparing a customized and an anatomical femoral stem. Methods 100 hips were randomized to receive either the anatomical ABG-I stem or the Unique customized femoral stem, both uncemented. DXA measurements were conducted postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months, and BMD was computed for each of the 7 Gruen zones in the proximal femur. Results Results from 87 patients were available for analysis. 78 completed the 5-year follow-up: 35 patients in the ABG group and 43 patients in the Unique group. In both groups, we found the greatest degree of bone loss in the proximal Gruen zones. In zone 1, there was 15% reduction in BMD in the ABG-I group and 14% reduction in the Unique group. In zone 7, the reduction was 28% in the ABG-I group and 27% in the Unique group. The only statistically significant difference between the groups was found in Gruen zone 4, which is distal to the tip of the stem, with 1.6% reduction in BMD in the ABG-I group and 9.7% reduction in the Unique group (p = 0.003). Interpretation 5-year DXA results showed that because of stress-shielding, proximal bone loss could not be avoided—either for the anatomical ABG-I stem or for the customized Unique stem. PMID:21668387

  15. New perspectives in echographic diagnosis of osteoporosis on hip and spine

    PubMed Central

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Pisani, Paola; Muratore, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Currently, the accepted “gold standard” method for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and osteoporosis diagnosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, actual DXA effectiveness is limited by several factors, including intrinsic accuracy uncertainties and possible errors in patient positioning and/or post-acquisition data analysis. DXA employment is also restricted by the typical issues related to ionizing radiation employment (high costs, need of dedicated structures and certified operators, unsuitability for population screenings). The only commercially-available alternative to DXA is represented by “quantitative ultrasound” (QUS) approaches, which are radiation-free, cheaper and portable, but they cannot be applied on the reference anatomical sites (lumbar spine and proximal femur). Therefore, their documented clinical usefulness is restricted to calcaneal applications on elderly patients (aged over 65 y), in combination with clinical risk factors and only for the identification of healthy subjects at low fracture risk. Literature-reported studies performed some QUS measurements on proximal femur, but their clinical translation is mostly hindered by intrinsic factors (e.g., device bulkiness). An innovative ultrasound methodology has been recently introduced, which performs a combined analysis of B-mode images and corresponding “raw” radiofrequency signals acquired during an echographic scan of the target reference anatomical site, providing two novel parameters: Osteoporosis Score and Fragility Score, indicative of BMD level and bone strength, respectively. This article will provide a brief review of the available systems for osteoporosis diagnosis in clinical routine contexts, followed by a synthesis of the most promising research results on the latest ultrasound developments for early osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture prevention. PMID:26604940

  16. Bone mineral density predicts fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    West, Sarah L; Lok, Charmaine E; Langsetmo, Lisa; Cheung, Angela M; Szabo, Eva; Pearce, Dawn; Fusaro, Maria; Wald, Ron; Weinstein, Jordan; Jamal, Sophie A

    2015-05-01

    Fractures are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The optimal methods by which to assess fracture risk are unknown, in part, due to a lack of prospective studies. We determined if bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and/or high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) could predict fractures in men and women ≥18 years old with stages 3 to 5 CKD. BMD was measured by DXA (at the total hip, lumbar spine, ultradistal, and 1/3 radius) and by HRpQCT (at the radius), and subjects were followed for 2 years for incident morphometric spine fractures and low-trauma clinical fractures. The mean age of the subjects was 62 years with equal numbers having stages 3, 4, and 5 CKD. Over 2 years there were 51 fractures in 35 subjects. BMD by DXA at baseline was significantly lower at all sites among those with incident fractures versus those without. For example, the mean BMD at the total hip in those with incident fractures was 0.77 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.80) and in those without fracture was 0.95 g/cm2 (95% CI, 0.92 to 0.98). Almost all baseline HRpQCT measures were lower in those with incident fracture versus those without. For example, volumetric BMD in those with incident fractures was 232 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 213 to 251) and in those without fracture was 317.6 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 306 to 329.1). Bone loss occurred in all subjects, but was significantly greater among those with incident fractures. Our data demonstrate that low BMD (by DXA and HRpQCT) and a greater annualized percent decrease in BMD are risk factors for subsequent fracture in men and women with predialysis CKD.

  17. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: body composition analysis reporting.

    PubMed

    Petak, Steven; Barbu, Carmen G; Yu, Elaine W; Fielding, Roger; Mulligan, Kathleen; Sabowitz, Brian; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Shepherd, John A

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of body composition increasingly are used in the evaluation of clinical disorders, but there has been little guidance on how to effectively report these measures. Uniformity in reporting of body composition measures will aid in the diagnosis of clinical disorders such as obesity, sarcopenia, and lipodystrophy. At the 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference on body composition, the reporting section recommended that all DXA body composition reports should contain parameters of body mass index, bone mineral density, BMC, total mass, total lean mass, total fat mass, and percent fat mass. The inclusion of additional measures of adiposity and lean mass are optional, including visceral adipose tissue, appendicular lean mass index, android/gynoid percent fat ratio, trunk to leg fat mass ratio, lean mass index, and fat mass index. Within the United States, we recommend the use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 body composition dataset as an age-, gender-, and race-specific reference and to calibrate BMC in 4-compartment models. Z-scores and percentiles of body composition measures may be useful for clinical interpretation if methods are used to adjust for non-normality. In particular, DXA body composition measures may be useful for risk-stratification of obese and sarcopenic patients, but there needs to be validation of thresholds to define obesity and sarcopenia. To summarize, these guidelines provide evidence-based standards for the reporting and clinical application of DXA-based measures of body composition.

  18. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  19. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.

  20. Estimation of In Vivo Bone Strength Using Ultrasound Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogata, Fumio; Shimamoto, Akira; Habu, Toshihiko

    A new method for estimating in vivo bone strength using ultrasound inspection is described, which can allow diagnose of osteoporosis from the viewpoint of mechanical integrity. The method was based on the two-dimensional area fraction of bone calculated from the difference in the speed of ultrasound propagation through cancellous bone. Then bulk Young's modulus was calculated for various architectures of the cancellous bone with the bone area fraction (S) using finite element method. Since there was a good relationship between the BMD (bone mineral density) by DXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) method and the bone area fraction by ultrasound inspection, the technique also allows the estimation of in vivo BMD of the spine, which has been traditionally used at medical area to diagnose osteoporosis. Note that the periodic estimation of the bulk Young's modulus and strength applying the technique is effective to predict the fracture risk for in vivo bone.

  1. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  2. Fat and Lean Masses in Youths with Down Syndrome: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP)…

  3. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  4. TIBIAL PLATEAU PROXIMAL AND DISTAL BONE BEHAVE SIMILARLY: BOTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FEATURES OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing imperative to understand how changes in peri-articular bone relate to pathological progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Peri-articular bone density can be measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) is associated with MRI and...

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance for measurement of body composition in infants and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of body composition in infants and children is currently challenging. Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP) has not been validated between ages 6 mo and 6 y and the requirement for stillness of the Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) technique limits its use. Quantitative Nuclear Ma...

  6. Body mass index bias in defining obesity of diverse young adults: The Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BMI cut-score used to define overweight and obesity was derived primarily using data from Caucasian men and women. The present study evaluated the racial/ethnic bias of BMI to estimate the adiposity of young men and women (aged 17–35 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) determinat...

  7. Bone Densitometry in Children.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-07-01

    Maximizing peak bone mass in childhood is relevant to optimizing bone health in later life, so the study of the skeleton in children in health and disease is important. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used clinical tool for the assessment of bone status in children. Technological developments in DXA enable vertebral fracture assessment at much lower ionizing radiation doses than spinal radiographs. Quantitative computed tomography remains predominantly a research tool but has some advantages over DXA in not being size dependent. High-resolution peripheral computed tomography measures trabecular and cortical bone microstructure but is technically challenging, particularly in children, and not widely available, so it is unlikely to be used in clinical practice. Other quantitative techniques (quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, digital X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative ultrasound) have been applied in children but remain research applications, and they are only covered briefly in this review.

  8. Factors that influence bone mass of healthy children and adolescents measured by quantitative ultrasound at the hand phalanges: a systematic review☆

    PubMed Central

    Krahenbühl, Tathyane; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the main factors that influence bone mass in children and teenagers assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the phalanges. Data source: A systematic literature review was performed according to the PRISMA method with searches in databases Pubmed/Medline, SciELO and Bireme for the period 2001-2012, in English and Portuguese languages, using the keywords: children, teenagers, adolescent, ultrasound finger phalanges, quantitative ultrasound of phalanges, phalangeal quantitative ultrasound. Data synthesis: 21 articles were included. Girls had, in QUS, Amplitude Dependent Speed of Sound (AD-SoS) values higher than boys during pubertal development. The values of the parameters of QUS of the phalanges and dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) increased with the increase of the maturational stage. Anthropometric variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass showed positive correlations with the values of QUS of the phalanges. Physical activity has also been shown to be positively associated with increased bone mass. Factors such as ethnicity, genetics, caloric intake and socioeconomic profile have not yet shown a conclusive relationship and need a larger number of studies. Conclusions: QUS of the phalanges is a method used to evaluate the progressive acquisition of bone mass during growth and maturation of individuals in school phase, by monitoring changes that occur with increasing age and pubertal stage. There were mainly positive influences variables of sex, maturity, height, weight and BMI, with similar data when compared to the gold standard method, the DXA. PMID:25479860

  9. Normal range of BMD in proximal tibia as a different skeletal site at women

    PubMed Central

    Aluclu, Mustafa Arif; Bati, Fatih; Kekilli, Ersoy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is progressive metabolic bone disease that decreases bone density and features deterioration of bone structure. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is commonly used and reliable method to measure bone mineral density (BMD). Aim of this study was to determine normal ranges of BMD in left proximal tibia. METHODS: Fifty-five females were included in this study. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and the left proximal tibia using DXA. BMD value of subregions in the left proximal tibia was significantly correlated with BMD value of the total lumbar spine (r=0.111–0.766). New average BMD values of the left proximal tibia were calculated according to age using linear regression formula, leading to average BMD value for the total lumbar spine (L1-L4) in normal population. New simulated T-scores for proximal subregions of the tibia were then calculated. RESULTS: T-scores for proximal subregions were not different from T-scores of total lumbar spine (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that proximal tibia is an ideal region for measurement of BMD in osteoporosis. PMID:28275752

  10. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Jason L.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.; Mahan, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA. PMID:26124831

  11. A New Equation to Estimate Muscle Mass from Creatinine and Cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Kwang-il; Chin, Ho Jun; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Background With evaluation for physical performance, measuring muscle mass is an important step in detecting sarcopenia. However, there are no methods to estimate muscle mass from blood sampling. Methods To develop a new equation to estimate total-body muscle mass with serum creatinine and cystatin C level, we designed a cross-sectional study with separate derivation and validation cohorts. Total body muscle mass and fat mass were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 214 adults aged 25 to 84 years who underwent physical checkups from 2010 to 2013 in a single tertiary hospital. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were also examined. Results Serum creatinine was correlated with muscle mass (P < .001), and serum cystatin C was correlated with body fat mass (P < .001) after adjusting glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After eliminating GFR, an equation to estimate total-body muscle mass was generated and coefficients were calculated in the derivation cohort. There was an agreement between muscle mass calculated by the novel equation and measured by DXA in both the derivation and validation cohort (P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.829, β = 0.95, P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.856, β = 1.03, respectively). Conclusion The new equation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C levels can be used to estimate total-body muscle mass. PMID:26849842

  12. Survey of risk factors for osteoporosis and osteoprotective behaviors among patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, Marianna; Wagner, Mary L; Wu, Brenda Y

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis in persons with epilepsy, patients' awareness of their risk, and their engagement in osteoprotective behaviors were assessed in this study. Two hundred and sixty patients with epilepsy (F=51.5%, average age=42) completed a survey tool. Of 106 patients with a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) result, 52% had low bone mineral density, and 11% had osteoporosis. The results suggest that the majority of patients with epilepsy do not engage in bone-protective behaviors. Those who have undergone a DXA scan may be more likely to take calcium and vitamin D supplementation compared with those who did not undergo a DXA scan, but they do not engage in other osteoprotective behaviors. Many patients did not accurately report their DXA results, indicating that better patient education is warranted.

  13. Impact of creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean mass in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Camila Lemos; Botelho, Patrícia Borges; Carneiro, Juliana Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Human ageing is a process characterized by loss of muscle mass, strength, and bone mass. We aimed to examine the efficacy of low‐dose creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on lean mass, strength, and bone mass in the elderly. Methods This was a 12‐week, parallel‐group, double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled trial. The individuals were randomly allocated into one of the following groups: placebo plus resistance training (PL + RT) and creatine supplementation plus resistance training (CR + RT) . The participants were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were lean mass and strength, assessed by dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ten‐repetition maximal tests (10 RM), respectively. Secondary outcomes included the lumbar spine, right and left femoral neck, both femur and whole body bone mineral density (BMD), and whole body bone mineral content (BMC), assessed by DXA. Results The CR + RT group had superior gains in lean mass when compared with the PL + RT group (P = 0.02). Changes in the 10 RM tests in bench press and leg press exercises, body composition, BMD, and BMC of all assessed sites did not significantly differ between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions Twelve weeks of low‐dose creatine supplementation associated with resistance training resulted in increases in lean mass in the elderly. PMID:27239423

  14. Body Composition, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function of Patients with Bethlem Myopathy and Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Miscione, Maria Teresa; Bruno, Francesca; Ripamonti, Claudio; Nervuti, Giuliana; Orsini, Riccardo; Faldini, Cesare; Pellegrini, Massimo; Cocchi, Daniela; Merlini, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the contributions of body mass, adiposity, and muscularity to physical function and muscle strength in adult patients with Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). Materials and Methods. Evaluation involved one UCMD and 7 BM patients. Body composition was determined by body mass index (BMI) and dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry (DXA), muscle strength by dynamometry, physical function by the distance walked in 6 minutes (6MWD), forced vital capacity (FVC) by a spirometer. Results. Six participants were of normal weight and 2 overweight based on BMI; all were sarcopenic based on appendicular fat free mass index (AFFMI); and 7 were sarcopenic obese based on AFFMI and % fat mass. Average muscle strength was reduced below 50% of normal. The 6MWD was in BM patients 30% less than normal. FVC was reduced in 4 of the BM patients. Muscle strength had a good correlation with the physical function variables. Correlation between muscle strength and BMI was poor; it was very high with AFFMI. AFFMI was the best single explicator of muscle strength and physical function. Conclusion. Muscle mass determined by DXA explains most of the variability of the measures of muscle strength and physical function in patients with BM and UCMD. PMID:24163611

  15. Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hwa; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study determined which obesity measurement correlates the best with diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 1603 subjects (611 men, 992 women; age 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist-thigh ratio, and visceral fat were used as measures of obesity. Visceral fat was acquired using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were defined using the criteria in the American Diabetes Association 2015 guidelines. Results After adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors, participants with a visceral fat mass in the upper 10th percentile had a higher odds ratio (OR) for diabetes and prediabetes than the upper 10th percentile of other adiposity indices [men, OR=15.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.4–39.2; women, OR=6.9, 95% CI=3.5–13.7]. Visceral fat mass also had the highest area under the curve with diabetes and prediabetes in both men (0.69, 95% CI=0.64–0.73) and women (0.70, 95% CI=0.67–0.74) compared to other anthropometric measurements of obesity. Conclusion Visceral fat mass measured using DXA is an indicator of diabetes or prediabetes, due to its ability to differentiate between abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat. PMID:26996568

  16. Use of fast neutrons for assessing sarcopenia by measuring body phosphorus: relevance to health and quality of life of the elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, Joseph J.; Zhuang, Hong; Doherty, Patricia L.

    1997-02-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as the loss of skeletal muscle with age, may lead to frailty, fractures due to falls, and reduced immunity to disease. By understanding the causes of muscle loss with age we will be able to develop ways of maintaining functional capacity and quality of life for the elderly. Elemental Partition Analysis (EPA) is a new approach to body composition assessment. A major element of the body is measured and then, by means of other measurements, is partitioned to the contributing body compartments. We developed a model for measuring total body muscle by applying the EPA method to total body phosphorus (TBP). We measure TBP by in vivo fast neutron activation analysis using the reaction 31P(n,(alpha) )28Al. The main contributors to TBP are bone and skeletal muscle. Adipose tissue and the liver contribute less than 3 percent. We use dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate the contribution of bone to TBP. COrrections are applied for the small contributions of the liver and adipose tissue to TBP to derive muscle phosphorus. The technique requires high precision measurements for both TBP and DXA. The total body radiation exposure for measuring human subjects is 0.30 mSv.

  17. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  18. Metabolic effects of adjunctive aripiprazole in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoduo; Borba, Christina P.C.; Copeland, Paul; Hayden, Doug; Freudenreich, Oliver; Goff, Donald C.; Henderson, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of adjunctive aripiprazole therapy on metabolism in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. Method In an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects received either aripiprazole (15mg/day) or placebo. At baseline and week 8, metabolic parameters were assessed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Thirty subjects completed the study (16 in the aripiprazole group and 14 in the placebo group). Glucose effectiveness measured by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test improved significantly in the aripiprazole group (0.003 ± 0.006 versus −0.005 ± 0.007/min, P = 0.010). The aripiprazole group showed significant reductions in both plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (−15.1 ± 19.8 vs. 4.4 ± 22.5 mg/dl, P = 0.019) and LDL particle numbers (−376 ± 632 vs. −36 ± 301 nM, P= 0.035). Further, there was a significant reduction in lean mass (−1125 ± 1620 vs. 607 ± 1578 g, P= 0.011) measured by whole-body DXA scan in the aripiprazole group. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, aripiprazole vs. placebo. Conclusion Adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole may have some metabolic benefits in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22943577

  19. Osteoporosis and Osteopathy Markers in Patients with Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Alpay Kanıtez, Nilüfer; Erer, Burak; Doğan, Öner; Büyükbabani, Nesimi; Baykal, Can; Sindel, Dilşad; Tanakol, Refik; Yavuz, Akif Selim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Osteoporosis, osteosclerosis, and lytic bone lesions have been observed in patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM). We examined bone mineral density (BMD) biochemical turnover markers and serum tryptase levels in SM, which is considered a rare disease. Materials and Methods: Seventeen adult patients (5 females, 12 males; median age: 33 years, range: 20-64) with mastocytosis were included in this study. We investigated the value of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus in the assessment of BMD in SM patients, as well as BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, and distal radius using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and plasma tryptase levels, biochemical markers of bone turnover. Results: At lumbar spine L1-L4, the femoral neck, and the distal radius or as calcaneus stiffness, 12 of 17 patients had T-scores of less than -1 at least at 1 site, reflecting osteopenia. Three of 17 patients had T-scores showing osteoporosis (T-score <-2.5). There was no relationship between DXA and bone lesion severity. We also found a significant positive correlation between tryptase levels and disease severity, as well as between disease severity and pyridinoline (p<0.01 by Spearman’s test). Conclusion: DXA and calcaneal QUS may not be appropriate techniques to assess bone involvement in SM patients because of the effects of osteosclerosis. This study further shows that the osteoclastic marker pyridinoline is helpful in patients with severe disease activity and sclerotic bone lesions to show bone demineralization. PMID:25805674

  20. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard V; Walker, Ann C; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L; Leonard, Michael S; Miller, Ram R; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2014-06-15

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19-30 yr, 70-84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51-62 yr, 70-84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA.

