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Sample records for absorption band depths

  1. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  2. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  3. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  4. Absorption band Q model for the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Given, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Attenuation in solids and liquids, as measured by the quality factor Q, is typically frequency dependent. In seismology, however, Q is usually assumed to be independent of frequency. Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. Specific features of the absorption band model are: low-Q in the seismic band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low-Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q sub s that increases with period, and low Q sub p/Q sub s at short periods in the middle mantle.

  5. Triple-band metamaterial absorption utilizing single rectangular hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Jik; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-01-01

    In the general metamaterial absorber, the single absorption band is made by the single meta-pattern. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial absorber only utilizing single rectangular hole. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple absorption. The first absorption peak was caused by the fundamental magnetic resonance in the metallic part between rectangular holes. The second absorption was generated by induced tornado magnetic field. The process of realizing the second band is also presented. The third absorption was induced by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance in the metallic region between rectangular holes. In addition, the visible-range triple-band absorber was also realized by using similar but smaller single rectangular-hole structure. These results render the simple metamaterials for high frequency in large scale, which can be useful in the fabrication of metamaterials operating in the optical range.

  6. Improvement of depth resolution on photoacoustic imaging using multiphoton absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Fujiwara, Katsuji; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2007-07-01

    Commercial imaging systems, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are frequently used powerful tools for observing structures deep within the human body. However, they cannot precisely visualized several-tens micrometer-sized structures for lack of spatial resolution. In this presentation, we propose photoacoustic imaging using multiphoton absorption technique to generate ultrasonic waves as a means of improving depth resolution. Since the multiphoton absorption occurs at only the focus point and the employed infrared pulses deeply penetrate living tissues, it enables us to extract characteristic features of structures embedded in the living tissue. When nanosecond pulses from a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser were focused on Rhodamine B/chloroform solution (absorption peak: 540 nm), the peak intensity of the generated photoacoustic signal was proportional to the square of the input pulse energy. This result shows that the photoacoustic signals can be induced by the two-photon absorption of infrared nanosecond pulse laser and also can be detected by a commercial low-frequency MHz transducer. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the depth resolution of multiphoton-photoacoustic imaging, we investigated the dependence of photoacoustic signal on depth position using a 1-mm-thick phantom in a water bath. We found that the depth resolution of two-photon photoacoustic imaging (1064 nm) is greater than that of one-photon photoacoustic imaging (532 nm). We conclude that evolving multiphoton-photoacoustic imaging technology renders feasible the investigation of biomedical phenomena at the deep layer in living tissue.

  7. Forage quantity estimation from MERIS using band depth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Saleem; Yali, Si; Schlerf, Martin

    Saleem Ullah1 , Si Yali1 , Martin Schlerf1 Forage quantity is an important factor influencing feeding pattern and distribution of wildlife. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of vegetation indices and band depth analysis parameters for estimation of green biomass using MERIS data. Green biomass was best predicted by NBDI (normalized band depth index) and yielded a calibration R2 of 0.73 and an accuracy (independent validation dataset, n=30) of 136.2 g/m2 (47 % of the measured mean) compared to a much lower accuracy obtained by soil adjusted vegetation index SAVI (444.6 g/m2, 154 % of the mean) and by other vegetation indices. This study will contribute to map and monitor foliar biomass over the year at regional scale which intern can aid the understanding of bird migration pattern. Keywords: Biomass, Nitrogen density, Nitrogen concentration, Vegetation indices, Band depth analysis parameters 1 Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, The Netherlands

  8. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. Methodology We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Principal Findings Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development. PMID:27588682

  9. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina V A; Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-09-01

    A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development.

  10. Sub-band-gap absorption in Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, Hartwin; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2017-10-01

    β-Ga2O3 is a transparent conducting oxide that, due to its large bandgap of 4.8 eV, exhibits transparency into the UV. However, the free carriers that enable the conductivity can absorb light. We study the effect of free carriers on the properties of Ga2O3 using hybrid density functional theory. The presence of free carriers leads to sub-band-gap absorption and a Burstein-Moss shift in the onset of absorption. We find that for a concentration of 1020 carriers, the Fermi level is located 0.23 eV above the conduction-band minimum. This leads to an increase in the electron effective mass from 0.27-0.28 me to 0.35-0.37 me and a sub-band-gap absorption band with a peak value of 0.6 × 103 cm-1 at 3.37 eV for light polarized along the x or z direction. Both across-the-gap and free-carrier absorption depend strongly on the polarization of the incoming light. We also provide parametrizations of the conduction-band shape and the effective mass as a function of the Fermi level.

  11. Anisotropy of band gap absorption in TlGaSe2 semiconductor by ferroelectric phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbinas, Karolis; Grivickas, Vytautas; Gavryushin, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    The depth-resolved free-carrier absorption and the photo-acoustic response are used to examine the band-gap absorption in 2D-TlGaSe2 layered semiconductor after its transformation into the ferroelectric F-phase below 107 K. The absorption exhibits unusual behavior with a biaxial character in respect to the light polarization on the layer plane. A spectral analysis shows that the anisotropy is associated to the lowest Γ-direct optical transition. The Γ-absorption and the localized exciton at 2.11 eV are dipole-prohibited or partially allowed in two nearly perpendicular polarization directions. The shift of anisotropy axis in respect to crystallographic a- and b-directions demonstrates the non-equivalent zigzag rearrangement of the interlayer connecting Tl+ ions, which is responsible for occurrence of the F-phase.

  12. Continuum definition for Ceres absorption bands at 3.1, 3.4 and 4.0 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiano, A.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Zinzi, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Raponi, A.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Dirri, F.

    2017-09-01

    The images and hyperspectral data acquired during various Dawn mission phases (e.g. Survey, HAMO and LAMO) allowed identifying regions of different albedo on Ceres surface, where absorption bands located at 3.4 and 4.0 μm can assume different shapes. The 3.1 μm feature is observed on the entire Ceres surface except on Cerealia Facula, the brightest spot located on the dome of Occator crater. To perform a mineralogical investigation, absorption bands in reflectance spectra should be properly isolated by removing spectral continuum; hence, parameters as band centers and band depths must be estimated. The problem in the defining the continuum is in the VIR spectral range, which ends at 5.1 μm even though the reliable data, where the thermal contribution is properly removed, stops at 4.2 μm. Band shoulders located at longer wavelengths cannot be estimated. We defined different continua, with the aim to find the most appropriate to isolate the three spectral bands, whatever the region and the spatial resolution of hyperspectral images. The linear continuum seems to be the most suitable definition for our goals. Then, we performed an error evaluation on band depths and band centers introduced by this continuum definition.

  13. Correcting for trace gas absorption when retrieving aerosol optical depth from satellite observations of reflected shortwave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, Falguni; Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana

    2018-06-01

    Retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) from top-of-atmosphere (TOA) satellite-measured radiance requires separating the aerosol signal from the total observed signal. Total TOA radiance includes signal from the underlying surface and from atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, clouds and gases. Multispectral retrieval algorithms, such as the dark-target (DT) algorithm that operates upon the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, on board Terra and Aqua satellites) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, on board Suomi-NPP) sensors, use wavelength bands in window regions. However, while small, the gas absorptions in these bands are non-negligible and require correction. In this paper, we use the High-resolution TRANsmission (HITRAN) database and Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to derive consistent gas corrections for both MODIS and VIIRS wavelength bands. Absorptions from H2O, CO2 and O3 are considered, as well as other trace gases. Even though MODIS and VIIRS bands are similar, they are different enough that applying MODIS-specific gas corrections to VIIRS observations results in an underestimate of global mean AOD (by 0.01), but with much larger regional AOD biases of up to 0.07. As recent studies have been attempting to create a long-term data record by joining multiple satellite data sets, including MODIS and VIIRS, the consistency of gas correction has become even more crucial.

  14. Precise Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Karl-Hugo; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A precise method of determining absorption maxima where Gaussian functions occur is described. The method is based on a logarithmic transformation of the Gaussian equation and is suited for a mini-computer. (MR)

  15. Detection of metal stress in boreal forest species using the 0.67-micron chlorophyll absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhroy, Vernon H.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1991-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that a shift of the red-edge inflection near 0.70 micron in vegetation reflectance spectra is an indicator of metal stress, partially attributable to changes in chlorophyll concentration. This 'red-edge shift', however, is difficult to detect and has been reported both toward longer (red) and shorter (blue) wavelengths. Our work demonstrates that direct measurement of the depth and width of the chlorophyll absorption band at 0.67 micron using digital feature extraction and absorption band characterization procedures developed for the analysis of mineral spectra is a more consistent indicator of metal stress. Additionally, the magnitude of these parameters is generally greater than that of the red edge shift and thus should be more amenable to detection and mapping using field and aircraft spectrometers.

  16. Absorption spectra and light penetration depth of normal and pathologically altered human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Volotovskaya, A. V.; Ulashchik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    A three-layered skin model (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and engineering formulas for radiative transfer theory are used to study absorption spectra and light penetration depths of normal and pathologically altered skin. The formulas include small-angle and asymptotic approximations and a layer-addition method. These characteristics are calculated for wavelengths used for low-intensity laser therapy. We examined several pathologies such as vitiligo, edema, erythematosus lupus, and subcutaneous wound, for which the bulk concentrations of melanin and blood vessels or tissue structure (for subcutaneous wound) change compared with normal skin. The penetration depth spectrum is very similar to the inverted blood absorption spectrum. In other words, the depth is minimal at blood absorption maxima. The calculated absorption spectra enable the power and irradiation wavelength providing the required light effect to be selected. Relationships between the penetration depth and the diffuse reflectance coefficient of skin (unambiguously expressed through the absorption coefficient) are analyzed at different wavelengths. This makes it possible to find relationships between the light fields inside and outside the tissue.

  17. Band gap of corundumlike α -Ga2O3 determined by absorption and ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, A.; Artús, L.; Cuscó, R.; Goldhahn, R.; Feneberg, M.

    2017-07-01

    The electronic structure near the band gap of the corundumlike α phase of Ga2O3 has been investigated by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the ultraviolet (UV) range (400-190 nm). The absorption coefficient in the UV region and the imaginary part of the dielectric function exhibit two prominent absorption thresholds with wide but well-defined structures at 5.6 and 6.3 eV which have been ascribed to allowed direct transitions from crystal-field split valence bands to the conduction band. Excitonic effects with large Gaussian broadening are taken into account through the Elliott-Toyozawa model, which yields an exciton binding energy of 110 meV and direct band gaps of 5.61 and 6.44 eV. The large broadening of the absorption onset is related to the slightly indirect character of the material.

  18. Effects of Combined Surface and In-Depth Absorption on Ignition of PMMA

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Junhui; Chen, Yixuan; Li, Jing; Jiang, Juncheng; Wang, Zhirong; Wang, Jinghong

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model and theoretical analysis involving both surface and in-depth radiative heat flux absorption are utilized to investigate the influence of their combination on ignition of PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate). Ignition time, transient temperature in a solid and optimized combination of these two absorption modes of black and clear PMMA are examined to understand the ignition mechanism. Based on the comparison, it is found that the selection of constant or variable thermal parameters of PMMA barely affects the ignition time of simulation results. The linearity between tig−0.5 and heat flux does not exist anymore for high heat flux. Both analytical and numerical models underestimate the surface temperature and overestimate the temperature in a solid beneath the heat penetration layer for pure in-depth absorption. Unlike surface absorption circumstances, the peak value of temperature is in the vicinity of the surface but not on the surface for in-depth absorption. The numerical model predicts the ignition time better than the analytical model due to the more reasonable ignition criterion selected. The surface temperature increases with increasing incident heat flux. Furthermore, it also increases with the fraction of surface absorption and the radiative extinction coefficient for fixed heat flux. Finally, the combination is optimized by ignition time, temperature distribution in a solid and mass loss rate. PMID:28773940

  19. Effects of Combined Surface and In-Depth Absorption on Ignition of PMMA.

    PubMed

    Gong, Junhui; Chen, Yixuan; Li, Jing; Jiang, Juncheng; Wang, Zhirong; Wang, Jinghong

    2016-10-05

    A one-dimensional numerical model and theoretical analysis involving both surface and in-depth radiative heat flux absorption are utilized to investigate the influence of their combination on ignition of PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate). Ignition time, transient temperature in a solid and optimized combination of these two absorption modes of black and clear PMMA are examined to understand the ignition mechanism. Based on the comparison, it is found that the selection of constant or variable thermal parameters of PMMA barely affects the ignition time of simulation results. The linearity between t ig -0.5 and heat flux does not exist anymore for high heat flux. Both analytical and numerical models underestimate the surface temperature and overestimate the temperature in a solid beneath the heat penetration layer for pure in-depth absorption. Unlike surface absorption circumstances, the peak value of temperature is in the vicinity of the surface but not on the surface for in-depth absorption. The numerical model predicts the ignition time better than the analytical model due to the more reasonable ignition criterion selected. The surface temperature increases with increasing incident heat flux. Furthermore, it also increases with the fraction of surface absorption and the radiative extinction coefficient for fixed heat flux. Finally, the combination is optimized by ignition time, temperature distribution in a solid and mass loss rate.

  20. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  1. Film depth and concentration banding in free-surface Couette flow of a suspension.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, Brian D; Morris, Jeffrey F

    2003-05-15

    The film depth of a free-surface suspension flowing in a partially filled horizontal concentric-cylinder, or Couette, device has been studied in order to assess its role in the axial concentration banding observed in this flow. The flow is driven by rotation of the inner cylinder. The banding phenomenon is characterized by particle-rich bands which under flow appear as elevated regions at the free surface separated axially by regions dilute relative to the mean concentration. The concentric cylinders studied had outer radius R(o) = 2.22 cm and inner radii R(i) = 0.64, 0.95 and 1.27 cm; the suspension, of bulk particle volume fraction phi = 0.2 in all experiments described, was composed of particles of either 250-300 microm diameter or less than 106 microm diameter, with the suspending fluid an equal density liquid of viscosity 160 P. The ratio of the maximum to the minimum particle volume fraction along the axis in the segregated condition varies from O(1) to infinite. The latter case implies complete segregation, with bands of clear fluid separating the concentrated bands. The film depth has been varied through variation of the filled fraction, f, of the annular gap between the cylinders and through the rotation rate. Film depth was analysed by edge detection of video images of the free surface under flow, and the time required for band formation was determined for all conditions at which film depth was studied. The film depth increases roughly as the square root of rotation speed for f = 0.5. Band formation is more rapid for thicker films associated with more rapid rotation rates at f = 0.5, whereas slower formation rates are observed with thicker films caused by large f, f > 0.65. It is observed that the film depth over the inner cylinder grows prior to onset of banding, for as yet unknown reasons. A mechanism for segregation of particles and liquid in film flows based upon 'differential drainage' of the particle and liquid phase in the gravity-driven flow

  2. Optical depth measurements by shadow-band radiometers and their uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D; Kiedron, Peter; Michalsky, Joseph J; Hodges, Gary; Flynn, Connor J; Lacis, Andrew A

    2007-11-20

    Shadow-band radiometers in general, and especially the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), are widely used for atmospheric optical depth measurements. The major programs running MFRSR networks in the United States include the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) Network, and NASA Solar Irradiance Research Network (SIRN). We discuss a number of technical issues specific to shadow-band radiometers and their impact on the optical depth measurements. These problems include instrument tilt and misalignment, as well as some data processing artifacts. Techniques for data evaluation and automatic detection of some of these problems are described.

