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Sample records for absorption alloying element

  1. Determination of trace and minor elements in alloys by atomic-absorption spectroscopy using an induction-heated graphite-well furnace as atom source-II.

    PubMed

    Ashy, M A; Headridge, J B; Sowerbutts, A

    1974-06-01

    Results are presented for the atomic-absorption spectrophotometric determination of zinc in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloys, and aluminium, antimony and tin in steels, by means of solid samples dropped into an induction-heated graphite-well furnace to produce the atomic vapour. PMID:18961510

  2. New alloys to conserve critical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Based on availability of domestic reserves, chromium is one of the most critical elements within the U.S. metal industry. New alloys having reduced chromium contents which offer potential as substitutes for higher chromium containing alloys currently in use are being investigated. This paper focuses primarily on modified Type 304 stainless steels having one-third less chromium, but maintaining comparable oxidation and corrosion properties to that of type 304 stainless steel, the largest single use of chromium. Substitutes for chromium in these modified Type 304 stainless steel alloys include silicon and aluminum plus molybdenum.

  3. Thermal expansion: Metallic elements and alloys. [Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Kirby, R. K.; Taylor, R. E.; Desai, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The introductory sections of the work are devoted to the theory of thermal expansion of solids and to methods for the measurement of the linear thermal expansion of solids (X-ray methods, high speed methods, interferometry, push-rod dilatometry, etc.). The bulk of the work is devoted to numerical data on the thermal linear expansion of all the metallic elements, a large number of intermetallics, and a large number of binary alloy systems and multiple alloy systems. A comprehensive bibliography is provided along with an index to the materials examined.

  4. Change In The Electronic Structure And Optical Absorption Of Cuprate Delafossites Via B-site Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beesley, Ramon; Panapitiya, Gihan; Lewis, James; Lewis Group Team

    Delafossite oxides are a family of materials with the form ABO2 , where the A-site is a monovalent cation (Cu , Ag , Au) and the B-site is a trivalent cation (Ga , Al , In). Delafossites typically have a wide optical band gap, this band gap may be tuned by adding a second B-site element forming an AB(1- x) 1B(x)2O2 alloy. We investigate changes in the electronic structure of CuAlO2 , CuGaO2 , and CuInO2 when alloyed with CuFeO2 . Using the FIREBALL program to optimize the atomic structure, calculate the total and partial density of states, calculate the valence band edge for each alloy level, and investigate the clustering factor of the second B-site atom, it is found that alloying with Fe creates midgap states caused by Fe - O interactions. From the partial density of state, each type of atoms contribution to the change in the valence band edge can be seen. Observed changes to the materials include increased optical absorption in the visible range, and symmetry breaking because of the deformation in the crystal structure. The CuFeO2 alloying percentages range from 0-5%. We are synthesizing these alloys to experimentally verify the changes in the optical absorption spectra.

  5. Influence of alloying elements on friction and wear of copper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The friction and wear characteristics were determined for copper binary alloys containing 10 atomic percent aluminum, silicon, indium, and tin. A ternary alloy containing 10 atomic percent aluminum and 5 atomic percent silicon was also examined. The effectiveness of each of the alloying elements aluminum and silicon were very effective in reducing friction. Silicon, however, also reduced wear appreciably. With lubrication, silicon, indium, and tin were all effective alloying elements in reducing friction and wear from values obtained for copper. Silicon was the most effective single element in reducing friction and wear in dry sliding and with lubrication.

  6. Data set for diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys from first-principles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bi-Cheng; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in Mg are critical for the development of new Mg alloys for lightweight applications. Here we present the data set of the temperature-dependent dilute tracer diffusion coefficients for 47 substitutional alloying elements in hexagonal closed packed (hcp) Mg calculated from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) by combining transition state theory and an 8-frequency model. Benchmark for the DFT calculations and systematic comparison with experimental diffusion data are also presented. The data set refers to “Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study” by Zhou et al. [1]. PMID:26702419

  7. NEUTRON REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT UTILIZING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.; Szumachowski, E.R.

    1957-11-12

    This patent relates to clad fuel elements for use in neutronic reactors and is drawn to such a fuel element which consists of a core of fissionable material, comprised of an alloy of zirconium and U/sup 235/ enriched uranium, encased in a jacket of a binary zirconium-tin alloy in which the tin content ranges between 1 and 15% by weight.

  8. Role of alloying elements in adhesive transfer and friction of copper-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in a vacuum with binary-copper alloy riders sliding against a conventional bearing-steel surface with normal residual oxides present. The binary alloys contained 1 atomic percent of various alloying elements. Auger spectroscopy analysis was used to monitor the adhesive transfer of the copper alloys to the bearing-steel surface. A relation was found to exist between adhesive transfer and the reaction potential and free energy of formation of the alloying element in the copper. The more chemically active the element and the more stable its oxide, the greater was the adhesive transfer and wear of the copper alloy. Transfer occurred in all the alloys except copper-gold after relatively few (25) passes across the steel surface.

  9. Biocompatibility of beta-stabilizing elements of titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Müller, M; Thull, R; Breme, J

    2004-11-01

    In comparison to the presently used alpha + beta titanium alloys for biomedical applications, beta-titanium alloys have many advantageous mechanical properties, such as an improved wear resistance, a high elasticity and an excellent cold and hot formability. This will promote their future increased application as materials for orthopaedic joint replacements. Not all elements with beta-stabilizing properties in titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications-corrosion and wear processes cause a release of these alloying elements to the surrounding tissue. In this investigation, the biocompability of alloying elements for beta- and near beta-titanium alloys was tested in order to estimate their suitability for biomaterial components. Titanium (grade 2) and the implant steel X2CrNiMo18153 (AISI 316 L) were tested as reference materials. The investigation included the corrosion properties of the elements, proliferation, mitochondrial activity, cell morphology and the size of MC3T3-E1 cells and GM7373 cells after 7 days incubation in direct contact with polished slices of the metals. The statistical significance was considered by Weir-test and Lord-test (alpha = 0.05). The biocompatibility range of the investigated metals is (decreasing biocompatibility): niobium-tantalum, titanium, zirconium-aluminium-316 L-molybdenum. PMID:15147816

  10. Elastic moduli of nanocrystalline binary Al alloys with Fe, Co, Ti, Mg and Pb alloying elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babicheva, Rita I.; Bachurin, Dmitry V.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhang, Ying; Kok, Shaw Wei; Bai, Lichun; Zhou, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the elastic moduli of nanocrystalline (NC) Al and NC binary Al-X alloys (X is Fe, Co, Ti, Mg or Pb) by using molecular dynamics simulations. X atoms in the alloys are either segregated to grain boundaries (GBs) or distributed randomly as in disordered solid solution. At 0 K, the rigidity of the alloys increases with decrease in atomic radii of the alloying elements. An addition of Fe, Co or Ti to the NC Al leads to increase in the Young's E and shear μ moduli, while an alloying with Pb decreases them. The elastic moduli of the alloys depend on a distribution of the alloying elements. The alloys with the random distribution of Fe or Ti demonstrate larger E and μ than those for the corresponding alloys with GB segregations, while the rigidity of the Al-Co alloy is higher for the case of the GB segregations. The moduli E and μ for polycrystalline aggregates of Al and Al-X alloys with randomly distributed X atoms are estimated based on the elastic constants of corresponding single-crystals according to the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, which neglects the contribution of GBs to the rigidity. The results show that GBs in NC materials noticeably reduce their rigidity. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of μ for the NC Al-X alloys is analyzed. Only the Al-Co alloy with GB segregations shows the decrease in μ to the lowest extent in the temperature range of 0-600 K in comparison with the NC pure Al.

  11. Structural, morphological, magnetic and hydrogen absorption properties of LaNi5 alloy: A comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhaddi, Reza; Arabi, Hadi; Pourarian, Faiz

    2014-04-01

    A comprehensive study of structural, morphological, magnetic and hydrogen absorption properties of LaNi5-H system was investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that as-synthesized LaNi5 alloy is single phase with CaCu5-type structure while some weak peaks of elemental nickel also appeared after several hydrogenation/dehydrogenation (H/D) cycling. The presence of pure Ni was also followed using the room temperature magnetic measurements. After H/D cycling, the particle size decreases and particle size distribution was found nearly uniform compared to noncycled alloy. The pressure-composition isotherms (PCIs) of the hydrogen absorption reaction were determined in the temperature range 20-80°C using a homemade Sievert's type experimental apparatus, and then the enthalpy and entropy of hydride formation were calculated. The hydriding kinetic mechanism of LaNi5 was evaluated using the different fitting models: Jander diffusion model (JDM), Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) and Chou models. All employed models confirm an increase in the hydriding reaction rate with temperature. However, the calculated results using JMA model show a better agreement with the experimental data and hence we believe that diffusion along with nucleation and growth is the rate-controlling step for the hydriding reaction. The values of activation energy for hydriding reaction were also obtained by JD and JMA models.

  12. Calibration-free laser-induced plasma analysis of a metallic alloy with self-absorption correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani-Mahdavi, Hamidreza; Shoursheini, Seyede Zahra; Gholami, Hamid; Dini-Torkamani, Ziba; Ghahari-Korani, Sare

    2014-12-01

    Identification and concentration measurement of constituent elements of a metallic alloy is demonstrated by calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) according to a special peak intensity-based model and considering the self-absorption effect. In this procedure, which is based on the line pair ratio method, the effect of line widths, though needs to be theoretically considered, may be approximately ignored. This is mainly true for the multiplet lines, but this property, in the case of some generic spectral lines in a measured spectrum, can be sometimes regarded. Initially, the optical penetration depth and therefrom self-absorption coefficient of each selected spectral line is calculated using the experimental (self-absorbed) intensity of the line. Then, the true (non-self-absorbed) intensity, which is basis of the conventional CF-LIBS calculation, is obtained through a recursive algorithm implemented by the MATLAB programming. In the experimental examination, the recorded spectrum reflects that the metallic alloy is consisted of gold, copper and silver. The concentration of elements is calculated with and without regarding self-absorption correction using 27 trios of spectral lines related to the elements. The average concentrations signify that the measurement error relative to the certified value for the concentration of the gold is modified from 3.56 % in the normal way to 0.34 % after applying self-absorption correction.

  13. Absorption characteristics of elemental mercury in mercury chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Xu, Haomiao; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang; Wang, Wenhua

    2014-11-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in flue gases can be efficiently captured by mercury chloride (HgCl2) solution. However, the absorption behaviors and the influencing effects are still poorly understood. The mechanism of Hg(0) absorption by HgCl2 and the factors that control the removal were studied in this paper. It was found that when the mole ratio of Cl(-) to HgCl2 is 10:1, the Hg(0) removal efficiency is the highest. Among the main mercury chloride species, HgCl3(-) is the most efficient ion for Hg(0) removal in the HgCl2 absorption system when moderate concentrations of chloride ions exist. The Hg(0) absorption reactions in the aqueous phase were investigated computationally using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. The calculated Gibbs free energies and energy barriers are in excellent agreement with the results obtained from experiments. In the presence of SO3(2-) and SO2, Hg(2+) reduction occurred and Hg(0) removal efficiency decreased. The reduced Hg(0) removal can be controlled through increased chloride concentration to some degree. Low pH value in HgCl2 solution enhanced the Hg(0) removal efficiency, and the effect was more significant in dilute HgCl2 solutions. The presence of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) did not affect Hg(0) removal by HgCl2. PMID:25458680

  14. Identification of a cast iron alloy containing nonstrategic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. V.; Anton, D. L.; Lemkey, F. D.; Nowotny, H.; Bailey, R. S.; Favrow, L. H.; Smeggil, J. G.; Snow, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A program was performed to address the mechanical and environmental needs of Stirling engine heater head and regenerator housing components, while reducing the dependence on strategic materials. An alloy was developed which contained no strategic elemental additions per se. The base is iron with additions of manganese, molybdenum, carbon, silicon, niobium, and ferro-chromium. Such an alloy should be producible on a large scale at very low cost. The resulting alloy, designated as NASAUT 4G-Al, contained 15 Mn, 15 Cr, 2 Mo, 1.5 C, 1.0 Si, 1.0 Nb (in weight percent) with a balance of Fe. This alloy was optimized for chemistry, based upon tensile strength, creep-rupture strength, fracture behavior, and fatigue resistance up to 800 C. Alloys were also tested for environmental compatibility. The microstructure and mechanic properties (including hardness) were assessed in the as-cast condition and following several heat treatments, including one designed to simulate a required braze cycle. The alloy was fabricated and characterized in the form of both equiaxed and columnar-grained castings. The columnar grains were produced by directional solidification, and the properties were characterized in both the longitudinal and transverse orientations. The NASAUT 4G-Al alloy was found to be good in cyclic-oxidation resistance and excellent in both hydrogen and hot-corrosion resistance, especially in comparison to the baseline XF-818 alloy. The mechanical properties of yield strength, stress-rupture life, high-cycle-fatigue resistance, and low-cycle-fatigue resistance were good to excellent in comparison to the current alloy for this application, HS-31 (X-40), with precise results depending in a complex manner on grain orientation and temperature. If required, the ductility could be improved by lowering the carbon content.

  15. Trace elements distribution in Cu-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrašinović, Aleksandar M.; Utigard, Torstein A.

    2011-10-01

    The trace elements distribution in Cu-Si alloys is analyzed after mixing Si with Cu. The mass balance and atomic distribution showed that the highest concentration of trace elements was at the phase boundaries between Si and Cu-Si intermetallic. The concentrations of 21 trace elements in the refined Si were below detection limit of the ICP technique where 11 elements were below 1ppm at and another 7 elements were below 2ppm at. The amount of other elements decreased several times in the refined Si, compared to that in initial metallurgical grade silicon. The level of trace elements in refined Si allows utilization of the Si photo-catalytic characteristics for solar energy generation.

  16. Discussion on the Alloying Element Partition and Growth Kinetics of Proeutectoid Ferrite in Fe-C-Mn-X Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, R.; Enomoto, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental data on alloying element partition and growth kinetics of proeutectoid ferrite in quaternary Fe-C-Mn-Si, Ni, and Co alloys were reanalyzed using an approximate method, which permits a quick evaluation of alloy partitioning to be made. The method yielded results in good agreement with DICTRA and is applicable to Fe-C base multicomponent alloys. Differences of the predicted local condition at the α/ γ boundary from those previously presented in the alloys are noted.

  17. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  18. Effects of alloying elements on thermal desorption of helium in Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Cao, X. Z.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that the minor elements Si and Sn can suppress the formation of voids in Ni alloys. In the present study, to investigate the effects of Si and Sn on the retention of helium in Ni alloys, Ni, Ni-Si, and Ni-Sn alloys were irradiated by 5 keV He ions at 723 K. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was performed at up to 1520 K, and microstructural observations were carried out to identify the helium trapping sites during the TDS analysis. Two peaks, at 1350 and 1457 K, appeared in the TDS spectrum of Ni. On the basis of the microstructural observations, the former peak was attributed to the release of trapped helium from small cavities and the latter to its release from large cavities. Small-cavity helium trapping sites were also found in the Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys, but no large cavities were observed in these alloys. In addition, it was found that the oversized element Sn could trap He atoms in the Ni-Sn alloy.

  19. The Role of Alloying Elements in Nanostructured Ferritic Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael K; Parish, Chad M

    2010-01-01

    The roles of the alloying elements in three nanostructured ferritic alloys (14YWT, MA957 and Eurofer 97) have been established through the characterisation of the microstructure by atom probe tomography and spectrum imaging in a transmission electron microscope. Cr, W, Mo, Ti and Y were found in the ferrite matrix and contributed to solid solution hardening. Ti, Y, C, O and N were found in high number densities of precipitates and nanoclusters both in the grain interior and on grain boundaries and thereby contributed to precipitation hardening. Cr, W and Mo were enriched at the intraparticle regions of the grain boundaries. The solute segregation and precipitation pinned the grain boundaries and contributed to the excellent creep properties of the alloys.

  20. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zheng, Y F; Cong, Y; Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Wang, X; Chen, S H; Huang, L; Tian, L; Qin, L

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  1. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. F.; Xie, X. H.; Zheng, Y. F.; Cong, Y.; Zhou, F. Y.; Qiu, K. J.; Wang, X.; Chen, S. H.; Huang, L.; Tian, L.; Qin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  2. A sound absorptive element comprising an acoustic resonance nanofibrous membrane.

    PubMed

    Kalinova, Klara

    2015-01-01

    As absorption of sound of lower frequencies is quite problematic with fibrous material made up of coarser fibers, development of highly efficient sound absorption material is called for. This is why this work deals with the development of new high sound absorption material. To absorb the low frequencies, especially the structures based on resonance principle of nanofibrous layers are used, when through resonance of some elements the acoustic energy is transferred into thermal energy. The goal of the invention is achieved by a sound absorbing means which contains resonance membrane formed by a layer of polymeric nanofibers, which is attached to a frame. For production of nanofibrous membranes, the cord electrospinning was used. The resonance membrane was then, upon impact of sound waves of low frequency, brought into forced vibrations, whereby the kinetic energy of the membrane was converted into thermal energy by friction of individual nanofibers, by the friction of the membrane with ambient air and possibly with other layers of material arranged in its proximity, and some of the energy was also transmitted to the frame, through which the vibrations of the resonance membrane were damped. The density and shape of the mesh of frame formations determine the resonance frequency of the acoustic means. The goal of the invention is therefore to eliminate or at least reduce the disadvantages of the present state of the art and to propose sound absorbing means that would be capable of absorbing, with good results sounds in as broadest frequency range as possible. Here, we also discussed some patents relevant to the topic. PMID:25986230

  3. Lumped-element tunable absorptive bandstop filter and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung Guk

    To avoid the cost, large size, and complexity of going off-chip between individually packaged components, it is desirable to integrate as many components as possible. For on-chip passive filter design, size constraints and the quality factor limit the amount of attenuation that can be achieved. This work demonstrates the use of absorptive bandstop filters which gives anomalously deep notches for a given Q-factor. A lumped-element-only topology enables a realization on a chip for the first time. For reconfigurable RF front-ends, a frequency-agile design is newly developed with Q-tunable resonators because an absorptive bandstop filter must balance both intrinsic Q of the resonators and the resonant frequency of the filter. Despite using small-size, low-Q resonators in the bandstop filter design, a large stopband attenuation with a capability of frequency tuning is achieved with potential to suppress potential interference or an image frequency signal. Higher-order absorptive bandstop filters which give higher selectivity are also demonstrated. The sensing of the unused bands is a pre-requisite and important function so that the cognitive radio system can track and use available frequencies. When the ultra-wideband ADC is utilized for sensing to find the unused bands or read the spectrum availability, both the high power interferences and small power signals are the signals we are interested, but the wideband ADC has a limited dynamic range. Since we have the signals with various frequencies and power levels, it is required to have something that can give different gains at different frequencies. This work proposes a frequency equalizer which gives selective attenuation at desired different frequencies, and absorptive bandstop filter with variable attenuation is proposed in this work. For a wide-band receiver or application, it is not typical for AGC to control different gain or attenuation levels at different frequencies. Using frequency selective attenuation, it is

  4. New alloys to conserve critical elements. [replacing chromium in steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies and surveys on availability of domestic reserves have shown that chromium is a most critical element within the U.S. metal industry. More precisely, the bulk of chromium is consumed in the production of stainless steels, specifically Type 304 stainless steel (304SS) which contains 18% Cr. The present paper deals with means of reducing chromium in commercial stainless steels by substituting more abundant or less expensive elements with the intent of maintaining the properties of 304SS. The discussion focuses on some of the oxidation and corrosion properties of new substitute stainless steels with only 12% Cr, which represents a potential saving of 33% of the chromium consumed in the production of 304SS. The alloying elements substituted for Cr in 304SS are selected according to their potential for protective oxide formation during high-temperature oxidation; these are Al, Si, Ti, Y, and misch metal which is 99.7% rare-earth metals containing 50 to 55% cerium. Other alloying elements to impart corrosion resistance are Mn, Mo, and V.

  5. Finite element shape optimization for biodegradable magnesium alloy stents.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Petrini, L; Gastaldi, D; Villa, T; Vedani, M; Lesma, E; Previtali, B; Migliavacca, F

    2010-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) are a promising solution for long-term adverse events caused by interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms of drug eluting stents. However, the existing MAS showed severe lumen loss after a few months: too short degradation time may be the main reason for this drawback. In this study, a new design concept of MAS was proposed and a shape optimization method with finite element analysis was applied on two-dimensional (2D) stent models considering four different magnesium alloys: AZ80, AZ31, ZM21, and WE43. A morphing procedure was utilized to facilitate the optimization. Two experiments were carried out for a preliminary validation of the 2D models with good results. The optimized designs were compared to an existing MAS by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis. The results showed that the final optimized design with alloy WE43, compared to the existing MAS, has an increased strut width by approximately 48%, improved safety properties (decreased the maximum principal stress after recoil with tissue by 29%, and decreased the maximum principal strain during expansion by 14%) and improved scaffolding ability (increased by 24%). Accordingly, the degradation time can be expected to extend. The used methodology provides a convenient and practical way to develop novel MAS designs. PMID:20446037

  6. Effect of alloying elements on stress corrosion cracking of stainless alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Long-time stress corrosion cracking tests were made in boiling, 45% magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) solution at 155 C and in an autoclave, 26% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at 200 C on 15 commercial stainless steel and Ni-based alloys and four laboratory Fe-Cr-Ni heats. The results were compared with the original Copson curve derived from tests in the MgCl{sub 2} solution on wires made from Fe-20% Cr alloys with a range of Ni contents. Additional alloying elements in commercial alloys (Mo, Cu, Ti, Cb) do not have a significant effect on the Copson curve. In contrast, in the less severe NaCl tests, times to failure were greatly increased and the range of Ni concentration in which alloys are susceptible to cracking was narrowed, even in 100-day tests. The significant of this information on the effect of Ni in cases of exceedingly long service times, such as for containers for high-level nuclear waste, is discussed.

  7. Influence of alloying elements Nb, Zr, Sn, and oxygen on structural stability and elastic properties of the Ti2448 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. H.; Song, Y.; Li, W.; Yang, R.; Vitos, L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of how alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability and elastic properties of binary Ti-X (X = Nb, Zr, or Sn) and Ti2448 (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) alloys are studied via first principles calculations. In addition to the fully disordered solid solution phase, we consider 44 quasirandom configurations to search for the possible distributions of the alloying elements in Ti2448. Our results show that all alloying elements considered here are good β-stabilizers for Ti, and the formation energies are greatly affected by their distributions. The site preference of oxygen and its concentration dependence in binary Ti alloys and in Ti2448 are also investigated. Oxygen prefers to occupy the octahedral site regardless of the concentrations of the alloys and strongly interacts with Ti and Nb in Ti-Nb. The elastic properties of Ti2448 alloy and the influence of oxygen on the elastic parameters are evaluated. The calculated polycrystalline Young's modulus of the Ti2448 alloy is very close to that of the human bone (10-40 GPa). We find that oxygen has a weak effect on the elastic moduli of Ti2448. The electronic structures are analyzed to reveal how the alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability of binary Ti-X and Ti2448 alloys.

  8. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gouda, Mohammed K. Gepreel, Mohamed A. H.; Nakamura, Koichi

    2015-06-07

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti–X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  9. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, Mohammed K.; Nakamura, Koichi; A. H. Gepreel, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti-X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  10. The effect of selected alloying element additions on properties of Mg-based alloy as bioimplants: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Xu, Zhao-Bin; Bai, Xue-Ling; Shang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This review investigates the current application limitations of Mg and Mg alloys. The key issues hindering the application of biodegradable Mg alloys as implants are their fast degradation rate and biological consideration. We have discussed the effect of some selected alloying element additions on the properties of the Mg-based alloy, especially the nutrient elements in human (Zn, Mn, Ca, Sr). Different grain sizes, phase constituents and distributions consequently influence the mechanical properties of the Mg alloys. Solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening are enhanced by the addition of alloying elements, generally improving the mechanical properties. Besides, the hot working process can also improve the mechanical properties. Combination of different processing steps is suggested to be adopted in the fabrication of Mg-based alloys. Corrosion properties of these Mg-based alloys have been measured in vitro and in vivo. The degradation mechanism is also discussed in terms of corrosion types, rates, byproducts and response of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, the clinical response and requirements of degradable implants are presented, especially for the nutrient elements (Ca, Mn, Zn, Sr). This review provides information related to different Mg alloying elements and presents the promising candidates for an ideal implant.

  11. Criticality of iron and its principal alloying elements.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Philip; Harper, E M; Nassar, N T; Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

    2014-04-01

    Because modern technology depends on reliable supplies of a wide variety of materials and because of increasing concern about those supplies, a comprehensive methodology was created to quantify the degree of criticality of the metals of the periodic table. In this paper, we apply this methodology to iron and several of its main alloying elements (i.e., vanadium, chromium, manganese, and niobium). These elements represent the basic metals of any industrial society and are vital for national security and economic well-being. Assessments relating to the dimensions of criticality - supply risk, vulnerability to supply restriction, and environmental implications - for 2008 are made on the global level and for the United States. Evaluations of each of the multiple indicators are presented, with aggregate results plotted in "criticality space", together with Monte Carlo simulation-derived "uncertainty cloud" estimates. Iron has the lowest supply risk, primarily because of its widespread geological occurrence. Vanadium displays the highest cradle-to-gate environmental implications, followed by niobium, chromium, manganese, and iron. Chromium and manganese, both essential in steel making, display the highest vulnerability to supply restriction, largely because substitution or substitution at equal performance is not possible for all end-uses. From a comprehensive perspective, we regard the overall criticality as low for iron and modest for the alloying elements we evaluated. PMID:24597917

  12. The Evolution of the Segregation Behavior of Alloying Elements in a Low-Alloy Steel

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Papworth; D.B. Knorr; D.B. Williams

    2002-08-21

    The segregation of alloying and impurity elements to prior austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs) in low-alloy steels controls temper-embrittlement although the precise microchemical and microstructural interactions are, as yet, unclear because of the many variables involved. Competing segregation and de-segregation phenomena are observed. For example, Auger analyses of fracture surfaces indicate that brittle fracture is caused by the segregation of P to the PAGB. The addition of small amounts ({approx} 0.5 wt%) of Mo appears to regard, but not stop, temper-embrittlement, possibly due to Mo{sub 2}C precipitates that form at elevated temperatures causing de-segregation of Mo from the PAGB. The relationship between segregation and temper embrittlement is further complicated in commercial alloys by both the number of segregating elements and the complex, multi-stage heat treatments. Auger analysis pre-selects the most embrittled boundaries and so the complete distribution of segregants across all PAGBs cannot be determined by this technique. Previous work has shown how X-ray mapping (XRM) in a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM) offers a more complete view of the distribution of segregants on both non-embrittled and embrittled PAGBs. XRM was used to observe the evolution of the segregation and desegregation of five elements during four successive heat-treatment stages of commercial low-alloy steel forging. In the last and crucial temper-embrittlement stage, increases in the degree and frequency of Ni segregation occur while other elements either segregate, remain constant or desegregate from the PAGBs.

  13. The Release of Elements from the Base Metal Alloys in a Protein Containing Biologic Environments and Artificial Saliva – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Manoj; Prasad, D Krishna; Kanathila, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that protein containing solutions can accelerate the release of elements from the base metal alloys. Aim This study aims to determine whether the solution in which an alloy is submerged and the exposure time have any effect on the amount of release of elements from the Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. Material and Methods A total of 126 specimens were made from the Ni-Cr alloy and 42 specimens were made from Co-Cr alloy in the form of 5mm diameter discs, 2mm in thickness. Dissolution experiments were carried out in Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and artificial saliva for a period of seven weeks and atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for elemental analysis. Statistical Analysis T-test was done to correlate the difference of elemental release from both BSA and artificial saliva. ANOVA test was done to compare the release at different time intervals and to compare the release of elements at different time intervals within a particular solution. TUKEY HSD test was done for comparison between the elements in a particular solution. Results The results showed that the elemental release was seen in both the solutions with a significant increase of release in BSA. The release of elements from the Ni-Cr alloy showed the predominant release of Cr. Conclusion The protein containing solution showed maximum release of elements from Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. The elements that released from the alloys never reached their threshold for toxic effects. Hence these alloys can be safely used in fabrication of metal restorations without any ill effects. PMID:26894170

  14. Effect of alloying elements on the physicomechanical properties of copper and tin bronze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ri, Kh.; Komkov, V. G.; Ri, E. Kh.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of alloying elements (Al, Si, Mn, Zn, Ni, As) on the physicomechanical properties of copper and tin bronze (6 wt % Sn) is studied. These alloying elements are found to increase the hardness and the microhardness of the structural constituents of Cu- X alloys due to hardening the α solid solution and eutectoid, and this effect of alloying elements is most effective in tin bronze. Alloyed copper and tin bronze have a lower thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance as compared to plain copper and tin bronze.

  15. Optical absorption properties of dispersed gold and silver alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilcoxon, Jess

    2009-03-01

    The oldest topic in nanoscience is the size-dependent optical properties of gold and silver colloids or nanoparticles, first investigated scientifically by Michael Faraday in 1857. In the modern era, advances in both synthesis and characterization have resulted in new insights into the size-dependent absorbance of Au and Ag nanoparticles with sizes below the classical limit for Mie theory. In this paper we discuss the synthesis and properties of core/shell and nanoalloy particles of Au and Ag, compare them to particles of pure gold and silver, and discuss how alloying affects nanoparticle chemical stability. We show that composition, size, and nanostructure (e.g., core/shell vs quasi-random nanoalloy) can all be employed to adjust the optical absorbance properties. The type of nanostructure--core/shell vs alloy--is reflected in their optical absorbance features. PMID:19708105

  16. Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Lauermann, Iver; Rubio, Angel; Johnson, Benjamin

    2014-09-07

    Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S{sub 2} were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.

  17. Non-negative matrix factorization for the near real-time interpretation of absorption effects in elemental distribution images acquired by X-ray fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfeld, Matthias; Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Bauckhage, Christian; Kersting, Kristian; Wellenreuther, Gerd; Barriobero-Vila, Pere; Requena, Guillermo; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2016-03-01

    Elemental distribution images acquired by imaging X-ray fluorescence analysis can contain high degrees of redundancy and weakly discernible correlations. In this article near real-time non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is described for the analysis of a number of data sets acquired from samples of a bi-modal α+β Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy. NMF was used for the first time to reveal absorption artefacts in the elemental distribution images of the samples, where two phases of the alloy, namely α and β, were in superposition. The findings and interpretation of the NMF results were confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation of the layered alloy system. Furthermore, it is shown how the simultaneous factorization of several stacks of elemental distribution images provides uniform basis vectors and consequently simplifies the interpretation of the representation. PMID:26917147

  18. X-ray phase-amplitude contrast mapping of single-crystal alloys near the absorption edge of the alloy impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, A. Yu.; Davis, J. R.; Jones, N. T.; Zaumseil, P.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental-analytical method for the nondestructive structural and chemical composition mapping of single-crystal alloys is proposed, implemented, and successfully tested. The technique is based on analytical measurements of phase and amplitude changes in a narrow polychromatic region near the absorption edge of the alloy impurity. Synchrotron radiation energies of 11.096-11.105 keV were used to measure the Bragg diffraction profiles near the absorption edge of germanium at 11.103 keV in SiGe/Si crystal alloy superstructures. Physical dimensions and chemical composition of SiGe alloys were determined with a spatial resolution 8.6 Å.

  19. Optical absorption of dilute nitride alloys using self-consistent Green's function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifikar, Masoud; O'Reilly, Eoin P.; Fahy, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the optical absorption for InGaNAs and GaNSb using the band anticrossing (BAC) model and a self-consistent Green's function (SCGF) method. In the BAC model, we include the interaction of isolated and pair N levels with the host matrix conduction and valence bands. In the SCGF approach, we include a full distribution of N states, with non-parabolic conduction and light-hole bands, and parabolic heavy-hole and spin-split-off bands. The comparison with experiments shows that the first model accounts for many features of the absorption spectrum in InGaNAs; including the full distribution of N states improves this agreement. Our calculated absorption spectra for GaNSb alloys predict the band edges correctly but show more features than are seen experimentally. This suggests the presence of more disorder in GaNSb alloys in comparison with InGaNAs.

  20. Effect of homogenization and alloying elements on hot deformation behaviour of 1XXX series aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, Mohammad

    In the present study, the effect of different alloying elements as well as the homogenization treatment on the hot workability and microstructure of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys was investigated using hot compression tests, optical microscopy, SEM, electron EBSD, TEM, electrical conductivity measurements. The effect of the homogenization treatment on the microstructure and hot workability of two dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys was first investigated. Homogenization promoted the phase transformation from the metastable AlmFe or alpha-AlFeSi phase to the Al3Fe equilibrium phase and induced a significant change in solute levels in the solid solution. Homogenization at 550°C significantly reduced the solid solution levels due to the elimination of the supersaturation originating from the cast ingot and produced the lowest flow stress under all of the deformation conditions studied. The hot deformation behavior of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys containing different amounts of Fe (0.1 to 0.7 wt%) and Si (0.1 to 0.25 wt%) was studied by uniaxial compression tests conducted at various temperatures (350-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s-1). The flow stress of the 1xxx alloys increased with increasing Fe and Si content. Increasing the Fe content from 0.1 to 0.7% raised the flow stress by 11-32% in Al-Fe-0.1Si alloys, whereas the flow stress increased 5-14% when the Si content increased from 0.1 to 0.25% in Al-0.1Fe-Si alloys. The experimental stress-strain data were employed to drive constitutive equations correlating flow stress, deformation temperature and strain rate considering the influence of the chemical composition. The microstructural analysis results revealed that dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism during hot deformation of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys. Increasing the Fe and Si content retarded dynamic recovery and resulted in a decrease in the subgrain size and mean misorientation angle of the boundaries. Furthermore, the hot deformation behavior of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys

  1. Calculation of Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Pure Elements and their Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Phillip; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A simple algorithm for computing the coefficient of thermal expansion of pure elements and their alloys, based on features of the binding energy curve, is introduced. The BFS method for alloys is used to determine the binding energy curves of intermetallic alloys and Ni-base superalloys.

  2. Effect of homogenization and alloying elements on hot deformation behaviour of 1XXX series aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, Mohammad

    In the present study, the effect of different alloying elements as well as the homogenization treatment on the hot workability and microstructure of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys was investigated using hot compression tests, optical microscopy, SEM, electron EBSD, TEM, electrical conductivity measurements. The effect of the homogenization treatment on the microstructure and hot workability of two dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys was first investigated. Homogenization promoted the phase transformation from the metastable AlmFe or alpha-AlFeSi phase to the Al3Fe equilibrium phase and induced a significant change in solute levels in the solid solution. Homogenization at 550°C significantly reduced the solid solution levels due to the elimination of the supersaturation originating from the cast ingot and produced the lowest flow stress under all of the deformation conditions studied. The hot deformation behavior of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys containing different amounts of Fe (0.1 to 0.7 wt%) and Si (0.1 to 0.25 wt%) was studied by uniaxial compression tests conducted at various temperatures (350-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s-1). The flow stress of the 1xxx alloys increased with increasing Fe and Si content. Increasing the Fe content from 0.1 to 0.7% raised the flow stress by 11-32% in Al-Fe-0.1Si alloys, whereas the flow stress increased 5-14% when the Si content increased from 0.1 to 0.25% in Al-0.1Fe-Si alloys. The experimental stress-strain data were employed to drive constitutive equations correlating flow stress, deformation temperature and strain rate considering the influence of the chemical composition. The microstructural analysis results revealed that dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism during hot deformation of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys. Increasing the Fe and Si content retarded dynamic recovery and resulted in a decrease in the subgrain size and mean misorientation angle of the boundaries. Furthermore, the hot deformation behavior of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys

  3. Accelerated exploration of multi-principal element alloys with solid solution phases.

    PubMed

    Senkov, O N; Miller, J D; Miracle, D B; Woodward, C

    2015-01-01

    Recent multi-principal element, high entropy alloy (HEA) development strategies vastly expand the number of candidate alloy systems, but also pose a new challenge--how to rapidly screen thousands of candidate alloy systems for targeted properties. Here we develop a new approach to rapidly assess structural metals by combining calculated phase diagrams with simple rules based on the phases present, their transformation temperatures and useful microstructures. We evaluate over 130,000 alloy systems, identifying promising compositions for more time-intensive experimental studies. We find the surprising result that solid solution alloys become less likely as the number of alloy elements increases. This contradicts the major premise of HEAs--that increased configurational entropy increases the stability of disordered solid solution phases. As the number of elements increases, the configurational entropy rises slowly while the probability of at least one pair of elements favouring formation of intermetallic compounds increases more rapidly, explaining this apparent contradiction. PMID:25739749

  4. Accelerated exploration of multi-principal element alloys with solid solution phases

    PubMed Central

    Senkov, O.N.; Miller, J.D.; Miracle, D.B.; Woodward, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent multi-principal element, high entropy alloy (HEA) development strategies vastly expand the number of candidate alloy systems, but also pose a new challenge—how to rapidly screen thousands of candidate alloy systems for targeted properties. Here we develop a new approach to rapidly assess structural metals by combining calculated phase diagrams with simple rules based on the phases present, their transformation temperatures and useful microstructures. We evaluate over 130,000 alloy systems, identifying promising compositions for more time-intensive experimental studies. We find the surprising result that solid solution alloys become less likely as the number of alloy elements increases. This contradicts the major premise of HEAs—that increased configurational entropy increases the stability of disordered solid solution phases. As the number of elements increases, the configurational entropy rises slowly while the probability of at least one pair of elements favouring formation of intermetallic compounds increases more rapidly, explaining this apparent contradiction. PMID:25739749

  5. [Study on the determination of molybdenum and other elements in ferromolybdenum alloy by EDX].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Dong, Xiu-Wen; Yu, Zhi-Wei

    2007-07-01

    Some kinds of the high impurity ferromolybdenum alloy occurred in the ferroalloy market recently. The analysis result of the element Mo in high impurity ferromolybdenum alloy is not accurate using the routine chemical method, because of the coprecipitation of the impurity elements, compared with the final Mo content of poured steel ingots. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was applied to the analysis of ferromolybdenum alloy. The results show that EDX is an appropriate way to the determination of element Mo and Si in ferromolybdenum alloy, but can not be used to analyze element P, S and Cu. As the morphology of the sample has a strong influence on the analysis results, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the sample. The detection precision of the element shall be raised, when the powder sample of the ferromolybdenum alloy are pressed into thinner disc sample using hydraulic universal testing machine. PMID:17944434

  6. Light absorption and conversion in solar cell based on Si:O alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapellato, G. G.; Rubino, M.; Crupi, I.; Di Marco, S.; Simone, F.; Mirabella, S.

    2013-08-01

    Thin film Si:O alloys have been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, as intrinsic or highly doped (1 to 5 at. % of B or P dopant) layers. UV-visible/near-infrared spectroscopy revealed a great dependence of the absorption coefficient and of the optical gap (Eg) on the dopant type and concentration, as Eg decreases from 2.1 to 1.9 eV, for the intrinsic or highly p-doped sample, respectively. Thermal annealing up to 400 °C induces a huge H out-diffusion which causes a dramatic absorption increase and a reduction of Eg, down to less than 1.8 eV. A prototypal solar cell has been fabricated using a 400 nm thick, p-i-n structure made of Si:O alloy embedded within flat transparent conductive oxides. Preliminary electrical analyses show a photovoltaic (PV) effect with an open circuit voltage of 0.75 V and a spectral conversion efficiency blue-shifted in comparison to a-Si:H based cell, as expected since the higher Eg in Si:O alloy. These data are presented and discussed, suggesting Si:O alloy as promising material for PV device fabrication.

  7. Light absorption and electrical transport in Si:O alloys for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabella, S.; Crupi, I.; Miritello, M.; Simone, F.; Di Martino, G.; Di Stefano, M. A.; Di Marco, S.; Priolo, F.

    2010-11-15

    Thin films (100-500 nm) of the Si:O alloy have been systematically characterized in the optical absorption and electrical transport behavior, by varying the Si content from 43 up to 100 at. %. Magnetron sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition have been used for the Si:O alloy deposition, followed by annealing up to 1250 deg. C. Boron implantation (30 keV, 3-30x10{sup 14} B/cm{sup 2}) on selected samples was performed to vary the electrical sheet resistance measured by the four-point collinear probe method. Transmittance and reflectance spectra have been extracted and combined to estimate the absorption spectra and the optical band gap, by means of the Tauc analysis. Raman spectroscopy was also employed to follow the amorphous-crystalline (a-c) transition of the Si domains contained in the Si:O films. The optical absorption and the electrical transport of Si:O films can be continuously and independently modulated by acting on different parameters. The light absorption increases (by one decade) with the Si content in the 43-100 at. % range, determining an optical band gap which can be continuously modulated into the 2.6-1.6 eV range, respectively. The a-c phase transition in Si:O films, causing a significant reduction in the absorption coefficient, occurs at increasing temperatures (from 600 to 1100 deg. C) as the Si content decreases. The electrical resistivity of Si:O films can be varied among five decades, being essentially dominated by the number of Si grains and by the doping. Si:O alloys with Si content in the 60-90 at. % range (named oxygen rich silicon films), are proved to join an appealing optical gap with a viable conductivity, being a good candidate for increasing the conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cell.

  8. Compression Behavior and Energy Absorption of Aluminum Alloy AA6061 Tubes with Multiple Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhachalam, Bade; Lakshmana Rao, C.; Srinivas, Krishna

    2014-05-01

    In this article, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminum alloy AA6061 tubes are investigated both experimentally and numerically. Static and dynamic simulations are done using LS-Dyna Software for AA6061 tubes. True stress-plastic strain curves from the tensile test are used in the static and dynamic simulations of AA6061 tubes. The energy absorption values between experimental compression results and numeral simulation are found to be in good agreement. Dynamic simulations are done with drop velocity of up to 10 m/s to understand the inertia effects on energy absorption. The deformed modes from the numerical simulation are compared between tubes with and without holes in static and dynamic conditions.

  9. Exciton-Like Behavior in Low-Energy Absorption Spectra of Simple Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, Mira Hemendraray

    The valence excitation (ns('2) (--->) nsnp) spectra of Mg, Zn, and Ca impurities at various concentrations in Li have been measured. Polarization modulation ellipsometry was used to determine the impurity-induced changes in real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function simultaneously, together with the differential reflectivity, in the energy range 1.5 - 4.5 eV. The most important result at sufficiently dilute alloy compositions, is that the system investigated display a distinct absorption peak above the Drude background. The height of this peak varies linearly with impurity content. The impurity-specific character of these spectral features points to exciton-like behavior at low-energy, arising from atomic-like excitations in which the electron and the hole linger together at the impurity site. Existing theories of alloy spectra do not explain these effects, because they do not include the Coulomb correlations between the interacting quasiparticles created in the optical event, or the way in which the interacting pair is confined to the impurity site by the mutual field. A remarkable added result of this research is that the exciton-like behavior can be followed with increasing impurity content, all the way to the pure Mg response, when it becomes the interband transition. This has led Kunz and Flynn to reformulate the theory of optical absorption including excited state interactions; and to apply the theory to the spectrum of pure Mg. The Coulomb interaction causes striking effects which are in generally good agreement with experiment. Zn-Li alloys behave differently. At an alloy composition for which Zn-Zn interactions become prevalent, the local, impurity-specific character of the spectrum disappears, leaving only a featureless Drude-like absorption. These results have provoked cluster calculations by Boisvert and Kunz, which predict the spectral shifts, and exhibit qualitatively similar persistence for Mg-Li, and broadening for Zn-Li.

  10. Study on the elemental mercury absorption cross section based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haiming; Yao, Penghui

    2015-08-01

    With the method of ultraviolet absorption spectrum, the exact absorption cross-section with the light source of the low-pressure mercury lamp was determined, during which the optimum wavelength for mercury concentrations inversion was 253.69 nm, the highest detection limit was 0.177 μg/cm3, and the lowest detection limit was 0.034 μg/cm3. Furthermore, based on the differential optical absorption spectroscopy(DOAS), the relationship between the integral parameters (IP) and the concentration as well as the signal-noise ration (SNR) under the conditions of gas flow was determined and the lowest detection limit was figured out to be 0.03524 μg/cm3, providing a method of DOAS to de-noise through the comparison between the mercury concentration values produced by DOAS and that produced by the wavelet de-noising method (db5). It turned out that the differential optical absorption spectroscopy had a strong anti-interference ability, while the wavelet de-noising method was not suitable for measuring the trace concentration change.

  11. Effect of Alloying Element Partition in Pearlite on the Growth of Austenite in High-Carbon Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. N.; Xia, Y.; Enomoto, M.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. G.

    2016-03-01

    The growth of austenite from pearlite in high-carbon low alloy steel occurs with and without alloy element redistribution depending on the amount of superheating above the eutectoid temperature. The transition temperature of austenite growth (denoted PNTT) is calculated as a function of pearlite transformation temperature and subsequent holding time, which affect the degree of partitioning in pearlite, using experimental partition coefficients k θ/ α of Mn, Cr, Co, Si, and Ni reported in the literature. PNTT is the highest in Cr-containing alloys which have the largest k θ/ α in pearlite. Post-transformation aging, usually accompanied by cementite spheroidization, leads to a marked increase of PNTT in Mn and Cr alloys. PNTT of Ni alloy does not depend on pearlite transformation temperature because practically the formation of partitioned pearlite is severely limited in this alloy for kinetic reasons. Above PNTT, austenite growth occurs fast initially, but slows down in the order of ten seconds when the ferrite disappears, and the remaining small carbide particles dissolve very slowly under the control of alloy element diffusion.

  12. Effect of alloying elements on the corrosion behaviour of copper-nickel alloys in a marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, Abulmaali M. Y.

    Copper-nickel alloys have been used in many applications in marine environments, because of excellent corrosion and biofouling resistance. In this study, the effect of alloying elements (including iron, aluminum, chromium, cobalt, titanium, molybdenum, indium, and vanadium) on the corrosion behaviour of 90 w% copper-10 w% nickel alloys in sea water are investigated. Experiments were performed at 298 K on a commercial copper-nickel alloy C70600 to serve as a reference point for the synthetic alloys. New copper-nickel alloys were prepared in an induction furnace, in an argon/7% vol. hydrogen atmosphere in cylindrical boron nitride crucibles. They were then homogenized at 950°C for 10 hours in the same protective atmosphere. The electrochemical behaviour was investigated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic polarization (CP), cyclic voltammetry (CV), Tafel extrapolation (TE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion product that formed on the surface was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The electrochemical behaviour of commercial alloy C70600 depends on the amount of sulphate in the solution. Increasing the amount of sulphate to more than 400 ppm in the electrolyte limits the ability of the passive film to protect the alloy. The behaviour of the commercial alloy in sea water was similar to that in a 2260 ppm sulphate artificial saline solution but was not exactly the same. The passive film formed on the surface was uniform in thickness and consisted of more than one layer. The passive film consisted mainly of chlorides in solutions with no sulphate. The presence of sulphate in the corrosive solutions produces a passive layer containing mainly chlorides with some sulphides (FeS, NiS, and CuS). The electrochemical behaviour of the synthetic Cu-Ni-Fe alloys

  13. Effects of alloying elements on the formation of < c >-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Idrees, Yasir; Francis, Elisabeth M.; Yao, Zhongwen; Korinek, Andreas; Kirk, Marquis A.; Sattari, Mohammad; Preuss, Michael; Daymond, M. R.

    2015-05-14

    We report here the microstructural changes occurring in the zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt% Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo-0.2Fe) during heavy ion irradiation. In situ irradiation experiments were conducted at reactor operating temperatures on two Zr Excel alloy microstructures with different states of alloying elements, with the states achieved by different solution heat treatments. In the first case, the alloying elements were mostly concentrated in the beta (beta) phase, whereas, in the second case, large Zr-3(Mo,Nb,Fe)(4) secondary phase precipitates (SPPs) were grown in the alpha (alpha) phase by long term aging. The heavy ion induced damage and resultant compositional changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Significant differences were seen in microstructural evolution between the two different microstructures that were irradiated under similar conditions. Nucleation and growth of < c >-component loops and their dependence on the alloying elements are a major focus of the current investigation. It was observed that the < c >-component loops nucleate readily at 100, 300, and 400 degrees C after a threshold incubation dose (TID), which varies with irradiation temperature and the state of alloying elements. It was found that the TID for the formation of < c >-component loops increases with decrease in irradiation temperature. Alloying elements that are present in the form of SPPs increase the TID compared to when they are in the beta phase solid solution. Dose and temperature dependence of loop size and density are presented. Radiation induced redistribution and clustering of alloying elements (Sn, Mo, and Fe) have been observed and related to the formation of < c >-component loops. It has been shown that at the higher temperature tests, irradiation induced dissolution of precipitates occurs whereas irradiation induced

  14. High Shear Deformation to Produce High Strength and Energy Absorption in Mg Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium alloys have the potential to reduce the mass of transportation systems however to fully realize the benefits it must be usable in more applications including those that require higher strength and ductility. It has been known that fine grain size in Mg alloys leads to high strength and ductility. However, the challenge is how to achieve this optimal microstructure in a cost effective way. This work has shown that by using optimized high shear deformation and second phase particles of Mg2Si and MgxZnZry the energy absorption of the extrusions can exceed that of AA6061. The extrusion process under development described in this presentation appears to be scalable and cost effective. In addition to process development a novel modeling approach to understand the roles of strain and state-of-strain on particle fracture and grain size control has been developed

  15. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  16. Nanoscale elemental sensitivity study of Nd₂Fe₁₄B using absorption correlation tomography.

    PubMed

    Kao, Thomas L; Shi, Crystal Y; Wang, Junyue; Mao, Wendy L; Liu, Yijin; Yang, Wenge

    2013-11-01

    Transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) is a rapidly developing technique with the capability of nanoscale three dimensional (3D) real-space imaging. Combined with the wide range in energy tunability from synchrotron sources, TXM enables the retrieval of 3D microstructural information with elemental/chemical sensitivity that would otherwise be inaccessible. The differential absorption contrast above and below absorption edges has been used to reconstruct the distributions of different elements, assuming the absorption edges of the interested elements are fairly well separated. Here we present an "Absorption Correlation Tomography" (ACT) method based on the correlation of the material absorption across multiple edges. ACT overcomes the significant limitation caused by overlapping absorption edges, significantly expands the capabilities of TXM, and makes it possible for fully quantitative nano-scale 3D structural investigation with chemical/elemental sensitivity. The capability and robustness of this new methodology is demonstrated in a case study of an important type of rare earth magnet (Nd₂Fe₁₄B). PMID:23922210

  17. Measurement of Hydrogen Absorption in Ternary Alloys with Volumetric (Sieverts Loop) Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.

    2015-10-26

    The Sieverts loop is an inexpensive, robust and reliable methodology for calculating hydrogen absorption in materials [1]. In this approach, we start by storing a sample of the material being tested in the volume Vcell (Figure 1) and initiate the process by producing a high vacuum in the system while the material sample is heated to eliminate (most of) the hydrogen and other impurities previously absorbed. The system typically operates isothermally, with the volume Vref at ambient temperature and the sample at a temperature of interest – high enough to liquefy the alloy for the current application to nuclear fusion.

  18. Formation of Fe-Nb-X (X=Zr, Ti) amorphous alloys from pure metal elements by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyu; Tang, Cuiyong; Leo Ngai, Tungwai; Yang, Chao; Li, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based amorphous powders of Fe 56Nb 6Zr 38 and Fe 60Nb 6Ti 34 based on binary eutectic were prepared by mechanical alloying starting from mixtures of pure metal powders. The amorphization behavior and thermal stability were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Results show that Fe 56Nb 6Zr 38 alloy has a better glass forming ability and a relatively lower thermal stability comparing with Fe 60Nb 6Ti 34 alloy. The prepared amorphous powders have homogeneous element distribution and no obvious contaminants coming from mechanical alloying. The synthesized amorphous powders offer the potential for consolidation to full density with desirable mechanical properties through the powder metallurgy methods.

  19. Endothelial responses of magnesium and other alloying elements in magnesium-based stent materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable tailored magnesium (Mg) alloys are some of the most promising scaffolds for cardiovascular stents. During the course of degradation after implantation, all the alloying elements in the scaffold will be released to the surrounding vascular tissues. However, fundamental questions regarding the toxicity of alloying elements towards vascular cells, the maximum amount of each element that could be used in alloy design, or how each of the alloying elements affects vascular cellular activity and gene expression, are still not fully answered. This work systematically addressed these questions by revealing how application of different alloying elements commonly used in Mg stent materials influences several indices of human endothelial cell health, i.e., viability, proliferations, cytoskeletal reorganizations, migration, and the gene expression profile. The overall cell viability and proliferation showed a decreasing trend with increasing concentrations of the ions, and the half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for each element were determined. When applied at a low concentration of around 10 mM, Mg had no adverse effects but improved cell proliferation and migration instead. Mg ions also altered endothelial gene expression significantly in a dose dependent manner. Most of the changed genes are related to angiogenesis and the cell adhesion signaling pathways. Findings from this work provide useful information on maximum safe doses of these ions for endothelial cells, endothelial responses towards these metal ions, and some guidance for future Mg stent design. PMID:25363018

  20. Complex surface analytical investigations on hydrogen absorption and desorption processes of a TiMn2-based alloy.

    PubMed

    Schülke, Mark; Kiss, Gábor; Paulus, Hubert; Lammers, Martin; Ramachandran, Vaidyanath; Sankaran, Kannan; Müller, Karl-Heinz

    2009-04-01

    Metal hydrides are one of the most promising technologies in the field of hydrogen storage due to their high volumetric storage density. Important reaction steps take place at the very surface of the solid during hydrogen absorption. Since these reaction steps are drastically influenced by the properties and potential contamination of the solid, it is very important to understand the characteristics of the surface, and a variety of analytical methods are required to achieve this. In this work, a TiMn(2)-type metal hydride alloy is investigated by means of high-pressure activation measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS). In particular, TDMS is an analytical tool that, in contrast to SIMS or SNMS, allows the hydrogen content in a metal to be quantified. Furthermore, it allows the activation energy for desorption to be determined from TDMS profiles; the method used to achieve this is presented here in detail. In the results section, it is shown that the oxide layer formed during manufacture and long-term storage prevents any hydrogen from being absorbed, and so an activation process is required. XPS measurements show the oxide states of the main alloy elements, and a layer 18 nm thick is determined via SNMS. Furthermore, defined oxide layers are produced and characterized in UHV using XPS. The influence of these thin oxide layers on the hydrogen sorption process is examined using TDMS. Finally, the activation energy of desorption is determined for the investigated alloy using the method presented here, and values of 46 kJ/mol for hydrogen sorbed in UHV and 103 kJ/mol for hydrogen originating from the manufacturing process are obtained. PMID:19294368

  1. Absorption and diffusion of hydrogen in palladium-silver alloys by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xuezhi; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2002-11-01

    The vibrational states, absorption energies, and diffusions of H in Pd and Pd1-xAgx(0<~x<~1) have been studied by first-principle calculations. All results compare favorably to experiment. The zero-point motion of H is important in the determination of the H site occupation, in the estimation of the diffusion barrier, and in the explanation of the reversed isotope effect. The interesting anomalous isotope effect is explored, and a diffusion mechanism is proposed for tritium. The preferred diffusion paths of H in Pd and Pd1-xAgx are “indirect” paths. According to the absorption energies and diffusion barriers, H diffusion in Pd-Ag alloys should avoid the Ag-rich areas.