  1. Abdominal Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Burden in Adolescents-Penn State Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Berg, Arthur; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Sawyer, Marjorie D.; Liao, Duanping

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To investigate the association between abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) burden in a population-based sample of adolescents. METHODS We used the data from 421 adolescents who completed the follow-up examination in the Penn State Children Cohort study. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess abdominal obesity, as measured by android/gynoid fat ratio (A/G ratio), android/whole body fat proportion (A/W proportion), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous fat (SAT) areas. Continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS), calculated as the sum of the age and sex-adjusted standardized residual (Z-score) of five established MetS components, was used to assess the MetS burden. Linear regression models were used to analyze the impact of DXA measures on cMetS and individual cMetS components. All models were adjusted for age, race, sex, and general obesity. RESULTS Abdominal obesity is significantly associated with increased cMetS. With 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in A/G ratio, A/W proportion, VAT area, and SAT area, cMetS increased by 1.34 (SE=0.17), 1.25 (SE=0.19), 1.67 (SE=0.17), and 1.84 (SE=0.20) units, respectively. At individual component level, strongest association was observed between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance than lipid-based or blood pressure-based components. VAT and SAT had a stronger impact on insulin resistance than android ratio-based DXA measurements. CONCLUSIONS Abdominal obesity is associated with higher MetS burden in adolescent population. The association between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance measure is the strongest, suggesting the key impact of abdominal obesity on insulin resistance in adolescents Mets burden. PMID:25220887

  2. Predicting the failure load of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Muller, Monique E; Webber, Colin E; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2003-06-01

    The distal radius is an important site for the early detection of patients at risk for fracture. Since measuring bone strength in vivo is not possible, we evaluated which bone assessment method of the forearm would best predict failure load of the distal radius and computed a factor of risk for wrist fracture (Phi wrist). Thirty-eight cadaveric forearm specimens were measured by five different techniques to assess bone density, bone mineral content, geometry and trabecular structure at the distal forearm. The bone assessment techniques included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the radius, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the 4% and 20% distal sites of the radius, DXA of the phalanges, digital X-ray radiogrammetry of the forearm (DXR-BMD), and quantitative ultrasound of the radius. The failure load of each excised radius was determined by simulating a fall on an outstretched hand. The pQCT measurements of polar stress-strain index and cortical content explained the greatest portion of variance in failure load (r2=0.82-0.85). Bone mineral content measures were generally better predictors of failure load (r2=0.53-0.85) than the corresponding volumetric or areal bone mineral density values (r2=0.22-0.69) measured by either pQCT or DXA. Multiple regression analysis showed that the addition of a bone geometry measure improved the ability of a bone density measure alone to predict failure load. There was high variability in the ability of different techniques and different variables within a given technique to predict failure load. Estimates of the factor of risk for wrist fracture (Phi wrist) revealed that the women in this study would have been likely to fracture their distal radius upon falling from a standing height (Phi wrist= 1.04), whereas the men would have likely withstood the impact without fracturing their wrist (Phi wrist= 0.79).

  3. Comparison of the Male Osteoporosis Risk Estimation Score (MORES) With FRAX in Identifying Men at Risk for Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Alvah R.; Shepherd, Angela J.; Asirot, Rechelle; Mahajan, Manju; Nizami, Maimoona

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We wanted to compare the male osteoporosis risk estimation score (MORES) with the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) in screening men for osteoporosis. METHODS This study reports analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a nationally representative sample of the US population, comparing the operating characteristics of FRAX and MORES to identify men at risk for osteoporosis using a subset of 1,498 men, aged 50 years and older, with a valid dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. DXA-derived bone mineral density using a T score of −2.5 or lower at either the femoral neck or total hip defined the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Outcomes included the operating characteristics, area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve, and agreement of the FRAX and MORES. RESULTS Sixty-seven (4.5%) of the 1,498 men had osteoporosis of the hip. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) for the MORES were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.87–0.99), 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58–0.63), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84–0.91), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for the FRAX were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.27–0.51), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.88–0.91), and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75–0.84) respectively. Agreement was poor. CONCLUSIONS Compared with the MORES, the FRAX underperformed as a screening strategy for osteoporosis using the threshold score suggested by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). An integrated approach that uses the MORES to determine which men should have a DXA scan and the FRAX to guide treatment decisions, based on the risk of a future fracture, identified 82% of men who were candidates for treatments based on National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines. PMID:27401426

  4. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Vlychou, Marianna; Alexiou, Evangelos; Thriskos, Paschalis; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p < 0.01 in both groups), whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p = 0.02). Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  5. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, Evangelos; Thriskos, Paschalis; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p < 0.01 in both groups), whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p = 0.02). Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients. PMID:27956899

  6. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  7. Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Sulet, M.; Lichtman, S.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. ); Kehayias, J. . USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts Univ.); Kamen, Y.; Dilmanian, F.A. ); Lindsay, R. . Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons)

    1989-01-01

    Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. [Body composition analysis in obesity: radionuclide and non radionuclide methods].

    PubMed

    Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Krassas, Gerasimos E; Doumas, Argirios

    2008-01-01

    Body composition (BC) assessment provides important information regarding the absolute or relative amount of bone, lean and fat tissue. Different somatometric techniques have been applied in numerous epidemiological and experimental studies, as well as in every day clinical practice. Traditional techniques for BC analysis include skin fold thickness measurements, radioisotope dilution methods, hydrodensitometry and underwater weighing, while newer techniques include bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-rays absorptiometry (DEXA), computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, positron emission tomography helped to the functional investigation of adipose tissue, in particular of brown tissue. All these techniques have contributed a lot to the understanding of physiological conditions such as exercise training, menopause and ageing, adolescence health parameters, as well as pathological conditions such as disorders of nutrition, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus. In obesity, BC contributed to diagnosis and the pathological impact of visceral adipose tissue. In addition, conditions such as pseudo- or hypermuscular obesity and sarcopenia, which are often observed in various endocrine diseases, were investigated in detail by using such methods. During weight loss, some of these methods were quite accurate in measuring changes in fat and lean mass. Apart from anthropometric measurements, a BC measurement if possible should be included in obesity assessment. Measurements of skin fold thickness combined with BIA are quite sufficient for routine clinical practice. However, in specialized clinics and in research, more sophisticated methods like ADP or DEXA are used.

  9. A randomized trial of a mailed intervention and self-scheduling to improve osteoporosis screening in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Warriner, Amy H; Outman, Ryan C; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Morgan, Sarah; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    Guidelines recommend bone density screening with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women 65 years or older, but <30% of eligible women undergo DXA testing. There is a need to identify a systematic, effective, and generalizable way to improve osteoporosis screening. A group randomized, controlled trial of women ≥65 years old with no DXA in the past 4 years, randomized to receive intervention materials (patient osteoporosis brochure and a letter explaining how to self-schedule a DXA scan) versus usual care (control) was undertaken. Outcome of interest was DXA completion. Of 2997 women meeting inclusion criteria, 977 were randomized to the intervention group. A total of 17.3% of women in the intervention group completed a DXA, compared to 5.2% in the control group (12.1% difference, p < 0.0001). When including only those medically appropriate, we found a difference of 19% between the two groups (p < 0.0001). DXA receipt was greater in main clinic patients compared to satellite clinic patients (20.9% main clinic versus 10.1% satellite clinic). The cost to print and mail the intervention was $0.79 per patient, per mailing. The number of women to whom intervention needed to be mailed to yield one extra DXA performed was 9, at a cost of $7.11. DXA scan completion was significantly improved through use of a mailed osteoporosis brochure and the availability for patients to self-schedule. This simple approach may be an effective component of a multifaceted quality improvement program to increase rates of osteoporosis screening.

  10. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  11. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life

  12. Inter-methods agreement for the assessment of percentage of body fat between two laboratory methods in male adolescent cyclists.

    PubMed

    González-Agüero, Alejandro; Olmedillas, Hugo; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Guillén-Ballester, Alexander; Casajús, José A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Examinar la validez inter-métodos entre la absorciometría rayos X (DXA) y la pletismografía por desplazamiento de aire (PDA) en ciclistas varones adolescentes, para la evaluación del porcentaje de grasa corporal. Métodos: Se evaluó el porcentaje de grasa corporal de 24 ciclistas varones adolescentes mediante DXA y PDA. La validez inter-métodos se determinó mediante un gráfico de Bland-Altman; se calculó la diferencia intermétodo y los límites de concordancia mediante test t de Student. Se examinó también la heteroscedasticidad ente ambos métodos. Resultados: Los valores de porcentaje de grasa corporal obtenidos por el DXA fueron más elevados que los obtenidos por PDA, y el gráfico presentó heteroscedasticidad (ambos p < 0,05; r = 0,74). Conclusión: El DXA y la PDA no son métodos comparables para la evaluación del porcentaje de grasa en nuestra muestra de ciclistas varones adolescentes; esto debería ser tenido en cuenta a la hora de evaluar cambios longitudinales en esta determinada población.

  13. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  14. Correlations among four measures of thoracic kyphosis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T. H.; Wing, D.; Davis, A.; Bergstrom, J.; Schousboe, J. T.; Nichols, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary There are many ways to measure thoracic kyphosis ranging from simple clinical to more complex assessments. We evaluated the correlation among four commonly used kyphosis measures: Cobb angle, Debrunner kyphometer, kyphotic index, and the blocks method. Each measure was correlated with the others, confirming high clinical and research applicability. Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess the associations among four commonly used measures of thoracic kyphosis in older adults. Methods Seventy two men and women aged 65–96 were recruited from the San Diego community. Four kyphosis measures were assessed in the same person during a baseline clinic visit. Two measures were done in the lying (L) and two in the standing (ST) position: (1) Cobb angle calculated from dual X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA) images (L), (2) Debrunner kyphometer (DK) angle measured by a protractor (ST), (3) kyphotic index (KI) calculated using an architect’s flexicurve ruler (ST), and (4) the blocks method involving counting the number of 1.7 cm-thick blocks required to achieve a neutral head position while lying flat on the DXA table (L). Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to determine the strength of the association between each kyphosis measure. Results Using the Cobb angle as the gold standard, the blocks method demonstrated the lowest correlation (rs =0.63, p<0.0001), the Debrunner method had a moderate correlation (rs=0.65, p<0.0001), and the kyphotic index had the highest correlation (rs=0.68, p<0.0001). The correlation was strongest between the kyphotic index and the Debrunner kyphometer (rs=0.76, p<0.0001). Conclusion In older men and women, all four measures of thoracic kyphosis were significantly correlated with each other, whether assessed in the lying or standing position. Thus, any of these measures demonstrate both potential clinical and research utility. PMID:26475287

  15. Prediction of body fat percentage from skinfold and bio-impedance measurements in Indian school children

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Sarah H.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Lubree, Himangi G.; Wills, Andrew K.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Kishore, Ravi; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Kurpad, Anura

    2011-01-01

    Background Few equations for calculating body fat percentage (BF%) from field methods have been developed in South Asian children. Objective To assess agreement between BF% derived from primary reference methods and that from skinfold equations and bio-impedance analysis (BIA) in Indian children. Methods We measured BF% in two groups of Indian children. In Pune, 570 rural children aged 6-8 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In Mysore 18O was administered to 59 urban children aged 7-9 years. We conducted BIA at 50kHz and anthropometry including subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses. We used the published equations of Wickramasinghe, Shaikh, Slaughter and Dezenburg to calculate BF% from anthropometric data and the manufacturer’s equation for BIA measurements. We assessed agreement with values derived from DXA and DLW using Bland Altman analysis. Results Children were light and thin compared to international standards. There was poor agreement between the reference BF% values and those from all equations. Assumptions for Bland Altman analysis were not met for Wickramasinghe, Shaikh and Slaughter equations. The Dezenberg equations under-predicted BF% for most children (mean difference in Pune −13.4, LOA −22.7, −4.0 and in Mysore −7.9, LOA −13.7 and −2.2). The mean bias for the BIA equation in Pune was +5.0% and in Mysore +1.95% and the LOA were wide; −5.0, 15.0 and −7.8, 11.7 respectively. Conclusions Currently available skinfold equations do not accurately predict BF% in Indian children. We recommend development of BIA equations in this population using a 4-compartment model. PMID:21731039

  16. Prediction equation for lower limbs lean soft tissue in circumpubertal boys using anthropometry and biological maturation.

    PubMed

    Valente-dos-Santos, João; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Malina, Robert M; Petroski, Édio L; Minderico, Cláudia S; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-01-01

    Lean soft tissue (LST), a surrogate of skeletal muscle mass, is largely limited to appendicular body regions. Simple and accurate methods to estimate lower limbs LST are often used in attempts to partition out the influence of body size on performance outputs. The aim of the current study was to develop and cross-validate a new model to predict lower limbs LST in boys aged 10-13 years, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method. Total body and segmental (lower limbs) composition were assessed with a Hologic Explorer-W QDR DXA scanner in a cross-sectional sample of 75 Portuguese boys (144.8±6.4 cm; 40.2±9.0 kg). Skinfolds were measured at the anterior and posterior mid-thigh, and medial calf. Circumferences were measured at the proximal, mid and distal thigh. Leg length was estimated as stature minus sitting height. Current stature expressed as a percentage of attained predicted mature stature (PMS) was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Backward proportional allometric models were used to identify the model with the best statistical fit: ln (lower limbs LST)  = 0.838× ln (body mass) +0.476× ln (leg length) - 0.135× ln (mid-thigh circumference) - 0.053× ln (anterior mid-thigh skinfold) - 0.098× ln (medial calf skinfold) - 2.680+0.010× (percentage of attained PMS) (R = 0.95). The obtained equation was cross-validated using the predicted residuals sum of squares statistics (PRESS) method (R2PRESS = 0.90). Deming repression analysis between predicted and current lower limbs LST showed a standard error of estimation of 0.52 kg (95% limits of agreement: 0.77 to -1.27 kg). The new model accurately predicts lower limbs LST in circumpubertal boys.

  17. The Use of NMR for Infant Body Composition, Comparison with DXA and Chemical Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is susceptible to programming during the early stages of development (in utero and/or during the first year of life). Obtaining accurate and precise measures of body composition (BC) in infants and children and through adulthood is critical to testing these hypotheses in both cross...

  18. The use of NMR for infant body composition, comparison with DXA and chemical analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is susceptible to programming during the early stages of development (in utero and/or during the first year of life). Obtaining accurate and precise measures of body composition (BC) in infants and children and through adulthood is critical to testing these hypotheses in both cross...

  19. The potential of classic and specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for the assessment of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Elisabetta; Buffa, Roberto; Saragat, Bruno; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Berton, Linda; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to investigate whether bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) can be a suitable technique for the assessment of sarcopenia. We also investigate the potential use of specific BIVA as an indicator of sarcopenic obesity. Subjects and methods The sample comprised 207 free-living elderly individuals of both sexes, aged 65 to 93 years. Anthropometric and bioelectrical measurements were taken according to standard criteria. The “classic” and “specific” BIVA procedures, which respectively correct bioelectrical values for body height and body geometry, were used. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the reference method for identifying sarcopenic and obese sarcopenic individuals. Bioelectrical and DXA values were compared using Student’s t-test and Hotelling’s T2 test, as well as Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results According to classic BIVA, sarcopenic individuals of both sexes showed higher values of resistance/height (R/H; p < 0.01) and impedance/height (Z/H; p < 0.01), and a lower phase angle (p < 0.01). Similarly, specific BIVA showed significant differences between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic individuals (men: T2 = 15.7, p < 0.01; women: T2 = 10.7, p < 0.01), with the sarcopenic groups showing a lower specific reactance and phase angle. Phase angle was positively correlated with the skeletal muscle mass index (men: r = 0.52, p < 0.01; women: r = 0.31, p < 0.01). Specific BIVA also recognized bioelectrical differences between sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese men (T2 = 13.4, p < 0.01), mainly due to the higher values of specific R in sarcopenic obese individuals. Conclusion BIVA detected muscle-mass variations in sarcopenic individuals, and specific BIVA was able to discriminate sarcopenic individuals from sarcopenic obese individuals. These procedures are promising tools for screening for presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity in routine practice. PMID:23269864

  20. The novel application of artificial neural network on bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess the body composition in elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to improve accuracy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) prediction equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) of the elderly by using non-linear Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) model and to compare the predictive accuracy with the linear regression model by using energy dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. Methods A total of 88 Taiwanese elderly adults were recruited in this study as subjects. Linear regression equations and BP-ANN prediction equation were developed using impedances and other anthropometrics for predicting the reference FFM measured by DXA (FFMDXA) in 36 male and 26 female Taiwanese elderly adults. The FFM estimated by BIA prediction equations using traditional linear regression model (FFMLR) and BP-ANN model (FFMANN) were compared to the FFMDXA. The measuring results of an additional 26 elderly adults were used to validate than accuracy of the predictive models. Results The results showed the significant predictors were impedance, gender, age, height and weight in developed FFMLR linear model (LR) for predicting FFM (coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.940; standard error of estimate (SEE) = 2.729 kg; root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.571kg, P < 0.001). The above predictors were set as the variables of the input layer by using five neurons in the BP-ANN model (r2 = 0.987 with a SD = 1.192 kg and relatively lower RMSE = 1.183 kg), which had greater (improved) accuracy for estimating FFM when compared with linear model. The results showed a better agreement existed between FFMANN and FFMDXA than that between FFMLR and FFMDXA. Conclusion When compared the performance of developed prediction equations for estimating reference FFMDXA, the linear model has lower r2 with a larger SD in predictive results than that of BP-ANN model, which indicated ANN model is more suitable for estimating FFM. PMID:23388042

  1. The use of routine non density calibrated clinical computed tomography data as a potentially useful screening tool for identifying patients with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Christopher John; Didolkar, Manjiri M.; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Vinson, Emily N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To evaluate whether lumbar vertebral body density CT attenuation values measured in Hounsfield Units (HUs) on routine Computed Tomography (CT) examinations can be reliably measured with limited variability, and to evaluate for a correlation between HUs and bone mineral density as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Methods Retrospective review of a total of 249 routine MDCT examinations, performed to measure HUs at the first non-rib bearing lumbar vertebral body on axial images, cross-referenced to the lateral scout image. Results The overall ICC and RC for intra-reader variability on CT HU were 0.987 (95% CI 0.973 – 0.999) and 15.664 (95% CI 11.66–16.97). The overall ICC and RDC for inter-reader variability on CT HU were 0.952 (95% CI 0.892 – 0.999) and 30.20 (95% CI 23.73 – 34.48). The ICC and RC for interscanner variability were 0.98 (95% CI 0.95 – 0.99) and 16.67 (95% CI 13.13 – 22.85). The correlation between the L1 HUs and L1 BMD, L1 t-score, and overall t-score was 0.437, 0.392, and 0.400, respectively. Conclusions CT attenuation values of the first lumbar vertebra can be measured on routine abdomen CTs with limited variability despite multiple readers and scanners. Correlation between HU and BMD as measured by DXA scan was only weakly positive, and by this method measuring the density of a lumbar vertebral body from a routine MDCT scan does not provide the sensitivity or specificity necessary for a screening test. However above a certain measured value (180 HU), patients have a low chance of osteoporosis and therefore may not need additional screening, potentially limiting radiation exposure and cost. PMID:27920811

  2. Trunk lean mass and its association with 4 different measures of thoracic kyphosis in older community dwelling persons

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, J.; Bergstrom, J.; Davis, A.; Wing, D.; Schousboe, J. T.; Nichols, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Background The causes of age-related hyperkyphosis (HK) include osteoporosis, but only 1/3 of those most severely affected have vertebral fractures, suggesting that there are other important, and potentially modifiable causes. We hypothesized that muscle mass and quality may be important determinants of kyphosis in older persons. Methods We recruited 72 persons >65 years to participate in a prospective study designed to evaluate kyphosis and fall risk. At the baseline visit, participants had their body composition measures completed using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). They had kyphosis measured in either the standing [S] or lying [L] position: 1) Cobb angle from DXA [L]; 2) Debrunner kyphometer [S]; 3) architect’s flexicurve ruler [S]; and 4) blocks method [L]. Multivariable linear/logistic regression analyses were done to assess the association between each body composition and 4 kyphosis measures. Results Women (n = 52) were an average age of 76.8 (SD 6.7) and men 80.5 (SD 7.8) years. They reported overall good/excellent health (93%), the average body mass index was 25.3 (SD 4.6) and 35% reported a fall in the past year. Using published cut-offs, about 20–30% were determined to have HK. For the standing assessments of kyphosis only, after adjusting for age, sex, weight and hip BMD, persons with lower TLM were more likely to be hyperkyphotic. Conclusions Lower TLM is associated with HK in older persons. The results were stronger when standing measures of kyphosis were used, suggesting that the effects of muscle on thoracic kyphosis are best appreciated under spinal loading conditions. PMID:28369088

  3. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Gheysens, Olivier; Pottel, Hans

    2016-03-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method's specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  4. REVIEW: A review of in vivo experimental methods to determine the composition of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, J. F.

    1996-05-01

    This review of experimental methods employed in the measurement of the composition of the human body covers the developments that have occurred over the past 30 years. Early methods such as hydrodensitometry and skinfold anthropometry have been superseded by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The measurement of the whole-body abundance of certain elements by isotopic dilution, neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence can give important information of clinical significance, but neutron activation facilities remain available in only a few centres worldwide. The relatively simple, rapid and risk-free electrical methods such as multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, which can be employed at the bedside, have been found to be more complicated in their interpretation. Electromagnetic methods may only measure the composition of the human body at its surface. X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have not yet been employed much in body composition measurements. Some models for the composition of the human body are reviewed.