  3. Atmospheric absorption of high frequency noise and application to fractional-octave bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Pure tone sound absorption coefficients were measured at 1/12 octave intervals from 4 to 100 KHz at 5.5K temperature intervals between 255.4 and 310.9 K and at 10 percent relative humidity increments between 0 percent and saturation in a large cylindrical tube (i.d., 25.4 cm; length, 4.8 m). Special solid-dielectric capacitance transducers, one to generate bursts of sound waves and one to terminate the sound path and detect the tone bursts, were constructed to fit inside the tube. The absorption was measured by varying the transmitter receiver separation from 1 to 4 m and observing the decay of multiple reflections or change in amplitude of the first received burst. The resulting absorption was compared with that from a proposed procedure for computing sound absorption in still air. Absorption of bands of noise was numerically computed by using the pure tone results. The results depended on spectrum shape, on filter type, and nonlinearly on propagation distance. For some of the cases considered, comparison with the extrapolation of ARP-866A showed a difference as large as a factor of 2. However, for many cases, the absorption for a finite band was nearly equal to the pure tone absorption at the center frequency of the band. A recommended prediction procedure is described for 1/3 octave band absorption coefficients.

  4. Lifetime enhancement for multiphoton absorption in intermediate band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Anibal T.; Studart, Nelson

    2017-08-01

    A semiconductor structure consisting of two coupled quantum wells embedded into the intrinsic region of a p-i-n junction is proposed as an intermediate band solar cell with a photon ratchet state, which would lead to increasing the cell efficiency. The conduction subband of the right-hand side quantum well works as the intermediated band, whereas the excited conduction subband of the left-hand side quantum well operates as the ratchet state. The photoelectrons in the intermediate band are scattered through the thin wells barrier and accumulated into the ratchet subband. A rate equation model for describing the charge transport properties is presented. The efficiency of the current generation is analyzed by studying the occupation of the wells subbands, taking into account the charge dynamic behavior provided by the electrical contacts connected to the cell. The current generation efficiency depends essentially from the relations between the generation, recombination rates and the scattering rate to the ratchet state. The inclusion of the ratchet states led to both an increase and a decrease in the cell current depending on the transition rates. This suggests that the coupling between the intermediate band and the ratchet state is a key point in developing an efficient solar cell.

  5. Broad band solar EUV absorption in the earth's upper atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, K. H.; Rense, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Observation data on solar radiation intensity, based on measurements performed as a function of time for three broad wavelength bands between 280 and 1030 A by a wheel spectrometer on Oso 5 during sunrise and sunset, are compared with predicted intensity variations based on Cira models. The differences between sunrise and sunset data, as well as those between observed and predicted data are discussed.

  6. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-07-13

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference.

  7. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference. PMID:26166580

  8. Evidence for sulphur implantation in Europa's UV absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; Nelson, R. M.; Matson, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The UV spectral characteristics of the Galilean satellites are investigated (using data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft) as a function of the orbital position, large-scale areal variability, and temporal dynamics. The discovery of an absorption feature at 280 nm in Europa's reflection spectrum is reported and observations show that the absorption is strongest on the trailing hemisphere (central longitude 270 degrees). The feature resembles SO2 and seems to result from S-O bond formation between deeply implanted sulphur atoms and the adjacent damaged water-ice-lattice. The sulphur supposedly comes from energetic (hundreds of keV) sulphur ions that are present in the Jovian magnetosphere. An appropriate equilibrium condition can be found to match the observed spectral data if sputtering erosion occurs at no greater than approximately 20 meters per one billion years.

  9. Optical absorption spectra and energy band gap in manganese containing sodium zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardarpasha, K. R.; Hanumantharaju, N.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Optical band gap energy in the system 25Na2O-(75-x)[0.6P2O5-0.4ZnO]-xMnO2 (where x = 0.5,1,5,10 and 20 mol.%) have been studied. The intensity of the absorption band found to increase with increase of MnO2 content. The decrease in the optical band gap energy with increase in MnO2 content in the investigated glasses is attributed to shifting of absorption edge to a longer wavelength region. The obtained results were discussed in view of the structure of phosphate glass network.

  10. ASSIGNMENT OF 5069 A DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND TO HC{sub 4}H{sup +}: DISAGREEMENT WITH LABORATORY ABSORPTION BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, J. P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Mazzotti, F. J.

    2011-03-10

    Krelowski et al. have reported a weak, diffuse interstellar band (DIB) at 5069 A which appears to match in both mid-wavelength and width the A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}-X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} gas-phase origin absorption band of HC{sub 4}H{sup +}. Here, we present laboratory rotational profiles at low temperatures which are then compared with the 5069 A DIB using {approx}0.1 and 0.3 A line widths based on a realistic line-of-sight interstellar velocity dispersion. Neither the band shape nor the wavelength of the maximum absorption match, which makes the association of the 5069 A DIB with HC{sub 4}H{sup +} unlikely. The magneticmore » dipole transition X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} {Omega} = 1/2{yields}X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} {Omega} = 3/2 within the ground electronic state which competes with collisional excitation is also considered. In addition, we present the laboratory gas-phase spectrum of the A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}-X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} transition of HC{sub 4}H{sup +} measured at 25 K in an ion trap and identify further absorption bands at shorter wavelengths for comparison with future DIB data.« less

  11. Varied absorption peaks of dual-band metamaterial absorber analysis by using reflection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Han; Yu, Yan-Tao; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Shi-Yong; Liu, Dan-Ping; Ou, Xiang; Zeng, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Cross-resonator metamaterial absorbers (MMA) have been widely investigated from microwave to optical frequencies. However, only part of the factors influencing the absorption properties were analyzed in previous works at the same time. In order to completely understand how the spacer thickness, dielectric parameter and incidence angle affect the absorption properties of the dual-band MMA, two sets of simulation were performed. It was found that with increasing incident angles, the low-frequency absorption peak showed a blue shift, while the high-frequency absorption peaks showed a red shift. However, with the increase in spacer thickness, both of the absorption peaks showed a red shift. By using the reflection theory expressions, the physical mechanism of the cross-resonator MMA was well explained. This method provides an effective way to analyze multi-band absorber in technology.

  12. Multijunction solar cell design revisited: disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands: Disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands

    DOE PAGES

    McMahon, William E.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    2017-05-23

    This paper re-examines the impact of atmospheric absorption bands on series-connected multijunction cell design, motivated by the numerous local efficiency maxima that appear as the number of junctions is increased. Some of the local maxima are related to the bottom subcell bandgap and are already well understood: As the bottom subcell bandgap is varied, a local efficiency maximum is produced wherever the bottom cell bandgap crosses an atmospheric absorption band. The optimal cell designs at these local maxima are generally current matched, such that all subcells have nearly the same short-circuit current. We systematically describe additional local maxima that occurmore » wherever an upper subcell bandgap encounters an atmospheric absorption band. Moreover, these local maxima are not current matched and become more prevalent as the number of junctions increases, complicating the solution space for five-junction and six-junction designs. A systematic framework for describing this complexity is developed, and implications for numerical convergence are discussed.« less

  13. Multijunction solar cell design revisited: disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands: Disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, William E.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    This paper re-examines the impact of atmospheric absorption bands on series-connected multijunction cell design, motivated by the numerous local efficiency maxima that appear as the number of junctions is increased. Some of the local maxima are related to the bottom subcell bandgap and are already well understood: As the bottom subcell bandgap is varied, a local efficiency maximum is produced wherever the bottom cell bandgap crosses an atmospheric absorption band. The optimal cell designs at these local maxima are generally current matched, such that all subcells have nearly the same short-circuit current. We systematically describe additional local maxima that occurmore » wherever an upper subcell bandgap encounters an atmospheric absorption band. Moreover, these local maxima are not current matched and become more prevalent as the number of junctions increases, complicating the solution space for five-junction and six-junction designs. A systematic framework for describing this complexity is developed, and implications for numerical convergence are discussed.« less

  14. Tunable dual-band nearly perfect absorption based on a compound metallic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Feng, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Traditional metallic gratings and novel metamaterials are two basic kinds of candidates for perfect absorption. Comparatively speaking, metallic grating is the preferred choice for the same absorption effect because it is structurally simpler and more convenient to fabricate. However, to date, most of the perfect absorption effects achieved based on metamaterials are also available using an metallic grating except the tunable dual(multi)-band perfect absorption. To fill this gap, in this paper, by adding subgrooves on the rear surface as well as inside the grating slits to a free-standing metallic grating, tunable dual-band perfect absorption is also obtained for the first time. The grooves inside the slits is to tune the frequency of the Cavity Mode(CM) resonance which enhances the transmission and suppresses the reflectance simultaneously. The grooves on the rear surface give rise to the phase resonance which not only suppresses the transmission but also reinforces the reflectance depression effect. Thus, when the phase resonance and the frequency tunable CM resonance occur together, transmission and reflection can be suppressed simultaneously, dual-band nearly perfect absorption with tunable frequencies is obtained. To our knowledge, this perfect absorption phenomenon is achieved for the first time in a designed metallic grating structure.

  15. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue

    2014-12-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application.

  16. Emergence of Very Broad Infrared Absorption Band By Hyperdoping of Silicon with Chalcogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-03

    measured by Hall effect in Ref. 9 (crosses) as functions of implanted sulfur dose. (c) Calculated reflectivity by Kramers- Kronig transformation of the...MIR band is small enough, this assumption is reasonable according to the Kramers- Kronig relationship between optical absorption and reflectivity...calculated by a Kramers- Kronig transformation of the absorption spectrum shown in Fig. 1(a) and the results are shown in Fig. 1(c). However, the a value

  17. Robust indirect band gap and anisotropy of optical absorption in B-doped phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Guo, Lei; Kang, Jun; Fang, Dang-Qi; Zhang, Yang; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2017-12-06

    A traditional doping technique plays an important role in the band structure engineering of two-dimensional nanostructures. Since electron interaction is changed by doping, the optical and electrochemical properties could also be significantly tuned. In this study, density functional theory calculations have been employed to explore the structural stability, and electronic and optical properties of B-doped phosphorene. The results show that all B-doped phosphorenes are stable with a relatively low binding energy. Of particular interest is that these B-doped systems exhibit an indirect band gap, which is distinct from the direct one of pure phosphorene. Despite the different concentrations and configurations of B dopants, such indirect band gaps are robust. The screened hybrid density functional HSE06 predicts that the band gap of B-doped phosphorene is slightly smaller than that of pure phosphorene. Spatial charge distributions at the valence band maximum (VBM) and the conduction band minimum (CBM) are analyzed to understand the features of an indirect band gap. By comparison with pure phosphorene, B-doped phosphorenes exhibit strong anisotropy and intensity of optical absorption. Moreover, B dopants could enhance the stability of Li adsorption on phosphorene with less sacrifice of the Li diffusion rate. Our results suggest that B-doping is an effective way of tuning the band gap, enhancing the intensity of optical absorption and improving the performances of Li adsorption, which could promote potential applications in novel optical devices and lithium-ion batteries.

  18. L-band InSAR Penetration Depth Experiment, North Slope Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first spacecraft-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission NASA's SEASAT in 1978 radars have been flown in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by other national space agencies including the Canadian Space Agency, European Space Agency, India Space Research Organization and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Improvements in electronics, miniaturization and production have allowed for the deployment of SAR systems on aircraft for usage in agriculture, hazards assessment, land-use management and planning, meteorology, oceanography and surveillance. LEO SAR systems still provide a range of needful and timely information on large and small-scale weather conditions like those found across the Arctic where ground-base weather radars currently provide limited coverage. For investigators of solid-earth deformation attention must be given to the atmosphere on Interferometric SAR (InSAR) by aircraft and spacecraft multi-pass operations. Because radar has the capability to penetrate earth materials at frequencies from the P- to X-band attention must be given to the frequency dependent penetration depth and volume scattering. This is the focus of our new research project: to test the penetration depth of L-band SAR/InSAR by aircraft and spacecraft systems at a test site in Arctic Alaska using multi-frequency analysis and progressive burial of radar mesh-reflectors at measured depths below tundra while monitoring environmental conditions. Knowledge of the L-band penetration depth on lowland Arctic tundra is necessary to constrain analysis of carbon mass balance and hazardous conditions arising form permafrost degradation and thaw, surface heave and subsidence and thermokarst formation at local and regional scales. Ref.: Geoscience and Environment Protection, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 14-30, 2017. DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.53002.

  19. L-band InSAR Penetration Depth Experiment, North Slope Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald

    2017-04-01

    Since the first spacecraft-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission NASA's SEASAT in 1978 radars have been flown in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by other national space agencies including the Canadian Space Agency, European Space Agency, India Space Research Organization and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Improvements in electronics, miniaturization and production have allowed for the deployment of SAR systems on aircraft for usage in agriculture, hazards assessment, land-use management and planning, meteorology, oceanography and surveillance. LEO SAR systems still provide a range of needful and timely information on large and small-scale weather conditions like those found across the Arctic where ground-base weather radars currently provide limited coverage. For investigators of solid-earth deformation attention must be given to the atmosphere on Interferometric SAR (InSAR) by aircraft and spacecraft multi-pass operations. Because radar has the capability to penetrate earth materials at frequencies from the P- to X-band attention must be given to the frequency dependent penetration depth and volume scattering. This is the focus of our new research project: to test the penetration depth of L-band SAR/InSAR by aircraft and spacecraft systems at a test site in Arctic Alaska using multi-frequency analysis and progressive burial of radar mesh-reflectors at measured depths below tundra while monitoring environmental conditions. Knowledge of the L-band penetration depth on lowland Arctic tundra is necessary to constrain analysis of carbon mass balance and hazardous conditions arising form permafrost degradation and thaw, surface heave and subsidence and thermokarst formation at local and regional scales.