  2. An invitro analysis of elemental release and cytotoxicity of recast nickel-chromium dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nagam Raja; Abraham, Anandapandian Ponsekar; Murugesan, Krishnan; Matsa, Vasanthakumar

    2011-06-01

    Recasting of the casting alloys affects the composition and elemental release which may have cytotoxic effect different from the pure alloy in the surrounding tissues. An Invitro study was conducted to investigate the elemental release and their cytotoxic effects from commercially available Ni-Cr dental casting alloys, commonly used for fabricating fixed partial dentures. Three Ni-Cr alloys [Wiron 99(A), Ceramet (B), and Hi Nickel CB (C)] were tested. Alloy specimens (disks 3 × 5 mm) were casted and grouped as follows: Group I (A(1)/B(1)/C(1)): 100% pure alloy; Group II (A(2)/B(2)/C(2)): 50% new with 50% recast; and Group III (A(3)/B(3)/C(3)): 100% recast. Disks of each alloy type from each group were transferred to Dulbecco's modified eagle medium and left for 3 days at 37°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO(2). Ni, Cr, Co, Cu and Mo elemental release from metal alloys into culture medium was investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Cytotoxicity was tested using mouse fibroblast cells and MTT Assay. Controls consisted of 6 wells containing cells with no alloy specimens. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance followed by t-test. The total amount of elements released in parts per billion for various casting groups were Group I, A(1)-6.572, B(1)-6.732, C(1)-8.407; Group II, A(2)-22.046, B(2)-26.450, C(2)-29.189; Group III, A(3)-84.554, B(3)-88.359, C(3)-92.264. More amounts of elements were released in Hi Nickel CB than Ceramet and Wiron 99 in all the three test groups. Percentage of viable cells from MTT analysis were Group I, A(1)-62.342, B(1)-61.322 C(1)-60.593, Group II, A(2)-58.699, B(2)-56.494, C(2)-52.688, Group III, A(3)-53.101, B(3)-52.195, C(3)-47.586. The viable cells present in the culture media were more in Wiron 99 than Ceramet and Hi Nickel CB. Elemental release increased with amount of recast alloy. Amongst the three alloys tested Hi Nickel CB had significantly higher elements released compared to Ceramet and Wiron 99

  3. Atom probe tomography study of alloying element distributions in Zr alloys and their oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yan; Motta, Arthur T.; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed study of alloying element distributions in the metal and oxygen rich regions of corroded Zr alloys and of the phases formed ahead of the oxide front was conducted using atom probe tomography (APT). A consistent sequence of sub-oxide phases is observed ahead of the ZrO2 oxide front, consisting of (i) a thin layer of equiatomic ZrO (occasionally slightly over and under stoichiometric) (ii) saturated solid solution Zr(O)sat, and (iii) a slowly decreasing oxygen profile into the metal. The results also show that the distribution of the alloying elements in the metal is more inhomogeneous than previously thought and that in the oxygen-rich phases enhanced segregation is observed, compared to the metal. the stable oxide ZrO2 (which is in contact with water), the equiatomic suboxide ZrO (both slightly sub and superstoichiometric, denoted here ZrO1+x and ZrO1-x), a saturated solution of constant oxygen content at about 30% O, denoted Zr(O)sat, and an undersaturated solid solution of O in Zr, denoted Zr(O), the oxygen content of which decreases with distance from the oxide-metal interface. As stated above, the field evaporation behavior of these phases is drastically different, resulting in characteristic ions being evaporated from each phase. As a result, the phases can be identified both by atomic concentrations and by the nature of the ionic species evaporating from each phase. The latter method was also used to visualize the distribution of phases within needles. For example, it was found in the present study that oxygen was evaporated as O+, O2+, ZrO2+, ZrO3+, ZrO2+,ZrO22+,ZrO3+ with occasional instances of ZrO23+ and ZrO33+ observed. Zr ions (Zr2+, Zr3+) become significant in the Zr(O)sat phase. O2+ is only observed in the oxide (ZrO2) phase, so it is considered a marker for that phase. ZrO2+ and ZrO22+ are present both in the ZrO2 and ZrO1+x phases but absent in the ZrO1-x, Zr(O)sat and Zr(O) phase. the equiatomic ZrO phase (observed as both ZrO1+x and Zr

  4. Comparison of the Magnetic and Absorption Properties of Flaky Super Sendust and Sendust Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qifan; Feng, Zekun; Yan, Shuoqing; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian

    2015-10-01

    Super Sendust and Sendust alloy powders were ball-milled for the same time to produce flakes and their static and dynamic magnetic properties were determined. The average size of flaky Super Sendust alloy particles was approximately 45.25 μm; the average size of Sendust alloy flakes was 40 μm. Fe-Si-Al-Ni flaky particle composites have better electromagnetic properties than Fe-Si-Al flaky particles; they have lower complex permittivity and a permeability that is approximately 1.5 times the permeability of Fe-Si-Al composites. Fe-Si-Al-Ni particles also have higher resonance than Fe-Si-Al composites, which contributes to a wider applied frequency band. The calculated reflection loss shows that the microwave-absorption performance of Fe-Si-Al-Ni composites exceeds that of Fe-Si-Al. In addition, the Fe-Si-Al-Ni composite's absorbing band of the reflection loss below -5 dB can cover both the L-band and S-band for an absorber thickness of 2.3 mm; this is three times as wide as that of the Fe-Si-Al composite.

  5. Structure and microwave absorption properties of Pr-Fe-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jilei; Pan, Shunkang; Cheng, Lichun; Liu, Xing; Lin, Peihao

    2015-06-01

    The Pr2Fe17-xNix (X=0.0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0) alloy powders were obtained by arc smelting and high energy ball milling method. The phase structure, morphology and particle size of the powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction-based particle size analyzer, respectively. The saturation magnetization and electromagnetic parameters were determined by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA), respectively. The results indicate that the lattice parameter and the saturation magnetization of Pr2Fe17-xNix alloys decrease with increasing Ni content. And the minimum absorption peak frequency shifts towards the higher region with increasing Ni content. Compared to the powders without heat treatment, the powders tempered at 100 °C for 2 h have better absorbing properties. The minimum reflectivity peak value of Pr2Fe16Ni alloy reaches about -23.6 dB at 2.72 GHz with the matching thickness of 3.5 mm.

  6. Long-term strategies for increased recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Müller, Daniel B

    2014-04-15

    Aluminum recycling currently occurs in a cascading fashion, where some alloys, used in a limited number of applications, absorb most of the end-of-life scrap. An expected increase in scrap supply in coming decades necessitates restructuring of the aluminum cycle to open up new recycling paths for alloys and avoid a potential scrap surplus. This paper explores various interventions in end-of-life management and recycling of automotive aluminum, using a dynamic substance flow analysis model of aluminum and its alloying elements with resolution on component and alloy level (vehicle-component-alloy-element model). It was found that increased component dismantling before vehicle shredding can be an effective, so far underestimated, intervention in the medium term, especially if combined with development of safety-relevant components such as wheels from secondary material. In the long term, automatic alloy sorting technologies are most likely required, but could at the same time reduce the need for magnesium removal in refining. Cooperation between the primary and secondary aluminum industries, the automotive industry, and end-of-life vehicle dismantlers is therefore essential to ensure continued recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements. PMID:24655476

  7. Systemic absorption of selenious acid and elemental selenium aerosols in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Medinsky, M.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.; McClellan, R.O.

    1981-11-01

    Absorption of Se from the nasal passages, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and skin was studied in Fischer-344 rats. Radiolabeled selenious acid and elemental Se particles were administered by inhalation, nasal instillation, and iv injection. Selenious acid was always absorbed into the general circulation more rapidly and to a greater extent than elemental Se. By 4 hr after inhalation of selenious acid and elemental Se aerosols, 94% of the selenious acid and 57% of the elemental Se deposited in lungs was absorbed into blood. Of the selenious acid instilled into nasal passages, 18% was absorbed into blood; 16% of the elemental Se was absorbed. Gastrointestinal absorption was 87% for selenious acid and 50% for elemental Se. Selenious acid solutions were also painted onto the pelts of rats. From 10 to 30% of the selenious acid was absorbed through the skin. Following inhalation or injection of either Se compound, most of the Se was excreted in the urine. Significantly more Se appeared in feces of animals receiving elemental Se by gavage than animals receiving selenious acid. Results indicate that if people were to absorb inhaled Se from the upper respiratory tract in a manner similar to that of rats, one-third more selenious acid would be absorbed into the general circulation than elemental Se. All Se deposited in the lungs would be absorbed into blood. However, selenious acid would be absorbed more rapidly than elemental Se.

  8. Pore Formation Upon Nitriding Iron and Iron-Based Alloys: The Role of Alloying Elements and Grain Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, B.; Göhring, H.; Meka, S. R.; Schacherl, R. E.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Pure iron and a series of iron-based Fe-Me alloys (with Me = Al, Si, Cr, Co, Ni, and Ge) were nitrided in a NH3/H2 gas mixture at 923 K (650 °C). Different nitriding potentials were applied to investigate the development of pores under ferrite and austenite stabilizing conditions. In all cases, pores developed in the nitrided microstructure, i.e., also and strikingly pure ferritic iron exhibited pore development. The pore development is shown to be caused by the decomposition of (homogeneous) nitrogen-rich Fe(-Me)-N phase into nitrogen-depleted Fe(-Me)-N phase and molecular N2 gas. The latter, gas phase can be associated with such high pressure that the surrounding iron-based matrix can yield. Thermodynamic assessments indicate that continued decomposition, i.e., beyond the state where yielding is initiated, is possible. Precipitating alloying-element nitrides, i.e., AlN, CrN, or Si3N4, in the diffusion zone below the surface, hinder the formation of pores due to the competition of alloying-element nitride (Me x N y ) precipitation and pore (N2) development; alloying elements reducing the solubility of nitrogen enhance pore formation. No pore formation was observed upon nitriding a single crystalline pure iron specimen, nitrided under ferrite stabilizing conditions, thereby exhibiting the essential function of grain boundaries for nucleation of pores.

  9. Optimisation of flame parameters for simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace elements in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    A study is described that identifies the optimum operating conditions for the accurate determination of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, Bi and Cd using simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry. Accuracy was measured in terms of the percentage recoveries of the analytes based on certified values in nine standard reference materials. In addition to identifying optimum operating conditions for accurate analysis, conditions resulting in serious matrix interferences and the magnitude of the interferences were determined. The listed elements can be measured with acceptable accuracy in a lean to stoicheiometric flame at measurement heights ???5-10 mm above the burner.

  10. A nonlinear screen as an element for sound absorption and frequency conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses a model for a screen with dissipative and nonlinear elastic properties that can be used in acoustic sound absorption and frequency conversion systems. Calculation and estimation schemes are explained that are necessary for understanding the functional capabilities of the device. Examples of the nonlinear elements in the screen and promising applications are described.

  11. Finite Element Simulation Of Magnesium AZ31 Alloy Sheet In Warm Hydroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Steffensen, Mikkel; Danckert, Joachim

    2007-05-17

    Hydroforming of magnesium (Mg) alloy sheet metal offers the possibility to form geometrically complex sheet metal parts that are applicable within automotive and electronic industry etc. However, due to the limited formability of Mg alloy at ambient temperature hydroforming of Mg alloy sheet metal has to be conducted at elevated temperature. In the present study an experimental warm hydroforming process using a low melting point alloy as forming medium is presented and on the basis of this a 2D thermo-mechanical finite element model is setup in order to analyze the temperature distribution in the Mg alloy workpiece during forming. The results show that the temperature in the workpiece is nearly uniform and nearly identical to the temperature of the forming medium.

  12. Hydrogen absorption by Zr-1Nb alloy with TiNx film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, E. B.; Nikitenkov, N. N.; Syrtanov, M. S.; Babihina, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    coating for Zr-2.5Nb alloy from hydrogenation. Dense TiNx films were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (CVA). Hydrogen absorption rate was calculated from the kinetic curves of hydrogen sorption at elevated temperature of the sample (T = 673 K) and pressure (P = 2 atm). Results revealed that TiNx films significantly reduced hydrogen absorption rate of Zr-2.5Nb.

  13. A first-principles study of the diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute α-Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Xu, W W; Shang, S L; Zhou, B C; Wang, Y; Chen, L J; Wang, C P; Liu, X J; Liu, Z K

    2016-06-22

    Using first-principles calculations accompanied by the transition state theory and an 8-frequency model, we present a comprehensive investigation of the diffusion coefficients of substitutional alloying elements X in dilute α-Ti alloys, where X denotes Al, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Zr, and Sn. The alloying elements Mo and Al exhibit a maximum and a minimum diffusion rate in dilute α-Ti alloys, respectively. It is found that the nearest-neighbor solute-vacancy binding energies and activation energies are roughly inversely proportional to the volume changes induced by solute atoms. There are two exceptions to this trend: Al and Mo. Besides the physical effect (i.e., solute size), two other key factors governing solute diffusion in dilute α-Ti are clarified: the chemical bonding characteristics and vibrational features of X-Ti pairs. It verifies that the ultrafast diffusivity of Mo arises from the interactions with Ti atoms by metallic bonds and its low-frequency contributions to lattice vibration, while the more covalent bonding nature and the high-frequency contributions to the lattice vibration of Al lead to its ultraslow diffusivity. In addition, the correlation effects of diffusion coefficients are non-negligible for the large solutes Ta, Nb, and Zr, in which the direct solute-vacancy migration barriers are much smaller than the solvent-vacancy migration barriers. PMID:27282515

  14. The partitioning of alloying elements in vacuum arc remelted, Pd-modified PH 13-8 Mo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslak, M. J.; Vandenavyle, J. A.; Carr, M. J.; Hills, C. R.; Semarge, R. E.

    1988-12-01

    The partitioning of alloying elements in as-solidified PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel containing up to 1.02 wt pct Pd has been investigated. The as-solidified structure is composed of two major phases, martensite and ferrite. Electron probe microanalysis reveals that Mo, Cr, and Al partition to the ferrite phase while Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pd partition to the martensite (prior austenite) during solidification and cooling from the solidus. In addition to bulk segregation between phases, precipitation of the intermetallic, PdAI, in the retained ferrite is observed. Precipitation of the normal hardening phase, β-NiAl, is also observed in the retained ferrite. Partition ratios of the various alloying elements are determined and are compared with those observed previously in duplex Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel solidification structures. The martensite start temperature (Ms) was observed to decrease with increasing Pd concentration.

  15. Corrosion behavior of dental alloys used for retention elements in prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Nierlich, Judith; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Bourauel, Christoph; Hültenschmidt, Robert; Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Keilig, Ludger

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion behavior of 10 different high noble gold-based dental alloys, used for prosthodontic retention elements, according to ISO 10271. Samples of 10 high-noble and noble gold-based dental alloys were subjected to: (i) static immersion tests with subsequent analysis of ion release for eight different elements using mass spectrometry; (ii) electrochemical tests, including open-circuit potential and potentiodynamic scans; and (iii) scanning electron microscopy, followed by energy-dispersive X-ray microscopy. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Sidak multiple-comparisons post-hoc test at a level of significance of α = 0.05. Significant differences were found among the 10 alloys studied for all ions (P < 0.001). The potentiodynamic analysis showed values from -82.5 to 102.8 mV for the open-circuit potential and from 566.7 to 1367.5 mV for the breakdown potential. Both the open-circuit and the breakdown potential varied considerably among these alloys. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the existence of typically small-diameter corrosion defects, whilst the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis found no significant alteration in the elemental composition of the alloys. The results of this study reveal the variability in the corrosive resistance among the materials used for retention elements in prosthodontics. PMID:27061513

  16. Determination of arsenic in a nickel alloy by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, C. P.; Tyson, J. F.; Offley, S. G.

    1992-08-01

    The development of a method for the direct determination of trace arsenic quantities in nickel alloy digests, by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, is described. An optimization study of the manifold and chemical parameters produced system performance, in terms of tolerance of the nickel matrix and sensitivity, such that matrix removal and pre-reduction of As(V) to As (III) prior to arsine generation were eliminated. Full recovery of the As(V) signal from a solution containing 5 ng ml -1 in the presence of 60 μg ml -1 nickel was obtained. Validation of the method was achieved by analyzing a British Chemical Standard (BCS) Certified Reference Material (CRM) #346 IN nickel alloy containing arsenic at a concentration of 50 μg g -1. Following dissolution in nitric and hydrofluoric acids by a microwave assisted procedure, the only subsequent preparation required was dilution by the appropriate factor. Up to 60 injections h -1 may be made, with a detection limit of 0.5 ng ml -1 arsenic (250 pg absolute) as As(V) in a 500 μl sample. The peak height characteristic concentration is 0.46 ng ml -1, with a relative standard deviation of 3.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 As(V) standard ( n = 6).

  17. Near-infrared light absorption by polycrystalline SiSn alloys grown on insulating layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Kato, Motohiro; Yamaha, Takashi; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2015-04-27

    High-Sn-content SiSn alloys are strongly desired for the next-generation near-infrared optoelectronics. A polycrystalline growth study has been conducted on amorphous SiSn layers with a Sn-content of 2%–30% deposited on either a substrate of SiO{sub 2} or SiN. Incorporating 30% Sn into Si permits the crystallization of the amorphous layers at annealing temperatures below the melting point of Sn (231.9 °C). Composition analyses indicate that approximately 20% of the Sn atoms are substituted into the Si lattice after solid-phase crystallization at 150–220 °C for 5 h. Correspondingly, the optical absorption edge is red-shifted from 1.12 eV (Si) to 0.83 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)), and the difference between the indirect and direct band gap is significantly reduced from 3.1 eV (Si) to 0.22 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)). These results suggest that with higher substitutional Sn content the SiSn alloys could become a direct band-gap material, which would provide benefits for Si photonics.

  18. Broadband light absorption enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells with Au-Ag alloy popcorn nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yuxiang; Cui, Kaiyu; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation on the use of Au-Ag alloy popcorn-shaped nanoparticles (NPs) to realise the broadband optical absorption enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both simulation and experimental results indicate that compared with regular plasmonic NPs, such as nano-spheres, irregular popcorn-shaped alloy NPs exhibit absorption enhancement over a broad wavelength range due to the excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) at different wavelengths. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is enhanced by 16% from 5.26% to 6.09% by incorporating 2.38 wt% Au-Ag alloy popcorn NPs. Moreover, by adding a scattering layer on the exterior of the counter electrode, the popcorn NPs demonstrate an even stronger ability to increase the PCE by 32% from 5.94% to 7.85%, which results from the more efficient excitation of the LSP mode on the popcorn NPs.

  19. Theoretical aspects of light-element alloys under extremely high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ji

    In this Dissertation, we present theoretical studies on the geometric and electronic structure of light-element alloys under high pressure. The first three Chapters are concerned with specific compounds, namely, SiH 4, CaLi2 and BexLi1- x, and associated structural and electronic phenomena, arising in our computational studies. In the fourth Chapter, we attempt to develop a unified view of the relationship between the electronic and geometric structure of light-element alloys under pressure, by focusing on the states near the Fermi level in these metals.

  20. Alloying Elements Transition Into the Weld Metal When Using an Inventor Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamadaliev, R. A.; Kuskov, V. N.; Popova, A. A.; Valuev, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    The temperature distribution over the surface of the welded 12Kh18N10T steel plates using the inventor power source ARC-200 has been calculated. In order to imitate multipass welding when conducting the thermal analysis the initial temperature was changed from 298K up to 798K in 100K increments. It has been determined that alloying elements transition into the weld metal depends on temperature. Using an inventor power source facilitates a uniform distribution of alloying elements along the length and height of the weld seam.

  1. Role of Alloying Elements in the Mechanical Behaviors of An Mg-Zn-Zr-Er Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Min; Dou, Yuchen; Liu, Guobao

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical behavior of the as-extruded and heat-treated Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr and Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr-2Er alloys was investigated and correlated with microstructure evolution. Deformation mechanisms are detailed. No evidence of twinning was observed under compression in the Er-bearing alloy throughout the grain size range of ~5 to 27 μm at a strain rate of 0.001 or 1/s. The compressive yield strength followed a Hall-Petch relation with a slope of ~10.3 MPa/mm1/2. Er played a major role in the pyramidal < c+ a> slip that was identified as a dominant plastic deformation mechanism. The CRSS for < c+ a> slip system was greatly reduced and was 98 MPa in the as-extruded alloy. While it did not change the mechanical response of the Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr-2Er alloy, annealing was found to promote dissolution of Zn in the Mg matrix, leading to an increase in CRSS for extension twinning in the heat-treated Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr alloy. As a result, twinning was only observed under a higher strain rate of 1/s in compression. The CRSS for extension twinning for the heat-treated alloy with a grain size of ~28 μm was estimated to be 40 MPa, a bit lower than that for the Er-bearing alloy of the same grain size, which was 42 MPa.

  2. Fast sequential determination of antimony and lead in pewter alloys using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dessuy, Morgana B; de Jesus, Robson M; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Welz, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A simple method has been developed to determine antimony and lead in pewter alloy cups produced in Brazil, using fast sequential determination by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were dissolved in HCl and H(2)O(2), employing a cold finger system in order to avoid analyte losses. The main resonance line of lead at 217.001 nm and a secondary line of antimony at 212.739 nm were used. The limits of detection for lead and antimony were 0.02 and 5.7 mg L(-1), respectively. The trueness of the method was established by recovery tests and comparing the results obtained by the proposed method with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results were compared using a student's t-test and there was no significant difference at a 95% confidence interval. With the developed methods, it was possible to determine accurately antimony and lead in pewter samples. The lead concentration found in the analysed samples was around 1 mg g(-1), which means that they are not lead free; however, the content was below the maximum allowed level of 5 mg g(-1). The antimony content, which was found to be between 40 and 46 mg g(-1), is actually of greater concern, as antimony is known to be potentially toxic already at very low concentrations, although there is no legislation yet for this element. PMID:23046152

  3. An Investigation into the Effect of Alloying Elements on the Recrystallization Behavior of 70/30 Brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei M, A.; Roshanghias, A.; Abbaszadeh, H.; Akbari, G. H.

    2010-06-01

    An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model has been designed for predicting the effects of alloying elements (Fe, Si, Al, Mn) on the recrystallization behavior and microstructural changes of 70/30 brass. The model introduced here considers the content of alloying elements, temperature, and time of recrystallization as inputs while percent of recrystallization is presented as output. It is shown that the designed model is able to predict the effect of alloying elements well. It is also shown that all alloying elements strongly affect the recrytallization kinetics, and all slow down the recrystallization process. The effect of alloying elements on the activation energy for recrystallization has also been investigated. The results show that Si is the element which increases the activation energy.

  4. Synthesis of Ti-Ta alloys with dual structure by incomplete diffusion between elemental powders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Wu, Hong; Song, Min; Wang, Wen; Li, Nianfeng; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Ta alloys were sintered using blended elemental powders. A dual structure, consisting of Ti-rich and Ta-rich zones, was formed due to the insufficient diffusion between Ti and Ta powders. The microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro biological properties of the alloys were studied. Results indicated that the alloys have inhomogenous microstructures and compositions, but the grain structures were continuous from the Ti-rich zone to the Ta-rich zone. The Ta-rich zone exhibited a much finer grain size than the Ti-rich zone. The alloys had a high relative density in the range of 95-98%, with the porosity increasing with the content of Ta due to the increased difficulty in sintering and the formation of Kirkendall pores. The alloys had a good combination of low elastic modulus and high tensile strength. The strength of alloys was almost doubled compared to that of the ingot metallurgy alloys with the same compositions. The low elastic modulus was due to the residual pores and the alloying effect of Ta, while the high tensile strength resulted from the strengthening effects of solid solution, fine grain size and α phase. The alloys had a high biocompatibility due to the addition of Ta, and were suitable for the attachment of cells due to the surface porosity. It was also indicated that PM Ti-(20-30)Ta alloys are promising for biomedical applications after the evaluations of both the mechanical and the biological properties. PMID:26275506

  5. Work of Adhesion in Al/SiC Composites with Alloying Element Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xin; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2013-11-01

    In the current work, a general methodology was proposed to demonstrate how to calculate the work of adhesion in a reactive multicomponent alloy/ceramic system. Applying this methodology, the work of adhesion of Al alloy/SiC systems and the influence of different alloying elements were predicted. Based on the thermodynamics of interfacial reaction and calculation models for component activities, the equilibrium compositions of the melts in Al alloy/SiC systems were calculated. Combining the work of adhesion models for reactive metal/ceramic systems, the work of adhesion in Al alloy/SiC systems both before and after the reaction was calculated. The results showed that the addition of most alloying elements, such as Mg, Si, and Mn, could increase the initial work of adhesion, while Fe had a slightly decreasing effect. As for the equilibrium state, the additions of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and La could increase the equilibrium work of adhesion, but the additions of Mg and Zn had an opposite effect. Si was emphasized due to its suppressing effect on the interfacial reaction.

  6. Finite Element Analysis on Warm Hydroforming of Rectangular Mg Alloy Cups with a Step Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shihong; Zheng Wentao; Xu Yongchao; Wang Zhongtang

    2005-08-05

    Magnesium alloys, as one of the lightest metal structural materials, are attracting more and more attention. At present, most of Mg alloy products are manufactured by die casting. For enlarging the applications of Mg alloys, many researchers are engaged in developing its plastic forming technology. However, the study on warm sheet hydroforming of Mg alloy is rarely reported. Therefore, a set of warm sheet hydroforming tools was designed for experimental research on the hydroforming of rectangular Mg alloy cups with a step cavity. The corners of the deeper cavity are difficult to form directly because of the severe stretching. Multi-stage hydroforming method was used to improve the sheet thickness reduction in the corners of the deeper cavity. Several different two-stage hydroforming methods were realized by elastic-plastic finite element simulation. According to the results of finite element simulation, the influence of forming methods on the minimum thickness of formed parts and the reasons were analyzed, and the optimal process for the rectangular Mg alloy cup with a step cavity was determined.

  7. Elemental Solubility Tendency for the Phases of Uranium by Classical Models Used to Predict Alloy Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blackwood; Travis Koenig; Saleem Drera; Brajenda Mishra; Davis Olson; Doug Porter; Robert Mariani

    2012-03-01

    Traditional alloy theory models, specifically Darken-Gurry and Miedema’s analyses, that characterize solutes in solid solvents relative to physical properties of the elements have been used to assist in predicting alloy behavior. These models will be applied relative to the three solid phases of uranium: alpha (orthorhombic), beta (tetragonal), and gamma (bcc). These phases have different solubilities for specific alloy additions as a function of temperature. The Darken-Gurry and Miedema models, with modifications based on concepts of Waber, Gschneider, and Brewer will be used to predict the behavior of four types of solutes: 1) Transition metals that are used for various purposes associated with the containment as alloy additions in the uranium fuel 2) Transuranic elements in the uranium 3) Rare earth fission products (lanthanides) 4) Transition metals and other fission products Using these solute map criteria, elemental behavior will be predicted as highly soluble, marginally soluble, or immiscible (compound formers) and will be used to compare solute effects during uranium phase transformations. The overlapping of these solute maps are convenient first approximation tools for predicting alloy behavior.

  8. Finite Element Simulation of Plastic Joining Processes of Steel and Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Kato, T.

    2007-05-17

    Various high tensile strength steel sheets and an aluminum alloy sheet were joined with a self-piercing rivet. It is not easy to weld the aluminum alloy sheet and high tensile strength sheets by means of conventional resistance welding because of very different melting points. To obtain optimum joining conditions, joining defects were categorized into separation of the sheets and an inner fracture. The joining range of ultra high tensile strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was extended by means of dies optimized by finite element simulation. The joint strength is greatly influenced by not only the strength of the sheets and rivets but also the ratio of the thickness of the lower sheet to the total thickness. In addition, mechanical clinching of high strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was simulated.

  9. Finite Element Simulation of Plastic Joining Processes of Steel and Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Kato, T.

    2007-05-01

    Various high tensile strength steel sheets and an aluminum alloy sheet were joined with a self-piercing rivet. It is not easy to weld the aluminum alloy sheet and high tensile strength sheets by means of conventional resistance welding because of very different melting points. To obtain optimum joining conditions, joining defects were categorized into separation of the sheets and an inner fracture. The joining range of ultra high tensile strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was extended by means of dies optimized by finite element simulation. The joint strength is greatly influenced by not only the strength of the sheets and rivets but also the ratio of the thickness of the lower sheet to the total thickness. In addition, mechanical clinching of high strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was simulated.

  10. Finite element analysis and modeling of water absorption by date pits during a soaking process.

    PubMed

    Waezi-Zadeh, Motahareh; Ghazanfari, Ahmad; Noorbakhsh, Shahin

    2010-07-01

    Date pits for feed preparation or oil extraction are soaked in water to soften before milling or extrusion. Knowledge of water absorption by the date pits helps in better managing the soaking duration. In this research, the process of water absorption by date pits was modeled and analyzed using Fick's second law of diffusion, finite element approach, and Peleg model. The moisture content of the pits reached to its saturation level of 41.5% (wet basis) after 10 d. The estimated coefficient of diffusion was 9.89x10(-12) m(2)/s. The finite element model with a proposed ellipsoid geometry for a single date pit and the analytical model fitted better to the experimental data with R(2) of 0.98. The former model slightly overestimated the moisture content of the pits during the initial stages of the soaking and the latter model generally underestimated this variable through the entire stages of soaking process. PMID:20593512

  11. Transient Heavy Element Absorption Systems in Novae: Episodic Mass Ejection from the Secondary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert; Mason, Elena; Della Valle, Massimo; Ederoclite, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    A high-resolution spectroscopic survey of post-outburst novae reveals short-lived heavy element absorption systems in a majority of novae near maximum light, having expansion velocities of 400-1000 km s-1 and velocity dispersions between 35 and 350 km s-1. A majority of systems are accelerated outward, and they all progressively weaken and disappear over timescales of weeks. A few of the systems having narrow, deeper absorption reveal a rich spectrum of singly ionized Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba lines. Analysis of the richest such system, in LMC 2005, shows the excitation temperature to be 104 K and elements lighter than Fe to have abundance enhancements over solar values by up to an order of magnitude. The gas causing the absorption systems must be circumbinary and its origin is most likely mass ejection from the secondary star. The absorbing gas exists before the outburst and may represent episodic mass transfer events from the secondary star that initiate the nova outburst(s). If SNe Ia originate in single degenerate binaries, such absorption systems could be detectable before maximum light.

  12. Cooperative effect of silicon and other alloying elements on creep resistance of titanium alloys: insight from first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Chen, Yue; Liu, Jian-Rong; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Creep resistance is one of the key properties of titanium (Ti) alloys for high temperature applications such as in aero engines and gas turbines. It has been widely recognized that moderate addition of Si, especially when added together with some other elements (X), e.g., Mo, significantly improves the creep resistance of Ti alloys. To provide some fundamental understandings on such a cooperative effect, the interactions between Si and X in both hexagonal close-packed α and body-centered cubic β phases are systematically investigated by using a first-principles method. We show that the transition metal (TM) atoms with the number of d electrons (Nd) from 3 to 7 are attractive to Si in α phase whereas those with Nd > 8 and simple metal (SM) alloying atoms are repulsive to Si. All the alloying atoms repel Si in the β phase except for the ones with fewer d electrons than Ti. The electronic structure origin underlying the Si-X interaction is discussed based on the calculated electronic density of states and Bader charge. Our calculations suggest that the beneficial X-Si cooperative effect on the creep resistance is attributable to the strong X-Si attraction. PMID:27466045

  13. Cooperative effect of silicon and other alloying elements on creep resistance of titanium alloys: insight from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Yue; Liu, Jian-Rong; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Creep resistance is one of the key properties of titanium (Ti) alloys for high temperature applications such as in aero engines and gas turbines. It has been widely recognized that moderate addition of Si, especially when added together with some other elements (X), e.g., Mo, significantly improves the creep resistance of Ti alloys. To provide some fundamental understandings on such a cooperative effect, the interactions between Si and X in both hexagonal close-packed α and body-centered cubic β phases are systematically investigated by using a first-principles method. We show that the transition metal (TM) atoms with the number of d electrons (Nd) from 3 to 7 are attractive to Si in α phase whereas those with Nd > 8 and simple metal (SM) alloying atoms are repulsive to Si. All the alloying atoms repel Si in the β phase except for the ones with fewer d electrons than Ti. The electronic structure origin underlying the Si-X interaction is discussed based on the calculated electronic density of states and Bader charge. Our calculations suggest that the beneficial X-Si cooperative effect on the creep resistance is attributable to the strong X-Si attraction.

  14. Cooperative effect of silicon and other alloying elements on creep resistance of titanium alloys: insight from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Chen, Yue; Liu, Jian-Rong; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Creep resistance is one of the key properties of titanium (Ti) alloys for high temperature applications such as in aero engines and gas turbines. It has been widely recognized that moderate addition of Si, especially when added together with some other elements (X), e.g., Mo, significantly improves the creep resistance of Ti alloys. To provide some fundamental understandings on such a cooperative effect, the interactions between Si and X in both hexagonal close-packed α and body-centered cubic β phases are systematically investigated by using a first-principles method. We show that the transition metal (TM) atoms with the number of d electrons (Nd) from 3 to 7 are attractive to Si in α phase whereas those with Nd > 8 and simple metal (SM) alloying atoms are repulsive to Si. All the alloying atoms repel Si in the β phase except for the ones with fewer d electrons than Ti. The electronic structure origin underlying the Si-X interaction is discussed based on the calculated electronic density of states and Bader charge. Our calculations suggest that the beneficial X-Si cooperative effect on the creep resistance is attributable to the strong X-Si attraction. PMID:27466045

  15. Thermodynamics calculation of reactions between phosphorus and main elements in Al-Si-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangxing; Zhang, Ying; Yi, Danqing; Kong, Fanxiao; Chen, Xingyu

    2011-05-01

    The Gibbs free energy was calculated between phosphorus and the main elements in Al-Si-Cu alloys sampled as A390 to study the reaction process and give theoretical directions for the adding of phosphorus in industry. The results show that the elements such as aluminum, silicon, and copper have the capabilities to react with phosphorus according to the preference of Al, Cu, Si. As temperature increases, the reactions between phosphorus and the elements become more difficult. If aluminum is in existence, the phosphides of other elements will transform to aluminum phosphide.

  16. P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1988-10-04

    An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

  17. 3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.

  18. Effects of Alloying Elements on Microstructure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys for Tripling Ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D. H.; Geng, Z. W.; Chen, L.; Wu, Z.; Diao, H. Y.; Song, M.; Zhou, P. F.

    2015-10-01

    In order to find good candidate materials for degradable fracturing ball applications, Mg-Al-Zn-Cu alloys with different contents of aluminum, zinc, and copper were prepared by ingot metallurgy. The effects of aluminum, zinc, and copper additions on the microstructure, compressive strength, and rapid decomposition properties of the alloys have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, compressive tests, and immersion tests. The results show that the addition of high contents Al (15 to 20 wt pct) in pure magnesium promotes a large number of network-like β-Mg17All2 phases, which helps produce more micro-thermocouples to accelerate the corrosion process in 3 wt pct potassium chloride (KCl) at 366 K (93 °C). Adding different Zn contents improves the compressive properties of Mg-20Al alloys drastically. However, it decreases the decomposition rate in 3 wt pct KCl at 366 K (93 °C). Small amount of Cu will slightly reduce the compressive strength of Mg-20Al-5Zn alloy but dramatically increase its decomposition rate.

  19. Low-melting elemental metal or fusible alloy encapsulated polymerization initiator for delayed initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, Robert E.

    2015-12-22

    An encapsulated composition for polymerization includes an initiator composition for initiating a polymerization reaction, and a capsule prepared from an elemental metal or fusible alloy having a melting temperature from about 20.degree. C. to about 200.degree. C. A fluid for polymerization includes the encapsulated composition and a monomer. When the capsule melts or breaks open, the initiator is released.

  20. Studies of Element-Specific Local Structures in Compound Materials Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Yun-Liang

    1995-01-01

    The x-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques have been used to study a variety of semiconductor and superconductor materials. In such experiments, synchrotron radiation harnessed by a delicate beamline electronic and control system are used to obtain data with analyzable quality in a reasonable time scale. The element-selectivity is achieved by selecting an energy-scan range close to a characteristic "absorption edge" of the selected element. Peak structures below the absorption edge (pre-edge structures) reflect the local unoccupied states of the selected atomic species. The position of absorption edge (part of the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure, NEXAFS) provides some qualitative information of the effective valency of the selected element. And, most importantly, the modulation in the spectrum some 40 eV above the absorption edge (extended x-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS) gives quantitative information of the local structure around the selected atomic species. The selected atomic species such as magnetic Mn ions in III-V diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) rm In_{1-x}Mn_{x}As, Mn as the luminescent centers in nanocrystals of ZnS, O in the CuO_2 planes which host the carriers in high-T_{rm c} superconductors, and F as the electron reservoir in the n-type high-T_{rm c} superconductors rm Nd_2CuO _{4-x}F_{x} all play an important role in the novel mechanism of these new materials. Along with other detailed information, our EXAFS results have revealed (i) III-V DMS can indeed be prepared by substitutional doping of magnetic impurities under proper processing conditions. (ii) Mn ions substitute for the Zn sites in the nanocrystals of ZnS with significant size-dependent local structural changes. (iii) Only ~6% of O in the CuO_2 planes in rm Nd_2CuO_{4 -x}F_{x} are substituted by F. The rest of F atoms substitute for O atoms in the NdO layers and serve as electron reservoirs. The NEXAFS results have shown that the effective valency of Mn in Zn

  1. Thermodynamic Considerations of Contamination by Alloying Elements of Remelted End-of-Life Nickel- and Cobalt-Based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and nickel are high-value commodity metals and are mostly used in the form of highly alloyed materials. The alloying elements used may cause contamination problems during recycling. To ensure maximum resource efficiency, an understanding of the removability of these alloying elements and the controllability of some of the primary alloying elements is essential with respect to the recycling of end-of-life (EoL) nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys by remelting. In this study, the distribution behaviors of approximately 30 elements that are usually present in EoL nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys in the solvent metal (nickel, cobalt, or nickel-cobalt alloy), oxide slag, and gas phases during the remelting were quantitatively evaluated using a thermodynamic approach. The results showed that most of the alloying elements can be removed either in the slag phase or into the gas phase. However, the removal of copper, tin, arsenic, and antimony by remelting is difficult, and they remain as tramp elements during the recycling. On the other hand, the distribution tendencies of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten can be controlled by changing the remelting conditions. To increase the resource efficiency of recycling, preventing contamination by the tramp elements and identifying the alloying compositions of EoL superalloys are significantly essential, which will require the development of efficient prior alloy-sorting systems and advanced separation technologies.

  2. Thermodynamic Considerations of Contamination by Alloying Elements of Remelted End-of-Life Nickel- and Cobalt-Based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and nickel are high-value commodity metals and are mostly used in the form of highly alloyed materials. The alloying elements used may cause contamination problems during recycling. To ensure maximum resource efficiency, an understanding of the removability of these alloying elements and the controllability of some of the primary alloying elements is essential with respect to the recycling of end-of-life (EoL) nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys by remelting. In this study, the distribution behaviors of approximately 30 elements that are usually present in EoL nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys in the solvent metal (nickel, cobalt, or nickel-cobalt alloy), oxide slag, and gas phases during the remelting were quantitatively evaluated using a thermodynamic approach. The results showed that most of the alloying elements can be removed either in the slag phase or into the gas phase. However, the removal of copper, tin, arsenic, and antimony by remelting is difficult, and they remain as tramp elements during the recycling. On the other hand, the distribution tendencies of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten can be controlled by changing the remelting conditions. To increase the resource efficiency of recycling, preventing contamination by the tramp elements and identifying the alloying compositions of EoL superalloys are significantly essential, which will require the development of efficient prior alloy-sorting systems and advanced separation technologies.

  3. Multi-element analysis of manganese nodules by atomic absorption spectrometry without chemical separation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.; Harnly, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Five manganese nodules, including the USGS reference nodules A-1 and P-1, were analyzed for Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn without prior chemical separation by using a simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometer with an air-cetylene flame. The nodules were prepared in three digestion matrices. One of these solutions was measured using sixteen different combinations of burner height and air/acetylene ratios. Results for A-1 and P-1 are compared to recommended values and results for all nodules are compared to those obtained with an inductively coupled plasma. The elements Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are simultaneously determined with a composite recovery for all elements of 100 ?? 7%, independent of the digestion matrices, heights in the flame, or flame stoichiometries examined. Individual recoveries for Co, K, and Ni are considerably poorer in two digests than this composite figure, however. The optimum individual recoveries of 100 ?? 5% and imprecisions of 1-4%, except for zinc, are obtained when Co, K, Mn, Na and Ni are determined simultaneously in a concentrated digest, and in another analytical sequence, when Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn are measured simultaneously after dilution. Determination of manganese is equally accurate in the two sequences; its measurement in both assures internal consistency between the two measurement sequences. This approach improves analytical efficiency over that for conventional atomic absorption methods, while minimizing loss of accuracy or precision for individual elements. ?? 1982.

  4. Solar absorption by elemental and brown carbon determined from spectral observations

    PubMed Central

    Bahadur, Ranjit; Praveen, Puppala S.; Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) is functionally defined as the absorbing component of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols (TC) and is typically dominated by soot-like elemental carbon (EC). However, organic carbon (OC) has also been shown to absorb strongly at visible to UV wavelengths and the absorbing organics are referred to as brown carbon (BrC), which is typically not represented in climate models. We propose an observationally based analytical method for rigorously partitioning measured absorption aerosol optical depths (AAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) among EC and BrC, using multiwavelength measurements of total (EC, OC, and dust) absorption. EC is found to be strongly absorbing (SSA of 0.38) whereas the BrC SSA varies globally between 0.77 and 0.85. The method is applied to the California region. We find TC (EC + BrC) contributes 81% of the total absorption at 675 nm and 84% at 440 nm. The BrC absorption at 440 nm is about 40% of the EC, whereas at 675 nm it is less than 10% of EC. We find an enhanced absorption due to OC in the summer months and in southern California (related to forest fires and secondary OC). The fractions and trends are broadly consistent with aerosol chemical-transport models as well as with regional emission inventories, implying that we have obtained a representative estimate for BrC absorption. The results demonstrate that current climate models that treat OC as nonabsorbing are underestimating the total warming effect of carbonaceous aerosols by neglecting part of the atmospheric heating, particularly over biomass-burning regions that emit BrC. PMID:23045698

  5. [Effects of LED spectrum combinations on the absorption of mineral elements of hydroponic lettuce].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Mmanake Beauty, Morewane

    2014-05-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory, in which spectrum proportion-adjustable LED panels were used as sole light source for plant growth. Absorption and content of eleven mineral elements such as K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B and Mo in Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP -AES technology. The results showed that: (1) Single or combined spectrums corresponding to the absorbing peaks of chlorophyll a and b (450, 660 nm) could enhance the absorbing ability of roots especially for mineral elements Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Mo, the single red spectrum had the most significant promoting effect under which contents of those four elements were respectively 7. 8, 4. 2, 4. 0 and 3. 7 times more than that under FL; (2) Absorption of K and B was the highest under FL which was 10. 309 mg g-1 and 32. 6 microg g-1 while the values decreased significantly under single or combined spectrum of red and blue; (3) Plants grown under single blue spectrum had the lowest absorption of Ca and Mg which respectively decreased by 35% and 33% than FL; (4) Lettuce grown under the spectrum combination of 30% blue and 70% red had the highest accumulations of biomass while those grown under 20% blue and 80% red had the highest accumulations of the following seven elements Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. The results provided theoretical basis for adjusting nutrient solution formula and selecting light spectrum of hydroponic lettuce. PMID:25095445

  6. Third element effect in the surface zone of Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airiskallio, E.; Nurmi, E.; Heinonen, M. H.; Väyrynen, I. J.; Kokko, K.; Ropo, M.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Pitkänen, H.; Alatalo, M.; Kollár, J.; Johansson, B.; Vitos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The third element effect to improve the high temperature corrosion resistance of the low-Al Fe-Cr-Al alloys is suggested to involve a mechanism that boosts the recovering of the Al concentration to the required level in the Al-depleted zone beneath the oxide layer. We propose that the key factor in this mechanism is the coexistent Cr depletion that helps to maintain a sufficient Al content in the depleted zone. Several previous experiments related to our study support that conditions for such a mechanism to be functional prevail in real oxidation processes of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.

  7. The effects of seven alloying elements on the microstructure and stress-rupture behavior of nickle-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, D. R.; Miner, R. V.; Barrett, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Seven alloying elements: Al, Cr, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W were added at two levels of concentration to produce a series of experimental nickel-base superalloys. Fifty alloys, representing a fraction of a 2 to the 7th power factorial design, were cast, tested, and analyzed. Each alloy's microstructure was characterized by phase extractions, X-ray diffraction, metallography and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of alloying element content on microstructure and stress-rupture life.

  8. Ablation-initiated Isotope-selective Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy of Lanthanide Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Wakaida, I.; Watanabe, K.

    2009-03-17

    For remote isotope analysis of low-decontaminated trans-uranium (TRU) fuel, absorption spectroscopy has been applied to a laser-ablated plume of lanthanide elements. To improve isotopic selectivity and detection sensitivity of the ablated species, various experimental conditions were optimized. Isotope-selective absorption spectra were measured by observing the slow component of the plume produced under low-pressure rare-gas ambient. The measured minimum line width of about 0.9 GHz was close to the Doppler width of the Gd atomic transition at room temperature. The relaxation rate of high-lying metastable state was found to be higher than that of the ground state, which suggests that higher analytical sensitivity can be obtained using low-lying state transition. Under helium gas environment, Doppler splitting was caused from particle motion. This effect was considered for optimization for isotope selection and analysis. Some analytical performances of this method were determined under optimum conditions and were discussed.

  9. Determination of elements by atomic absorption spectrometry in medicinal plants employed to alleviate common cold symptoms.

    PubMed

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Kuyumcu, Ebru

    2014-09-01

    Eleven important medicinal plants generally used by the people of Turkey for the treatment of common cold have been studied for their mineral contents. Eleven minor and major elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) were identified in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. , Althaea officinalis L. , Verbascum phlomoides L., Euphorbia chamaesyce L., Zizyphus jujube Miller, Peganum harmala L., Arum dioscoridis Sm., Sambucus nigra L., Piperlongum L., Tussilago farfara L. and Elettaria cardamomum Maton by employing flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Microwave digestion procedure for total concentration was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal plants. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of essential, non-essential and toxic elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal plants. PMID:25532362

  10. Design of multilayered grating couplers as key elements of a fully integrated IR-absorption sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasberger, Juergen; Jakoby, Bernhard

    2008-08-01

    For the online characterization of fluids regarding their chemical composition, the miniaturization of an IR-absorption sensor at application-specific distinguished wavelengths for the mid-IR-region promises outstanding features. Utilizing micromachining technology facilitates the integration of all required components (including thermal emitter and detector) into a complete sensor system. The absorption is sensed in the evanescent field of an appropriately designed slab mono-mode waveguide (ZnSe, n=2.42) residing on a BaF2-substrate (n=1.44), which represents the central element of the system. A typical application for such a system is, e.g., the characterization of engine oil oxidation in terms of the absorption at 5.85 μm as an indicator for deterioration. The thermal generation and detection of mid-IR-radiation is preferred over expensive and sophisticated quantum well devices. However, the spatial and non-coherent character of thermally generated IR-radiation requires an extension of the numerical methods established for coherent light sources for a proper design of the system's grating couplers, which act as key elements determining the system performance. These couplers yield efficient coupling into and out of the sensing waveguide and provide the required spectral filtering at the same time. In the actually projected implementation, a multilayer waveguide Si/BaF2/ZnSe is used, where the silicon substrate practically represents a rear-reflector in the grating region featuring several advantages compared to simpler grating couplers. In this contribution we discuss the modelling of the coupling of non-coherent, thermally generated and detected IR-radiation by means of these multilayer grating couplers in the context of a fully integrated IR-absorption sensor system.

  11. Development of the Dynamic Globularization Prediction Model for Ti-17 Titanium Alloy Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Weidong; Xu, Jianwei; Zhou, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaoying

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a finite element method (FEM) model for predicting dynamic globularization of Ti-17 titanium alloy is established. For obtaining the microstructure evolution during dynamic globularization under varying processing parameters, isothermal hot compression tests and quantitative metallographic analysis were conducted on Ti-17 titanium alloy with initial lamellar microstructure. The prediction model, which quantitatively described the non-linear relationship between the dynamic globularization fraction and the deformation strain, temperature, and strain rate, was developed on the basis of the Avrami equation. Then the developed model was incorporated into DEFORM software as a user subroutine. Finally, the large-sized step-shaped workpiece was isothermally forged and corresponding FEM simulation was conducted to verify the reliability and accuracy of the integrated FEM model. The reasonable coincidence of the predicted results with experimental ones indicated that the established FEM model provides an easy and a practical method to predict dynamic globularization for Ti-17 titanium alloy with complex shape.

  12. Determination of trace elements in automotive fuels by filter furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Anna; Tittarelli, Paolo; Katskov, Dmitri A.

    2002-03-01

    The determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was performed in gasoline and diesel fuel samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using the Transverse Heated Filter Atomizer (THFA). Thermal conditions were experimentally defined for the investigated elements. The elements were analyzed without addition of chemical modifiers, using organometallic standards for the calibration. Forty-microliter samples were injected into the THFA. Gasoline samples were analyzed directly, while diesel fuel samples were diluted 1:4 with n-heptane. The following characteristic masses were obtained: 0.8 pg Cd, 6.4 pg Cr, 12 pg Cu, 17 pg Pb and 27 pg Ni. The limits of determination for gasoline samples were 0.13 μg/kg Cd, 0.4 μg/kg Cr, 0.9 μg/kg Cu, 1.5 μg/kg Pb and 2.5 μg/kg Ni. The corresponding limit of determination for diesel fuel samples was approximately four times higher for all elements. The element recovery was performed using the addition of organometallic compounds to gasoline and diesel fuel samples and was between 85 and 105% for all elements investigated.

  13. Method 200.12 - Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters by StabilizedTemperature Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total recoverable elements by graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) in marine waters, including estuarine, ocean and brines with salinities of up to 35 ppt.

  14. Hydrogen absorption induced metal deposition on palladium and palladium-alloy particles

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jia X.; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to methods for producing metal-coated palladium or palladium-alloy particles. The method includes contacting hydrogen-absorbed palladium or palladium-alloy particles with one or more metal salts to produce a sub-monoatomic or monoatomic metal- or metal-alloy coating on the surface of the hydrogen-absorbed palladium or palladium-alloy particles. The invention also relates to methods for producing catalysts and methods for producing electrical energy using the metal-coated palladium or palladium-alloy particles of the present invention.

  15. Influence of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of NbAl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Stephens, J. R.; Smialek, J. L.; Barrett, C. A.; Fox, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    NbAl3 is one candidate material for advanced aeropropulsion systems because of its high melting point, low density, and good oxidation resistance. Although NbAl3 has the lowest oxidation rate among the binary Nb-Al alloys, it does not form exclusive layers of protective Al203 scales. Recently Perkin et al., have shown the feasibility of forming alumina scales on Nb-Al alloys at greatly reduced Al contents. However, the objective was to maintain the high Al content, and hence low density, while achieving the capability of growing protective alumina scales. Alloy development followed approaches similar to those used successfully for superalloys and oxidation resistant MCrAly coatings. Among the three elements examined (Ti, Si, and Cr) as ternary additions to Nb-Al3, Cr was the most effective in favoring the selective oxidation of Al. Nb-41Al-8Cr formed exclusive layers of alumina and had a k sub p value of 0.22 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr at 1200 C. The addition of 1 wt percent Y to this alloy was also beneficial, resulting in nearly an order of magnitude decrease in K sub p at 1200 C. Further improvements were achieved by adding about 1 wt percent Si to the quaternary alloy. The k sub p value of 0.012 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr for Nb-40Al-8Cr-1Y-1Si at 1200 C was identical to the best NiAl + Zr alloys. These NbAl3 alloys also exhibited excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for 100 hr at 1200 C, being nearly equivalent to NiAl + Zr.

  16. Influence of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of NbAl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Stephens, J. R.; Smialek, J. L.; Barrett, C. A.; Fox, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    NbAL3 is one candidate material for advanced aeropropulsion systems because of its high melting point, low density, and good oxidation resistance. Although NbAl3 has the lowest oxidation rate among the binary Nb-Al alloys, it does not form exclusive layers of protective Al2O3 scales. Recently Perkin et al., have shown the feasibility of forming alumina scales on Nb-Al alloys at greatly reduced Al contents. However, the objective was to maintain the high Al content, and hence low density, while achieving the capability of growing protective alumina scales. Alloy development followed approaches similar to those used successfully for superalloys and oxidation resistant MCrAlY coatings. Among the three elements examined (Ti, Si, and Cr) as ternary additions to Nb-Al3, Cr was the most effective in favoring the selective oxidation of Al. Nb-41Al-8Cr formed exclusive layers of alumina and had a k sub p value of 0.22 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr at 1200 C. The addition of 1 wt percent Y to this alloy was also beneficial, resulting in nearly an order of magnitude decrease in K sub p at 1200 C. Further improvements were achieved by adding about 1 wt percent Si to the quaternary alloy. The k sub p value of 0.012 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr for Nb-40Al-8Cr-1Y-1Si at 1200 C was identical to the best NiAl + Zr alloys. These NbAl3 alloys also exhibited excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for 100 hr at 1200 C, being nearly equivalent to NiAl + Zr.

  17. The relationship between alloying elements and biologically produced ennoblement in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Eashwar, M; Lakshman Kumar, A; Hariharasuthan, R; Sreedhar, G

    2015-01-01

    A range of stainless steels, nickel-chromium and nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys were exposed to coastal seawater from Mandapam (Indian Ocean) and freshwater from a perennial pond. Biofilms from both test waters produced an ennoblement of the open circuit potential (OCP) on all alloys as expected, which was slower but substantially larger in freshwater. In both waters an interesting relationship was perceived between the plateau OCP (Emax) and the mass percentage of the major alloying elements. In particular, iron exhibited strong positive correlations with Emax (r(2) ≥ 0.77; p < 0.0005), while the sum of chromium, nickel and molybdenum presented significant negative correlations (r(2) ≤ -0.81; p = 0.0002). Consistent with the regression analyses, Euclidean distance clustering yielded patterns where Inconel-600 and the nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys had the smallest similarities of OCP with other alloys. The results emphatically reinforce a key role for surface passive films in the ennoblement phenomenon in natural waters. PMID:26098205

  18. Elemental biological imaging by differential absorption with a laser-produced x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman, C.; Mercer, I.; Svanberg, S.; Herrlin, K.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate the novel application of hard x rays emitted by a laser-produced plasma for differential imaging of elements. An x-ray-emitting laser-produced plasma, obtained by the focusing of radiation from a 10-Hz terawatt laser, is used for biological imaging. The x-ray source can be arranged to yield characteristic x-ray emission lines with photon energies that bridge the K absorption edge of a chosen atomic species. One can obtain element-specific radiographs by recording transillumination images for different target materials on digital image plates and by subsequently subtracting or dividing the images. Successful phantom and experimental animal imaging are performed utilizing tantalum and gadolinium as target materials for the terawatt laser and gadolinium as the imaged contrast agent.