  5. Difference in Bone Mineral Density Change at the Lateral Femoral Cortices according to Administration of Different Bisphosphonate Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjun; Bang, Hyun Hee; Yoo, Hanna; Lim, Hyunsun; Jung, Woo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background To retrospectively assess whether the response of subtrochanteric lateral cortex (STLC) is different according to the bisphosphonate agents in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) change. Methods A total of 149 subjects, who had 2- to 4-year interval follow-up of BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were included in this retrospective study divided into following 3 groups: control group (no consumption of any anti-osteoporotic drugs, n=38), alendronate group (naïve alendronate users, n=48), risedronate group (naïve risedronate users, n=63). BMD was measured at the STLC and subtrochanteric medial cortex (STMC) in each patient by drawing rectangular ROIs at the bone cortices. The percent change of BMD at the STLC were compared between the aforementioned 3 groups by using analysis of covariance model to control five independent variables of age, body mass index, percent change of STMC, hip axis length, time interval between DXA examinations. Results The least square mean values±standard deviation of the percent change of BMD in the control, alendronate, and risedronate groups were 1.46±1.50, 2.23±1.26, and 6.96±1.11, respectively. The risedronate group showed significantly higher change of BMD percentage compared with the control (adjusted P=0.012) or alendronate (adjusted P=0.016) groups. Conclusions The percent change of BMD at the STLC in the risedronate user group was greater than the alendronate and control groups. The implication of these changes needs to be further verified. PMID:27294080

  6. Comparison of bone histomorphometry and μCT for evaluating bone quality in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ying; Luan, Hui-Qin; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Astronauts often suffer from microgravity-induced osteoporosis due to their time in space. Bone histomorphometry, the 'gold standard' technique for detecting bone quality, is widely used in the evaluation of osteoporosis. This study investigates whether μCT has the same application value as histomorphometry in the evaluation of weightlessness-induced bone loss. A total of 24 SD rats were distributed into three groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS plus active exercise (TSA), and control (CON). After 21 days, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and μCT, and microstructure was measured by μCT and histomorphometry. BMD was found to have decreased significantly in TS and TSA compared with the CON group. The results of the μCT measurements showed that a change in BMD mainly occurred in the trabecular bone, and the trabecular BMD increased significantly in the TSA compared with the TS group. The comparison of μCT and histomorphometry showed that TS led to a significant decrease in bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N), and it led to an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). However, active exercise can prevent these changes. Significant differences in most parameters between TSA and CON were found by μCT but not by histomorphometry. Additionally, the parameters of these two methods are highly correlated. Therefore, the application value of μCT is as good as histomorphometry and DXA in the diagnosis of weightlessness-induced osteoporosis and is even better in evaluating the efficacy of exercise.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with low bone mineral density in Saudi women: a community based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study measured the prevalence and factors associated with low BMD in Saudi women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross sectional study using two stage cluster sampling technique was conducted in Riyadh, 2009. Thirty clusters, each comprising of 300 houses were randomly chosen and from each cluster 38–40 households were selected to identify 1150 women of >40 years. Women were invited to primary health care center for filling of self-administered questionnaire (n = 1069) comprising of sociodemographic, health, diet and physical activity variables. 1008 women underwent screening for low BMD using the quantitative ultrasound technique. 535 (53%) women with positive screening test were referred to King Khalid Hospital for Dual X-ray Energy absorptiometry (DXA). Results 362 women underwent DXA and 212 (39.6%) were screened low BMD either at lumbar spine or femur neck. Mean age of women was 55.26(±8.84) years. Multivariate logistic analysis found; being aged 61 to 70 years (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.32-1.48), no literacy (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.44 - 6.12) or primary education (OR 4.12, 95% CI:2.05-8.29), history of fractures (OR 2.20, 95% CI:1.03- 4.69) and not drinking laban(diluted yogurt) (OR 2.81, 95% CI:1.47- 5.37) significantly associated with low BMD. Conclusions Women with low level of education, who do not drink laban and had history of fractures were at high risk of low BMD. PMID:24400907

  8. The effect of alendronate treatment on cortical thickness of the proximal femur in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mobini, Maryam; Dehghan, Leyla; Yosefi, Gholamali; Mohammadpour, Alireza; Abdi, Rohollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are used extensively for managing the osteoporosis. There are some controversies on atypical fractures of femur that associated with increase in cortical thickness (CT) and BPs’ use. In this study, the effects of alendronate consumption were studied on femoral CT as a predictor for atypical fracture. Methods: Forty nine post-menopausal women aged 50-70 years with osteopenia-osteoporosis who were treated with alendronate 70 mg/week for at least one year were compared to 49 controls for CT in subtrochanteric region of femur by hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and hip Xray. CT and its ratio were measured at 3.5 and 4.0 cm below the tip of the greater trochanter (GT) and 0.5 cm below lesser trochanter (LT) in DXA and at 9.5 and 10.5 cm of GT and 1 cm of LT in Xray. Results: In this study, 98 women participated whose mean age and age at menopause were 60 (17±5.6) and 49 (40±2.7) years, respectively. Duration of BP consumption in alendronate group was 1.76±1.38 (1-10) years. No difference was seen in the mean of CT and its ratio between the alendronate and control groups in BMD scan or X-ray. The best correlation between two imaging modalities was in cortical ratio in 3.5 cm of GT in BMD scan and 9.5 cm of GT in X-ray. Conclusion: Alendronate treatment did not appear to increase femoral CT throughout the detection limits of BMD scan or X-ray. PMID:27390698

  9. Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density of Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, a Consortium of College Athlete Research (C-CAR) Study.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Carbuhn, Aaron; Stanforth, Philip R; Oliver, Jonathan M; Keller, Kathryn A; Dengel, Donald R

    2017-03-08

    The purpose of the present study was to generate normative data for total and regional body composition in Division 1 collegiate football players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examine positional differences in total and regional measurements. Data was used from the Consortium of College Athlete Research (C-CAR) group. Four hundred-sixty-seven players were included in this study. Height, weight, total and regional fat mass, lean mass and bone mineral density were measured in each athlete in the preseason (June-August). Players were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparisons. Linemen tended to have the higher fat and lean mass measures (p<0.05 for all) compared to other positions. Positions that mirror each other (ex. Linemen) had similar body composition and body ratios. All positions were classified as overweight or obese based on BMI (>25 kg/m), yet other than offensive and defensive linemen, all positions had healthy percent body fat (13-20%) and low visceral fat mass (<500 g). The data presented here provide normative positional data for total and regional fat mass, lean mass, and bone density in Division 1 collegiate football players. Player position had a significant effect on body composition measures and is likely associated with on-field positional requirements. From a player health perspective, even though all positions had relatively high BMI values, the majority of positions had relatively low body fat and visceral fat, which is important for the health of players during and after their playing career. The increased accuracy and reliability of DXA provides greater information regarding positional differences in college football players compared to other methods.

  10. Ward's area location, physical activity, and body composition in 8- and 9-year-old boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Zymbal, Vera; Rodrigues, Luís A; Sardinha, Luís B

    2010-11-01

    Bone strength is the result of its material composition and structural design, particularly bone mass distribution. The purpose of this study was to analyze femoral neck bone mass distribution by Ward's area location and its relationship with physical activity (PA) and body composition in children 8 and 9 years of age. The proximal femur shape was defined by geometric morphometric analysis in 88 participants (48 boys and 40 girls). Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, 18 landmarks were digitized to define the proximal femur shape and to identify Ward's area position. Body weight, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral were assessed by DXA, PA by accelerometry, and bone age by the Tanner-Whitehouse III method. Warps analysis with Thin-Plate Spline software showed that the first axis explained 63% of proximal femur shape variation in boys and 58% in girls. Most of this variation was associated with differences in Ward's area location, from the central zone to the superior aspect of the femoral neck in both genders. Regression analysis demonstrated that body composition explained 4% to 7% of the proximal femur shape variation in girls. In boys, body composition variables explained a similar amount of variance, but moderate plus vigorous PA (MVPA) also accounted for 6% of proximal femur shape variation. In conclusion, proximal femur shape variation in children ages 8 and 9 was due mainly to differences in Ward's area position determined, in part, by body composition in both genders and by MVPA in boys. These variables were positively associated with a central Ward's area and thus with a more balanced femoral neck bone mass distribution.

  11. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  12. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  13. Assessment of bone quality in osteoporosis treatment with bone anabolic agents: Really something new?

    PubMed

    Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Caudarella, Renata; Camisasca, Marzia; Cabrini, Daniela Maria; Merli, Ilaria; Messina, Carmelo; Piodi, Luca Petruccio

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry. Bone structure is investigated by microCT and histomorphometry, which necessitate an invasive approach with a biopsy, usually taken at the iliac crest, not the typical site of fragility fractures. New tools, trabecular bone score (TBS) and hip structural analysis (HSA), obtained during DXA, can supply informations about bone structure of spine and femur, respectively, in a not invasive way. Therapy of osteoporosis is based on two types of drugs leading to an increase of BMD: antiresorptive and anabolic treatments. The antiresorptive drugs inhibit the osteoclasts, whereas teriparatide and, in part, strontium ranelate ameliorate bone structure. The present review deals with the relation between the anabolic drugs for osteoporosis and the cited new tools which investigate bone architecture and geometry, in order to clarify if they represent a real advantage in monitoring efficacy of osteoporosis' treatment. Data from the studies show that increases of TBS and HSA values after anabolic therapy are small and very close to their least significant change at the end of the usual period of treatment. Therefore, it is questionable if TBS and HSA are really helpful in monitoring bone quality and in defining reduction of individual fragility fracture risk during osteoporosis treatment with bone anabolic agents.

  14. Association between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density by Gender and Menopausal Status

    PubMed Central

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether there were gender differences in the effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD) based on menopausal status. Methods We assessed 5,892 consecutive patients 20 to 91 years old who were referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. All subjects underwent a standard BMD scan of the hip (total hip and femoral neck) and lumbar spine (L1 to L4) using a DXA scan and body size assessment. Body mass index was used to categorize the subjects as normal weight, overweight, and obese. Results BMD was higher in obese and overweight versus normal weight men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Compared to men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07 to 0.56) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.51) for obese men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women. Corresponding summaries for osteoporosis were 0.26 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.64) and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.20), respectively. Compared to men <50 years and premenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of low bone mass was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.45) and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.26) for obese men <50 years and premenopausal women, respectively. Conclusion Obesity is associated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine and overweight and obese individuals have similar degrees of osteoporosis. This result was not significantly different based on gender and menopausal status, which could be an important issue for further investigation. PMID:27834082

  15. Value of clinical factors in selecting postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis for bone densitometry

    PubMed Central

    Nolla, J; Fiter, J; Gomez-Vaquero, C; Alegre, J; Valverde, J; Roig-Escofet, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Criteria to decide which patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should be examined by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) are currently not available. The rheumatologists from Amsterdam have proposed preliminary criteria based on clinical risk factors (age, disease activity, and functional status). These criteria are preliminary and not widely accepted but might be helpful in practice. The value of the proposal in a group of Spanish postmenopausal women with RA is analysed.
METHODS—DXA (lumbar spine and femoral neck) was performed in 128 patients recruited from a clinical setting, and the proposed criteria were applied. T and Z scores were established for a Spanish reference population.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) age of the patients was 61.3 (10.7) and mean duration of the postmenopausal period 14.5 (10.1) years. Mean duration of RA was 13.7 (7.7) years. Mean C reactive protein was 22 (21) mg/l; mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate 26 (18) mm/1st h; and mean Health Assessment Questionnaire score 1.25 (0.79). Ninety (70%) patients fulfilled the proposed criteria. Their sensitivity for the diagnosis of osteoporosis (T score ⩽−2.5 SD) was 86% and their specificity, 43%. Positive predictive value was 54% and negative predictive value, 79%.
CONCLUSIONS—The proposed criteria seem a good screening method for the selection of those patients with RA whose bone mineral density should be assessed as the sensitivity and negative predictive value are acceptable.

 PMID:11454646

  16. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  17. Preliminary study report: topological texture features extracted from standard radiographs of the heel bone are correlated with femoral bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, H. F.; Lutz, J.; Koerner, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M.; Reiser, M.

    2009-02-01

    With the growing number of eldery patients in industrialized nations the incidence of geriatric, i.e. osteoporotic fractures is steadily on the rise. It is of great importance to understand the characteristics of hip fractures and to provide diagnostic tests for the assessment of an individual's fracture-risk that allow to take preventive action and give therapeutic advice. At present, bone-mineral-density (BMD) obtained from DXA (dual-energy x-ray-absorptiometry) is the clinical standard of reference for diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis. Since availability of DXA - other than that of clinical X-ray imaging - is usually restricted to specialized medical centers it is worth trying to implement alternative methods to estimate an individual's BMD. Radiographs of the peripheral skeleton, e.g. the ankle, range among the most ordered diagnostic procedures in surgery for exclusion or confirmation of fracture. It would be highly beneficial if - as a by-product of conventional imaging - one could obtain a quantitative parameter that is closely correlated with femoral BMD in addition to the original diagnostic information, e.g. fracture status at the peripheral site. Previous studies could demonstrate a correlation between calcaneal BMD and osteoporosis. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that topological analysis of calcaneal bone texture depicted by a lateral x-ray projection of the ankle allows to estimate femoral BMD. Our analysis on 34 post-menopausal patients indicate that texture properties based on graylevel topology in calcaneal x-ray-films are closely correlated with BMD at the hip and may qualify as a substitute indicator of femoral fracture risk.

  18. Assessment of bone mineral density in the jaws and its relationship to radiomorphometric indices

    PubMed Central

    Gulsahi, A; Paksoy, CS; Ozden, S; Kucuk, NO; Cebeci, ARI; Genc, Y

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate maxillary, mandibular and femoral neck bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to determine any correlation between the bone mineral density of the jaws and panoramic radiomorphometric indices. Methods 49 edentulous patients (18 males and 31 females) aged between 41 and 78 years (mean age 60.2 ± 11.04) were examined by panoramic radiography. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the jaws and femoral neck was measured with a DXA; bone mineral density was calculated at the anterior, premolar and molar regions of the maxilla and mandible. Results The mean maxillary molar BMD (0.45 g cm−2) was significantly greater than the maxillary anterior and premolar BMD (0.31 g cm−2, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean mandibular anterior and premolar BMD (1.39 g cm−2 and 1.28 g cm−2, respectively) was significantly greater than the mean mandibular molar BMD (1.09 g cm−2, P < 0.01). Although BMD in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions were correlated, BMD in all the mandibular regions were highly correlated. Maxillary and mandibular BMD were not correlated with femoral BMD. In addition, mandibular cortical index (MCI) classification, mental index (MI) or panoramic mandibular index (PMI) values were not significantly correlated with the maxillary and mandibular BMDs (P > 0.05). Conclusions The BMD in this study was highest in the mandibular anterior region and lowest in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions. The BMD of the jaws was not correlated with either femoral BMD or panoramic radiomorphometric indices. PMID:20587652

  19. An atlas improves interobserver agreement regarding application of the ISCD vertebral body exclusion criteria.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Binkley, Neil; Blank, Robert D; Krueger, Diane C; Christian, Rose C; Malone, Daniel G; Baim, Sanford

    2007-01-01

    Coexisting conditions such as osteoarthritis and compression fracture may spuriously elevate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured lumbar spine bone mass. To improve the diagnostic utility of lumbar spine DXA to diagnose osteoporosis, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) suggests excluding vertebrae affected by focal structural anomalies or unusual T-score discrepancies. However, we previously demonstrated only moderate agreement between physicians regarding vertebral body exclusion. We hypothesized that an atlas containing examples of vertebrae to exclude would improve interobserver agreement. Subsequently, we developed an interactive web-based atlas of lumbar spine DXA images with options to exclude vertebrae and compare one's answers to those derived by group consensus. Before and after review of the atlas, 5 ISCD-certified physicians applied the exclusion criteria to 90 DXA scans, recording the indications for vertebral exclusion on a standardized worksheet. After development and review of the atlas, interobserver agreement regarding vertebral body exclusion improved significantly (p<0.0001). We plotted the deviation of each physician's reported T-score vs the mean T-score for each of 90 scans, and demonstrated that the scatter from the mean is decreased after atlas review. Furthermore, correlations in T-score improved in 7 of 10 physician pairs after atlas review. We conclude that an interactive atlas promotes uniform lumbar spine DXA interpretation.

  20. Assessment of Lean Mass and Physical Performance in Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a description of the assessment of lean mass and physical performance with particular attention to how these measures are used in the context of sarcopenia, in both research and clinical settings. One of the most common methods to estimate muscle mass is whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). DXA estimates the total amount of lean tissue but does not directly measure muscle mass. Appendicular lean mass (ALM), derived from DXA scans, is the sum of the lean tissue in the arms and legs. ALM alone, or scaled to height squared (ALM/height(2)) or body mass index (ALM/body mass index), is the most common metric used as an approximation of muscle mass in sarcopenia research. Other methods to assess muscle mass include central or peripheral quantitative computed tomography (to determine muscle cross-sectional area and muscle density, a marker of fat i nfiltration into the muscle); magnetic resonance (to assess muscle cross-sectional area and volume); and bioelectrical impedance analysis (to determine fat-free mass). Many approaches to objectively measuring physical performance have been used in sarcopenia research. Muscle strength is often measured: Grip strength is very inexpensive and straightforward to assess, whereas assessment of lower extremity strength is more difficult. However, lower extremity strength may be a more relevant measure than grip strength in the context of mobility outcomes. Dynamic physical performance is also widely measured in research settings and may be emerging as a routine assessment in clinical care. The most widely used measure of physical performance is walking speed over a short distance, usually 3-6 m. Other measures of objective physical performance include the Short Physical Performance Battery that includes gait speed, ability and time to rise from a chair 5 times, and static balance tests; and the Timed Up and Go test that measures the time to rise from a chair and walk a short distance. Finally, longer

  1. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  2. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: validation of the WHO FRAX ™ tool in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related bone loss is asymptomatic, and the morbidity of osteoporosis is secondary to the fractures that occur. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, forearm and proximal humerus. Fractures at the hip incur the greatest morbidity and mortality and give rise to the highest direct costs for health services. Their incidence increases exponentially with age. Independently changes in population demography, the age - and sex- specific incidence of osteoporotic fractures appears to be increasing in developing and developed countries. This could mean more than double the expected burden of osteoporotic fractures in the next 50 years. Methods/Design To assess the predictive power of the WHO FRAX™ tool to identify the subjects with the highest absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population, a predictive validation study of the tool will be carried out. For this purpose, the participants recruited by 1999 will be assessed. These were referred to scan-DXA Department from primary healthcare centres, non hospital and hospital consultations. Study population: Patients attended in the national health services integrated into a FRIDEX cohort with at least one Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement and one extensive questionnaire related to fracture risk factors. Measurements: At baseline bone mineral density measurement using DXA, clinical fracture risk factors questionnaire, dietary calcium intake assessment, history of previous fractures, and related drugs. Follow up by telephone interview to know fragility fractures in the 10 years with verification in electronic medical records and also to know the number of falls in the last year. The absolute risk of fracture will be estimated using the FRAX™ tool from the official web site. Discussion Since more than 10 years ago numerous publications have recognised the importance of other risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures in addition to low BMD. The extension of a

  3. Applicability and agreement of different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia estimation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study cross-sectional study comprising 132 community dwelling elderly (≥ 60 years) was to identify sarcopenia prevalence in the Brazilian elderly, utilizing different diagnostic criteria and analyze agreement between criteria. Sarcopenia was assessed by nine muscle mass diagnostic criteria, by two muscle strength criteria and also by the combination of criteria. Prevalence was analyzed for each method, along with differences by gender and age group through calculation of the prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence interval (CI) 95%. The Kappa coefficient was used to analyze the level of agreement between all criteria. Sarcopenia prevalence varied between 60.6% and 8.3% with the application of muscle mass criteria, and between 54.2% and 48.8% with the application of strength criteria. The combination muscle mass+strength resulted in a decrease of prevalence in all criteria, varying between 36.6% and 6.1%. There was an increase in prevalence according to age groups for all methods. Prevalence was higher for men according to three muscle mass criteria, and higher in women for strength criteria and by two combined mass+strength criteria. The best level of agreement was obtained for two methods that utilized dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalence of sarcopenia differs by gender and age and definition criteria. The low agreement levels obtained between methods and the different prevalence values encountered indicate the necessities of an operational definition for the estimation of sarcopenia in different population.