  20. Diversity in the Visible-NIR Absorption Band Characteristics of Lunar and Asteroidal Plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Kaiden, H.; Misawa, K.; Kojima, H.; Uemoto, K.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Studying the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral properties of plagioclase has been challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining good plagioclase separates from pristine planetary materials such as meteorites and returned lunar samples. After an early study indicated that the 1.25 m band position of plagioclase spectrum might be correlated with the molar percentage of anorthite (An#) [1], there have been few studies which dealt with the band center behavior. In this study, the VNIR absorption band parameters of plagioclase samples have been derived using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) [2] following a pioneering study by [3].

  1. Atomic scale origins of sub-band gap optical absorption in gold-hyperdoped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Naheed; Ertekin, Elif

    2018-05-01

    Gold hyperdoped silicon exhibits room temperature sub band gap optical absorption, with potential applications as infrared absorbers/detectors and impurity band photovoltaics. We use first-principles density functional theory to establish the origins of the sub band gap response. Substitutional gold AuSi and substitutional dimers AuSi - AuSi are found to be the energetically preferred defect configurations, and AuSi gives rise to partially filled mid-gap defect bands well offset from the band edges. AuSi is predicted to offer substantial sub-band gap absorption, exceeding that measured in prior experiments by two orders of magnitude for similar Au concentration. This suggests that in experimentally realized systems, in addition to AuSi, the implanted gold is accommodated by the lattice in other ways, including other defect complexes and gold precipitates. We further identify that it is energetically favorable for isolated AuSi to form AuSi - AuSi, which by contrast do not exhibit mid-gap states. The formation of dimers and other complexes could serve as nuclei in the earliest stages of Au precipitation, which may be responsible for the observed rapid deactivation of sub-band gap response upon annealing.

  2. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  3. Effect of Atmospheric Absorption Bands on the Optimal Design of Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, William E.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    Designing terrestrial multijunction (MJ) cells with 5+ junctions is challenging, in part because the presence of atmospheric absorption bands creates a design space with numerous local maxima. Here we introduce a new taxonomical structure which facilitates both numerical convergence and the visualization of the resulting designs.

  4. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  5. Jet-cooled infrared absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of HCOOH and HCOOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Wenguang; Duan, Chuanxi

    2017-04-01

    The jet-cooled absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of normal formic acid (HCOOH) and deuterated formic acid (HCOOD) was recorded in the frequency range of 1370-1392 cm-1 with distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs) as the tunable infrared radiations. A segmented rapid-scan data acquisition scheme was developed for pulsed supersonic jet infrared laser absorption spectroscopy based on DFB-QCLs with a moderate vacuum pumping capacity. The unperturbed band-origin and rotational constants in the excited vibrational state were determined for both HCOOH and HCOOD. The unperturbed band-origin locates at 1379.05447(11) cm-1 for HCOOH, and 1366.48430(39) cm-1 for HCOOD, respectively.

  6. Snow depth retrieval from L-band satellite measurements on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, N.; Kaleschke, L.; Wever, N.; Lehning, M.; Nicolaus, M.; Rossmann, H. L.

    2017-12-01

    The passive microwave mission SMOS provides daily coverage of the polar regions and measures at a low frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band). SMOS observations have been used to operationally retrieve sea ice thickness up to 1 m and to estimate snow depth in the Arctic for thicker ice. Here, we present how SMOS-retrieved snow depths compare with airborne measurements from NASA's Operation IceBridge mission (OIB) and with AMSR-2 satellite retrievals at higher frequencies, and we show first applications to Antarctic sea ice. In previous studies, SMOS and OIB snow depths showed good agreement on spatial scales from 50 to 1000 km for some days and disagreement for other days. Here, we present a more comprehensive comparison of OIB and SMOS snow depths in the Arctic for 2011 to 2015. We find that the SMOS retrieval works best for cold conditions and depends on auxiliary information on ice surface temperature, here provided by MODIS thermal imagery satellite data. However, comparing SMOS and OIB snow depths is difficult because of the different spatial resolutions (SMOS: 40 km, OIB: 40 m). Spatial variability within the SMOS footprint can lead to different snow conditions as seen from SMOS and OIB. Ideally the comparison is made for uniform conditions: Low lead and open water fraction, low spatial and temporal variability of ice surface temperature, no mixture of multi- and first-year ice. Under these conditions and cold temperatures (surface temperatures below -25°C), correlation coefficients between SMOS and OIB snow depths increase from 0.3 to 0.6. A finding from the comparison with AMSR-2 snow depths is that the SMOS-based maps depend less on the age of the sea ice than the maps derived from higher frequencies. Additionally, we show first results of SMOS snow depths for Antarctic sea ice. SMOS observations are compared to measurements of autonomous snow buoys drifting in the Weddell Sea since 2014. For a better comparability of these point measurements with SMOS data, we use

  7. Intermediate Band Material of Titanium-Doped Tin Disulfide for Wide Spectrum Solar Absorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Keyan; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Gu, Yuhao; Bu, Kejun; Pan, Jie; Qin, Peng; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Fuqiang

    2018-04-02

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are of great significance due to their superior solar absorption properties. Here, two IBs peaking at 0.88 and 1.33 eV are reported to be present in the forbidden gap of semiconducting SnS 2 ( E g = 2.21 eV) by doping titanium up to 6 atom % into the Sn site via a solid-state reaction at 923 K. The solid solution of Sn 1- x Ti x S 2 is able to be formed, which is attributed to the isostructural structure of SnS 2 and TiS 2 . These two IBs were detected in the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra with the appearance of two additional absorption responses at the respective regions, which in good agreement with the conclusion of first-principles calculations. The valence band maximum (VBM) consists mostly of the S 3p state, and the conduction band minimum (CBM) is the hybrid state composing of Ti 3d (e g ), S 3p, and Sn 5s, and the IBs are mainly the nondegenerate t 2g states of Ti 3d orbitals. The electronic states of Ti 3d reveal a good ability to transfer electrons between metal and S atoms. These wide-spectrum absorption IBs bring about more solar energy utilization to enhance solar thermal collection and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange.

  8. Analysis of wavelength-dependent photoisomerization quantum yields in bilirubins by fitting two exciton absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Troup, G. J.; Pratesi, R.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption spectra of bilirubins were deconvoluted by two Gaussian curves of equal width representing the exciton bands of the non-degenerate molecular system. The two bands were used to study the wavelength dependence of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) configurational photoisomerization quantum yield of the bichromophoric bilirubin-IXalpha (BR-IX), the intrinsically asymmetric bile pigment associated with jaundice and the symmetrically substituted bilirubins (bilirubin-IIIalpha and mesobilirubin-XIIIalpha), when they are irradiated in aqueous solution bound to human serum albumin (HSA). The same study was performed for BR-IX in ammoniacal methanol solution (NH4OH/MeOH). The quantum yields of the configurational photoprocesses were fitted with a combination function of the two Gaussian bands normalized to the total absorption, using the proportionality coefficients and a scaling factor as parameters. The decrease of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) quantum yield with increasing wavelength, which occurs for wavelengths longer than the most probable Franck-Condon transition of the molecule, did not result in a unique function of the exciton absorptions. In particular we found two ranges corresponding to different exciton interactions with different proportionality coefficients and scaling factors. The wavelength-dependent photoisomerization of bilirubins was described as an abrupt change in quantum yield as soon as the resulting excitation was strongly localized in each chromophore. The change was correlated to a variation of the interaction between the two chromophores when the short-wavelength exciton absorption became vanishingly small. With the help of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of BR-IX in HSA, a small band was resolved in the bilirubin absorption spectrum, delivering part of the energy required for the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) photoisomerization of the molecule.

  9. Tunable multi-band absorption in metasurface of graphene ribbons based on composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Renxia; Jiao, Zheng; Bao, Jie

    2017-05-01

    A tunable multiband absorption based on a graphene metasurface of composite structure at mid-infrared frequency was investigated by the finite difference time domain method. The composite structure were composed of graphene ribbons and a gold-MgF2 layer which was sandwiched in between two dielectric slabs. The permittivity of graphene is discussed with different chemical potential to obtain tunable absorption. And the absorption of the composite structure can be tuned by the chemical potential of graphene at certain frequencies. The impedance matching was used to study the perfect absorption of the structure in our paper. The results show that multi-band absorption can be obtained and some absorption peaks of the composite structure can be tuned through the changing not only of the width of graphene ribbons and gaps, but also the dielectric and the chemical potential of graphene. However, another peak was hardly changed by parameters due to a different resonant mechanism in proposed structure. This flexibily tunable multiband absorption may be applied to optical communications such as optical absorbers, mid infrared stealth devices and filters.

  10. A sextuple-band ultra-thin metamaterial absorber with perfect absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dingwang; Liu, Peiguo; Dong, Yanfei; Zhou, Dongming; Zhou, Qihui

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation and measurement of a sextuple-band ultra-thin metamaterial absorber (MA). The unit cell of this proposed structure is composed of triangular spiral-shaped complementary structures imprinted on the dielectric substrate backed by a metal ground. The measured results are in good agreement with simulations with high absorptivities of more than 90% at all six absorption frequencies. In addition, this proposed absorber has good performances of ultra-thin, polarization insensitivity and a wide-angle oblique incidence, which can easily be used in many potential applications such as detection, imaging and sensing.

  11. Dual-band absorption of mid-infrared metamaterial absorber based on distinct dielectric spacing layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Peiheng; Cheng, Dengmu; Weng, Xiaolong; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2013-04-01

    We present the simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a dual-band metamaterial absorber in the mid-infrared regime. Two pairs of circular-patterned metal-dielectric stacks are employed to excite the dual-band absorption peaks. Dielectric characteristics of the dielectric spacing layer determine energy dissipation in each resonant stack, i.e., dielectric or ohmic loss. By controlling material parameters, both two mechanisms are introduced into our structure. Up to 98% absorption is obtained at 9.03 and 13.32 μm in the simulation, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The proposed structure holds promise for various applications, e.g., thermal radiation modulators and multicolor infrared focal plane arrays.

  12. Depth.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

  13. Black carbon's contribution to aerosol absorption optical depth over S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, K.; Perring, A. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Anderson, B. E.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Redemann, J.; Holben, B. N.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) monitored by ground-based sites (AERONET, SKYNET, etc.) is used to constrain climate radiative forcing from black carbon (BC) and other absorbing aerosols in global models, but few validation studies between in situ aerosol measurements and ground-based AAOD exist. AAOD is affected by aerosol size distributions, composition, mixing state, and morphology. Megacities provide appealing test cases for this type of study due to their association with very high concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols. During the KORUS-AQ campaign in S. Korea, which took place in late spring and early summer of 2016, in situ aircraft measurements over the Seoul Metropolitan Area and Taehwa Research Forest (downwind of Seoul) were repeated three times per flight over a 6 week period, providing significant temporal coverage of vertically resolved aerosol properties influenced by different meteorological conditions and sources. Measurements aboard the NASA DC-8 by the NOAA Humidified Dual Single Particle Soot Photometers (HD-SP2) quantified BC mass, size distributions, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of BC containing aerosols. The in situ BC mass vertical profiles are combined with estimated absorption enhancement calculated from observed optical size and hygroscopicity using Mie theory, and then integrated over the depth of the profile to calculate BC's contribution to AAOD. Along with bulk aerosol size distributions and hygroscopicity, bulk absorbing aerosol optical properties, and on-board sky radiance measurements, these measurements are compared with ground-based AERONET site measurements of AAOD to evaluate closure between in situ vertical profiles of BC and AAOD measurements. This study will provide constraints on the relative importance of BC (including lensing and hygroscopicity effects) and non-BC components to AAOD over S. Korea.

  14. Point-Defect Nature of the Ultraviolet Absorption Band in AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alden, D.; Harris, J. S.; Bryan, Z.; Baker, J. N.; Reddy, P.; Mita, S.; Callsen, G.; Hoffmann, A.; Irving, D. L.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approach where point defects and defect complexes are identified using power-dependent photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, impurity data from SIMS, and density-functional-theory (DFT)-based calculations accounting for the total charge balance in the crystal. Employing the capabilities of such an experimental computational approach, in this work, the ultraviolet-C absorption band at 4.7 eV, as well as the 2.7- and 3.9-eV luminescence bands in AlN single crystals grown via physical vapor transport (PVT) are studied in detail. Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the relationship between the defect luminescent bands centered at 3.9 and 2.7 eV to the commonly observed absorption band centered at 4.7 eV. Accordingly, the thermodynamic transition energy for the absorption band at 4.7 eV and the luminescence band at 3.9 eV is estimated at 4.2 eV, in agreement with the thermodynamic transition energy for the CN- point defect. Finally, the 2.7-eV PL band is the result of a donor-acceptor pair transition between the VN and CN point defects since nitrogen vacancies are predicted to be present in the crystal in concentrations similar to carbon-employing charge-balance-constrained DFT calculations. Power-dependent photoluminescence measurements reveal the presence of the deep donor state with a thermodynamic transition energy of 5.0 eV, which we hypothesize to be nitrogen vacancies in agreement with predictions based on theory. The charge state, concentration, and type of impurities in the crystal are calculated considering a fixed amount of impurities and using a DFT-based defect solver, which considers their respective formation energies and the total charge balance in the crystal. The presented results show that nitrogen vacancies are the most likely candidate for the deep donor state involved in the donor-acceptor pair transition with peak emission at 2.7 eV for the conditions relevant to PVT growth.

  15. [Light absorption by carotenoid peridinin in zooxanthellae cell and setting down of hermatypic coral to depth].

    PubMed

    Leletkin, V A; Popova, L I

    2005-01-01

    Carotenoid peridinin absorbs ocean light which could penetrate deep into the water. Absolute and relative contents of symbiotic dinoflagellatae zooxanthellae are increased with depth of habitat of germatypic corals. To estimate whether the presence of peridinin in corals is chromatic adaptation or not, the absorbance of solar radiation by different amounts of peridinin and chlorophyll in natice zooxanthellae cells was evaluated. Calculations have shown that at the great depths the peredinin absorbance corresponds to 42% of total cell absorbance and that the increase of light absorbance correlating with changes of its spectral characteristics is entirely determined by presence of this carotenoid. The increase of amount of peridinin in cell is as much important as important the increase of all other pigments taken together. However, at the same time selective and preferential accumulation of peridinin and the change of its native state in the limits naturally occurred in zooxanthellae cells have only low impact on the light absorbance. The presence of peridinin could be considered as manifestation of chromatic adaptation of organism. The comparison of light absorption by zooxanthellae with different content of peridinin (or without peridinin) reveals that this pigment expands the habitat of hermatypic corals in ocean waters at 8-17 meters into the deep.