  19. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Analysis of Trace Elements in Degenerated Intervertebral Disc Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Czabak-Garbacz, Róża; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Gasik, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated trace elements (TE) in human intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue. Trace element presence can have diverse meanings: essential TE show the metabolic modalities of the tissue, while environmentally-related TE indicate pollution and tissue-specific absorption and accumulation. IVD is a highly specific compartment with impaired communication with adjacent bone. Analysis of TE in IVD provides new insights regarding tissue metabolism and IVD communication with other tissues. Material/Methods Thirty intervertebral discs were acquired from 22 patients during surgical treatment for degenerative disease. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to evaluate the concentrations of Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mo, Mg, and Zn. Results Al, Pb, Cu, Mg, and Zn were detected in all samples. Pb was significantly positively correlated with age, and Ni concentration was weakly correlated with population count in the patient’s place of residence. Only Cu was observed in higher concentrations in IVD compared to in other tissues. Significant positive correlations were observed between the following pairs: Mg/Zn, Mg/Al, Mg/Pb, Zn/Al, Zn/Pb, and Al/Pb. Negative correlations were observed between Mg/Cd, Zn/Cd, Mg/Mo, and Mo/Pb. Conclusions This study is one of few to profile the elements in intervertebral discs in patients with degenerative changes. We report significant differences between trace element concentrations in intervertebral discs compared to in other tissues. Knowledge of the TE accumulation pattern is vital for better understanding intervertebral disc nutrition and metabolism. PMID:25366266

  20. Oxide formation and alloying elements enrichment on TRIP steel surface during inter-critical annealing.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y F; Birosca, S; Kim, H S; De Cooman, B C

    2008-06-01

    The gas atmosphere in continuous annealing and galvanizing lines alters both composition and microstructure of the surface and sub-surface of sheet steels. The alloying element enrichments and the oxide morphology on transformation-induced plasticity steel surfaces are strongly influenced by the dew point of the furnace atmosphere and annealing temperature. The formation of a thin oxide film and enrichment of the alloying elements during annealing may result in surface defects on galvanized sheet products. The present contribution reports on the use of microanalysis techniques such as electron backscatter diffraction, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and electron probe micro-analysis for the detailed surface analysis of inter-critically annealed transformation-induced plasticity steel such as oxide phase determination, microstructure and microtexture evolutions. PMID:18503669

  1. Phase composition and distribution of alloying elements in the transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Ya. S.; Popova, S. K.; Lebedev, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    X-ray spectral and x-ray structural analyses and optical microscopy were used to study the chemical and phase compositions and the structure and morphology of alloying elements of the transition layer produced by gas-flame and plasma spraying on St. 3sp steels. It is shown that the structure and chemical and phase compositions of the transition layer depend significantly on the technological parameters, processing methods, and the chemical composition of the coating.

  2. Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions of a multi-principal-element alloy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Santodonato, Louis J.; Zhang, Yang; Feygenson, Mikhail; Parish, Chad M.; Gao, Michael C.; Weber, Richard J. K.; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tang, Zhi; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-20

    The alloy-design strategy of combining multiple elements in near-equimolar ratios has shown great potential for producing exceptional engineering materials, often known as high-entropy alloys . Understanding the elemental distribution, and, thus, the evolution of the configurational entropy during solidification, is undertaken in the present study using the Al1.3CoCrCuFeNi model alloy. Here we show that, even when the material undergoes elemental segregation, precipitation, chemical ordering and spinodal decomposition, a significant amount of disorder remains, due to the distributions of multiple elements in the major phases. The results suggest that the high-entropy alloy-design strategy may be applied to a wide range ofmore » complex materials, and should not be limited to the goal of creating single-phase solid solutions.« less

  3. Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions of a multi-principal-element alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Santodonato, Louis J.; Zhang, Yang; Feygenson, Mikhail; Parish, Chad M.; Gao, Michael C.; Weber, Richard J. K.; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tang, Zhi; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-20

    The alloy-design strategy of combining multiple elements in near-equimolar ratios has shown great potential for producing exceptional engineering materials, often known as high-entropy alloys . Understanding the elemental distribution, and, thus, the evolution of the configurational entropy during solidification, is undertaken in the present study using the Al1.3CoCrCuFeNi model alloy. Here we show that, even when the material undergoes elemental segregation, precipitation, chemical ordering and spinodal decomposition, a significant amount of disorder remains, due to the distributions of multiple elements in the major phases. The results suggest that the high-entropy alloy-design strategy may be applied to a wide range of complex materials, and should not be limited to the goal of creating single-phase solid solutions.

  4. Overcoming Matrix Effects in a Complex Sample: Analysis of Multiple Elements in Multivitamins by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Randy J.; Arndt, Brett; Blaser, Emilia; Blosser, Chris; Caulton, Dana; Chung, Won Sog; Fiorenza, Garrett; Heath, Wyatt; Jacobs, Alex; Kahng, Eunice; Koh, Eun; Le, Thao; Mandla, Kyle; McCory, Chelsey; Newman, Laura; Pithadia, Amit; Reckelhoff, Anna; Rheinhardt, Joseph; Skljarevski, Sonja; Stuart, Jordyn; Taylor, Cassie; Thomas, Scott; Tse, Kyle; Wall, Rachel; Warkentien, Chad

    2011-01-01

    A multivitamin tablet and liquid are analyzed for the elements calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese using atomic absorption spectrometry. Linear calibration and standard addition are used for all elements except calcium, allowing for an estimate of the matrix effects encountered for this complex sample. Sample preparation using…

  5. The thermodynamics of latent fingerprint corrosion of metal elements and alloys.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2008-11-01

    Redox reactions taking place between the surface of a metal and fingerprint residue have been expressed thermodynamically in terms of both the Nernst equation for reduction potential and the complexation constant for the formation of complex metal halide ions in aqueous solution. These expressions are used to explain experimental results for the corrosion of 10 different metal elements by fingerprint residue in air at room temperature. Corrosion of noble metals, such as silver and gold, supports the proposition that the degree of metal corrosion is enhanced by the presence of chloride ions in eccrine sweat. Extending the experiments to include 10 metal alloys enabled the construction of a fingerprint corrosion series for 20 different metals. Fingerprint corrosion on metals alloyed with > approximately 40% copper was found to display third level fingerprint detail. A comparison of both conventional ink on paper and digital (Livescan) fingerprinting techniques with fingerprints deposited on 9 Karat gold alloy has shown that gold alloy depositions are least susceptible to third level detail obliteration by poor fingerprint capturing techniques. PMID:18717752

  6. Formation Mechanisms of Alloying Element Nitrides in Recrystallized and Deformed Ferritic Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Maryam; Meka, Sai Ramudu; Jägle, Eric A.; Kurz, Silke J. B.; Bischoff, Ewald; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the initial microstructure (recrystallized or cold-rolled) on the nitride precipitation process upon gaseous nitriding of ternary Fe-4.3 at. pct Cr-8.1 at. pct Al alloy was investigated at 723 K (450 °C) employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). In recrystallized Fe-Cr-Al specimens, one type of nitride develops: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1-x Al x N. In cold-rolled Fe-Cr-Al specimens, precipitation of two types of nitrides occurs: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1-x Al x N and binary, cubic, NaCl-type AlN. By theoretical analysis, it was shown that for the recrystallized specimens an energy barrier for the nucleation of mixed Cr1-x Al x N exists, whereas in the cold-rolled specimens no such energy barriers for the development of mixed Cr1-x Al x N and of binary, cubic AlN occur. The additional development of the cubic AlN in the cold-rolled microstructure could be ascribed to the preferred heterogeneous nucleation of cubic AlN on dislocations. The nitrogen concentration-depth profile of the cold-rolled specimen shows a stepped nature upon prolonged nitriding as a consequence of instantaneous nucleation of nitride upon arrival of nitrogen and nitride growth rate-limited by nitrogen transport through the thickening nitrided zone.

  7. Formation Mechanisms of Alloying Element Nitrides in Recrystallized and Deformed Ferritic Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Maryam; Meka, Sai Ramudu; Jägle, Eric A.; Kurz, Silke J. B.; Bischoff, Ewald; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the initial microstructure (recrystallized or cold-rolled) on the nitride precipitation process upon gaseous nitriding of ternary Fe-4.3 at. pct Cr-8.1 at. pct Al alloy was investigated at 723 K (450 °C) employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). In recrystallized Fe-Cr-Al specimens, one type of nitride develops: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N. In cold-rolled Fe-Cr-Al specimens, precipitation of two types of nitrides occurs: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N and binary, cubic, NaCl-type AlN. By theoretical analysis, it was shown that for the recrystallized specimens an energy barrier for the nucleation of mixed Cr1- x Al x N exists, whereas in the cold-rolled specimens no such energy barriers for the development of mixed Cr1- x Al x N and of binary, cubic AlN occur. The additional development of the cubic AlN in the cold-rolled microstructure could be ascribed to the preferred heterogeneous nucleation of cubic AlN on dislocations. The nitrogen concentration-depth profile of the cold-rolled specimen shows a stepped nature upon prolonged nitriding as a consequence of instantaneous nucleation of nitride upon arrival of nitrogen and nitride growth rate-limited by nitrogen transport through the thickening nitrided zone.

  8. The method of imbedded Lagrangian element to estimate wave power absorption by some submerged devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihous, Gérard C.

    2014-06-01

    A simple approach is described to estimate the wave power absorption potential of submerged devices known to cause wave focusing and flow enhancement. In particular, the presence of a flow-through power take-off (PTO) system, such as low-head turbines, can be accounted for. The wave radiation characteristics of an appropriately selected Lagrangian element (LE) in the fluid domain are first determined. In the limit of a vanishing mass, the LE reduces to a patch of distributed normal dipoles. The hydrodynamic coefficients of this virtual object are then input in a standard equation of motion where the effect of the PTO can be represented, for example, as a dashpot damping term. The process is illustrated for a class of devices recently proposed by Carter and Ertekin (2011), although in a simplified form. Favorable wave power absorption is shown for large ratios of the LE wave radiation coefficient over the LE added mass coefficient. Under optimal conditions, the relative flow reduction from the PTO theoretically lies between 0.50 and , with lower values corresponding to better configurations. Wave power capture widths, the sensitivity of results to PTO damping and sample spectral calculations at a typical site in Hawaiian waters are proposed to further illustrate the versatility of the method.

  9. Finite element simulations of thermosolutal convection in vertical solidification of binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Felicelli, S.

    1989-01-01

    Dendritic vertical solidification of a binary alloy is modeled using the finite element method to assess the effect of thermosolutal convection in macrosegregation. The mathematical model assumes steady-state solidification with a planar, undeformable surface defined by the dendrite tips and the eutectic isotherm. The dendritic region is assumed to advance at a constant solidification velocity v. The stability of the modeled system has been investigated and nonlinear calculations performed that show finger-like convection when the system is unstable. Results for lead-tin alloys show that when the system is unstable, convection is only significant in the uppermost part of the mush and is entirely driven by convection in the bulk fluid.

  10. Redistribution of alloying elements in Zircaloy-2 after in-reactor exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, G.; Thuvander, M.; Tejland, P.; Dahlbäck, M.; Hallstadius, L.; Andrén, H.-O.

    2014-11-01

    An atom probe tomography study of the microstructure of a Zircaloy-2 material subjected to 9 annual cycles of BWR exposure has been conducted. Upon dissolution of secondary phase particles, Fe and Cr are seen to reprecipitate in large numbers of clusters and particles of 1-5 nm sizes throughout the Zr metal matrix. Fe and Sn were observed to segregate to ring-shaped features in the metal that are interpreted to be -component vacancy loops. This implies that these two elements play a major role in the irradiation growth phenomenon in Zr alloys, which is believed to be caused by the formation of -loops. Similarly to autoclave-corroded Zr alloys, the formation of a sub-oxide layer of approximate composition ZrO was observed. On the other hand, no oxygen saturated metal phase was detected underneath the oxide scale.

  11. Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Analysis of Loading-Unloading Behaviour in Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Hama, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Takuda, Hirohiko

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloy sheets exhibit strong inelastic response during unloading. In this study crystal plasticity finite element analysis of loading-unloading behaviour during uniaxial tension in a rolled magnesium alloy sheet was carried out, and the mechanism of this inelastic response was examined in detail in terms of macroscopic and mesoscopic deformations. The unloading behaviour obtained by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment in terms of variation with stress of instantaneous tangent modulus during unloading. Variations of activities of each family of slip systems during the deformation showed that the activation of basal slip systems is the largest during unloading, and the slip direction during unloading is opposite from during loading. These results indicated that one of the factors of the inelastic behaviour during unloading is the fact that the basal slip systems are easily activated during unloading because of their low strengths.

  12. Surface faceting and elemental diffusion behaviour at atomic scale for alloy nanoparticles during in situ annealing

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Chao; Lei, Yinkai; Wang, Guofeng; Li, Dongguo; More, Karren L.; Lupini, Andrew; Allard, Lawrence F.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic performance of nanoparticles is primarily determined by the precise nature of the surface and near-surface atomic configurations, which can be tailored by post-synthesis annealing effectively and straightforwardly. Understanding the complete dynamic response of surface structure and chemistry to thermal treatments at the atomic scale is imperative for the rational design of catalyst nanoparticles. Here, by tracking the same individual Pt3Co nanoparticles during in situ annealing in a scanning transmission electron microscope, we directly discern five distinct stages of surface elemental rearrangements in Pt3Co nanoparticles at the atomic scale: initial random (alloy) elemental distribution; surface platinum-skin-layer formation; nucleation of structurally ordered domains; ordered framework development and, finally, initiation of amorphization. Furthermore, a comprehensive interplay among phase evolution, surface faceting and elemental inter-diffusion is revealed, and supported by atomistic simulations. This work may pave the way towards designing catalysts through post-synthesis annealing for optimized catalytic performance. PMID:26576477

  13. [Study on determination of eight metal elements in Hainan arecanut leaf by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-yun; Wang, Ping; Feng, Mei-li; Dong, Zhi-guo; Li, Jie

    2008-12-01

    Arecanut is a sort of palm that is important economic crop for the farmers in Hainan province of China, wherein there are many kinds of metal elements such as K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn etc. These elements are important nutrition for the growth of arecanut. It is very valuable to study on the content of these metal elements in arecanut leaf in terms of plant nutriology of arecanut. The arecanut leaf in Wangling county, Hainan province of China was sampled by diagonal-field-sampling method. Refering to other plant sample determination by FAAS, the detailed studies are done with different digestion and determination methods. In the present paper the effects of mixed acid of HNO3-HClO4 digestion method on determining the amount of metal elements in the arecanut leaf by FAAS is reported, and another one is incineration digestion method. FAAS method was established for the determination of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn The samples were incinerated or heated with HNO3-HClO4 (4:1). In the meantime, the optimum parameters of FAAS and effects of different digestion methods on the results were discussed. The recovery rate of standard addition is 98.36%-102.38% in the first method; RSD is 0.42%-2.328% (n=6); The recovery rate of standard addition is 99.22%-103.72% in the second method; RSD is 0.58%-1.283 (n=6). The metal amount determined by the first method is lower than the second method, the ratio is 0.9703-0.9934. The two methods are satisfied, but the latter is better. It is precise enough to common experiment to use flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry with digestion by incineration If the especially precise experiment is required, the digestion methods with mixed acid of HNO3-HClO4 may be introduced. The paper introduced methods dependable for determination of some metal elements in order to study on some nutrient effects of these metal elements in arecanut. PMID:19248529

  14. Corrosion performance of a nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy: Effects of aging, alloying elements, and electrolyte composition

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R.B.; Srivastava, S.K.

    1999-04-01

    General and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors of a Ni-Mo-Cr alloy were assessed in the mill-annealed and aged conditions. Performance of this Ni-25% Mo-8% Cr alloy (alloy 242 [proposed UNS N10242]) was compared to the performance of a Ni-Mo alloy (alloy B-3 [UNS N10675]) and a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (C-2000 [UNS N06200]). Results showed the general corrosion rate of alloy 242 in reducing acids was slightly higher than that of alloy B-3. However, in mildly oxidizing conditions, the corrosion rate of alloy 242 was lower than that of alloy B-3. Effects of electrolyte and alloy composition on the general corrosion rate were studied. After aging at 650 C (1,200 F) for 24 h, the corrosion rate of alloy 242 increased slightly, particularly in strongly reducing conditions. Alloy 242 was resistant to SCC but was prone to hydrogen-induced cracking, especially in the aged condition.

  15. [Determination of nine mineral elements in hulless barley by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Huai-Gang

    2010-04-01

    The contents of nine mineral elements, including sulphur, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper and manganese in five hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) lines were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and flames atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). For the determination of sulphur, the samples were dissolved by magnesia and anhydrous sodium carbonate at 250 degrees C for 0. 5 h and at 550 degrees C for 3 h in the muffle furnace, and then a certain amount of barium chloride was put into the sample solution for colorimetry of the UV-Vs spectrophotometer. For the determination of other eight mineral elements, all of the samples were dissolved by a kind of incinerating method: first, the sample was put into the muffle furnace at 250 degrees C for 0. 5 h and at 550 degrees C for 2.5 h, then two droplets of 50%HNO3 were distributed into each sample, and the last step was putting the sample into the muffle furnace at 550 degrees C for 0.5 h. And then all of the ash was dissolved by 50%HNO3 to 50 milliliter and determined by flames atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision, accuracy, repeatability and stability of the method were discussed too. The results showed that the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 1.2% and 3.7%; The average recoveries were 97.44%-101.52% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of sample determination were 1.3%-3.8%. The repeatability experiment showed that the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 2.6%-6.1%. And the content of each mineral element was the same after 24 hours; All these showed that the method has a good precision, accuracy, repeatability and stability. In all the hulless barley samples, the average contents were in the order of K > S > Mg > Ca > Fe > Na > Zn > Mn > Cu, and the contents of zinc, iron and manganese closely related to people's health were relatively higher than other crops. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence

  16. Elemental electron energy loss mapping of a precipitate in a multi-component aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Mørtsell, Eva A; Wenner, Sigurd; Longo, Paolo; Andersen, Sigmund J; Marioara, Calin D; Holmestad, Randi

    2016-07-01

    The elemental distribution of a precipitate cross section, situated in a lean Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Ag-Ge alloy, has been investigated in detail by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). A correlative analysis of the EELS data is connected to the results and discussed in detail. The energy loss maps for all relevant elements were recorded simultaneously. The good spatial resolution allows elemental distribution to be evaluated, such as by correlation functions, in addition to being compared with the HAADF image. The fcc-Al lattice and the hexagonal Si-network within the precipitates were resolved by EELS. The combination of EELS and HAADF-STEM demonstrated that some atomic columns consist of mixed elements, a result that would be very uncertain based on one of the techniques alone. EELS elemental mapping combined with a correlative analysis have great potential for identification and quantification of small amounts of elements at the atomic scale. PMID:27124585

  17. Oxidation of CO on a Pt-Fe alloy electrode studied by surface enhanced infrared reflection--absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Zhu, Yimin; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2000-03-02

    To clarify the CO-tolerant mechanism at Pt-based alloy anode catalysts, surface-enhanced infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy with the attenuated total reflection technique (ATR-SEIRAS), coupled with CV measurement, was used to observe the oxidation process of adsorbed CO on a typical Pt-Fe (Pt-Fe = 0.27/0.73) alloy. The alloy electrode exhibits a lower saturated coverage of CO ({theta}{sub co} = 0.55) than that of pure Pt ({theta}{sub co} = 1.0). The dominating linear CO is observed around 2,000 cm{sup {minus}1} when the equilibrium adlayer of CO covers the alloy electrode; however, linear and bridged CO and also COOH were found at the pure Pt electrode at the same CO coverage in the non-steady-state. On the basis of previous results that a Pt skin is formed during the repetitive potential cycling due to the dissolution of Fe on the alloy surface and the skin exhibits less electronic density in the d band, it can be explained that the lowered linear CO coverage and almost no bridged CO are obtained as the result of the lowered back-donation of d electrons from the Pt skin to adsorbates on the alloy surface. The wavenumber shift of the linear CO stretching to a lower value at the alloy, which is not simple predicted by the lowering of the back-donation of the electron, is ascribed to the weakening of the C -Pt bond. As a presumable effect of the electronic structure change at the Pt skin, the dissociation-oxidation of adsorbed water as well as a formation of adsorbed HOOH species are clearly observed beyond 0.6 V in the electrolyte solution without CO, which is different from that at the pure Pt electrode. Carbonate species can also be detected around 1,300--1,450 cm{sup {minus}1}, which are possibly produced by the surface reaction of CO{sub 2} with water.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of element concentrations in aluminum alloy using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wenfeng; Tang, Jie; Gao, Cunxiao; Wang, Haojing; Zhao, Wei

    2010-06-01

    A plasma generated by 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation of aluminum alloy in air at atmospheric pressure was studied spectroscopically. The electron density was inferred by measuring the Stark broadened line profile of Cu(I) 324.75 nm, while the electron temperature was determined using the Boltzmann plot method with ten neutral iron lines. Based on the results, local thermodynamic equilibrium was studied. Moreover, calibration curves were presented for samples containing Si, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ni, Zn and Ti, and the limit of detection of trace elements was calculated based on experimental results.

  19. CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P140: Quantitative surface analysis of multi-element alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Jang, Jong Shik; Kim, An Soon; Suh, Jung Ki; Chung, Yong-Duck; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Wirth, Thomas; Unger, Wolfgang; Kang, Hee Jae; Popov, Oleg; Popov, Inna; Kuselman, Ilya; Lee, Yeon Hee; Sykes, David E.; Wang, Meiling; Wang, Hai; Ogiwara, Toshiya; Nishio, Mitsuaki; Tanuma, Shigeo; Simons, David; Szakal, Christopher; Osborn, William; Terauchi, Shinya; Ito, Mika; Kurokawa, Akira; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Jordaan, Werner; Jeong, Chil Seong; Havelund, Rasmus; Spencer, Steve; Shard, Alex; Streeck, Cornelia; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Eicke, Axel; Terborg, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study for a quantitative surface analysis of multi-element alloy films has been performed by the Surface Analysis Working Group (SAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM). The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate a protocol for a key comparison to demonstrate the equivalence of measures by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes (DI) for the mole fractions of multi-element alloy films. A Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) film with non-uniform depth distribution was chosen as a representative multi-element alloy film. The mole fractions of the reference and the test CIGS films were certified by isotope dilution—inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. A total number counting (TNC) method was used as a method to determine the signal intensities of the constituent elements acquired in SIMS, XPS and AES depth profiling. TNC method is comparable with the certification process because the certified mole fractions are the average values of the films. The mole fractions of the CIGS films were measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX). Fifteen laboratories from eight NMIs, one DI, and six non-NMIs participated in this pilot study. The average mole fractions of the reported data showed relative standard deviations from 5.5 % to 6.8 % and average relative expanded uncertainties in the range from 4.52 % to 4.86 % for the four test CIGS specimens. These values are smaller than those in the key comparison CCQM-K67 for the measurement of mole fractions of Fe-Ni alloy films. As one result it can be stated that SIMS, XPS and AES protocols relying on the quantification of CIGS films using the TNC method are mature to be used in a CCQM key comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The

  20. The influence of ternary alloying elements on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure and the Si morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlapudi, A.; McDonald, S. D.; Terzi, S.; Prasad, A.; Felberbaum, M.; StJohn, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the ternary alloying elements Cu, Mg and Fe on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure is investigated using a commercial purity Al-10 wt%Si alloy in unmodified and Sr-modified conditions. A change in the Al-Si eutectic microstructure was associated with a change in the nucleation density of the eutectic grains caused by the addition of ternary alloying elements. When the ternary alloying element addition resulted in an increase in the eutectic nucleation frequency, a fibrous to flake-like transition was observed within the eutectic grain. When the ternary alloying element addition decreased the eutectic nucleation frequency significantly, a change in the eutectic morphology from flake-like to a mixture of flake-like and fibrous morphologies was observed. The mechanism of Al-Si eutectic modification is discussed. The growth velocity of the eutectic grain - liquid interface and the constitutional driving force available for growth are proposed as important parameters that influence the degree of eutectic modification in Al-Si alloys.

  1. Temperature-dependent 780-nm laser absorption by engineering grade aluminum, titanium, and steel alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.; Kanz, V. Keith; LeBlanc, Mary M.; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Rotter, Mark D.; Stanley, Joel R.

    2014-07-17

    When modeling laser interaction with metals for various applications it requires a knowledge of absorption coefficients for real, commercially available materials with engineering grade (unpolished, oxidized) surfaces. But, most currently available absorptivity data pertain to pure metals with polished surfaces or vacuum-deposited thin films in controlled atmospheres. A simple laboratory setup is developed for the direct calorimetric absorptivity measurements using a diode-array laser emitting at 780 nm. A scheme eliminating the effect of convective and radiative losses is implemented. Futhermore, the obtained absorptivity results differ considerably from existing data for polished pure metals and are essential for the development of predictive laser-material interaction models.

  2. Effect of alloying elements on electrochemical properties of magnesium-based sacrificial anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.G.; Koo, S.J.

    2000-04-01

    Effects of alloying elements on electrochemical properties of magnesium-based sacrificial anodes were evaluated. Potentiodynamic, galvanostatic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to investigate the corrosion rate, efficiency, and surface characteristics of anodes. Polarization data indicated that alloying with manganese, aluminum, and zinc reduced the corrosion rates of magnesium anodes. All anodes did not undergo passivation but demonstrated only active behavior. Corrosion morphology was changed from localized to uniform attach by the alloying. Addition of manganese to magnesium anodes yielded increased driving potential and efficiency. The efficiency of Mg-Al anodes was improved up to {approximately}6% Al addition. The addition of zinc increased the efficiency of Mg-Al-Zn anodes compared to the efficiency of Mg-Al anodes, but the reversal of this behavior happened as the zinc content exceeded {approximately}3%. The increase in the efficiency of Mg-Al and Mg-Al-Zn anodes was accompanied by a decrease in the driving potential. The decrease of driving potential might have resulted form a somewhat resistive film on the surface, which hindered the transport of ions. The increased corrosion resistance generally improved anode efficiency.

  3. Finite Element Modelling of the Sawing of DC Cast AA2024 Aluminium Alloy Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Drezet, J.-M.; Ludwig, O.; Heinrich, B.

    2007-04-07

    In the semi-continuous casting of large cross-section rolling sheet ingots of high-strength aluminum alloys (2xxx and 7xxx series), the control of the residual (internal) stresses generated by the non-uniform cooling becomes a necessity. These stresses must be relieved by a thermal treatment before the head and foot of the ingot can be cut. Otherwise, the saw can be caught owing to compressive stresses or cut parts may be ejected thus injuring people or damaging equipment. These high added-value ingots need to be produced in secure conditions. Moreover, a better control of the sawing procedure could allow the suppression of the thermal treatment and therefore save time and energy. By studying the stress build-up during casting and the stress relief during sawing, key parameters for the control and optimization of the processing steps, can be derived. To do so, the direct chill (DC) casting of the AA2024 alloy is modeled with ABAQUS 6.5 with special attention to the thermo-mechanical properties of the alloy. The sawing operation is then simulated by removing mesh elements so as to reproduce the progression of the saw in the ingot. Preliminary results showing the stress relief during sawing accompanied by the risk of saw blocking due to compression or initiating a crack ahead of the saw, are analyzed with an approach based on the rate of strain energy release.

  4. Finite Element Modelling of the Sawing of DC Cast AA2024 Aluminium Alloy Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezet, J.-M.; Ludwig, O.; Heinrich, B.

    2007-04-01

    In the semi-continuous casting of large cross-section rolling sheet ingots of high-strength aluminum alloys (2xxx and 7xxx series), the control of the residual (internal) stresses generated by the non-uniform cooling becomes a necessity. These stresses must be relieved by a thermal treatment before the head and foot of the ingot can be cut. Otherwise, the saw can be caught owing to compressive stresses or cut parts may be ejected thus injuring people or damaging equipment. These high added-value ingots need to be produced in secure conditions. Moreover, a better control of the sawing procedure could allow the suppression of the thermal treatment and therefore save time and energy. By studying the stress build-up during casting and the stress relief during sawing, key parameters for the control and optimization of the processing steps, can be derived. To do so, the direct chill (DC) casting of the AA2024 alloy is modeled with ABAQUS 6.5 with special attention to the thermo-mechanical properties of the alloy. The sawing operation is then simulated by removing mesh elements so as to reproduce the progression of the saw in the ingot. Preliminary results showing the stress relief during sawing accompanied by the risk of saw blocking due to compression or initiating a crack ahead of the saw, are analyzed with an approach based on the rate of strain energy release.

  5. Preferential site occupancy of alloying elements in TiAl-based phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holec, David; Reddy, Rajeev K.; Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut

    2016-05-01

    First principles calculations are used to study the preferential occupation of ternary alloying additions into the binary Ti-Al phases, namely, γ-TiAl, α2-Ti3Al, βo-TiAl, and B19-TiAl. While the early transition metals (TMs, group IVB, VB, and VIB elements) prefer to substitute for Ti atoms in the γ-, α2-, and B19-phases, they preferentially occupy Al sites in the βo-TiAl. Si is, in this context, an anomaly, as it prefers to sit on the Al sublattice for all four phases. B and C are shown to prefer octahedral Ti-rich interstitial positions instead of substitutional incorporation. The site preference energy is linked with the alloying-induced changes of energy of formation, hence alloying-related (de)stabilisation of the phases. We further show that the phase-stabilisation effect of early TMs on βo-phase has a different origin depending on their valency. Finally, an extensive comparison of our predictions with available theoretical and experimental data (which is, however, limited mostly to the γ-phase) shows a consistent picture.

  6. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of NiCoP alloy nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Weichun; Fu, Jiajia; Wang, Qin; Wang, Chunming; Xue, Desheng

    2015-12-01

    NiCoP alloy nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (NiCoP/RGO) are synthesized by in situ co-reduction of Ni2+, Co2+ and graphene oxide (GO) with sodium hypophosphite in a one-pot reaction. This synthesis route is simple and can be used for industrial preparation. The different molar ratios of Ni/Co can be obtained by changing the molar ratio of their salts in the reaction bath. The effect of annealing temperature on the crystal structure of NiCoP alloys has been further investigated. After 500 °C annealing, NiCoP alloys exhibit good crystallinity. The as-prepared NiCoP/RGO composites demonstrate high dielectric constant and magnetic loss in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz due to the conductive and ferromagnetic behavior. Also, their coercivity and magnetization strength are decreased from magnetic measurement with the increase of Ni content. As the molar ratio of Ni/Co is 3:1, the maximum value of the reflection loss reaches to -17.84 dB. Furthermore, the NiCoP/RGO composites have better corrosion resistance than traditional iron series magnetic nanoparticles. It is expected that the composites with the thin, light-weighted and broadband absorbing and good anti-corrosion properties will have a great potential for electromagnetic wave absorption applications.

  7. Effects of alloying element and temperature on the stacking fault energies of dilute Ni-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, S. L.; Zacherl, C. L.; Fang, H. Z.; Wang, Y.; Du, Y.; Liu, Z. K.

    2012-12-01

    A systematic study of stacking fault energy (γSF) resulting from induced alias shear deformation has been performed by means of first-principles calculations for dilute Ni-base superalloys (Ni23X and Ni71X) for various alloying elements (X) as a function of temperature. Twenty-six alloying elements are considered, i.e., Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ir, Mn, Mo, Nb, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. The temperature dependence of γSF is computed using the proposed quasistatic approach based on a predicted γSF-volume-temperature relationship. Besides γSF, equilibrium volume and the normalized stacking fault energy (ΓSF = γSF/Gb, with G the shear modulus and b the Burgers vector) are also studied as a function of temperature for the 26 alloying elements. The following conclusions are obtained: all alloying elements X studied herein decrease the γSF of fcc Ni, approximately the further the alloying element X is from Ni on the periodic table, the larger the decrease of γSF for the dilute Ni-X alloy, and roughly the γSF of Ni-X decreases with increasing equilibrium volume. In addition, the values of γSF for all Ni-X systems decrease with increasing temperature (except for Ni-Cr at higher Cr content), and the largest decrease is observed for pure Ni. Similar to the case of the shear modulus, the variation of γSF for Ni-X systems due to various alloying elements is traceable from the distribution of (magnetization) charge density: the spherical distribution of charge density around a Ni atom, especially a smaller sphere, results in a lower value of γSF due to the facility of redistribution of charges. Computed stacking fault energies and the related properties are in favorable accord with available experimental and theoretical data.

  8. Finite Element Analysis and Die Design of Non-specific Engineering Structure of Aluminum Alloy during Extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.-C.; Lu, Y.-Y.

    2010-06-15

    Aluminum extension applies to industrial structure, light load, framework rolls and conveyer system platform. Many factors must be controlled in processing the non-specific engineering structure (hollow shape) of the aluminum alloy during extrusion, to obtain the required plastic strain and desired tolerance values. The major factors include the forming angle of the die and temperature of billet and various materials. This paper employs rigid-plastic finite element (FE) DEFORM 3D software to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of an aluminum alloy (A6061, A5052, A3003) workpiece during extrusion for the engineering structure of the aluminum alloy. This work analyzes effective strain, effective stress, damage and die radius load distribution of the billet under various conditions. The analytical results confirm the suitability of the current finite element software for the non-specific engineering structure of aluminum alloy extrusion.

  9. Anisotropic constitutive model for nickel base single crystal alloys: Development and finite element implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    A tool for the mechanical analysis of nickel base single crystal superalloys, specifically Rene N4, used in gas turbine engine components is developed. This is achieved by a rate dependent anisotropic constitutive model implemented in a nonlinear three dimensional finite element code. The constitutive model is developed from metallurigical concepts utilizing a crystallographic approach. A non Schmid's law formulation is used to model the tension/compression asymmetry and orientation dependence in octahedral slip. Schmid's law is a good approximation to the inelastic response of the material in cube slip. The constitutive equations model the tensile behavior, creep response, and strain rate sensitivity of these alloys. Methods for deriving the material constants from standard tests are presented. The finite element implementation utilizes an initial strain method and twenty noded isoparametric solid elements. The ability to model piecewise linear load histories is included in the finite element code. The constitutive equations are accurately and economically integrated using a second order Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector method with a dynamic time incrementing procedure. Computed results from the finite element code are compared with experimental data for tensile, creep and cyclic tests at 760 deg C. The strain rate sensitivity and stress relaxation capabilities of the model are evaluated.

  10. Nanoscaled alloy formation from self-assembled elemental Co nanoparticles on top of Pt films

    PubMed Central

    Han, Luyang; Biskupek, Johannes; Fauth, Kai; Kaiser, Ute; Ziemann, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Summary The thermally activated formation of nanoscale CoPt alloys was investigated, after deposition of self-assembled Co nanoparticles on textured Pt(111) and epitaxial Pt(100) films on MgO(100) and SrTiO3(100) substrates, respectively. For this purpose, metallic Co nanoparticles (diameter 7 nm) were prepared with a spacing of 100 nm by deposition of precursor-loaded reverse micelles, subsequent plasma etching and reduction on flat Pt surfaces. The samples were then annealed at successively higher temperatures under a H2 atmosphere, and the resulting variations of their structure, morphology and magnetic properties were characterized. We observed pronounced differences in the diffusion and alloying of Co nanoparticles on Pt films with different orientations and microstructures. On textured Pt(111) films exhibiting grain sizes (20–30 nm) smaller than the particle spacing (100 nm), the formation of local nanoalloys at the surface is strongly suppressed and Co incorporation into the film via grain boundaries is favoured. In contrast, due to the absence of grain boundaries on high quality epitaxial Pt(100) films with micron-sized grains, local alloying at the film surface was established. Signatures of alloy formation were evident from magnetic investigations. Upon annealing to temperatures up to 380 °C, we found an increase both of the coercive field and of the Co orbital magnetic moment, indicating the formation of a CoPt phase with strongly increased magnetic anisotropy compared to pure Co. At higher temperatures, however, the Co atoms diffuse into a nearby surface region where Pt-rich compounds are formed, as shown by element-specific microscopy. PMID:22003453

  11. Finite-Element Damage Analysis for Failure Prediction of Warm Hydroforming Tubular Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Bursting has been recognized by many researchers as a common failure mode in the tube hydroforming (THF) process. Therefore, the prediction of the bursting that occurs during the THF process has received much attention in the manufacturing industry and research institutions. Effective prediction of failure can reduce significantly the number of practical trials required to obtain the desired products. However, the prediction of such bursting for magnesium-based (Mg-based) alloy can be a rather difficult issue due to the nonlinear nature of the model used to describe the deformation process at elevated temperatures. This article proposes the failure prediction of Mg-based alloy during the THF process at elevated temperatures by using the Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) model. In the study, numerical simulation was performed by the finite-element (FE) analysis commercial software ABAQUS, with the material model assumed to be elastic-plastic. The constitutive model of Mg-based alloy (AZ31B) tube at different elevated temperatures, for instance at 493 K, 523 K, and 553 K, was represented by the Fields-Backofen constitutive equation, with material parameters collected from relevant literature. Accordingly, THF experiments were conducted by a self-developed thermal hydroforming attachment coping with an existing hydraulic power press to validate the prediction of the numerical results. The geometrical parameters for the specimen tubes used in the experiment were Ø22 × 150 mm, and 1.5 mm wall thickness. The numerical and the experimental results were demonstrated to have good agreement. The results of the simulation and the THF experiments imply that the model proposed in this study can provide a reliable prediction of the failure analysis of the Mg-based alloy tube during the THF process.

  12. Finite element analysis and die design of heading processes of magnesium alloy screws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. M.; Chang, C. Y.

    2016-05-01

    This study is to develop related manufacturing technologies of LZ91 magnesium alloy M6 screws. Firstly, a warm heading process composed of three stages is proposed. The material flow pattern of the billet inside the die is analyzed using the finite element analyses. The effects of the friction factor, die speed and forming temperature on the heading load are discussed. The effects of the stroke at the first stage on the formability at the second stage are also discussed. Finally, warm heading experiments are conducted using a self-designed die set and a lubricant of MoS2. The experimental values of heading load and product shapes and dimensions are compared with the simulation results to verify the validity of the finite element models and the proposed warm heading procedures.

  13. Topology and elemental distribution in Co alloy:oxide perpendicular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, David. E.; Nuhfer, Noel. T.; Park, Soyoung; Yuan, Hua; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2009-04-01

    This analytical electron microscopy study was performed to understand better the microstructure of CoCrPt:SiO2 media. The topology of the magnetic Co alloy grains and the distribution of the elements in the thin films were of special interest. High angle annular dark field images revealed that many grains in the range 5-8 nm have a cavity in their center, observed by low mass-thickness contrast. Electron energy loss spectroscopy Co elemental mapping shows Co to be concentrated mainly in the grains with a depleted region in the center. Si, O, and Cr appear to strongly segregate to the grain boundaries and somewhat to the cavities. In this paper we discuss the possible grain growth mechanisms and the effect of the presence of such cavities on recording properties.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, A. C.; Moreira Filho, L. A.; Menezes, M. A.

    2007-04-07

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  15. Effect of alloying elements and residuals on corrosion resistance of type 444 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, N.J.E.; Kim, Y.H.; Ahn, S.K.; Lee, Y.D.

    1999-02-01

    The principal criteria for the corrosion resistance of intermediate-grade ferritic stainless steels (SS) were examined in a neutral chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) solution. The effect of increasing quantities of chromium and molybdenum was estimated for several heats in terms of the breakdown potential (E{sub b}). The effect of inclusions (particularly the oxide-sulfide type) in type 444 SS ([UNS S44400] 19% Cr-2% Mo-Nb or 19% Cr-2% Mo alloy), combined with the alloying element trend, permitted derivation of an expression that integrated both phenomena. The expression represents the mutually opposing effects of the chromium/molybdenum passive film reinforcement as represented by the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN), as well as incorporating the deleterious contribution of the inclusion density ({Psi}/mm{sup 2}). Aluminum reduced the total inclusion content, which was associated with an increase in E{sub b}. Since no aluminum was detected in the passive film of high aluminum steels, it appeared likely that the prime effect of this element on corrosion resistance was via inclusion suppression. Corrosion studies of welded type 444 SS demonstrated that dual stabilization with low individual concentrations of titanium and niobium provided optimum corrosion resistance. This apparent synergism of niobium and titanium was independent of the surface of the welded materials, which were examined in the as-received, pickled, or polished states. The effect of the surface state in all cases was shown to exercise a critical effect on passive behavior.

  16. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2014-11-01

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal-oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations.

  17. Effect of alloying elements on the properties of Zr and the Zr-H system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, M.; Wolf, W.; Freeman, C. M.; Wimmer, E.; Adamson, R. B.; Hallstadius, L.; Cantonwine, P. E.; Mader, E. V.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of the alloying elements Sn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Nb, and O on hydrogen-containing alpha-zirconium and zirconium hydrides is investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and classical simulations. Cr, Fe, and Ni atoms attract interstitially dissolved H atoms whereas interstitial oxygen atoms show no pronounced interaction with H atoms. The alloying elements destabilize the hydride phases in the order Sn > Fe > Cr > Ni > Nb. Hence, substitutional Sn (if atomically dispersed), Cr and Fe atoms are likely to delay hydride precipitation, effectively increasing the hydrogen solubility. Nb and Sn influence the mobility of Zr self-interstitial atoms (SIA's), which diffuse rapidly and preferentially parallel to the basal planes forming interstitial dislocations loops perpendicular to the basal planes (a-loops). Nb suppresses this diffusion of SIA's, thereby reducing the rate of formation of interstitial a-loops. Sn atoms, if present on substitutional sites, have a similar, but smaller effect. If SIA's approach substitutional Fe, Cr, and Ni atoms, the simulations indicate a spontaneous swap promoting the smaller transition metal atoms into interstitial atoms, which diffuse very rapidly with a preference in the c-direction, thereby facilitating their segregation to energetically more favorable sites such as vacancies, vacancy c-loops, grain boundaries, surfaces, and intermetallic precipitates.

  18. Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by gold-silver alloy nanoparticles fabricated under laser ablation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azawi, Mohammed A.; Bidin, Noriah; Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bououdina, Mohamed; Azzez, Shrook A.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (Au-Ag alloy NPs) by a two-step process with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser without any additives is presented. Mixtures of Au and Ag colloidal suspensions were separately obtained by 1064-nm laser ablation of metallic targets immersed in ethanol. Subsequently, the as-mixed colloidal suspensions were reirradiated by laser-induced heating at the second-harmonic generation (532 nm) for different irradiation periods of time. The absorption spectra and morphology of the colloidal alloys were studied as a function of exposure time to laser irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a homogeneous size distribution in all the synthesized samples. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were also employed to characterize the changes in the light absorption and emission of N719 dye solution with different concentrations of Au-Ag colloidal alloys, respectively. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au-Ag alloy NPs enhanced the absorption and fluorescence peak of the dye solution. The mixture of dye molecules with a higher concentration of alloy NPs exhibited an additional coupling of dipole moments with the LSPR, thereby contributing to the improvement of the optical properties of the mixture.

  19. Effect of Alloying Elements in Hot-Rolled Metastable β-Titanium Alloys: Part I. Evolution of Microstructure and Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Premkumar; Ghosal, P.; Chakkingal, Uday; Singh, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    The present work describes the evolution of microstructures and textures in alloys Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (A1), Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-7.2V-3Cr (A2), Ti-5Al-5Mo-8.6V-1.5Cr (A3), and Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-5V-3.94Cr (A4) during unidirectional hot rolling. The hot-rolled microstructures of the alloy A1 exhibit large fraction of recovered/recrystallized grains, while the alloy A3 shows small fraction of recovered/recrystallized grains. The alloy A2 displays subgrains and recrystallized grains, while the alloy A4 exhibits the microstructure consisting of the features of both the alloys A1 and A2. The alloys A1, A3, and A4 show the presence of shear bands within the β grains and also small volume fraction of the α phase. The dominance of deformation and/or recrystallization components in respective α and γ fibers varies with alloy compositions and hot rolling reductions. In alloys A1 and A2, deformation components dominate from 30 to 50 pct rolling reductions, while recrystallization components govern in 70 pct rolled samples. The deformation components prevail from 30 to 70 pct rolling reductions in alloy A3. The alloy A4 exhibits softening of texture due to recovery or early stage of recrystallization from 30 to 50 pct reductions, while texture present in 70 pct rolled sample consists of mainly the deformation components. The role of molybdenum appears to be quite critical in the evolution of microstructures and textures of these alloys. The alloys with low and high Mo contents display high and low amount of the α phase, respectively.

  20. Effect of alloying elements on <1 1 1> dislocation in NiAl: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin Lü, Bai; Qing Chen, Guo; Qu, Shen; Su, Hui; Long Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    The calculation of the ductility criterion, the antiphase boundary energy and the Peierls stress indicate that compared with Cr, Au, Fe and Mn are better alloying elements improving the room-temperature ductility of polycrystalline NiAl. If the site preference behavior of Re, Os, Ir, Pt and Co can be reversed, these elements will also become better ductility elements and the Ni antisite at Al site is beneficial to the ductility of NiAl polycrystalline.

  1. Local atomic structure around Ni, Nb, and Zr atoms in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys studied by x-ray absorption fine structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oji, H.; Handa, K.; Ide, J.; Honma, T.; Yamaura, S.; Inoue, A.; Umesaki, N.; Emura, S.; Fukuhara, M.

    2009-06-01

    To elucidate hydrogen effects on the atomic configuration of Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys exhibiting proton-tunneling-induced Coulomb oscillation, we investigated the local atomic configuration around the Ni, Nb, and Zr atoms by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) method. The analysis of the XAFS spectra indicates that there is the significant difference in structural response between the Zr 30 and the Zr 40 at. % alloys when hydrogen atoms are charged; charging the hydrogen atoms basically does not alter the local structures around the three atoms for the Zr 30 at. % alloy but induces the elongation of the Zr-Zr, Zr-Nb, and Nb-Ni distances for the Zr 40 at. % alloy. The distorted icosahedral Zr5Ni5Nb3 clusters assembled in randomly packed manners for the possible models in the Ni-Nb-Zr glassy alloy are proposed. The sites where hydrogen atoms occupy are also inferred.

  2. An experimental-finite element analysis on the kinetic energy absorption capacity of polyvinyl alcohol sponge.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is in widespread use for biomedical and tissue engineering applications owing to its biocompatibility, availability, relative cheapness, and excellent mechanical properties. This study reports a novel concept of design in energy absorbing materials which consist in the use of PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material to enhance the energy loss of impact loads. An experimental study is carried out to measure the mechanical properties of the PVA sponge under uniaxial loading. The kinetic energy absorption capacity of the PVA sponge is computed by a hexahedral finite element (FE) model of the steel ball and bullet through the LS-DYNA code under impact load at three different thicknesses (5, 10, 15mm). The results show that a higher sponge thickness invokes a higher energy loss of the steel ball and bullet. The highest energy loss of the steel ball and bullet is observed for the thickest sponge with 160 and 35J, respectively. The most common type of traumatic brain injury in which the head subject to impact load causes the brain to move within the skull and consequently brain hemorrhaging. These results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as a great kinetic energy absorber material compared to commonly used expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) to absorb most of the impact energy and reduces the transmitted load. The results might have implications not only for understanding of the mechanical properties of PVA sponge but also for use as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and packaging material design. PMID:24863223

  3. Mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon for source samples from residential biomass and coal combustions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Wei, Siye; Fu, Xiaofang; Zhu, Ying; Tao, Shu

    2013-11-01

    Optical properties of particulate matter are of growing concern due to their complex effects on atmospheric visibility and local/regional climate change. In this study, mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of elemental carbon (EC) was measured for source emission samples obtained from the residential combustions of solid fuels using a thermal-optical carbon analyzer. For source samples from residential wood, crop straw, biomass pellet and coal combustions, MAE of EC measured at 650 nm, were 3.1 (2.4-3.7 as 95% Confidence Interval), 6.6 (5.5-7.6), 9.5 (6.7-12), and 7.9 (4.8-11) m2 g-1, respectively. MAE of EC for source sample from the wood combustion was significantly lower than those for the other fuels, and MAE of EC for coal briquette appeared to be different from that of raw chunk. MAE values of the investigated source emission samples were found to correlate with OC/EC ratio, and a significantly positive correlation was found between MAE and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs), though pPAHs contributed a relatively small fraction of OC.

  4. Inhibition of low and high alloy steels in the system brine/elemental sulfur/H sub 2 S

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, G. ); Bruckhoff, W. )

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion problems in sulfur producing North German sour gas wells have prompted an investigation into the performance of low and high alloy materials in brine/H{sub 2}S/elemental sulfur systems and the applicability of inhibitors. Experimental results proved that not sulfanes (H{sub 2}S{sub x}) but elemental sulfur is the oxidant in the corrosion reaction. However, direct contact of elemental sulfur (liquid or solid) with the sulfide covered metal surface is essential. Under these conditions low alloy and duplex steels are attacked by sulfur/brine suspensions at 90-140{degrees}C under 25 bar H{sub 2}S and 25 bar CO{sub 2} hot pressure at high corrosion rates (10-100 mm/a). Commercial inhibitors were found to decrease the corrosion rate of low alloy and duplex steels below 0.1 mm/a even under the above-mentioned severe conditions.

  5. Chemical elements diffusion in the stainless steel components brazed with Cu-Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voiculescu, I.; Geanta, V.; Vasile, I. M.; Binchiciu, E. F.; Winestoock, R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the study of diffusion of chemical elements through a brazing joint, between two thin components (0.5mm) made of stainless steel 304. An experimental brazing filler material has been used for brazing stainless steel component and then the diffusion phenomenon has been studied, in terms of chemical element displacement from the brazed separation interface. The filler material is in the form of a metal rod coated with ceramic slurry mixture of minerals, containing precursors and metallic powders, which can contribute to the formation of deposit brazed. In determining the distance of diffusion of chemical elements, on both sides of the fusion line, were performed measurements of the chemical composition using electron microscopy SEM and EDX spectrometry. Metallographic analysis of cross sections was performed with the aim of highlight the microstructural characteristics of brazed joints, for estimate the wetting capacity, adherence of filler metal and highlight any imperfections. Analyzes performed showed the penetration of alloying elements from the solder (Ag, Cu, Zn and Sn) towards the base material (stainless steel), over distances up to 60 microns.

  6. [Determination of trace elements in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. by flame atomic absorption spectrometry combined with microsampling pulse nebulization technique].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cun-Gui; Hong, Qing-Hong; Li, Dan-Ting; Fan, Meng-Hai; Cai, Xiao-Dan

    2006-09-01

    The contents of trace elements Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Pb in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry combined with microsampling pulse nebulization technique. The results of the determination show that Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. are rich in the inorganic elements such as Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca and Cu. Its recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged between 96.58% and 106.12%, and its RSD was lower than 4.26%. The result will provide scientific data for the study on the trace elements in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. and on their relativity of efficacy of medicine. PMID:17112058

  7. Effects of alloying elements on the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of 2205 duplex stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Horng-Yih; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Pan, Yeong-Tsuen; Hsieh, Rong-Iuan

    2001-04-01

    The effects of alloying elements on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behaviors of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) have been investigated in this study. Experimental alloys were prepared by varying the concentrations of the constituent elements in DSSs. Hot ductility test, tensile test, charpy impact test, and corrosion test were performed to evaluate the properties of the experimental alloys. The results showed that the extent of edge cracking of DSSs increased with the increasing value of the crack sensitivity index (CSI). The higher the hot ductility index (HDI) was, the better the hot ductility of DSSs achieved. Austenite ( γ) stabilizer generally caused a decrease in the strength and an increase in the charpy impact absorbed energy of the stainless steel. On the contrary, ferrite ( α) former exerted its beneficial effect on the strength but became detrimental to the toughness of DSSs. The presences of sulfur and boron also caused a decrease in the impact energy, but nitrogen and carbon hardly affected the toughness within the concentration range tested in this study. The value of pitting nucleation potential ( E np ) of different nitrogen contents in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at room temperature was almost the same, but the value of pitting protection potential ( E pp ) among these alloys was increased with increasing the content of nitrogen. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DSSs was high when tested in boiling 45 wt.% MgCl2 solution. On the other hand, the time to failure of the experimental steels in 40 wt.% CaCl2 solution at 100 °C was longer than that in MgCl2 solution. Nitrogen could affect the SCC behavior of DSSs in CaCl2 solution through the combinative effects by varying the pitting resistance and the slip step dissolution. An optimum nitrogen (N) content of 0.15 wt.% was found where the highest SCC resistance could be obtained. Although γ phase exhibited better resistance to SCC, cracks were found to

  8. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  9. Partitioning of Si and platinum group elements between liquid and solid Fe-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Badro, J.

    2014-05-01

    Crystallization of the Earth's inner core fractionates major and minor elements between the solid and liquid metal, leaving physical and geochemical imprints on the Earth's core. For example, the density jump observed at the Inner Core Boundary (ICB) is related to the preferential partitioning of lighter elements in the liquid outer core. The fractionation of Os, Re and Pt between liquid and solid during inner core crystallization has been invoked as a process that explains the observed Os isotopic signature of mantle plume-derived lavas (Brandon et al., 1998; Brandon and Walker, 2005) in terms of core-mantle interaction. In this article we measured partitioning of Si, Os, Re and Pt between liquid and solid metal. Isobaric (2 GPa) experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder press at temperatures between 1250 °C and 1600 °C in which an imposed thermal gradient through the sample provided solid-liquid coexistence in the Fe-Si system. We determined the narrow melting loop in the Fe-Si system using Si partitioning values and showed that order-disorder transition in the Fe-Si solid phases can have a large effect on Si partitioning. We also found constant partition coefficients (DOs, DPt, DRe) between liquid and solid metal, for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 12 wt%. The compact structure of Fe-Si liquid alloys is compatible with incorporation of Si and platinum group elements (PGEs) elements precluding solid-liquid fractionation. Such phase diagram properties are relevant for other light elements such as S and C at high pressure and is not consistent with inter-elemental fractionation of PGEs during metal crystallization at Earth's inner core conditions. We therefore propose that the peculiar Os isotopic signature observed in plume-derived lavas is more likely explained by mantle source heterogeneity (Meibom et al., 2002; Baker and Krogh Jensen, 2004; Luguet et al., 2008).