  4. A portable real-time ultrasonic bone densitometer.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jonathan J; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a novel ultrasound device to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) at the calcaneus. The device is entirely self-contained, portable (absorptiometry (DXA) scanners, and to the (areal) BMD when normalized by transducer area. Computer simulations of ultrasound propagation were used to study the relationship between NTD and BMD. The simulations used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images of a set of 10 calcaneal bone cores, which were further processed by morphologic image processing to obtain a set of 30 "samples" with BMDs ranging from 0.25 to 1.83 g/cm2. The NTD and BMD were found to be very highly correlated (r=0.99), demonstrating the high sensitivity of NTD to bone mass. A clinical institutional review board-approved study measured 85 adult women at the heel. BMD was measured at the same time using DXA. A linear regression using NTD produced a linear correlation coefficient of 0.86, which represents a significant improvement over present ultrasound bone densitometers, but not nearly as good as the simulation results. Reasons for this have been identified (viz., errors in distance measurement and lack of coincidence between the DXA and ultrasound regions of interest), and a new device and experimental protocol to deal with these sources of error has been developed and is currently under clinical trials. It is expected that this should improve the correlation

  5. The Clinical and Biochemical Predictors of Bone Mass in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Czekuc-Kryskiewicz, Edyta; Pludowski, Pawel; Zaniuk, Katarzyna; Jaworski, Maciej; Łuba, Anna; Grzybowska, Karolina; Piłat, Krystyna; Dobrzanska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic bone disease of prematurity still occurs in preterm infants, although a significant improvement in neonatal care has been observed in recent decades. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the precise technique for assessing bone mineral content (BMC) in preterm infants, but is not widely available. Aim To investigate the clinical and biochemical parameters, including bone metabolism markers as potential predictors of BMC, in preterm infants up to 3 months corrected age (CA). Materials and Methods Ca-P homeostasis, iPTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide, cross-linked C-telopeptide and amino-terminal pro C-type natriuretic peptide and the DXA scans were prospectively performed in 184 preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks’ gestation) between term age and 3 mo CA. Lower bone mass was defined as BMC below or equal to respective median value for the whole study group, rounded to the nearest whole number. Results The appropriate quality DXA scans were available for 160 infants (87%) examined at term and for 130 (71%) tested at 3 mo CA. Higher iPTH level was the only independent predictor of lower BMC at term, whereas lower BMC at 3 mo CA was associated both with lower urinary phosphate excretion and higher serum osteocalcin level. ROC analysis showed that iPTH >43.6 pg/mL provided 40% sensitivity and 88% specificity in identification of preterm infants with lower BMC at term. In turn, urinary phosphate excretion (TRP>97% or UP/Cr ≤0.74 mg/mg) and serum osteocalcin >172 ng/mL provided 40% sensitivity and 93% specificity in identification of infants with decreased BMC at 3 mo CA. Conclusion Serum iPTH might to be a simple predictor of reduced BMC in preterm infants at term age, but urinary phosphate excretion and serum osteocalcin might predict reduced BMC at 3 mo CA. These results represent a promising diagnostic tool based on simple, widely available biochemical measurements for bone mass assessment in preterm infants. PMID

  6. Commonality versus specificity among adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Raja, GK; Sarzynski, MA; Katzmarzyk, PT; Johnson, WD; Tchoukalova, Y; Smith, SR; Bouchard, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many adiposity traits have been related to health complications and premature death. These adiposity traits are intercorrelated but their underlying structure has not been extensively investigated. We report on the degree of commonality and specificity among multiple adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adult males and females (mean body mass index (BMI) = 22.9 kg m−2, s.d. = 2.4). METHODS A total of 75 healthy participants were assessed for a panel of adiposity traits including leg, arm, trunk, total fat masses and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hepatic and muscle lipids from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, fat cell volume from an abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy (n = 36) and conventional anthropometry (BMI and waist girth). Spearman’s correlations were calculated and were subjected to factor analysis. RESULTS Arm, leg, trunk and total fat masses correlated positively (r = 0.78–0.95) with each other. VAT correlated weakly with fat mass indicators (r = 0.24–0.31). Intrahepatic lipids (IHL) correlated weakly with all fat mass traits (r = 0.09–0.34), whereas correlations between DXA depots and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were inconsequential. The four DXA fat mass measures, VAT, IHL and IMCL depots segregated as four independent factors that accounted for 96% of the overall adiposity variance. BMI and waist girth were moderately correlated with the arm, leg, trunk and total fat and weakly with VAT, IHL and IMCL. CONCLUSION Adiposity traits share a substantial degree of commonality, but there is considerable specificity across the adiposity variance space. For instance, VAT, IHL and IMCL are typically poorly correlated with each other and are poorly to weakly associated with the other adiposity traits. The same is true for BMI and waist girth, commonly used anthropometric indicators of adiposity. These results do not support the view that it will be

  7. Use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure analysis at the distal radius for osteoporosis diagnostics: a study in post-menopausal women with breast cancer and treated with aromatase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thomas; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Pencheva, Tsvetelina D.; Jungmann, Pia M.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Müller, Dirk; Bauer, Jan S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose Treatment with aromatase inhibitor (AI) is recommended for post-menopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, AI therapy is known to induce bone loss leading to osteoporosis with an increased risk for fragility fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes of magnetic resonance (MR)-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters as advanced imaging biomarker can already be detected in subjects with AI intake but still without evidence for osteoporosis according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as current clinical gold standard. Methods Twenty-one postmenopausal women (62±6 years of age) with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, ongoing treatment with aromatase inhibitor for 23±15 months, and no evidence for osteoporosis (current DXA T-score greater than −2.5) were recruited for this study. Eight young, healthy women (24±2 years of age) were included as controls. All subjects underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the distal radius to assess the trabecular bone microstructure. Results Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) different between subjects with AI intake and controls, including apparent bone fraction (0.42±0.03 vs. 0.42±0.05), trabecular number (1.95±0.10 mm−1 vs 1.89±0.15 mm−1), trabecular separation (0.30±0.03 mm vs 0.31±0.06 mm), trabecular thickness (0.21±0.01 mm vs 0.22±0.02 mm), and fractal dimension (1.70±0.02 vs. 1.70±0.03). Conclusion These findings suggest that the initial deterioration of trabecular bone microstructure as measured by MRI and BMD loss as measured by DXA occur not sequentially but rather simultaneously. Thus, the use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure assessment is limited as early diagnostic biomarker in this clinical setting. PMID:27252740

  8. Bone loss at the distal femur and proximal tibia in persons with spinal cord injury: imaging approaches, risk of fracture, and potential treatment options.

    PubMed

    Cirnigliaro, C M; Myslinski, M J; La Fountaine, M F; Kirshblum, S C; Forrest, G F; Bauman, W A

    2017-03-01

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo immediate unloading of the skeleton and, as a result, have severe bone loss below the level of lesion associated with increased risk of long-bone fractures. The pattern of bone loss in individuals with SCI differs from other forms of secondary osteoporosis because the skeleton above the level of lesion remains unaffected, while marked bone loss occurs in the regions of neurological impairment. Striking demineralization of the trabecular epiphyses of the distal femur (supracondylar) and proximal tibia occurs, with the knee region being highly vulnerable to fracture because many accidents occur while sitting in a wheelchair, making the knee region the first point of contact to any applied force. To quantify bone mineral density (BMD) at the knee, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or computed tomography (CT) bone densitometry are routinely employed in the clinical and research settings. A detailed review of imaging methods to acquire and quantify BMD at the distal femur and proximal tibia has not been performed to date but, if available, would serve as a reference for clinicians and researchers. This article will discuss the risk of fracture at the knee in persons with SCI, imaging methods to acquire and quantify BMD at the distal femur and proximal tibia, and treatment options available for prophylaxis against or reversal of osteoporosis in individuals with SCI.

  9. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer

    PubMed Central

    Manousaki, D.; Rauch, F.; Chabot, G.; Dubois, J.; Fiscaletti, M.; Alos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. Subjects and methods: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. Results: BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (p<0.001). Volumetric BMD did not change with age. BMD and BMC correlated with age, weight and height (R2≥0.85 for all), with a maximum gain between the ages of 1 and 4 years, which did not follow the same pattern as height velocity. We did not find significant sex difference for any of the three measured parameters. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for lumbar spine densitometry of infants and young children using the Lunar Prodigy DXA system. PMID:27609039

  10. A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Farina, Gian Luca; Spataro, Fabrizio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Lukaski, Henry

    2016-12-17

    Personal assessments of body phenotype can enhance success in weight management but are limited by the lack of availability of practical methods. We describe a novel smart phone application of digital photography (DP) and determine its validity to estimate fat mass (FM). This approach utilizes the percent (%) occupancy of an individual lateral whole-body digital image and regions indicative of adipose accumulation associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease. We measured 117 healthy adults (63 females and 54 males aged 19 to 65 years) with DP and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and report here the development and validation of this application. Inter-observer variability of the determination of % occupancy was 0.02%. Predicted and reference FM values were significantly related in females (R² = 0.949, SEE = 2.83) and males (R² = 0.907, SEE = 2.71). Differences between predicted and measured FM values were small (0.02 kg, p = 0.96 and 0.07 kg, p = 0.96) for females and males, respectively. No significant bias was found; limits of agreement ranged from 5.6 to -5.4 kg for females and from 5.6 to -5.7 kg for males. These promising results indicate that DP is a practical and valid method for personal body composition assessments.

  11. A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Gian Luca; Spataro, Fabrizio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Lukaski, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Personal assessments of body phenotype can enhance success in weight management but are limited by the lack of availability of practical methods. We describe a novel smart phone application of digital photography (DP) and determine its validity to estimate fat mass (FM). This approach utilizes the percent (%) occupancy of an individual lateral whole-body digital image and regions indicative of adipose accumulation associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease. We measured 117 healthy adults (63 females and 54 males aged 19 to 65 years) with DP and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and report here the development and validation of this application. Inter-observer variability of the determination of % occupancy was 0.02%. Predicted and reference FM values were significantly related in females (R2 = 0.949, SEE = 2.83) and males (R2 = 0.907, SEE = 2.71). Differences between predicted and measured FM values were small (0.02 kg, p = 0.96 and 0.07 kg, p = 0.96) for females and males, respectively. No significant bias was found; limits of agreement ranged from 5.6 to −5.4 kg for females and from 5.6 to −5.7 kg for males. These promising results indicate that DP is a practical and valid method for personal body composition assessments. PMID:27999316

  12. High precision semi-automated vertebral height measurement using computed tomography: A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Ward, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of vertebral heights is necessary for the evaluation of many disorders affecting the spine. High precision is particularly important for longitudinal studies where subtle changes are to be detected. Computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice for high precision studies. Radiography and dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) use 2D images to assess 3D structures, which can result in poor visualization due to the superimposition of extraneous anatomical objects on the same 2D space. We present a semi-automated computer algorithm to measure vertebral heights in the 3D space of a CT scan. The algorithm segments the vertebral bodies, extracts their end plates and computes vertebral heights as the mean distance between end plates. We evaluated the precision of our algorithm using repeat scans of an anthropomorphic vertebral phantom. Our method has high precision, with a coefficient of variation of only 0.197% and Bland-Altmann 95% limits of agreement of [-0.11, 0.13] mm. For local heights (anterior, middle, posterior) the algorithm was up to 4.2 times more precise than a manual mid-sagittal plane method.

  13. Dental panoramic image analysis for enhancement biomarker of mandibular condyle for osteoporosis early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suprijanto; Azhari; Juliastuti, E.; Septyvergy, A.; Setyagar, N. P. P.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Currently, a BMD level is determined by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar vertebrae and femur. Previous studies reported that dental panoramic radiography image has potential information for early osteoporosis detection. This work reported alternative scheme, that consists of the determination of the Region of Interest (ROI) the condyle mandibular in the image as biomarker and feature extraction from ROI and classification of bone conditions. The minimum value of intensity in the cavity area is used to compensate an offset on the ROI. For feature extraction, the fraction of intensity values in the ROI that represent high bone density and the ROI total area is perfomed. The classification will be evaluated from the ability of each feature and its combinations for the BMD detection in 2 classes (normal and abnormal), with the artificial neural network method. The evaluation system used 105 panoramic image data from menopause women which consist of 36 training data and 69 test data that were divided into 2 classes. The 2 classes of classification obtained 88.0% accuracy rate and 88.0% sensitivity rate.

  14. Running economy and body composition between competitive and recreational level distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mooses, Martin; Jürimäe, J; Mäestu, J; Mooses, K; Purge, P; Jürimäe, T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare running economy between competitive and recreational level athletes at their individual ventilatory thresholds on track and to compare body composition parameters that are related to the individual running economy measured on track. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a total 45 male runners classified as competitive runners (CR; n = 28) and recreational runners (RR; n = 17). All runners performed an incremental test on treadmill until voluntary exhaustion and at least 48 h later a 2 × 2000 m test at indoor track with intensities according to ventilatory threshold 1, ventilator threshold 2. During the running tests, athletes wore portable oxygen analyzer. Body composition was measured with Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Running economy at the first ventilatory threshold was not significantly related to any of the measured body composition values or leg mass ratios either in the competitive or in the recreational runners group. This study showed that there was no difference in the running economy between distance runners with different performance level when running on track, while there was a difference in the second ventilatory threshold speed in different groups of distance runners. Differences in running economy between competitive and recreational athletes cannot be explained by body composition and/or different leg mass ratios.

  15. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606

  16. THE MEASUREMENT OF BONE QUALITY USING GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURAL FEATURES.

    PubMed

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Huang, Ning; Dong, Xuanliang Neil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, statistical methods for the estimation of bone quality to predict the risk of fracture are reported. Bone mineral density and bone architecture properties are the main contributors of bone quality. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the traditional clinical measurement technique for bone mineral density, but does not include architectural information to enhance the prediction of bone fragility. Other modalities are not practical due to cost and access considerations. This study investigates statistical parameters based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) extracted from two-dimensional projection images and explores links with architectural properties and bone mechanics. Data analysis was conducted on Micro-CT images of 13 trabecular bones (with an in-plane spatial resolution of about 50μm). Ground truth data for bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone strength and modulus were available based on complex 3D analysis and mechanical tests. Correlation between the statistical parameters and biomechanical test results was studied using regression analysis. The results showed Cluster-Shade was strongly correlated with the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and related to mechanical properties. Once the principle thesis of utilizing second-order statistics is established, it can be extended to other modalities, providing cost and convenience advantages for patients and doctors.

  17. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yuji; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07-1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78-12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68-0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73-16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51-16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan.

  18. Body composition changes during interventions to treat overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Etayo, Pilarnombe; Moreno, Luis A; Iglesia, Iris; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Garagorri, Jesús M

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition, physical activity and behavior-modifying techniques are widely applied components of interventions treating obesity. Our aim was to review available information on the short and long term effects of intervention treatment on body fat composition of overweight and obese children and adolescents and, to obtain a further understanding on how different body composition techniques detect longitudinal changes. In total, thirteen papers were included; seven included a multidisciplinary intervention component, five applied a combined dietary and physical activity intervention and one a physical activity intervention. Body composition techniques used included anthropometric indices, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Percentage of fat mass change was calculated in when possible. Findings suggested, no changes were observed in fat free mass after 16 weeks of nutritional intervention and the lowest decrease on fat mass percentage was obtained. However, the highest fat mass percentage with parallel increase in fat free mass, both assess by DXA was observed in a multi-component intervention applied for 20 weeks. In conclusion, more studies are needed to determine the best field body composition method to monitor changes during overweight treatment in children and adolescents.

  19. MRI assessment of bone structure and microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gregory; Boone, Sean; Martel, Dimitri; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Hallyburton, Robert S; Valko, Mitch; Honig, Stephen; Regatte, Ravinder R

    2017-02-06

    Osteoporosis is a disease of weak bone and increased fracture risk caused by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The standard-of-care test used to diagnose osteoporosis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimation of areal bone mineral density (BMD), has limitations as a tool to identify patients at risk for fracture and as a tool to monitor therapy response. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of bone structure and microarchitecture has been proposed as another method to assess bone quality and fracture risk in vivo. MRI is advantageous because it is noninvasive, does not require ionizing radiation, and can evaluate both cortical and trabecular bone. In this review article, we summarize and discuss research progress on MRI of bone structure and microarchitecture over the last decade, focusing on in vivo translational studies. Single-center, in vivo studies have provided some evidence for the added value of MRI as a biomarker of fracture risk or treatment response. Larger, prospective, multicenter studies are needed in the future to validate the results of these initial translational studies.

  20. Knee extension strength in obese and nonobese male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula, Achref; Martin, Vincent; Bouchant, Antoine; Walrand, Stéphane; Lavet, Cédric; Taillardat, Michel; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Boisseau, Nathalie; Duché, Pascale; Ratel, Sébastien

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare "absolute" and "relative" knee extension strength between obese and nonobese adolescents. Ten nonobese and 12 severely obese adolescent boys of similar chronological age, maturity status, and height were compared. Total body and regional soft tissue composition were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Knee extensors maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque was measured using an isometric dynamometer at a knee angle of 60° (0° is full extension). Absolute MVC torque was significantly higher in obese adolescents than in controls. However, although MVC torque expressed per unit of body mass was found to be significantly lower in obese adolescent boys, no significant difference in MVC torque was found between groups when normalized to fat-free mass. Conversely, when correcting for thigh lean mass and estimated thigh muscle mass, MVC torque was significantly higher in the obese group (17.9% and 22.2%, respectively; P <0.05). To conclude, our sample of obese adolescent boys had higher absolute and relative knee extension strength than our nonobese controls. However, further studies are required to ascertain whether or not relative strength, measured with more accurate in vivo methods such as magnetic resonance imaging, is higher in obese adolescents than in nonobese controls.

  1. Home-Schooled Children are thinner, leaner, and report better diets relative to traditionally-schooled children

    PubMed Central

    Cardel, Michelle; Willig, Amanda L.; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Cherrington, Andrea; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Johnson, Susan L.; Peters, John C.; Hill, James O.; Allison, David B.; Fernández, José R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine and compare the relationships among diet, physical activity, and adiposity between home-schooled children (HSC) and traditionally-schooled children (TSC). Design and Methods Subjects were HSC (n=47) and TSC (n=48) aged 7 to 12 years old. Dietary intakes were determined via two 24-hour recalls and physical activity was assessed with 7 days of accelerometry. Fat mass (FM), trunk fat, and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Relative to HSC, TSC demonstrated significantly higher BMI percentiles, FM, trunk fat, and %BF; consumed 120 total kilocalories more per day; and reported increased intakes of trans fats, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, and lower intakes of fiber, fruits, and vegetables (p<0.05). At lunch, TSC consumed significantly more calories, sugar, sodium, potassium, and calcium compared to HSC (p<0.05). Physical activity did not differ between groups. Traditional schooling was associated with increased consumption of trans fat, sugar, calcium (p<.05); lower intakes of fiber, and fruits and vegetables (p<.05); and higher FM, %BF, and trunk fat (p<0.01), after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions These data suggest HSC may consume diets that differ in energy and nutrient density relative to TSC, potentially contributing to differences in weight and adiposity. PMID:24039204

  2. Asymmetry in body composition in female hockey players.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Leszczyński, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a sport in which one side of the body is dominant, like field hockey, influences regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in particular body segments, and whether the sporting level is a determining factor. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method (Lunar Prodigy Advance; General Electric, Madison, USA) with the whole body scan was used to measure bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in 31 female field hockey players divided according to their sporting level. The morphological asymmetry level was assessed between two body sides and body segments in athletes from the National Team (n=17) and from the Youth Team (n=14) separately and between groups. Bone mineral density in the lower extremity and of the trunk was significantly asymmetric in favor of the left side in the National Team. In the case of the Youth Team, only the trunk BMD indicated clear left-right difference with left side dominance. Both the lean mass and fat mass values were relatively higher on the left side of all body segments and it related to both analyzed groups of athletes. The present study shows that playing field hockey contributes to laterality in body composition and BMD and that the sporting level is a determining factor. In most cases the left side dominated. A greater asymmetry level was observed in more experienced female field hockey players.

  3. Periprosthetic bone loss: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Loredana; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Total joint replacement surgery is being performed on an increasingly large part of the population. Clinical longevity of implants depends on their osseointegration, which is influenced by the load, the characteristics of the implant and the bone-implant interface, as well as by the quality and quantity of the surrounding bone. Aseptic loosening due to periprosthetic osteolysis is the most frequent known cause of implant failure. Wear of prosthetic materials results in the formation of numerous particles of debris that cause a complex biological response. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is regarded as an accurate method to evaluate Bone Mineral Density (BMD) around hip or knee prostheses. Further data may be provided by a new device, the Bone Microarchitecture Analysis (BMA), which combines bone microarchitecture quantification and ultra high resolution osteo-articular imaging. Pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent bone mass loss and to extend implant survival. Numerous trials with bisphosphonates show a protective effect on periprosthetic bone mass, up to 72 months after arthroplasty. Strontium ranelate has been demonstrated to increase the osseointegration of titanium implants in treated animals with improvement of bone microarchitecture and bone biomaterial properties. PMID:25642325

  4. Vortex methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, A.J. |

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  5. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening older women for the prevention of fractures: rationale, design and methods for the SCOOP study.