  16. Understanding of sub-band gap absorption of femtosecond-laser sulfur hyperdoped silicon using synchrotron-based techniques

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Mukta V.; Chen, S. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Chen, L. Y.; Singh, Shashi B.; Shao, Y. C.; Wang, Y. F.; Hsieh, S. H.; Hsueh, H. C.; Chiou, J. W.; Chen, C. H.; Jang, L. Y.; Cheng, C. L.; Pong, W. F.; Hu, Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between sub-band gap absorption and the chemical states and electronic and atomic structures of S-hyperdoped Si have been extensively studied, using synchrotron-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES) and first-principles calculation. S 2p XPS spectra reveal that the S-hyperdoped Si with the greatest (~87%) sub-band gap absorption contains the highest concentration of S2− (monosulfide) species. Annealing S-hyperdoped Si reduces the sub-band gap absorptance and the concentration of S2− species, but significantly increases the concentration of larger S clusters [polysulfides (Sn2−, n > 2)]. The Si K-edge XANES spectra show that S hyperdoping in Si increases (decreased) the occupied (unoccupied) electronic density of states at/above the conduction-band-minimum. VB-PES spectra evidently reveal that the S-dopants not only form an impurity band deep within the band gap, giving rise to the sub-band gap absorption, but also cause the insulator-to-metal transition in S-hyperdoped Si samples. Based on the experimental results and the calculations by density functional theory, the chemical state of the S species and the formation of the S-dopant states in the band gap of Si are critical in determining the sub-band gap absorptance of hyperdoped Si samples. PMID:26098075

  17. Electronic absorption band broadening and surface roughening of phthalocyanine double layers by saturated solvent vapor treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinhyun; Yim, Sanggyu, E-mail: sgyim@kookmin.ac.kr

    2012-10-15

    Variations in the electronic absorption (EA) and surface morphology of three types of phthalocyanine (Pc) thin film systems, i.e. copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) single layer, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) single layer, and ZnPc on CuPc (CuPc/ZnPc) double layer film, treated with saturated acetone vapor were investigated. For the treated CuPc single layer film, the surface roughness slightly increased and bundles of nanorods were formed, while the EA varied little. In contrast, for the ZnPc single layer film, the relatively high solubility of ZnPc led to a considerable shift in the absorption bands as well as a large increase in the surface roughnessmore » and formation of long and wide nano-beams, indicating a part of the ZnPc molecules dissolved in acetone, which altered their molecular stacking. For the CuPc/ZnPc film, the saturated acetone vapor treatment resulted in morphological changes in mainly the upper ZnPc layer due to the significantly low solubility of the underlying CuPc layer. The treatment also broadened the EA band, which involved a combination of unchanged CuPc and changed ZnPc absorption.« less

  18. Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm 3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Taiju; Tanigawa, Masayuki; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2000-12-01

    Absorption spectra of Tm 3+ ions in Ca 3Nb 1.6875Ga 3.1875O 12 (CNGG) crystal have been investigated at various temperatures between 15 and 296 K. Luminescence spectra in a spectral region of 400-1750 nm are investigated under excitation into various excited states of Tm 3+ and the conduction band of CNGG at room temperature. The absorption and emission bands of Tm 3+ in CNGG are observed to be broader than those observed in other Tm 3+-doped crystals such as LiNbO 3. This is due to the disordered structure of CNGG. From the temperature dependence of absorption spectra, five Stark levels are derived for the 3H 6 ground state. The highest Stark level is found to be 351 cm -1 above the ground level. It is suggested that the low efficiency of the 2.02 μm lasing at room temperature is due to the narrow splitting of the Stark levels.

  19. Imaging Breathing Rate in the CO2Absorption Band.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jin; Zhu, Zhen; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Following up on our previous work, we have developed one more non-contact method to measure human breathing rate. We have retrofitted our Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) imaging system with a narrow band-pass filter in the CO2absorption band (4.3 µm). This improves the contrast between the foreground (i.e., expired air) and background (e.g., wall). Based on the radiation information within the breath flow region, we get the mean dynamic thermal signal. This signal is quasi-periodic due to the interleaving of high and low intensities corresponding to expirations and inspirations respectively. We sample the signal at a constant rate and then determine the breathing frequency through Fourier analysis. We have performed experiments on 9 subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 ft. We compared the breathing rate computed by our novel method with ground-truth measurements obtained via a traditional contact device (PowerLab/4SP from ADInstruments with an abdominal transducer). The results show high correlation between the two modalities. For the first time, we report a Fourier based breathing rate computation method on a MWIR signal in the CO2absorption band. The method opens the way for desktop, unobtrusive monitoring of an important vital sign, that is, breathing rate. It may find widespread applications in preventive medicine as well as sustained physiological monitoring of subjects suffering from chronic ailments.

  20. Infrared absorption band in deformed qtz crystals analyzed by combining different microstructural methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, Holger; Thust, Anja; Behrens, Harald; Heilbronner, Renee; Kilian, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FÍs decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FÍs form, increasing the number of FÍs drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FÍs is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FÍs. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FÍs, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FÍs during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  1. Concentration measurement of NO using self-absorption spectroscopy of the γ band system in a pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaodong; Ding, Yanjun; Peng, Zhimin; Luo, Rui

    2012-07-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured using the γ band system spectrum based on the strong self-absorption effect of NO in pulsed corona discharges. The radiative transitional intensities of the NO γ band were simulated based on the theory of molecular spectroscopy. The intensities of some bands, especially γ(0,0) and γ(1,0), are weakened by the self-absorption. The correlations between the spectral self-absorption intensities and NO concentration were validated using a modified Beer-Lambert law with a combined factor K relating the branching ratio and the NO concentration, and a nonlinear index α that is applicable to the broadband system. Optical emissive spectra in pulsed corona discharges in NO and N2/He mixtures were used to evaluate the two parameters for various conditions. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results verifies the self-absorption behavior seen in the UV spectra of the NO γ bands.

  2. Reassignment of the Iron (3) Absorption Bands in the Spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption features in the near-infrared and visible region reflectance spectra of Mars have been assigned to specific Fe (3+) crystal-field and o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge transfer transitions. Recently, near-ultraviolet absorption spectra of iron oxides were obtained and the energies of o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge-transfer (LMCT) transitions were determined from accurate SCF-X # alpha-SW molecular orbital calculations on (FeO6)(9-) and (FeO4)(5-) clusters. Both the theoretical and experimental results, together with existing data in the literature, show that some of the previous Fe(3+) band assignments in the spectra of Mars need to be revised. The theory of Fe(3+) spectra in minerals is discussed and applied to the spectrum of Mars.

  3. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  4. Theoretical modeling of low-energy electronic absorption bands in reduced cobaloximes

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dempsey, Jillian L.; ...

    2014-08-11

    Here, we report that the reduced Co(I) states of cobaloximes are powerful nucleophiles that play an important role in the hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity of these species. In this work we have analyzed the low energy electronic absorption bands of two cobaloxime systems experimentally and using a variety of density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio quantum chemical approaches. Overall we find a reasonable qualitative understanding of the electronic excitation spectra of these compounds but show that obtaining quantitative results remains a challenging task.

  5. Band gap opening and optical absorption enhancement in graphene using ZnO nanocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monshi, M. M.; Aghaei, S. M.; Calizo, I.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic, optical and transport properties of the graphene/ZnO heterostructure have been explored using first-principles density functional theory. The results show that Zn12O12 can open a band gap of 14.5 meV in graphene, increase its optical absorption by 1.67 times covering the visible spectrum which extends to the infra-red (IR) range, and exhibits a slight non-linear I-V characteristic depending on the applied bias. These findings envisage that a graphene/Zn12O12 heterostructure can be appropriate for energy harvesting, photodetection, and photochemical devices.

  6. Optimal Reflectance, Transmittance, and Absorptance Wavebands and Band Ratios for the Estimation of Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Spiering, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study utilized regression analysis to identify: wavebands and band ratios within the 400-850 nm range that could be used to estimate total chlorophyll concentration with minimal error; and simple regression models that were most effective in estimating chlorophyll concentrations were measured for two broadleaved species, a broadleaved vine, a needle-leaved conifer, and a representative of the grass family.Overall, reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance corresponded most precisely with chlorophyll concentration at wavelengths near 700 nm, although regressions were strong as well in the 550-625 nm range.

  7. On the origin of the water vapor continuum absorption within rotational and fundamental vibrational bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, E. A.; Odintsova, T. A.; Tretyakov, M. Yu.; Semenov, V. E.

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of the continuum absorption in water vapor at room temperature within the purely rotational and fundamental ro-vibrational bands shows that a significant part (up to a half) of the observed absorption cannot be explained within the framework of the existing concepts of the continuum. Neither of the two most prominent mechanisms of continuum originating, namely, the far wings of monomer lines and the dimers, cannot reproduce the currently available experimental data adequately. We propose a new approach to developing a physically based model of the continuum. It is demonstrated that water dimers and wings of monomer lines may contribute equally to the continuum within the bands, and their contribution should be taken into account in the continuum model. We propose a physical mechanism giving missing justification for the super-Lorentzian behavior of the intermediate line wing. The qualitative validation of the proposed approach is given on the basis of a simple empirical model. The obtained results are directly indicative of the necessity to reconsider the existing line wing theory and can guide this consideration.

  8. Thermally induced effect on sub-band gap absorption in Ag doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Sharma, Kriti; Bharti, Shivani; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-05-01

    Thin films of Ag doped CdSe have been prepared by thermal evaporation using inert gas condensation (IGC) method taking Argon as inert gas. The prepared thin films are annealed at 363 K for one hour. The sub-band gap absorption spectra in the as deposited and annealed thin films have been studied using constant photocurrent method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region is described by an Urbach tail in both as deposited and annealed thin films. The value of Urbach energy and number density of trap states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region which have been found to increase after annealing treatment indicating increase in disorderness in the lattice. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has also been studied using derivative procedure of absorption coefficient.

  9. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-10-19

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies.

  10. Exploration of faint absorption bands in the reflectance spectra of the asteroids by method of optimal smoothing: Vestoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; McFadden, L. A.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2007-04-01

    An optimization method of smoothing noisy spectra was developed to investigate faint absorption bands in the visual spectral region of reflectance spectra of asteroids and the compositional information derived from their analysis. The smoothing algorithm is called "optimal" because the algorithm determines the best running box size to separate weak absorption bands from the noise. The method is tested for its sensitivity to identifying false features in the smoothed spectrum, and its correctness of forecasting real absorption bands was tested with artificial spectra simulating asteroid reflectance spectra. After validating the method we optimally smoothed 22 vestoid spectra from SMASS1 [Xu, Sh., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., Bus, S.J., 1995. Icarus 115, 1-35]. We show that the resulting bands are not telluric features. Interpretation of the absorption bands in the asteroid spectra was based on the spectral properties of both terrestrial and meteorite pyroxenes. The bands located near 480, 505, 530, and 550 nm we assigned to spin-forbidden crystal field bands of ferrous iron, whereas the bands near 570, 600, and 650 nm are attributed to the crystal field bands of trivalent chromium and/or ferric iron in low-calcium pyroxenes on the asteroids' surface. While not measured by microprobe analysis, Fe 3+ site occupancy can be measured with Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is seen in trace amounts in pyroxenes. We believe that trace amounts of Fe 3+ on vestoid surfaces may be due to oxidation from impacts by icy bodies. If that is the case, they should be ubiquitous in the asteroid belt wherever pyroxene absorptions are found. Pyroxene composition of four asteroids of our set is determined from the band position of absorptions at 505 and 1000 nm, implying that there can be orthopyroxenes in all range of ferruginosity on the vestoid surfaces. For the present we cannot unambiguously interpret of the faint absorption bands that are seen in the spectra of 4005 Dyagilev, 4038

  11. Constructing Repairable Meta-Structures of Ultra-Broad-Band Electromagnetic Absorption from Three-Dimensional Printed Patterned Shells.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Li; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Mingji; He, Rujie; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Yazheng; Fang, Daining

    2017-12-13

    Ultra-broad-band electromagnetic absorption materials and structures are increasingly attractive for their critical role in competing with the advanced broad-band electromagnetic detection systems. Mechanically soft and weak wax-based materials composites are known to be insufficient to serve in practical electromagnetic absorption applications. To break through such barriers, here we developed an innovative strategy to enable the wax-based composites to be robust and repairable meta-structures by employing a three-dimensional (3D) printed polymeric patterned shell. Because of the integrated merits from both the dielectric loss wax-based composites and mechanically robust 3D printed shells, the as-fabricated meta-structures enable bear mechanical collision and compression, coupled with ultra-broad-band absorption (7-40 and 75-110 GHz, reflection loss  smaller than -10 dB) approaching state-of-the-art electromagnetic absorption materials. With the assistance of experiment and simulation methods, the design advantages and mechanism of employing such 3D printed shells for substantially promoting the electromagnetic absorption performance have been demonstrated. Therefore, such universal strategy that could be widely extended to other categories of wax-based composites highlights a smart stage on which high-performance practical multifunction meta-structures with ultra-broad-band electromagnetic absorption could be envisaged.

  12. Temperature-dependence laws of absorption line shape parameters of the CO2 ν3 band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilzewski, J. S.; Birk, M.; Loos, J.; Wagner, G.

    2018-02-01

    To improve the understanding of temperature-dependence laws of spectral line shape parameters, spectra of the ν3 rovibrational band of CO2 perturbed by 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 mbar of N2 were recorded at nine temperatures between 190 K and 330 K using a 22 cm long single-pass absorption cell in a Bruker IFS125 HR Fourier Transform spectrometer. The spectra were fitted employing a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation by means of a multispectrum fitting approach developed at DLR. This enables high accuracy parameter retrievals to reproduce the spectra down to noise level and we present the behavior of line widths, shifts, speed-dependence-, collisional narrowing- and line mixing-parameters over this 140 K temperature range.

  13. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  14. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-11

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  15. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  16. Properties of the 4.45 eV optical absorption band in LiF:Mg,Ti.

    PubMed

    Nail, I; Oster, L; Horowitz, Y S; Biderman, S; Belaish, Y

    2006-01-01

    The optical absorption (OA) and thermoluminescence (TL) of dosimetric LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) as well as nominally pure LiF single crystal have been studied as a function of irradiation dose, thermal and optical bleaching in order to investigate the role of the 4.45 eV OA band in low temperature TL. Computerised deconvolution was used to resolve the absorption spectrum into individual gaussian bands and the TL glow curve into glow peaks. Although the 4.45 eV OA band shows thermal decay characteristics similar to the 4.0 eV band its dose filling constant and optical bleaching properties suggest that it cannot be associated with the TL of composite peaks 4 or 5. Its presence in optical grade single crystal LiF further suggests that it is an intrinsic defect or possibly associated with chance impurities other than Mg, Ti.