  10. Understanding H isotope adsorption and absorption of Al-alloys using modeling and experiments (LDRD: #165724)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Donald K.; Zhou, Xiaowang; Karnesky, Richard A.; Kolasinski, Robert; Foster, Michael E.; Thurmer, Konrad; Chao, Paul; Epperly, Ethan Nicholas; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan M.; Sills, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Current austenitic stainless steel storage reservoirs for hydrogen isotopes (e.g. deuterium and tritium) have performance and operational life-limiting interactions (e.g. embrittlement) with H-isotopes. Aluminum alloys (e.g.AA2219), alternatively, have very low H-isotope solubilities, suggesting high resistance towards aging vulnerabilities. This report summarizes the work performed during the life of the Lab Directed Research and Development in the Nuclear Weapons investment area (165724), and provides invaluable modeling and experimental insights into the interactions of H isotopes with surfaces and bulk AlCu-alloys. The modeling work establishes and builds a multi-scale framework which includes: a density functional theory informed bond-order potential for classical molecular dynamics (MD), and subsequent use of MD simulations to inform defect level dislocation dynamics models. Furthermore, low energy ion scattering and thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments are performed to validate these models and add greater physical understanding to them.

  11. Crystal plasticity based finite element modelling of large strain deformation in AM30 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadbakhsh, Adel; Inal, Kaan; Mishra, Raja K.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the finite strain plastic deformation of AM30 magnesium alloy has been simulated using the crystal plasticity finite element method. The simulations have been carried out using a rate-dependent elastic-viscoplastic crystal plasticity constitutive model implemented in a user defined material subroutine (UMAT) in the commercial software LS-DYNA. The plastic deformation mechanisms accounted for in the model are the slip systems in the matrix (parent grain), extension twinning systems and the slip systems inside the extension twinned regions. The parameters of the constitutive model have been calibrated using the experimental data. The calibrated model has then been used to predict the deformation of AM30 magnesium alloy in bending and simple shear. For the bending strain path, the effects of texture on the strain accommodated by the deformation mechanisms and bending moment have been investigated. For simple shear, the effects of texture on the relative activity of deformation mechanisms, shear stress and texture evolution have been investigated. Also, the effect of twinning on shear stress and texture evolution has been studied. The numerical analyses predicted a more uniform strain distribution during bending and simple shear for rolled texture compared with extruded texture.

  12. Finite Element Simulation of Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-05-04

    Titanium and its alloys are an important class of materials, especially for aerospace applications, due to their excellent combination of strength and fracture toughness as well as low density. However, these materials are generally regarded as difficult to machine because of their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. Moreover, the low thermal conductivity of Titanium inhibits dissipation of heat within the workpiece causing an higher temperature at the cutting edge and generating for higher cutting speed a rapid chipping at the cutting edge which leads to catastrophic failure. In addition, chip morphology significantly influences the thermo-mechanical behaviour at the workpiece/tool interface, which also affects the tool life.In this paper a finite element analysis of machining of TiAl6V4 is presented. In particular, cutting force, chip morphology and segmentation are taken into account due to their predominant roles to determine machinability and tool wear during the machining of these alloys. Results in terms of residual stresses are also presented. Moreover, the numerical results are compared with experimental ones.

  13. Mechanical characterization of several ion-implanted alloys: nanoindentation testing, wear testing and finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourcier, R. J.; Follstaedt, D. M.; Dugger, M. T.; Myers, S. M.

    1991-07-01

    The influence of ion implantation on the mechanical properties of metal alloys has been examined using a variety of experimental and numerical techniques. Ultralow load indentation testing and finite element modeling has been used for the aluminum/oxygen to extract fundamental mechanical properties. Aluminum implanted with 20 at.% O exhibits extraordinary strength, as high as 3300 MPa. The degree of strengthening expected for this Al(O) alloy on the basis of the observed microstructure of fine (1.5-3.5 nm) oxide precipitates was estimated using several micromechanical models, and the results agree with our experimental findings. Pin-on-disk tribological characterization of aluminum implanted with 10 at.% oxygen revealed that the ion-beam treatment reduced the average friction coefficient from greater than 1.0 (for pure Al) to approximately 0.25 (for Al(O)). Large-amplitude stick-slip oscillations, which occur within the first two cycles for pure aluminum, were postponed to 30-50 cycles for the ion-implanted material. Two stainless steels which have been amorphized by implantation, 304 implanted with C and 440C implanted with Ti + C, show measurable hardening with implantation, of the order of 40 and 15%, respectively. In addition, nanoindentation within pin-on-disk wear tracks on 440C reveals that the mechanical state of the extensively deformed implanted layer is apparently unchanged from its initial state.

  14. Simulation to the Cyclic Deformation of Polycrystalline Aluminum Alloy Using Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Juan; Kang, Guozheng; Shi, Mingxing

    2013-01-01

    A crystal plasticity based finite element model (i.e., FE model) is used in this paper to simulate the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline aluminum alloy plates. The Armstrong-Frederick nonlinear kinematic hardening rule is employed in the single crystal constitutive model to capture the Bauschinger effect and ratcheting of aluminum single crystal presented under the cyclic loading conditions. A simple model of latent hardening is used to consider the interaction of dislocations between different slipping systems. The proposed single crystal constitutive model is implemented numerically into a FE code, i.e., ABAQUS. Then, the proposed model is verified by comparing the simulated results of cyclic deformation with the corresponding experimental ones of a face-centered cubic polycrystalline metal, i.e., rolled 5083 aluminum alloy. In the meantime, it is shown that the model is capable of predicting local heterogeneous deformation in single crystal scale, which plays an important role in the macroscopic deformation of polycrystalline aggregates. Under the cyclic loading conditions, the effect of applied strain amplitude on the responded stress amplitude and the dependence of ratcheting strain on the applied stress level are reproduced reasonably.

  15. Element Specific Spin and Orbital Moments in Fe1-x Vx Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Y.; Scheck, C; Bailey, W

    2009-01-01

    We present transmission-mode X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements of element-specific magnetic moments for Fe and V at the L2,3 edges in polycrystalline Fe1-xVx ultrathin films. We find that the orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe does not change within experimental error. The V XMCD is not very informative, and a nearly pure-spin type V impurity moment ({approx}1.0 {mu}{sub B}/atom, antiparallel to the Fe host moment) is assumed to match known magnetization data. Data are further reduced to a two-sublattice model and found to be compatible with known spectroscopic splitting g-factor data in the alloy. The results confirm that the very low Gilbert damping, attained through the introduction of V into epitaxial Fe1-xVx films and found by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), does not result from the reduction of orbital moment content in the alloy.

  16. Effects of alloying elements on carbon dioxide corrosion in 13% to 20% chromium-containing steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Asahi, H.; Kawakami, A.; Takahashi, A.

    2000-04-01

    Effects of alloying elements on corrosion rates were investigated for 13% to 20% chromium-containing steels in wet carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) environments without wet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) gas at 150 C to 200 C. Results showed that a reduction in carbon content and an increase in chromium, molybdenum, and nickel content improved CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance. However, corrosion rate was independent of nitrogen content. The combined additions of nickel and copper greatly improved CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance. To satisfy the criteria in which the corrosion rates became < 0.1 mm/y, the nickel content should have been > 1% and copper > 0.5% at 10 C. This level of alloying corresponded to the reduction of the Cr + 1.6% Mo index value by {approximately}6%. In the case at 200 C, nickel content was required at > 4%, and copper content at > 1%. The reason for the improvement of CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance is thought to be the combined additions of nickel and copper that made the corrosion film more stable and more protective. The equation to be satisfied with a corrosion rate < 0.1 mm/y at 180 C in 0.02% C-containing steels was indicated as Cr + 1.6% Mo {ge} 19% (copper-free steels) and Cr + 1.6% Mo {ge} 13% (combined additions of nickel and copper).

  17. Development of a new graded-porosity FeAl alloy by elemental reactive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, P Z; He, Y H; Gao, H Y; Zou, J; Xu, N P; Jiang, Y; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2009-01-01

    A new graded-porosity FeAl alloy can be fabricated through Fe and Al elemental reactive synthesis. FeAl alloy with large connecting open pores and permeability were used as porous supports. The coating was obtained by spraying slurries consisting of mixtures of Fe powder and Al powder with 3 5 m diameter onto porous FeAl support and then sintered at 1100 C. The performances of the coating were compared in terms of thickness, pore diameter and permeability. With an increase in the coating thickness up to 200 m, the changes of maximum pore size decreased from 23.6 m to 5.9 m and the permeability decreased from 184.2 m3m 2kPa 1h 1 to 76.2 m3m 2kPa 1h 1, respectively, for a sintering temperature equal to 1100 C. The composite membranes have potential application for excellent filters in severe environments.

  18. Alloying-Element Loss During High-Temperature Processing of a Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiatin, S. L.; Shank, J. M.; Saurber, W. M.; Pilchak, A. L.; Ballard, D. L.; Zhang, F.; Gleeson, B.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of exposure at temperatures commonly used for wrought processing/heat treatment of nickel-base superalloys on the loss of alloying elements at the free surface has been determined. For this purpose, LSHR superalloy samples were exposed at 1408 K (1135 °C) for 0.25 to 4 hours in a vacuum or air furnace. Samples heat treated in the air furnace were either bare or enclosed in quartz capsules that had been evacuated or backfilled with argon. Following heat treatment, the alloy composition as a function of depth below the surface was determined by wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Samples that had been heat treated in the vacuum furnace exhibited significant depletion of only chromium, a behavior explained on the basis of its high activity in nickel solid solution and corresponding rapid rate of evaporation. By contrast, samples heat treated in air exhibited an irregular scale at the surface and an underlying grain-coarsened, gamma-prime-depleted metal layer lean in aluminum, titanium, and chromium. A yet different behavior characterized primarily by aluminum loss at the surface was noted for samples that had been heat treated in evacuated or argon-backfilled capsules. These observations were interpreted in the context of a reaction between the quartz capsule and the aluminum evaporant.

  19. The atmospheric corrosion of quaternary bronzes: An evaluation of the dissolution rate of the alloying elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, E.; Chiavari, C.; Martini, C.; Morselli, L.

    2008-07-01

    A comparative evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of a G85 bronze in acid rain solutions was performed. As weathering technique, a wet dry device was used to simulate a cyclic exposure to stagnant rain. The weathering solutions were a collected natural rain and an artificial solution reproducing the natural rain. The solutions were periodically monitored as concerns pH and metallic ion concentrations. On the aged specimens, surface studies were performed through OM, SEM and Raman analyses. At the end of weathering tests (40 days), weight loss measurements were carried out. The aim of this work was to examine the reproducibility in laboratory of the corrosive conditions determined by a natural acid rain. The final goal of this research is to investigate the dissolution of a quaternary alloy exposed to acid rains. The results showed slightly different corrosion behaviours as a consequence of the exposure to natural or synthetic rain. Concerning the mechanism of corrosion of G85 bronze, the innovative approach adopted in this study allowed one to point out the contribution of each alloying element to the general corrosion. Actually, while Cu and Pb progressively form insoluble corrosion compounds, Zn continuously dissolves, without forming detectable insoluble products. The absence of dissolved tin is remarkable.

  20. Effect of Alloying Elements in Hot-Rolled Metastable β-Titanium Alloys. Part II: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Premkumar; Chakkingal, Uday; Singh, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the tensile properties, flow and work-hardening behavior of four metastable β-titanium alloys Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (A1), Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-7.2V-3Cr (A2), Ti-5Al-5Mo-8.6V-1.5Cr (A3), and Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-5V-3.94Cr (A4) in α+β hot-rolled condition. The decreasing order of average strength parameters ( σ YS and σ UTS) is A4, A2, A1, and A3. The maximum strength observed in alloy A4 is due to the presence of highest wt. fraction of Cr. The elongation is the maximum and minimum in alloys A3 and A4, respectively. These alloys display moderate to high percent in-plane anisotropy ( A IP) and reasonably low anisotropic index ( δ) values. Both the A IP and δ values are maximum and minimum in alloys A1 and A3, respectively. The yield locus plots also exhibit the presence of anisotropy due to relatively large differences in yield strength values along tension and compression directions. The flow behavior of alloys A1, A2, and A4 follows Swift equation, while the alloy A3 displays best fit with Holloman equation. The presence of prestrain ( ɛ 0) in hot-rolled materials before tensile testing has an important bearing on the flow curves of A1, A2, and A4 alloys. The instantaneous work-hardening rate curves of the alloys A1, A2, and A3 exhibit all the three typical stages (stage I, stage II, and stage III) in RD samples, while the alloy A4 shows the presence of only stage I and stage III. The 45 deg to RD and TD samples of alloys A1, A2, and A4 display only stage I. The stages I and III as well as I and II are present in alloy A3 in 45 deg to RD and TD samples, respectively. Dislocation-controlled strain hardening occurs in all the three stages of these alloys in the absence of stress-induced martensitic transformation (α″) and twinning. Slip is the predominant deformation mechanism during tensile testing. Three types of slip lines, i.e., planar, wavy, and intersecting have been observed close to fracture surfaces of post tensile-tested specimens.

  1. Effect of Alloying Elements in Hot-Rolled Metastable β-Titanium Alloys. Part II: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Premkumar; Chakkingal, Uday; Singh, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the tensile properties, flow and work-hardening behavior of four metastable β-titanium alloys Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (A1), Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-7.2V-3Cr (A2), Ti-5Al-5Mo-8.6V-1.5Cr (A3), and Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-5V-3.94Cr (A4) in α+β hot-rolled condition. The decreasing order of average strength parameters (σ YS and σ UTS) is A4, A2, A1, and A3. The maximum strength observed in alloy A4 is due to the presence of highest wt. fraction of Cr. The elongation is the maximum and minimum in alloys A3 and A4, respectively. These alloys display moderate to high percent in-plane anisotropy (A IP) and reasonably low anisotropic index (δ) values. Both the A IP and δ values are maximum and minimum in alloys A1 and A3, respectively. The yield locus plots also exhibit the presence of anisotropy due to relatively large differences in yield strength values along tension and compression directions. The flow behavior of alloys A1, A2, and A4 follows Swift equation, while the alloy A3 displays best fit with Holloman equation. The presence of prestrain (ɛ 0) in hot-rolled materials before tensile testing has an important bearing on the flow curves of A1, A2, and A4 alloys. The instantaneous work-hardening rate curves of the alloys A1, A2, and A3 exhibit all the three typical stages (stage I, stage II, and stage III) in RD samples, while the alloy A4 shows the presence of only stage I and stage III. The 45 deg to RD and TD samples of alloys A1, A2, and A4 display only stage I. The stages I and III as well as I and II are present in alloy A3 in 45 deg to RD and TD samples, respectively. Dislocation-controlled strain hardening occurs in all the three stages of these alloys in the absence of stress-induced martensitic transformation (α″) and twinning. Slip is the predominant deformation mechanism during tensile testing. Three types of slip lines, i.e., planar, wavy, and intersecting have been observed close to fracture surfaces of post tensile-tested specimens.

  2. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper in nickel-base alloys with various chemical modifiers*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Chang, Shiow-Ing

    1997-07-01

    The analytical characteristics of copper in nickel-base alloys have been investigated with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Deuterium background correction was employed. The effects of various chemical modifiers on the analysis of copper were investigated. Organic modifiers which included 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino-phenol) (Br-PADAP), ammonium citrate, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-naphthol, 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100 were studied. Inorganic modifiers palladium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, aluminum chloride, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate were also applied in this work. In addition, zirconium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide precipitation methods have also been studied. Interference effects were effectively reduced with Br-PADAP modifier. Aqueous standards were used to construct the calibration curves. The detection limit was 1.9 pg. Standard reference materials of nickel-base alloys were used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The copper contents determined with the proposed method agreed closely with the certified values of the reference materials. The recoveries were within the range 90-100% with relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Good precision was obtained.

  3. Surface faceting and elemental diffusion behaviour at atomic scale for alloy nanoparticles during in situ annealing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Chao; Lei, Yinkai; Wang, Guofeng; Li, Dongguo; More, Karren L.; Lupini, Andrew; Allard, Lawrence F.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.

    2015-11-18

    The catalytic performance of nanoparticles is primarily determined by the precise nature of the surface and near-surface atomic configurations, which can be tailored by post-synthesis annealing effectively and straightforwardly. Understanding the complete dynamic response of surface structure and chemistry to thermal treatments at the atomic scale is imperative for the rational design of catalyst nanoparticles. Here, by tracking the same individual Pt3Co nanoparticles during in situ annealing in a scanning transmission electron microscope, we directly discern five distinct stages of surface elemental rearrangements in Pt3Co nanoparticles at the atomic scale: initial random (alloy) elemental distribution; surface platinum-skin-layer formation; nucleation ofmore » structurally ordered domains; ordered framework development and, finally, initiation of amorphization. Furthermore, a comprehensive interplay among phase evolution, surface faceting and elemental inter-diffusion is revealed, and supported by atomistic simulations. Furthermore, this work may pave the way towards designing catalysts through post-synthesis annealing for optimized catalytic performance.« less

  4. The effect of quaternary element on the thermodynamic parameters and structure of CuAlMn shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Karagoz, Z.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the Cu-based shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting. We have investigated the effects of the alloying elements on the characteristic transformation temperatures, enthalpy, entropy values, and the structure of Cu-Al-Mn ternary system. The evolution of the transformation temperatures was studied by the differential scanning calorimetry. The characteristic transformation temperatures can be controlled by the variations in the aluminum and manganese content. Additionally, the effect of magnesium and iron on the transformation temperatures and thermodynamic parameters was investigated in the Cu-Al-Mn ternary system. The addition of the magnesium decreases the characteristic transformation temperatures of the Cu-Al-Mn system, but that of the iron increases. The structural changes of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction measurements and optical microscope observations. Due to the low solubility of the magnesium, the magnesium addition into the Cu-Al-Mn system forms precipitates in the matrix. It is evaluated that the transformation parameters of the CuAlMn shape memory alloys can be controlled by the change of the alloying elements and the weight percentages of alloying elements.

  5. Crystal plasticity finite element modelling of the extrusion texture of a magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yichuan; Tang, Tao; Li, Dayong; Tang, Weiqin; Peng, Yinghong

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a crystal plasticity finite-element model (CPFEM) is developed to simulate the hot extrusion texture of the magnesium alloy AZ31. The crystal plasticity model is implemented in ABAQUS™ via user interface VUMAT subroutine. The elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) model is used as the basic polycrystal framework to simulate the slip and twinning during the extrusion. Furthermore, this framework is extended to account for the effects of the dynamically recrystallized (DRX) grains on the extrusion textures. Good agreement is found between the experimentally measured and simulated textures. The simulation results show that the presence of a secondary texture component around < 11.0> || extrusion direction (ED) can be attributed to the lattice rotation around the c-axis during the formation of the DRX grains. In addition, the shear strain imposed on the extruded material affects the resulting texture by enhancing the basal < a> slip mode as the material passes through the extrusion opening.

  6. Segregation of solute elements at grain boundaries in an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Sha, Gang; Yao, Lan; Liao, Xiaozhou; Ringer, Simon P; Chao Duan, Zhi; Langdon, Terence G

    2011-05-01

    The solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) of an ultrafine grained (UFG) Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 200 °C was characterised using three-dimensional atom probe. Mg and Cu segregate strongly to the grain boundaries. In contrast, Zn does not always show clear segregation and may even show depletion near the grain boundaries. Trace element Si selectively segregates at some GBs. An increase in the number of ECAP passes leads to a decrease in the grain size but an increase in solute segregation at the boundaries. The significant segregation of alloying elements at the boundaries of ultrafine-grained alloys implies that less solutes will be available in the matrix for precipitation with a decrease in the average grain size. PMID:21159437

  7. The effect of alloy elements on the density variation of steel melt at the interdendritic region during solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y. F.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X. P.; Fu, P. X.; Kang, X. H.; Liu, H. W.; Li, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Alloying elements in steels have essential effects on the formation of macrosegregation by inducing a density difference between the mushy zone and the bulk melt, and even by the alteration of the solidified microstructure. Hence, in terms of the thermodynamic laws for solidification of an idealized dilute solution, a systematic theoretical analysis on the effect of elements on the density variation of the interdendritic melt is presented for common Fe-based binary alloys. It shows that density variation closely associates with three crucial parameters: the microsegregation parameter λ, the temp-comp-expansion parameter β and the initial composition CL o . With these derived parameters, a simple analytical model is proposed to assess the influence of alloy elements on density change. The theoretical analysis indicates that compared to silicon, the effect of carbon on the density variation cannot be ignored, which is remarkably different from the previous recognition of these two elements. The macrosegregation induced by carbon only is experimentally validated by two dissected 500 kg ingots with different carbon contents. Furthermore, to directly validate the results of theoretical analysis a macrosegregation model with two different microsegregation laws (lever rule and Scheil equation) is established. Then simulations of the convection during solidification in the experimental 500 kg reference ingot are performed for Fe-C and Fe-Si alloys, respectively. It demonstrates that numerically simulated effects of carbon and silicon on the interdendritic convection induced by density inversion are fairly consistent with the analytical predictions.

  8. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  9. Effect of Alloying Elements on Nb-Rich Portion of Nb-Si-X Ternary Systems and In Situ Crack Observation of Nb-Si-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Seiji; Hatabata, Toru; Okawa, Takuya; Mohri, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    To find a new route for microstructure control and to find additive elements beneficial for improving high-temperature strength, a systematic investigation is performed on hypoeutectic Nb-15 at. pct Si-X ternary alloys containing a transition element, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, or Au. Information on phase equilibrium is classified in terms of phase stability of silicide phases, α Nb5Si3, Nb4SiX, and Nb3Si, and the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties both at room temperature and high temperature is investigated. All the additive elements are found to stabilize either α Nb5Si3 or Nb4SiX but destabilize Nb3Si. A microstructure of Nbss/α Nb5Si3 alloy composed of spheroidized α Nb5Si3 phase embedded in the Nbss matrix is effective for toughening, regardless of the initial as-cast microstructure. Also the plastic deformation of Nbss dendrites may effectively suppress the propagation of longer cracks. High-temperature strength of alloys is governed by the deformation of Nbss phase and increases with higher melting point additives.

  10. Fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements in environmental samples and drinking waters by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Ma Jesús; Sevilla, Ma Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2015-01-01

    The fast sequential multi-element determination of 11 elements present at different concentration levels in environmental samples and drinking waters has been investigated using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The main lines for Cu (324.754 nm), Zn (213.857 nm), Cd (228.802 nm), Ni (232.003 nm) and Pb (217.001 nm), main and secondary absorption lines for Mn (279.482 and 279.827 nm), Fe (248.327, 248.514 and 302.064 nm) and Ca (422.673 and 239.856 nm), secondary lines with different sensitivities for Na (589.592 and 330.237 nm) and K (769.897 and 404.414 nm) and a secondary line for Mg (202.582 nm) have been chosen to perform the analysis. A flow injection system has been used for sample introduction so sample consumption has been reduced up to less than 1 mL per element, measured in triplicate. Furthermore, the use of multiplets for Fe and the side pixel registration approach for Mg have been studied in order to reduce sensitivity and extend the linear working range. The figures of merit have been calculated and the proposed method was applied to determine these elements in a pine needles reference material (SRM 1575a), drinking and natural waters and soil extracts. Recoveries of analytes added at different concentration levels to water samples and extracts of soils were within 88-115% interval. In this way, the fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements can be carried out, in triplicate, with successful results without requiring additional dilutions of samples or several different strategies for sample preparation using about 8-9 mL of sample. PMID:25479863

  11. Feasibility of Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy bars as reinforcement elements in concrete beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Araki, Yoshikazu; Nagae, Takuya; Koetaka, Yuji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2013-02-01

    Experimental and numerical works are reported to assess the cyclic response of concrete beams reinforced with superelastic alloy (SEA) bars. The feasibility of newly developed Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars, characterized by large recovery strain, low material cost and high machinability, is examined as partial replacements for conventional steel bars, in order to reduce residual cracks in structures during and after intense earthquakes. Four-point reverse cyclic bending tests were done on one-third scale concrete beams comprising three different types of specimens—conventional steel reinforced concrete, SEA reinforced concrete and SEA reinforced concrete (RC) with pre-tensioning. The results showed that SEA reinforced concrete beams demonstrated strong recentering capability and significant enhancement in crack recovery capacity, in comparison to steel reinforced beams. Furthermore, corresponding finite element models were generated to simulate the experimental observations. Both the experimental observations and finite element computations illustrated the superiority of SEA bars to conventional steel bars in providing RC beam specimens with recentering and crack recovery capabilities.

  12. Experimental and Finite-Element Method Study of Zn-22Al Alloy Pipe Hot Extrusion Using a Porthole Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. P.; Dong, X. H.; Feng, S. F.; Hong, X. T.; Tang, W.; Xiang, Z. B.; Wang, J. T.

    2013-11-01

    To reduce the pollution caused by lead alloys, environmentally friendly alloys are selected to fabricate metal tubes for delay detonators. Zn-22Al alloy was selected in this study as the tube metal because of its high environmental friendliness and low cost. The first step in metal tube production is to prepare a pipe. In this study, the Zn-22Al alloy was hot extruded using a porthole die. A finite-element method (FEM) was used to optimize the porthole-die extrusion of the Zn-22Al alloy pipes. The flow stress data for the alloy in the temperature range of 200-350 °C and strain rate range of 0.1-10 s-1 were measured. The FEM results showed that two stages existed for any random position of the interface during porthole die extrusion, viz., the bonded interface-forming period, and the post-bonded period. The dead-metal zones existed at the corners between the container and die face and between the bottom and sidewall of the welding chamber. The effects of the extrusion temperature and the chamber height of the die on the welding quality index were studied. Pipes with an outer diameter of 18 mm and an inner diameter of 10 mm were fabricated successfully by the hot-extrusion method at 200 °C using a porthole die with a chamber height of 15 mm.

  13. Effects of alloying element and temperature on the stacking fault energies of dilute Ni-base superalloys.

    PubMed

    Shang, S L; Zacherl, C L; Fang, H Z; Wang, Y; Du, Y; Liu, Z K

    2012-12-19

    A systematic study of stacking fault energy (γ(SF)) resulting from induced alias shear deformation has been performed by means of first-principles calculations for dilute Ni-base superalloys (Ni(23)X and Ni(71)X) for various alloying elements (X) as a function of temperature. Twenty-six alloying elements are considered, i.e., Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ir, Mn, Mo, Nb, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. The temperature dependence of γ(SF) is computed using the proposed quasistatic approach based on a predicted γ(SF)-volume-temperature relationship. Besides γ(SF), equilibrium volume and the normalized stacking fault energy (Γ(SF) = γ(SF)/Gb, with G the shear modulus and b the Burgers vector) are also studied as a function of temperature for the 26 alloying elements. The following conclusions are obtained: all alloying elements X studied herein decrease the γ(SF) of fcc Ni, approximately the further the alloying element X is from Ni on the periodic table, the larger the decrease of γ(SF) for the dilute Ni-X alloy, and roughly the γ(SF) of Ni-X decreases with increasing equilibrium volume. In addition, the values of γ(SF) for all Ni-X systems decrease with increasing temperature (except for Ni-Cr at higher Cr content), and the largest decrease is observed for pure Ni. Similar to the case of the shear modulus, the variation of γ(SF) for Ni-X systems due to various alloying elements is traceable from the distribution of (magnetization) charge density: the spherical distribution of charge density around a Ni atom, especially a smaller sphere, results in a lower value of γ(SF) due to the facility of redistribution of charges. Computed stacking fault energies and the related properties are in favorable accord with available experimental and theoretical data. PMID:23172684

  14. Morphology-Control Synthesis of a Core-Shell Structured NiCu Alloy with Tunable Electromagnetic-Wave Absorption Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Zhao, Wanyu; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Zhang, Rui

    2015-06-17

    In this work, dendritelike and rodlike NiCu alloys were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal process at various reaction temperatures (120, 140, and 160 °C). The structure and morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, which that demonstrate NiCu alloys have core-shell heterostructures with Ni as the shell and Cu as the core. The formation mechanism of the core-shell structures was also discussed. The uniform and perfect dendritelike NiCu alloy obtained at 140 °C shows outstanding electromagnetic-wave absorption properties. The lowest reflection loss (RL) of -31.13 dB was observed at 14.3 GHz, and the effective absorption (below -10 dB, 90% attenuation) bandwidth can be adjusted between 4.4 and 18 GHz with a thin absorber thickness in the range of 1.2-4.0 mm. The outstanding electromagnetic-wave-absorbing properties are ascribed to space-charge polarization arising from the heterogeneous structure of the NiCu alloy, interfacial polarization between the alloy and paraffin, and continuous micronetworks and vibrating microcurrent dissipation originating from the uniform and perfect dendritelike shape of NiCu prepared at 140 °C. PMID:26018739

  15. Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Steel with Transition Material - Part II: Finite Element Analyses of Nugget Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes work on finite element modeling of nugget growth for resistance spot welding of aluminum alloy to steel. It is a sequel to a previous paper on experimental studies of resistance spot welding of aluminum to steel using a transition material. Since aluminum alloys and steel cannot be readily fusion welded together due to their drastically different thermal physical properties, a cold-rolled clad material was introduced as a transition to aid the resistance welding process. Coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical finite element analyses were performed to simulate the nugget growth and heat generation patterns during the welding process. The predicted nugget growth results were compared to the experimental weld cross sections. Reasonable comparisons of nugget size were achieved. The finite element simulation procedures were also used in the electrode selection state to help reduce weld expulsion and improve weld quality.

  16. Effect of Alloying Elements on Tensile Properties, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of Reinforcing Bar Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, B. K.; Srikanth, S.; Sahoo, G.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of copper, phosphorus, and chromium present in a semikilled reinforcing bar steel produced by in-line quenching [thermomechanical treatment (TMT)] process on the tensile properties, microstructure, and corrosion resistance of steel in simulated chloride environment has been investigated. The results have been compared with that of a semikilled C-Mn reinforcing bar steel without these alloying elements produced by the same process route. Though the amount of phosphorus (0.11 wt.%) was higher than that specified by ASTM A 706 standard, the Cu-P-Cr steel exhibited a composite microstructure, and good balance of yield stress, tensile stress, elongation, and ultimate tensile to yield stress ratio. Two conventional test methods, namely, the salt fog, and potentiodynamic polarization tests, were used for the corrosion test. The rust formed on Cu-P-Cr steel was adherent, and was of multiple colors, while the corrosion products formed on the C-Mn steel were weakly adherent and relatively darker blue. Also, the free corrosion potential of the Cu-P-Cr steel was nobler, and the corrosion current was markedly lower than that of a C-Mn rebar. The Cu-P-Cr steel did not develop any pits/deep grooves on its surface even after the prolonged exposure to salt fog. The improved corrosion resistance of the Cu-P-Cr steel has been attributed to the presence of copper, phosphorus, and small amount of chromium in the dense, adherent rust layer on the surface of reinforcing steel bar. A schematic mechanism of charge transfer has been proposed to explain the improved corrosion resistance of the Cu-P-Cr alloyed TMT rebar.

  17. Rapid Synthesis of a Near-β Titanium Alloy by Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy (BEPM) with Induction Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingtu; Gabbitas, Brian

    2015-10-01

    A near-β Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al alloy was produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy combining warm compaction and induction sintering. Two Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al powder compacts with different oxygen content were manufactured by mixing PREP and HDH Ti powders with Cr and AlV master alloy powders, respectively. The effect of isothermal holding time, at a sintering temperature of 1573 K (1300 °C), on pore characteristics and compositional homogeneity was investigated in this study. Pore coarsening by Ostwald ripening occurred with an increase in the isothermal holding time and Kirkendall voids were produced by a reaction between Ti and Cr. After an isothermal holding time of 10 minutes, the two sintered powder compacts had a homogeneous composition. Ti/AlV and Ti/Cr diffusion couples were used to predict the distribution of alloying elements, and the binary Ti-V, Ti-Al, and Ti-Cr interdiffusion coefficients were consistent with the distribution of alloying elements after isothermal holding. The mechanical properties of sintered powder compacts, prepared using PREP Ti powder as the raw powder, were optimized by sintered density and pore size.

  18. The cyclic oxidation resistance at 1200 C of beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl alloys with selected third element additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds Beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl were tested in cyclic oxidation with selected third element alloy additions. Tests in static air for 200 1-hr cycles at 1200 C indicated by specific weight change/time data and x-ray diffraction analysis that the 5 at percent alloy additions did not significantly improve the oxidation resistance over the alumina forming baseline alloys without the additions. Many of the alloy additions were actually deleterious. Ta and Nb were the only alloy additions that actually altered the nature of the oxide(s) formed and still maintained the oxidation resistance of the protective alumina scale.

  19. Effects of alloying elements and temperature on the elastic properties of dilute Ni-base superalloys from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, S. L.; Kim, D. E.; Zacherl, C. L.; Wang, Y.; Du, Y.; Liu, Z. K.

    2012-09-01

    The variation of elastic properties, e.g., elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus of dilute Ni-base superalloys due to alloying elements (X's) and temperature, has been studied via first-principles calculations. Here, 26 alloying elements are considered: Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ir, Mn, Mo, Nb, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. It is found that (i) both the bulk and shear moduli of Ni-X decrease approximately linearly with increasing equilibrium volume, especially within each group of 3d, 4d, or 5d transition-metal alloying elements; (ii) all alloying elements considered herein increase the ratio of bulk to shear modulus (i.e., the ductility) and the elastic anisotropy of the Ni-X alloys; and (iii) the largest decrease of elastic properties of Ni is caused by alloying element Y. It is observed that the change of elastic properties of Ni due to various alloying elements is traceable from the distribution of (magnetization) charge density, for instance the spherical distribution of charge density facilitates shear deformation, resulting in a lower shear-related property. Using a proposed quasistatic approach based on the predicted elasticity-volume-temperature relationship, the isothermal and the isentropic elastic properties are predicted for the dilute Ni-X alloys at finite temperatures, displaying a decreasing trend with respect to temperature for each Ni-X system. Computed elastic properties are in favorable accord with available experimental data.

  20. Radiation-induced strengthening and absorption of dislocation loops in ferritic Fe-Cr alloys: the role of Cr segregation.

    PubMed

    Terentyev, D; Bakaev, A

    2013-07-01

    The understanding of radiation-induced strengthening in ferritic FeCr-based steels remains an essential issue in the assessment of materials for fusion and fission reactors. Both early and recent experimental works on Fe-Cr alloys reveal Cr segregation on radiation-induced nanostructural features (mainly dislocation loops), whose impact on the modification of the mechanical response of the material might be key for explaining quantitatively the radiation-induced strengthening in these alloys. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to study systematically the interaction of dislocations with 1/2<111> and <100> loops in all possible orientations, both enriched by Cr atoms and undecorated, for different temperatures, loop sizes and dislocation velocities. The configurations of the enriched loops have been obtained using a non-rigid lattice Monte Carlo method. The study reveals that Cr segregation influences the interaction mechanisms with both 1/2<111> and <100> loops. The overall effect of Cr enrichment is to penalize the mobility of intrinsically glissile 1/2<111> loops, modifying the reaction mechanisms as a result. The following three most important effects associated with Cr enrichment have been revealed: (i) absence of dynamic drag; (ii) suppression of complete absorption; (iii) enhanced strength of small dislocation loops (2 nm and smaller). Overall the effect of the Cr enrichment is therefore to increase the unpinning stress, so experimentally 'invisible' nanostructural features may also contribute to radiation-induced strengthening. The reasons for the modification of the mechanisms are explained and the impact of the loading conditions is discussed. PMID:23756468

  1. Finite element modeling of the surface roughness of 5052 Al alloy subjected to a surface severe plastic deformation process

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, K.; Villegas, J.; Stone, Z.; Shaw, L. . E-mail: lshaw@mail.ims.uconn.edu

    2004-12-01

    The surface of 5052 Al alloy plates is severely plastically deformed via multiple impacts by high-velocity tungsten carbide/cobalt (Wc/Co) balls in a surface nanocrystallization and hardening (SNH) process. The surface roughness of 5052 Al alloy plates as a function of the impacting ball size and processing time has been evaluated via non-contact 3D profilometry. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model has been developed to simulate the formation of peaks and valleys during the SNH process. The peak-to-valley distance predicted from the FEM matches the maximum PV value measured experimentally quite well, indicating that surface roughening of 5052 Al alloy plates during the SNH process using WC/Co balls is mainly dictated by the indentation process of the impacting balls. The implications of this surface roughening mechanism in the final surface roughness, processing time, related microstructure change, and property alteration are discussed.

  2. Element selective detection of molecular species applying chromatographic techniques and diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kunze, K; Zybin, A; Koch, J; Franzke, J; Miclea, M; Niemax, K

    2004-12-01

    Tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (DLAAS) combined with separation techniques and atomization in plasmas and flames is presented as a powerful method for analysis of molecular species. The analytical figures of merit of the technique are demonstrated by the measurement of Cr(VI) and Mn compounds, as well as molecular species including halogen atoms, hydrogen, carbon and sulfur. PMID:15561625

  3. Improved multi-element measurement of absorption via the fecal monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Gibson, I.L.; Weber, C.E.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1986-03-01

    The fecal monitoring technique for measuring the absorption of Mn, Se and Fe was studied in eight piglets using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Four day old piglets were fed a complete liquid diet for five days prior to the administration of an isotope dose (/sup 75/Se, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe) equilibrated with the milk feeding. /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was used as a fecal marker. Subsequently stool and urine samples were collected daily for 15-21 days. Following counting, the % fecal excretion of the administered dose was calculated. As 0 to 33% of the administered /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was absorbed this fecal marker is inappropriate for piglets. Results indicate that endogenous excretion for each of the isotopes was not constant but decreased exponentially with time. An improved method for calculating the endogenous excretion was therefore developed. This method is based on the pattern of endogenous excretion in comparable piglets injected intravenously with the same isotopes, and on the level of endogenous excretion in the orally fed animals in the post-absorptive phase of excretion. These findings have important implications for the estimation of endogenous excretion in future fecal monitoring absorption studies. Previous results using the latter technique have frequently underestimated true absorption.

  4. Concerning the sound insulation of building elements made up of light concretes. [acoustic absorption efficiency calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giurgiu, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    The sound insulating capacity of building elements made up of light concretes is considered. Analyzing differentially the behavior of light concrete building elements under the influence of incident acoustic energy and on the basis of experimental measurements, coefficients of correction are introduced into the basic formulas for calculating the sound insulating capacity for the 100-3,2000 Hz frequency band.

  5. Effects of Thermal History and Microstructure on Segregation of Phosphorus and Alloying Elements in the Heat-Affected Zone of a Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Miyahara, Yuichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    The grain boundary segregation of phosphorus and alloying elements in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a low alloy steel was studied quantitatively with atom probe tomography. Non-equilibrium segregation mainly occurred during welding and subsequent fast cooling, leading to remarkable segregation of P, C, Mn, and Mo. The segregation of these four types of solutes showed similar microstructure-dependence at this stage, in which the segregation levels are higher in coarse-grained HAZ and intercritically reheated coarse-grained HAZ than in fine-grained HAZ. After simulated aging, P and Mn showed further enrichment at grain boundaries through equilibrium segregation, while desegregation was observed for C and Mo. In addition, it seems that precipitation of Mo at dislocations was greatly promoted during aging, which probably also contributed to the increase of P and Mn at grain boundaries.

  6. Effects of Thermal History and Microstructure on Segregation of Phosphorus and Alloying Elements in the Heat-Affected Zone of a Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Miyahara, Yuichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The grain boundary segregation of phosphorus and alloying elements in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a low alloy steel was studied quantitatively with atom probe tomography. Non-equilibrium segregation mainly occurred during welding and subsequent fast cooling, leading to remarkable segregation of P, C, Mn, and Mo. The segregation of these four types of solutes showed similar microstructure-dependence at this stage, in which the segregation levels are higher in coarse-grained HAZ and intercritically reheated coarse-grained HAZ than in fine-grained HAZ. After simulated aging, P and Mn showed further enrichment at grain boundaries through equilibrium segregation, while desegregation was observed for C and Mo. In addition, it seems that precipitation of Mo at dislocations was greatly promoted during aging, which probably also contributed to the increase of P and Mn at grain boundaries.

  7. Comparative effects of an elemental and a complex enteral feeding formulation on the absorption of phenytoin suspension.

    PubMed

    Marvel, M E; Bertino, J S

    1991-01-01

    The effect of an elemental formula (Vivonex TEN) and a lactose-free complex formula (Ensure) on the oral absorption of a single dose of phenytoin suspension was determined in 10 normal volunteers. Following an overnight fast, subjects were randomly administered 400 mg of phenytoin suspension alone, phenytoin plus Vivonex TEN (unflavored), and phenytoin plus Ensure. The enteral feedings were given every 4 hours throughout the first 24 hours. Serum phenytoin concentrations were obtained over the 72-hour period following drug administration. No statistical difference in area under the curve (AUC), time to peak phenytoin concentration, or peak phenytoin concentration was observed during the three treatment phases. These data suggest that the two enteral feeding formulations investigated do not interfere with nor enhance or accelerate phenytoin absorption as determined by a single-dose study. PMID:1907681

  8. Constitutive model for shape memory alloys and its use in design and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sudip; Santhanam, Sridhar

    2002-07-01

    A constitutive model for predicting the thermomechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) has been developed and validated. The model uses an approach similar to Brinson, Liang and Rogers, and Tanaka. It links key thermomechanical variables: stress, strain, temperature, and martensite fraction. A basic differential form for the SMA constitutive behavior, developed by Tanaka, forms the foundation of the model. The model is completed with a definition of the rules governing the behavior of martensite fraction. Like Brinson, the model distinguishes between de-twinned and twinned martensite. The phase transition temperatures are assumed to be a linear function of applied stress. The forward and reverse phase transformations are described by piecewise exponential functions. There are a number of parameters in the model that need to be determined using experimental data. The critical transformation temperatures are determined by resistivity measurements. All other parameters are determined by mechanical tension testing followed by nonlinear least-squares estimations. Mechanical testing consisted of displacement controlled, tension tests on Nitinol wires at several temperatures. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by its use in the design of an SMA actuated robotic arm. The constitutive model is used in conjunction with a lumped heat transfer model, a kinematic model, and a dynamic model to predict the behavior of the arm. Comparison between predictions and experimentally observed behavior is very good indicating a sound constitutive model. The model is also built into a finite element code that simulates pseudoelastic SMA behavior. The code considers geometric and material nonlinearities. The behavior of a simple pseudoelastic device is shown to be well predicted by the finite element code.

  9. 3D finite element analysis of porous Ti-based alloy prostheses.

    PubMed

    Mircheski, Ile; Gradišar, Marko

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, novel designs of porous acetabular cups are created and tested with 3D finite element analysis (FEA). The aim is to develop a porous acetabular cup with low effective radial stiffness of the structure, which will be near to the architectural and mechanical behavior of the natural bone. For the realization of this research, a 3D-scanner technology was used for obtaining a 3D-CAD model of the pelvis bone, a 3D-CAD software for creating a porous acetabular cup, and a 3D-FEA software for virtual testing of a novel design of the porous acetabular cup. The results obtained from this research reveal that a porous acetabular cup from Ti-based alloys with 60 ± 5% porosity has the mechanical behavior and effective radial stiffness (Young's modulus in radial direction) that meet and exceed the required properties of the natural bone. The virtual testing with 3D-FEA of a novel design with porous structure during the very early stage of the design and the development of orthopedic implants, enables obtaining a new or improved biomedical implant for a relatively short time and reduced price. PMID:27015664

  10. First principles calculations of alloying element diffusion coefficients in Ni using the five-frequency model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Li, Shu-Suo; Ma, Yue; Gong, Sheng-Kai

    2012-10-01

    The diffusion coefficients of several alloying elements (Al, Mo, Co, Ta, Ru, W, Cr, Re) in Ni are directly calculated using the five-frequency model and the first principles density functional theory. The correlation factors provided by the five-frequency model are explicitly calculated. The calculated diffusion coefficients show their excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Both the diffusion pre-factor (D0) and the activation energy (Q) of impurity diffusion are obtained. The diffusion coefficients above 700 K are sorted in the following order: DAl > DCr > DCo > DTa > DMo > DRu > DW > DRe. It is found that there is a positive correlation between the atomic radius of the solute and the jump energy of Ni that results in the rotation of the solute-vacancy pair (E1). The value of E2-E1 (E2 is the solute diffusion energy) and the correlation factor each also show a positive correlation. The larger atoms in the same series have lower diffusion activation energies and faster diffusion coefficients.

  11. The effect of alloy elements on the microstructure and properties of austempered ductile irons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, B.Y.; Chen, E.T.; Lei, T.S.

    1995-05-01

    Ductile cast iron has already demonstrated excellent mechanical properties. If given proper austempering, it can exhibit even more outstanding characteristics. The process of austempering for ductile cast iron is similar to steel, and requires an adequate completely, and then rapidly quenching the austenitizing temperature allowing the matrix of ductile iron to be austenitized completely, and then rapidly quenching the austenitized ductile iron down to 300 C--400 C. Caution is required to prevent austenite from transforming into proeutectoid ferrite or pearlite. Finally, the ductile iron must be kept in an isothermal condition for a proper length of time. Many kinds of experimental techniques such as quantitative metallography, magnetic change, dilatometry, X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity change etc., may be used to measure the phase transformation during the austempering of ductile irons. However, the method of measuring the change of electrical resistivity, not only provides continuous and complete data, but also the time to start and to finish for both stages of the reaction can be significantly determined. In this paper, the effect of alloy elements on the microstructure and property of ADI was investigated. First, the specimens containing Mn, Cu, Ni and Mo were made separately, then a PC-controlled vacuum heat treating system was used for the heat treatments.

  12. Application of Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy bars as reinforcement elements in concrete beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Araki, Yoshikazu; Nagae, Takuya; Yano, Hayato; Koetaka, Yuji; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2012-04-01

    Experimental works are done to assess the seismic behavior of concrete beams reinforced with superelastic alloy (SEA) bars. Applicability of newly developed Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars, characterized by large recovery strain, low material cost, and high machinability, have been proposed as partial replacements for conventional steel bars in order to reduce residual deformations in structures during and after intense earthquakes. Four-point reverse-cyclic bending tests were done on 1/3 scale concrete beams comprising three different types of specimens - conventional steel reinforced concrete (ST-RC), SEA reinforced concrete (SEA-RC), and SEA reinforced concrete with pre-tensioning (SEA-PC). The results showed that SEA reinforced concrete beams demonstrated significant enhancement in crack recovery capacity in comparison to steel reinforced beam. Average recovery of cracks for each of the specimens was 21% for ST-RC, 84% for SEA-RC, and 86% for SEA-PC. In addition, SEA-RC and SEA-PC beams demonstrated strong capability of recentering with comparable normalized strength and ductility relative to conventional ST-RC beam specimen. ST-RC beam, on the other hand, showed large residual cracks due to progressive reduction in its re-centering capability with each cycle. Both the SEA-RC and SEA-PC specimens demonstrated superiority of Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars to conventional steel reinforcing bars as reinforcement elements.

  13. Influence of alloying elements on the structure and corrosion resistance of galvanized coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlias, G.; Pistofidis, N.; Stergioudis, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Tsipas, D.

    2004-05-01

    Carbon steel samples were galvanized by the hot-dip method in zinc baths containing 0.5 or 1 wt% aluminum, copper, tin, nickel, and/or lead. Bath temperature ranged from 450 to 480 °C. The samples were examined using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influence of the alloying elements on the formation of the different phases and on the diffusion process is discussed. In order to study the kinetics and the mechanism of corrosion of these materials, corrosion experiments were carried out in a simulated environment of accelerated atmospheric corrosion conditions, for which a special chamber (Salt Spray Chamber - Alternative Climate Test Chamber) of type SC-450 was used. The corroded samples were examined using optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. Chloride and oxide phases, which penetrated the materials to different depths from the surface, were revealed. Finally, useful conclusions were drawn which help to control the factors of the corrosion behavior of the examined materials in a marine atmosphere.

  14. Determination of some trace elements in food and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with holmium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Sibel; Soylak, Mustafa; Cabuk, Dilek; Topalak, Zeynep; Karagozlu, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    The determination of trace elements in food and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry was investigated. A coprecipitation procedure with holmium hydroxide was used for separation-preconcentration of trace elements. Trace amounts of copper(II), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(ll), chromium(lll), iron(Ill), cadmium(ll), and lead(ll) ions were coprecipitated with holmium hydroxide in 2.0 M NaOH medium. The optimum conditions for the coprecipitation process were investigated for several commonly tested experimental parameters, such as amount of coprecipitant, effect of standing time, centrifugation rate and time, and sample volume. The precision, based on replicate analysis, was lower than 10% for the analytes. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, the certified reference materials BCR 141 R calcareous loam soil and CRM 025-050 soil were analyzed. The procedure was successfully applied for separation and preconcentration of the investigated ions in various food and soil samples. An amount of the solid samples was decomposed with 15 mL concentrated hydrochloric acid-concentrated nitric acid (3 + 1). The preconcentration procedure was then applied to the final solutions. The concentration of trace elements in samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:22816279

  15. Three-Dimensional Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulation of Hot Compressive Deformation Behaviors of 7075 Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei-Ting; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Ling; Shen, Lu-Ming; Wen, Dong-Xu

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) method is used to investigate the hot compressive deformation behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy. Based on the grain morphology and crystallographic texture of 7075 aluminum alloy, the microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) model was established by the pole figure inversion approach. In order to study the macroscopic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution, the CPFE simulations are performed on the established microstructure-based RVE model. It is found that the simulated stress-strain curves and deformation texture well agree with the measured results of 7075 aluminum alloy. With the increasing deformation degree, the remained initial weak Goss texture component tends to be strong and stable, which may result in the steady flow stress. The grain orientation and grain misorientation have significant effects on the deformation heterogeneity during hot compressive deformation. In the rolling-normal plane, the continuity of strain and misorientation can maintain across the low-angle grain boundaries, while the discontinuity of strain and misorientation is observed at the high-angle grain boundaries. The simulated results demonstrate that the developed CPFE model can well describe the hot compressive deformation behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy under elevated temperatures.

  16. Investigation of absorptance and emissivity of thermal control coatings on Mg–Li alloys and OES analysis during PEO process

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhongping; Xia, Qixing; Ju, Pengfei; Wang, Jiankang; Su, Peibo; Li, Dongqi; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Thermal control ceramic coatings on Mg–Li alloys have been successfully prepared in silicate electrolyte system by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The PEO coatings are mainly composed of crystallized Mg2SiO4 and MgO, which have typical porous structure with some bulges on the surface; OES analysis shows that the plasma temperature, which is influenced by the technique parameters, determines the formation of the coatings with different crystalline phases and morphologies, combined with “quick cooling effect” by the electrolyte; and the electron concentration is constant, which is related to the electric spark breakdown, determined by the nature of the coating and the interface of coating/electrolyte. Technique parameters influence the coating thickness, roughness and surface morphology, but do not change the coating composition in the specific PEO regime, and therefore the absorptance (αS) and emissivity (ε) of the coatings can be adjusted by the technique parameters through changing thickness and roughness in a certain degree. The coating prepared at 10 A/dm2, 50 Hz, 30 min and 14 g/L Na2SiO3 has the minimum value of αS (0.35) and the maximum value of ε (0.82), with the balance temperature of 320 K. PMID:27383569

  17. Investigation of absorptance and emissivity of thermal control coatings on Mg–Li alloys and OES analysis during PEO process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhongping; Xia, Qixing; Ju, Pengfei; Wang, Jiankang; Su, Peibo; Li, Dongqi; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2016-07-01

    Thermal control ceramic coatings on Mg–Li alloys have been successfully prepared in silicate electrolyte system by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The PEO coatings are mainly composed of crystallized Mg2SiO4 and MgO, which have typical porous structure with some bulges on the surface; OES analysis shows that the plasma temperature, which is influenced by the technique parameters, determines the formation of the coatings with different crystalline phases and morphologies, combined with “quick cooling effect” by the electrolyte; and the electron concentration is constant, which is related to the electric spark breakdown, determined by the nature of the coating and the interface of coating/electrolyte. Technique parameters influence the coating thickness, roughness and surface morphology, but do not change the coating composition in the specific PEO regime, and therefore the absorptance (αS) and emissivity (ε) of the coatings can be adjusted by the technique parameters through changing thickness and roughness in a certain degree. The coating prepared at 10 A/dm2, 50 Hz, 30 min and 14 g/L Na2SiO3 has the minimum value of αS (0.35) and the maximum value of ε (0.82), with the balance temperature of 320 K.

  18. Investigation of absorptance and emissivity of thermal control coatings on Mg-Li alloys and OES analysis during PEO process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhongping; Xia, Qixing; Ju, Pengfei; Wang, Jiankang; Su, Peibo; Li, Dongqi; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Thermal control ceramic coatings on Mg-Li alloys have been successfully prepared in silicate electrolyte system by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The PEO coatings are mainly composed of crystallized Mg2SiO4 and MgO, which have typical porous structure with some bulges on the surface; OES analysis shows that the plasma temperature, which is influenced by the technique parameters, determines the formation of the coatings with different crystalline phases and morphologies, combined with "quick cooling effect" by the electrolyte; and the electron concentration is constant, which is related to the electric spark breakdown, determined by the nature of the coating and the interface of coating/electrolyte. Technique parameters influence the coating thickness, roughness and surface morphology, but do not change the coating composition in the specific PEO regime, and therefore the absorptance (αS) and emissivity (ε) of the coatings can be adjusted by the technique parameters through changing thickness and roughness in a certain degree. The coating prepared at 10 A/dm(2), 50 Hz, 30 min and 14 g/L Na2SiO3 has the minimum value of αS (0.35) and the maximum value of ε (0.82), with the balance temperature of 320 K. PMID:27383569

  19. Studies of Mn/GaAs digital alloys using x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray diffraction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Y. L.; Kioseoglou, G.; Kim, S.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Kao, Y. H.; Sasaki, Y.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2002-04-01

    Local structure and effective chemical valency of Mn atoms in Mn/GaAs digital alloys have been investigated using the x-ray absorption fine structure techniques. The samples were prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy with different thickness of GaAs layers separating the nominal Mn monolayers. Lattice constants of the digital alloys are found by x-ray diffraction to increase linearly in a very narrow range (about 0.3%) with the Mn/GaAs ratio in the samples. Our data show that Mn atoms in the nominal Mn monolayers actually combine with GaAs to form (Ga, Mn)As alloys with Mn atoms substituting for the Ga sites in GaAs. This result clearly rules out the possibility of dominant MnAs formation.