    PubMed

    Shepstone, L; Fordham, R; Lenaghan, E; Harvey, I; Cooper, C; Gittoes, N; Heawood, A; Peters, T J; O'Neill, T; Torgerson, D; Holland, R; Howe, A; Marshall, T; Kanis, J A; McCloskey, E

    2012-10-01

    SCOOP is a UK seven-centre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with 5-year follow-up, including 11,580 women aged 70 to 85 years, to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based screening programme to reduce fractures. It utilises the FRAX algorithm and DXA to assess the 10-year probability of fracture. Introduction Osteoporotic, or low-trauma, fractures present a considerable burden to the National Health Service and have major adverse effects on quality of life, disability and mortality for the individual. Methods Given the availability of efficacious treatments and a risk assessment tool based upon clinical risk factors and bone mineral density, a case exists to undertake a community-based controlled evaluation of screening for subjects at high risk of fracture, under the hypothesis that such a screening programme would reduce fractures in this population. Results This study is a UK seven-centre, unblinded, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with a 5-year follow-up period. A total of 11,580 women, aged 70 to 85 years and not on prescribed bone protective therapy will be consented to the trial by post via primary care providing 90% power to detect an 18% decrease in fractures. Conclusions Participants will be randomised to either a screening arm or control. Those undergoing screening will have a 10-year fracture probability computed from baseline risk factors together with bone mineral density measured by DXA in selected subjects. Individuals above an age-dependent threshold of fracture probability will be recommended for treatment for the duration of the trial. Subjects in the control arm will receive 'usual care'. Participants will be followed up 6 months after randomisation and annually by postal questionnaires with independent checking of hospital and primary care records. The primary outcome will be the proportion of individuals sustaining fractures in each group. An economic analysis will be carried out to assess cost

  6. Geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

  7. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  8. Panel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive description of panel methods has been given to enable an understanding of the underlying theory and the basic structure of the panel codes for aerodynamic applications. Panel methods have seen peak activity in the industry and remain as yet the sole technique for efficient and practical computations on complex-aircraft configurations. The method of the linearized approach of solving flow problems is well proven and till the turn of the century panel methods will continue to remain as the workhorse for computing aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft shapes in the industry. The alternative Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers have yet to mature for applications to complex shapes, hence panel methods will be in the light for at least another decade.

  9. A Structural Approach to Skeletal Fragility in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is a multifactorial disorder of bone metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD). As CKD progresses, ensuing abnormalities in mineral metabolism result in distortions in trabecular microarchitecture, thinning of the cortical shell, and increased cortical porosity. Recent studies have demonstrated significantly increased hip fracture rates in CKD stages 3 and 4, in dialysis patients, and in transplant recipients. The majority of studies of bone loss in CKD relied on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of bone mineral density (BMD). However, DXA summarizes the total bone mass within the projected bone area, concealing distinct structural alterations in trabecular and cortical bone. Recent data have confirmed that peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measures of cortical density and thickness provide substantially better fracture discrimination in dialysis patients, compared with hip or spine DXA. The following review summarizes the growing evidence for bone fragility in CKD stages 3 through 5, considers the effects of CKD on trabecular and cortical bone structure as relates to fracture risk, and details the potential advantages and disadvantages of DXA and alternative measures of bone density, geometry, and microarchitecture, including pQCT, high resolution pQCT, and micro-magnetic resonance imaging for fracture risk assessment in CKD. PMID:19371804

  10. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  11. Electrodeionization method

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J.; Hestekin, Jamie; Arora, Michelle; St. Martin, Edward J.

    2004-09-28

    An electrodeionization method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit.

  12. [Investigation of mineral density and the bone structure following 105 day experiment in an isolated environment (MARS-105)].

    PubMed

    Prostiakov, I V; Novikov, V E; Morukov, B V

    2010-01-01

    Healthy volunteers' bone system investigation was performed before and after 105 days experiment in an isolated environment (MARS-105) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Volumetric bone mineral density (VBMD), bone mineral density (BMD), structural parameters of radius and tibia were evaluated. There were no significant BMD changes revealed in skeletal parts critical in terms of biomechanical properties. pQCT examination noted microarchitecture deterioration of radius that was reflected in decreasing of trabecular number and increasing of bone tissue inhomogeneity. Decreasing VBMD both cortical and trabecular bone were revealed for tibia. Unexpectedly, increasing oftrabecular number and decreasing of inhomogeneity were revealed for tibia. Experiment showed that only the complex investigation including DXA and pQCT measurements gives an idea about bone system changes under simulated experiment conditions.

  13. Fracture risk in the femoral hip region: A finite element analysis supported experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Tsouknidas, Alexander; Anagnostidis, Kleovoulos; Maliaris, Georgios; Michailidis, Nikolaos

    2012-07-26

    The decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) is a multifactorial bone pathology, commonly referred to as osteoporosis. The subsequent decline of the bone's micro-structural characteristics renders the human skeletal system, and especially the hip, susceptible to fragility fractures. This study represents a systematic attempt to correlate BMD spectrums to the mechanical strength characteristics of the femoral neck and determine a fracture risk indicator based on non-invasive imaging techniques. The BMD of 30 patients' femurs was measured in vivo by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). As these patients were subjected to total hip replacement, the mechanical strength properties of their femurs' were determined ex-vivo using uniaxial compression experiments. FEA simulations facilitated the correlation of the DXA measurements to the apparent fracture risk, indicating critical strain values during complex loading scenarios.

  14. Bone and Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Longobardi, Vanesa; Bai, Julio César

    2016-04-01

    More than 50% of untreated patients with celiac disease (CD) have bone loss detected by bone densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry:DXA). Moreover, patients with CD are more likely to have osteoporosis and fragility fractures, especially of the distal radius. Although still controversial, we recommend DXA screening in all celiac disease patients, particularly in those with symptomatic CD at diagnosis and in those who present risk factors for fracture such as older age, menopausal status, previous fracture history, and familial hip fracture history. Bone microarchitecture, especially the trabecular network, may be deteriorated, explaining the higher fracture risk in these patients. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation are also recommended to optimize bone recovery, especially during the first years of gluten free diet (GFD). If higher fracture risk persists after 1 or 2 years of GFD, specific osteoactive treatment may be necessary to improve bone health.

  15. Ensemble Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  16. Characterization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  17. Development of Novel Methods to Define Deficits in Appendicular Lean Mass Relative to Fat Mass

    PubMed Central

    Weber, David; Long, Jin; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette; Baker, Joshua F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity. Methods Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds) for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2). Correlations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were assessed within demographic categories. Fat-adjusted ALMI (ALMIFMI) scores were determined using residual methods. Sarcopenia was defined as a T-Score <-2.0 and low lean for age as a Z-Score <-1.0. Correlations with physical function were assessed in an at-risk population. Results Positive associations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were significant (R >0.50; p<0.001) within all demographic categories. The impact of a unit greater FMI Z-score on ALMI Z-score was less in the elderly, men, white subjects, and among individuals with lower FMI (all tests for interaction p<0.001). There was fair agreement between ALMI and ALMIFMI estimates of sarcopenia and low lean for age [Kappa: 0.46, 0.52, respectively (p<0.0001)]. Elderly subjects were likely to be re-classified as sarcopenic while young subjects were likely to be re-classified as normal using ALMIFMI. ALMIFMI T-scores resulted in approximately twice the number of subjects defined as sarcopenic, compared with ALMI T-Scores. (1299 v. 534). Among rheumatoid arthritis patients, ALMIFMI Z-scores correlated with physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire: rho = -0.22, p = 0.04; Short Physical Performance Battery: rho = 0.27, p = 0.01); however, the ALMI Z-Score did not. Conclusions Adjustment of ALMI for the confounding association with FMI impacts the definition of lean mass deficits. These methods provide a

  18. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  19. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  20. SINTERING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.

    1963-11-01

    Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)

  1. Gelcasting methods

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Claudia A.; Kirby, Glen H.; Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; McMillan, April D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

  2. Comparison of peripheral quantitative computed tomography forearm bone density versus DXA in rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Juhász, B; Gulyás, K; Horváth, Á; Pethő, Z; Bhattoa, H P; Váncsa, A; Szekanecz, É; Horváth, C; Kocsis, J; Horváth, Z; Hodosi, K; Szántó, S; Szűcs, G; Szekanecz, Z

    2017-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with osteoporosis. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is capable of assessing bone density and composition. We found lower bone density in RA compared to controls. Age and RA duration influenced bone density. QCT may be useful to assess bone metabolism in RA.

  3. Casting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  4. Tensiometer methods

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2005-12-20

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  5. WELDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  6. Breast Density Assessment by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Women and Girls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    coordinates all aspects of the project); 13. Lorena Marquez as Research Assistant at UCSF? (responsible for receipt of all data, preparation of the...leptin ( Garcia - Mayor R et al., 1997). With our cross-sectional study design we were not able to assess onset of menarche or onset of Tanner stages...meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1159-1169. Garcia -Mayor R, Anrade M, Rios M, Lage M, Dieguez C, Casnueva F. 1997. Serum leptin in

  7. Breast Density Assessment by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Women and Girls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    technician had previously been trained in conducting Tanner-stage assessments of pubertal development (breast and pubic hair ), and has performed the...and scan width equal to 20 cm and length of 30 cm. The pixel dimensions were 1.0 1.5 mm2. After removing all clothing, and wearing cotton hospital

  8. Variation between femurs as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

    PubMed

    Hall, M L; Heavens, J; Ell, P J

    1991-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that there is minimal variation between the hips in an individual, but is densitometry of one femur representative of the other? We performed bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of both hips using a Hologic QDR 1000 densitometer. There were 110 patients, all of whom were right handed, and three main groups of subjects: (1) normal volunteers (n = 36); (2) subjects with known hip pathology (n = 36); (3) subjects with medical conditions not affecting the hip (n = 38). The mean age of the subjects was 46 (21-87) years and a standard analysis protocol was followed in all patients. The coefficient of variation (COV) for femurs was 0.9-3%, depending upon the region studied and the BMD. The left femur had a greater BMD 48% of the time and there were variable differences between femurs in each group studied. While the greatest differences were found in people with unilateral hip pathology, all groups had mean differences greater than the COV. It may be acceptable to study only one hip, but the large variation between femurs in individuals should be borne in mind when interpreting data.

  9. Estimation of truncal adiposity using waist circumference or the sum of trunk skinfolds: a pilot study for insulin resistance screening in hirsute patients with or without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Mariana; Migliavacca, Raphaella; Sisson de Castro, José Augusto; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2007-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a prevalent metabolic disturbance among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Central adiposity, a marker of IR and an accurate anthropometric method to estimate truncal adiposity, may represent a key clinical tool for IR screening in subpopulations at higher metabolic and cardiovascular risk, such as women with PCOS. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the influence of androgens on IR and central obesity in overweight or obese hirsute women with or without PCOS and (2) to test the reliability of the sum of trunk skinfolds (subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal) to estimate truncal adiposity. This observational, cross-sectional study included 37 hirsute patients with body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or greater and aged between 14 and 41 years. Twenty-four had PCOS, and 13 had ovulatory cycles, normal androgen levels, and isolated hirsutism, named idiopathic hirsutism (IH). Nutritional, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory evaluations were performed. Body composition was assessed by measurement of waist circumference and skinfold thickness and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Both groups presented similar ages, body mass index, and hirsutism score. The PCOS group had higher androgen levels, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, and fasting insulin levels. Free androgen index was positively associated with HOMA, independent of truncal adiposity (r = 0.441, P = .009). Strong correlations were also observed between truncal adiposity measured by DXA and both the sum of trunk skinfolds (r = 0.863, P = .0001) and waist circumference in hirsute patients (r = 0.947, P = .0001). In our study, IR (HOMA index >/=3.8) was associated with truncal obesity, with a more androgenic profile, and with an unfavorable lipid profile. In conclusion, hirsutism per se appears not to be a risk for IR and related cardiovascular disease unless there is presence of

  10. [Contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Toivonen, J

    1987-01-01

    Interest in contraceptive devices has increased in recent years due to their safety and protection offered against venereal disease. Use of the devices prevents sperm from entering the uterine canal. Failure of a device is usually caused either because the contraceptive outside the uterus is wrongly positioned or because not enough active spermicidal ingredients were released before ejaculation. Mass production of condoms was made possible through utilization of latex rubber. Different color and shape alternatives have made condom usage more popular in developing countries. The diaphragm and its variation, the cervical cap, are treated with spermicide and then placed inside the vagina. Correct size of the contraceptive is an important consideration. Spermicides consist of active substances that kill sperm, as well as a carrier substance such as foam, ointment and jelly. The newest preventive device is the contraceptive sponge, which can stay in place for up to 36 hours. IN vitro studies show that effectiveness of condoms is 0.5-2.0 (Pearl's index). Combination use of diaphragm and spermicide yields a protection rate of 2-20 (life-table index), and spermicides 0.3-30.0. Risks associated with these methods include local irritation. It was believed that some spermicides increased rats of miscarriage, Down's Syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities, as well as limb anomalies. Diaphragm use increases potential for urinary tract infections. Toxic shock may occur with some users of sponge and diaphragm. All the mentioned contraceptives protect from infection, and are most suitable for people who cannot tolerate hormonal preparations or IUD's, who are in a casual sexual relationship or nursing mothers or youth.

  11. [High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography for the assessment of morphological and mechanical bone parameters].

    PubMed

    Fuller, Henrique; Fuller, Ricardo; Pereira, Rosa Maria R

    2015-01-01

    High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a new technology commercially available for less than 10 years that allows performing in vivo assessment of bone parameters. HR-pQCT assesses the trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number and connectivity density and, in addition, cortical bone density and thickness and total bone volume and density in high-definition mode, which additionally allows obtaining digital constructs of bone microarchitecture. The application of mathematics to captured data, a method called finite element analysis (FEA), allows the estimation of the physical properties of the tissue, simulating supported loads in a non-invasive way. Thus, HR-pQCT simultaneously acquires data previously provided separately by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging and histomorphometry, aggregating biomechanical estimates previously only possible in extracted tissues. This method has a satisfactory reproducibility, with coefficients of variation rarely exceeding 3%. Regarding accuracy, the method shows a fair to good agreement (r(2) = 0.37-0.97). The main clinical application of this method is in the quantification and monitoring of metabolic bone disorders, more fully evaluating bone strength and fracture risk. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, this allows gauging the number and size of erosions and cysts, in addition to joint space. In osteoarthritis, it is possible to characterize the bone marrow edema-like areas that show a correlation with cartilage breakdown. Given its high cost, HR-pQCT is still a research tool, but the high resolution and efficiency of this method reveal advantages over the methods currently used for bone assessment, with a potential to become an important tool in clinical practice.

  12. Dual energy x-ray laser measurement of calcaneal bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Töyräs, J.; Kröger, H.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2003-06-01

    In dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) the photon attenuation is assumed to be similar in soft tissue overlying, adjacent to and inside the measured bone. In the calcaneal dual energy x-ray laser (DXL) technique, this assumption is not needed as attenuation by soft tissues at the local bone site is determined by combining DXA and heel thickness measurements. In the present study, 38 subjects were measured with DXL Calscan, Lunar PIXI and Lunar DPX-IQ DXA instruments and Hologic Sahara ultrasound instrument, and the performance and agreement of the instruments were analysed. Furthermore, numerical simulations on the effect of non-uniform fat-to-lean tissue ratio within soft tissue in heel were conducted. In vivo short-term precision (CV%, sCV%) of DXL Calscan (1.24%, 1.48%) was similar to that of Lunar PIXI (1.28%, 1.60%). Calcaneal areal bone mineral densities (BMD, g cm-2) measured using DXL Calscan and Lunar PIXI predicted equally well variations in BMD of femoral neck (r2 = 0.63 and 0.52, respectively) or lumbar spine (r2 = 0.61 and 0.64, respectively), determined with Lunar DPX-IQ. BMD values measured with DXL Calscan were, on average, 19% lower (p < 0.01) than those determined with Lunar PIXI. Interestingly, the difference in BMD values between instruments increased as a function of body mass index (BMI) (r2 = 0.17, p < 0.02) or heel thickness (r2 = 0.37, p < 0.01). Numerical simulations suggested that the spatial variation of soft tissue composition in heel can induce incontrollable inaccuracy in BMD when measured with the DXA technique. Theoretically, in contrast to DXA instruments, elimination of the effect of non-uniform soft tissue is possible with DXL Calscan.

  13. Foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance accurately tracks direction of adiposity change in overweight and obese 7- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kasvis, Popi; Cohen, Tamara R; Loiselle, Sarah-Ève; Kim, Nicolas; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Plourde, Hugues; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-03-01

    Body composition measurements are valuable when evaluating pediatric obesity interventions. We hypothesized that foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) will accurately track the direction of adiposity change, but not magnitude, in part due to differences in fat patterning. The purposes of this study were to examine the accuracy of body composition measurements of overweight and obese children over time using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA and to determine if BIA accuracy was affected by fat patterning. Eighty-nine overweight or obese children (48 girls, 41 boys, age 7-13 years) participating in a randomized controlled trial providing a family-centered, lifestyle intervention, underwent DXA and BIA measurements every 3 months. Bland-Altman plots showed a poor level of agreement between devices for baseline percent body fat (%BF; mean, 0.398%; +2SD, 8.685%; -2SD, -7.889%). There was overall agreement between DXA and BIA in the direction of change over time for %BF (difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA -0.8 ± 0.5%, BIA -0.7 ± 0.5%; P = 1.000) and fat mass (FM; difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA 0.7 ± 0.5 kg, BIA 0.6 ± 0.5 kg; P = 1.000). Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements of %BF and FM at baseline were significantly different in those with android and gynoid fat (%BF: 35.9% ± 1.4%, 32.2% ± 1.4%, P < .003; FM: 20.1 ± 0.8 kg, 18.4 ± 0.8, P < .013). Bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately reports the direction of change in FM and FFM in overweight and obese children; inaccuracy in the magnitude of BIA measurements may be a result of fat patterning differences.

  14. Correlation between Parameters of Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound and Hip Structural Analysis in Osteoporotic Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hailiang; Li, Ming; Yin, Pengbin; Peng, Ye; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS), which is used in the evaluation of osteoporosis, is believed to be intimately associated with the characteristics of the proximal femur. However, the specific associations of calcaneal QUS with characteristics of the hip sub-regions remain unclear. Design A cross-sectional assessment of 53 osteoporotic patients was performed for the skeletal status of the heel and hip. Methods We prospectively enrolled 53 female osteoporotic patients with femoral fractures. Calcaneal QUS, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and hip structural analysis (HSA) were performed for each patient. Femoral heads were obtained during the surgery, and principal compressive trabeculae (PCT) were extracted by a three-dimensional printing technique-assisted method. Pearson’s correlation between QUS measurement with DXA, HSA-derived parameters and Young’s modulus were calculated in order to evaluate the specific association of QUS with the parameters for the hip sub-regions, including the femoral neck, trochanteric and Ward’s areas, and the femoral shaft, respectively. Results Significant correlations were found between estimated BMD (Est.BMD) and BMD of different sub-regions of proximal femur. However, the correlation coefficient of trochanteric area (r = 0.356, p = 0.009) was higher than that of the neck area (r = 0.297, p = 0.031) and total proximal femur (r = 0.291, p = 0.034). Furthermore, the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) was significantly correlated with the HSA-derived parameters of the trochanteric area (r value: 0.315–0.356, all p<0.05) as well as with the Young’s modulus of PCT from the femoral head (r = 0.589, p<0.001). Conclusion The calcaneal bone had an intimate association with the trochanteric cancellous bone. To a certain extent, the parameters of the calcaneal QUS can reflect the characteristics of the trochanteric area of the proximal hip, although not specifically reflective of those of the femoral neck

  15. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS) but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960) were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p < 10-4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD) bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p < 0.05 indicated replication. Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD) = 0.07, p = 0.032) but not BUA (β(SD) = 0.02, p = 0.505) and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77) also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD) = -0.22, p = 0.014), FN (β(SD) = -0.31,p = 0.001) and TH (β(SD) = -0.36, p = 0.002) in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS

  16. Training with the International Space Station interim resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Suzanne M.; Amonette, William E.; Blazine, Kristi; Bentley, Jason; Lee, Stuart M C.; Loehr, James A.; Moore, Alan D Jr; Rapley, Michael; Mulder, Edwin R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A unique, interim elastomer-based resistive exercise device (iRED) is being used on the International Space Station. PURPOSE: This study characterized iRED training responses in a 1-g environment by: 1) determining whether 16 wk of high-intensity training with iRED produces increases in muscle strength and volume and bone mineral density (BMD), 2) comparing training responses with iRED to free weights, and 3) comparing iRED training responses at two training volumes. METHODS: Twenty-eight untrained men were assigned to four groups of seven subjects each: a no exercise control group (CON), an iRED group who trained with three sets/exercise (iRED3), a free-weight group (FW) who trained with three sets/exercise, and an iRED group who trained with six sets/exercise (iRED6). Training exercises included squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and dead lift (DL) exercises, 3 d.wk(-1) for 16 wk. RESULTS: For CON, no changes occurred pre- to posttraining. For iRED3, increases (P< or =0.05) in one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength (SQ 21 +/- 4%, HR 17 +/- 4%, DL 29 +/- 5%), leg lean mass (3.1 +/- 0.5%) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and thigh (4.5 +/- 0.9%) and calf (5.9 +/- 0.7%) muscle volume (by magnetic resonance imaging) occurred after training with no changes in BMD (DXA). For FW, increases in 1-RM strength (SQ 22 +/- 5%, HR 24 +/- 3%, DL 41 +/- 7%), whole body (3.0 +/- 1.1%) and leg lean mass (5.4 +/- 1.2%), thigh (9.2 +/- 1.3%) and calf (4.2 +/- 1.0%) muscle volumes, and lumbar BMD (4.2 +/- 0.7%) occurred after training. For iRED6, all responses were similar to iRED3. CONCLUSION: High-intensity training with the iRED produced muscle responses similar to FW but was not effective in stimulating bone. Bed rest and spaceflight studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the iRED to prevent microgravity deconditioning.