  17. Resonantly enhanced multiple exciton generation through below-band-gap multi-photon absorption in perovskite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Aurora; Tong, Yu; Feucht, Julius; Yao, En-Ping; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Urban, Alexander S; Feldmann, Jochen

    2018-04-17

    Multi-photon absorption and multiple exciton generation represent two separate strategies for enhancing the conversion efficiency of light into usable electric power. Targeting below-band-gap and above-band-gap energies, respectively, to date these processes have only been demonstrated independently. Here we report the combined interaction of both nonlinear processes in CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals. We demonstrate nonlinear absorption over a wide range of below-band-gap excitation energies (0.5-0.8 E g ). Interestingly, we discover high-order absorption processes, deviating from the typical two-photon absorption, at specific energetic positions. These energies are associated with a strong enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity by up to 10 5 . The analysis of the corresponding energy levels reveals that the observed phenomena can be ascribed to the resonant creation of multiple excitons via the absorption of multiple below-band-gap photons. This effect may open new pathways for the efficient conversion of optical energy, potentially also in other semiconducting materials.

  18. Absorption band oscillator strengths of N2 transitions between 95.8 and 99.4 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Smith, Peter L.; Huber, K. P.; Yoshino, K.; Stevens, M. H.; Ito, K.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen plays a central role in the energetics of the earth's upper atmosphere and is the major constituent of the atmospheres of the planetary satellites Titan and Triton. This paper reports a new set of absorption oscillator strengths measured at higher resolution for seven bands in the 95.8-99.4 nm region. The results are compared with earlier, lower resolution absorption measurements, electron scattering measurements, and calculations based on a deperturbation analysis of the excited states.

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of La3+-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes with Full Wave-Band Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Minghao; Huang, Lingling; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yongqian

    2018-06-01

    TiO2 nanotubes doped with La3+ were synthesized by anodic oxidation method and the photocatalytic activity was detected by photodegrading methylene blue. As-prepared samples improved the absorption of both ultraviolet light and visible light and have a great enhancement on the photocatalytic activity while contrasting with the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. A tentative mechanism for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity with full wave-band absorption is proposed.

  20. VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Arno; Dickenson, Gareth D.; Salumbides, Edcel J.; Ubachs, Wim; de Oliveira, Nelson; Joyeux, Denis; Nahon, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    An extensive survey of the D2 absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90 000-119 000 cm-1 covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, B^' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, and C 1Πu electronic states up to the D(1s) + D(2ℓ) dissociation limit. Improved level energies of rovibrational levels have been determined up to respectively v = 51, v = 13, and v = 20. Highest resolution is achieved by probing absorption in a molecular gas jet with slit geometry, as well as in a liquid helium cooled static gas cell, resulting in line widths of ≈0.35 cm-1. Extended calibration methods are employed to extract line positions of D2 lines at absolute accuracies of 0.03 cm-1. The D 1Πu and B^' ' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ} electronic states correlate with the D(1s) + D(3ℓ) dissociation limit, but support a few vibrational levels below the second dissociation limit, respectively, v = 0-3 and v = 0-1, and are also included in the presented study. The complete set of resulting level energies is the most comprehensive and accurate data set for D2. The observations are compared with previous studies, both experimental and theoretical.

  1. Design of an ultra-thin absorption layer with magnetic materials based on genetic algorithm at the S band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoning; Liu, Xiaoning; Niu, Tiaoming; Wang, Jing; Mei, Zhonglei; Jian, Yabin

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we design an ultra-thin absorption coating at the S band, and the total thickness is less than 2 mm. For incident angle less than 30 degree and the whole S band, the reflection is less than -5 dB. The coating is constructed with 4/3 layers of magnetic material with different thicknesses, which are optimized by using genetic algorithm. Analytic and simulation results confirm the correctness of the design.

  2. Retrieval of canopy water content of different crop types with two new hyperspectral indices: Water Absorption Area Index and Depth Water Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualotto, Nieves; Delegido, Jesús; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Moreno, José

    2018-05-01

    Crop canopy water content (CWC) is an essential indicator of the crop's physiological state. While a diverse range of vegetation indices have earlier been developed for the remote estimation of CWC, most of them are defined for specific crop types and areas, making them less universally applicable. We propose two new water content indices applicable to a wide variety of crop types, allowing to derive CWC maps at a large spatial scale. These indices were developed based on PROSAIL simulations and then optimized with an experimental dataset (SPARC03; Barrax, Spain). This dataset consists of water content and other biophysical variables for five common crop types (lucerne, corn, potato, sugar beet and onion) and corresponding top-of-canopy (TOC) reflectance spectra acquired by the hyperspectral HyMap airborne sensor. First, commonly used water content index formulations were analysed and validated for the variety of crops, overall resulting in a R2 lower than 0.6. In an attempt to move towards more generically applicable indices, the two new CWC indices exploit the principal water absorption features in the near-infrared by using multiple bands sensitive to water content. We propose the Water Absorption Area Index (WAAI) as the difference between the area under the null water content of TOC reflectance (reference line) simulated with PROSAIL and the area under measured TOC reflectance between 911 and 1271 nm. We also propose the Depth Water Index (DWI), a simplified four-band index based on the spectral depths produced by the water absorption at 970 and 1200 nm and two reference bands. Both the WAAI and DWI outperform established indices in predicting CWC when applied to heterogeneous croplands, with a R2 of 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, using an exponential fit. However, these indices did not perform well for species with a low fractional vegetation cover (<30%). HyMap CWC maps calculated with both indices are shown for the Barrax region. The results confirmed the

  3. The impact of different multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the X-band microwave absorption of their epoxy nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Che, Bien Dong; Nguyen, Bao Quoc; Nguyen, Le-Thu T; Nguyen, Ha Tran; Nguyen, Viet Quoc; Van Le, Thang; Nguyen, Nieu Huu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) characteristics, besides the processing conditions, can change significantly the microwave absorption behavior of CNT/polymer composites. In this study, we investigated the influence of three commercial multi-walled CNT materials with various diameters and length-to-diameter aspect ratios on the X-band microwave absorption of epoxy nanocomposites with CNT contents from 0.125 to 2 wt%, prepared by two dispersion methods, i.e. in solution with surfactant-aiding and via ball-milling. The laser diffraction particle size and TEM analysis showed that both methods produced good dispersions at the microscopic level of CNTs. Both a high aspect ratio resulting in nanotube alignment trend and good infiltration of the matrix in the individual nanotubes, which was indicated by high Brookfield viscosities at low CNT contents of CNT/epoxy dispersions, are important factors to achieve composites with high microwave absorption characteristics. The multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with the largest aspect ratio resulted in composites with the best X-band microwave absorption performance, which is considerably better than that of reported pristine CNT/polymer composites with similar or lower thicknesses and CNT loadings below 4 wt%. A high aspect ratio of CNTs resulting in microscopic alignment trend of nanotubes as well as a good level of micro-scale CNT dispersion resulting from good CNT-matrix interactions are crucial to obtain effective microwave absorption performance. This study demonstrated that effective radar absorbing MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites having small matching thicknesses of 2-3 mm and very low filler contents of 0.25-0.5 wt%, with microwave energy absorption in the X-band region above 90% and maximum absorption peak values above 97%, could be obtained via simple processing methods, which is promising for mass production in industrial applications. Graphical AbstractComparison of the X-band microwave reflection loss of epoxy composites of

  4. The flaky porous Fe3O4 with tunable dimensions for enhanced microwave absorption performance in X and C bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huanqin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Zhihong; Zhang, Baoshan; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2018-07-01

    Special electric and magnetic characteristics make Fe3O4 widely applied in the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption region. However, for pure Fe3O4, it is still a challenge to simultaneously obtain high absorption intensity and broadband absorption at a low thickness, owing to its low dielectric property. As we realized, flake configuration and the porous structure have obviously promote the EM wave absorption property. Because the former can lead to multi-reflection between flakes and the latter is conductive to interface polarization, flaky Fe3O4 with a porous and coarse surface was designed to overcome the deficiency of traditional Fe3O4 particles. The experimental results demonstrate that the flaky configuration is conductive to enhancing the dielectric coefficient and optimizing impedance matching. Moreover, the complex permittivity rises with the aspect ratio of the sheet. Under a suitable dimension, the flaky Fe3O4 could acquire targeted EM wave absorption capacity in the X band (8–12 GHz). In detail, the maximum reflection loss (RL) could reach a strong intensity of ‑49 dB at 2.05 mm. The effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) with RL below ‑10 dB is 4.32 (7.52–11.84) GHz, which is almost equivalent to the whole X band (8–12 GHz). Even more exciting, when regulating the thickness between 2.05 and 3.05 mm, the EAB could cover the entire C and X bands (4–12 GHz). This study provides a good reference for the future development of other ferromagnetic materials toward specific microwave bands.

  5. The flaky porous Fe3O4 with tunable dimensions for enhanced microwave absorption performance in X and C bands.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanqin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Zhihong; Zhang, Baoshan; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2018-07-20

    Special electric and magnetic characteristics make Fe 3 O 4 widely applied in the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption region. However, for pure Fe 3 O 4 , it is still a challenge to simultaneously obtain high absorption intensity and broadband absorption at a low thickness, owing to its low dielectric property. As we realized, flake configuration and the porous structure have obviously promote the EM wave absorption property. Because the former can lead to multi-reflection between flakes and the latter is conductive to interface polarization, flaky Fe 3 O 4 with a porous and coarse surface was designed to overcome the deficiency of traditional Fe 3 O 4 particles. The experimental results demonstrate that the flaky configuration is conductive to enhancing the dielectric coefficient and optimizing impedance matching. Moreover, the complex permittivity rises with the aspect ratio of the sheet. Under a suitable dimension, the flaky Fe 3 O 4 could acquire targeted EM wave absorption capacity in the X band (8-12 GHz). In detail, the maximum reflection loss (RL) could reach a strong intensity of -49 dB at 2.05 mm. The effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) with RL below -10 dB is 4.32 (7.52-11.84) GHz, which is almost equivalent to the whole X band (8-12 GHz). Even more exciting, when regulating the thickness between 2.05 and 3.05 mm, the EAB could cover the entire C and X bands (4-12 GHz). This study provides a good reference for the future development of other ferromagnetic materials toward specific microwave bands.

  6. Band gap tuning and optical absorption in type-II InAs/GaSb mid infrared short period superlattices: 14 bands K Dot-Operator p study

    SciTech Connect

    AbuEl-Rub, Khaled M.

    2012-09-06

    The MBE growth of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures, varied around 20.5 A InAs/24 A GaSb were [J. Applied physics, 96, 2580 (2004)] carried out by Haugan et al. These SLs were designed to produce devices with an optimum mid-infrared photoresponse and a sharpest photoresponse cutoff. We have used a realistic and reliable 14-band k.p formalism description of the superlattice electronic band structure to calculate the absorption coefficient in such short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices. The parameters for this formalism are known from fitting to independent experiments for the bulk materials. The band-gap energies are obtained without any fitting parameters, andmore » are in good agreement with experimental data.« less

  7. Influence of defects on the absorption edge of InN thin films: The band gap value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, J. S.; Danylyuk, Y. V.; Haddad, D.; Naik, V. M.; Naik, R.; Auner, G. W.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the optical-absorption spectra of InN thin films whose electron density varies from ˜1017tõ1021cm-3 . The low-density films are grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy deposition while highly degenerate films are grown by plasma-source molecular-beam epitaxy. The optical-absorption edge is found to increase from 0.61to1.90eV as the carrier density of the films is increased from low to high density. Since films are polycrystalline and contain various types of defects, we discuss the band gap values by studying the influence of electron degeneracy, electron-electron, electron-ionized impurities, and electron-LO-phonon interaction self-energies on the spectral absorption coefficients of these films. The quasiparticle self-energies of the valence and conduction bands are calculated using dielectric screening within the random-phase approximation. Using one-particle Green’s function analysis, we self-consistently determine the chemical potential for films by coupling equations for the chemical potential and the single-particle scattering rate calculated within the effective-mass approximation for the electron scatterings from ionized impurities and LO phonons. By subtracting the influence of self-energies and chemical potential from the optical-absorption edge energy, we estimate the intrinsic band gap values for the films. We also determine the variations in the calculated band gap values due to the variations in the electron effective mass and static dielectric constant. For the lowest-density film, the estimated band gap energy is ˜0.59eV , while for the highest-density film, it varies from ˜0.60tõ0.68eV depending on the values of electron effective mass and dielectric constant.

  8. Analysis of Mars surface hydration through the MEx/OMEGA observation of the 3 μm absorption band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouglet, D.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Milliken, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.

    The near infrared Mars surface global mapping done by OMEGA gives the first opportunity to study the global and detailed characteristics of the 3µm hydration absorption band on Mars surface. This feature is indistinctly due to bending and stretching vibrations of water bound in minerals or adsorbed at their surface, and of hydroxyl groups (for a review, see e.g. [1] or [2]). Its study may give new elements to determine the geologic and climatic past of Mars, and may put new constrain about the current water cycle of Mars. OMEGA data are processed in a pipeline that converts raw data to radiance, removes atmospheric effects and gets I/F. Specific data reduction scheme has been developed to assess temperature of OMEGA spectra at 5 µm and to remove their thermal part so as to get the albedo from 1.µm to 5.1µm ([2]). Two methods, the Integrated Band Depth and the water content based on comparison with laboratory measures of Yen et al. ([3]), have been used to assess the 3µm band depth. These two methods where applied to OMEGA spectra acquired at a nominal calibration level and not exhibiting water ice features. This corresponds to approximately 35 million spectra ([2]). The data processed show the presence of this absorption feature overall the Martian surface, which could be explained by the presence of adsorbed water up to 1% water mass percentage ([4]) and by rinds or coating resulting from weathering (see e.g. [5] or [6]). A possible increase of hydration with albedo is discussed so as to discriminate between the albedo-dependence of the method and hydration variations. Terrains enriched in phyllosilicates ([7]), sulfates ([8]) or hydroxides exhibit an increased hydration at 3 µm. This terrains show that the 3 µm band can bring additional information about composition, for example by observing a variation in the shape of the band. A decrease of hydration with elevation is observed on the processed data independently of the value of albedo. This correlation

  9. Photodissociation dynamics of bromoiodomethane from the first and second absorption bands. A combined velocity map and slice imaging study.