  20. Atomic scale investigation of redistribution of alloying elements in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Choi, P; Goto, S; Borchers, C; Raabe, D; Kirchheim, R

    2013-09-01

    A local electrode atom probe has been employed to analyze the redistribution of alloying elements including Si, Mn, and Cr in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and subsequent annealing. It has been found that the three elements undergo mechanical mixing upon cold-drawing at large strains, where Mn and Cr exhibit a nearly homogeneous distribution throughout both ferrite and cementite, whereas Si only dissolves slightly in cementite. Annealing at elevated temperatures leads to a reversion of the mechanical alloying. Si atoms mainly segregate at well-defined ferrite (sub)grain boundaries formed during annealing. Cr and Mn are strongly concentrated in cementite adjacent to the ferrite/cementite interface due to their lower diffusivities in cementite than in ferrite. PMID:23237772

  1. Back-extraction of trace elements from organometallic-halide extracts for determination by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.R.; Viets, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodkte Complex (MAGIC) extraction system offers the advantage that a large number of trace elements can be rapidly determined with a single sample preparation procedure. However, many of the elements extracted by the MAGIC system form volatile organometallic halide salts when the organic extract is heated in the graphite furnace. High concentrations of some elements such as Cu and Zn extracted by the system from anomalous geological samples produce serious interferences when certain other elements are determined by flameless atomic absorption. Stripping systems have been developed using solutions of HNO3, H2SO4, and CH3COOH individually or combined with H2O2 in order to circumvent these problems. With these systems most of the elements in the organic extract can be sequentially stripped into an aqueous phase. Organometallic volatilization and the most serious interelement interferences, therefore, can be eliminated by stripping with various combinations of reagents in a series of steps.

  2. Black-extraction of trace elements from organometallic-halide extracts for determination by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Viets, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system offers the advantage that a large number of trace elements can be rapidly determined with a single sample preparation procedure. However, many of the elements extracted by the MAGIC system form volatile organometallic halide salts when the organic extract is heated in the graphite furnace. High concentrations of some elements such as Cu and Zn extracted by the system from anomalous geological samples produce serious interferences when certain other elements are determined by flameless atomic absorption. Stripping systems have been developed using solutions of HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and CH/sub 3/COOH individually or combined with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in order to circumvent these problems. With these systems most of the elements in the organic extract can be sequentially stripped into an aqueous phase. Organometallic volatilization and the most serious interelement interferences, therefore, can be eliminated by stripping with various combinations of reagents in a series of steps.

  3. Compartmentalization of trace elements in guinea pig tissues by INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) and AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.; Holzbecher, J.; Katz, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Human scalp hair analysis has received considerable attention from a variety of disciplines over the last 20 yr or so. Trace element levels of hair have been used in environmental, epidemiological, forensic, nutritional, predictive, and preventive medicine studies. There still exist confusion, skepticism, and controversy, however, among the experts as well as lay persons in the interpretation of hair trace element data. Much of the criticism stems from the lack of quantitative and reliable data on the ability of hair to accurately reflect dose-response relationships. To better define the significance or hair trace element levels (under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency), the authors have undertaken a controlled set of animal experiments in which trace element levels in hair and other tissues have been measured after a mild state of systemic intoxication by chronic, low-does exposure to cadmium and selenium. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods have been developed for the determination of several elements with a high degree of precision and accuracy.

  4. Determination of yttrium and rare-earth elements in rocks by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J G

    1981-01-01

    With use of synthetic solutions and several international standard reference materials a method has been developed for determining traces of Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in rocks by electrothermal atomization in a pyrolytically-coated graphite furnace. Depending on the element, the sensitivity is of the order of 10(-9)-10(-12) g at 2500 degrees . To avoid matrix interferences the lanthanides are separated from the common elements by co-precipitation with calcium and iron as carriers. The data for Canadian reference rock SY-2 (syenite), U.S.G.S. reference rocks W-2 (diabase), DNC-1 (diabase) and BIR-1 (basalt), and South African reference rock NIM-18/69 (carbonatite) obtained by graphite-furnace atomization are compared with the values obtained by flame atomic-absorption. The results are in good agreement with literature values. PMID:18962852

  5. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  6. Friction and wear with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide in contact with iron base binary alloys in oil: Effects of alloying element and its content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a rider of 0.025-millimeter-radius, single-crystal silicon carbide in mineral oil. Results indicate that atomic size and content of alloying element play a dominant role in controlling the abrasive-wear and -friction properties of iron-base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction and groove height (wear volume) general alloy decrease, and the contact pressure increases in solute content. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic radius ratio with the decreasing rate of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of groove height (wear volume), and the increasing rate of contact pressure with increasing solute content C. Those rates increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases from unity.

  7. Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Garg, V K; Sharma, Anshu; Singh, Balvinder; Sharma, Himanshu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports minerals and trace elements quantification in raw caprine milk of Beetal breed, reared in Northern India and their feed, fodder & water using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. The mineral and trace elements' concentration in the milk was in the order: K > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Cu. The results showed that minerals concentration in caprine milk was lesser than reference values. But trace elements concentration (Fe and Zn) was higher than reference values. Multivariate statistical techniques, viz., Pearsons' correlation, Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to analyze the interdependences within studied variables in caprine milk. Significantly positive correlations were observed between Fe - Zn, Zn - K, Ca - Na and Ca - pH. The results of correlation matrix were further supported by Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis as primary cluster pairs were found for Ca - pH, Ca - Na and Fe - Zn in the raw milk. No correlation was found between mineral & trace elements content of the milk and feed. PMID:26243956

  8. Structural evaluation of a nickel base super alloy metal foam via NDE and finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Abumeri, G.; Garg, Mohit; Young, P. G.

    2008-03-01

    Cellular materials are known to be useful in the application of designing light but stiff structures. This applies to various components used in various industries such as rotorcraft blades, car bodies or portable electronic devices. Structural application of the metal foam is typically confined to light weight sandwich panels, made up of thin solid face sheets and a metallic foam core. The resulting high-stiffness structure is lighter than that constructed only out of the solid metal material. The face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads and the role of the foam core is separate the face sheets to carry some of the shear stresses, while remaining integral with the face sheet. Many challenges relating to the fabrication and testing of these metal foam panels continue to exist due to some mechanical properties falling short of their theoretical potential. Hence in this study, a detailed three dimensional foam structure is generated using series of 2D Computer Tomography (CT) scans, on Haynes 25 metal foam. Series of the 2D images are utilized to construct a high precision solid model including all the fine details within the metal foam as detected by the CT scanning technique. Subsequently, a finite element analysis is then performed on an as fabricated metal foam microstructures to evaluate the foam structural durability and behavior under tensile and compressive loading conditions. The analysis includes a progressive failure analysis (PFA) using GENOA code to further assess the damage initiation, propagation, and failure. The open cell metal foam material is a cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten alloy that combines excellent high-temperature strength with good resistance to oxidizing environments up to 1800 °F (980 °C) for prolonged exposures. The foam is formed by a powder metallurgy process with an approximate 100 pores per inch (PPI).

  9. Determination of rare earth and concomitant elements in magnesium alloys by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fariñas, Juan C; Rucandio, Isabel; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario S; Villanueva-Tagle, Margarita E; Larrea, María T

    2016-07-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Si, Sr, Y, Zn, Zr and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) in magnesium alloys, including the new rare earth elements-alloyed magnesium, has been developed. Robust conditions have been established as nebulizer argon flow rate of 0.5mLmin(-1) and RF incident power of 1500W, in which matrix effects were significantly reduced around 10%. Three acid digestion procedures were performed at 110°C in closed PFA vessels heated in an oven, in closed TFM vessels heated in a microwave furnace, and in open polypropylene tubes with reflux caps heated in a graphite block. The three digestion procedures are suitable to put into solution the magnesium alloys samples. From the most sensitive lines, one analytical line with lack or low spectral interferences has been selected for each element. Mg, Rh and Sc have been studied as internal standards. Among them, Rh was selected as the best one by using Rh I 343.488nm and Rh II 249.078nm lines as a function of the analytical lines. The trueness and precision have been established by using the Certified Reference Material BCS 316, as well as by means of recovery studies. Quantification limits were between 0.1 and 9mgkg(-1) for Lu and Pr, respectively, in a 2gL(-1) magnesium matrix solution. The method developed has been applied to the commercial alloys AM60, AZ80, ZK30, AJ62, WE54 and AE44. PMID:27154648

  10. Equivalent modulus method for finite element simulation of the sound absorption of anechoic coating backed with orthogonally rib-stiffened plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhongkun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Bilong

    2016-03-01

    The finite element method is often used to investigate the sound absorption of anechoic coating backed with orthogonally rib-stiffened plate. Since the anechoic coating contains cavities, the number of grid nodes of a periodic unit cell is usually large. An equivalent modulus method is proposed to reduce the large amount of nodes by calculating an equivalent homogeneous layer. Applications of this method in several models show that the method can well predict the sound absorption coefficient of such structure in a wide frequency range. Based on the simulation results, the sound absorption performance of such structure and the influences of different backings on the first absorption peak are also discussed.

  11. Structure and Element Distribution of Al2O3 Coating on ZL109 Alloy by Plasma Electrolysis Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qing; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Wang, Xubo

    It is thought that the PEO (plasma electrolysis oxidation) coatings are difficult to be prepared on the cast Al-Si alloys because these alloys contain lots of pure silicon phases. In the present study, oxide coatings with a thickness of about 10 μm were deposited on the substrate of the ZL109 Al-Si alloy by a PEO treatment. XRD showed that the phase composition of the coating was γ-Al2O3. SEM showed that the coating surface was porous, and the pore diameter was in the range of 1-5 μm. The cross-section view by EDS indicated that the coating matrix is quite dense, and there are few defects. Phosphorus from the applied electrolyte could be incorporated into the coating during the PEO process. A transitional zone with a thickness of about 3 μm was observed on the interface between the coating and substrate, and a high adhesive strength was expected. The average hardness of the coating was 576 HV0.025, which was 7.2 times higher than that of the substrate. High alloy element content of the substrate seems to have no remarkable and adverse influence on the structure and composition of the PEO coating.

  12. Effects of alloying elements on radiation hardening based on loop formation of electron-irradiated light water reactor pressure vessel model steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Takakuni; Hashimoto, N.; Ohnuki, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G. R.

    2011-10-01

    Electron irradiations using a high voltage electron microscope were conducted on several reactor pressure vessel model alloys in order to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the formation and development of defect clusters. In addition, the effects of alloying elements on yield stress change after irradiation were considered, comparing the mean size and number density of dislocation loops with the irradiation-induced hardening. High Cu alloys formed Cu and Mn-Ni-Si rich clusters, and these are important in determining the yield stress increase. High Ni alloys formed a high density of small dislocation loops and probably Mn-Ni-Si rich cluster, which have the effect of increasing the yield stress. High P enhanced radiation-induced segregation on grain boundary, helping prevent dislocation movement.

  13. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  14. Effect of micro-alloy elements (Ti, Nb, Al and Ca) on corrosion resistance of 26%Cr-2%Mo stainless steel in chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.; Lee, Y.D.

    1999-11-01

    Ferritic stainless steels have higher corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance in chloride environments than austenitic stainless steels. The production mat of ferritic stainless steels is lower than austenitic stainless steels. However, the application of highly alloyed ferritic stainless steels is limited due to low toughness and intergranular corrosion attack. Corrosion resistance of 26%Cr-2%Mo ferritic steels was evaluated using polarization test in 20% NaCl solution and the ferric chloride test. In addition, TEM and SEM were employed to analyze the secondary phases around the matrix where pitting corrosion occurred. In ferric chloride test the crevice corrosion resistance of non-stabilized alloy and Ca added alloy was lower than that of stabilized alloy and the crevice corrosion resistance of stabilized alloys was independent of stabilizing element such as Ti and Nb. The pitting corrosion resistance in chloride solution depended on micro-alloying elements as well as the surface treatment such as pickling and polishing. The effect of micro-alloy element and surface treatment on corrosion properties was explained with the aid of SEM observations. Among the polished alloys, the addition of Nb was the most effective for pitting corrosion resistance but the addition of Ti or Ca decreased the corrosion resistance. The pickling increased the corrosion resistance in all alloys except alloy No. 4 (Ti + Nb + Al). Pickling effectively increased corrosion resistance of the alloy containing Ti or Ca, due to removal of pit initiation sites associated with TiN inclusions or unstable phase (i.e., CaS, TiN).

  15. [Determination of nine trace elements in Dioscorea opposita thumb by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong; Shi, Yan-Zhi; Fan, Guo-Qiang

    2006-05-01

    The contents of the potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, strontium and nickel in Dioscorea opposita thumb were determined. The relative standard deviation(RSD) of the first eight contents is 0.43%, 1.10%, 4.41%, 0.68%, 1.44%, 1.88%, 1.29% and 0.03% respectively, and the percentage recovery is 90.0%-111.0%. The method is convenient and accurate. It can be used to determine the trace elements simultaneousy in Dioscorea opposita thumb. PMID:16883880

  16. What determines the sign of the spin Hall effects in Cu alloys doped with 5d elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhuo; Gu, Bo; Mori, Michiyasu; Ziman, Timothy; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2016-02-01

    We perform a systematical analysis of the spin Hall effect (SHE) in the Cu alloys doped with a series of 5d elements, by the combined approach of density functional theory and Hartree-Fock approximation. We find that not only the spin orbit interactions (SOI) in both the 5d and 6p orbitals, but also the local correlations in the 5d orbitals of the impurities, are decisive on the sign of the spin Hall angle (SHA). Including all of these three factors properly, we predict the SHA for each alloy in the series. The signs of CuIr and CuPt are sensitive to perturbation of the local correlations. This observation is favorable for controlling the sign of the transverse spin Hall voltage.

  17. Resilient and Corrosion-Proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Superelastic Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical components (bearings, gears, mechanisms) typically utilize hardened construction materials to minimize wear and attain long life. In such components, loaded contact points (e.g., meshing gear teeth, bearing balls-raceway contacts) experience high contact stresses. The combination of high hardness and high elastic modulus often leads to damaging contact stress and denting, particularly during transient overload events such as shock impacts that occur during the launching of space vehicles or the landing of aircraft. In this webinar, Dr. DellaCorte will introduce the results of a research project that employs a superelastic alloy, Ni-Ti for rolling element bearing applications. Bearings and components made from such alloys can alleviate many problems encountered in advanced aerospace applications and may solve many terrestrial applications as well

  18. Critical assessment of finite element analysis applied to metal-oxide interface roughness in oxidising zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Preuss, M.

    2015-09-01

    As a nuclear fuel cladding material, zirconium alloys act as a barrier between the fuel and pressurised steam or lithiated water environment. Controlling degradation mechanisms such as oxidation is essential to extending the in-service lifetime of the fuel. At temperatures of ∼360 °C zirconium alloys are known to exhibit cyclical, approximately cubic corrosion kinetics. With acceleration in the oxidation kinetics occurring every ∼2 μm of oxide growth, and being associated with the formation of a network of lateral cracks. Finite element analysis has been used previously to explain the lateral crack formation by the development of localised out-of-plane tensile stresses at the metal-oxide interface. This work uses the Abaqus finite element code to assess critically current approaches to representing the oxidation of zirconium alloys, with relation to undulations at the metal-oxide interface and localised stress generation. This includes comparison of axisymmetric and 3D quartered modelling approaches, and investigates the effect of interface geometry and plasticity in the metal substrate. Particular focus is placed on the application of the anisotropic strain tensor used to represent the oxidation mechanism, which is typically applied with a fixed coordinate system. Assessment of the impact of the tensor showed that 99% of the localised tensile stresses originated from the out-of-plane component of the strain tensor, rather than the in-plane expansion as was previously thought. Discussion is given to the difficulties associated with this modelling approach and the requirements for future simulations of the oxidation of zirconium alloys.

  19. Applications of Lagrangian Dispersion Modeling to the Analysis of Changes in the Specific Absorption of Elemental Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J. C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Laskin, Alexander; Desyaterik, Yury; Gilles, Marry K.; Hopkins, Rebecca J.

    2008-03-07

    We use a Lagrangian dispersion model driven by a mesoscale model with four-dimensional data assimilation to simulate the dispersion of elemental carbon (EC) over a region encompassing Mexico City and its surroundings, the study domain for the 2006 MAX-MEX experiment, which was a component of the MILAGRO campaign. The results are used to identify periods when biomass burning was likely to have had a significant impact on the concentrations of elemental carbon at two sites, T1 and T2, downwind of the city, and when emissions from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) were likely to have been more important. They are also used to estimate the median ages of EC affecting the specific absorption of light, aABS, at 870 nm as well as to identify periods when the urban plume from the MCMA was likely to have been advected over T1 and T2. Values of aABS at T1, the nearer of the two sites to Mexico City, were smaller at night and increased rapidly after mid-morning, peaking in the mid-afternoon. The behavior is attributed to the coating of aerosols with substances such as sulfate or organic carbon during daylight hours, but such coating appears to be limited or absent at night. Evidence for this is provided by scanning electron microscope images of aerosols collected at three sampling sites. During daylight hours the values of aABS did not increase with aerosol age for median ages in the range of 1-4 hours. There is some evidence for absorption increasing as aerosols were advected from T1 to T2 but the statistical significance of that result is not strong.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of the Random Response Suppression of Composite Panels at Elevated Temperatures using Shape Memory Alloy Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Zhong, Z. W.; Mei, Chuh

    1994-01-01

    A feasibility study on the use of shape memory alloys (SMA) for suppression of the random response of composite panels due to acoustic loads at elevated temperatures is presented. The constitutive relations for a composite lamina with embedded SMA fibers are developed. The finite element governing equations and the solution procedures for a composite plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads are presented. Solutions include: 1) Critical buckling temperature; 2) Flat panel random response; 3) Thermal postbuckling deflection; 4) Random response of a thermally buckled panel. The preliminary results demonstrate that the SMA fibers can completely eliminate the thermal postbuckling deflection and significantly reduce the random response at elevated temperatures.

  1. Experimental study of the distribution of alloying elements after the formation of epitaxial ferrite upon cooling in a low-carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Santofimia, M.J.; Kwakernaak, C.; Sloof, W.G.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2010-10-15

    The distributions of carbon and substitutional elements in a low-carbon steel during the formation of epitaxial ferrite on cooling after intercritical annealing have been studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The analysis has shown that the formation of epitaxial ferrite takes place with a partial redistribution of alloying elements between the epitaxial ferrite and the austenite. This redistribution of alloying elements causes compositional gradients in the epitaxial ferrite that lead to a different etching behaviour with respect to the intercritical ferrite. Contrary to Thermo-Calc predictions, a distinct partitioning behaviour of silicon has been observed.

  2. [Effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen application level on absorption and transportation of nutrient elements in oilseed rape].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ming; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Song, Hai-xing; Liu, Qiang; Rong, Xiang-min; Guan, Chun-yun; Zeng, Jing; Yuan, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Effect of elevated atmospheric-CO2 (780 µmol . mol-1) on the absorption and transportation of secondary nutrient elements (calcium, magnesium, sulphur) and micronutrient elements (iron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum and boron) in oilseed rape at the stem elongation stage were studied by greenhouse simulated method. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the content of Zn in stem was increased and the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with no nitrogen (N) application; the contents of Ca, S, B and Zn were increased, and the contents of Mg, Mn, Mo and Fe were decreased under the elevated atmospheric CO2 with N application (0.2 g N . kg-1 soil); except the content of Mo in leaf was increased, the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with two levels of N application. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the amounts of Ca and S relative to the total amount of secondary nutrient elements in stem and the amounts of B and Zn relative to the total amount of micronutrient elements in stem were increased under the elevated-CO2 treatment with both levels of N application, and the corresponding values of Mg, Fe, Mn and Mo were decreased; no-N application treatment increased the proportion of Ca distributed into the leaves, and the proportion of Mg distributed into leaves was increased by the normal-N application level; the proportions of Mn, Zn and Mo distributed into the leaves were increased at both N application levels. Without N application, the elevation of atmospheric CO2 increased the transport coefficients of SFe, Mo and SS,B, but decreased the transport coefficients of SMg,Fe, SMg, Mn and SS,Fe, indicating the proportions of Mo, S transported into the upper part of plant tissues was higher than that of Fe, and the corresponding value of B was higher than that observed for S, the corresponding value of Mg was higher than that of Fe and Mn. Under normal-N application

  3. Multiscale modeling of ultrafast element-specific magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzke, D.; Atxitia, U.; Carva, K.; Nieves, P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Nowak, U.

    2015-08-01

    A hierarchical multiscale approach to model the magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic random alloys is presented. First-principles calculations of the Heisenberg exchange integrals are linked to atomistic spin models based upon the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation to calculate temperature-dependent parameters (e.g., effective exchange interactions, damping parameters). These parameters are subsequently used in the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch (LLB) model for multisublattice magnets to calculate numerically and analytically the ultrafast demagnetization times. The developed multiscale method is applied here to FeNi (permalloy) as well as to copper-doped FeNi alloys. We find that after an ultrafast heat pulse the Ni sublattice demagnetizes faster than the Fe sublattice for the here-studied FeNi-based alloys.

  4. Combined elemental and microstructural analysis of genuine and fake copper-alloy coins

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, L; Agresti, J; Mascalchi, M; Mencaglia, A; Cacciari, I; Siano, Salvatore

    2011-07-31

    Innovative noninvasive material analysis techniques are applied to determine archaeometallurgical characteristics of copper-alloy coins from Florence's National Museum of Archaeology. Three supposedly authentic Roman coins and three hypothetically fraudolent imitations are thoroughly investigated using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy and time of flight neutron diffraction along with 3D videomicroscopy and electron microscopy. Material analyses are aimed at collecting data allowing for objective discrimination between genuine Roman productions and late fakes. The results show the mentioned techniques provide quantitative compositional and textural data, which are strictly related to the manufacturing processes and aging of copper alloys. (laser applications)

  5. Osmium isotopic compositions of Os-rich platinum group element alloys from the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Frei, Robert; Sleep, Norman H.

    2004-02-01

    We present new measurements of 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os in 10 Os-rich platinum group element (PGE) alloys from placer deposits formed by the mechanical erosion of peridotite-bearing ophiolites in the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains in northern California and southwestern Oregon. These data nearly double our database of high-precision 186Os/188Os measurements on such samples. Together with previously published data, our new results reinforce the conclusion that the radiogenic 186Os/188Os compositions of these PGE alloys are very difficult to reconcile with a derivation of their Os from the outer core. Such a model requires extremely early growth of the inner core to its present size, within several hundred million years after accretion of the Earth, which is geophysically implausible. Collectively, our data suggest instead that partial melting or metasomatic processes in the upper mantle play a primary role in controlling the Os isotopic systematics of these Os-rich PGE alloys and suggest the existence of upper mantle components characterized by radiogenic 186Os/188Os ratios. Pyroxene-rich lithologies are possible candidates.

  6. Element-selective investigation of domain structure in CoPd and FePd alloys using small-angle soft X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weier, C.; Adam, R.; Frömter, R.; Bach, J.; Winkler, G.; Kobs, A.; Oepen, H. P.; Grychtol, P.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Murnane, M. M.; Schneider, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    Recent optical pump-probe experiments on magnetic multilayers and alloys identified perpendicular spin superdiffusion as one of possible mechanisms responsible for femtosecond magnetization dynamics. On the other hand, no strong evidence for the ultrafast lateral spin transport has been reported, so far. To address this question, we studied magnetic domain structure of CoPd and FePd thin films using small-angle scattering of soft X-rays. By tuning the synchrotron-generated X-rays to the absorption edges of Fe or Co we recorded Fourier images of the magnetic domain structure corresponding to a chosen element. Applying in - situ magnetic fields resulted in pronounced rearrangement of domain structure that was clearly observed in scattering images. Our analysis of both the stand-alone, as well as magnetically coupled CoPd/FePd layers provides insight into the formation of domains under small magnetic field perturbations and pave the way to better understanding of transient changes expected in magneto-dynamic measurements.

  7. Robust half-metallic properties in inverse Heusler alloys composed of 4d transition metal elements: Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. T.; Lin, T. T.; Rozale, H.; Dai, X. F.; Liu, G. D.

    2016-03-01

    A first-principles approach is used to study the electronic and magnetic properties of Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys in the Hg2CuTi-type structure. The Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys are found to be half-metallic ferrimagnets. The half-metallicity is quite robust against hydrostatic strain and tetragonal deformation in Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys. The magnetization of Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys mainly originates from the 4d electrons of Zr atoms and follows the rule: Mt=Zt-18. Zr2Rh-based alloys do not contain any 3d transition metal element, which implies a wider field to search for new half-metallic materials.

  8. Solid solubility in 1:13 phase of doping element for La(Fe,Si)13 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, S. T.; Wang, C. L.; Long, Y.; Fu, B.; Shi, J. M.; Han, J.; Zhao, Y. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The influences of Ni, Cr and Nb as substitution elements for Fe were investigated. The change in microstructure and the magnetic properties have been discussed in detail. Substitution elements Ni, Cr and Nb not only have limited solubility in NaZn13-type (1:13) phase, but also hinder the peritectoid reaction. Ni element mainly enters into La-rich phase while Cr element mainly concentrates in α-Fe phase, which both have detriment effect on the peritectoid reaction, leading to a large residual of impurity phases after annealing and a decrease of magnetic entropy change. Besides, Ni and Cr participated in peritectoid reaction by entering parent phases but slightly entering 1:13 phase, which would cause the disappearance of first order magnetic phase transition. A new phase (Fe,Si)2Nb was found when Nb element substitutes Fe in La(Fe,Si)13, suggesting that Nb does not participate in peritectoid reaction and only exists in (Fe,Si)2Nb phase after annealing. The alloy with Nb substitution maintains the first order magnetic phase transition character.

  9. Transmutations of elements under irradiation and its impact on alloys composition

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor) fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time. As examples, the transmutation rates of W, Ta, V, Cu, among others, differ considerably when the irradiation is performed under a mixed spectrum reactor`s and fusion first wall`s spectrum. Fast reactors (EBR-II) provide the only possibility for obtaining high damage rates without producing significant compositional effects in vanadium alloys, ferritic steels and copper alloys.

  10. Silver and lanthanum as effective modifiers in trace determination of cadmium in nickel-base alloys by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Chang, Li-Lin; Chang, Shiow-Ing

    1997-01-01

    Trace cadmium in nickel-base superalloys was determined by a stabilized temperature platform furnace using atomic absorption spectrometry with a deuterium arc background correction system. The volatility of cadmium limits the pyrolysis temperature. This prevents the removal of the interfering alloy matrix at the thermal pretreatment step. Hence, an enormously high background signal has been observed. Chemical modifiers including ammonium citrate, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-naphthol, 4-(2pyridylazo)resorcinol, 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)-phenol, Triton-X 100, EDTA, potassium nitrate, palladium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, aluminum chloride, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, lanthanum oxide, lanthanum chloride and silver nitrate have been studied. Matrix interferences were effectively reduced by silver and lanthanum. The 100-300°C increase in the pyrolysis temperature effectively reduced the non-specific absorption from the alloy matrix. Interferences from foreign ions were also investigated. The merit of the proposed method was increased by the excellent agreement between the certified and the experimental values of Cd in the standard reference material, IN100, and the recovery obtained (100-104%). The precision of six successive replicate measurements was 4.9% with Ag modifier and 2.5% with La modifier, respectively. The results of analysing Tracealloy B were also satisfactory.

  11. Mechanical behaviour of pressed and sintered titanium alloys obtained from prealloyed and blended elemental powders.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, L; Esteban, P G; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2012-10-01

    The applicability of irregular prealloyed Ti-6Al-4V powder for the fabrication of titanium products by pressing and sintering and its employment as a master alloy to obtain the Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy was studied. To this end, the starting powders were characterised by dilatometry, differential thermal analysis and XRD. Green samples were obtained by cold uniaxial pressing, and the evolution of the microstructure over the sintering temperature range 900-1400°C was studied. The variation of the final density and mechanical properties with the sintering temperature was considered. Based on the study carried out, it can be stated that more reliable powders are needed to open the titanium market to new applications. A relative density of 95% and diverse microstructural features and mechanical properties equivalent to those of biomedical devices can be obtained by the pressing and sintering route. PMID:22963744

  12. Determination of trace elements in dolomite and gypsum by atomic absorption spectrometry: overcoming the matrix interference by flotation separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafilov, Trajče; Zendelovska, Dragica; Pavlovska, Gorica; Čundeva, Katarina

    2002-05-01

    The interferences of Ca and Mg as matrix elements in dolomite and gypsum on Ag, Cd, Cr, Mn, Tl and Zn absorbances during their electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric (ETAAS) determination are investigated. The results reveal that Ca and Mg do not interfere on Zn and Mn, tend to decrease absorbances of Ag, Cd and Cr, while Tl suffers the most significant influence. A flotation separation method is proposed to eliminate matrix interferences. Hydrated iron(III) oxide, Fe 2O 3· xH 2O, and iron(III) hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, Fe(HMDTC) 3, are applied as flotation collectors. The influence of hydrophobic dithiocarbamate anion, HMDTC, on flotation recoveries of each analyte is studied. The most suitable concentrations of dolomite and gypsum solutions for flotation are determined. To avoid flotation suppression due to the reaction of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ with surfactant ions, a fit foaming agent was selected. The elements present in dolomite and gypsum as traces have been analyzed by ETAAS. Their ETAAS limits of detection following flotation are found to be 0.021 μg·g -1 for Ag, 0.019 μg·g -1 for Cd, 0.014 μg·g -1 for Cr and 0.11 μg·g -1 for Tl. The determination of Mn and Zn can be performed by flame AAS (FAAS). The limit of detection for Mn is 1.5 μg·g -1, while for Zn 0.8 μg·g -1.

  13. Determination of Pb in Biological Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: An Exercise in Common Interferences and Fundamental Practices in Trace Element Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spudich, Thomas M.; Herrmann, Jennifer K.; Fietkau, Ronald; Edwards, Grant A.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to ascertain trace-level Pb in samples of bovine liver or muscle by applying graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The primary objective is to display the effects of physical and spectral intrusions in determining trace elements, and project the usual methods employed to minimize accuracy errors…

  14. Fluorescence detection of white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy: towards element-sensitive projections of local atomic structure

    PubMed Central

    Korecki, P.; Tolkiehn, M.; Dąbrowski, K. M.; Novikov, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA) pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. This kind of anisotropy results from the interference of X-rays inside a sample and, owing to the short coherence length of a white beam, is visible only at small angles around interatomic directions. Consequently, the main features of the recorded XAA corresponded to distorted real-space projections of dense-packed atomic planes and atomic rows. A quantitative analysis of XAA was carried out using a wavelet transform and allowed well resolved projections of Nb atoms to be obtained up to distances of 10 Å. The signal of nearest O atoms was detected indirectly by a comparison with model calculations. The measurement of white-beam XAA using characteristic radiation indicates the possibility of obtaining element-sensitive projections of the local atomic structure in more complex samples. PMID:21997909

  15. Ultraschall-Geschwindigkeit und-Absorption in Bi-In-Schmelzen /Ultrasonic Velocity and Absorption in Bi-In-melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bek, R.; Steeb, S.

    1981-02-01

    Using the pulse-echo method the ultrasonic velocity and absorption was measured with Bi-In-melts in the temperature range from liquidus up to more than 600 °C. The frequencies used reached from 10 MHz up to 130 MHz. Within the experimental accuracy no frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient α/f2 could be detected. An excess absorption can be observed, which for the molten elements can be explained by fluctuations of the packing density. For the molten alloys additionally concentration fluctuations play an important role. Thus an understanding of the temperature dependency of the ultrasonic velocity and absorption can be achieved.

  16. Elevated temperature aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meschter, Peter (Inventor); Lederich, Richard J. (Inventor); O'Neal, James E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Three aluminum-lithium alloys are provided for high performance aircraft structures and engines. All three alloys contain 3 wt % copper, 2 wt % lithium, 1 wt % magnesium, and 0.2 wt % zirconium. Alloy 1 has no further alloying elements. Alloy 2 has the addition of 1 wt % iron and 1 wt % nickel. Alloy 3 has the addition of 1.6 wt % chromium to the shared alloy composition of the three alloys. The balance of the three alloys, except for incidentql impurities, is aluminum. These alloys have low densities and improved strengths at temperatures up to 260.degree. C. for long periods of time.

  17. High temperature oxidation behavior of gamma-nickel+gamma'-nickel aluminum alloys and coatings modified with platinum and reactive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Nan

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000°C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455°C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain beta-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al2O3 scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used beta-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt+Hf-modified gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni 3Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase gamma-Ni and gamma'-Ni3Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al 2O3 formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both gamma-Ni and gamma'-Ni3Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures (˜970°C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It

  18. A computational investigation of the effect of alloying elements on the thermodynamic and diffusion properties of fcc nickel alloys, with application to the creep rate of dilute nickel-X alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacherl, Chelsey L.

    In this dissertation, two computational techniques have been employed to understand the alloying effects of various transition elements in Ni and its alloys. To aid in the process of narrowing down the large composition space for the design of future Ni-base superalloys, a thermodynamic model using the CALPHAD approach is developed, where Gibbs energy functions of individual phases are parameterized based on fittings to experimentally measured phase equilibria or thermochemical data and computationally predicted thermochemical data. Multi-component Ni-base superalloys can be accurately described within the CALPHAD approach through the extrapolation of the Gibbs energy functions of the simpler sub-systems which are modeled where experimental and computational data is usually more abundant. The Re-Y and Re-Ti systems, integral binary alloy systems in the Ni-base superalloy database, are modeled in the present work. In addition to studying thermodynamic and phase stability properties of Ni-base superalloys, this thesis also highlights the importance of the kinetic properties of these materials through their diffusion coefficients. Vacancy mediated self-diffusion coefficients are calculated on ferromagnetic and non-magnetic fcc Ni as a function of temperature. Within Eyring’s reaction rate theory, minimum energy pathways for the diffusing atom is calculated using the Nudged Elastic Band method. The present work demonstrates that the mid-row 5d transition row element impurities have the highest activation barriers for impurity diffusion, and subsequently are the slowest diffusers in Ni. The fastest diffusers in Ni coupled with the lowest activation barriers for impurity diffusion are demonstrated to be at the far left of the 3d and 4d transition element rows on the periodic table. The present work also demonstrates that the primary mechanism driving the variation in the impurity diffusion coefficient from element to element is the migration barrier for impurity

  19. Synergistic effect of alloying elements doping and external pressure on the elastic property of Ni{sub 3}Al: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. Shang, J.; Yue, Z.; Kou, L.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, the basic electronic structures and elastic properties of Ni{sub 3}Al doping with alloying elements (Re, Cr, and Mo) under different pressures have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. It is shown that both alloying elements and external applied pressure contribute positively to the elastic properties of Ni{sub 3}Al, and the configurations of the compounds remain almost unchanged. The calculated elastic constants and moduli increase linearly with the pressure increasing from 0 and 40 GPa. Among the alloying elements studied in the present work, Re exhibits the most significant effect compared with the other elements, showing its practical importance. Especially, if both alloying elements doping and pressure effects are considered simultaneously, which has not been considered previously, the studied compounds exhibit an even better elastic property than the simple superposition of the two influences. Such synergistic effect demonstrates promising applications of Ni-based single crystal superalloys in possible extreme mechanical environments.

  20. Alloying Element Nitride Development in Ferritic Fe-Based Materials Upon Nitriding: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, T.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of achieving a better understanding of the nitriding process of iron-based components (steels), as applied in engineering practice, the theoretical background and experimental observations currently available on the crystallographic, morphological, and compositional properties of the nitride precipitates in nitrided model binary and ternary, ferritic Fe-based alloys are summarily presented. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations are employed in order to highlight their importance for the nitriding reaction and the resulting properties of the nitrided zone, thereby providing a more fundamental understanding of the nitriding process.

  1. Alloying Element Nitride Development in Ferritic Fe-Based Materials Upon Nitriding: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, T.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of achieving a better understanding of the nitriding process of iron-based components (steels), as applied in engineering practice, the theoretical background and experimental observations currently available on the crystallographic, morphological, and compositional properties of the nitride precipitates in nitrided model binary and ternary, ferritic Fe-based alloys are summarily presented. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations are employed in order to highlight their importance for the nitriding reaction and the resulting properties of the nitrided zone, thereby providing a more fundamental understanding of the nitriding process.

  2. Finite Element Simulation of Temperature and Strain Distribution during Friction Stir Welding of AA2024 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rahul; Pal, Surjya Kanta; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2016-06-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process and is handy for welding aluminum alloys. Finite Element Method (FEM) is an important tool to predict state variables of the process but numerical simulation of FSW is highly complex due to non-linear contact interactions between tool and work piece and interdependency of displacement and temperature. In the present work, a three dimensional coupled thermo-mechanical method based on Lagrangian implicit method is proposed to study the thermal history, strain distribution and thermo-mechanical process in butt welding of Aluminum alloy 2024 using DEFORM-3D software. Workpiece is defined as rigid-visco plastic material and sticking condition between tool and work piece is defined. Adaptive re-meshing is used to tackle high mesh distortion. Effect of tool rotational and welding speed on plastic strain is studied and insight is given on asymmetric nature of FSW process. Temperature distribution on the workpiece and tool is predicted and maximum temperature is found in workpiece top surface.

  3. As-Cast Residual Stresses in an Aluminum Alloy AA6063 Billet: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezet, J.-M.; Phillion, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of thermally induced residual stresses, created during the industrial direct chill (DC) casting process of aluminum alloys, can cause both significant safety concerns and the formation of defects during downstream processing. Although numerical models have been previously developed to compute these residual stresses, most of the computations have been validated only against measured surface distortions. Recently, the variation in residual elastic strains in the steady-state regime of casting has been measured as a function of radial position using neutron diffraction (ND) in an AA6063 grain-refined cylindrical billet. In the present study, these measurements are used to show that a well-designed thermomechanical finite element (FE) process model can reproduce relatively well the experimental results. A sensitivity analysis is then carried out to determine the relative effect of the various mechanical parameters when computing the as-cast residual stresses in a cylindrical billet. Two model parameters have been investigated: the temperature when the alloy starts to thermally contract and the plasticity behavior. It is shown that the mechanical properties at low temperatures have a much larger influence on the residual stresses than those at high temperatures.

  4. Resilient and Corrosion-Proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Superelastic Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace Mechanism Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stanford, Malcolm; Padula, Santo A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical components (bearings, gears, mechanisms) typically utilize hard materials to minimize wear and attain long life. In such components, heavily loaded contact points (e.g., meshing gear teeth, bearing ball-raceway contacts) experience high contact stresses. The combination of high hardness, heavy loads and high elastic modulus often leads to damaging contact stress. In addition, mechanical component materials, such as tool steel or silicon nitride exhibit limited recoverable strain (typically less than 1 percent). These material attributes can lead to Brinell damage (e.g., denting) particularly during transient overload events such as shock impacts that occur during the launching of space vehicles or the landing of aircraft. In this paper, a superelastic alloy, 60NiTi, is considered for rolling element bearing applications. A series of Rockwell and Brinell hardness, compressive strength, fatigue and tribology tests are conducted and reported. The combination of high hardness, moderate elastic modulus, large recoverable strain, low density, and intrinsic corrosion immunity provide a path to bearings largely impervious to shock load damage. It is anticipated that bearings and components made from alloys with such attributes can alleviate many problems encountered in advanced aerospace applications.

  5. Study of the effects of metalloid elements (P, C, B) on Fe-based amorphous alloys by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbiao; Li, Qiang; Duan, Haiming

    2015-03-01

    In order to understand the effects of the metalloid elements M (M: P, C, B) on the atomic structure, glass formation ability (GFA) and magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys, Fe80P13C7, Fe80P14B6 and Fe80B14C6 amorphous alloys are chosen to study through first-principle simulations in the present work. The atomic structure characteristic of the three amorphous alloys is investigated through the pair distribution functions (PDFs) and Voronoi Polyhedra (VPs) analyses. The PDFs and VPs analyses suggest that the GFA of the three alloys dropped in the order of Fe80P13C7, Fe80P14B6, and Fe80B14C6, which is well consistent with the experimental results. The density of state (DOS) of the three amorphous alloys is calculated to investigate their magnetic properties. Based on the DOS analysis, the average magnetic moment of Fe atom in Fe80P13C7 and Fe80P14B6 amorphous alloys can be estimated to be 1.71 μB and 1.70 μB, respectively, which are in acceptable agreement with the experimental results. However, the calculated average magnetic moment of Fe atom in Fe80B14C6 amorphous alloy is about 1.62 μB, which is far less than the experimental result.

  6. Surface faceting and elemental diffusion behaviour at atomic scale for alloy nanoparticles during in situ annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Chao; Lei, Yinkai; Wang, Guofeng; Li, Dongguo; More, Karren L.; Lupini, Andrew; Allard, Lawrence F.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.

    2015-11-18

    The catalytic performance of nanoparticles is primarily determined by the precise nature of the surface and near-surface atomic configurations, which can be tailored by post-synthesis annealing effectively and straightforwardly. Understanding the complete dynamic response of surface structure and chemistry to thermal treatments at the atomic scale is imperative for the rational design of catalyst nanoparticles. Here, by tracking the same individual Pt3Co nanoparticles during in situ annealing in a scanning transmission electron microscope, we directly discern five distinct stages of surface elemental rearrangements in Pt3Co nanoparticles at the atomic scale: initial random (alloy) elemental distribution; surface platinum-skin-layer formation; nucleation of structurally ordered domains; ordered framework development and, finally, initiation of amorphization. Furthermore, a comprehensive interplay among phase evolution, surface faceting and elemental inter-diffusion is revealed, and supported by atomistic simulations. Furthermore, this work may pave the way towards designing catalysts through post-synthesis annealing for optimized catalytic performance.

  7. Finemet nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy: Investigation of glass forming ability, crystallization mechanism, production techniques, magnetic softness and the effect of replacing the main constituents by other elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheiratmand, T.; Hosseini, H. R. Madaah

    2016-06-01

    Finemet soft magnetic alloy has been in the focus of interest in the last years due to its high saturation magnetization, high permeability and low core loss. The great quantity of papers has been devoted to the study of its structural and magnetic properties, confirms this claim. This paper reviews the different researches performed on Finemet up to now. The criteria that should be satisfied in order to have the high glass forming ability in an alloy and also the techniques applied for production of Finemet ribbons, powders and bulk samples have been explained. In addition, the mechanism of devitrification, nanocrystallization and magnetic softness in this applicable magnetic alloy has been discussed in detail. Finally, the effect of different elements substituted with the main constituents in Finemet has been summarized through the studies on the characterization and magnetic properties of different Finemet-type alloys.

  8. In vivo corrosion mechanism by elemental interdiffusion of biodegradable Mg-Ca alloy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Young; Kwon, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyung-Seop; Lee, Ji-Young; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Yang, Seok-Jo; Cho, Sung-Youn; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang

    2012-11-01

    We elucidated the in vivo corrosion mechanism of the biodegradable alloy Mg-10 wt % Ca in rat femoral condyle through transmission electron microscope observations assisted by focused ion beam technique. The alloy consists of a primary Mg phase and a three-dimensional lamellar network of Mg and Mg(2)Ca. We found that the Mg(2)Ca is rapidly corroded by interdiffusion of Ca and O, leading to a structural change from lamellar network to nanocrystalline MgO. In contrast to the fast corrosion rate of the lamellar structure, the primary Mg phase slowly changes into nanocrystalline MgO through surface corrosion by O supplied along the lamellar networks. The rapid interdiffusion induces an inhomogeneous Ca distribution and interestingly leads to the formation of a transient CaO phase, which acts as a selective leaching path for Ca. In addition, the outgoing Ca with P from body fluids forms needle-type calcium phosphates similar to hydroxyl apatite at interior and surface of the implant, providing an active biological environment for bone mineralization. PMID:22915505

  9. Element Redistribution in Fe-Ni-O Alloys by a Thermal Gradient: Implications for Siderophile Element Partitioning During Core Formation and Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, N.; Fei, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Experimentally determined partition coefficients for Fe-rich metallic systems are essential to constrain models of the formation and evolution of planetary cores. Solid metal-liquid metal partition coefficients (DSol/Liq) for many siderophile elements depend upon the light-element content of the liquid phase. This dependence can be described by an empirically determined interaction parameter (β). Oxygen is a potential light element in the cores of large planetary bodies. Direct measurements of the partition coefficients between solid and liquid alloys in the Fe-O system, however, are restricted to liquids with low O contents (<2.2 wt% O at 15 GPa; Langlade et al. LPSC, 2008). Measurements to derive β-values from Soret diffusion experiments allow us to extend our investigation to the larger compositional space present at higher temperature (Brenan & Bennett, EPSL, 2010). We performed experiments at 15 GPa in a 1500-tonne multi-anvil press, using starting materials that comprised Fe, Ni and FeO powders mixed with ~200 ppm each of the platinum group metals, W, Mn, Re and Au. Run-products were analysed by electron microprobe (Fe, Ni, O) and LA-ICP-MS (PGMs, W, Mn, Re, Au). Temperature along the sample was estimated from the thickness of a spinel layer formed at the interface between the Al2O3 capsule and MgO sleeve. Initial results show siderophile elements typically display O avoidance behavior and are concentrated toward the cold, Fe-rich portion of the sample. In one experiment however, that contains W and Re in weight percent concentrations, Mn and Re are concentrated toward the O-rich portion of the sample. Au concentrations remain approximately constant along the sample length. Results are used to predict the evolution of element ratios in the outer-core during inner-core crystallization. β-values may also be used to estimate changes to DMet/Sil that arise from O dissolved in core-forming metal.

  10. Effect of additional elements on compositional modulated atomic layered structure of hexagonal Co80Pt20 alloy films with superlattice diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinata, Shintaro; Yamane, Akira; Saito, Shin

    2016-05-01

    The effect of additional element on compositionally modulated atomic layered structure of hexagonal Co80Pt20 alloy films with superlattice diffraction was investigated. In this study it is found that the addition of Cr or W element to Co80Pt20 alloy film shows less deterioration of hcp stacking structure and compositionally modulated atomic layer stacking structure as compared to Si or Zr or Ti with Ku of around 1.4 or 1.0 × 107 erg/cm3 at 5 at.% addition. Furthermore, for O2 addition of O2 ≥ 5.0 × 10-3 Pa to CoPt alloy, compositionally modulated atomic layer stacking structure will be deteriorated with enhancement of formation of hcp stacking structure which leads higher Ku of 1.0 × 107 erg/cm3.

  11. Dephytinisation of soyabean protein isolate with low native phytic acid content has limited impact on mineral and trace element absorption in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Lena; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Kastenmayer, Peter; van Dael, Peter; Barclay, Denis

    2004-02-01

    Infant formulas based on soyabean protein isolate are often used as an alternative to cows'-based formulas. However, the presence of phytic acid in soya formulas has raised concern about the absorption of trace elements and minerals from these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mineral and trace element absorption from regular and dephytinised soya formula in healthy infants. Soyabean protein isolate with a relatively low native content of phytic acid was used for production of a regular soya formula (300 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula) and an experimental formula was based on dephytinised soya protein isolate (<6 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula). Using a crossover study design, apparent mineral and trace element absorptions were measured by a stable isotope technique based on 72 h faecal excretion of non-absorbed stable isotopes (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) and by the chemical balance technique (Mn, Zn, Cu and Ca) in nine infants (69-191 d old). Fe absorption was also measured by erythrocyte incorporation 14 d after intake. The results from the present study demonstrated that Zn absorption, measured by a stable isotope technique, was significantly greater after dephytinisation (mean value 16.7 v. 22.6 %; P=0.03). No other statistically significant differences between the two formulas were observed. The nutritional benefit of dephytinisation was marginal in the present study. Based on these results, the use of soyabean protein isolate with low native content of phytic acid should be promoted for production of soya formulas and adequate addition of ascorbic acid to enhance Fe absorption should be ensured in the products. PMID:14756915

  12. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  13. Localized specific absorption rate calculations in a realistic phantom leg at 1-30 MHz using a finite element method.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P R

    1999-04-01

    Protection standards for radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation are principally intended to avoid detrimental thermal effects. To this end the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and national bodies such as the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), recommend limitations on the localized specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in various parts of the body. The role of numerical dosimetry is to estimate the SAR from measurable parameters such as external field strengths and total body currents. In recent years there have been significant advances in the sophistication of the anatomical models available, and in our knowledge of the electrical properties of the body tissues. Several groups, including NRPB, have developed mathematical phantoms from medical imaging data, such as MRI scans. It has been known for some time that under certain circumstances SAR restrictions may be violated in the ankle due to the concentration of current in a small area. In this paper the author presents calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high-frequency (HF) band. This band contains the human whole-body resonance frequency and therefore gives the strongest coupling of the body to the field. The present study uses a finite element model with variable mesh size, derived from a 2 mm resolution voxel phantom of the whole body. It also uses recently acquired data on the electrical properties of the tissues. The results are discussed in the light of the exposure standards promulgated by national and international bodies such as NRPB and ICNIRP, and it is shown that the basic SAR restrictions in the leg are ensured by a current reference level of 100 mA. PMID:10232813

  14. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  15. Near-IR absorption in high-purity photothermorefractive glass and holographic optical elements: measurement and application for high-energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lumeau, Julien; Glebova, Larissa; Glebov, Leonid B.

    2011-10-20

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass are widely used for laser beam control including high-power laser systems. Among them, spectral beam combining based on VBGs is one of the most promising. Achieving 100+ kW of combined laser beams requires the development of PTR glass and VBGs with an extremely low absorption coefficient and therefore methods of its measurement. This paper describes the calorimetric method that was developed for measuring a low absorption coefficient in PTR glass and VBGs. It is based on transmission monitoring of the intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer produced by the plane-parallel surfaces of the measured optical elements when heated by high-power laser radiation. An absorption coefficient at 1085 nm as low as 5x10{sup -5} cm{sup -1} is demonstrated in pristine PTR glass while an absorption coefficient as low as 1x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} is measured in high-efficiency reflecting Bragg gratings with highest purity. The actual level of absorption in PTR glass allows laser beam control at the 10 kW level, while the 100 kW level would require active cooling and/or decreasing the absorption in PTR Bragg gratings to a value similar to that in virgin PTR glass.

  16. Calibration and Finite Element Implementation of an Energy-Based Material Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Philipp; Hackl, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to analyze the complex thermo-mechanically coupled material behavior of shape memory alloys during product engineering. The benefit of the simulations strongly depends on the quality of the underlying material model. In this contribution, we discuss a variational approach which is based solely on energetic considerations and demonstrate that unique calibration of such a model is sufficient to predict the material behavior at varying ambient temperature. In the beginning, we recall the necessary equations of the material model and explain the fundamental idea. Afterwards, we focus on the numerical implementation and provide all information that is needed for programing. Then, we show two different ways to calibrate the model and discuss the results. Furthermore, we show how this model is used during real-life industrial product engineering.

  17. A study of the effects of rare-earth elements on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of magnesium alloys at temperatures up to 523K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakkedath, Ajith

    Due to their high specific strength, lightweight magnesium (Mg) alloys are being increasingly used for applications, such as the automotive industry, where weight savings are critical. In order to develop new alloys and processing methods to achieve higher strength and better formability to compete with currently used metal alloys, it is important to understand the effects of alloying elements, processing, and temperature on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and the deformation behavior. In this dissertation, a systematic investigation on the effects of Nd additions (0-1wt.%) and temperature (298-523K) on the microstructure and the activity of different deformation modes in as-cast and cast-then-extruded Mg-1Mn (wt.%) alloys were performed. For this study, an in-situ testing technique which combines tension and compression testing inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was employed. The main findings of this work were that the microstructure, strength, and the distribution of the deformation modes varied significantly as a function of Nd content, temperature, and processing. An increase in the Nd content resulted in a weaker texture after extrusion in Mg-1Mn alloys. A combination of slip and twinning mechanisms controlled the tensile deformation in the extruded alloys at ambient temperatures. With an increase in temperature, the twinning activity decreased, and slip mechanisms dominated the deformation. In the extruded Nd-containing alloys, basal slip dominated the deformation, especially at elevated temperatures, suggesting that Nd additions strengthen basal slip. This resulted in excellent elevated-temperature strength retention in extruded Mg-1Mn-1Nd alloy, and a decrease in the Nd content to 0-0.3wt.% resulted in a decrease in the tensile strength at elevated temperatures. In extruded Mg-1Mn, contraction twinning dominated the tensile deformation and this alloy exhibited a lower elongation

  18. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was investigated. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A new method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented for aluminum and two aluminum-eutectic alloys. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide was identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were also evaluated. System considerations that are pertinent if alloy eutectics are used as thermal energy storage media are discussed. Potential applications to solar receivers and industrial furnaces are illustrated schematically.

  19. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-04-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was investigated. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A new method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented for aluminum and two aluminum-eutectic alloys. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide was identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were also evaluated. System considerations that are pertinent if alloy eutectics are used as thermal energy storage media are discussed. Potential applications to solar receivers and industrial furnaces are illustrated schematically.

  20. On the Possibility of using Alluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Improved Mechanical Characteristics for Body Elements of Zenit-2S Launch Vehicle Propellant Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitalo, V.; Lytvyshko, T.

    2002-01-01

    of yield strength. The analysis of the performed work showed good prospects of using the alluminium-magnesium alloys with increased mechanical characteristics for making body elements of propellant tanks of the Zenit -2S launch vehicles. The use of these alloys can give the increase of structural strength by 20-30% and considerable increase of payload weight.

  1. Heat storage in alloy transformations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall, C E; Gueceri, S I; Farkas, D; Labdon, M B; Nagaswami, N; Pregger, B

    1981-03-01

    A study conducted to determine the feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media is described. The study had the following major elements: (1) the identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements, (2) the development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients, (3) the development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase-change materials, and (4) the identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases have been determined. A new method employing x-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data that are obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase-change media. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide has been identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were considered.

  2. Effect of the existing form of Cu element on the mechanical properties, bio-corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Mian; Hou, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu alloys have exhibited strong antibacterial ability, but Ti-Cu alloys prepared by different processes showed different antibacterial ability. In order to reveal the controlling mechanism, Ti-Cu alloys with different existing forms of Cu element were prepared in this paper. The effects of the Cu existing form on the microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys have been systematically investigated. Results have shown that the as-cast Ti-Cu alloys showed a higher hardness and mechanical strength as well as a higher antibacterial rate (51-64%) but a relatively lower corrosion resistance than pure titanium. Treatment at 900°C/2h (T4) significantly increased the hardness and the strength, improved the corrosion resistance but had little effect on the antibacterial property. Treatment at 900°C/2h+400°C/12h (T6) increased further the hardness and the mechanical strength, improved the corrosion resistance and but also enhanced the antibacterial rate (>90%) significantly. It was demonstrated that the Cu element in solid solution state showed high strengthening ability but low antibacterial property while Cu element in Ti2Cu phase exhibited strong strengthening ability and strong antibacterial property. Ti2Cu phase played a key role in the antibacterial mechanism. The antibacterial ability of Ti-Cu alloy was strongly proportional to the Cu content and the surface area of Ti2Cu phase. High Cu content and fine Ti2Cu phase would contribute to a high strength and a strong antibacterial ability. PMID:27612819

  3. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  4. Effects of small amount of additional elements on control of interstitial impurities and mechanical properties of V?4Cr?4Ti?Si?Al?Y alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuto, Toshinori; Satou, Manabu; Hasegawa, Akira; Abe, Katsunori; Muroga, Takeo; Yamamoto, Norikazu

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of low activation vanadium alloys for fusion structural applications, effects of small addition of Si, Al and Y on the control of interstitial impurities (O, C and N) during the fabrication process were examined for several V-4Cr-4Ti-Si-Al-Y alloys produced by the levitation melting method. Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were carried out for five kinds of V-4Cr-4Ti-Si-Al-Y alloys using miniaturized specimens for the purpose of evaluating the effects of these elements on mechanical properties. Oxygen concentration decreased almost linearly with increasing loss of yttrium during melting. This oxygen reduction with yttrium loss during the melting process may have been achieved by two types of mechanisms, they are, (i) suppression of oxygen penetration into the molten materials from the environment and (ii) getting of oxygen from the matrix by forming Y 2O 3, which floats to the surface during the melting. There was no effect of Si and Al addition to control the concentration of interstitial impurities. V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Si-0.1Al-0.1Y alloy showed the best impact properties out of the alloys investigated. Upper-shelf energy of the alloys decreased with increasing yttrium content. High number density of coarse inclusions containing yttrium could cause the degradation of impact properties, though they hardly affect tensile properties of the alloys. Even at higher yttrium contents, V-4Cr-4Ti-Y alloys without addition of Si and Al showed relatively high upper-shelf energy.