  17. Seasonal variations in the body composition of lightweight rowers.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, F L; Payne, W R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor the seasonal body composition alterations in 18 lightweight rowers (six females, 12 males) across a rowing season incorporating preseason, early competition, competition, and postseason. METHODS: Subject age was 23.1 (SD 4.5) years, height 170.8 (5.6) cm (female, 23.5 (3.5) years, 180.5 (2.7) cm (male). Body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed using dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA-L Lunar) and skinfold techniques. Weight control techniques were documented before major regattas by a questionnaire. RESULTS: Female body weight was reduced from 61.3 (2.9) to 57.0 (1.1) kg (5.9%), while male body weight was reduced from 75.6 (3.1) to 69.8 (1.6) kg (7.8%) preseason to competition season respectively. These body weight reductions were mirrored by a significant reduction in fat mass as indicated by the sum of skinfolds [female seven sites: 80.9 (8.1) to 68.2 (11.8) mm; male eight sites: 54.2 (8.7) to 41.8 (4.8) mm], percentage body fat [female 22.1 (1.0) to 19.7 (2.4)%; male 10.0 (0.9) to 7.8 (0.8)%], and total fat [female 12.5 (5.2) to 10.9 (1.4) kg; male 7.3 (1.9) to 5.6 (1.8) kg] (DXA). In contrast, no changes were observed in FFM despite a season of intensive rowing training. Seasonal body weight control was achieved through reduced total energy and dietary fat intakes. Acute body weight reductions were achieved by exercise in 73.3% of participants, food restriction in 71.4%, and fluid restrictions in 62.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal body weight alterations in lightweight rowers are in response to a significant reduction in fat mass. However, the weight restrictions appear to be limiting an increase in FFM which could be beneficial to rowing performance. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9015590

  18. The effect of a 3-month moderate-intensity physical activity program on body composition in overweight and obese African American college females

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, K.; Durant, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated body composition outcomes following a 3-month exercise program for overweight/obese Black women. BMI decreased over the 3-month study despite an observed increase in body fat. Enhancements in bone marrow density and muscle density were also observed. Results show promising yet hypothesis-generating findings to explore in future research. Introduction Few studies have evaluated the relationship between aerobic physical activity (PA) and body composition among young adult overweight/obese African American (AA) women. Purpose The current study evaluated the effect of a 3-month moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity intervention for overweight and obese young adult women on bone, lean, and fat mass. Methods Participants (n=15) were a randomly selected subset of AA female college students (M age=21.7 years; M BMI= 33.3) enrolled in a larger PA promotion pilot study (n=31). Study protocol required participants to engage in four 30–60-min moderate-intensity aerobic PA sessions each week. Whole body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess additional quantitative and qualitative assessment of the radius. Results BMI decreased over the duration of the study (P=.034), reflected by a marginal decrease in body weight (P=.057). However, unexpectedly, increases in adipose tissue measures were observed, including total body fat (P=.041), percent body fat (P=.044), trunk fat (P=.031), and percent trunk fat (P=.041). No changes in DXA-measured bone outcomes were observed (i.e., bone mineral density, P=.069; bone mineral content, P=.211). Results from the pQCT assessment showed that bone marrow density increased (P=.011), but cortical density remained stable (P=.211). A marginally significant increase in muscle density (P=.053) and no changes in muscle area (P=.776) were observed. Conclusions A 3-month moderate-intensity PA program was associated

  19. Relationship between Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Early Adult Life: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Nested in Two Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P.; Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF). This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC) measures in two population-based cohorts. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs) fat mass (FM) and total fat-free mass (FFM). FM and FFM were measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations were verified through linear regressions stratified by sex, and adjusted for weight, height, skin color, and socioeconomic, behavioral, and perinatal variables. Results A total of 7347 individuals were included in the analyses (3438 and 3909 at 30 and 18 years, respectively). Most BC measures showed a significant positive association between PF and FFM, and a negative association with FM. For each additional percentage point of FM, measured by BOD POD, the forced vital capacity regression coefficient adjusted by height, weight and skin color, at 18 years, was −33 mL (95% CI −38, −29) and −26 mL (95% CI −30, −22), and −30 mL (95% CI −35, −25) and −19 mL (95% CI −23, −14) at 30 years, in men and women, respectively. All the BOD POD regression coefficients for FFM were the same as for the FM coefficients, but in a positive trend (p<0.001 for all associations). Conclusions All measures that distinguish FM from FFM (skinfold thickness–FM estimation–BOD POD, total and segmental DXA measures–FM and FFM proportions) showed negative trends in the association of FM with PF for both ages and sexes. On the other hand, FFM showed a positive association with PF. PMID:27682232

  20. Diagnostic value of osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in detecting high-risk populations for osteoporosis among elderly Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Yu; Pang, Xiao-Na; Chang, Gui-Lin; Li, Li

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate an osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) and their combination in detecting populations at high risk for osteoporosis, and to determine the best cutoff value for the diagnosis of osteoporosis among elderly Chinese men. A group of Chinese men, aged ≥ 60 years, recruited from the health checkup population of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, were included. The OSTA index was calculated from age and weight. Bone mineral density (BMD) at left hip (femoral neck, internal, and total hip) and lumbar spine (L1-L4, L-Total) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and calcaneal BMD was measured with QUS. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the best cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity. The area under the curve (AUC) between the different screening tools was compared. Our study included 472 men with mean age of 78.0 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.7%.The best cutoff for OSTA was -3.5 for predicting men with osteoporosis at any site; this yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 47.3% and 76.8%, respectively. The AUC for OSTA was 0.676. The optimal cutoff for QUS-T score was -1.25, with a sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 59.7%. The AUC for QUS-T score was 0.762. Combining QUS with OSTA improved the specificity to 92.9% but reduced sensitivity to 36.1%. A new variable derived from a combination of OSTA and the QUS-T score gave a better performance, with sensitivity of 70.1% and specificity of 72.1%; the AUC for this variable was 0.771, which was greater than OSTA but not different from QUS alone. In conclusion, OSTA and QUS, respectively, and their combination may help find populations at high risk for osteoporosis, which could be an alternative method for diagnosing osteoporosis, especially in areas where DXA measurement is not accessible.

  1. The En Balance Spanish Diabetes Education Program Improves Apolipoproteins, Serum Glucose and Body Composition in Hispanic Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Chukwueke, Ihuoma; Firek, Anthony; Beeson, Larry; Brute, Maribet; Shulz, Eloy; De Leon, Marino; Cordero-MacIntyre, Zaida R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the changes in apolipoproteins, glycemic status, and body composition after 3 months using a culturally sensitive diabetes education program, En Balance, in diabetic Hispanics. Methods Thirty-four (9 males, 25 females) Hispanic diabetics participated in the En Balance program over three months. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1c, and apolipoproteins (Apo) measured after 3 months participation. Differences were analyzed using paired t testing and relationships between changes in Apo, A1c, total cholesterol, body mass index and body composition by Spearman correlations. Results Completion of En Balance resulted in a significant reduction in weight (80.31 ± 1.97 kg vs 81.25 ± 17.97 kg, P=.015), FPG (143.21 ± 57.8 mg/dL vs 166.41 ± 65.9 mg/dL P=.003), and A1c (7.08 ± 1.6% vs 7.87 ± 2.0%, P=<.001). DXA demonstrated reduction in total fat (29.54 ± 10.0 kg vs 30.24 ± 11.80 kg, P=<.001) and trunk fat (15.09 ± 5.6 kg vs 16.87 ± 5.4 kg, P=.001). High density lipoprotein significantly increased (48.85 ± 11.4 vs 44.65 ± 8.8, P=.002) and total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio decreased (3.87 ± .98 vs 4.35 ± 1.0, P=.001). There were significant correlations at three months between changes in Apo A1 and A2 (r=.559, P<.001), Apo E and total cholesterol (r=.746, P<.001), between A1c and FPG (r=.563, P=.001) and BMI and body weight (r=.732, P<.001). Conclusions The En Balance program improved body composition, A1c, FPG, total cholesterol/HDL ratio and HDL. If these trends can be sustained, En Balance may serve as a unique educational paradigm for improving type 2 diabetes in Hispanics. PMID:22764645

  2. Advanced imaging assessment of bone quality.

    PubMed

    Genant, Harry K; Jiang, Yebin

    2006-04-01

    Noninvasive and/or nondestructive techniques can provide structural information about bone, beyond simple bone densitometry. While the latter provides important information about osteoporotic fracture risk, many studies indicate that bone mineral density (BMD) only partly explains bone strength. Quantitative assessment of macrostructural characteristics, such as geometry, and microstructural features, such as relative trabecular volume, trabecular spacing, and connectivity, may improve our ability to estimate bone strength. Methods for quantitatively assessing macrostructure include (besides conventional radiographs) dual X ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT), particularly volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Methods for assessing microstructure of trabecular bone noninvasively and/or nondestructively include high-resolution computed tomography (hrCT), microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), high-resolution magnetic resonance (hrMR), and micromagnetic resonance (micro-MR). vQCT, hrCT, and hrMR are generally applicable in vivo; micro-CT and micro-MR are principally applicable in vitro. Despite progress, problems remain. The important balances between spatial resolution and sampling size, or between signal-to-noise and radiation dose or acquisition time, need further consideration, as do the complexity and expense of the methods versus their availability and accessibility. Clinically, the challenges for bone imaging include balancing the advantages of simple bone densitometry versus the more complex architectural features of bone, or the deeper research requirements versus the broader clinical needs. The biological differences between the peripheral appendicular skeleton and the central axial skeleton must be further addressed. Finally, the relative merits of these sophisticated imaging techniques must be weighed with respect to their applications as diagnostic procedures, requiring high accuracy or reliability, versus their monitoring

  3. Correlation between serum leptin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghorban-Sabbagh, Mahin; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ahmadi-Simab, Saeedeh; Javidi-Dasht-Bayaz, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For diagnosing of specific types of bone lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it is necessary to conduct a bone biopsy as the gold standard method. However, it is an invasive procedure. While different markers have been suggested as alternative methods, none of them has been selected. The frequency of hip fractures is 80 fold in HD patients who have two-fold mortality as compared with general population. Objectives: Recently, serum leptin has been suggested as a bone density marker. This study tries to confirm this proposal. Patients and Methods: In this study about 104 HD patients (53.8% male and 46.2% female) were enrolled. The average age was 38.28±7.89 years. Serum leptin, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus and bone mineral density (BMD) (at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) were assessed. Results: Analysis by polynomial regression revealed no correlation between BMD Z-score at two points and serum leptin level. According to the thresholds of 25 ng/mL and 18-24 ng/mL in some studies, we detected 25 ng/mL as the threshold in our patients. Under this threshold, the leptin effect on bone mass was negative, and above the threshold of 25 ng/mL, we found leptin had positive effect on bone mass. Conclusion: In this investigation, we found, leptin has a bimodal effect on bone mass. Cortical bones assessment may be a better option for assessment. PMID:27689105

  4. Wrist bone mineral density utility in diagnosing hip osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar-Sadat, Bina; Ghavami, Mostafa; Toopchizadeh, Vahideh; Ghahvechi Akbari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that increases with age. Wrist bone mineral density (BMD) has significant correlation with other skeletal sites and it could be used as a diagnostic method for osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of wrist BMD in diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 99 postmenopausal women with mean age of 57 ± 6.9 (range 50–76) years were evaluated. BMD of nondominant wrist, lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femur bone using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) device as well as lateral lumbosacral X-ray for degenerative joint disease (DJD) evaluation were measured. Mean T-score of wrist was lower than hip and lumbar area. Results: Osteopenia and osteoporosis were observed in 40.4% and 59.6% in the wrist, 38.4% and 24.2% in the hip and 36.4% and 49.5% in lumbar-spine BMD measurements, respectively. There was positive correlation between wrist BMD with hip BMD (r = 0.468,p < 0.001) and lumbar BMD (r = 0.322, p = 0.001). DJD due to lumbosacral X-ray was reported in 84 cases (84.8%) including mild DJD in 45 (53.5%), moderate DJD in 33 (39.3%) and severe DJD in 6 (7.2%). Conclusions: Our results showed that wrist BMD has better accuracy than lumbar BMD in diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:28203357

  5. Relevance of 2D radiographic texture analysis for the assessment of 3D bone micro-architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Lian; Boudousq, Vincent; Basset, Oliver; Odet, Christophe; Yot, Sophie; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier; Peyrin, Francoise

    2006-09-15

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on dual x-ray absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regard to fracture risk. In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. Thirty-three calcaneus and femoral neck bone samples including the cortical shells (diameter: 14 mm, height: 30-40 mm) were imaged using 3D-synchrotron x-ray micro-CT at the ESRF. The 3D reconstructed images with a cubic voxel size of 15 {mu}m were further used for two purposes: (1) quantification of three-dimensional trabecular bone micro-architecture (2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. The simulated x-ray radiographs were then analyzed using a large variety of texture analysis methods (co-occurrence, spectral density, fractal, morphology, etc.). The range of micro-architecture parameters was in agreement with previous studies and rather large, suggesting that the population was representative. More than 350 texture parameters were tested. A small number of them were selected based on their correlation to micro-architectural morphometric parameters. Using this subset of texture parameters, multiple regression allowed one to predict up to 93% of the variance of micro-architecture parameters using three texture features. 2D texture features predicting 3D micro-architecture parameters other than BV/TV were identified. The methodology proposed for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters may also be used for optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Further work will include the application of the method to physical radiographs. In the future, this approach could be used in combination with DXA to refine osteoporosis diagnosis.

  6. Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd T; Hoy, Jennifer; Borderi, Marco; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Renjifo, Boris; Vescini, Fabio; Yin, Michael T; Powderly, William G

    2015-04-15

    Thirty-four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) specialists from 16 countries contributed to this project, whose primary aim was to provide guidance on the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Four clinically important questions in bone disease management were identified, and recommendations, based on literature review and expert opinion, were agreed upon. Risk of fragility fracture should be assessed primarily using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in all HIV-infected men aged 40-49 years and HIV-infected premenopausal women aged ≥40 years. DXA should be performed in men aged ≥50 years, postmenopausal women, patients with a history of fragility fracture, patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid treatment, and patients at high risk of falls. In resource-limited settings, FRAX without bone mineral density can be substituted for DXA. Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy should be followed; adjustment should avoid tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or boosted protease inhibitors in at-risk patients. Dietary and lifestyle management strategies for high-risk patients should be employed and antiosteoporosis treatment initiated.

  7. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  8. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  9. Structural model for osteoporosis preventing behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Margaret O; Sedlak, Carol A; Hall, Rosalie J; Estok, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    This longitudinal study evaluates the effect of bone mineral density screening on calcium intake and daily exercise of 196 healthy men older than 50 years over a period of 1 year. In this randomized clinical trial, the experimental group received personal bone density information via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The men completed measures addressing knowledge, health beliefs, calcium intake, and exercise behaviors. Outcome measures were collected by a questionnaire at three time points: initial (Time 1 [T1]; pre-DXA), 6 months (Time 2 [T2]), and 12 months (Time 3 [T3]). Using structural equation modeling for data analysis, results indicated that men in the experimental group had a significantly higher T2 calcium intake than the control group, with no additional direct effect at T3. T1 daily calcium intake was significantly predicted by T1 health beliefs. Men with higher levels of health motivation tended to have higher initial levels of daily calcium intake. Personal knowledge of DXA results relate significantly to increased calcium intake.

  10. The effect of lead in bone densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Marija; McNeill, Fiona E.; Webber, Colin E.; Chettle, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is presently considered the standard technique for diagnosis of osteoporosis. It has been suggested that the presence of lead interferes with the accurate measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA because of the increased attenuation and that an accurate measurement of BMD cannot be determined unless the patient's bone lead content of patients is known. We performed DXA measurements on plaster of Paris phantoms and a Hologic Spine phantom in combination with polyester resin doped with various concentrations of lead. At lead levels which correspond to bone concentrations in occupationally exposed individuals, the suggested increase in densitometric BMD was not detected. Numerical calculations show that the effect of the lead depends upon the two energies of the X-ray beam of a particular device. The discrepancy between the actual and the densitometric BMD increases linearly and is about 0.3% at 100 ppm. Such change cannot be detected by the Hologic QDR 4500A, the device used for this experiment.

  11. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R2=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R2=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  12. Qualitative Evaluation of Digital Hand X-rays Is Not a Reliable Method to Assess Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew J.; Jones, Christopher; Liss, Frederick; Abboudi, Jack; Kirkpatrick, William; Beredjiklian, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Background: The gold standard for evaluating bone mineral density is dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Prior studies have shown poor reliability using analog wrist X-rays in diagnosing osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate if there was improved diagnostic value to visual assessment of digital hand X-rays in osteoporosis screening. We hypothesized that similar to analog counterparts, digital hand X-rays have poor correlation and reliability in determining bone mineral density (BMD) relative to DEXA. Methods: We prospectively evaluated female patients older than 65 years who presented to our hand clinic with digital hand and wrist X-rays as part of their evaluation over six months. Patients who had a fracture and were without DEXA scans within the past two years were excluded. Five fellowship-trained hand surgeons, blinded to DEXA T-scores, evaluated the x-rays over two assessments separated by four weeks and classified them as osteoporotic, osteopenic, or normal BMD. Accuracy relative to DEXA T-score, interobserver and intraobserver rates were calculated. Results: Thirty four patients met the inclusion criteria and a total of 340 x-rays reviews were performed. The assessments were correct in 169 cases (49%) as compared to the DEXA T-scores. A mean weighted kappa coefficient of agreement between observers was 0.29 (range 0.02-0.41) reflecting a fair agreement. The first and second assessment for all five physicians was 0.46 (range 0.19-0.78) reflecting a moderate agreement. Grouping osteoporosis and osteopenia together compared to normal, the accuracy, interobserver and intraobserver rates increased to 63%, 0.42 and 0.54 respectively. Conclusion: Abnormally low BMD is a common occurrence in patients treated for upper extremity disorders. There is poor accuracy relative to DEXA scan and only fair agreement in diagnosing osteoporosis using visual assessments of digital x-rays. PMID:28271081

  13. Birth Control Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods fact ... Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, or ...