    PubMed

    Marggi Poullain, Sonia; Chicharro, David V; Navarro, Eduardo; Rubio-Lago, Luis; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Bañares, Luis

    2018-01-31

    The photodissociation dynamics of bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI) have been investigated at the maximum of the first A and second A' absorption bands, at 266 and 210 nm excitation wavelengths, respectively, using velocity map and slice imaging techniques in combination with a probe detection of both iodine and bromine fragments, I( 2 P 3/2 ), I*( 2 P 1/2 ), Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) via (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. Experimental results, i.e. translational energy and angular distributions, are reported and discussed in conjunction with high level ab initio calculations of potential energy curves and absorption spectra. The results indicate that in the A-band, direct dissociation through the 5A' excited state leads to the I( 2 P 3/2 ) channel while I*( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms are produced via the 5A' → 4A'/4A'' nonadiabatic crossing. The presence of Br and Br* fragments upon excitation to the A-band is attributed to indirect dissociation via a curve crossing between the 5A' with upper excited states such as the 9A'. The A'-band is characterized by a strong photoselectivity leading exclusively to the Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) channels, which are likely produced by dissociation through the 9A' excited state. Avoided crossings between several excited states from both the A and A' bands entangle however the possible reaction pathways.

  10. X-ray absorption and reflection as probes of the GaN conduction bands: Theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, W.R.L.; Rashkeev, S.N.; Segall, B.

    1997-04-01

    X-ray absorption measurements are a well-known probe of the unoccupied states in a material. The same information can be obtained by using glancing angle X-ray reflectivity. In spite of several existing band structure calculations of the group III nitrides and previous optical studies in UV range, a direct probe of their conduction band densities of states is of interest. The authors performed a joint experimental and theoretical investigation using both of these experimental techniques for wurtzite GaN.

  11. Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hejie; Rieker, Gregory B.; Liu, Xiang; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2006-02-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements at high pressures by use of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) require large modulation depths for optimum detection of molecular absorption spectra blended by collisional broadening or dense spacing of the rovibrational transitions. Diode lasers have a large and nonlinear intensity modulation when the wavelength is modulated over a large range by injection-current tuning. In addition to this intensity modulation, other laser performance parameters are measured, including the phase shift between the frequency modulation and the intensity modulation. Following published theory, these parameters are incorporated into an improved model of the WMS signal. The influence of these nonideal laser effects is investigated by means of wavelength-scanned WMS measurements as a function of bath gas pressure on rovibrational transitions of water vapor near 1388 nm. Lock-in detection of the magnitude of the 2f signal is performed to remove the dependence on detection phase. We find good agreement between measurements and the improved model developed for the 2f component of the WMS signal. The effects of the nonideal performance parameters of commercial diode lasers are especially important away from the line center of discrete spectra, and these contributions become more pronounced for 2f signals with the large modulation depths needed for WMS at elevated pressures.

  12. Microwave absorption properties of flake-shaped Co particles composites at elevated temperature (293-673 K) in X band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guowu; Li, Xiling; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Junming; Wang, Dian; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Li, Fashen

    2018-06-01

    The complex permeability and permittivity of the easy-plane anisotropic Co/polyimide composite at high temperature (293-673 K) in X band were measured. The results show that both the complex permeability and permittivity increase with the increase of temperature in the measured temperature range. The calculated absorption properties display that the intensity of the reflection loss (RL) peak first increases and then decreases with the increase of temperature, and reaches the maximum (-52 dB) at 523 K. At each temperature, the composite can achieve the RL exceeding -10 dB in the whole X band. The composite can even work stably for more than 20 min with the excellent absorption performance under 673 K. In addition, the RL performance of the composite at high temperature is better than that at room temperature.

  13. Collision-induced absorption in the region of the ν2 + ν3 band of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yu. I.

    2018-03-01

    The IR absorption spectra of pure carbon dioxide in the region of the forbidden ν2 + ν3 vibrational transition at 3004 cm-1 have been recorded using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. A multipass-optical cell with the path length of 100 m was used in the study. The data were taken at room temperature of 294.8 K with a resolution of 0.02 cm-1 over the spectral region 2500-3500 cm-1. A sample pressures varied from 207 to 463 kPa (2.04-4.57 atm). The measured binary absorption coefficients provide the band integrated intensity value of (2.39 ± 0.04) ∗ 10-4 cm-2 amagat-2. The result is compared with those from previous works. The observed band profile features are discussed.

  14. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, L.

    2011-01-01

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4‐component), for the photon energy range 0.015–15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Zeff. These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues. With the proper knowledge of buildup factors of human organs and tissues, energy absorption in the human body can be carefully controlled. The present results will help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and also useful in diagnostics and dosimetry. The tissue‐equivalent materials for skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cortical bone, and lung tissue are also discussed. It is observed that water and MS20 are good tissue equivalent materials for skeletal muscle in the extended energy range. PACS numbers: 32.80‐t, 87.53‐j, 78.70‐g, 78.70‐Ck PMID:22089011

  15. Precise ro-vibrational analysis of molecular bands forbidden in absorption: The ν8 +ν10 band of the 12C2H4 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Kashirina, N. V.; Bauerecker, S.; Horneman, V.-M.

    2015-07-01

    The highly accurate (experimental accuracy in line positions ∼ (1 - 2) ×10-4 cm-1) ro-vibrational spectrum of the ν8 +ν10 band of the 12C2H4 molecule was recorded for the first time with high resolution Fourier transform spectrometry and analyzed in the region of 1650-1950 cm-1 using the Hamiltonian model which takes into account Coriolis resonance interactions between the studied ν8 +ν10 band, which is forbidden in absorption, and the bands ν4 +ν8 and ν7 +ν8 . About 1570 transitions belonging to the ν8 +ν10 band were assigned in the experimental spectra with the maximum values of quantum numbers Jmax. = 35 and Kamax . = 18 . On that basis, a set of 38 vibrational, rotational, centrifugal distortion, and resonance interaction parameters was obtained from the fit. They reproduce values of 598 initial "experimental" ro-vibrational energy levels (positions of about 1570 experimentally recorded and assigned transitions) with the rms error drms = 0.00045 cm-1 (drms = 0.00028 cm-1 when upper ro-vibrational energies obtained from blended and very weak transitions were deleted from the fit).

  16. Easily Dispersible NiFe2O4/RGO Composite for Microwave Absorption Properties in the X-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateer, Buhe; Zhang, Jianjao; Zhang, Hongchen; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Haiqun

    2018-01-01

    Composites with good dispersion and excellent microwave absorption properties have important applications. Therefore, an easily dispersible NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite has been prepared conveniently through a simple hydrothermal method. Highly crystalline, small size (about 7 nm) monodispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are evenly distributed on the surface of RGO. The microwave absorbability revealed that the NiFe2O4/RGO composite exhibits excellent microwave absorption properties in the X-band (8-12 GHz), and the minimum reflection loss of the NiFe2O4/RGO composite is -27.7 dB at 9.2 GHz. The NiFe2O4/RGO composite has good dispersibility in nonpolar solvent, which facilitates the preparation of stable commercial microwave absorbing coatings. It can be a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials in many application fields.

  17. Wide angle and narrow-band asymmetric absorption in visible and near-infrared regime through lossy Bragg stacks

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shiwei; Zhan, Yawen; Lee, Chris; Lu, Jian; Li, Yang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Absorber is an important component in various optical devices. Here we report a novel type of asymmetric absorber in the visible and near-infrared spectrum which is based on lossy Bragg stacks. The lossy Bragg stacks can achieve near-perfect absorption at one side and high reflection at the other within the narrow bands (several nm) of resonance wavelengths, whereas display almost identical absorption/reflection responses for the rest of the spectrum. Meanwhile, this interesting wavelength-selective asymmetric absorption behavior persists for wide angles, does not depend on polarization, and can be ascribed to the lossy characteristics of the Bragg stacks. Moreover, interesting Fano resonance with easily tailorable peak profiles can be realized using the lossy Bragg stacks. PMID:27251768

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy and global analysis of CF4 rovibrational bands to model its atmospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, M.; Gruson, O.; Richard, C.; Boudon, V.; Rotger, M.; Thomas, X.; Maul, C.; Sydow, C.; Domanskaya, A.; Georges, R.; Soulard, P.; Pirali, O.; Goubet, M.; Asselin, P.; Huet, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    CF4, or tetrafluoromethane, is a chemically inert and strongly absorbing greenhouse gas, mainly of anthropogenic origin. In order to monitor and reduce its atmospheric emissions and concentration, it is thus necessary to obtain an accurate model of its infrared absorption. Such models allow opacity calculations for radiative transfer atmospheric models. In the present work, we perform a global analysis (divided into two distinct fitting schemes) of 17 rovibrational bands of CF4. This gives a reliable model of many of its lower rovibrational levels and allows the calculation of the infrared absorption in the strongly absorbing ν3 region (1283 cm-1 / 7.8 μm), including the main hot band, namely ν3 +ν2 -ν2 as well as ν3 +ν1 -ν1 ; we could also extrapolate the ν3 +ν4 -ν4 absorption. This represents almost 92% of the absorption at room temperature in this spectral region. A new accurate value of the C-F bond length is evaluated to re = 1.314860(21) Å. The present results have been used to update the HITRAN, GEISA and TFMeCaSDa (VAMDC) databases.

  19. Cloud and aerosol optical depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Russell, P. B.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Colburn, D. C.; Wrigley, R. C.; Spanner, M. A.; Livingston, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne Sun photometer was used to measure optical depths in clear atmospheres between the appearances of broken stratus clouds, and the optical depths in the vicinity of smokes. Results show that (human) activities can alter the chemical and optical properties of background atmospheres to affect their spectral optical depths. Effects of water vapor adsorption on aerosol optical depths are apparent, based on data of the water vapor absorption band centered around 940 nm. Smoke optical depths show increases above the background atmosphere by up to two orders of magnitude. When the total optical depths measured through clouds were corrected for molecular scattering and gaseous absorption by subtracting the total optical depths measured through the background atmosphere, the resultant values are lower than those of the background aerosol at short wavelengths. The spectral dependence of these cloud optical depths is neutral, however, in contrast to that of the background aerosol or the molecular atmosphere.

  20. [Acoustic detection of absorption of millimeter-band electromagnetic waves in biological objects].

    PubMed

    Polnikov, I G; Putvinskiĭ, A V

    1988-01-01

    Principles of photoacoustic spectroscopy were applied to elaborate a new method for controlling millimeter electromagnetic waves absorption in biological objects. The method was used in investigations of frequency dependence of millimeter wave power absorption in vitro and in vivo in the commonly used experimental irradiation systems.

  1. Revealing the Faraday depth structure of radio galaxy NGC 612 with broad-band radio polarimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, J. F.; Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present full-polarization, broad-band observations of the radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS B0131-637) from 1.3 to 3.1 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The relatively large angular scale of the radio galaxy makes it a good candidate with which to investigate the polarization mechanisms responsible for the observed Faraday depth structure. By fitting complex polarization models to the polarized spectrum of each pixel, we find that a single polarization component can adequately describe the observed signal for the majority of the radio galaxy. While we cannot definitively rule out internal Faraday rotation, we argue that the bulk of the Faraday rotation is taking place in a thin skin that girts the polarized emission. Using minimum energy estimates, we find an implied total magnetic field strength of 4.2 μG.

  2. Combining Gabor and Talbot bands techniques to enhance the sensitivity with depth in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Marques, Manuel J.; Bouchal, Petr; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to show how to favorably mix two e_ects to improve the sensitivity with depth in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT): Talbot bands (TB) and Gabor-based fusion (GF) technique. TB operation is achieved by directing the two beams, from the object arm and from the reference arm in the OCT interferometer, along parallel separate paths towards the spectrometer. By changing the lateral gap between the two beams in their path towards the spectrometer, the position for the maximum sensitivity versus the optical path difference in the interferometer is adjusted. For five values of the focus position, the gap between the two beams is readjusted to reach maximum sensitivity. Then, similar to the procedure employed in the GF technique, a composite image is formed by edging together the parts of the five images that exhibited maximum brightness. The combined procedure, TB/GF is examined for four different values of the beam diameters of the two beams. Also we demonstrate volumetric FD-OCT images with mirror term attenuation and sensitivity profile shifted towards higher OPD values by applying a Talbot bands configuration.

  3. Time-Resolved IR-Absorption Spectroscopy of Hot-Electron Dynamics in Satellite and Upper Conduction Bands in GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in the X6 and X7 satellite and upper conduction bands in GaP was directly measured by femtosecond UV-pump-IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. From a fit to the induced IR-absorption spectra the dominant scattering mechanism giving rise to the absorption at early delay times was determined to be intervalley scattering of electrons out of the X7 upper conduction-band valley. For long delay times the dominant scattering mechanism is electron-hole scattering. Electron transport dynamics of the upper conduction band of GaP has been time resolved.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine originating depth of electrons that form an inelastic background of Auger electron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Noritake; Cui, Yi-Tao; Murai, Takaaki; Oji, Hiroshi; Kimoto, Yasuji

    2017-07-01

    In Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), the spectral background is mainly due to inelastic scattering of Auger electrons that lose their kinetic energy in a sample bulk. To investigate the spectral components within this background for SiO2(19.3 nm)/Si(100) with known layer thickness, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used in the partial-electron-yield (PEY) mode at several electron kinetic energies to probe the background of the Si KLL Auger peak. The Si K-edge PEY-XAS spectra constituted of both Si and SiO2 components at each kinetic energy, and their component fractions were approximately the same as those derived from the simulated AES background for the same sample structure. The contributions of Auger electrons originating from layers at different depths to the inelastic background could thus be identified experimentally.

  5. First-principles C band absorption spectra of SO2 and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Kumar, Praveen; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Poirier, Bill; Guo, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The low-energy wing of the C ˜ B12 ←X˜ 1A1 absorption spectra for SO2 in the ultraviolet region is computed for the 32S,33S,34S and 36S isotopes, using the recently developed ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the two electronic states and the corresponding transition dipole surface. The state-resolved absorption spectra from various ro-vibrational states of SO2(X˜ 1A1 ) are computed. When contributions of these excited ro-vibrational states are included, the thermally averaged spectra are broadened but maintain their key characters. Excellent agreement with experimental absorption spectra is found, validating the accuracy of the PESs. The isotope shifts of the absorption peaks are found to increase linearly with energy, in good agreement with experiment.

  6. Band-edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, Alan; Zou, Yao; Dapkus, P. D.; Garmire, Elsa; Lee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    A novel approach to determining absorption coefficients in thin films using luminescence is described. The technique avoids many of the difficulties typically encountered in measurements of thin samples, Fabry-Perot effects, for example, and can be applied to a variety of materials. The absorption edge for GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures, with quantum well widths ranging from 54 to 193 A is examined. Urbach (1953) parameters and excitonic linewidths are tabulated.