  5. Am phases in the matrix of a U–Pu–Zr alloy with Np, Am, and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, Dawn E.; Kennedy, J. Rory; Madden, James W.; O’Holleran, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Phases and microstructures in the matrix of an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with 3 wt% Am, 2% Np, and 8% rare-earth elements were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The matrix consists primarily of two phases, both of which contain Am: ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) (~70 at% U, 5% Np, 14% Pu, 1% Am, and 10% Zr) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 (~25% U, 2% Np, 10-15% Pu, 1-2% Am, and 55-60 at% Zr). These phases are similar to those in U-Pu-Zr alloys, although the Zr content in ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) is higher than that in ζ-(U, Pu) and the Zr content in δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 is lower than that in δ-UZr2. Nanocrystalline actinide oxides with structures similar to UO2 occurred in some areas, but may have formed by reactions with the atmosphere during sample handling. Planar features consisting of a central zone of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) bracketed by zones of δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 bound irregular polygons ranging in size from a few micrometers to a few tens of micrometers across. The rest of the matrix consists of elongated domains of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2. Each of these domains is a few tens of nanometers across and a few hundred nanometers long. The domains display strong preferred orientations involving areas a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers across.

  6. Influence of Minor Alloying Elements on Selective Oxidation and Reactive Wetting of CMnSi TRIP Steel during Hot Dip Galvanizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Lawrence; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Young Ha; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of the addition of minor alloying elements on the selective oxidation and the reactive wetting of CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels was studied by means of galvanizing simulator tests. Five TRIP steels containing small alloying additions of Cr, Ni, Ti, Cu, and Sn were investigated. After intercritical annealing (IA) at 1093 K (820 °C) in a N2 + 5 pct H2 gas atmosphere with a dew point of 213 K (-60 °C), two types of oxides were formed on the strip surface: Mn-rich xMnO·SiO2 ( x > 1.5) and Si-rich xMnO·SiO2 ( x < 0.3) oxides. The addition of the minor alloying elements changed the morphology of the Si-rich oxides from a continuous film to discrete islands and this improved the wettability by molten Zn. The improved wetting effect of the minor alloying elements was attributed to an increased area fraction of the surface where the oxides were thinner, enabling a direct unhindered reaction between Fe and the Al in the liquid Zn and the formation of the inhibition layer during the hot dip galvanizing. The addition of a small amount of Sn is shown to significantly decrease the density of Zn-coating defects on CMnSi TRIP steels.

  7. Element-selective trace detection of toxic species in environmental samples using chromatographic techniques and derivative diode laser absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Zybin, A.; Niemax, K.

    1998-10-01

    Very sensitive laser absorption techniques based on a double-beam scheme with logarithmic processing of the detector signals and wavelength modulation of laser diodes are presented. Detection limits equivalent to 10-7 absorption per square root of detection bandwidth are obtained if sufficient laser power is available and if the absorption is also subject to additional modulation. The analytical versatility of these techniques is demonstrated by quantitative analysis of very low concentrations of (i) Cr(VI) species in tap water and (ii) chlorinated poly-aromatics (chlorophenols) in plant extracts, both after chromatographic separation. The atomic absorption measurements were performed in an air-acetylene flame (Cr) and in a low-pressure microwave-induced plasma (chlorophenols).

  8. An Atomistic Modeling Study of Alloying Element Impurity Element, and Transmutation Products on the cohesion of A Nickel E5 {l_brace}001{r_brace} Twist Grain Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young Jr.; R. Najafabadi; W. Strohmayer; D.G. Baldrey; B. Hamm; J. Harris; J. Sticht; E. Wimmer

    2003-06-16

    Atomistic modeling methods were employed to investigate the effects of impurity elements on the metallurgy, irradiation embrittlement, and environmentally assisted cracking of nickel-base alloys exposed to nuclear environments. Calculations were performed via ab initio atomistic modeling methods to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results. A Griffith-type fracture criterion was used to quantitatively assess the effect of elements or element pairs on the grain boundary cohesive strength. In order of most embrittling to most strengthening, the elements are ranked as: He, Li, S, H, C, Zr, P, Fe, Mn, Nb, Cr, and B. Helium is strongly embrittling (-2.04 eV/atom lowering of the Griffith energy), phosphorus has little effect on the grain boundary (0.1 eV/atom), and boron offers appreciable strengthening (1.03 eV/atom increase in the Griffith energy). Calculations for pairs of elements (H-Li, H-B, H-C, H-P, and H-S) show little interaction on the grain boundary cohesive energy, so that for the conditions studied, linear superposition of elemental effects is a good approximation. These calculations help explain metallurgical effects (e.g. why boron can strengthen grain boundaries), irradiation embrittlement (e.g. how boron transmutation results in grain boundary embrittlement), as well as how grain boundary impurity elements can affect environmentally assisted cracking (i.e. low temperature crack propagation and stress corrosion cracking) of nickel-base alloys.

  9. Effect of microalloying elements on the Cube texture formation of Fe48%Ni alloy tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ateba Betanda, Y.; Helbert, A.-L.; Brisset, F.; Mathon, M.-H.; Waeckerlé, T.; Baudin, T.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of microalloying elements sulfur and niobium was studied in Fe48%Ni sheets on the first stages of nucleation and on recrystallization. It was shown that the addition of sulfur promotes the formation of Cube grains while the addition of niobium prevents the Cube grains formation. Regarding sulfur, it combines with manganese which is an inhibitor of recrystallization to form the MnS precipitates. The stored energy difference between Cube component and others components AEoube/other increases when sulfur is added. This stored energy difference which is the main driving energy for Cube grains formation during recrystallization explains the sharpness of the Cube texture when sulfur is added. On the contrary the niobium microalloying element addition prevents the formation of Cube grains. This could be explained by the fact that stored energy of cold-rolled components decreases with the addition of niobium and thus decreases Cube grains fraction when niobium is added. In order to explain these results, the development of Cube texture during recrystallization has been investigated in detail by EBSD, furthermore, the effect of stored energy has been studied by carrying out neutron diffraction measurements on the deformed states.

  10. Crystal structure of high-Zr inclusions in an alloy containing U, Pu, Np, Am, Zr and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E. Janney; James W. Madden; J. Rory Kennedy; Thomas P. O'Holleran

    2014-05-01

    Researchers commonly observe high-Zr inclusions in actinide-Zr alloys. As there is very little published data on the crystal structures of these inclusions, it has generally been assumed that the inclusions were impurity-stabilized a-Zr. However, new electron-diffraction data from two high-Zr inclusions in an alloy containing U, Pu, Np, Am, Zr, and rare-earth elements show that these inclusions are not a-Zr (which has a hexagonal structure) but instead have a face-centered cubic structure. This data is unique in that it combines single-crystal diffraction patterns and microchemical analyses from individual inclusions. More data on other high-Zr inclusions is clearly required. However, the present results suggest that caution is needed in assuming that all high-Zr inclusions in actinide-Zr alloys are a-Zr.

  11. Finite-Element Modeling of Sonic IR Imaging of Cracks in Aluminum and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyan; Ajanahalli, Abhijith S.; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Li, Wei; Newaz, G. M.; Favro, L. D.; Thomas, R. L.

    2008-02-01

    In previous conferences, we have described Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging, and presented both experimental and theoretical work using induced chaotic sound within aircraft parts and structures. We have demonstrated that induced chaotic sound is much more effective in producing heat in defects than is single-frequency sound, thus resulting in stronger IR signals. Therefore, for the same defect, the probability of detection with chaotic sound is much higher than with non-chaotic sound. In this paper, we present a finite-element study of the vibration and heating in aluminum and titanium to investigate the effects of their different material properties. We allow both friction and plastic deformation as sources of heating in our models.

  12. Analysis of acoustic damping in duct terminated by porous absorption materials based on analytical models and finite element simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan Qiming

    Acoustic absorption materials are widely used today to dampen and attenuate the noises which exist almost everywhere and have adverse impact upon daily life of human beings. In order to evaluate the absorption performance of such materials, it is necessary to experimentally determine acoustic properties of absorption materials. Two experimental methods, one is Standing Wave Ratio Method and the other is Transfer-Function Method, which also totally called as Impedance Tube Method, are based on two analytical models people have used to evaluate and validate the data obtained from acoustic impedance analyzers. This thesis first reviews the existing analytical models of previous two experimental methods in the literature by looking at their analytical models, respectively. Then a new analytical model is developed is developed based on One-Microphone Method and Three-Microphone Method, which are two novel experimental approaches. Comparisons are made among these analytical models, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  13. Study of the effects of metalloid elements (P, C, B) on Fe-based amorphous alloys by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenbiao; Li, Qiang E-mail: dhm@xju.edu.cn; Duan, Haiming E-mail: dhm@xju.edu.cn

    2015-03-14

    In order to understand the effects of the metalloid elements M (M: P, C, B) on the atomic structure, glass formation ability (GFA) and magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys, Fe{sub 80}P{sub 13}C{sub 7}, Fe{sub 80}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 80}B{sub 14}C{sub 6} amorphous alloys are chosen to study through first-principle simulations in the present work. The atomic structure characteristic of the three amorphous alloys is investigated through the pair distribution functions (PDFs) and Voronoi Polyhedra (VPs) analyses. The PDFs and VPs analyses suggest that the GFA of the three alloys dropped in the order of Fe{sub 80}P{sub 13}C{sub 7}, Fe{sub 80}P{sub 14}B{sub 6}, and Fe{sub 80}B{sub 14}C{sub 6}, which is well consistent with the experimental results. The density of state (DOS) of the three amorphous alloys is calculated to investigate their magnetic properties. Based on the DOS analysis, the average magnetic moment of Fe atom in Fe{sub 80}P{sub 13}C{sub 7} and Fe{sub 80}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} amorphous alloys can be estimated to be 1.71 μ{sub B} and 1.70 μ{sub B}, respectively, which are in acceptable agreement with the experimental results. However, the calculated average magnetic moment of Fe atom in Fe{sub 80}B{sub 14}C{sub 6} amorphous alloy is about 1.62 μ{sub B}, which is far less than the experimental result.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray measurement and finite element analysis of residual strain in tungsten inert gas welded aluminum alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, R. V.; Shercliff, H. R.; Withers, P. J.; Hughes, D. J.; Smith, S. D.; Webster, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Residual strains have been measured in a tungsten inert gas (TIG) butt-welded 2024 aluminum alloy plate using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Novel two-dimensional strain maps spanning the entire plate reveal steep gradients in residual stress and provide detailed validation data for finite element (FE) analysis. Two variants of a FE model have been used to predict the residual strain distributions, incorporating different levels of plate constraint. The model uses decoupled thermal and elastic-plastic mechanical analyses and successfully predicts the longitudinal and transverse residual strain field over the entire weld. For butt weld geometries, the degree of transverse constraint is shown to be a significant boundary condition, compared to simpler bead-on-plate analyses. The importance of transverse residual strains for detailed model validation is highlighted, together with the need for care in selecting the location for line scans. The residual stress is largest in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), being equal to the local postweld yield stress, though the strength increases subsequently by natural aging. In addition, a halving of the diffraction line width has been observed local to the weld, and this correlates with the microstructural changes in the region.

  15. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. PMID:25241360

  16. Effect of the third element on the structure of liquid Mg65Cu25Y10 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Zhu, Xun Ming; Qin, Jing Yu; Duan, Jun Peng; Wang, Ai Min; Gu, Ting Kun

    2016-08-01

    The liquid structures of Mg65Cu25Y10 and its three homologous binary liquid alloys are investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics in the present work. The chemical and topological environments in all four liquid alloys are analyzed using pair distribution function, coordination number, and the Voronoi polyhedron. It shows that the Cu atoms play significant role in deciding the chemical and topological short-range orders of the Mg65Cu25Y10 liquid alloy. The Voronoi polyhedra in the ternary liquid alloy illustrate less varieties and longer lifetime. Moreover, the diffusion coefficients are decreased significantly in the ternary liquid alloys according to the mean square displacements. All above offer a deeper insight into how the three species work in the Mg65Cu25Y10 liquid alloy.

  17. Epitaxial-driven synthesis of group IV element and alloy via designer molecular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yanyan

    This dissertation reports a systematic study of device-quality elemental structures based on a new approach of producing high quality Ge films on Si substrates by introducing small concentration of digermylmethane or germylmethane organometallic additives into conventional digermane. Optimized molecular mixtures of these compounds have enabled layer-by-layer growth via facile elimination of extremely stable methane and hydrogen byproducts, consistent-with-calculated chemisorption energies and surface reactivities. The results indicate the additives confer unique pseudosurfactant behavior that profoundly alters the classic Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism of epitaxial Ge on Si surfaces. Using this approach, atomically flat, carbon-free Ge layers directly on Si with low dislocations densities at unprecedented low temperatures compatible with selective area growth applications have been produced. The new Ge growth processes provide a unique route to extend the utility of elemental Ge into the wider IR optoelectronic domain by tuning its fundamental optical properties using tensile strain as a main parameter. In this study, digermylmethane and digermane have been utilized to produce high quality, thermally stable and tensile strained Ge layers at low temperatures on GeSn/Si or GeSiSn/GeSn/Si heterostructures. As high as 0.43 percent tensile strained Ge film has been demonstrated. Ge/Si(100) systems can serve as perfect templates. Tensile strained pure Si films have been grown on Ge buffered Si (100) via decomposition of trisilane by CVD with an intermediate fully strained thin GeSi layer at Si-Ge interface. These results are significant for Ge-based MOS applications that require a thin Si-layer to isolate the Ge channel from the high permittivity oxide. Furthermore, an entirely new family of GeSiSn/Ge/Si exhibiting tunable direct band gaps at a fixed lattice constant identical to Ge has been developed as a new class of versatile IR semiconductors. In addition, the

  18. Determination of K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in the elements between Tm( Z = 69) and Os( Z = 76) by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, N.; Tıraşoğlu, E.; Apaydın, G.

    2008-04-01

    The K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios have been measured in the elements between Tm ( Z = 69) and Os( Z = 76) without having any mass attenuation coefficient at the upper and lower energy branch of the K absorption edge. The jump factors and jump ratios for these elements have been determined by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters such as the total atomic absorption cross-sections, the K α X-ray production cross-sections, the intensity ratio of the K β and K α X-rays and the K shell fluorescence yields. We have performed the measurements for the calculations of these values in attenuation and direct excitation experimental geometry. The K X-ray photons are excited in the target using 123.6 keV gamma-rays from a strong 57Co source, and detected with an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution 0.15 keV at 5.9 keV. The measured values have been compared with theoretical and others' experimental values. The results have been plotted versus atomic number.

  19. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Si Alloyed Multi-Principal Element Carbide Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Vladescu, Alina; Titorencu, Irina; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Jinga, Victor; Pruna, Vasile; Balaceanu, Mihai; Dinu, Mihaela; Pana, Iulian; Vendina, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we have examined the possibility to improve the biocompatibility of the (TiZrNbTaHf)C through replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si. The coatings were deposited on Si and 316L stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering in an Ar+CH4 mixed atmosphere and were examined for elemental composition, chemical bonds, surface topography, surface electrical charge and biocompatible characteristics. The net surface charge was evaluated at nano and macroscopic scale by measuring the electrical potential and work function, respectively. The biocompatible tests comprised determination of cell viability and cell attachment to the coated surface. The deposited coatings had C/(metal+Si) ratios close to unity, while a mixture of metallic carbide, free-carbon and oxidized species formed on the film surface. The coatings’ surfaces were smooth and no influence of surface roughness on electrical charge or biocompatibility was found. The biocompatible characteristics correlated well with the electrical potential/work function, suggesting a significant role of surface charge in improving biocompatibility, particularly cell attachment to coating's surface. Replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si in the (TiZrNbTaHf)C coating led to an enhanced surface electrical charge, as well as to superior biocompatible properties, with best results for the (TiZrNbSiHf)C coating. PMID:27571361

  20. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Si Alloyed Multi-Principal Element Carbide Coatings.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, Alina; Titorencu, Irina; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Jinga, Victor; Pruna, Vasile; Balaceanu, Mihai; Dinu, Mihaela; Pana, Iulian; Vendina, Viktorija; Braic, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we have examined the possibility to improve the biocompatibility of the (TiZrNbTaHf)C through replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si. The coatings were deposited on Si and 316L stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering in an Ar+CH4 mixed atmosphere and were examined for elemental composition, chemical bonds, surface topography, surface electrical charge and biocompatible characteristics. The net surface charge was evaluated at nano and macroscopic scale by measuring the electrical potential and work function, respectively. The biocompatible tests comprised determination of cell viability and cell attachment to the coated surface. The deposited coatings had C/(metal+Si) ratios close to unity, while a mixture of metallic carbide, free-carbon and oxidized species formed on the film surface. The coatings' surfaces were smooth and no influence of surface roughness on electrical charge or biocompatibility was found. The biocompatible characteristics correlated well with the electrical potential/work function, suggesting a significant role of surface charge in improving biocompatibility, particularly cell attachment to coating's surface. Replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si in the (TiZrNbTaHf)C coating led to an enhanced surface electrical charge, as well as to superior biocompatible properties, with best results for the (TiZrNbSiHf)C coating. PMID:27571361

  1. Alloying elemental change of SS-316 and Al-5754 during laser welding using real time laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) accompanied by EDX and PIXE microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandaghi, M.; Parvin, P.; Torkamany, M. J.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.

    Experimental studies of pulsed laser welding of stainless steel 316 in keyhole mode was done to examine a vaporization model based on the kinetic theory of gases and the thermodynamic laws. A long pulsed Nd:YAG laser with variable duration of 1-12 ms and 9-17 Gw/cm2 was employed. The undesirable loss of volatile elements affects on the weld metal compositions and the alloy properties. The model predicts that the loss of alloying elements strongly takes place at higher peak powers and longer pulse durations. On the other hand, the model shows the rapid migration of Mn and Cr based on the pressure and concentration gradients from the molten pool. Accordingly, the concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel and manganese were determined in the weld pool by means of the energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and proton induced X ray characteristics (PIXE) microanalysis. The change of weld metal composition of aluminium alloy 5754 in keyhole mode laser welding, was investigated using the model and was supported by the successive measurements. The model predicts that the concentration of magnesium in the weld metal decreases, while the aluminium concentration increases. Moreover, the real time concentrations of aluminium and magnesium elements in the weld metal were determined by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) at different conditions. We conclude that variation of the Al to Mg concentration ratio is negligible with various laser power densities while it is strongly correlated to the pulse duration.

  2. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure and micro-Raman spectra of Bridgman grown Cd1-xZnxTe ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, Devki N.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Becla, P.

    2014-03-01

    We have performed low-temperature micro-Raman scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements on the Bridgman-grown bulk zinc-blende Cd1-x Zn x Te (1.0 ≧̸ x ≧̸ 0.03) ternary alloys to comprehend their structural and lattice dynamical properties. The micro-Raman results are carefully appraised to authenticate the classical two-phonon mode behavior insinuated by far-infrared (FIR) reflectivity study. The composition-dependent EXAFS experiments have revealed a bimodal distribution of the nearest-neighbor bond lengths—its analysis by first-principles bond-orbital model enabled us to estimate the lattice relaxations around Zn/Cd atoms in CdTe/ZnTe to help evaluate the necessary force constant variations for constructing the impurity-perturbation matrices. The simulated results of impurity vibrational modes by average-t-matrix Green’s function (ATM-GF) theory has put our experimental findings of the gap mode ˜153 cm-1 near x ≈ 1 on a much firmer ground.

  3. Automated flow injection system for the preconcentration of bismuth and lead from acid solutions of alloys and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, Maria B. O.; Ganzarolli, Edgard M.; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2000-05-01

    An automated flow injection system for the preconcentration of Bi and Pb from acid solutions of alloys is proposed. The system uses three-way solenoid valves, a peristaltic pump, a mixing coil and a minicolumn filled with activated carbon. The valves are time-based controlled by a microcomputer using a program written in Turbo Pascal 4.0. Bismuth(III) and Pb(II) are preconcentrated on activated carbon after complexation with the ammonium salt of dithiophosphoric acid O, O-diethyl ester. Ethanol is used as the eluent in a reverse-flow mode, and is delivered into the autosampler cup of the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer. Four certified steel samples and a non-certified aluminum foil, spiked with the analytes, were analyzed after microwave-assisted dissolution with acids. For the steel samples, ascorbic acid was added to the sample solution to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II). Iron(II) and Al(III) do not react with the complexing agent and are separated in the preconcentration step. The obtained analyte concentrations were in agreement with the certified or recommended values. The recoveries for the spiked aluminum sample were between 88 and 110%. The relative standards deviations were reasonable for a non-commercial flow system, ranging from 4 to 19%.

  4. Determination of macro and trace elements in multivitamin dietary supplements by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    In this research, three different commercially available multivitamin dietary supplements were analyzed by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS) with slurry sampling. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Se were determined and compared to the amounts stated by producers. The safety of multivitamin dietary supplements depends on various factors including the manufacturing process and the purity and origins of the raw ingredients. For this reason, this research determined concentrations of several toxic elements (As, Cd, and Pb). Microwave-assisted high pressure Teflon bomb digestion was used to determine total amounts of elements in samples. Samples were prepared as slurries at a concentration of 0.1% (m/v) for macro elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Se) and at a concentration of % (m/v) for trace elements (As, Cd, and Pb) in acidic media (3M HNO3). The influence of acid concentration, Triton X-100 addition, sonication time, and sonication power on absorbance was investigated. The accuracy of this method was validated by analyses of NRCC LUTS-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas), NRCC DORM-1 (Dogfish Muscle), NRCC DOLT-2 (Dogfish Liver), NBS SRM 1570 (Spinach Leaves) and NBS SRM 1573 (Tomato Leaves) certified reference materials. The measured elements contents in these reference materials (except NRCC DOLT-2) were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level. PMID:24176741

  5. Effect of Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) on Segregation of Solute Elements in CuNi10Fe1Mn Alloy Hollow Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiming; Jin, Wenzhong; Li, Tingju

    2012-09-01

    The effect of rotating magnetic field (RMF) on macro/microsegregation of solute elements is investigated experimentally, and a comprehensive three-dimensional mathematical model is built, and the finite element package ANSYS® is employed to calculate the distribution of temperature and liquid fraction along the radial direction in horizontal continuous casting of CuNi10Fe1Mn alloy hollow billet. The results show that RMF makes the temperature field and liquid fraction uniform. The original inhomogeneous columnar grain macrostructure turns into homogeneous equiaxed grain structure, and the macro/microsegregation of Ni, Fe, and Mn elements are restrained effectively with the application of RMF. Moreover, the action mechanism of RMF is discussed to explain its effect on improving the distribution of solute elements.

  6. Bandgap and optical absorption edge of GaAs1-xBix alloys with 0 < x < 17.8%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi-Shirazi, M.; Lewis, R. B.; Bahrami-Yekta, V.; Tiedje, T.; Chicoine, M.; Servati, P.

    2014-12-01

    The compositional dependence of the fundamental bandgap of pseudomorphic GaAs1-xBix layers on GaAs substrates is studied at room temperature by optical transmission and photoluminescence spectroscopies. All GaAs1-xBix films (0 ≤ x ≤ 17.8%) show direct optical bandgaps, which decrease with increasing Bi content, closely following density functional theory predictions. The smallest measured bandgap is 0.52 eV (˜2.4 μm) at 17.8% Bi. Extrapolating a fit to the data, the GaAs1-xBix bandgap is predicted to reach 0 eV at 35% Bi. Below the GaAs1-xBix bandgap, exponential absorption band tails are observed with Urbach energies 3-6 times larger than that of bulk GaAs. The Urbach parameter increases with Bi content up to 5.5% Bi, and remains constant at higher concentrations. The lattice constant and Bi content of GaAs1-xBix layers (0 < x ≤ 19.4%) are studied using high resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The relaxed lattice constant of hypothetical zincblende GaBi is estimated to be 6.33 ± 0.05 Å, from extrapolation of the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction data.

  7. Mechanical properties and phase composition of potential biodegradable Mg-Zn-Mn-base alloys with addition of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical properties and creep resistance of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the as cast as well as in the T5 condition were compared to those of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the same conditions. Yield tensile stress and ultimate tensile strength of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy are slightly better in the temperature range 20 deg. C-400 deg. C than these of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Better thermal stability of ultimate tensile strength was observed in the T5 treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy than in this material in the as cast condition. An outstanding creep resistance at 225 deg. C-350 deg. C found in the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy is due to the existence of the 18R long period stacking structure persisting in this alloy even a long heat treatment of 500 deg. C/32 h. No similar stacking effects happen when Ce substitutes Y in approximately the same concentration. The creep resistance deteriorates considerably in the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Rectangular particles of the equilibrium Mg{sub 12}Ce phase dominate in the microstructure of as cast as well as of high temperature heat-treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. A population of small oval particles containing Mg and Zn develops additionally during annealing of this alloy. These particles pin effectively dislocations and can be responsible for the better thermal stability of the T5 treated material.

  8. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  9. Novel High-Speed High Pressure Torsion Technology for Obtaining Fe-Mn-Si-Cr Shape Memory Alloy Active Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurău, Gheorghe; Gurău, Carmela; Potecaşu, Octavian; Alexandru, Petrică; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces an adapted high-speed high pressure torsion (HS-HPT) method of severe plastic deformation applied for obtaining shape memory alloy (SMA) active elements with revolution symmetry, able to develop axial displacement/force. Billets with circular crown forms were cut from Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr (mass%) SMA ingots and, by means of HS-HPT technology, were directly turned into modules, with truncated cone shell configurations. This process was performed, during time intervals of seconds, under the effect of high pressure (up to 1 GPa) cumulated with high rotation speed (hundreds of rotations per minute) applied on the active surfaces of sintered-carbide anvils, specially designed for this purpose. Due to pressure and friction, generated by rotation, the entire sample volume is heated and simultaneously deformed to final shape. During the process, microstructure fragmentation occurred enabling to obtain (ultra)fine grains and nanocrystalline areas, in spite of the heat developed by friction, which was removed by conduction at the contact surface between sample and anvils, before the occurrence of any recrystallization phenomena. When compressed between flat surfaces, the truncated cone modules developed a superelastic-like response, unique among Fe -Mn-Si base SMAs and, when heated in compressed state, they were able to develop either axial strokes or recovery forces by either free or constrained recovery shape memory effect (SME), respectively. By means of optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) marked structural changes caused by HT-HPT were revealed, along with fine and ultrafine crystalline grains. The presence of stress-induced ɛ-hexagonal close-packed ( hcp) martensite, together with nanocrystalline areas were confirmed by x-ray diffraction.

  10. Skeletal Ru/Cu catalysts prepared from crystalline and quasicrystalline ternary alloy precursors: characterization by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Highfield, James; Liu, Tao; Loo, Yook Si; Grushko, Benjamin; Borgna, Armando

    2009-02-28

    The Ru/Cu system is of historical significance in catalysis. The early development and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) led to the original 'bimetallic cluster" concept for highly-immiscible systems. This work explores alkali leaching of Al-based ternary crystalline and quasicrystalline precursors as a potential route to bulk Ru/Cu alloys. Single-phase ternary alloys at 3 trial compositions; Al(71)Ru(22)Cu(7), Al(70.5)Ru(17)Cu(12.5), and Al(70)Ru(10)Cu(20), were prepared by arc melting of the pure metal components. After leaching, the bimetallic residues were characterized principally by transmission XAS, "as-leached" and after annealing in H(2) (and passivation) in a thermobalance. XRD and BET revealed a nanocrystalline product with a native structure of hexagonal Ru. XPS surface analysis of Ru(22)Cu(7) and Ru(17)Cu(12.5) found only slight enrichment by Cu in the as-leached forms, with little change upon annealing. Ru(10)Cu(20) was highly segregated as-leached. XANES data showed preferential oxidation of Cu in Ru(22)Cu(7), implying that it exists as an encapsulating layer. TG data supports this view since it does not show the distinct two-stage O(2) uptake characteristic of skeletal Ru. Cu K-edge EXAFS data for Ru(22)Cu(7) were unique in showing a high proportion of Ru neighbours. The spacing, d(CuRu) = 2.65 A, was that expected from a hypothetical (ideal) solid solution at this composition, but this is unlikely in such a bulk-immiscible system and Ru K-edge EXAFS failed to confirm bulk alloying. Furthermore its invariance under annealing was more indicative of an interfacial bond between bulk components, although partial alloying with retention of local order cannot entirely be ruled out. The XAS and XPS data were reconciled in a model involving surface and bulk segregation, Cu being present at both the grain exterior and in ultra-fine internal pores. This structure can be considered as the 3-dimensional analogue of the classical type

  11. A comprehensive investigation of structural, morphological, hydrogen absorption and magnetic properties of MmNi4.22Co0.48Mn0.15Al0.15 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareii, Seyyed Mojtaba; Arabi, Hadi; Pourarian, Faiz

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive study of structural, morphological, hydrogen absorption and magnetic properties of MmNi4.22 Co0.48Mn0.15Al0.15 alloy as a promising hydrogen storage media was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles show that the alloy maintains its crystal structure (hexagonal LaNi5-type) even after 30 hydrogenation/dehydrogenation (H/D) cycles. However, the XRD peaks are found to be slightly broadened after cycling. SEM images reveal that particles size of the cycled sample decreases, with more uniform particle size distribution compared to noncycled ones. The pressure-composition (PC) isotherms and kinetics curves of hydrogen absorption reaction were obtained at different working temperatures by using a homemade Sievert apparatus. The enthalpy and entropy of hydride formation of the alloy were evaluated. Furthermore, the Jander diffusion and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models as the fitting models were employed to study the kinetic mechanism of hydriding reaction and its activation energy. The room temperature magnetic measurements indicate that the milling and H/D cycling change the magnetic properties of the as-annealed alloy.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Content Determination of Macro-Minor Elements in Bryonia Alba L. Roots using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Kislichenko, Viktoria; Naddaf, Ahmad; Cholak, Irina; Yemelianova, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine. Methods: Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace. Results: The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88.000 for P, 7.800 for Al, 0.130 for Mn, 105.000 for Mg, 0.030 for Pb, 0.052 for Ni, 0.030 for Mo, 210.000 for Ca, 0.130 for Cu, 5.200 for Zn, 13.000 for Na, 1170.000 for K, 0.780 for Sr, 0.030 for Co, 0.010 for Cd, 0.010 for As, and 0.010 for Hg. Toxic elements such as Cd and Pb were also found but at very low concentration. Among the analyzed elements, K was the most abundant followed by Ca, Mg, P, Si, Fe, Na, and Zn, whereas Hg, As, Cd, Co, Mo, and Pb were found in low concentration. Conclusion: The results suggest that the roots of Bryonia alba L. plant has potential medicinal property through their high element contents present. Moreover, it showed that the AAS method is a simple, fast, and reliable for the determination of elements in plant materials. The obtained results of the current study provide justification for the usage of such fruit in daily diet for nutrition and for medicinal usage in the treatment of various diseases. PMID:27478794

  13. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of selenium following oral administration of elemental selenium nanoparticles or selenite in rats.

    PubMed

    Loeschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Hansen, Marianne; Pereira, Sonia A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Møller, Laura Hyrup; Mortensen, Alicja; Lam, Henrik Rye; Larsen, Erik H

    2014-02-01

    A suspension of nanoparticles of BSA-stabilized red amorphous elemental selenium (Se) or an aqueous solution of sodium selenite was repeatedly administered by oral gavage for 28 days at 0.05 mg kg(-1) bw per day (low dose) or at 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw per day (high dose) as Se to female rats. Prior to administration, the size distribution of the Se nanoparticles was characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, which showed that the particles' mean diameter was 19 nm and ranged in size from 10 to 80 nm. Following administration of the high dose of Se nanoparticles or selenite the concentration of Se was determined by ICP-MS in the liver, kidney, urine, feces, stomach, lungs, and plasma at the μg g(-1) level and in brain and muscle tissue at the sub-μg g(-1) level. In order to test if any elemental Se was present in the liver, kidney or feces, an in situ derivatization selective to elemental Se was performed by treatment with sulfite, which resulted in formation of the selenosulfate anion. This Se species was selectively and quantitatively determined by anion exchange HPLC and ICP-MS detection. The results showed that elemental Se was present in the livers, kidneys and feces of animals exposed to low and high doses of elemental Se nanoparticles or to selenite, and was also detected in the same samples from control animals. The fraction of Se present as elemental Se in livers and kidneys from the high dose animals was significantly larger than the similar fraction in samples from the low dose animals or from the controls. This suggested that the natural metabolic pathways of Se were exhausted when given the high dose of elemental Se or selenite resulting in a non-metabolized pool of elemental Se. Both dosage forms of Se were bioavailable as demonstrated by the blood biomarker selenoprotein P, which was equally up-regulated in the high-dose animals for both dosage forms of Se. Finally, the excretion of Se in urine and its occurrence as Se

  14. Quantitative analysis of tin alloy combined with artificial neural network prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seong Y.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to quantitative analysis of three impurities in Sn alloy. The impurities analysis was based on the internal standard method using the Sn I 333.062-nm line as the reference line to achieve the best reproducible results. Minor-element concentrations (Ag, Cu, Pb) in the alloy were comparatively evaluated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and calibration curves. ANN was found to effectively predict elemental concentrations with a trend of nonlinear growth due to self-absorption. The limits of detection for Ag, Cu, and Pb in Sn alloy were determined to be 29, 197, and 213 ppm, respectively.

  15. Finite Element Method (FEM) Calculations of Stress-Strain Behavior of Alpha-Beta Ti-Mn Alloys: Part I. Stress-Strain Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankem, Sreeramamurthy; Margolin, Harold

    1982-04-01

    By use of a NASTRAN18 Computer Program, the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been employed to calculate the effect of particle size, matrix, and volume fraction on the stress-strain relations of α -β titanium alloys. It was found that for a given volume fraction, the calculated stress-strain curve was higher for a finer particle size than for a coarse particle size within the range of the strains considered, and this behavior was seen for all the different volume fraction alloys considered. For a 50:50 vol pct α -β alloy, the stress-strain curve with β, the stronger phase, as the matrix was higher than that with α, the softer phase, as the matrix. The calculated stress-strain curves for four different vol pct α alloys were compared with their corresponding experimental curves, and in general, good agreement was found. Whenever there were discrepancies, they were discussed by comparing the morphology of the mesh used in the calculations with the morphology of the actual materials.

  16. 3D finite element simulation of microstructure evolution in blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy based on the internal state variable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiao; Wu, Bin; Li, Miao-Quan

    2012-02-01

    The physically-based internal state variable (ISV) models were used to describe the changes of dislocation density, grain size, and flow stress in the high temperature deformation of titanium alloys in this study. The constants of the present models could be identified based on experimental results, which were conducted at deformation temperatures ranging from 1093 K to 1303 K, height reductions ranging from 20% to 60%, and the strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 s-1. The physically-based internal state variable models were implemented into the commercial finite element (FE) code. Then, a three-dimensional (3D) FE simulation system coupling of deformation, heat transfer, and microstructure evolution was developed for the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. FE analysis was carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution in the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Finally, the blade forging tests of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were performed to validate the results of FE simulation. According to the tensile tests, it is seen that the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation, satisfy the application requirements well. The maximum and minimum differences between the calculated and experimental grain size of primary α phase are 11.71% and 4.23%, respectively. Thus, the industrial trials show a good agreement with FE simulation of blade forging.

  17. Effect of Additional 3d Elements M (M = Fe and Ni) on Atomic Ordered Structure in Cu-M-Pd alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Naseeb; Takahashi, Miwako; Bashir Ziya, Amer; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to elucidate the effect of ternary addition of Fe and Ni elements to Cu-rich Cu-Pd binary alloy system on the structure and an atomic ordering. X-ray polycrystalline diffraction patterns of the specimens quenched from 900 °C have shown that a single phase with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure is formed in all the specimens for Ni system and in specimens with Pd composition xPd (at. %) more than 10 for Fe system. After appropriate heat treatment, the Fe system a fcc single phase forms fcc-based Cu3Au-type ordered structure for xPd around 20, and body-centered-cubic based CsCl-type ordered structure xPd for around 40. Assuming that Fe atoms simply substitute for Cu atoms in the ordered structures, the atomic phase coincides well with that of Cu-Pd alloys for the Cu3Au-type structure, but there is a discrepancy for the CsCl-type structure on that it does not appear as a single phase in Cu-Fe-Pd alloys. As for Ni system, no ordered structures are formed except for the alloys with xPd more than 35, in which fcc and CsCl-type structures are found to coexist.

  18. Determination of the K absorption edge energy of Ho in element and its compounds using the bremsstrahlung technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranjana, K. M.; Badiger, N. M.

    2013-05-01

    The K shell binding energies of Ho in element and in compounds Ho2O3 and HoF3 have been measured for the first time by adopting a novel method. The method involves a weak beta source, an external bremsstrahlung (EB) converter, element and compound targets and a high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a 16K multichannel analyser. A spectrum of continuous EB photons, produced by the interaction of beta particles from a 90Sr-90Y radioactive source with an iron foil, is allowed to pass through the element and compound targets of Ho. The spectrum of transmitted EB photons is measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector spectrometer. The transmitted spectrum shows a sudden drop in intensity at K shell binding energy of the target. Such a sudden drop, which is essentially due to the onset of the K shell photoelectric effect, has been used to determine the K shell binding energy of Ho in element. The K shell binding energies of Ho in Ho2O3 and HoF3 compounds have also been determined using the same technique. From these data, the chemical shift in the K shell binding energy has been measured. It is found to be positive for Ho2O3 and negative for HoF3, indicating the dependence of the chemical shift on the crystal structure.

  19. The Effects of Adding Elements of Zinc and Magnesium on Ag-Cu Eutectic Alloy for Warming Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Song; Kim, Keun Sik; Lee, Min Ho

    2013-01-01

    The warming acupuncture for hyperthermia therapy is made of STS304. However, its needle point cannot be reached to a desirable temperature due to heat loss caused by low thermal conductivity, and the quantification of stimulation condition and the effective standard establishment of warming acupuncture are required as a heat source. Accordingly, in this study, after Ag-Cu alloys with different composition ratios were casted and then mixed with additives to improve their physical and mechanical properties, the thermal conductivity and biocompatibility of the alloy specimens were evaluated for selecting suitable material. Ag-Cu binary alloys and ternary alloys added 5 wt% Zn or 2 wt% Mg were casted and then cold drawn to manufacture needles for acupuncture, and their physical properties, thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility were evaluated for their potential use in warming acupuncture. The results of this study showed that the physical and mechanical properties of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by additives and that the thermal conductivity, machinability, and biocompatibility of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by Mg addition. PMID:24078827

  20. Finite element modelling of shot peening and peen forming processes and characterisation of peened AA2024-T351 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariepy, Alexandre

    The main purpose of this thesis was to develop and validate finite element (FE) simulation tools for shot peening and peen forming. The specific aim was to achieve quantitatively accurate predictions for both processes and demonstrate the potential of reliable FE modelling for scientific investigation and industrial applications. First, an improved dynamic impact model that takes into account the stochastic nature of shot peening was proposed by carefully studying its dimensions, introducing a dispersion of shot sizes and significantly reducing its computational cost. In addition, cyclic mechanical testing was conducted to define a suitable material constitutive theory for aluminium alloy (AA) 2024-T3/T351 subjected to shot peening. By combining a realistic shot peening model with an appropriate material law, fairly good residual stress predictions were achieved for three different sets of shot peening parameters. Second, an experimental and numerical characterization of AA2024-T351 shot peened with parameters representative of fatigue life improvement applications was conducted. Multiple techniques, such as micro-indentation, residual stress determination and electron backscatter diffraction, were combined to gain a better understanding of the influence of shot peening on the material. The potential uses of finite element simulation to complement experimental data were also studied. The material heterogeneity arising from the random impact sequence was investigated and it was found that the impact modelling methodology could provide useful information on such heterogeneities. Third, a novel peen forming simulation methodology was introduced. The impact model provided the necessary input data as part of a multiscale approach. Numerically calculated unbalanced induced stress profiles were input into shell elements and the deformed shape after peen forming was computed as a springback analysis. In addition, a simple interpolation method was proposed to model the

  1. Effect of Sn and Sb element on the magnetism and functional properties of Ni-Mn-Al ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sandeep; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    We have replaced Al partially with Sb and Sn in Ni-Mn-Al systems and investigated its effect on magnetism, entropy change and magnetoresistance in the vicinity of martensitic transformation. Both the samples had identical lattice parameters and Mn contents, which are mostly responsible for magnetism in these systems, yet there were marked changes in magnetic and functional properties of these systems. It was found that the magnetization increased in Sb alloy, while entropy change and magnetoresistance decreased as compared to Sn alloy. These changes are attributed to the change in antiferromagnetic interaction as a result of variation in the Ni d-Mn d hybridization arising due to presence of different sp elements.

  2. The Effect of Alloying Elements on the Shear Strength of the Lap Joint of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy to Q235 Steel by Hybrid Laser-TIG Welding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liming; Qi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhaodong

    2012-06-01

    Welding between AZ31B Mg alloy and Q235 mild steel was examined in this study. The effects of welding parameters were first investigated on the penetration depth into the steel and the shear strength of the joints. The optimum parameters and the maximum shear strength were obtained. Based on these parameters, alloying elements in the form of interlayers were added into the joints, and the shear strength was improved as high as 98 pct of the AZ31B Mg alloy. Microstructures of the joints were inspected with a scanning electron microscope and an electron probe micro-analyzer. Two bonding modes were proposed, and their effects on the joint shear strength were discussed. It is suggested that the bonding changed from nonmetallurgical to "semimetallurgical" mode with the addition of the interlayers, which contributed to the enhancement of the shear strength. Micro-hardness profiles were measured in the fusion zone of the joints, and their influence on the joint strength was also discussed. Intermediate phases that distributed uniformly in the fusion zone strengthened the microstructures, and thus, the shear strength was elevated. An empirical trend for Cu and Ni interlayer selection was proposed.

  3. Mass spectrometric methods for studying nutrient mineral and trace element absorption and metabolism in humans using stable isotopes. A review.

    PubMed

    Crews, H M; Ducros, V; Eagles, J; Mellon, F A; Kastenmayer, P; Luten, J B; McGaw, B A

    1994-11-01

    Mass spectrometric methods for determining stable isotopes of nutrient minerals and trace elements in human metabolic studies are described and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the techniques of electron ionization, fast atom bombardment, thermal ionization, and inductively coupled plasma and gas chromatography mass spectrometry are evaluated with reference to their accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and convenience, and the demands of human nutrition research. Examples of specific applications are described and the significance of current developments in mass spectrometry are discussed with reference to present and probable future research needs. PMID:7872491

  4. Ultra-violet and resonant laser ablation coupled with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry and determination of tin in nickel based alloys by electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption and laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaodong

    Chapter 1 reviews laser ablation in analytical atomic spectrometry. Laser ablation is categorized into two functions: one is used as a sample introduction method, the other function is used as a microprobe analysis method. Both fundamental and applicational aspects are reviewed with the citations of related papers. This chapter also serves as an introduction to the work which is described in chapter 2 and chapter 3 as laser ablation is a relatively new research area for the research group. In chapter 2, instrumentation for excimer (308nm) laser ablation of samples was coupled with a microwave induced plasma (MLP), and evaluated for its potential as an approach to solid sampling for atomic emission spectrometry. Operating parameters were optimized, and the effects of laser repetition rate and number of laser shots on the emission signal were investigated. The UV excimer laser removed more material than would be expected of an infrared laser of similar energy. The chromium detection limit in the solid steel sample was estimated to be about 500 mug/g. In chapter 3, a wavelength tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser was used to ablate a steel sample into the same apparatus described in chapter 2. The emission signal for the elements was selectively enhanced when the ablation wavelength was tuned to be in resonance with any atomic transition of that element. This was the first report of the observation of resonant ablation by use of optical detection, as prior reports of resonant ablation have used mass spectrometric detectors. Chapter 4 reviews the publications in laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in recent eight years. The focus of the review is on recent development on new instruments and applications of this technique. Chapter 5 studies the determination of tin in nickel-based alloys with laser excited atomic fluorescence in a graphite furnace. Zeeman electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass

  5. A Stiffness Reduction Method for efficient absorption of waves at boundaries for use in commercial Finite Element codes.

    PubMed

    Pettit, J R; Walker, A; Cawley, P; Lowe, M J S

    2014-09-01

    Commercially available Finite Element packages are being used increasingly for modelling elastic wave propagation problems. Demand for improved capability has resulted in a drive to maximise the efficiency of the solver whilst maintaining a reliable solution. Modelling waves in unbound elastic media to high levels of accuracy presents a challenge for commercial packages, requiring the removal of unwanted reflections from model boundaries. For time domain explicit solvers, Absorbing Layers by Increasing Damping (ALID) have proven successful because they offer flexible application to modellers and, unlike the Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) approach, they are readily implemented in most commercial Finite Element software without requiring access to the source code. However, despite good overall performance, this technique requires the spatial model to extend significantly outside the domain of interest. Here, a Stiffness Reduction Method (SRM) has been developed that operates within a significantly reduced spatial domain. The technique is applied by altering the damping and stiffness matrices of the system, inducing decay of any incident wave. Absorbing region variables are expressed as a function of known model constants, helping to apply the technique to generic elastodynamic problems. The SRM has been shown to perform significantly better than ALID, with results confirmed by both numerical and analytical means. PMID:24359871

  6. Application of High Resolution-Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS): determination of trace elements in tea and tisanes.

    PubMed

    Paz-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Domínguez-González, María Raquel; Aboal-Somoza, Manuel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    A new application of HR-CS FAAS (High Resolution-Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) has been developed for the determination of several trace elements (Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Na and Zn) in infusions made from tea, rooibos and tea with seaweed samples. The proposed methods are fast, inexpensive and show good performances: the mean analytical recovery was approximately 100%. The mean limit of detection was 29.4 μg/l, and the mean limit of quantification was 98.0 μg/l (both limits refer to the brewed samples). Due to the matrix effect observed, the standard addition method had to be applied. Preliminary classification (based on metal contents) using chemometric techniques such as PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and CA (Cluster Analysis), was successful for infusions made from rooibos and tea with seaweed, but inconclusive for black and green teas. PMID:25306375

  7. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern.

    PubMed

    Anal, Jasha Momo H

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  8. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Anal, Jasha Momo H.

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  9. Effects of alloying elements on mechanical and fracture properties of base metals and simulated heat-affected zones of SA 508 steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho; Lee, Sunghak; Im, Young-Roc; Lee, Hu-Chul; Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2001-04-01

    This study was aimed at developing low-alloy steels for nuclear reactor pressure vessels by investigating the effects of alloying elements on mechanical and fracture properties of base metals and heat-affected zones (HAZs). Four steels whose compositions were variations of the composition specification for SA 508 steel (class 3) were fabricated by vacuum-induction melting and heat treatment, and their tensile properties and Charpy impact toughness were evaluated. Microstructural analyses indicated that coarse M3C-type carbides and fine M2C-type carbides were precipitated along lath boundaries and inside laths, respectively. In the steels having decreased carbon content and increased molybdenum content, the amount of fine M2C carbides was greatly increased, while that of coarse M3C carbides was decreased, thereby leading to the improvement of tensile properties and impact toughness. Their simulated HAZs also had sufficient impact toughness after postweld heat treatment (PWHT). These findings suggested that the low-alloy steels with high strength and toughness could be processed by decreasing carbon and manganese contents and by increasing molybdenum content.

  10. Ductility response of Ni{sub 3}Al-Zr-B base alloys with ternary elements to strain rate and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Lin, D.; Zhang, Y.

    1997-12-31

    The compressive ductilities of Ni{sub 3}Al-Zr-B base alloys with sole addition of magnesium (0.02--0.06wt.%) and combined addition of magnesium(0.02wt.%) and silicon(0.54{approximately}1.08wt.%) respectively responding to strain rate rising from 10{sup {minus}4}sec{sup {minus}1} have been studied in a high temperature range of 1,073--1,273 K. The results show that the compressive strains at rupture (CSR) of the alloys have been greatly improved by sole addition of magnesium and the alloys with combined addition of magnesium and silicon reveal even higher CSR values, furthermore, at temperatures of 1,073 K and 1,273 K, the strain rate dependence of CSR reveals to be anomalous, i.e., the CSR value increases as the strain rate rises, and then declines until it surpasses the peak value, which is corresponded to the strain rate of 10{sup {minus}3}sec{sup {minus}1} and 10{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} respectively. The beneficial effect of magnesium and silicon exists in their competence of reducing strain rate sensitivity exponent values. The mechanisms of the anomalous ductilizing behavior in the Ni{sub 3}Al as affected by ternary elements are discussed.

  11. Use of High-Resolution Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) for Sequential Multi-Element Determination of Metals in Seawater and Wastewater Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Vázquez, E.; Barciela-Alonso, M. C.; Pita-Calvo, C.; Domínguez-González, R.; Bermejo-Barrera, P.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a method for the determination of metals in saline matrices using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). Module SFS 6 for sample injection was used in the manual mode, and flame operating conditions were selected. The main absorption lines were used for all the elements, and the number of selected analytical pixels were 5 (CP±2) for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, and 3 pixels for Mn (CP±1). Samples were acidified (0.5% (v/v) nitric acid), and the standard addition method was used for the sequential determination of the analytes in diluted samples (1:2). The method showed good precision (RSD(%) < 4%, except for Pb (6.5%)) and good recoveries. Accuracy was checked after the analysis of an SPS-WW2 wastewater reference material diluted with synthetic seawater (dilution 1:2), showing a good agreement between certified and experimental results.

  12. Spectrometer system using a modular echelle spectrograph and a laser-driven continuum source for simultaneous multi-element determination by graphite furnace absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Sebastian; Okruss, Michael; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao Dong; Esser, Norbert; Florek, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A multi-element absorption spectrometer system has been developed based on a laser-driven xenon continuum source and a modular simultaneous echelle spectrograph (MOSES), which is characterized by a minimized number of optical components resulting in high optical throughput, high transmittance and high image quality. The main feature of the new optical design is the multifunction usage of a Littrow prism, which is attached on a rotation stage. It operates as an order-sorter for the echelle grating in a double-pass mode, as a fine positioning device moving the echelle spectrum on the detector, and as a forwarder to address different optical components, e.g., echelle gratings, in the setup. Using different prisms, which are mounted back to back on the rotation stage, a multitude of different spectroscopic modes like broad-range panorama observations, specific UV-VIS and NIR studies or high resolution zoom investigations of variable spectral channels can be realized. In the UV panorama mode applied in this work, MOSES has simultaneously detectable wavelength coverage from 193 nm to 390 nm with a spectral resolution λ/Δλ of 55,000 (3-pixel criterion). In the zoom mode the latter can be further increased by a factor of about two for a selectable section of the full wavelength range. The applicability and the analytical performance of the system were tested by simultaneous element determination in a graphite furnace, using eight different elements. Compared to an instrument operating in the optimized single line mode, the achieved analytical sensitivity using the panorama mode was typically a factor of two lower. Using the zoom mode for selected elements, comparable sensitivities were obtained. The results confirm the influence of the different spectral resolutions.

  13. Thermoelectric device including an alloy of GeTe and AgSbTe as the P-type element

    DOEpatents

    Skrabek, Emanuel Andrew; Trimmer, Donald Smith

    1976-01-01

    Improved alloys suitable for thermoelectric applications and having the general formula: (AgSbTe.sub.2).sub.1.sub.-x + (GeTe).sub.x wherein x has a value of about 0.80 and 0.85, have been found to possess unexpectedly high thermoelectric properties such as efficiency index, as well as other improved physical properties.

  14. Effects of additions of small amounts of fourth elements on structure, crystal structure and shape recovery of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.R. |; Yang, D.Z.; Tadaki, T.; Hirotsu, Y.

    1997-01-15

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) are particularly interesting, compared to Ni-Ti SMAs because of their low cost and relatively ease process. However, there are important problems to be solved, such as intergranular fracture due to large grain size, stabilization of martensite, etc. In the present work, the influences of additions only less than 1 mass% of several fourth elements, such as Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Y, to two kinds of Cu-Zn-Al SMAs, i.e., Cu-30Zn-4Al and Cu-25Zn-7Al on their structure, crystal structure and shape recovery have been examined in order to know what elements are the most effective for the thermal stability of the parent and martensite phases and the shape memory capacity.

  15. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  16. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  17. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera. PMID:25007636

  18. Identification of four-hydrogen complexes in In-rich InxGa1-xN (x>0.4) alloys using photoluminescence, x-ray absorption, and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, M.; Pettinari, G.; Ciatto, G.; Amidani, L.; Filippone, F.; Polimeni, A.; Fonda, E.; Boscherini, F.; Bonapasta, A. Amore; Giubertoni, D.; Knübel, A.; Lebedev, V.; Capizzi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Postgrowth hydrogen incorporation in In-rich InxGa1-xN (x>0.4) alloys strongly modifies the optical and structural properties of the material: A large blueshift of the emission and absorption energies is accompanied by a remarkable broadening of the interatomic-distance distribution, as probed by synchrotron radiation techniques. Both effects vanish at a finite In-concentration value (x ˜ 0.5). Synergic x-ray absorption measurements and first-principle calculations unveil two different defective species forming upon hydrogenation: one due to the high chemical reactivity of H, the other ascribed to mere lattice damage. In the former species, four H atoms bind to as many N atoms, all nearest-neighbors of a same In atom. The stability of this peculiar complex, which is predicted to behave as a donor, stems from atomic displacements cooperating to reduce local strain.

  19. Effects of alloying elements on the microstructure and fatigue properties of cast iron for internal combustion engine exhaust manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, David J.