  14. Dual Energy X-Ray Densitometry Apparatus and Method Using Single X-Ray Pulse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-13

    absorptiometry ( DEXA ) projection scanning units have been developed by Hologic Inc. (Waltham, MA) and Lunar Corp. (Madison, Wl). Using dual-energy...of the techniques that have been used, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) x-ray scanning techniques produce three- PATENT NC 79,057...determined by most DEXA instruments, and this quantity is usually referred to as the bone mineral density (BMD). The primary goal for a DEXA instrument

  15. Serial bone mineral density ratio measurement for fixator removal in tibia distraction osteogenesis and need of a supportive method using the pixel value ratio.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar; Kim, Tae-Young; Sinha, Shivam; Park, Young-Eun; Kim, Seung-Ju; Hong, Jin-Ho; Song, Sang-Youn; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is one of the common procedures for limb lengthening. However, attempts are being made constantly to establish objective guidelines for early and safe removal of a fixator using a sensitive and quantitative measurement technique. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been evaluated in the past for understanding callus stiffness, and the present study is a step further in this direction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between bone mineral density ratio (BMDR) obtained by a DEXA scan and the pixel value ratio (PVR) on plain digital radiographs at each cortex and various callus pathways and callus shapes as described by Ru-Li's classification. A retrospective analysis of 40 tibial segments in 23 patients operated upon for various indications for limb lengthening was carried out. There were 11 male and 12 female patients with a mean age of 18 years. The Ilizarov method was applied after monofocal osteotomy, and distraction and consolidation were monitored using digital radiographs and DEXA scanning. BMDR was positively correlated with PVR, and the optimal BMDR for removal of the fixator was found to be 0.511. PVR of all cortices, except the anterior cortex, showed significant positive correlation with BMDR of the regenerate. There was good correlation between BMDR and PVR in the homogenous or heterogenous pathway according to callus shape and pathway. Thus, this study shows that BMD measurement can provide an objective and noninvasive method for assessing the rate of new bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis. It can thus function as an effective adjunct to measure callus stiffness, along with PVR, using digital radiographs, especially in cases in which callus maturation and stiffness is doubtful. Further studies especially dealing with callus progression through the lucent pathway as well as those dealing with regenerate fractures may be needed to conclusively prove the efficacy of this method

  16. Proximal Femoral Geometry as Fracture Risk Factor in Female Patients with Osteoporotic Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Proximal femoral geometry may be a risk factor of osteoporotic hip fractures. However, there existed great differences among studies depending on race, sex and age of subjects. The purpose of the present study is to analyze proximal femoral geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) in the osteoporotic hip fracture patients. Furthermore, we investigated proximal femoral geometric parameters affecting fractures, and whether the geometric parameters could be an independent risk factor of fractures regardless of BMD. Methods This study was conducted on 197 women aged 65 years or more who were hospitalized with osteoporotic hip fracture (femur neck fractures ; 84, intertrochanteric fractures; 113). Control group included 551 women who visited to check osteoporosis. Femur BMD and proximal femoral geometry for all subjects were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and compared between the control and fracture groups. Besides, proximal femoral geometric parameters associated with fractures were statistically analyzed. Results There were statistically significant differences in the age and weight, cross-sectional area (CSA)/length/width of the femoral neck and BMD of the proximal femur between fracture group and control group. BMD of the proximal femur in the control group was higher than in the fracture group. For the femoral neck fractures group, the odds ratio (OR) for fractures decrease in the CSA and neck length (NL) of the femur increased by 1.97 times and 1.73 times respectively, regardless of BMD. The OR for fractures increase in the femoral neck width increased by 1.53 times. In the intertrochanteric fracture group, the OR for fractures increase in the femoral neck width increased by 1.45 times regardless of BMD. Conclusions We found that an increase of the femoral neck width could be a proximal femoral geometric parameter which plays important roles as a risk factor for fracture independently of BMD. PMID:27622182

  17. Collagen type-I leads to in vivo matrix mineralization and secondary stabilization of Mg-Zr-Ca alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Mushahary, Dolly; Wen, Cuie; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Lin, Jixing; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter; Pande, Gopal; Li, Yuncang

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-zirconia-calcium (Mg-Zr-Ca) alloy implants were coated with Collagen type-I (Coll-I) and assessed for their rate and efficacy of bone mineralization and implant stabilization. The phases, microstructure and mechanical properties of these alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and compression test, respectively, and the corrosion behavior was established by their hydrogen production rate in simulated body fluid (SBF). Coll-I extracted from rat tail, and characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, was used for dip-coating the Mg-based alloys. The coated alloys were implanted into the femur bones of male New Zealand white rabbits. In vivo bone formation around the implants was quantified by measuring the bone mineral content/density (BMC/BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osseointegration of the implant and new bone mineralization was visualized by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Upon surface coating with Coll-I, these alloys demonstrated high surface energy showing enhanced performance as an implant material that is suitable for rapid and efficient new bone tissue induction with optimal mineral content and cellular properties. The results demonstrate that Coll-I coated Mg-Zr-Ca alloys have a tendency to form superior trabecular bone structure with better osteoinduction around the implants and higher implant secondary stabilization, through the phenomenon of contact osteogenesis, compared to the control and uncoated ones in shorter periods of implantation. Hence, Coll-I surface coating of Mg-Zr-Ca alloys is a promising method for expediting new bone formation in vivo and enhancing osseointegration in load bearing implant applications.

  18. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  19. Clinical and Genetic Analysis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1-Related Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jing; Nie, Min; Shi, Jie; Hu, Yingying; Jiang, Yan; Li, Mei; Xia, Weibo; Meng, Xunwu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (MHPT) differs in many aspects from sporadic PHPT (SHPT). The aims of this study were to summarize the clinical features and genetic background of Chinese MHPT patients and compare the severity of the disease with those of SHPT. Design and Methods A total of 40 MHPT (27 sporadic, 7 families) and 169 SHPT cases of Chinese descent were retrospectively analyzed. X-rays and ultrasound were used to assess the bone and urinary system. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed to measure bone mineral density (BMD). Besides direct sequencing of the MEN1 and CDKN1B genes, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to screen gross deletion for the MEN1 gene. Results Compared with SHPT patients, MHPT patients showed lower prevalence of typical X-ray changes related to PHPT (26.3% vs. 55.7%, P = 0.001) but higher prevalence of urolithiasis/renal calcification (40.2% vs. 60.0%, P = 0.024). MHPT patients showed higher phosphate level (0.84 vs. 0.73mmol/L, P<0.05) but lower ALP (103.0 vs. 174.0U/L, P<0.001) and PTH (4.0 vs. 9.8×upper limit, P<0.001) levels than SHPT patients. There were no significant differences in BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine and femoral neck between the two groups. Mutations in the MEN1 gene were detected in 27 MHPT cases. Among the nine novel mutations were novel, one of them involved the deletion of exon 5 and 6. Conclusions MHPT patients experienced more common kidney complications but less skeletal issues, and a milder biochemical manifestation compared with SHPT patients. MEN1 mutation detection rate was 79.4% and 9 of the identified mutations were novel. PMID:27846313

  20. Indicators of Walking Speed in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relative Influence of Articular, Psychosocial, and Body Composition Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lusa, Amanda L; Amigues, Isabelle; Kramer, Henry R; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Giles, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the contributions from and interactions between articular swelling and damage, psychosocial factors, and body composition characteristics on walking speed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods RA patients underwent the timed 400 meter long-corridor walk. Demographics, self-reported levels of depressive symptoms and fatigue, RA characteristics, and body composition [using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and abdominal and thigh computed tomography (CT)] were assessed and their associations with walking speed explored. Results A total of 132 RA patients had data for the 400 meter walk, among whom 107 (81%) completed the full 400 meters. Significant multivariable indicators of slower walking speed were older age, higher depression scores, higher reported pain and fatigue, higher swollen and replaced joint counts, higher cumulative prednisone exposure, non-treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and worse body composition. These features accounted for 60% of the modeled variability in walking speed. Among specific articular features, slower walking speed was primarily correlated with large/medium lower-extremity joint involvement. However, these articular features accounted for only 21% of the explainable variability in walking speed. Having any relevant articular characteristics was associated with a 20% lower walking speed among those with worse body composition (p<0.001) compared with only a 6% lower speed among those with better body composition (p-value for interaction=0.010). Conclusions Psychosocial factors and body composition are potentially reversible contributors to walking speed in RA. Relative to articular disease activity and damage, non-articular indicators were collectively more potent indicators of an individual's mobility limitations. PMID:25155859

  1. Like Mother, Like Daughter? Dietary and Non-Dietary Bone Fracture Risk Factors in Mothers and Their Daughters

    PubMed Central

    SOBAS, Kamila; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; SLOWINSKA, Malgorzata Anna; CZLAPKA-MATYASIK, Magdalena; WUENSTEL, Justyna; NIEDZWIEDZKA, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differences between mothers and daughters regarding dietary and non-dietary risk factors for bone fractures and osteoporosis. Methods: The study was carried out in 2007–2010 on 712 mothers (29–59 years) and daughters (12–21 years) family pairs. In the sub-sample (170 family pairs) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured for the forearm by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The consumption of dairy products was determined with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca) and calcium intake from the daily diet was calculated. Results: The presence of risk factors for bone fractures in mothers and daughters was significantly correlated. The Spearman rank coefficient for dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.87 (P<0.05) in whole sub-sample, 0.94 (P<0.05) in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.82 (P<0.05) in middle tercile of BMD, 0.54 (P>0.05) in upper tercile of BMD and for non-dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.83 (P<0.05) in whole sub-sample, 0.86 (P<0.05) in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.93 (P<0.05) in middle tercile of BMD, 0.65 (P<0.05) in upper tercile of BMD. Conclusions: Our results confirm the role of the family environment for bone health and document the stronger effect of negative factors of the family environment as compared to other positive factors on bone fracture risk. PMID:26576372

  2. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  3. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  4. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  5. Correlations Between Changes in Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Muscle Function in Hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Harslof, Torben; Sikjaer, Tanja; Mosekilde, Leif; Langdahl, Bente L.; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Muscles and bones are interconnected. Recent studies suggest that undercarboxylated osteocalcin from bone may affect muscle mass and strength. There are, however, no prospective human data on this relationship. Methods We previously treated patients with hypoparathyroidism with intact Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) or placebo in a six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial and demonstrated a marked increase in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) in the PTH-treated group. We therefore investigated if this increase correlated with changes in muscle mass, strength or function. Primarily, the muscle mass using Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was measured and the maximal voluntary isometric muscle strength at the upper and lower extremities, using dynamometry, was assessed. Furthermore, repeated chair stands test, Timed Up and Go test were performed and postural stability using a stadiometer was assessed. Finally, the relationship between change in ucOC or the ratio of the changes in ucOC and total OC (ucOC%/OC%) and different measures of muscle function were analyzed, using regression analyses. Results The findings indicated that ucOC%/OC% was positively and significantly associated with percentage change in max force production during elbow extension (β = 0.28, P = 0.034), however, all other associations were non-significant. Conclusions Given the number of statistical tests that were carried out, our one significant finding may represent a false positive. Thus the results do not support the role of ucOC in muscle function in humans with hypoparathyroidism. Our results are inconsistent with previous data from a human cross-sectional study; however, cross-sectional studies, do not allow for inference of causality. The analyses should be repeated in larger, randomized trials including healthy individuals. PMID:27942265

  6. Meconium Tenofovir Concentrations and Growth and Bone Outcomes in Prenatally Tenofovir Exposed HIV-Uninfected Children

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Wu, Julia W.; Jacobson, Denise L.; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Hazra, Rohan; Kacanek, Deborah; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Rich, Kenneth C.; Siberry, George K.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment among HIV-infected pregnant women results in fetal tenofovir (TFV) exposure. Fetal TFV toxicity was demonstrated in animals, but most clinical investigations have not observed toxicity in humans. Methods We evaluated HIV-exposed, uninfected infants in the SMARTT cohort of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study whose mothers were prescribed TDF for ≥8 third trimester weeks. Infant dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were obtained at 0–4 weeks to measure whole body bone mineral content (BMC). Meconium TFV concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Fifty-eight TFV-exposed infants had meconium TFV quantified. Detectable concentrations were 11–48,100 ng/g; 3 infants had undetectable concentrations. Maternal TDF prescription duration ranged from 8–41 gestational weeks; infant gestational ages were 36–41 weeks. Meconium TFV concentrations were not correlated with TFV exposure duration or timing and did not vary by concomitant prescription of protease inhibitors. Increased meconium TFV concentrations were associated with greater gestational ages (ρ=0.29, P=0.03) and lower maternal plasma HIV RNA before delivery (ρ=−0.29, P=0.04). Meconium TFV concentrations were not associated with infant weight, length (n=58), or BMC (n=49). Conclusions For the first time, we explored associations between meconium TFV concentrations and infant growth and bone measurements; we did not observe a meconium concentration-dependent relationship for these infant outcomes. These findings support other clinical research failing to show dose-response relationships for growth and bone outcomes among intrauterine TFV-exposed infants. High meconium TFV concentrations correlated with low maternal viral load, suggesting maternal TDF adherence significantly contributes to meconium TFV concentrations. PMID:25961889

  7. Associations of Dispositional Mindfulness with Obesity and Central Adiposity: the New England Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Howe, Chanelle J.; Gutman, Roee; Gilman, Stephen E.; Brewer, Judson; Eaton, Charles B.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness (defined as the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one’s own physical and mental processes) is associated with obesity and central adiposity. Methods Study participants (n=394) were from the New England Family Study, a prospective birth cohort, with median age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Central adiposity was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with primary outcomes android fat mass and android/gynoid ratio. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Results Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that participants with low vs. high MAAS scores were more likely to be obese (prevalence ratio for obesity= 1.34 (95 % confidence limit (CL): 1.02, 1.77)), adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, birth weight, childhood socioeconomic status, and childhood intelligence. Furthermore, participants with low vs. high MAAS level had a 448 (95 % CL 39, 857) g higher android fat mass and a 0.056 (95 % CL 0.003, 0.110) greater android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Prospective analyses demonstrated that participants who were not obese in childhood and became obese in adulthood (n=154) had −0.21 (95 % CL −0.41, −0.01; p=0.04) lower MAAS scores than participants who were not obese in childhood or adulthood (n=203). Conclusions Dispositional mindfulness may be inversely associated with obesity and adiposity. Replication studies are needed to adequately establish whether low dispositional mindfulness is a risk factor for obesity and adiposity. PMID:26481650

  8. Changes in insulin‐like growth factor‐I and ‐II associated with fat but not lean mass in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Jeff M.P.; Lashen, Hany; Hardy, Rebecca; Adams, Judith; Kuh, Diana; Ben‐Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that insulin‐like growth factors‐I and II (IGF‐I and II) decline during late midlife and that greater declines are related to higher fat mass and lower lean mass. Methods A total of 1,542 men and women in a British birth cohort study had IGF‐I and II measured by immunoassay of blood samples at age 53 and/or 60‐64 years. Fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60‐64 years using dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations between changes in IGF‐I or II and body composition outcomes were examined using conditional change linear regression models. Results Mean IGF‐I and IGF‐II concentrations were lower at 60‐64 than at 53 years, by 12.8% for IGF‐I and by 12.5% for IGF‐II. Larger declines in either IGF‐I or II were associated with higher fat mass at 60‐64 years. Although higher IGF‐I at 53 years was associated with higher lean mass, there was little evidence linking changes in IGF‐I or II to lean mass. Conclusions The findings suggest that IGF‐I and II concentrations decline with age, and greater declines are associated with higher fat mass levels. These results provide some evidence for the suggested roles of IGF‐I and II in regulating fat mass but not lean mass in older age. PMID:25645314

  9. Osteoporosis prediction from the mandible using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Al Haffar, Iyad; Khattab, Razan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the use of dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis among menopausal and postmenopausal women by using only a CBCT viewer program. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight menopausal and postmenopausal women who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination for hip and lumbar vertebrae were scanned using CBCT (field of view: 13 cm×15 cm; voxel size: 0.25 mm). Slices from the body of the mandible as well as the ramus were selected and some CBCT-derived variables, such as radiographic density (RD) as gray values, were calculated as gray values. Pearson's correlation, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) evaluation based on linear and logistic regression were performed to choose the variable that best correlated with the lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results RD of the whole bone area of the mandible was the variable that best correlated with and predicted both the femoral neck and the lumbar vertebrae T-scores; further, Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.5/0.6 (p value=0.037/0.009). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on the logistic regression were 50%, 88.9%, and 78.4%, respectively, for the femoral neck, and 46.2%, 91.3%, and 75%, respectively, for the lumbar vertebrae. Conclusion Lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck osteoporosis can be predicted with high accuracy from the RD value of the body of the mandible by using a CBCT viewer program. PMID:25473633

  10. In vivo application of 3D-line skeleton graph analysis (LSGA) technique with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of trabecular bone structure.

    PubMed

    Pothuaud, Laurent; Newitt, David C; Lu, Ying; MacDonald, Brian; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2004-05-01

    Over the last several years magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as a means of measuring in vivo 3D trabecular bone structure. In particular, MR based diagnosis could be used to complement standard bone mineral density (BMD) methods for assessing osteoporosis and evaluating longitudinal changes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the 3D-LSGA technique for the evaluation of trabecular bone structure of high-resolution MR images, particularly for assessing longitudinal changes, in vivo. First, the reproducibility of topological 3D-LSGA based measurements was evaluated in a set of seven volunteers, and coefficients of variations ranged from 3.5% to 6%. Second, high-resolution MR images of the radius in 30 postmenopausal women from a placebo controlled drug study (Idoxifene), divided into placebo ( n=9) and treated ( n=21) groups, were obtained at baseline (BL) and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up, FU). In addition, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of BMD were obtained in the distal radius. Standard morphological measurements based on the mean intercept length (MIL) technique as well as 3D-LSGA based measurements were applied to the 3D MR images. Significant changes from BL to FU were detected, in the treated group, using the topological 3D-LSGA based measurements, morphological measures of volume of connected trabeculae and App Tb.N from MIL analysis. The duration of the study was short, and the number of patients remaining in the study was small, hence these results cannot be interpreted with regard to a true therapeutic response. Furthermore, the site (wrist) and the drug (idoxifene) are not optimal for follow-up study. However, this paper demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-LSGA based evaluation coupled with in vivo high-resolution MR imaging as a complementary approach for the monitoring of trabecular bone changes in individual subjects.