  7. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  8. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  9. Using the OMI Aerosol Index and Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2014-12-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV Aerosol Index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the South African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  10. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  11. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION FROM TrES-3b: A Ks-BAND DETECTION AND AN H-BAND UPPER LIMIT ON THE DEPTH OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, Bryce; Jayawardhana, Ray; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2010-08-01

    We present H- and Ks-band photometry bracketing the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter TrES-3b using the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We detect the secondary eclipse of TrES-3b with a depth of 0.133{sup +0.018}{sub -0.016}% in the Ks band (8{sigma})-a result that is in sharp contrast to the eclipse depth reported by de Mooij and Snellen. We do not detect its thermal emission in the H band, but place a 3{sigma} limit of 0.051% on the depth of the secondary eclipse in this band. A secondary eclipse of this depth in Ks requires very efficient day-to-nightside redistributionmore » of heat and nearly isotropic reradiation, a conclusion that is in agreement with longer wavelength, mid-infrared Spitzer observations. Our 3{sigma} upper limit on the depth of our H-band secondary eclipse also argues for very efficient redistribution of heat and suggests that the atmospheric layer probed by these observations may be well homogenized. However, our H-band upper limit is so constraining that it suggests the possibility of a temperature inversion at depth, or an absorbing molecule, such as methane, that further depresses the emitted flux at this wavelength. The combination of our near-infrared measurements and those obtained with Spitzer suggests that TrES-3b displays a near-isothermal dayside atmospheric temperature structure, whose spectrum is well approximated by a blackbody. We emphasize that our strict H-band limit is in stark disagreement with the best-fit atmospheric model that results from longer wavelength observations only, thus highlighting the importance of near-infrared observations at multiple wavelengths, in addition to those returned by Spitzer in the mid-infrared, to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the energy budgets of transiting exoplanets.« less

  12. Voigt deconvolution method and its applications to pure oxygen absorption spectrum at 1270 nm band.

    PubMed

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A; Aljghami, Issam F; Mahzia, Yahia M

    2016-03-15

    Experimental spectral lines of pure oxygen at 1270 nm band were analyzed by Voigt deconvolution method. The method gave a total Voigt profile, which arises from two overlapping bands. Deconvolution of total Voigt profile leads to two Voigt profiles, the first as a result of O2 dimol at 1264 nm band envelope, and the second from O2 monomer at 1268 nm band envelope. In addition, Voigt profile itself is the convolution of Lorentzian and Gaussian distributions. Competition between thermal and collisional effects was clearly observed through competition between Gaussian and Lorentzian width for each band envelope. Voigt full width at half-maximum height (Voigt FWHM) for each line, and the width ratio between Lorentzian and Gaussian width (ΓLΓG(-1)) have been investigated. The following applied pressures were at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 bar, while the temperatures were at 298 K, 323 K, 348 K, and 373 K range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadeningmore » of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.« less

  14. Non-uniform temperature and species concentration measurements in a laminar flame using multi-band infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liu Hao; Lau, Lok Yin; Ren, Wei

    2017-03-01

    We report in situ measurements of non-uniform temperature, H2O and CO2 concentration distributions in a premixed methane-air laminar flame using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A mid-infrared, continuous-wave, room-temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) at 4183 nm was used for the sensitive detection of CO2 at high temperature.The H2O absorption lines were exploited by one distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1343 nm and one ICL at 2482 nm to achieve multi-band absorption measurements with high species concentration sensitivity, high temperature sensitivity, and immunity to variations in ambient conditions. A novel profile-fitting function was proposed to characterize the non-uniform temperature and species concentrations along the line-of-sight in the flame by detecting six absorption lines of CO2 and H2O simultaneously. The flame temperature distribution was measured at different heights above the burner (5-20 mm), and compared with the thermocouple measurement with heat-transfer correction. Our TDLAS measured temperature of the central flame was in excellent agreement (<1.5% difference) with the thermocouple data.The TDLAS results were also compared with the CFD simulations using a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism (GRI 3.0) and considering the heat loss to the surroundings.The current CFD simulation overpredicted the flame temperature in the gradient region, but was in excellent agreement with the measured temperature and species concentration in the core of the flame.

  15. The ÖX˜ absorption of vinoxy radical revisited: Normal and Herzberg-Teller bands observed via cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Phillip S.; Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Kline, Neal D.; Miller, Terry A.

    2010-03-01

    The ÖX˜ electronic absorption spectrum of vinoxy radical has been investigated using room temperature cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Analysis of the observed bands on the basis of computed vibrational frequencies and rotational envelopes reveals that two distinct types of features are present with comparable intensities. The first type corresponds to "normal" allowed electronic transitions to the origin and symmetric vibrations in the à state. The second type is interpreted in terms of excitations to asymmetric à state vibrations, which are only vibronically allowed by Herzberg-Teller coupling to the B˜ state. Results of electronic structure calculations indicate that the magnitude of the Herzberg-Teller coupling is appropriate to produce vibronically induced transitions with intensities comparable to those of the normal bands.

  16. Wet and full-depth glide snow avalanche onset monitoring and detection with ground based Ku-band radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Célia; Bühler, Yves; Leinss, Silvan; Hajnsek, Irena

    2017-04-01

    Wet and full-depth glide snow avalanches can be of considerable danger for people and infrastructure in alpine regions. In Switzerland avalanche hazard predictions are performed by the Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF. However these predictions are issued on regional scale and do not yield information about the current status of particular slopes of interest. To investigate the potential of radar technology for avalanche prediction on the slope scale, we performed the following experiment. During the winter seasons 2015/2016 and 2016/2017, a ground-based Ku-band radar was placed in the vicinity of Davos (GR) in order to monitor the Dorfberg slope with 4-minute measurement intervals [1]. With Differential Interferometry [2] line of sight movements on the order of a fraction of the radar wavelength (1.7 cm) can be measured. Applying this technique to the Dorfberg scenario, it was possible to detect snowpack displacement of up to 0.4 m over 3 days in the avalanche release area prior to a snow avalanche event. A proof of concept of this approach was previously made by [3-5]. The analysis of the snowpack displacement history of such release areas shows that an avalanche is generally released after several cycles of acceleration and deceleration of a specific area of the snowpack, followed by an abrupt termination of the movement at the moment of the avalanche release. The acceleration and deceleration trends are related to thawing and refreezing of the snowpack induced by the daily temperature variations. The proposed method for the detection of snowpack displacements as indication for potential wet and full-depth glide snow avalanches is a promising tool to increase avalanche safety on specific slopes putting infrastructure or people at risk. The identification of a singular signature to discriminate the time window immediately prior to the release is still under investigation, but the ability to monitor snowpack displacement allows for mapping of zones

  17. Decomposition of mineral absorption bands using nonlinear least squares curve fitting: Application to Martian meteorites and CRISM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Mario; Makarewicz, Heather D.; Bishop, Janice L.

    2011-04-01

    This study advances curve-fitting modeling of absorption bands of reflectance spectra and applies this new model to spectra of Martian meteorites ALH 84001 and EETA 79001 and data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). This study also details a recently introduced automated parameter initialization technique. We assess the performance of this automated procedure by comparing it to the currently available initialization method and perform a sensitivity analysis of the fit results to variation in initial guesses. We explore the issues related to the removal of the continuum, offer guidelines for continuum removal when modeling the absorptions and explore different continuum-removal techniques. We further evaluate the suitability of curve fitting techniques using Gaussians/Modified Gaussians to decompose spectra into individual end-member bands. We show that nonlinear least squares techniques such as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieve comparable results to the MGM model ( Sunshine and Pieters, 1993; Sunshine et al., 1990) for meteorite spectra. Finally we use Gaussian modeling to fit CRISM spectra of pyroxene and olivine-rich terrains on Mars. Analysis of CRISM spectra of two regions show that the pyroxene-dominated rock spectra measured at Juventae Chasma were modeled well with low Ca pyroxene, while the pyroxene-rich spectra acquired at Libya Montes required both low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxene for a good fit.

  18. The Global Ozone and Aerosol Profiles and Aerosol Hygroscopic Effect and Absorption Optical Depth (GOA2HEAD) Network Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Frost, G. J.; McComiskey, A. C.; Murphy, D. M.; Ogren, J. A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Inverse modeling using measurements of ozone (O3) and aerosol is a powerful tool for deriving pollutant emissions. Because they have relatively long lifetimes, O3 and aerosol are transported over large distances. Frequent and globally spaced vertical profiles rather than ground-based measurements alone are therefore highly desired. Three requirements necessary for a successful global monitoring program are: Low equipment cost, low operation cost, and reliable measurements of known uncertainty. Conventional profiling using aircraft provides excellent data, but is cost prohibitive on a large scale. Here we describe a new platform and instruments meeting all three global monitoring requirements. The platform consists of a small balloon and an auto-homing glider. The glider is released from the balloon at about 5 km altitude, returning the light instrument package to the launch location, and allowing for consistent recovery of the payload. Atmospheric profiling can be performed either during ascent or descent (or both) depending on measurement requirements. We will present the specifications for two instrument packages currently under development. The first measures O3, RH, p, T, dry aerosol particle number and size distribution, and aerosol optical depth. The second measures dry aerosol particle number and size distribution, and aerosol absorption coefficient. Other potential instrument packages and the desired spatial/temporal resolution for the GOA2HEAD monitoring initiative will also be discussed.

  19. The nu sub 9 fundamental of ethane - Integrated intensity and band absorption measurements with application to the atmospheres of the major planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Cess, R. D.; Bangaru, B. R. P.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of the absolute intensity and integrated band absorption have been performed for the nu sub 9 fundamental band of ethane. The intensity is found to be about 34 per sq cm per atm at STP, and this is significantly higher than previous estimates. It is shown that a Gaussian profile provides an empirical representation of the apparent spectral absorption coefficient. Employing this empirical profile, a simple expression is derived for the integrated band absorption, which is in excellent agreement with experimental values. The band model is then employed to investigate the possible role of ethane as a source of thermal infrared opacity within the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and to interpret qualitatively observed brightness temperatures for Saturn.

  20. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-12-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  1. The Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption on Infrared Laser Propagation in the 5 Micrometer Band.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    which allows for thermal linedr expansion of the structure. 32 1 I 2. Second Harmonic Generation The second harmonic generation was achieved by mounting a...filter unit and then to the reference channel lock-in amplifier. C. TESTS 1 . DC Amplifier and A/D Calibration The Ectron DC amplifiers and the Altair A/D...AD-A130 788 THE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR ABSORPTION ON 1 / INFRARED LASER PRUPA..(U) OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS ELECTROSCIENCE LAB L G WALTER

  2. Fluorinated graphene oxide for enhanced S and X-band microwave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sudeep, P. M.; TIFR-Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Hyderabad 500075; Vinayasree, S.

    2015-06-01

    Here we report the microwave absorbing properties of three graphene derivatives, namely, graphene oxide (GO), fluorinated GO (FGO, containing 5.6 at. % Fluorine (F)), and highly FGO (HFGO, containing 23 at. % F). FGO is known to be exhibiting improved electrochemical and electronic properties when compared to GO. Fluorination modifies the dielectric properties of GO and hence thought of as a good microwave absorber. The dielectric permittivities of GO, FGO, and HFGO were estimated in the S (2 GHz to 4 GHz) and X (8 GHz to 12 GHz) bands by employing cavity perturbation technique. For this, suspensions containing GO/FGO/HFGO were made in N-Methylmore » Pyrrolidone (NMP) and were subjected to cavity perturbation. The reflection loss was then estimated and it was found that −37 dB (at 3.2 GHz with 6.5 mm thickness) and −31 dB (at 2.8 GHz with 6 mm thickness) in the S band and a reflection loss of −18 dB (at 8.4 GHz with 2.5 mm thickness) and −10 dB (at 11 GHz with 2 mm thickness) in the X band were achieved for 0.01 wt. % of FGO and HFGO in NMP, respectively, suggesting that these materials can serve as efficient microwave absorbers even at low concentrations.« less

  3. Interferometric Control of Dual-Band Terahertz Perfect Absorption Using a Designed Metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ming; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xueqian; Yang, Quanlong; Zhang, Weili; Han, Jiaguang

    2018-05-01

    The coherent perfect absorber (CPA), a time-reversed counterpart to the laser emission, could cause all energy fed to the system to be absorbed. It can also be used as an absorptive interferometer, which could provide applications in controllable optical energy transfer. Here, in order to achieve a terahertz CPA, we propose a designed metasurface and experimentally demonstrate that it can serve as a polarization-insensitive CPA at a one-frequency channel under normal symmetric excitation, while a transverse-electric CPA at two-frequency channels around oblique 40° symmetric incidence. Such phenomena in this system can be attributed to Fano resonance consisting of interacting one bright and one dark mode under normal incidence and an additional operative dark mode under oblique symmetric excitation. The experimental results find good agreement with the fitted coupled-mode theory. Moreover, we show that the output amplitude can be effectively tuned from 0 to 1 only by varying the relative phase between the two input waves. The designed CPA could find potential application in effectively controlling absorption for terahertz imaging and terahertz switches.

  4. Very high S-band microwave absorption of carbon nanotube buckypapers with Mn nanoparticle interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaowei; Bai, Yaoyao; Wang, Jijie; Zhang, Lu; Tian, Caijiao; Ma, Keming; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    Flexible and high-performance electromagnetic absorbing materials of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) buckypapers with Mn nanoparticles (NPSs) interlayer were fabricated via monodisperse solutions through layer by layer vacuum filtration method. The morphology and element composition of buckypapers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. The formation of flexible MWCNT buckypapers with Mn NPS (0-30 wt. %) interlayer was attributed to nanostructure and morphology of the samples. When the blended Mn NPS content in buckypapers is 20 wt. %, there are evidently two larger absorption peaks (-13.2 dB at 3.41 GHz, -15.6 dB at 3.52 GHz) of the buckypaper with an absorbing thickness of 0.1 mm. The fundamental microwave absorption mechanism of the buckypapers is discussed. This work opens a new pathway towards tuning microwave absorbers performance and this method can be extended to exploit other excellent microwave absorbers with interlayer.

  5. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  6. Would the solvent effect be the main cause of band shift in the theoretical absorption spectrum of large lanthanide complexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rodrigues, Nailton M.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Gimenez, Iara F.; da Costa Junior, Nivan B.