    In the design of exhaust manifolds for internal combustion engines the materials used must exhibit resistance to corrosion at high temperatures while maintaining a stable microstructure. Cast iron has been used for manifolds for many years by auto manufacturers due to a combination of suitable mechanical properties, low cost, and ease of casting. Over time cast iron is susceptible to microstructural changes, corrosion, and oxidation which can result in failure due to fatigue. This thesis seeks to answer the question: "Can observed microstructural changes and measured high temperature fatigue life in cast iron alloys be used to develop a predictive model for fatigue life?" the importance of this question lies in the fact that there is little data for the behavior of cast iron alloys at high temperature. For this study two different types of cast iron, 50HS and HSM will be examined. Of particular concern for the high Si+C cast irons (and Mo in the case of the HSM cast iron) are subsurface microstructural changes that result due to heat treatment including (1) decarburization, (2) ferrite formation, (3) graphitization, (4) internal oxidation of the Si, (5) high temperature fatigue resistance, and (6) creep potential. Initial results obtained include microstructure examination after being exposed to high temperatures, grain size, nodule size, and hardness measurements. The initial examinations concluded that both cast irons performed fairly similarly, although the microstructure of the HSM samples did show slightly better resistance to high temperature as compared to that of the 50HS. Follow on work involved high temperature fatigue testing of these two materials in order to better determine if the newer alloy, HSM is a better choice for exhaust manifolds. Correlations between fatigue performance and microstructure were made and discussed, with the results examined in light of current and proposed models for predicting fatigue performance based on computational methods

  20. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni3Al Alloys and Coatings Modified with Pt and Reactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Nan

    2007-12-01

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000 C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455 C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain β-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al2O3 scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used {beta}-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt + Hf-modified γ-Ni + γ-Ni3Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase γ-Ni and γ'-Ni3Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al2O3 formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both γ-Ni and γ'Ni3Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower

  1. Effects of alloying elements on fracture toughness in the transition temperature region of base metals and simulated heat-affected zones of Mn-Mo-Ni low-alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho; Im, Young-Roc; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Hu-Chul; Kim, Sung-Joon; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2004-07-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of alloying elements on fracture toughness in the transition temperature region of base metals and heat-affected zones (HAZs) of Mn-Mo-Ni low-alloy steels. Three kinds of steels whose compositions were varied from the composition specification of SA 508 steel (grade 3) were fabricated by vacuum-induction melting and heat treatment, and their fracture toughness was examined using an ASTM E1921 standard test method. In the steels that have decreased C and increased Mo and Ni content, the number of fine M2C carbides was greatly increased and the number of coarse M3C carbides was decreased, thereby leading to the simultaneous improvement of tensile properties and fracture toughness. Brittle martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents were also formed in these steels during cooling, but did not deteriorate fracture toughness because they were decomposed to ferrite and fine carbides after tempering. Their simulated HAZs also had sufficient impact toughness after postweld heat treatment. These findings indicated that the reduction in C content to inhibit the formation of coarse cementite and to improve toughness and the increase in Mo and Ni to prevent the reduction in hardenability and to precipitate fine M2C carbides were useful ways to improve simultaneously the tensile and fracture properties of the HAZs as well as the base metals.

  2. The effects of C, P, and S on trace element partitioning during solidification in Fe-Ni alloys. [iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Trace and minor element distributions in the iron meteorites are generally ascribed to partitioning during solidification of the parent body core or to partial melting within the parent body. A model involving fractional crystallization is considered. The model cannot account for differences between the measured values for the slopes on the log Ir-log Ni plots and the slopes predicted using experimentally determined distribution coefficients obtained in an investigation conducted by Goldstein and Friel (1978). The model has also other weaknesses. Part of the answer concerning the existing problems was provided by Narayan and Goldstein (1981, 1982). The present investigation is concerned with a further clarification of the effect of the minor elements P, S, and C on the distribution behavior of trace elements. Attention is given to measurements of the distribution coefficients for various elements (Ir, Ge, Ga, Au, Cu, Cr) in the presence of these minor elements.

  3. Gallium trace on-line preconcentration/separation and determination using a polyurethane foam mini-column and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Application in aluminum alloys, natural waters and urine.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Zachariadis, George A; Stratis, John A

    2003-07-27

    A sensitive and selective flow injection time-based method for on-line preconcentration/separation and determination of gallium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry at trace levels was developed. The on-line formed gallium chloride complex is sorbed onto a polyether-type polyurethane foam mini-column, followed by on-line quantitative elution with isobutyl methyl ketone and direct introduction into the flame pneumatic nebulizer of the atomic absorption spectrometer. All chemical and flow variables of the system as well as the possible interferences were studied. The manner of strong HCl solutions propulsion was investigated and established using a combination of two displacement bottles. For 90 s preconcentration time, a sample frequency of 28 h(-1), an enhancement factor of 40, a detection limit of 6 microg l(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation (s(r)) of 3.3% (at 1.00 mg l(-1)) were achieved. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range 0.02-3.00 mg l(-1). The accuracy of the developed method was sufficient and evaluated by the analysis of a silicon-aluminum alloy standard reference material. Finally, it was successfully applied to gallium determination in commercial aluminum alloys, natural waters and urine. PMID:18969117

  4. Stable palladium alloys for diffusion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patapoff, M.

    1973-01-01

    Literature search on hydrogen absorption effect on palladium alloys revealed existence of alloy compositions in which alpha--beta transition does not take place. Survey conclusions: 40 percent gold alloy of palladium should be used in place of palladium; alloy must be free of interstitial impurities; and metallic surfaces of tube must be clean.

  5. Elemental segregation and subsequent precipitation during solidification of continuous cast Nb–V–Ti high-strength low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Shuguo; Davis, Claire; Strangwood, Martin

    2014-09-15

    In this study, elemental segregation during solidification and subsequent precipitation behaviour in a continuous cast Nb–V–Ti high-strength low-alloy steel was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling. It is known that for steels with low carbon contents the pearlite that forms on slow cooling does so where the interdendritic liquid was present prior to final solidification. The alloying elements of Nb, Ti, Mn and V segregate into the interdendritic liquid during solidification, while Al preferentially segregates into the solidifying solid phase. The composition analysis on the slab samples verified the predicted element segregation behaviour, with a smaller difference in the concentrations of Mn and V in the pearlite and dendritic ferrite regions being observed compared to the Nb levels. Small (30–100 nm) spherical or irregular shaped Nb-rich precipitates (Nb(C, N) and (Nb, V)(C, N)) were mainly found in the pearlite regions, while angular Al-rich (60–300 nm) precipitates were found in the dendritic ferrite regions, in the form of AlN and complex AlN–V(C, N) precipitates. Small isolated ferrite regions surrounded by pearlite were observed in the microstructure and has two origins: one type is dendritic ferrite that appears as an isolated island due to a sectioning effect when observing the two-dimensional microstructure; the other is a ferrite idiomorph that forms in the interdendritic region due to the low carbon content of the steel. Accordingly, in these isolated ferrite islands two different precipitation behaviours are found; predominantly Al-rich particles in the dendritic regions or predominantly Nb-rich precipitates in the interdendritic ferrite idiomorphs. No Al-rich precipitates were observed in the interdendritic regions (pearlite or isolated ferrite idiomorphs) despite the Thermo-Calc predictions indicating a higher volume fraction of AlN in these

  6. In situ elaboration of a binary Ti-26Nb alloy by selective laser melting of elemental titanium and niobium mixed powders.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Joguet, D; Robin, G; Peltier, L; Laheurte, P

    2016-05-01

    Ti-Nb alloys are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as implantology and joint replacement because of their very low elastic modulus, their excellent biocompatibility and their high strength. A low elastic modulus, close to that of the cortical bone minimizes the stress shielding effect that appears subsequent to the insertion of an implant. The objective of this study is to investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties of a Ti-Nb alloy elaborated by selective laser melting on powder bed of a mixture of Ti and Nb elemental powders (26 at.%). The influence of operating parameters on porosity of manufactured samples and on efficacy of dissolving Nb particles in Ti was studied. The results obtained by optical microscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray microtomography show that the laser energy has a significant effect on the compactness and homogeneity of the manufactured parts. Homogeneous and compact samples were obtained for high energy levels. Microstructure of these samples has been further characterized. Their mechanical properties were assessed by ultrasonic measures and the Young's modulus found is close to that of classically elaborated Ti-26 Nbingot. PMID:26952492

  7. Mechanical Behaviour of Umbrella-Shaped, Ni-Ti Memory Alloy Femoral Head Support Device during Implant Operation: A Finite Element Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei; Tian, Qing; Dai, Zhipeng; Liu, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    A new instrument used for treating femoral head osteonecrosis was recently proposed: the umbrella-shaped, Ni-Ti memory femoral head support device. The device has an efficacy rate of 82.35%. Traditional radiographic study provides limited information about the mechanical behaviour of the support device during an implant operation. Thus, this study proposes a finite element analysis method, which includes a 3-step formal head model construction scheme and a unique material assignment strategy for evaluating mechanical behaviour during an implant operation. Four different scenarios with different constraints, initial positions and bone qualities are analyzed using the simulation method. The max radium of the implanted device was consistent with observation data, which confirms the accuracy of the proposed method. To ensure that the device does not unexpectedly open and puncture the femoral head, the constraint on the impact device should be strong. The initial position of sleeve should be in the middle to reduce the damage to the decompression channel. The operation may fail because of poor bone quality caused by severe osteoporosis. The proposed finite element analysis method has proven to be an accurate tool for studying the mechanical behaviour of umbrella-shaped, Ni-Ti memory alloy femoral head support device during an implant operation. The 3-step construct scheme can be implemented with any kind of bone structure meshed with multiple element types. PMID:24960038

  8. K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in elements between Tm ( Z = 69) and Os ( Z = 76) derived from new mass attenuation coefficient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Necati; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Apaydın, Gökhan; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Cengiz, Erhan

    2007-08-01

    The K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were derived from new mass attenuation coefficients measured using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for Tm, Yb elements being Tm 2O 3, Yb 2O 3 compounds and pure Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os. The measurements, in the region 56-77 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K α1 , K α2 , K β1 and K β2 X- rays from different secondary source targets (Yb, Ta, Os, W, Re and Ir, etc.) excited by the 123.6 keV γ-photons from an 57Co annular source and detected by an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Experimental results have been compared with theoretically calculated values. The measured values of Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os are reported here for the first time.

  9. THORIUM-SILICON-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1959-02-10

    Th, Si, anol Bt alloys where Be and Si are each present in anmounts between 0.1 and 3.5% by weight and the total weight per cent of the minor alloying elements is between 1.5 and 4.5% are discussed. These ternary alloys show increased hardness and greater resistant to aqueous corrosion than is found in pure Th, Th-Si alloys, or Th-Be alloys.

  10. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  11. Effect of the Chalcogenide Element Doping on the Electronic Properties of Co2FeAl Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ting; Cheng, Xiao-min; Guan, Xia-wei; Miao, Xiang-shui

    2016-02-01

    The electronic properties of the typical Heusler compound Co2FeAl with chalcogenide element doping were investigated by means of first principles calculations within the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) + Hubbard U parameter (U). The calculations indicate that, only when 25% of the number of Al atoms is substituted by the chalcogenide element, the chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl shows the half metallic properties. The Fermi energy ( E F) of the 25% chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl is located in the middle of the gap of the minority states instead of around the top of the valence band as in Co2FeAl. Moreover, the band gap of 25% Te-doped Co2FeAl (0.80 eV) is wider than that of Co2FeAl (0.74 eV). These improved electronic structures will make 25% chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl more stable against temperature variation. Therefore, the expected excellent stability of the 25% chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl make it more suitable for spintronic applications than Co2FeAl.

  12. Features of radiation damage of Ni-Ti alloy under exposure to heavy ions of gaseous elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtseva, V. P.; Kislitsin, S. B.; Satpayev, D. A.; Mylnikova, T. S.; Chernyavskii, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    The consistent patterns of changes in structural and phase state, hardening and temperature ranges of martensitic transformations in Ni-Ti alloy with the shape memory effect after implantation of heavy ions 16O3+, 40Ar8+ and 84Kr15+ under comparable parameters have been experimentally studied. It is found that under the impact of 84Kr15+ ions, a two-layer surface structure with radiation-hardened second layer is formed, radiation-stimulated phase transformation B19'→B2 occurs in the near-surface layer and out-range area, and the martensitic transformation temperature increases toward higher values after implantation of 40Ar8+ and 84Kr15+ ions.

  13. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  14. Organic aerosols and inorganic species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning emissions over northern India: impact on mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm), collected from a source region [Patiala: 30.2 °N; 76.3 °E; 250 m above mean sea level] of emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy-residue) burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), North India, has been studied for its chemical composition and impact on regional atmospheric radiative forcing. On average, organic aerosol mass accounts for 63% of PM2.5, whereas the contribution of elemental carbon (EC) is ∼3.5%. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium contribute up to ∼85% of the total water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS), which constitutes ∼23% of PM2.5. The potassium-to-organic carbon ratio from paddy-residue burning emissions (KBB(+)/OC: 0.05 ± 0.01) is quite similar to that reported from Amazonian and Savanna forest-fires; whereas non-sea-salt-sulphate-to-OC ratio (nss-SO4(2-)/OC: 0.21) and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratio of 2.6 are significantly higher (by factor of 5 to 8). The mass absorption efficiency of EC (3.8 ± 1.3 m(2) g(-1)) shows significant decrease with a parallel increase in the concentrations of organic aerosols and scattering species (sulphate and nitrate). A cross plot of OC/EC and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratios show distinct differences for post-harvest burning emissions from paddy-residue as compared to those from fossil-fuel combustion sources in south-east Asia. PMID:25124269

  15. A sourcebook of titanium alloy superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, E. W.

    1983-09-01

    The development, properties, and applications of Ti-based superconducting alloys are presented in a handbook based on an extensive review of published investigations. The literature is compiled and characterized in a table arranged by alloy, and individual chapters are devoted to unalloyed Ti; Ti-V binary alloys; binary Ti-Cr, Ti-Mn, Ti-Fe, Ti-Co, and Ti-Ni alloys; binary alloys of Ti with the 4d and 5d transition elements; ternary alloys of Ti with simple and transition metals; Ti-Nb binary alloys; Ti-Nb alloys with small amounts of B, C, N, or O; ternary alloys of Ti-Nb with simple metals; Soviet technical alloys; Ti-Zr-Nb alloys; other Ti-Nb-transition-metal alloys; Ti-Nb-based quaternary alloys; and amorphous Ti-alloy superconductors. Tables, graphs, diagrams, and micrographs are provided.

  16. Influence of W, Mo and Ti trace elements on the phase separation in Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 based high entropy alloy.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Anna M; Daoud, Haneen M; Voelkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe; Wanderka, Nelia

    2015-12-01

    Compositionally complex alloys, also called high entropy alloys, have been investigated for over a decade in view of different applications, but so far only a small number of alloys can be considered as presenting good enough properties for industrial application. The most common family of elements is Al-Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Ni. The equiatomic alloy having 5 phases and being too brittle, the composition has been modified in order to improve the mechanical properties. Different compositions have been tested and as a first result ductile Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 has been chosen for deeper investigation. It shows a dendritic segregation into Co-Cr-Fe rich cores and Al-Cu-Ni rich interdendritic sites. The as-cast state is characterized mainly by two phases, namely Al-Cu-Ni rich precipitates of L12 structure inside a solid solution matrix. After homogenization both alloys consists of a single solid solution phase. Results are compared to calculations by ThermoCalc. In order to further improve the properties of the alloy the Cr content has been decreased and replaced by trace elements W, Mo and Ti, which, according to ThermoCalc, increase the melting point and the phase transition temperature which leads to the formation of the L12 phase. As-cast and heat treated samples of the base and the modified alloy have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and three dimensional atom probe. Results of the investigations will be discussed in terms of microstructure, hardness and coherence with Thermo Calc predictions. PMID:26159736

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  18. Investigations of energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply backscattered gamma photons in elements and alloys - an inverse matrix approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2011-09-01

    In Compton scattering experiments employing thick targets one observes that the numbers of multiply backscattered photons increases with increase in target thickness and then saturate at a particular target thickness called the saturation thickness. The energy of each of gamma ray photons continues to decrease as the number of scatterings, the photon undergoes, increases in the sample having finite dimensions. The present experiment is an independent study of energy and intensity distributions of 279-, 320-, 511-, 662 keV, and 1.12 MeV gamma rays multiply backscattered from targets of different atomic numbers and alloys of various thicknesses, and are carried out in a backscattering geometry. The backscattered photons are detected by a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The detector response unscrambling, converting the observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon energy spectrum, is obtained with the help of a 12×12 inverse response matrix. The present experimental results confirm that for thick targets, there is significant contribution of multiply backscattered radiations emerging from the targets, having energy equal to that of singly scattered Compton process. The measured saturation thickness (in units of mean free path) for multiply backscattering of gamma photons is found to be decreasing with increase in energy of incident gamma photons.

  19. Elemental Anisotropic Growth and Atomic-Scale Structure of Shape-Controlled Octahedral Pt-Ni-Co Alloy Nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Arán-Ais, Rosa M; Dionigi, Fabio; Merzdorf, Thomas; Gocyla, Martin; Heggen, Marc; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Gliech, Manuel; Solla-Gullón, José; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M; Strasser, Peter

    2015-11-11

    Multimetallic shape-controlled nanoparticles offer great opportunities to tune the activity, selectivity, and stability of electrocatalytic surface reactions. However, in many cases, our synthetic control over particle size, composition, and shape is limited requiring trial and error. Deeper atomic-scale insight in the particle formation process would enable more rational syntheses. Here we exemplify this using a family of trimetallic PtNiCo nanooctahedra obtained via a low-temperature, surfactant-free solvothermal synthesis. We analyze the competition between Ni and Co precursors under coreduction "one-step" conditions when the Ni reduction rates prevailed. To tune the Co reduction rate and final content, we develop a "two-step" route and track the evolution of the composition and morphology of the particles at the atomic scale. To achieve this, scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray elemental mapping techniques are used. We provide evidence of a heterogeneous element distribution caused by element-specific anisotropic growth and create octahedral nanoparticles with tailored atomic composition like Pt1.5M, PtM, and PtM1.5 (M = Ni + Co). These trimetallic electrocatalysts have been tested toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), showing a greatly enhanced mass activity related to commercial Pt/C and less activity loss than binary PtNi and PtCo after 4000 potential cycles. PMID:26441293

  20. Optical absorption and intrinsic recombination in relaxed and strained InAs{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} alloys for mid-wavelength infrared application

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2015-11-30

    The intrinsic carrier recombination lifetime in relaxed and strained InAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} alloys is investigated using the full-band Green's function theory. By computing the phonon-perturbed electron self-energy of the system, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger and radiative processes are studied as functions of antimony molar fractions, lattice temperatures and applied in-plane biaxial strains. To improve the overall accuracy of the calculation, an empirical pseudopotential band structure for the alloy is also fitted to the measured band extrema and effective masses under different biaxial strains. A set of effective screened potentials valid for all the needed antimony fractions x and biaxial strains ϵ, therefore, is obtained and applied to the calculation. The results showed reduced total Auger recombination rates and enhanced radiative recombination rates in InAsSb alloys at room temperature when a compressive strain is applied. Furthermore, the study on the widely employed mid-wavelength infrared detector material, InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}, strained by an InAs substrate, demonstrated that much longer minority carrier lifetime can be achieved compared to that in the lattice-matched situation when the lattice temperature is above 200 K.

  1. Optical absorption and intrinsic recombination in relaxed and strained InAs1-xSbx alloys for mid-wavelength infrared application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    The intrinsic carrier recombination lifetime in relaxed and strained InAs1-xSbx alloys is investigated using the full-band Green's function theory. By computing the phonon-perturbed electron self-energy of the system, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger and radiative processes are studied as functions of antimony molar fractions, lattice temperatures and applied in-plane biaxial strains. To improve the overall accuracy of the calculation, an empirical pseudopotential band structure for the alloy is also fitted to the measured band extrema and effective masses under different biaxial strains. A set of effective screened potentials valid for all the needed antimony fractions x and biaxial strains ɛ, therefore, is obtained and applied to the calculation. The results showed reduced total Auger recombination rates and enhanced radiative recombination rates in InAsSb alloys at room temperature when a compressive strain is applied. Furthermore, the study on the widely employed mid-wavelength infrared detector material, InAs0.91Sb0.09, strained by an InAs substrate, demonstrated that much longer minority carrier lifetime can be achieved compared to that in the lattice-matched situation when the lattice temperature is above 200 K.

  2. In-situ neutron investigation of hydrogen absorption kinetics in La(FexSi1-x)13 magnetocaloric alloys for room-temperature refrigeration application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Xueying; Mayer, Charlotte; Colin, Claire V.; Miraglia, Salvatore

    2016-02-01

    Promising magnetocaloric material La(Fe,Si)13 with a first-order magnetic transition has been widely investigated. The observed instability of hydrogen in the material is detrimental for its industrial upscale and a better control of the hydrogen absorption/desorption is necessary to optimize its application potential. In this article, the hydrogen absorption kinetics is studied through an in-situ neutron diffraction experiment. The results allow us to have an inside look at the structure "breathing" to accommodate the interstitial atoms and compare the effect of hydrides with carbohydrides.

  3. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  4. A study to evaluate non-uniform phase maps in shape memory alloys using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, Naren

    The unique thermo-mechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), such as their ability to recover the original shape upon heating or being able to tolerate large deformations without undergoing plastic transformations, makes them a good choice for actuators. This work studies their application in the aerospace and defense industries where SMA components can serve as release mechanisms for gates of enclosures that have to be deployed remotely. This work provides a novel approach in evaluating the stress and heat induced change of phase in a SMA, in terms of the transformation strain tensor. In particular, the FEA tool ANSYS has been used to perform a 2-D analysis of a Cu-Al-Zn-Mn SMA specimen undergoing a nontraditional loading path in two steps with stress and heating loads. In the first load step, tensile displacement is applied, followed by the second load step in which the specimen is heated while the end displacements are held constant. A number of geometric configurations are examined under the two step loading path. Strain results are used to calculate transformation strain which provides a quantitative measure of phase at a material point; when transformation strain is zero, the material point is either twinned martensite, or austenite depending on the temperature. Transformation strain value of unity corresponds to detwinned martensite. A value between zero and one indicates mixed phase. In this study, through two step loading in conjunction with transformation strain calculations, a method for mapping transient non-uniform distribution of phases in an SMA is introduced. Ability to obtain drastically different phase distributions under same loading path by modifying the geometry is demonstrated. The failure behavior of SMAs can be designed such that the load level the crack initiates and the path it propagates can be customized.

  5. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  6. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  7. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  8. Factors affecting the optical properties of Pd-free Au-Pt-based dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Takanobu; Takuma, Yasuko; Miura, Eri; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2003-12-01

    The optical properties of experimental Au-Pt-based alloys containing a small amount of In, Sn, and Zn were investigated by spectrophotometric colorimetry to extract factors affecting color of Au-Pt-based high-karat dental alloys. It was found that the optical properties of Au-Pt-based alloys are strongly affected by the number of valence electrons per atom in an alloy, namely, the electron:atom ratio, e/a. That is, by increasing the e/a-value, activities of reflection in the long-wavelength range and absorption in the short-wavelength range in the visible spectrum apparently increased. As a result, the maximum slope of the spectral reflectance curve at the absorption edge, which is located near 515 nm (approximately 2.4 eV), apparently increased with e/a-value. Due to this effect, the b*-coordinate (yellow-blue) in the CIELAB color space considerably increased and the a*-coordinate (red-green) slightly increased with e/a-value. The addition of a third element with a higher number of valence electrons to the binary Au-Pt alloy is, therefore, effective in giving a gold tinge to the parent Au-Pt alloy. This information may be useful in controlling the color of Au-Pt-based dental alloys. PMID:15348493

  9. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum on hardness of molybdenum. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary molybdenum alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to molybdenum, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons that molybdenum failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and molybdenum.

  10. A Novel Powder Metallurgy Processing Approach to Prepare Fine-Grained Cu-Al-Ni Shape-Memory Alloy Strips from Elemental Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajpai, S. K.; Dube, R. K.; Chatterjee, P.; Sangal, S.

    2012-07-01

    The current work describes the experimental results related to the successful preparation of fine-grained, Cu-Al-Ni, high-temperature shape-memory alloy (SMA) strips from elemental Cu, Al, and Ni powders via a novel powder metallurgy (P/M) processing approach. This route consists of short time period ball milling of elemental powder mixture, preform preparation from milled powder, sintering of preforms, hot-densification rolling of unsheathed sintered powder preforms under protective atmosphere, and postconsolidation homogenization treatment of the hot-rolled strips. It has been shown that it is possible to prepare chemically homogeneous Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips consisting of equiaxed grains of average size approximately 6 μm via the current processing approach. It also has been shown that fine-grained microstructure in the finished Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips resulted from the pinning effect of nanosized alumina particles present on the grain boundaries. The finished SMA strips were almost fully martensitic in nature, consisting of a mixture of β1^' } - and γ1^' } -type martensites. The Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips had 677 MPa average fracture strength, coupled with 13 pct average fracture strain. The fractured surfaces of the specimens exhibited primarily dimpled ductile type of fracture, together with some transgranular mode of fracture. The Cu-Al-Ni strips exhibited an almost 100 pct one-way shape recovery after bending followed by unconstrained heating at 1, 2, and 4 pct applied deformation prestrain. The two-way shape-memory strain was found approximately 0.35 pct after 15 training cycles at 4 pct applied training prestrain.

  11. Material Modeling of 6000 Series Aluminum Alloy Sheets with Different Density Cube Textures and Effect on the Accuracy of Finite Element Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanaga, Daisaku; Kuwabara, Toshihiko; Uema, Naoyuki; Asano, Mineo

    2011-08-01

    Biaxial tensile tests of 6000 series aluminum alloy sheet with different density cube textures were carried out using cruciform specimens similar to that developed by one of the authors [Kuwabara, T. et al., J. Material Process. Technol., 80/81(1998), 517-523.]. The specimens are loaded under linear stress paths in a servo-controlled biaxial tensile testing machine. Plastic orthotropy remained coaxial with the principal stresses throughout every experiment. Successive contours of plastic work in stress space and the directions of plastic strain rates were precisely measured and compared with those calculated using selected yield functions. The Yld2000-2d yield functions with exponents of 12 and 6 [Barlat, F. et al., Int. J. Plasticity 19 (2003), 1297-1319] are capable of reproducing the general trends of the work contours and the directions of plastic strain rates observed for test materials with high and low cube textures, respectively. Hydraulic bulge tests were also conducted and the variation of thickness strain along the meridian direction of the bulged specimen was compared with that calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) based on the Yld2000-2d yield functions with exponents of 12 and 6. The differences of cube texture cause significant differences in the strain distributions of the bulged specimens, and the FEA results calculated using the Yld2000-2d yield functions show good agreement with the measurement results.

  12. Stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height: A three-dimensional finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. Vijay; Bhat, Manohar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak; Satija, Harsha; Sharma, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) on the stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height. Materials and Methods: The 3D model was fabricated using software to represent an endodontically treated mandibular second premolar with post and restored with a full ceramic crown restoration, which was then analyzed using FEA using FEA ANSYS Workbench V13.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A) software. Results: The FEA showed the maximum stresses of 137.43 Mpa in dentin with alveolar bone height of 4 mm when the titanium post was used, 138.48 Mpa when carbon fiber post was used as compared to 105.91 Mpa in the model with alveolar bone height of 2 mm from the cement enamel junction (CEJ) when the titanium post was used and 107.37 Mpa when the carbon fiber post was used. Conclusions: Stress was observed more in alveolar bone height level of 4 mm from CEJ than 2 mm from CEJ. Stresses in the dentin were almost similar when the carbon fiber post was compared to titanium post. However, stresses in the post and the cement were much higher when titanium post was used as compared to carbon fiber post. PMID:26430375

  13. Analysis of SiH vibrational absorption in amorphous SiOx:H (0 <= x <= 2.0) alloys in terms of a charge-transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Kurata, Y.; Inokuma, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    1993-07-01

    Amorphous SiOx:H films were deposited at 300 °C by rf glow discharge of SiH4-O2 mixtures, and the SiH stretching vibrational absorption was investigated as a function of the oxygen content x. The absorption profiles were examined on the basis of the random-bonding model (RBM). The length dSiH of SiH bonds in four H-Si (Si3-nOn) bonding units was examined in terms of a charge-transfer model, using the Sanderson's electronegativity. Using these dSiH values, the peak wave numbers for the four components were found to be 2000, 2108, 2195, and 2260 cm-1, in agreement with the experimental ones determined on the basis of the RBM.

  14. Finite element analysis and cellular studies on advanced, controlled porous structures with subsurface continuity in bio-implantable titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P; Ankem, S; Wyatt, Z; Ferlin, K M; Fisher, J

    2014-01-01

    Highly-porous metallic implant onlay materials (specifically those containing surface pores that intersect beneath the onlay surface) have been investigated recently for their potential to reduce bone resorption and to improve the overall stability of the implant. In the current study, sub-surface interconnectivity of high-aspect-ratio pores was created directly in the substrate of an implant material using wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). This technique was used to produce intersecting pores with diameters of 180-250 μm on a clinically relevant implant material—commercially pure (CP) Grade 4 Ti—with a very high degree of control over pore morphology. These pores resulted in no significant microstructural modification to the surrounding Ti, and the inner pore surfaces could be thermally oxidized to produce a microrough, bioactive TiO2 layer. Finite element analysis of Ti models containing these EDM-attainable intersecting pore geometries suggested they produce higher bone/implant interface strengths and lower susceptibility to stress shielding of the surrounding bone as compared with models containing simpler surface geometries. In vitro experiments using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) demonstrated mineralized tissue ingrowth of ∼ 300 μm into EDM-produced pores. This amount of ingrowth is expected to allow for full interlocking of mineralized tissue and implant given the proper pore structure design. PMID:23686820

  15. Nickel-based gadolinium alloy for neutron adsorption application in RAM packages.

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, Ronald A.; Dupont, John Neuman; McConnell, Paul E.; Robino, Charles Victor

    2005-02-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program, located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), coordinates and integrates national efforts in management and disposal of US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel. These management functions include development of standardised systems for long-term disposal in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Nuclear criticality control measures are needed in these systems to avoid restrictive fissile loading limits because of the enrichment and total quantity of fissile material in some types of the DOE spent nuclear fuel. This need is being addressed by development of corrosion-resistant, neutron-absorbing structural alloys for nuclear criticality control. This paper outlines results of a metallurgical development programme that is investigating the alloying of gadolinium into a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy matrix. Gadolinium has been chosen as the neutron absorption alloying element due to its high thermal neutron absorption cross section and low solubility in the expected repository environment. The nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy family was chosen for its known corrosion performance, mechanical properties, and weldability. The workflow of this programme includes chemical composition definition, primary and secondary melting studies, ingot conversion processes, properties testing, and national consensus codes and standards work. The microstructural investigation of these alloys shows that the gadolinium addition is present in the alloy as a gadolinium-rich second phase. The mechanical strength values are similar to those expected for commercial Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. The alloys have been corrosion tested with acceptable results. The initial results of weldability tests have also been acceptable. Neutronic testing in a moderated critical array has generated favourable results. An American Society for Testing and Materials material specification has been issued for the alloy and a Code Case has been submitted to the

  16. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) method study 7. Analyses for trace elements in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (direct aspiration) and colorimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.A.; Britton, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    The report describes a study of ten elements: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, selenium and zinc, at trace levels in water. Six sample concentrates, each containing the ten trace elements, were sealed in glass ampuls, verified as homogeneous and stable over time, and provided to the analysts with instructions for sample preparation and analyses. Mean recovery, overall standard deviation, and single-analyst standard deviations were calculated for each element at each concentration and for the two water types.

  17. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  18. Direct determination of particulate elements in edible oils and fats using an ultrasonic slurry sampler with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dalen, Gerard; de Galan, Leo

    1994-12-01

    Through the use of an ultrasonic slurry mixer, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) can be applied for the fully automated determination of particulate iron and nickel in edible oils and fats. The unsupervised ultrasonic slurry autosampler yields the same accuracy and somewhat better precision than the much more laborious manual GFAAS method.

  19. X-ray Diffraction Study of Order-Disorder Phase Transition in CuMPt6 (M=3d Elements) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Takahashi, Miwako; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the ordering behavior of ternary CuMPt6 alloys with M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni by high-temperature polycrystalline X-ray diffraction. The alloys undergo a phase transition from the fcc disordered state to the Cu3Au-type ordered state, except for the alloy with M=Ni, in which only short-range order forms. The transition temperature Tc is highest (1593 K) for M=Ti and decreases almost monotonically with increasing atomic number to 1153 K for M=Co. The observed dependence of ordering tendency on the atomic number of M is discussed in the light of the theory of ordering in transition-metal alloys and its significance for the study of ordering in ternary alloys.

  20. USEPA (UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 7. ANALYSES FOR TRACE ELEMENTS IN WATER BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (DIRECT ASPIRATION) AND COLORIMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of ten elements: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, selenium and zinc, at trace levels in water. Six sample concentrates, each containing the ten trace elements, were sealed in glass ampuls, verified as homogeneous an...

  1. The effects of reactive-element, ion-implantation-induced amorphous layers on the oxidation of Co-12Cr and Ni-12Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    Nickel-chromium (Ni-12Cr, wt.%) and cobalt-chromium (Co-12Cr, wt.%) alloys were ion implanted with 150 keV yttrium to fluences that ranged between 2 {times} 10{sup 16} and 1 {times} 0{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The influence of the implantation on the microstructure of the alloy was determined. The effect of the highest dose implantation on the alloys` oxidation response at 1,000 C, 48 hr was measured. Both alloys contained an amorphous surface phase as a result of this fluence and one of the effects of oxidation was to recrystallize the amorphized alloy in the first few minutes of oxidation. The lower doses of 2 {times} 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} were sufficient to cause amorphization of both the Ni-12Cr and the Co-12Cr. The implantation reduced the isothermal mass gain by a factor of 25% for the Ni-12Cr, but had a negligible effect on the Co-12Cr alloy. Short-term oxidation of experiments at 600 C showed via transmission electron microscopy that, in the absence of the yttrium implant, the Ni-12Cr alloy forms NiO in the first minute of oxidation and the Co-12Cr alloy forms CoO and CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The implanted Ni-12Cr, on the other hand (1 {times} 10{sup 17} Y{sup +}/cm{sup 2}), forms recrystallized Ni-Cr, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and NiO in the near-surface region, while the implanted Co-12Cr alloy forms CoO, CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and a recrystallized intermetallic alloy from the amorphized region.

  2. Multiple cell photoresponsive amorphous alloys and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Adler, D.

    1990-01-02

    This patent describes an improved photoresponsive tandem multiple solar cell device. The device comprising: at least a first and second superimposed cell of various materials. The first cell being formed of a silicon alloy material. The second cell including an amorphous silicon alloy semiconductor cell body having an active photoresponsive region in which radiation can impinge to produce charge carriers, the amorphous cell body including at least one density of states reducing element. The element being fluorine. The amorphous cell body further including a band gap adjusting element therein at least in the photoresponsive region to enhance the radiation absorption thereof, the adjusting element being germanium: the second cell being a multi-layer body having deposited semiconductor layers of opposite (p and n) conductivity type; and the first cell being formed with the second cell in substantially direct Junction contact therebetween. The first and second cells designed to generate substantially matched currents from each cell from a light source directed through the first cell and into the second cell.

  3. Element distribution and iron speciation in mature wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy mapping and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) imaging.

    PubMed

    De Brier, Niels; Gomand, Sara V; Donner, Erica; Paterson, David; Smolders, Erik; Delcour, Jan A; Lombi, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that the majority of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in wheat grains are associated with phytate, but a nuanced approach to unravel important tissue-level variation in element speciation within the grain is lacking. Here, we present spatially resolved Fe-speciation data obtained directly from different grain tissues using the newly developed synchrotron-based technique of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy imaging, coupling this with high-definition μ-X-ray fluorescence microscopy to map the co-localization of essential elements. In the aleurone, phosphorus (P) is co-localized with Fe and Zn, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging confirmed that Fe is chelated by phytate in this tissue layer. In the crease tissues, Zn is also positively related to P distribution, albeit less so than in the aleurone. Speciation analysis suggests that Fe is bound to nicotianamine rather than phytate in the nucellar projection, and that more complex Fe structures may also be present. In the embryo, high Zn concentrations are present in the root and shoot primordium, co-occurring with sulfur and presumably bound to thiol groups. Overall, Fe is mainly concentrated in the scutellum and co-localized with P. This high resolution imaging and speciation analysis reveals the complexity of the physiological processes responsible for element accumulation and bioaccessibility. PMID:27038325

  4. Alloys for hydrogen storage in nickel/hydrogen and nickel/metal hydride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anani, Anaba; Visintin, Arnaldo; Petrov, Konstantin; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Reilly, James J.; Johnson, John R.; Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Desch, Paul B.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1990, there has been an ongoing collaboration among the authors in the three laboratories to (1) prepare alloys of the AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) types, using arc-melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques; (2) examine their physico-chemical characteristics (morphology, composition); (3) determine the hydrogen absorption/desorption behavior (pressure-composition isotherms as a function of temperature); and (4) evaluate their performance characteristics as hydride electrodes (charge/discharge, capacity retention, cycle life, high rate capability). The work carried out on representative AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) type modified alloys (by partial substitution or with small additives of other elements) is presented. The purpose of the modification was to optimize the thermodynamics and kinetics of the hydriding/dehydriding reactions and enhance the stabilities of the alloys for the desired battery applications. The results of our collaboration, to date, demonstrate that (1) alloys prepared by arc melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques exhibit similar morphology, composition and hydriding/dehydriding characteristics; (2) alloys with the appropriate small amounts of substituent or additive elements: (1) retain the single phase structure, (2) improve the hydriding/dehydriding reactions for the battery applications, and (3) enhance the stability in the battery environment; and (3) the AB(sub 2) type alloys exhibit higher energy densities than the AB(sub 5) type alloys but the state-of-the-art, commercialized batteries are predominantly manufactured using Ab(sub 5) type alloys.

  5. The influence of surface effects on the hydrogen absorption investigated on the V H model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, K.-H.; Paulus, H.; Kiss, G.

    2001-07-01

    The system V-O-H has been chosen as a model system to investigate surface effects on hydrogen absorption in metals. By means of XPS, SIMS, and thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS) methods, the influence of oxygen segregated from the bulk as well as adsorbed from the gas phase has been pointed out. Segregated oxygen obstructs the hydrogen absorption, whereas non-stoichiometric and stoichiometric oxides have a preventing effect already with coverages in the range of monolayers. Ion bombardment in connection with sputter-cleaning or SNMS and SIMS analyses produces additional absorption sites in the surface near region for hydrogen. These can be populated by hydrogen from the gas phase during H 2 exposure or diffusing from the bulk, if the sample was H 2 loaded before. Beside elements like vanadium, there exist alloys (e.g. TiFe, LaNi 5, TiMn 2), which are particularly suitable for practical storage purposes. It is important for the further development of such alloys but also for a better understanding of absorption kinetics to investigate the influence of surface effects also on these alloys.

  6. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternarymore » alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.« less

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  8. Determination of selected elements in whole coal and in coal ash from the eight argonne premium coal samples by atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry, and ion-selective electrode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doughten, M.W.; Gillison, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for the determination of 24 elements in whole coal and coal ash by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, flame, graphite furnace, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and by ion-selective electrode are described. Coal ashes were analyzed in triplicate to determine the precision of the methods. Results of the analyses of NBS Standard Reference Materials 1633, 1633a, 1632a, and 1635 are reported. Accuracy of the methods is determined by comparison of the analysis of standard reference materials to their certified values as well as other values in the literature.

  9. Enhanced confinement in compositionally heterogeneous alloy quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Zubaer

    While there is a growing need to increase solar cell efficiencies and reduce the cost per watt, reported efficiencies are still well below the thermodynamic limit of photovoltaic energy conversion. The major factor that affects the efficiency (by more than 40%) is the lack of absorption or thermalization of electrons. To improve absorption, existing approaches, till date, are focused on combining multiple materials in the form of heterostructures. This talk will show the application of a physics-based mechanistic approach to engineer absorption by using alloy quantum dots and exploiting its heterogeneous compositional and deformation fields. Using a multiscale computational framework that combines density functional theory, k.p method and the finite element calculations, the work shows that heterogeneous distribution of composition and strain fields can lead to substantial confinement in alloy quantum dots. Subsequently alloy quantum dots that are much larger (on the order of 50 nm) in size - compared to their single crystalline counterparts (which are on the order of 5 nm) - can still provide significant confinement. The findings uncover new fundamental insights for engineering confinement that are unattainable under conventional homogenization approximations.

  10. Effects of cadmium in herbage on the apparent absorption of elements by sheep in comparison with inorganic cadmium added to their diet

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.J.C. . E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au; Chiy, P.C.; Zachou, E.

    2005-10-01

    A meta-analysis of existing scientific literature recently suggested that Cd is absorbed more efficiently by sheep if it is in the organic form in grass, than if it is added as an inorganic supplement to the diet. We tested this experimentally by feeding sheep grass from contaminated soil, compared with uncontaminated grass and with Cd added to the diet. To produce contaminated herbage, Cd nitrate was added to soil in 11 lysimeters sown with perennial ryegrass, with a further 11 lysimeters receiving no Cd to produce uncontaminated herbage. In the Cd-treated lysimeters, soil had increased exchangeable K, Mg, and Ca, leachate had increased K, Mg, Ca, Na, and P, grass had increased Cd and reduced Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Cr, Al, and Ni, and there was some reduction in grass yield compared with untreated lysimeters. Grass from Cd-treated or untreated lysimeters was fed to groups of 12 ewes for 2 days, with Cd intake equated by adding Cd nitrate to the concentrate feed of ewes receiving the uncontaminated grass. The apparent absorption of Cd, Zn, Mo, Cr, and Al was increased for ewes receiving Cd-enriched grass, and apparent absorption of Cu was reduced, compared to those receiving supplementary inorganic Cd. Most of the unabsorbed Cd was excreted in feces within 4 days of feeding. The ewes consuming Cd in grass had increased B concentrations in their urine, possibly due to adverse effects of Cd on kidney function. Finally, the ewes were offered a choice of the two herbages and they ate significantly more of the uncontaminated grass. It is concluded that the apparent absorption of Cd and other heavy metals by sheep in a short-term experiment was greater when Cd was in the grass than when the Cd was added in in an inorganic form and that sheep partially avoided herbage with a high Cd concentration.

  11. Effect of prenatal lead toxicity on surface ultrastructural features, elemental composition and infrared absorption characteristics of the skin of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Arjun, J; Das, M; Bhattacharjee, C R; Dkhar, P S

    2001-01-01

    The epidermis and dermis of albino mice born to females receiving oral sublethal doses of lead during pregnancy developed several abnormalities. These included perforations, tissue damage, cell deformity, and disordered organization of collagen bundles, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. An increase in the concentrations of zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium and a decrease in that of copper was evident from atomic absorption spectroscopical analysis, when entire skin tissues were examined. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the occurrence of split bands in the spectra at 1,200-1,000 cm(-1), suggesting a reduction in the symmetry of the sulphate group (glycosaminoglycans) of skin probably caused by covalent bonding of it with lead. PMID:11545451

  12. Bandgap and optical absorption edge of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys with 0 < x < 17.8%

    SciTech Connect

    Masnadi-Shirazi, M.; Lewis, R. B.; Bahrami-Yekta, V.; Tiedje, T.; Chicoine, M.; Servati, P.

    2014-12-14

    The compositional dependence of the fundamental bandgap of pseudomorphic GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} layers on GaAs substrates is studied at room temperature by optical transmission and photoluminescence spectroscopies. All GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films (0 ≤ x ≤ 17.8%) show direct optical bandgaps, which decrease with increasing Bi content, closely following density functional theory predictions. The smallest measured bandgap is 0.52 eV (∼2.4 μm) at 17.8% Bi. Extrapolating a fit to the data, the GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} bandgap is predicted to reach 0 eV at 35% Bi. Below the GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} bandgap, exponential absorption band tails are observed with Urbach energies 3–6 times larger than that of bulk GaAs. The Urbach parameter increases with Bi content up to 5.5% Bi, and remains constant at higher concentrations. The lattice constant and Bi content of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} layers (0 < x ≤ 19.4%) are studied using high resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The relaxed lattice constant of hypothetical zincblende GaBi is estimated to be 6.33 ± 0.05 Å, from extrapolation of the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction data.

  13. Performance of a four-element Si drift detector for X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy: resolution, maximum count rate, and dead-time correction with incorporation into the ATHENA data analysis software

    SciTech Connect

    Woicik, J.C.; Newburgh, W.; Ravel, B.; Fischer, D.A.

    2010-03-09

    The performance of a four-element Si drift detector for energy-dispersive fluorescence-yield X-ray absorption fine-structure measurements is reported, operating at the National Institute of Standards and Technology beamline X23A2 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The detector can acquire X-ray absorption fine-structure spectra with a throughput exceeding 4 x 10{sup 5} counts per second per detector element (>1.6 x 10{sup 6} total counts per second summed over all four channels). At this count rate the resolution at 6 keV is approximately 220 eV, which adequately resolves the Mn K{sub {alpha}} and K{sup {beta}} fluorescence lines. Accurate dead-time correction is demonstrated, and it has been incorporated into the ATHENA data analysis program. To maintain counting efficiency and high signal to background, it is suggested that the incoming count rate should not exceed {approx}70% of the maximum throughput.

  14. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ADVANCED GADOLINIUM NEUTRON ABSORBER ALLOY BY MEANS OF NEUTRON TRANSMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg W. Wachs

    2007-09-01

    Neutron transmission experiments were performed on samples of an advanced nickel-chromium-molybdenum-gadolinium (Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd) neutron absorber alloy. The primary purpose of the experiments was to demonstrate the thermal neutron absorbing capability of the alloy at specific gadolinium dopant levels. The new alloy is to be deployed for criticality control of highly enriched DOE SNF. For the transmission experiments, alloy test samples were fabricated with 0.0, 1.58 and 2.1 wt% natural gadolinium dispersed in a Ni-Cr-Mo base alloy. The transmission experiments were successfully carried out at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Measured data from the neutron transmission experiments were compared to calculated results derived from a simple exponential transmission formula using only radiative capture cross sections. Excellent agreement between the measured and calculated results demonstrated the expected strong thermal absorption capability of the gadolinium poison and in addition, verified the measured elemental composition of the alloy test samples. The good agreement also indirectly confirmed that the gadolinium was dispersed fairly uniformly in the alloy and the ENDF VII radiative capture cross section data were accurate.

  16. X-ray absorption studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1996-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is ideal for {ital in}{ital situ} studies of battery materials because both the probe and signal are penetrating x rays. The advantage of XAS being element specific permits investigation of the environment of a constituent element in a composite material. This makes it very powerful for studying electrode additives and corrosion of individual components of complex metal hydride alloys. The near edge part of the spectrum (XANES) provides information on oxidation state and site symmetry of the excited atom. This is particularly useful in study of corrosion and oxidation changes in cathode materials during charge/discharge cycle. Extended fine structure (EXAFS) gives structural information. Thus the technique provides both chemical and structural information. Since XAS probes only short range order, it can be applied to study of amorphous electrode materials and electrolytes. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of the method, as well as some experimental aspects.

  17. Three dimensional finite element modeling of laser solid freeform fabrication of cobalt alloy stellite 21 with 1.5% nanoCeO2 on the low carbon steel 1015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayaz, G. R.; Ebrahimi, A.; Zakeri, S. S.

    Our purpose is to model the multilayer laser solid freeform fabrication (LSFF) process for the material properties of low carbon steel 1015 for workpiece and cobalt alloy stellite 21 with 1.5 wt.% nano CeO2 as the powder particles. In this paper, transient heat transfer and mass transfer equations in laser solid freeform fabrication process are solved by Finite Element Method (FEM). In this approach, the geometry of the deposited material, temperature and thermal stress fields across the process area are predicted. For each layer the clad height is computed and computations are done by the use of MATLAB and COMSOL software.

  18. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  19. Cholesterol absorption.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Richard E

    2002-03-01

    Cholesterol absorption is a key regulatory point in human lipid metabolism because it determines the amount of endogenous biliary as well as dietary cholesterol that is retained, thereby influencing whole body cholesterol balance. Plant sterols (phytosterols) and the drug ezetimibe reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in clinical trials, complementing the statin drugs, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. The mechanism of cholesterol absorption is not completely known but involves the genes ABC1, ABCG5, and ABCG8, which are members of the ATP-binding cassette protein family and appear to remove unwanted cholesterol and phytosterols from the enterocyte. ABC1 is upregulated by the liver X (LXR) and retinoid X (RXR) nuclear receptors. Acylcholesterol acytransferase-2 is an intestinal enzyme that esterifies absorbed cholesterol and increases cholesterol absorption when dietary intake is high. New clinical treatments based on better understanding of absorption physiology are likely to substantially improve clinical cholesterol management in the future. PMID:17033296

  20. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Rong; Merz, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  1. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  2. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian cane sugar (Naga Hammady factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analyses.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, R M; Sherif, M K; Mohamed, A E; Grass, F

    1984-01-01

    INAA, AAS and ICP-AES techniques are applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in the stalks of sugar cane plant after extracting juice, raw juice principal (mixed) juice, juice withdrawn from the successive stages of sugar industry, sirup, deposits from evaporators, molasse, A-? and B-sugar and in the soil samples (collected from the field supplying the factories by cane plants) taken from the immediate vicinity of the plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth. The results obtained are in a good agreement of the safety baselines of using juice as beverage, molasse derivatives (honey, sweets, ...) as diet for common people in the developed countries and in industry (methanol, ethanol, acetone & acetic acid, ...) and sugar sweeting for many purposes (in beverages, desserts, ...). Differences of trace elements concentrations in soil samples may be reasoned to geochemical and biogeochemical fractionation while those in juice may be due to the changes in the environmental conditions, chemical composition and botanic structures. Variations in trace element contents in the products formed during the successive stages of sugar industry may be a result of evaporation, filtration processes, chemical treatments or corrosion of vessels, containers or engines. Trace elements are very important where they are responsible for enzymatic and biochemical reactions, matabolism, health and diseases. PMID:6526566

  3. Phase decomposition of AuFe alloy nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannu, Compesh; Bala, Manju; Singh, U. B.; Srivastava, S. K.; Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-07-01

    AuFe alloy nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix are synthesized using atom beam sputtering technique and subsequently irradiated with 100 MeV Au ions at various fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 6 × 1013 ions/cm2. The X-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results show that swift heavy ion irradiation leads to decomposition of AuFe alloy nanoparticles from surface region and subsequent reprecipitation of Au and Fe nanoparticles occur. The process of phase decomposition and reprecipitation of individual element nanoparticles is explained on the basis of inelastic thermal spike model.

  4. Hydrogen pickup mechanism of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couet, Adrien

    to directly measure the evolution of sigma oxe as function of exposure time. The results show that sigmao xe decreases as function of exposure time and that its variations are directly correlated to the instantaneous hydrogen pickup fraction variations. The electron transport through the oxide layer is thus altered as the oxide grows, reasons for which are yet to be exactly determined. Preliminary results also show that sigma oxe of ZrNb alloys would be much higher compared with Zircaloy-4. Thus, it is confirmed that sigmaox e is a key parameter in the hydrogen and oxidation mechanism. Because the mechanism whereby alloying elements are incorporated into the oxide layer is critical to changing sigmao xe, the evolution of the oxidation state of two common alloying elements, Fe and Nb, when incorporated into the growing oxide layers is investigated using X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) using micro-beam synchrotron radiation on cross sectional oxide samples. The results show that the oxidation of both Fe and Nb is delayed in the oxide layer compared to that of Zr, and that this oxidation delay is related to the variations of the instantaneous hydrogen pick-up fraction with exposure time. The evolution of Nb oxidation as function of oxide depth is also compatible with space charge compensation in the oxide and with an increase in sigmaox e of ZrNb alloys compared to Zircaloys. Finally, various successively complex models from the well-known Wagner oxidation theory to the more complex effect of space charge on oxidation kinetics have been developed. The general purpose of the modeling effort is to provide a rationale for the sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics and demonstrate the correlation with hydrogen pickup fraction. It is directly demonstrated that parabolic oxidation kinetics is associated with high sigmao xe and low space charges in the oxide whereas sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics is associated with lower sigmaox e and higher space charge in the

  5. Multi-element determination of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn content in vegetable oils samples by high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry and microemulsion sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Luana S; Barbosa, José T P; Fernandes, Andréa P; Lemos, Valfredo A; Santos, Walter N L Dos; Korn, Maria Graças A; Teixeira, Leonardo S G

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the microemulsification as sample preparation procedure for determination of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn in vegetable oils samples by High-Resolution Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). Microemulsions were prepared by mixing samples with propan-1-ol and aqueous acid solution, which allowed the use of inorganic aqueous standards for the calibration. To a sample mass of 0.5g, 100μL of hydrochloric acid and propan-1-ol were added and the resulting mixture diluted to a final volume of 10mL. The sample was manually shaken resulting in a visually homogeneous system. The main lines were selected for all studied metals and the detection limits (3σ, n=10) were 0.12, 0.62, 0.58 and 0.12mgkg(-1) for Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 5% to 11 % in samples spiked with 0.25 and 1.5μgmL(-1) of each metal, respectively. Recoveries varied from 89% to 102%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn in soybean, olive and sunflower oils. PMID:23140735

  6. Inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption for the use of elemental analysis of a root canal after lasing with a holmium:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Allan S; Cohen, Brett I; Musikant, Barry Lee

    2003-06-01

    It has been reported in the literature that after lasing dentin the dentin surface has a glassy or globular appearance. Many authors believe this to be recrystallized hydroxyapatite. The purpose of this elemental analysis was to see if any of the silica fiber optic was melted and deposited as these globular structures on the canal wall. Two teeth were used. One was hand-instrumented with files and used as the control, the other was lased with a holmium:YAG laser. A 245-micro low OH- fiber was used with a power setting of 0.75 W, 5 Hz, 94.2 J, and 1134 V to lase the root. The roots were microanalyzed for oxygen, phosphorus, silicon, nitrogen, hydrogen, calcium, and carbon. The percentages for all elements tested were the same for both teeth. Therefore, there was no silicon deposited onto the canal wall of the tooth that was lased. It is concluded that the low OH- silica fiber optic was not melted and deposited onto the dentinal canal wall. PMID:12814225

  7. In-situ study of precipitates in Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloys using anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun-Ming, Yang; Feng-Gang, Bian; Bai-Qing, Xiong; Dong-Mei, Liu; Yi-Wen, Li; Wen-Qiang, Hua; Jie, Wang

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the precipitate compositions and precipitate amounts of these elements (including the size distribution, volume fraction, and inter-precipitate distance) on the Cu-containing 7000 series aluminum alloys (7150 and 7085 Al alloys), are investigated by anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering (ASAXS) at various energies. The scattering intensity of 7150 alloy with T6 aging treatment decreases as the incident x-ray energy approaches the Zn absorption edge from the lower energy side, while scattering intensity does not show a noticeable energy dependence near the Cu absorption edge. Similar results are observed in the 7085 alloy in an aging process (120 °C) by employing in-situ ASAXS measurements, indicating that the precipitate compositions should include Zn element and should not be strongly related to Cu element at the early stage after 10 min. In the aging process, the precipitate particles with an initial average size of ∼ 8 Å increase with aging time at an energy of 9.60 keV, while the increase with a slower rate is observed at an energy of 9.65 keV as near the Zn absorption edge. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11005143, 11405259, and 51274046) and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry of China (Grant No. [2014]1685).