  11. The Relationship Between Lower Limb Bone and Muscle in Military Recruits, Response to Physical Training, and Influence of Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Puthucheary, Zudin; Kordi, Mehdi; Rawal, Jai; Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I.; Payne, John; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between bone and skeletal muscle mass may be affected by physical training. No studies have prospectively examined the bone and skeletal muscle responses to a short controlled exercise-training programme. We hypothesised that a short exercise-training period would affect muscle and bone mass together. Methods: Femoral bone and Rectus femoris Volumes (RFVOL) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 215 healthy army recruits, and bone mineral density (BMD) by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and repeated after 12 weeks of regulated physical training. Results: Pre-training, RFVOL was smaller in smokers than non-smokers (100.9 ± 20.2 vs. 108.7 ± 24.5, p = 0.018; 96.2 ± 16.9 vs. 104.8 ± 21.3, p = 0.002 for dominant/non-dominant limbs), although increases in RFVOL with training (of 14.2 ± 14.5% and 13.2 ± 15.6%] respectively, p < 0.001) were independent of prior smoking status. Pre-training RFVOL was related to bone cortical volume (r2 = 0.21 and 0.30, p < 0.001 for dominant and non-dominant legs), and specifically to periosteal (r2 = 0.21 and 0.23, p < 0.001) volume. Pre-training dominant RFVOL was independently associated with Total Hip BMD (p < 0.001). Training-related increases in RFVOL and bone volumes were related. Whilst smokers demonstrated lower muscle mass than non-smokers, differences were abolished with training. Training-related increases in muscle mass were related to increases in periosteal bone volume in both dominant and non-dominant legs. PMID:25792356

  12. IINFLUENCE OF THE IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT TACROLIMUS (FK-506) ON THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF FEMUR: A STUDY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; de Andrade, Ana Carolina Dias Viana; de Brito Rodrigues, Vinícius; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the resistance to femoral fractures among rats treated with the immunosuppressant tacrolimus FK-506 and compare these to untreated rats and rats treated with placebo. Methods: Ninety male Wistar rats were used. The animals were nine weeks old and weighed between 220 g and 280 g. The immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus was used in this study at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day, administered orally. The suspension was administered using an insulin syringe, and the maintenance therapeutic dose was sufficient to maintain the immunosuppressive activity. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30): group 1, no substance administered; group 2, administration of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus FK-506; and group 3, administration of the vehicle alone. Treatment with FK-506 was administered for 28 days. Total leukocyte counts and differential counts (lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils) were evaluated in order to monitor the immunosuppressive effect. Bone densitometry analysis by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was also performed before and after administration of the drug. To evaluate the resistance to flexion, a support device was developed so that mechanical tests using an EMIC universal testing machine could be carried out. Results: The results from the flexion resistance tests showed statistical differences between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001) and between groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001). No statistical difference was found between groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.995). Conclusions: The femurs of rats treated with the immunosuppressive agent had lower mechanical strength than did those of normal rats and those that received placebo. PMID:27022554

  13. Exploratory study into the effect of abdominal mass loading on airways resistance and ventilatory failure

    PubMed Central

    Dattani, Raj S; Swerner, Casey B; Stradling, John R; Manuel, Ari RG

    2016-01-01

    Objective We hypothesised that the airway resistance during tidal breathing would correlate with a particular pattern of increasing obesity, particularly when supine, and would differ between participants with and without ventilatory failure. Methods In our cross-sectional cohort study, 72 morbidly obese patients (40 males, 32 females, mean body mass index (BMI) 47.2) had measurements of both airways resistance (by impulse oscillometry (IOS)) and adiposity (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)). Results All measures of airways resistance increased in the supine position: total airways resistance (R5) +37% (p<0.0005); large airways resistance (R20) +29% (p<0.0005); and small airways resistance (R5–R20) +52% (p<0.0005). BMI was correlated with seated R5, seated R5–R20, supine R5 and supine R5–R20 (r=0.33 p<0.006, r=0.32 p<0.004, r=0.30 p<0.02 and r=0.36 p<0.04, respectively). Visceral adipose tissue mass was correlated with supine R5–20 (r=0.46 p<0.05). Supine measures of total airways resistance (R5) and large airways resistance (R20) differed between those with and without ventilatory failure, as did mean weight and BMI. Conclusions Our study identifies a potentially detrimental effect of the supine posture on tidal breathing airways resistance in obese patients. This change is correlated most with visceral adipose tissue mass and the small airways. We were able to demonstrate that supine increases in airways resistance during tidal breathing, within obese patients, are different between those with and without ventilatory failure. Trial registration number NCT01380418; pre-results. PMID:27335651

  14. Greater access to fast food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christina; Parsons, Camille; Godfrey, Keith; Robinson, Sian; Harvey, Nicholas C; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. Methods 1107 children participating in the Southampton Women’s Survey, United Kingdom, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and four and/or six years by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant’s neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Results Neighbourhood exposure to fast food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β=−0.23(z-score): 95% CI −0.38, −0.08), and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β=−0.17(z-score): 95% CI −0.32, −0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at four and six years (β=0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β=0.13(z-score): 95% CI −0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at four years but not at six years. Conclusions The neighbourhood food environment pregnant mothers and young children are exposed to may effect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in future studies, action to reduce access to fast food outlets could have benefits for childhood development and long term bone health. PMID:26458387

  15. Free triiodothyronine plasma concentrations are positively associated with insulin secretion in euthyroid individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Emilio; Koska, Juraj; Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bunt, Joy C; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones (TH) may influence glucose metabolism. Hyperthyroid subjects have higher insulin secretion rates when compared with euthyroid individuals. Objective To evaluate the association between TH concentrations and insulin secretion in euthyroid, healthy Pima Indian adults (n=55, 29±7 years, females/males 36/19) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) admitted to a Clinical Research Unit. Methods TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), 3,5,3′-L-tri-iodothyronine (FT3), and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentrations were measured in fasting plasma samples, percentage of body fat (%BF) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), acute insulin response (AIR), and incremental area under the curve (AUC) of insulin in response to a 25 g intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) respectively and insulin action (M) during an euglycemic clamp. Results FT3 concentrations were associated with FPI, AIR, and insulin AUC both before (r=0.33, P=0.01; r=0.29, P=0.03; and r=0.35, P=0.008 respectively) and after adjustment for age, sex, %BF, glucose (fasting concentrations or glucose AUC), and M (β=0.09, P=0.01; β=0.16, P=0.03; and β=0.24, P=0.0007 respectively). No associations were found for TSH or FT4. Conclusion FT3 was associated with several measurements of insulin secretion in euthyroid individuals with NGT. T3 concentrations may play a role in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:18230829

  16. Predicting Trabecular Bone Stiffness from Clinical Cone-Beam CT and HR-pQCT Data; an In Vitro Study Using Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Brismar, Torkel B.; Pahr, Dieter H.; Smedby, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Stiffness and shear moduli of human trabecular bone may be analyzed in vivo by finite element (FE) analysis from image data obtained by clinical imaging equipment such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). In clinical practice today, this is done in the peripheral skeleton like the wrist and heel. In this cadaveric bone study, fourteen bone specimens from the wrist were imaged by two dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices and one HR-pQCT device as well as by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Histomorphometric measurements from micro-CT data were used as gold standard. The image processing was done with an in-house developed code based on the automated region growing (ARG) algorithm. Evaluation of how well stiffness (Young’s modulus E3) and minimum shear modulus from the 12, 13, or 23 could be predicted from the CBCT and HR-pQCT imaging data was studied and compared to FE analysis from the micro-CT imaging data. Strong correlations were found between the clinical machines and micro-CT regarding trabecular bone structure parameters, such as bone volume over total volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and trabecular nodes (varying from 0.79 to 0.96). The two CBCT devices as well as the HR-pQCT showed the ability to predict stiffness and shear, with adjusted R2-values between 0.78 and 0.92, based on data derived through our in-house developed code based on the ARG algorithm. These findings indicate that clinically used CBCT may be a feasible method for clinical studies of bone structure and mechanical properties in future osteoporosis research. PMID:27513664

  17. Comparison of Buckling Ratio and Finite Element Analysis of Femoral Necks in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, D; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Osteoporosis is a prevalent problem amongst the elderly. Bone mineral density (BMD) obtained from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard in diagnosing osteopenia (-1.0 < t < -2.5) and osteoporosis (t > -2.5). However, following osteoporosis therapy, increases in BMD may be unreliable. Although hip fracture risk can be reduced with the aid of drugs, treated patients still face considerable risk as most people who sustain hip fracture do not have generalized osteoporosis. A study of the local distribution of bone mass was necessary as they contribute to the geometry and consequently the bone strength. Methods By identifying the respective regions in the femoral neck, the geometric changes were localized and differed between each patient, proving that drug treatment elicits local changes in mean outer radius and mean cortical thickness. Numerical analysis also validated the above findings, where critical strain regions were predicted at similar zones and this is coherent with the fact that reduced thickness of the cortical bone has been related to increased risk of fracture initiation. Results Hence, from individual radar plots, we can determine if the effect of drugs had outweighed the effect of aging. We can then propose a course of treatment drug better suited for the patient in the clinical scenario. Conclusion Clinically, little conclusion can be drawn from just the BMD in osteopenic / osteoporotic patients. This emphasizes the necessity of using geometry and structure to predict fracture risk. Focusing on a patient specific analysis at a local level will improve diagnosis of osteoporosis and ultimately fracture prediction. PMID:25371894

  18. Lower periprosthetic bone loss and good fixation of an ultra-short stem compared to a conventional stem in uncemented total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Salemyr, Mats; Muren, Olle; Ahl, Torbjörn; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — We hypothesized that an ultra-short stem would load the proximal femur in a more physiological way and could therefore reduce the adaptive periprosthetic bone loss known as stress shielding. Patients and methods — 51 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were randomized to total hip arthroplasty (THA) with either an ultra-short stem or a conventional tapered stem. The primary endpoint was change in periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD), measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in Gruen zones 1 and 7, two years after surgery. Secondary endpoints were change in periprosthetic BMD in the entire periprosthetic region, i.e. Gruen zones 1 through 7, stem migration measured with radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and function measured with self-administered functional scores. Results — The periprosthetic decrease in BMD was statistically significantly lower with the ultra-short stem. In Gruen zone 1, the mean difference was 18% (95% CI: −27% to −10%). In zone 7, the difference was 5% (CI: −12% to −3%) and for Gruen zones 1–7 the difference was also 5% (CI: −9% to −2%). During the first 6 weeks postoperatively, the ultra-short stems migrated 0.77 mm more on average than the conventional stems. 3 months after surgery, no further migration was seen. The functional scores improved during the study and were similar in the 2 groups. Interpretation — Up to 2 years after total hip arthroplasty, compared to the conventional tapered stem the ultra-short uncemented anatomical stem induced lower periprosthetic bone loss and had equally excellent stem fixation and clinical outcome. PMID:26134386

  19. Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p≥0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

  20. The Relationships between Anabolic Hormones and Body Composition in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men with Prediabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The influence of anabolic hormones and body composition in men with prediabetes (PD) is unknown. In a cross-sectional study we investigated the relationships between total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and body composition assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method in 84 patients with PD (40–80 years) and 56 men in control group. Patients with PD had lower TT, cFT, and DHEAS levels but similar IGF-1 levels in both groups. Patients with PD presented the higher total and abdominal fat as well as the lower total and abdominal lean than control (p < 0.02, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.02, resp.). We observed negative relationship between TT and total fat (p = 0.014) and positive with abdominal lean mass (p = 0.034), while cFT was negatively associated with abdominal (p = 0.02), trunk (p = 0.024), and leg fat (p = 0.037) and positively associated with total (p = 0.022) and trunk lean (p = 0.024). DHEAS were negatively associated with total fat (p = 0.045), and IGF-1 were positively associated with abdominal (p = 0.003) and leg lean (p = 0.015). In conclusion, the lowered anabolic hormones are involved in body composition rearrangement in men with PD. Further studies are needed to establish whether the androgen replacement therapy would be beneficial in men with PD. PMID:27274996

  1. Fracture Risk and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Lee, Hang; Mendes, Nara; Snelgrove, Deirdre; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To (i) compare fracture prevalence in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) vs. normal-weight controls and (ii) examine whether reductions in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predict fracture risk in females with AN. Methods 418 females (310 with active AN and 108 normal-weight controls) 12–22 years old were studied cross-sectionally. Lifetime fracture history was recorded by a physician during participant interviews. Body composition and aBMD measurements of the whole body, whole body less head, lumbar spine, and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for the lumbar spine. Results Participants with AN and normal-weight controls did not differ for chronological age, sexual maturity, or height. The lifetime prevalence of prior fracture was 59.8% higher in those with AN compared to controls (31.0 % versus 19.4 %, p = 0.02), and the fracture incidence rate peaked in our cohort after the diagnosis of AN. Lower aBMD and lumbar BMAD were not associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in the AN or control group on univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared to controls, fracture prevalence was significantly higher in the subgroup of girls with AN who had normal aBMD or only modest reductions of aBMD (Z-scores > −1 or −1.5). Discussion This is the first study to show that the risk of fracture during childhood and adolescence is significantly higher in patients with AN than in normal-weight controls. Fracture prevalence is increased in this cohort of subjects with AN even without significant reductions in aBMD. PMID:24430890

  2. Maternal gestational vitamin D supplementation and offspring bone health: a multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (MAVIDOS)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Bishop, Nicholas J; Kennedy, Stephen; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Schoenmakers, Inez; Fraser, Robert; Gandhi, Saurabh V; Carr, Andrew; D’Angelo, Stefania; Crozier, Sarah R; Moon, Rebecca J; Arden, Nigel K; Dennison, Elaine M; Godfrey, Keith M; Inskip, Hazel M; Prentice, Ann; Mughal, M. Zulf; Eastell, Richard; Reid, David M; Javaid, M Kassim

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with lower bone mass of the offspring in many, but not all, observational studies. However, proof that maternal vitamin D repletion during pregnancy improves offspring bone mass is lacking. Methods Between 06/10/2008 and 11/02/2014, we randomly assigned pregnant women with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] 25-100nmol/l at 12 weeks’ gestation to either 1000IU/day cholecalciferol or matched placebo from 14 weeks’ gestation until delivery. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 14 and 34 weeks’ gestation. Neonatal whole body bone mineral, assessed within 2 weeks after birth (n=665) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), was the primary outcome. Secondary pre-specified analyses explored interactions with study centre, maternal ethnicity, parity, compliance, protocol completion, baseline BMI, baseline 25(OH)D and change in 25(OH)D from 14 to 34 weeks; and offspring sex and season of birth. Findings We found no difference in neonatal whole body bone mineral content (BMC) of infants born to mothers randomised to 1000IU/day cholecalciferol compared with infants born to mothers randomised to placebo [61.6g (95%CI: 60.3, 62.8g) vs 60.5g (95%CI: 59.3, 61.7g) respectively, p=0.21]. Interpretation Supplementation of mothers with 1000IU/day cholecalciferol during pregnancy did not lead to increased offspring whole body BMC compared with placebo. PMID:26944421

  3. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Robert H.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Noworolski, Susan M.; Tai, Viva W.; Wen, Michael J.; Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Schwarz, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary fructose is implicated in metabolic syndrome, but intervention studies are confounded by positive caloric balance, changes in adiposity, or artifactually high amounts. We determined whether isocaloric substitution of starch for sugar would improve metabolic parameters in Latino (n=27) and African-American (n=16) children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods Participants consumed a diet for nine days to deliver comparable percentages of protein, fat, and carbohydrate as their self-reported diet; however, dietary sugar was reduced from 28% to 10%, and substituted with starch. Participants recorded daily weights, with calories adjusted for weight maintenance. Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) on Days 0 and 10. Biochemical analyses were controlled for weight change by repeated measures ANCOVA. Results Reductions in diastolic BP (−5 mmHg; p=0.002), lactate (−0.3 mmol/L; p<0.001), triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol (−46% and −0.3 mmol/L; p<0.001) were noted. Glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia improved (p<0.001). Weight reduced by 0.9±0.2 kg (p<0.001) and fat-free mass by 0.6 kg (p=0.04). Post-hoc sensitivity analysis demonstrates that results in the subcohort that did not lose weight (n=10) were directionally consistent Conclusions Isocaloric fructose restriction improved surrogate metabolic parameters in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome irrespective of weight change. PMID:26499447

  4. Association of sarcopenia and physical activity with femur bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the association of femur bone mineral density (BMD) with body composition and physical activity in elderly women. [Methods] This was a cross sectional study involving 119 women with mean age of 73.1±5.5 years. Body composition parameters including body mass index (BMI), percent of body fat (%BF), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index and femur BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical activity was assessed by the uniaxial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days including weekends. Based on femur BMD T-scores, subjects were classified as optimal group, osteopenia group, and osteoporosis group. Based on ASM index, subjects were classified as normal group and sarcopenia group. According to WHO recommendations of physical activity for elderly, the subjects were classified as active group or inactive group. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for osteopenia and osteoporosis. [Results] There were linear decreases for body composition parameters including weight (P=.023), BMI (P=.039), lean mass (P=.032), ASM index (P=.007) and physical activity parameters including daily of step (P<.001), low intensity physical activity (P<.001), moderate intensity physical activity (P=.001) across femur BMD levels. Compared to the normal group (OR=1), the sarcopenia group had a significantly higher OR (OR=4.823; P=.042), and the inactive group had a significantly higher OR (OR=5.478; P=.005) having osteopenia and osteoporosis when compared to the active group (OR=1). [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggested that physical activity along with a healthy nutrition should be promoted as a preventive strategy against osteopenia and osteoporosis in elderly women. PMID:27298809

  5. Effects of red pitaya juice supplementation on cardiovascular and hepatic changes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus, also known as red pitaya, and buah naga in Malay, is one of the tropical fruits of the cactus family, Cactaceae. Red pitaya has been shown to protect aorta from oxidative damage and improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats probably due to phytochemicals content including phenolics and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cardiac stiffness, hepatic and renal function in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced obese rats following supplementation of red pitaya juice. Methods Total 48 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: corn-starch group (CS), corn-starch + red pitaya juice group (CRP), high-carbohydrate, high fat group (HCHF) and high-carbohydrate, high fat + red pitaya juice (HRP). The intervention with 5% red pitaya juice was started for 8 weeks after 8 weeks initiation of the diet. Heart function was determined ex vivo with Langendorff hearts while plasma liver enzymes, uric acid and urea were measured using commercial kits. Total fat mass was determined with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Glucose uptake was measured with Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Liver and cardiac structures were defined by histology. Results Supplementation of red pitaya juice for 8 weeks increased energy intake and abdominal circumference but no change in body fat and lean mass respectively. Also, there were a trend of uric acid and glucose normalization for HRP as compared to H-fed rats. Red pitaya juice treatment reduced ALP and ALT but caused significant increment in AST. Diastolic stiffness of the heart was reduced after supplementation of red pitaya juice in corn starch fed rats. However, the reduction was not significant in HRP rats in comparison with H rats. Conclusion The present study concluded that red pitaya juice may serve as a complimentary therapy for attenuating some signs of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24919841

  6. Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the Sera of Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Females

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Aazam; Abtahi, Shabnam; Ghaderi, Abbas; Samsami Dehaghani, Alamtaj

    2016-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in postmenopausal females. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) play complex roles in normal bone metabolism, and in pathophysiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Objectives The aim of this study was to design an analytic cross sectional study in order to further clarify the role of TGF-β1 and IL-18 in osteoporosis of postmenopausal females. Methods A cross sectional study including 65 postmenopausal osteoporotic females as cases and 69 postmenopausal females of similar age without osteoporosis as controls was conducted. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine bone mass density (BMD) of participants and T-scoring was applied to establish whether the patient has osteoporosis or not. Serum TGF-β1 and IL-18 levels were measured by quantitative sandwich Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Serum TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic postmenopausal females than non-osteoporotic individuals (23.8 vs. 15.8 ng/mL; P = 0.009). There was no difference between IL-18 levels in the sera of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic postmenopausal females in this study. There was a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and serum level of TGF-β1 (P = 0.04). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that TGF-β1 serum levels is higher in osteoporotic postmenopausal females than non-osteoporotic ones, and probably aberrant increase in TGF-β1 in postmenopausal females can result in uncoupled bone resorption and formation, which leads to osteoporosis. PMID:28123435

  7. Fractal analysis of bone architecture at distal radius.

    PubMed

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-12-20

    Bone strength depends on bone quality (architecture, turnover, damage accumulation, and mineralization) as well as bone mass. In this study, human bone architecture was analyzed using fractal image analysis, and the clinical relevance of this method was evaluated. The subjects were 12 healthy female controls and 16 female patients suspected of having osteoporosis (age range, 22-70 years; mean age, 49.1 years). High-resolution CT images of the distal radius were acquired and analyzed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) system. On the same day, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L-BMD), proximal femur (F-BMD), and distal radius (R-BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We examined the correlation between the fractal dimension and six bone mass indices. Subjects diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis were divided into two groups (with and without vertebral fracture), and we compared measured values between these two groups. The fractal dimension correlated most closely with L-BMD (r=0.744). The coefficient of correlation between the fractal dimension and L-BMD was very similar to the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and F-BMD (r=0.783) and the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and R-BMD (r=0.742). The fractal dimension was the only measured value that differed significantly between both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic subjects with and without vertebral fracture. The present results suggest that the fractal dimension of the distal radius can be reliably used as a bone strength index that reflects bone architecture as well as bone mass.

  8. Prevalent and Incident Vertebral Deformities in Midlife Women: Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, Gail A.; Wilhalme, Holly; Huang, Mei-Hua; Cauley, Jane A.; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertebral fractures are the most common type of osteoporotic fracture among women, but estimates of their prevalence and incidence during middle-age are limited. The development of vertebral morphometry (VM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) makes it more feasible to measure VM in large, longitudinal, observational studies. We conducted this study to: 1) contribute to the scant knowledge of the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for vertebral deformities in middle-aged women; and 2) to evaluate the performance of DXA-based VM measurement in a large, community based sample. Methods The sample is derived from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, community-based, longitudinal cohort study of the MT. Using Hologic QDR 4500A instruments, we acquired initial VM measurements in 1446 women during calendar years 2004–2007; in 2012–2013, a follow-up VM was obtained in 1108. Annually, lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) were measured and participant characteristics were assessed with standardized instruments. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the relations between prevalent deformity and relevant characteristics. Analyses of characteristics associated with prevalent deformity were restricted to 824 women who had not taken bone active medications since SWAN baseline. We calculated incident deformity per person year (PY) of observation, standardized to 1000 person-years. Results The cranial portion of the VM image yielded the lowest proportions of readable vertebrae: from T4 through T6, between 43% and 63% of vertebral bodies were evaluable. Greater BMI was associated with fewer readable levels (B = -0.088, p<0.0001). In the baseline sample of 1446 women, the prevalence of vertebral deformity was 3.2% (95% CI: 2.3, 4.1). The relative odds of deformity increased by 61% per SD decrement in baseline LS BMD (p = 0.02) and were 67% greater per SD decrement in baseline FN BMD