  8. Ductile aluminide alloys for high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Stiegler, J.O.

    1986-09-16

    An alloy is described consisting essentially of sufficient nickel and aluminum to form Ni/sub 3/A1, an amount of boron sufficient to promote ductility in the alloy and 0.3 to 1.5 atomic percent of an element selected from the group consisting of hafnium and zirconium. The alloy further including 6 to 12 atomic percent iron.

  9. Cooling induced segregation of impurity elements to grain boundaries in Fe-3wt%Ni alloys, 2[1/4]wt%Cr-1wt%Mo steel and submerged arc weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, V.; Flewitt, P.E.J. . Technology Div.)

    1994-10-01

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies demonstrate that small bulk concentrations of impurity and solute elements can segregate to grain boundaries in ferritic steels during cooling from high temperatures. This results from solute-vacancy pair formation and their subsequent diffusion to the grain boundary sinks. The grain boundary segregation which results from cooling at three different rates from fixed temperatures of 1,273 and 1,323 K respectively, have been measured on ferritic Fe-3 wt%Ni alloys and 2[1/4]wt%Cr-1wt%Mo steels containing additions of either P or Sn. In addition, a C-Mn submerged arc weld metal subject to a complex thermal cycle has been investigated. The composition of the grain boundaries have been measured on thin foil specimens using both conventional and high resolution STEM-EDS X-ray microanalysis techniques. Segregations of both P and Sn have been observed in the Fe-3 wt%Ni alloys and 2[1/4]wt%Cr-1wt%Mo steels and P segregations in the weld metal. The measured grain boundary segregations of both P and Sn are discussed with respect to previous theoretical predictions for the cooling rates investigated and the interactive role of other elements present.

  10. Fast determination of trace elements in organic fertilizers using a cup-horn reactor for ultrasound-assisted extraction and fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leonel Silva; Vieira, Heulla Pereira; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina

    2014-02-01

    A fast and accurate method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction in a cup-horn sonoreactor was developed to determine the total content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in organic fertilizers by fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FS FAAS). Multivariate optimization was used to establish the optimal conditions for the extraction procedure. An aliquot containing approximately 120 mg of the sample was added to a 500 µL volume of an acid mixture (HNO3/HCl/HF, 5:3:3, v/v/v). After a few minutes, 500 µL of deionized water was added and eight samples were simultaneously sonicated for 10 min at 50% amplitude, allowing a sample throughput of 32 extractions per hour. The performance of the method was evaluated with a certified reference material of sewage sludge (CRM 029). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.58% to 5.6%. The recoveries of analytes were found to 100%, 109%, 96%, 92%, 101%, 104% and 102% for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. The linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated and the values obtained were adequate for the quality control of organic fertilizers. The method was applied to the analysis of several commercial organic fertilizers and organic wastes used as fertilizers, and the results were compared with those obtained using the microwave digestion procedure. A good agreement was found between the results obtained by microwave and ultrasound procedures with recoveries ranging from 80.4% to 117%. Two organic waste samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian legislation regarding the acceptable levels of contaminants. PMID:24401409

  11. Investigation of an alternating current plasma as an element selective atomic emission detector for high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and as a source for atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ombaba, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with the construction and evaluation of an alternating current plasma (ACP) as an element-selective detector for high resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and as an excitation source for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The plasma, constrained in a quartz discharge tube at atmospheric pressure, is generated between two copper electrodes and utilizes helium as the plasma supporting gas. The alternating current plasma power source consists of a step-up transformer with a secondary output voltage of 14,000 V at a current of 23 mA. The chromatographic applications studied included the following: (1) the separation and selective detection of the organotin species, tributyltin chloride (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TEBT), in environmental matrices including mussels (mytilus edullus) and sediment from Boston Harbor, industrial waste water and industrial sludge, and (2) the detection of methylcyclopentadienylmanganesetricarbonyl (MMT) and similar compounds used as gasoline additives. An ultrasonic nebulizer was utilized as a sample introduction device for aqueous solutions when the ACP was employed as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry and as an excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry. Plasma diagnostic parameters studied include spatial electron number density across the discharge tube, electronic, excitation and ionization temperatures. Interference studies both in absorption and emission modes were considered. The evaluation of a computer-aided optimization program, Drylab GC, using spearmint oil and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard mixture as probes is discussed. The program is used for separation optimization and prediction of gas chromatographic parameters. The program produces a relative resolution map (RRM) which guides the analyst in selecting the most favorable temperature programming rate for the separation.

  12. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  13. 3D elemental sensitive imaging using transmission X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Wang, Junyue; Requena, Guillermo; Williams, Phillip; Nelson, Johanna; Mehta, Apurva; Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero

    2012-09-01

    Determination of the heterogeneous distribution of metals in alloy/battery/catalyst and biological materials is critical to fully characterize and/or evaluate the functionality of the materials. Using synchrotron-based transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM), it is now feasible to perform nanoscale-resolution imaging over a wide X-ray energy range covering the absorption edges of many elements; combining elemental sensitive imaging with determination of sample morphology. We present an efficient and reliable methodology to perform 3D elemental sensitive imaging with excellent sample penetration (tens of microns) using hard X-ray TXM. A sample of an Al-Si piston alloy is used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. PMID:22349401

  14. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  15. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.; Martinez, D.R.

    1998-04-07

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states. 16 figs.

  16. Studying fast wave propagation and absorption at any cyclotron harmonic using a 2D finite element area coordinates wave equation solver

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, Ernesto; Van Eester, Dirk

    2011-12-23

    Fourier analysis in the poloidal direction is a standard ingredient in present-day 2D wave equation solvers describing radio frequency waves in hot tokamak plasmas. Although a powerful and elegant technique, Fourier analysis has the disadvantage that a large number of modes is needed to describe the field pattern on a magnetic surface if a short wavelength mode exists on any - even very small - subpart of the particle trajectory. The present paper examines the potential of a method that does not suffer from this drawback: a finite element technique relying on simple linear or cubic area base functions that are defined on irregular elementary surfaces of triangular shape. The wave equation is solved in its weak Galerkin variational form and for realistic 2D tokamak geometry, accounting for the toroidal curvature but assuming the toroidal angle is ignorable, allowing to study the wave pattern for each of the independent toroidal modes excited by the antenna individually.The locally uniform full hot plasma dielectric tensor to all orders in finite Larmor radius was adopted. As the main intended application is the study of fast wave behavior (heating and current drive) at arbitrary harmonics, the wave vector complex amplitude appearing in the dielectric tensor is determined through a local dispersion root evaluation. High frequency fast wave propagation and damping is provided as an illustration in view of possible application of this type of current drive in future high density reactor-like tokamaks.

  17. Optical Absorption in Liquid Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Florian Gene

    An infrared absorption cell has been developed which is suitable for high temperature liquids which have absorptions in the range .1-10('3) cm('-1). The cell is constructed by clamping a gasket between two flat optical windows. This unique design allows the use of any optical windows chemically compatible with the liquid. The long -wavelength limit of the measurements is therefore limited only by the choice of the optical windows. The thickness of the cell can easily be set during assembly, and can be varied from 50 (mu)m to .5 cm. Measurements of the optical absorption edge were performed on the liquid alloy Se(,1-x)Tl(,x) for x = 0, .001, .002, .003, .005, .007, and .009, from the melting point up to 475(DEGREES)C. The absorption was found to be exponential in the photon energy over the experimental range from 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. The absorption increased linearly with concentration according to the empirical relation (alpha)(,T)(h(nu)) = (alpha)(,1) + (alpha)(,2)x, and the absorption (alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption in the absence of T1. (alpha)(,1) also agreed with the measured absorption in 100% Se at corresponding temperatures and energies. The excess absorption defined by (DELTA)(alpha) = (alpha)(,T)(h(nu))-(alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption associated with Tl and was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy E(,t) = 0.5 eV. The exponential edge is explained as absorption on atoms immersed in strong electric fields surrounding ions. The strong fields give rise to an absorption tail similar to the Franz-Keldysh effect. A simple calculation is performed which is based on the Dow-Redfield theory of absorption in an electric field with excitonic effects included. The excess absorption at low photon energies is proportional to the square of the concentration of ions, which are proposed to exist in the liquid according to the relation C(,i) (PROPORTIONAL) x(' 1/2)(.)e('-E)t('/kT), which is the origin of the thermal activation

  18. HEAT TREATED U-Nb ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    McGeary, R.K.; Justusson, W.M.

    1959-11-24

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described comprising an alloy containing uranium and from 7 to 20 wt.% niobium, the alloy being substantially in the gamma phase and having been produced by working an ingot of the alloy into the desired shape, homogenizing it by annealing it at a temperature in the gamma phase field, and quenching it to retain the gamma phase structure of the alloy.

  19. Lead alloys past present future

    SciTech Connect

    Bagshaw, N.E.

    1995-03-01

    The most critical non-active component in the lead acid battery is the grid of substrate. A review of the work on and grid alloys in the period 1960-1993 has been carried out by by the Advanced Lead-Acid Consortium, (ALABC), and, in this paper, the results are analyzed in relation to the effort expended in different alloy systems. Lead-antimony alloys and the effects on them of additions of arsenic, tin, and grain-refining elements (selenium, sulfur, copper), together with lead-calcium alloys and the effect on them of tin additions have received the greatest attention in the past.

  20. Determination of Specific Forces and Tool Deflections in Micro-milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using Finite Element Simulations and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Simone; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Thepsonti, Thanongsak; Oezel, Tugrul

    2011-05-04

    Titanium alloys offer superb properties in strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility and are commonly utilized in medical devices and implants. Micro-end milling process is a direct and rapid fabrication method for manufacturing medical devices and implants in titanium alloys. Process performance and quality depend upon an understanding of the relationship between cutting parameters and forces and resultant tool deflections to avoid tool breakage. For this purpose, FE simulations of chip formation during micro-end milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an ultra-fine grain solid carbide two-flute micro-end mill are investigated using DEFORM software.At first, specific forces in tangential and radial directions of cutting during micro-end milling for varying feed advance and rotational speeds have been determined using designed FE simulations for chip formation process. Later, these forces are applied to the micro-end mill geometry along the axial depth of cut in 3D analysis of ABAQUS. Consequently, 3D distributions for tool deflections and von Misses stress are determined. These analyses will yield in establishing integrated multi-physics process models for high performance micro-end milling and a leap-forward to process improvements.

  1. The Influence of Ni and V Trace Elements on High-Temperature Tensile Properties and Aging of A356 Aluminum Foundry Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, Maria Teresa; Cerri, Emanuela; Casari, Daniele; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2016-05-01

    High-temperature tensile properties of unmodified A356 alloy with and without the addition of Ni or V in traces (600 and 1000 ppm of Ni and V, respectively) were investigated by analyzing samples obtained from sand and permanent mold castings in the as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. Tensile tests were performed at 508 K (235 °C) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. In addition, samples were subjected to artificial aging at 508 K (235 °C) for different times, and corresponding hardness curves were plotted. Microstructures and fracture surfaces, analyzed by FEG-SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, showed that neither Ni nor V addition had a detrimental effect on high-temperature tensile properties. Aging curves showed a strong loss of hardness affecting the T6 class between 30-min and 1-h exposure time. After 6-h aging, no evidence of aging treatment persisted on hardness of the tested material. Hardness values did not reveal any significant difference between the reference alloy and the Ni- and V-containing alloys in both casting conditions, in complete analogy with the tensile properties. Unmodified eutectic silicon particles provided inhomogeneity in the α-Al matrix and acted as the principal source of stress concentration leading to fracture.

  2. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  3. Transient oxidation of multiphase Ni-Cr base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, G.; Meraner, M.; Farrell, P.

    1988-06-01

    Four commercially available Ni-Cr-based alloys used with porcelain enamels were studied. Major alloying elements were Al, Be, Si, B, Nb, and Mo. All alloys were multiphase. During heat treatments simulating enameling conditions, phase changes occurred in most alloys and were detected using hardness testing, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and microscopy. Oxidation of these alloys at 1000/degrees/C for 10 min produced an oxide layer consisting principally of chromium oxide, but the oxide morphology varied with each alloy depending on the alloy microstructure. Controlling alloy microstructure while keeping the overall composition unchanged may be a means of preventing wrinkled poorly adherent scales from forming.

  4. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  5. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  6. FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.

    1960-05-31

    A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.

  7. Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN(1-x)As(x) alloys in the whole composition range

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K. M.; Novikov, S. V.; Broesler, R.; Demchenko, I. N.; Denlinger, J. D.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Luckert, F.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2009-08-29

    Alloying is a commonly accepted method to tailor properties of semiconductor materials for specific applications. Only a limited number of semiconductor alloys can be easily synthesized in the full composition range. Such alloys are, in general, formed of component elements that are well matched in terms of ionicity, atom size, and electronegativity. In contrast there is a broad class of potential semiconductor alloys formed of component materials with distinctly different properties. In most instances these mismatched alloys are immiscible under standard growth conditions. Here we report on the properties of GaN1-xAsx, a highly mismatched, immiscible alloy system that was successfully synthesized in the whole composition range using a nonequilibrium low temperature molecular beam epitaxy technique. The alloys are amorphous in the composition range of 0.17absorption edges. The band gap energy varies in a broad energy range from ~;;3.4 eV in GaN to ~;;0.8 eV at x~;;0.85. The reduction in the band gap can be attributed primarily to the downward movement of the conduction band for alloys with x>0.2, and to the upward movement of the valence band for alloys with x<0.2. The unique features of the band structure offer an opportunity of using GaN1-xAsx alloys for various types of solar power conversion devices.

  8. Dynamic Behavior of a Rare-Earth-Containing Mg Alloy, WE43B-T5, Plate with Comparison to Conventional Alloy, AM30-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Sean; Whittington, Wilburn; Oppedal, Andrew; El Kadiri, Haitham; Shaeffer, Matthew; Ramesh, K. T.; Bhattacharyya, Jishnu; Delorme, Rick; Davis, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of Mg alloys is an area of interest for applications such as crash-sensitive automotive components and armor. The rare-earth element-containing alloy WE43B-T5 has performed well in ballistic testing, so the quasi-static (~10-3 1/s) and dynamic (~600-5000 1/s) mechanical behaviors of two Mg alloys, rolled WE43B-T5 and extruded AM30-F, were investigated using servohydraulic and Kolsky bar testing in uniaxial tension and compression. The yield stress was surprisingly isotropic for WE43B-T5 relative to conventional Mg alloys (including extruded AM30-F). The WE43B plate was textured; however, it was not the typical basal texture of hot-rolled Mg-Al alloys. The effect of strain rate on the yield strength of WE43B-T5 is small and the strain-hardening behavior is only mildly rate sensitive (m = 0.008). The combination of high strength (~300 MPa), moderate ductility (0.07-0.20), and low density yield a material with good specific energy absorption capacity.

  9. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  10. Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.; Song, GuangLing

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

  11. Overview of a Welding Development Program for a Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Hurt; R. E. Mizia; D. E. Clark

    2007-06-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), located at the Idaho National Laboratory, coordinates and integrates management and disposal of U.S. Department of Energy-owned spent nuclear fuel. These management functions include using the DOE standardized canister for packaging, storage, treatment, transport, and long-term disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Nuclear criticality must be prevented in the postulated event where a waste package is breached and water (neutron moderator) is introduced into the waste package. Criticality control will be implemented by using a new, weldable, corrosion-resistant, neutron-absorbing material to fabricate the welded structural inserts (fuel baskets) that will be placed in the standardized canister. The new alloy is based on the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system with a gadolinium addition. Gadolinium was chosen as the neutron absorption alloying element because of its high thermal neutron absorption cross section. This paper describes a weld development program to qualify this new material for American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) welding procedures, develop data to extend the present ASME Code Case (unwelded) for welded construction, and understand the weldability and microstructural factors inherent to this alloy.

  12. Influence of Chemical Composition of Mg Alloys on Surface Alloying by Diffusion Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirmke, J.; Zhang, M.-X.; St John, D. H.

    2012-05-01

    A recently developed technique of surface alloying by diffusion-coating has been used to produce coatings on Mg alloys with various Al and Zn contents. The experimental results show that both Al and Zn solutes in the alloy promote the diffusion of alloying elements through grain refinement of the substrate alloys and through reduction of diffusion active energy because of the reduction of melting temperature of the alloys. Therefore, the efficiency of surface alloying increases by diffusion coating. Thick, dense, uniform, and continuous layers of intermetallic compounds, which consist of a τ-phase layer and a β-phase layer, can be produced on the surface of various Mg alloys. The intermetallic compound layers not only have microhardness values that are 4 to 6 times higher than the substrate but also provide effective protection of the Mg alloys from corrosion in 5 pct NaCl solution at room temperature.

  13. Interdiffusion behavior of tungsten or rhenium and group 5 and 6 elements and alloys of the periodic table. Part 2A: Appendices A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcella, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    Arc cast W, CVD, W, CVD Re, and powder metallurgy Re materials were hot isostatically pressure welded to ten different refractory metals and alloys and thermally aged at 10 to the minus 8th power torr at 1200 C, 1500 C, 1630 C, 1800 C, and 2000 C for 100 hours to 2000 hours. Electron beam microprobe analysis was used to characterize the interdiffusion zone width of each couple system as a function of age time and temperature. Each system was least squares fitted to the equation: In (delta X sq/t) = B/T + A, where delta X is net interdiffusion zone width, t is age time, and T is age temperature. Detailed descriptions of experimental and analytical procedures utilized in conducting the experimental program are provided. For Vol. 1, see N74-34046.

  14. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  15. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. A modified microhardness test unit permitted hardness determinations at homologous temperatures ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, where alloy softening normally occurs in bcc alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s + d electrons compared to Mo while those elements having an equal number or fewer s + d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. The magnitude of the softening and the amount of solute element at the hardness minimum diminished rapidly with increasing test temperature. At solute concentrations where alloy softening was observed, the temperature sensitivity of hardness was lowered. For solute elements having an excess of s + d electrons or fewer s + d electrons than Mo, alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s + d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  16. COST-EFFECTIVE RARE EARTH ELEMENT RECYCLING PROCESS FROM INDUSTRIAL SCRAP AND DISCARDED ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS TO VALUABLE MAGNETIC ALLOYS AND PERMANENT MAGNETS - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth element (REE) based Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co permanent magnets have been widely used because of their excellent magnetic properties. The applications of Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co rare earth permanent magnets include hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), power generators for wind tur...

  17. Mo-Si alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  18. Creation of Novel Solid-Solution Alloy Nanoparticles on the Basis of Density-of-States Engineering by Interelement Fusion.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kusada, Kohei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-06-16

    Currently 118 known elements are represented in the periodic table. Of these 118 elements, only about 80 elements are stable, nonradioactive, and widely available for our society. From the viewpoint of the "elements strategy", we need to make full use of the 80 elements to bring out their latent ability and create innovative materials. Furthermore, there is a strong demand that the use of rare or toxic elements be reduced or replaced while their important properties are retained. Advanced science and technology could create higher-performance materials even while replacing or reducing minor or harmful elements through the combination of more abundant elements. The properties of elements are correlated directly with their electronic states. In a solid, the magnitude of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level affects the physical and chemical properties. In the present age, more attention has been paid to improving the properties of materials by means of alloying elements. In particular, the solid-solution-type alloy is advantageous because the properties can be continuously controlled by tuning the compositions and/or combinations of the constituent elements. However, the majority of bulk alloys are of the phase-separated type under ambient conditions, where constituent elements are immiscible with each other. To overcome the challenge of the bulk-phase metallurgical aspects, we have focused on the nanosize effect and developed methods involving "nonequilibrium synthesis" or "a process of hydrogen absorption/desorption". We propose a new concept of "density-of-states engineering" for the design of materials having the most desirable and suitable properties by means of "interelement fusion". In this Account, we describe novel solid-solution alloys of Pd-Pt, Ag-Rh, and Pd-Ru systems in which the constituent elements are immiscible in the bulk state. The homogeneous solid-solution alloys of Pd and Pt were created from Pd core/Pt shell nanoparticles using a

  19. Interdiffusion behavior of tungsten or rhenium and group 5 and 6 elements and alloys of the periodic table, part 1. [at dissimilar metal joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcella, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    Arc cast W, CVD W, CVD Re, and powder metallurgy Re materials were hot isostatically pressure welded to ten different refractory metals and alloys (Cb, Cb-1Zr, Ta, Ta-10W, T-111, ASTAR-811C, W-25Re, Mo-50Re, W-30Re-20Mo, ect.) and thermally aged at 10 to the minus 8th power torr at 1200, 1500, 1630, 1800, and 2000 C for 100 to 2000 hours. Electron beam microprobe analysis was used to characterize the interdiffusion zone width of each couple system as a function of age time and temperature. Extrapolations of interdiffusion zone thickness to 10,000 hours were made. Classic interdiffusion analysis was performed for several of the systems by Boltzmann-Matano analysis. A method of inhibiting Kirkendall voids from forming during thermal ageing of dissimilar metal junctions was devised and experimentally demonstrated. An electron beam weld study of Cb-1Zr to Re and W-25Re demonstrated the limited acceptability of these welds.

  20. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique.

    PubMed

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A Beril

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement. PMID:12485656

  1. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  2. A standards-based method for compositional analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry using multivariate statistical analysis: application to multicomponent alloys.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Monika; Ahrenkiel, S P; Carapella, J J; Wanlass, M W

    2013-02-01

    Given an unknown multicomponent alloy, and a set of standard compounds or alloys of known composition, can one improve upon popular standards-based methods for energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry to quantify the elemental composition of the unknown specimen? A method is presented here for determining elemental composition of alloys using transmission electron microscopy-based EDX with appropriate standards. The method begins with a discrete set of related reference standards of known composition, applies multivariate statistical analysis to those spectra, and evaluates the compositions with a linear matrix algebra method to relate the spectra to elemental composition. By using associated standards, only limited assumptions about the physical origins of the EDX spectra are needed. Spectral absorption corrections can be performed by providing an estimate of the foil thickness of one or more reference standards. The technique was applied to III-V multicomponent alloy thin films: composition and foil thickness were determined for various III-V alloys. The results were then validated by comparing with X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analysis, demonstrating accuracy of approximately 1% in atomic fraction. PMID:23298470

  3. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  4. [2H/H] Isotope ratio analyses of [2H5]cholesterol using high-temperature conversion elemental analyser isotope-ratio mass spectrometry: determination of cholesterol absorption in normocholesterolemic volunteers.

    PubMed

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; Richelle, Myriam; Metairon, Sylviane; Fay, Laurent-Bernard

    2004-01-01

    This paper validates the use of high-temperature conversion elemental analyser isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (TC-EA/IRMS) for measuring the [(2)H/H] enrichment of plasma [(2)H(5)]cholesterol. From a molecular point of view, the free cholesterol is initially separated from plasma by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and then injected onto the TC-EA reactor which converts cholesterol molecules into CO and H(2) gases. The slope of the curve of the experimental mole percent excess (MPE((exp.))) versus MPE((theor.)) was very close to 1, demonstrating that no significant isotopic fractionation was observed during all processing of the samples (i.e., isolation of plasma free cholesterol by TLC and pyrolysis in the TC-EA reactor). Excellent linearity (r(2) = 0.9994, n = 4) of delta ( per thousand ) of [(2)H/H] isotopic measurements versus mole percent (MP) was assessed over the range 0 to 0.1 MP. The precision of the [(2)H/H] measurement, evaluated with two calibration points processed with TLC, was delta(2)H(V-SMOW) = -192.5 +/- 3.4 per thousand and delta(2)H(V-SMOW) = -136.9 +/- 2.9 per thousand. The standard deviations of the within-assay and between-assay repeatabilities of the analytical process, evaluated using the quality control (QC) of plasma samples, were 4.6 and 6.1 per thousand, respectively. Plant sterols are known to reduce cholesterol absorption and therefore were used as a positive control in a clinical study performed with normocholesterolemic volunteers. This present method produces biological results consistent with those already reported in the literature. PMID:14755619

  5. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2012-06-12

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  6. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2010-04-20

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  7. Preparation of TiMn alloy by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Weidmann, A.; Nebe, B. J.; Burkel, E.

    2009-01-01

    TiMn alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique for exploration of biomedical applications. The microstructures, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the TiMn alloys were investigated in comparison with the pure Ti and Mn metals. Ti8Mn and Ti12Mn alloys with high relative density (99%) were prepared by mechanical alloying for 60 h and SPS at 700 °C for 5 min. The doping of Mn in Ti has decreased the transformation temperature from α to β phase, increased the relative density and enhanced the hardness of the Ti metal significantly. The Ti8Mn alloys showed 86% cell viability which was comparable to that of the pure Ti (93%). The Mn can be used as a good alloying element for biomedical Ti metal, and the Ti8Mn alloy could have a potential use as bone substitutes and dental implants.

  8. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R

    2004-07-12

    Nickel can dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while still maintaining its austenitic structure. That is, nickel based alloys can be tailored for specific applications. The family of nickel alloys is large, from high temperature alloys (HTA) to corrosion resistant alloys (CRA). In general, CRA are less susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) than stainless steels. The environments where nickel alloys suffer EAC are limited and generally avoidable by design. These environments include wet hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated alkalis. Not all nickel alloys are equally susceptible to cracking in these environments. For example, commercially pure nickel is less susceptible to EAC in hot concentrated alkalis than nickel alloyed with chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo). The susceptibility of nickel alloys to EAC is discussed by family of alloys.

  9. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  10. Understanding the optical properties of ZnO1-xSx and ZnO1-xSex alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldissera, Gustavo; Persson, Clas

    2016-01-01

    ZnO1-xYx with chalcogen element Y exhibits intriguing optoelectronic properties as the alloying strongly impacts the band-gap energy Eg(x). In this work, we analyze and compare the electronic structures and the dielectric responses of Zn(O,S) and Zn(O,Se) alloys by means of the density functional theory and the partially self-consistent GW approach. We model the crystalline stability from the total energies, and the results indicate that Zn(O,S) is more stable as alloy than Zn(O,Se). We demonstrate also that ion relaxation strongly affects total energies, and that the band-gap bowing depends primarily on local relaxation of the bonds. Moreover, we show that the composition dependent band-gap needs to be analyzed by the band anti-crossing model for small alloying concentration, while the alloying band-bowing model is accurate for strong alloying. We find that the Se-based alloys have a stronger change in the band-gap energy (for instance, ΔEg(0.50) = Eg(ZnO) - Eg(x = 0.50) ≈ 2.2 eV) compared with that of the S-based alloy (ΔEg(0.50) = 1.2 eV), mainly due to a stronger relaxation of the Zn-anion bonds that affects the electronic structure near the band edges. The optical properties of the alloys are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ɛ(ω) = ɛ1(ω) + iɛ2(ω) and the absorption coefficient α(ω). While the large band-gap bowing directly impacts the low-energy absorption spectra, the high-frequency dielectric constant ɛ∞ is correlated to the intensity of the dielectric response at energies above 4 eV. Therefore, the dielectric constant is only weakly affected by the non-linear band-gap variation. Despite strong structural relaxation, the high absorption coefficients of the alloys demonstrate that the alloys have well-behaved optoelectronic properties.

  11. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  12. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  13. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  14. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  15. Finite element method simulation of mushy zone behavior during direct-chill casting of an Al-4.5 pct Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2004-09-01

    In this article, the stresses, strains, sump depth, mushy zone length, and temperature fields are calculated through the simulation of the direct-chill (DC) casting process for a round billet by using a finite-element method (FEM). Focus is put on the mushy zone and solid region close to it. In the center of the billet, circumferential stresses and strains (which play a main role in hot cracking) are tensile close to the solidus temperature, whereas they are compressive near the surface of the billet. The stresses, strains, depth of sump, and length of mushy zone increase with increasing casting speed. They are maximum in the start-up phase and are reduced by applying a ramping procedure in the start-up phase. Stresses, strains, depth of sump, and length of mushy zone are highest in the center of the billet for all casting conditions considered.

  16. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1992-01-01

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition.

  17. Progress in High-Entropy Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Michael C

    2013-12-01

    Strictly speaking, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) refer to single-phase, solid-solution alloys with multiprincipal elements in an equal or a near-equal molar ratio whose configurational entropy is tremendously high. This special topic was organized to reflect the focus and diversity of HEA research topics in the community.

  18. Heats of formation of bcc binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The method of Bozzolo, Ferrante and Smith is applied for the calculation of alloy energies for bcc elements. The heat of formation of several alloys is computed with the help of the Connolly-Williams method within the tetrahedron approximation. The dependence of the results on the choice of different sets of ordered structures is discussed.

  19. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-04-28

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition. 4 figs.

  20. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  1. Nitriding of super alloys for enhancing physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, A.

    1984-06-25

    The invention teaches the improvement of certain super alloys by exposing the alloy to an atmosphere of elemental nitrogen at elevated temperatures in excess of 750/sup 0/C but less than 1150/sup 0/C for an extended duration, viz., by nitriding the surface of the alloy, to establish barrier nitrides of the order of 25 to 100 micrometers thickness. These barrier

  2. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  3. HEAT TREATED U-Mo ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    McGeary, R.K.; Justusson, W.M.

    1960-02-23

    A reactor fuel element comprising a gamma-phase alloy consisting of 11 to 16 wt.% of molyhdenum and the balance uranium, annealed between 350 and 525 deg C and quenched to preserve the gamma phase, is reported.

  4. The adhesion, friction, and wear of binary alloys in contact with single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-base alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a single-crystal silicon carbide (0001) surface in vacuum. Results indicate atomic size misfit and concentration of alloying elements play a dominant role in controlling adhesion, friction, and wear properties of iron-base binary alloys. The controlling mechanism of the alloy properties is an intrinsic effect involving the resistance to shear fracture of cohesive bonding in the alloy. The coefficient of friction generally increases with an increase in solute concentration. The coefficient of friction increases as the solute-to-iron atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity. Alloys having higher solute concentration produce more transfer to silicon carbide than do alloys having low solute concentrations. The chemical activity of the alloying element is also an important parameter in controlling adhesion and friction of alloys.

  5. Adhesion, friction, and wear of binary alloys in contact with single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, conducted with various iron base alloys (alloying elements are Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh and W) in contact with a single crystal silicon carbide /0001/ surface in vacuum are discussed. Results indicate atomic size misfit and concentration of alloying elements play a dominant role in controlling adhesion, friction, and wear properties of iron-base binary alloys. The controlling mechanism of the alloy properties is as an intrinsic effect involving the resistance to shear fracture of cohesive bonding in the alloy. The coefficient of friction generally increases with an increase in solute concentration. The coefficient of friction increases as the solute-to-iron atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity. Alloys having higher solute concentration produce more transfer to silicon carbide than do alloys having low solute concentrations. The chemical activity of the alloying element is also an important parameter in controlling adhesion and friction of alloys.

  6. Alloy softening in binary iron solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine whether alloy softening in Fe alloys is dependent on electron concentration and to provide a direct comparison of alloy softening and hardening in several binary Fe alloy systems having the same processing history. Alloy additions to Fe included the elements in the Periods 4-6 and the Groups IV-VIII with the exception of technetium. A total of 19 alloy systems was investigated, and hardness testing was the primary means of evaluation. Testing was carried out at four temperatures over a homologous temperature range of 0.043-0.227 times the absolute melting temperature of unalloyed Fe. Major conclusions are that the atomic radius ratio of solute-to-Fe is the key factor in controlling low-temperature hardness of the binary Fe alloys and that alloy softening rates at 77 K and alloy hardening rates at 411 K are correlated with this atomic radius ratio for 15 of the binary alloy systems. Mechanisms of alloy softening and hardening are proposed.

  7. Corrosion Behaviour of Al Alloys in Sea Water

    SciTech Connect

    Kamarudin, S. R. M.; Daud, M.; Muhamad, A.; Sattar, M. S.; Daud, A. R.

    2010-03-11

    The electrochemical behaviour of aluminum (Al) alloys in seawater medium was investigated using potentiodynamic technique, complemented by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX. SEM was used to characterize the corroded surface and to observe the extent of corrosion attack on the Al alloys after tested in seawater. EDAX analysis was used to identify elements present on the specimen surface. The results indicate that influences of alloying elements present in the Al alloys play important role in the corrosion of Al alloys in seawater. The behaviour of Al alloys with addition of Zn, Sn, Cu and Si was greatly enhanced in terms of its potential and corrosion behaviour. Potential of Al with alloying elements reached value more negative than -0.9 V{sub SCE} and showed active corrosion behaviour.

  8. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  9. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  10. Trends in Covalency for d- and f-Element Metallocene Dichlorides Identified Using Chlorine K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Time Dependent-Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kozimor, Stosh A.; Yang, Ping; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Burns, Carol J.; Clark, David L.; Conradson, Steven D.; Martin, Richard L.; Wikerson, Marianne P.; Wolfsberg, Laura E.

    2009-09-02

    We describe the use of Cl K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and both ground state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT) to probe electronic structure and determine the degree of orbital mixing in M-Cl bonds for (C5Me5)2MCl2 (M = Ti, 1; Zr, 2; Hf, 3; Th, 4; and U, 5), where we can directly compare a class of structurally similar compounds for d- and f-elements. We report direct experimental evidence for covalency in M-Cl bonding, including actinides, and offer insight into the relative roles of the valence f- and dorbitals in these systems. The Cl K-edge XAS data for the group IV transition metals, 1 – 3, show slight decreases in covalency in M-Cl bonding with increasing principal quantum number, in the order Ti > Zr > Hf. The percent Cl 3p character per M-Cl bond was experimentally determined to be 25, 23, and 22% per M-Cl bond for 1-3, respectively. For actinides, we find a shoulder on the white line for (C5Me5)2ThCl2, 4, and distinct, but weak pre-edge features for 2 (C5Me5)2UCl2, 5. The percent Cl 3p character in Th-Cl bonds in 4 was determined to be 14 %, with high uncertainty, while the U-Cl bonds in 5 contains 9 % Cl 3p character. The magnitudes of both values are approximately half what was observed for the transition metal complexes in this class of bent metallocene dichlorides. Using the hybrid DFT calculations as a guide to interpret the experimental Cl K-edge XAS, these experiments suggest that when evaluating An- Cl bonding, both 5f- and 6d-orbitals should be considered. For (C5Me5)2ThCl2, the calculations and XAS indicate that the 5f- and 6d-orbitals are nearly degenerate and heavily mixed. In contrast, the 5f- and 6d-orbitals in (C5Me5)2UCl2 are no longer degenerate, and fall in two distinct energy groupings. The 5f-orbitals are lowest in energy and split into a 5-over-2 pattern with the high lying U 6d-orbitals split in a 4-over-1 pattern, the latter of which is similar to the dorbital splitting in group IV transition

  11. Predicting the properties of the lead alloys from DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buimaga-Iarinca, L.; Calborean, A.

    2015-12-01

    We provide qualitative results for the physical properties of the lead alloys at atomic scale by using DFT calculations. Our approach is based on the two assumptions: (i) the geometric structure of lead atoms provides a matrix where the alloying elements can take their positions in the structure as substitutions and (ii) there is a small probability of a direct interaction between the alloying elements, thus the interactions of each alloying element may be approximated by the interactions to the lead matrix. DFT calculations are used to investigate the interaction between several types of impurities and the lead matrix for low concentrations of the alloying element. We report results such as the enthalpy of formation, charge transfer and mechanical stress induced by the impurities in the lead matrix; these results can be used as qualitative guide in tuning the physico-chemical properties of the lead alloys.

  12. Predicting the properties of the lead alloys from DFT calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Buimaga-Iarinca, L. Calborean, A.

    2015-12-23

    We provide qualitative results for the physical properties of the lead alloys at atomic scale by using DFT calculations. Our approach is based on the two assumptions: (i) the geometric structure of lead atoms provides a matrix where the alloying elements can take their positions in the structure as substitutions and (ii) there is a small probability of a direct interaction between the alloying elements, thus the interactions of each alloying element may be approximated by the interactions to the lead matrix. DFT calculations are used to investigate the interaction between several types of impurities and the lead matrix for low concentrations of the alloying element. We report results such as the enthalpy of formation, charge transfer and mechanical stress induced by the impurities in the lead matrix; these results can be used as qualitative guide in tuning the physico-chemical properties of the lead alloys.

  13. Properties and microstructures for dual alloy combinations of three superalloys with alloy 901

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Dual alloy combinations have potential for use in aircraft engine components such as turbine disks where a wide range of stress and temperature regimes exists during operation. Such alloy combinations may directly result in the conservation of elements which are costly or not available domestically. Preferably, a uniform heat treatment yielding good properties for both alloys should be used. Dual alloy combinations of iron rich Alloy 901 with nickel base superalloys Rene 95, Astroloy, or MERL 76 were not isostatically pressed from prealloyed powders. Individual alloys, alloy mixtures, and layered alloy combinations were given the heat treatments specified for their use in turbine disks or appropriate for Alloy 901. Selected specimens were overaged for 1500 hr at 650 C. Metallographic examinations revealed the absence of phases not originally present in either alloy of a combination. Mechanical tests showed adequate properties in combinations of Rene 95 or Astroloy with Alloy 901 when given the Alloy 901 heat treatment. Combinations with MERL 76 had better properties when given the MERL 76 heat treatment. The results indicate that these combinations are promising candidates for use in turbine disks.

  14. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  15. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  16. Precipitation of dispersoids in aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Last, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of alloy composition and preheat treatment on the precipitation of the metastable Al{sub 3}Zr, {beta}{prime}, phase in ternary alloys and the subsequent recrystallization behavior was investigated. The ternary alloys contained zirconium and one of the following elements: copper, manganese, zinc, or silicon. Diffusion couples were constructed and the values for the interdiffusion coefficient for several elements in aluminum were calculated. The calculated values for the interdiffusion coefficients were used in a finite difference model for the prediction of the homogenization of an as-cast microstructure during preheating. {beta}{prime} was observed to precipitate on defects such as dislocations and low-angle boundaries when a critical solute level in all ternary alloys was reached. The critical solute level was system dependent. Homogeneous nucleation of {beta}{prime} occurred in Al-Si-Zr alloys. In Al-Zn-Zr alloys the shape of the {beta}{prime} deviated from its usual spherical shape to a cube shape when the zinc level exceeds approximately 4 wt. %. When compared to other alloying element additions, small amounts of silicon (between 0.25 and 0.5 wt %) had the greatest influence on not only the recrystallization behavior of the alloy, but also the precipitation of {beta}{prime}.

  17. Effect of alloying on the phase composition of titanium carbonitride-titanium nickelide alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, L. Kh.; Grigorov, I. G.; Ermakov, A. N.; Zainulin, Yu. G.; Nikitina, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, electron microscopy, and chemical analysis are used to study the effect of alloying with zirconium, niobium, vanadium, and molybdenum on the phase composition of titanium carbonitride-titanium nickel cermets. It is shown that two-phase alloys containing alloyed titanium carbonitride and titanium nickelide can only be produced by alloying with zirconium. The addition of niobium, molybdenum, and vanadium leads to the formation of a third phase, namely, Nb z Ni, Mo(Ti,C), or V4Ni, in the alloy. A correlation between the phase composition of the alloys and the ratio of the energies of formation of titanium carbides and the carbides of alloying elements is found.

  18. New Amorphous Silicon Alloy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, Mridula N.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) have been modified by alloying with Al, Ga and S respectively. The Al and Ga alloys are in effect quaternary alloys as they were fabricated in a carbon-rich discharge. The alloys were prepared by the plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) method. This method has several advantages, the major one being the relatively low defect densities of the resulting materials. The PACVD system used to grow the alloy films was designed and constructed in the laboratory. It was first tested with known (a-Si:H and a-Si:As:H) materials. Thus, it was established that device quality alloy films could be grown with the home-made PACVD setup. The chemical composition of the alloys was characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The homogeneous nature of hydrogen distribution in the alloys was established by SIMS depth profile analysis. A quantitative analysis of the bulk elemental content was carried out by EPMA. The analysis indicated that the alloying element was incorporated in the films more efficiently at low input gas concentrations than at the higher concentrations. A topological model was proposed to explain the observed behavior. The optical energy gap of the alloys could be varied in the 0.90 to 1.92 eV range. The Al and Ga alloys were low band gap materials, whereas alloying with S had the effect of widening the energy gap. It was observed that although the Si-Al and Si-Ga alloys contained significant amounts of C and H, the magnitude of the energy gap was determined by the metallic component. The various trends in optical properties could be related to the binding characteristics of the respective alloy systems. A quantitative explanation of the results was provided by White's tight binding model. The dark conductivity-temperature dependence of the alloys was examined. A linear dependence was observed for the Al and Ga systems. Electronic conduction in

  19. Rolling element fatigue testing of gear materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Rolling element fatigue lives of eleven alloys were evaluated. The eleven alloys studied were three nitriding alloys (Super Nitralloy, Nitralloy 135, and Nitralloy N), four case carburizing alloys (AISI 9310, CBS 600, CBS 1000M and Vasco X-2), and four throughhardening alloys (Vasco Matrix II,AISI W-1, AISI S-2 and AISI O-2). Several different heat treatments and/or melting processes were studied on the three carburizing alloy steels. Metallurgical analyses were made before and after the RC rig tests. Test data were statistically analyzed using the Weibull distribution function. B-10 lives were compared versus VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and carburized VAR AISI 9310, as reference alloys.

  20. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E; Rieken, Joel

    2013-12-10

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with an introduced reactive species than does the alloying element and wherein one or more atomizing parameters is/are modified to controllably reduce the amount of the reactive species, such as oxygen, introduced into the atomized particles so as to reduce anneal times and improve reaction (conversion) to the desired strengthening dispersoids in the matrix. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies are made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  1. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1998-01-01

    Alloys for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1.+-.0.8%)Al--(1.0.+-.0.8%)Mo--(0.7.+-.0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques.

  2. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-03-10

    Alloys are disclosed for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1{+-}0.8%)Al--(1.0{+-}0.8%)Mo--(0.7 + 0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques. 4 figs.

  3. Hydrogen desorption properties of hydrogenated UThZr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwarno, Hadi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Ono, Futaba; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio

    1997-08-01

    Hydrogen desorption properties of hydrogenated UThZr alloys of varied compositions were investigated using a hydrogen absorption-desorption experimental system, TG-DTA and DSC analyzers. Isothermal desorption at 900°C of elemental ratio U:Th:Zr:H = 1:1:4:9.5 exhibited that there were two distinct plateau regions identified as ZrH 1.4-ZrH and ThZr 2H 7- x - ThZr 2 systems. TG-DTA and DSC measurements under the temperature range from room temperature to 1000°C have shown that there were three endothermic peaks identified as dehydrogenation reactions of ZrH 2 - x - ZrH and ThZr 2H 7-x. The DTA curve identified the first peak area as the ZrH 1.4-ZrH system, while the DSC curves identified that the second peak is the decomposition of ZrH and the third peak is the decomposition of ThZr 2H 7 - x. It was also shown that both ZrH 2 - x and ThZr 2H 7 - x are more stable in the alloy than the pure ones. Measured enthalpy changes during decomposition of the hydrogenated UThZr alloy are similar to the theoretical calculation. Oxidation during measurement of the U:Th:Zr:H = 2:1:6:13.1 resulted in a different measured enthalpy change and calculation. Isothermal decomposition of the U:Th:Zr:H = 1:1:4:9.5 without any disintegration indicates stability of the alloy against powdering on hydriding-dehydriding cycles. Stability of the samples at high temperature similar to that of UZrH 1.6 for TRIGA fuel can be maintained after the decomposition.

  4. Log spiral of revolution highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator for fluorescence x-ray absorption edge fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, D. M.; Daniel, M.; Budnick, J. I.; Rhodes, T.; Hammes, M.; Potrepka, D. M.; Sills, K.; Nelson, C.; Heald, S. M.; Brewe, D. I.

    2000-09-01

    We have constructed an x-ray monochromator based on a log spiral of revolution covered with highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Such a monochromator is used for obtaining x-ray absorption edge fine structure by the fluorescence method, and is particularly useful for measuring the fine structure of dilute element A in a concentrated matrix of element B, where B is to the left of A in the Periodic Table. Using the log spiral monochromator, we measure good Cr x-ray fine structure in an alloy of 1% Cr in a V matrix, whereas the corresponding spectrum is severely distorted by the V background if nonmonochromatized fluorescence is used. We also obtain excellent rejection of Mn fluorescence relative to Cr fluorescence in a Cr{sub 80}Mn{sub 20} alloy, and can tune the monochromator such that the entire Mn step height is significantly smaller than the Cr x-ray absorption edge fine structure oscillations for this system. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Oxidation resistant coating for titanium alloys and titanium alloy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Rouge, Carl J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating for titanium alloys and titanium alloy matrix composites comprises an MCrAlX material. M is a metal selected from nickel, cobalt, and iron. X is an active element selected from Y, Yb, Zr, and Hf.

  6. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  7. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  8. Effect of the composition of Ti alloy on the photocatalytic activities of Ti-based oxide nanotube arrays prepared by anodic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dingding; Wang, Yixin; Zhao, Yuwei; Yang, Yijia; Zhang, Lieyu; Mao, Xuhui

    2014-11-01

    Three types of Ti-based oxide nanotube arrays are prepared by anodic oxidation of pure Ti and Ti alloys (Ti-0.2Pd and Ti-6Al-4V) in the glycol-2 wt% H2O-0.3 wt% NH4F solution. The nanotube arrays are characterized by a series of techniques, including SEM, TEM, EIS, XRD, EDS, ICP, XPS and UV-vis DRS, to elucidate the effect of alloying elements on the properties of titania nanotube arrays. The results suggest that aluminium and vanadium elements greatly slow down the growth rate and therefore decrease the yield of nanotube arrays. Al and V deteriorate the photoreactivity of the resultant nanotube arrays. The palladium inside the Ti-0.2Pd alloy-derived nanotube arrays cannot be detected by EDS or XPS, but is quantitatively determined by ICP analysis. Incorporation of Pd significantly improves the photocatalytic activity of the resultant titania nanotube arrays powder. The presence of Pd element not only enhances the light absorption, but also facilitates the separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The uniform doping of Pd into the microstructure endows nanotube arrays with resistance to sulphur poison and preferable stability for organic degradation. This study suggests that anodization of Ti alloys, rather than pure Ti metal, allows to produce micron-sized high-performance photocatalysts for environmental and energy applications.

  9. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E; Terpstra, Robert L

    2014-10-21

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened solidified particles exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures.

  10. Modeling Selective Intergranular Oxidation of Binary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Li, Dongsheng; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2015-01-07

    Intergranular attack of alloys under hydrothermal conditions is a complex problem that depends on metal and oxygen transport kinetics via solid-state and channel-like pathways to an advancing oxidation front. Experiments reveal very different rates of intergranular attack and minor element depletion distances ahead of the oxidation front for nickel-based binary alloys depending on the minor element. For example, a significant Cr depletion up to 9 µm ahead of grain boundary crack tips were documented for Ni-5Cr binary alloy, in contrast to relatively moderate Al depletion for Ni-5Al (~100s of nm). We present a mathematical kinetics model that adapts Wagner’s model for thick film growth to intergranular attack of binary alloys. The transport coefficients of elements O, Ni, Cr, and Al in bulk alloys and along grain boundaries were estimated from the literature. For planar surface oxidation, a critical concentration of the minor element can be determined from the model where the oxide of minor element becomes dominant over the major element. This generic model for simple grain boundary oxidation can predict oxidation penetration velocities and minor element depletion distances ahead of the advancing front that are comparable to experimental data. The significant distance of depletion of Cr in Ni-5Cr in contrast to the localized Al depletion in Ni-5Al can be explained by the model due to the combination of the relatively faster diffusion of Cr along the grain boundary and slower diffusion in bulk grains, relative to Al.

  11. Capability assessment for application of clay mixture as barrier material for irradiated zirconium alloy structure elements long-term processing for storage during decommissioning of uranium-graphite nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.; Pavliuk, A. O.; Zakharova, E. V.; Volkova, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The radionuclide composition and the activity level of the irradiated zirconium alloy E110, the radionuclide immobilization strength and the retention properties of the mixed clay barrier material with respect to the radionuclides identified in the alloy were investigated to perform the safety assessment of handling structural units of zirconium alloy used for the technological channels in uranium-graphite reactors. The irradiated zirconium alloy waste contained the following activation products: 93mNb and the long-lived 94Nb, 93Zr radionuclides. Radionuclides of 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, and actinides were also present in the alloy. In the course of the runs no leaching of niobium and zirconium isotopes from the E110 alloy was detected. Leach rates were observed merely for 60Co and 137Cs present in the deposits formed on the internal surface of technological channels. The radionuclides present were effectively adsorbed by the barrier material. To ensure the localization of radionuclides in case of the radionuclide migration from the irradiated zirconium alloy into the barrier material, the sorption properties were determined of the barrier material used for creating the long-term storage point for the graphite stack from uranium-graphite reactors.

  12. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.

  13. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO{sub 3} Fe{sub 3}Al, Co{sub 3}Al, and Ni{sub 3}Al based intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Stocks, G. M.; Újfalussy, B.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co, and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In this paper, we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO{sub 3} Fe{sub 3}Al, Co{sub 3}Al, and Ni{sub 3}Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which correspond to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the α sites, while Co and Ni prefer the γ sites of the DO{sub 3} lattice. An important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni{sub 3}Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co is added as a ternary element.

  14. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jolodosky, Alejandra; Kramer, Kevin; Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana; Fratoni, Massimiliano

    2016-04-09

    Here we report that an attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys inmore » the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as lead, tin, and strontium, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as lead and bismuth. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). Some of the activation results for alloys with tin, zinc, and gallium were in

  15. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking in HTH Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, R.; Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Hyatt, B.Z.; Burke, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded compact tension specimens was performed in 360 C water to determine the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior of HTH Alloy X-750 and direct-aged Alloy 625. New data confirm previous results showing that high irradiation levels reduce SCC resistance in Alloy X-750. Heat-to-heat variability correlates with boron content, with low boron heats showing improved IASCC properties. Alloy 625 is resistant to IASCC, as no cracking was observed in any Alloy 625 specimens. Microstructural, microchemical and deformation studies were performed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750 and the lack of an effect in Alloy 625. The mechanisms under investigation are: boron transmutation effects, radiation-induced changes in microstructure and deformation characteristics, and radiation-induced segregation. Irradiation of Alloy X-750 caused significant strengthening and ductility loss that was associated with the formation of cavities and dislocation loops. High irradiation levels did not cause significant segregation of alloying or trace elements in Alloy X-750. Irradiation of Alloy 625 resulted in the formation of small dislocation loops and a fine body-centered-orthorhombic phase. The strengthening due to the loops and precipitates was apparently offset by a partial dissolution of {gamma}{double_prime} precipitates, as Alloy 625 showed no irradiation-induced strengthening or ductility loss. In the nonirradiated condition, an IASCC susceptible HTH heat containing 28 ppm B showed grain boundary segregation of boron, whereas a nonsusceptible HTH heat containing 2 ppm B and Alloy 625 with 20 ppm B did not show significant boron segregation. Transmutation of boron to helium at grain boundaries, coupled with matrix strengthening, is believed to be responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750, and the absence of these two effects results in the superior IASCC resistance displayed by Alloy 625.

  16. Determination of alloy content from plume spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1991-01-01

    The mathematical derivation for a method to determine the identities and amounts of alloys present in a flame where numerous alloys may be present is described. This method is applicable if the total number of elemental species from all alloys that may be in the flame is greater than or equal to the total number of alloys. Arranging the atomic spectral line emission equations for the elemental species as a series of simultaneous equations enables solution for identity and amount of the alloy present in the flame. This technique is intended for identification and quantification of alloy content in the plume of a rocket engine. Spectroscopic measurements reveal the atomic species entrained in the plume. Identification of eroding alloys may lead to the identification of the eroding component.

  17. Mechanical Properties of High Strength Al-Mg Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bong-Jae; Hong, Kyung-Eui; Kim, Young-Jig

    The aim of this research is to develop the high strength Al alloy sheet for the automotive body. For the fabrication Al-Mg alloy sheet, the composition of alloying elements was designed by the properties database and CALPHAD (Calculation Phase Diagram) approach which can predict the phases during solidification using thermodynamic database. Al-Mg alloys were designed using CALPHAD approach according to the high content of Mg with minor alloying elements. After phase predictions by CALPHAD, designed Al-Mg alloys were manufactured. Addition of Mg in Al melts were protected by dry air/Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) mixture gas which can control the severe Mg ignition and oxidation. After rolling procedure of manufactured Al-Mg alloys, mechanical properties were examined with the variation of the heat treatment conditions.

  18. Issues for conversion coating of aluminum alloys with hydrotalcite

    SciTech Connect

    Drewien, C.A.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrotalcite coatings on aluminum alloys are being developed for corrosion protection of aluminum in aggressive saline environments. Coating bath composition, surface pretreatment, and alloying elements in aluminum all influence the performance of these coatings during salt spray testing. The coating bath, comprised of lithium carbonate, requires aging by dissolution of aluminum into the bath in order to grow corrosion resistant coatings. Coatings formed in non- aged baths do not perform well in salt spray testing. The alloying elements in aluminum alloys, especially copper, influence the coating growth and formation leading to thin coatings. The effect of the alloy elements is to limit the supply of aluminum to the coating/electrolyte interface and hinder growth of hydrotalcite upon aluminum alloys.

  19. CORROSION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Hurley; John P. Kay

    1999-10-01

    Five alloys were tested in the presence of water vapor and water vapor with HCl for 1000 hours using simulated combustion gas. Samples were removed at intervals during each test and measured for determination of corrosion rates. One sample of each alloy was examined with a SEM after the completion of each test. Cumulative corrosion depths were similar for the superstainless alloys. Corrosion for Alloy TP310 roughly doubled. Corrosion for the enhanced stainless alloys changed dramatically with the addition of chlorine. Corrosion for Alloy RA85H increased threefold, whereas Alloy TP347HFG showed an eightfold increase. SEM examination of the alloys revealed that water vapor alone allowed the formation of chromium oxide protective layers on the superstainless alloys. The enhanced stainless alloys underwent more corrosion due to greater attack of sulfur. Iron-rich oxide layers were more likely to form, which do not provide protection from further corrosion. The addition of chlorine further increased the corrosion because of its ability to diffuse through the oxide layers and react with iron. This resulted in a broken, discontinuous, and loose oxide layer that offered less protection. Niobium, although added to aid in creep strength, was found to be detrimental to corrosion resistance. The niobium tended to be concentrated in nodules and was easily attacked through sulfidation, providing conduits for further corrosion deep into the alloy. The alloys that displayed the best corrosion resistance were those which could produce chromium oxide protective layers. The predicted microstructure of all alloys except Alloy HR3C is the same and provided no further information relating to corrosion resistance. No correlation can be found relating corrosion resistance to the quantity of minor austenite-or ferrite-stabilizing elements. Also, there does not appear to be a correlation between corrosion resistance and the Cr:Ni ratio of the alloy. These alloys were tested for their

  20. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.