    2011-06-01

    As most reactions take place in solution, the study of solvent effects on relevant molecular properties - either by experimental or theoretical methods - is crucial for the design of new processes and prediction of technological properties. In spite of this, only few works focusing the influence of the solvent nature specifically on the spectroscopic properties of lanthanide complexes can be found in the literature. The present work describes a theoretical study of the solvent effect on the prediction of the absorption spectra for lanthanide complexes, but other possible relevant factors have been also considered such as the molecular geometry and the excitation window used for interaction configuration (CI) calculations. The [Eu(ETA) 2· nH 2O] +1 complex has been chosen as an ideal candidate for this type of study due to its small number of atoms (only 49) and also because the absorption spectrum exhibits a single band. Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed, the first one considering the [Eu(ETA) 2] +1 complex in 400 water molecules, evidencing that the complex presents four coordinated water molecules. The second simulation considered the [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex in 400 ethanol molecules, in order to evaluate the solvent effect on the shift of the maximum absorption in calculated spectra, compared to the experimental one. Quantum chemical studies were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of calculated ground state geometry on the prediction of absorption spectra. The influence of the excitation window used for CI calculations on the spectral shift was also evaluated. No significant solvent effect was found on the prediction of the absorption spectrum for [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex. A small but significant effect of the ground state geometry on the transition energy and oscillator strength was also observed. Finally it must be emphasized that the absorption spectra of lanthanide complexes can be predicted with great accuracy

  7. An Unusual Strong Visible-Light Absorption Band in Red Anatase TiO2 Photocatalyst Induced by Atomic Hydrogen-Occupied Oxygen Vacancies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Yin, Li-Chang; Gong, Yue; Niu, Ping; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Gu, Lin; Chen, Xingqiu; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Increasing visible light absorption of classic wide-bandgap photocatalysts like TiO 2 has long been pursued in order to promote solar energy conversion. Modulating the composition and/or stoichiometry of these photocatalysts is essential to narrow their bandgap for a strong visible-light absorption band. However, the bands obtained so far normally suffer from a low absorbance and/or narrow range. Herein, in contrast to the common tail-like absorption band in hydrogen-free oxygen-deficient TiO 2 , an unusual strong absorption band spanning the full spectrum of visible light is achieved in anatase TiO 2 by intentionally introducing atomic hydrogen-mediated oxygen vacancies. Combining experimental characterizations with theoretical calculations reveals the excitation of a new subvalence band associated with atomic hydrogen filled oxygen vacancies as the origin of such band, which subsequently leads to active photo-electrochemical water oxidation under visible light. These findings could provide a powerful way of tailoring wide-bandgap semiconductors to fully capture solar light. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multi-frequency Optical-depth Maps And The Case For Free-free Absorption In Two Compact Symmetric Objects: 1321+410 And 0026+346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Thomas M.; Marr, J. M.; Read, J. W.; Taylor, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We obtained VLBI observations at six frequencies of two Compact Symmetric Objects, 1321+410 and 0026+346. By comparing the lower frequency maps with spectral extrapolations of the higher frequency maps, we produced maps of the optical depth as a function of frequency. The optical-depth maps of 1321+410 are strikingly uniform, consistent with a foreground screen of absorbing gas; the optical depths as a function of frequency are consistent with free-free absorption; and no net polarization was detected. We conclude that the case for free-free absorption in 1321+410 is strong. The optical-depth maps of 0026+346 exhibit structure but the morphology does not correlate with that in the intensity maps, in conflict with that expected in the case of synchrotron self-absorption. No net polarization was detected. The frequency dependence of the optical depths does not fit well to a simple free-free absorption model, but this does not take into account possible structure in the absorbing gas on smaller scales. We conclude that free-free absorption by a thin amount of gas with structure on the scale of our maps and smaller is possible in 0026+346, although no definitive conclusion can be made. A compact feature between the lobes in 0026+346 has an inverted spectrum even at the highest frequencies, suggesting that this component is synchrotron self-absorbed. We infer this to be the location of the core. We estimate an upper limit to the magnetic field in the core of 50 Gauss at a radius of 1 pc. This research was supported by an award from the Research Corporation, a NASA NY Space Grant, and a Booth-Ferris Research Fellowship. The VLBA is operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  9. Depolarisation of light scattered by disperse systems of low-dimensional potassium polytitanate nanoparticles in the fundamental absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Zimnyakov, D A; Yuvchenko, S A; Pravdin, A B

    2014-07-31

    The results of experimental studies of depolarising properties of disperse systems on the basis of potassium polytitanate nanoplatelets and nanoribbons in the visible and near-UV spectral regions are presented. It is shown that in the fundamental absorption band of the nanoparticle material the increase in the depolarisation factor takes place for the radiation scattered perpendicularly to the direction of the probing beam. For nanoribbons a pronounced peak of depolarisation is observed, which is caused by the essential anisotropy of the particles shape and the peculiarities of the behaviour of the material dielectric function. The empirical data are compared with themore » theoretical results for 'nanodiscs' and 'nanoneedles' with the model dielectric function, corresponding to that obtained from optical constants of the titanium dioxide dielectric function. (laser biophotonics)« less

  10. Performance of Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells with Nanostructures of Relief Formed by Soft Imprint Lithography for Broad Band Absorption Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Shir, Daniel J.; Yoon, Jongseung; Chanda, Debashis

    2010-08-11

    Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells can be assembled into modules with characteristics (i.e., mechanically flexible forms, compact concentrator designs, and high-voltage outputs) that would be impossible to achieve using conventional, wafer-based approaches. This paper presents experimental and computational studies of the optics of light absorption in ultrathin microcells that include nanoscale features of relief on their surfaces, formed by soft imprint lithography. Measurements on working devices with designs optimized for broad band trapping of incident light indicate good efficiencies in energy production even at thicknesses of just a few micrometers. These outcomes are relevant not only tomore » the microcell technology described here but also to other photovoltaic systems that benefit from thin construction and efficient materials utilization.« less

  11. Electromagnetic and Microwave Absorption Properties of the Flake-Shaped Pr-Ho-Fe Alloys in the C-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jialiang; Pan, Shunkang; Qiao, Ziqiang; Cheng, Lichun; Wang, Zhenzhong; Lin, Peihao; Chang, Junqing

    2018-01-01

    The polycrystalline samples Pr x Ho2- x Fe17 ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by arc melting and high-energy ball milling method. The influences of Pr substitution on phase structure, morphology, saturation magnetization and electromagnetic parameters were investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometry and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the particle size increased and the saturation magnetization decreased with increasing Pr content. The minimum absorption peak frequency shifted towards a lower-frequency region with increasing Pr concentration. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was -41.03 dB at 6.88 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.0 mm. With different thickness of 1.8-2.8 mm, the minimum reflection loss (RL) of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was less than -20 dB in the whole C-band (4-8 GHz). The microwave-absorbing properties of the composite with different weight ratios of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co were researched. The microwave-absorbing peaks of the composites shifted to a lower frequency with increasing Co content. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co(10%) was -42.51 dB at 4.72 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.6 mm. This suggests that the Pr-Ho-Fe will be a promising microwave absorption material in higher-gigahertz frequency, especially in the C-band.

  12. On the retrieval of sea ice thickness and snow depth using concurrent laser altimetry and L-band remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lu; Xu, Shiming; Liu, Jiping; Wang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The accurate knowledge of sea ice parameters, including sea ice thickness and snow depth over the sea ice cover, is key to both climate studies and data assimilation in operational forecasts. Large-scale active and passive remote sensing is the basis for the estimation of these parameters. In traditional altimetry or the retrieval of snow depth with passive microwave remote sensing, although the sea ice thickness and the snow depth are closely related, the retrieval of one parameter is usually carried out under assumptions over the other. For example, climatological snow depth data or as derived from reanalyses contain large or unconstrained uncertainty, which result in large uncertainty in the derived sea ice thickness and volume. In this study, we explore the potential of combined retrieval of both sea ice thickness and snow depth using the concurrent active altimetry and passive microwave remote sensing of the sea ice cover. Specifically, laser altimetry and L-band passive remote sensing data are combined using two forward models: the L-band radiation model and the isostatic relationship based on buoyancy model. Since the laser altimetry usually features much higher spatial resolution than L-band data from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, there is potentially covariability between the observed snow freeboard by altimetry and the retrieval target of snow depth on the spatial scale of altimetry samples. Statistically significant correlation is discovered based on high-resolution observations from Operation IceBridge (OIB), and with a nonlinear fitting the covariability is incorporated in the retrieval algorithm. By using fitting parameters derived from large-scale surveys, the retrievability is greatly improved compared with the retrieval that assumes flat snow cover (i.e., no covariability). Verifications with OIB data show good match between the observed and the retrieved parameters, including both sea ice thickness and snow depth. With

  13. Near-infrared Thermal Emission from TrES-3b: A Ks-band Detection and an H-band Upper Limit on the Depth of the Secondary Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Bryce; Jayawardhana, Ray; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Lafrenière, David; Albert, Loic

    2010-08-01

    We present H- and Ks-band photometry bracketing the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter TrES-3b using the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We detect the secondary eclipse of TrES-3b with a depth of 0.133+0.018 -0.016% in the Ks band (8σ)—a result that is in sharp contrast to the eclipse depth reported by de Mooij & Snellen. We do not detect its thermal emission in the H band, but place a 3σ limit of 0.051% on the depth of the secondary eclipse in this band. A secondary eclipse of this depth in Ks requires very efficient day-to-nightside redistribution of heat and nearly isotropic reradiation, a conclusion that is in agreement with longer wavelength, mid-infrared Spitzer observations. Our 3σ upper limit on the depth of our H-band secondary eclipse also argues for very efficient redistribution of heat and suggests that the atmospheric layer probed by these observations may be well homogenized. However, our H-band upper limit is so constraining that it suggests the possibility of a temperature inversion at depth, or an absorbing molecule, such as methane, that further depresses the emitted flux at this wavelength. The combination of our near-infrared measurements and those obtained with Spitzer suggests that TrES-3b displays a near-isothermal dayside atmospheric temperature structure, whose spectrum is well approximated by a blackbody. We emphasize that our strict H-band limit is in stark disagreement with the best-fit atmospheric model that results from longer wavelength observations only, thus highlighting the importance of near-infrared observations at multiple wavelengths, in addition to those returned by Spitzer in the mid-infrared, to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the energy budgets of transiting exoplanets. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of

  14. Reduction of cross-polarized reflection to enhance dual-band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Debidas; Mohan, Akhilesh; Chakrabarty, Ajay

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, cross-polarized reflection from a periodic array of metal-dielectric-metal resonator units is reduced to improve its absorbing performance. Through this simple and typical example, it is shown that some reported absorbers are actually poor absorbers but efficient polarization converters, when the cross-polarized reflection is considered. Using a frequency selective surface, sandwiched between the top layer and the ground plane, the cross-polarized reflection is reduced by 7.2 dB at 5.672 GHz and 8.5 dB at 9.56 GHz, while negligibly affecting the co-polarized reflection reduction performance. The polarization conversion ratio is reduced from 90. 74% to 34.12% and 98.51% to 27.2% and total absorption is improved up to 80% from 26% and 21% around the two resonant frequencies. The reflection characteristics of the proposed absorber are quantitatively analyzed using interference theory, where the near field coupling of the resonant geometries and ground is taken into account. Measurement results show good agreement with both the numerically simulated and theoretical results.

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Using Urea as Reduction Agent: Excellent X-band Electromagnetic Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusu, L.; Ahmad, L. O.; Alimin; Nurdin, M.; Herdianto; Mitsudo, S.; Kikuchi, H.

    2018-05-01

    We report a strong absorption of microwave energy at X-band (8 GHz to 12 GHz) by N-doped graphene. Attachment of nitrogen on the layered structure of GO improves the reflection loss of GO slab (2.0 mm, thickness) from –10 dB to –25.0 dB with a sharp bandwidth ∼0.3 GHz. As for the broader bandwidth of about 1.4 GHz, reflection loss is –10.5 dB. This significant absorption may take place by improvement of magnetic property of NG through high magnetic coupling of localized spins induced by a defect on the surface of graphene. N atoms play as the electron trapper, easily influenced by self-magnetic moments and incoming electromagnetic fields to produce electric and/or magnetic losses. Here, urea acts as the reducing agent and N atoms donor for graphene oxide in hydrothermal process at a temperature of 190 °C.

  16. A new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer-based system (ZEN) for dust aerosol optical depth monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansa, A. Fernando; Cuevas, Emilio; Torres, Benjamín; Barreto, África; García, Rosa D.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; López, César; Ramos, Ramón

    2017-02-01

    A new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer based system (ZEN), conceived for dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring, is presented in this paper. The ZEN system comprises a new radiometer (ZEN-R41) and a methodology for AOD retrieval (ZEN-LUT). ZEN-R41 has been designed to be stand alone and without moving parts, making it a low-cost and robust instrument with low maintenance, appropriate for deployment in remote and unpopulated desert areas. The ZEN-LUT method is based on the comparison of the measured zenith sky radiance (ZSR) with a look-up table (LUT) of computed ZSRs. The LUT is generated with the LibRadtran radiative transfer code. The sensitivity study proved that the ZEN-LUT method is appropriate for inferring AOD from ZSR measurements with an AOD standard uncertainty up to 0.06 for AOD500 nm ˜ 0.5 and up to 0.15 for AOD500 nm ˜ 1.0, considering instrumental errors of 5 %. The validation of the ZEN-LUT technique was performed using data from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) Cimel Electronique 318 photometers (CE318). A comparison between AOD obtained by applying the ZEN-LUT method on ZSRs (inferred from CE318 diffuse-sky measurements) and AOD provided by AERONET (derived from CE318 direct-sun measurements) was carried out at three sites characterized by a regular presence of desert mineral dust aerosols: Izaña and Santa Cruz in the Canary Islands and Tamanrasset in Algeria. The results show a coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.99 to 0.97, and root mean square errors (RMSE) ranging from 0.010 at Izaña to 0.032 at Tamanrasset. The comparison of ZSR values from ZEN-R41 and the CE318 showed absolute relative mean bias (RMB) < 10 %. ZEN-R41 AOD values inferred from ZEN-LUT methodology were compared with AOD provided by AERONET, showing a fairly good agreement in all wavelengths, with mean absolute AOD differences < 0.030 and R2 higher than 0.97.

  17. Ultra-deep Large Binocular Camera U-band Imaging of the GOODS-North Field: Depth Versus Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Teresa A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Grazian, Andrea; Paris, Diego; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Speziali, Roberto; Testa, Vincenzo; Boutsia, Konstantina; O’Connell, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Ryan, Russell E.; Scarlata, Claudia; Weiner, Benjamin

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of the trade-off between depth and resolution using a large number of U-band imaging observations in the GOODS-North field from the Large Binocular Camera (LBC) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Having acquired over 30 hr of data (315 images with 5–6 minutes exposures), we generated multiple image mosaics, starting with the best atmospheric seeing images (FWHM ≲ 0.″8), which constitute ∼10% of the total data set. For subsequent mosaics, we added in data with larger seeing values until the final, deepest mosaic included all images with FWHM ≲ 1.″8 (∼94% of the total data set). From the mosaics, we made object catalogs to compare the optimal-resolution, yet shallower image to the lower-resolution but deeper image. We show that the number counts for both images are ∼90% complete to U AB ≲ 26 mag. Fainter than U AB ∼ 27 mag, the object counts from the optimal-resolution image start to drop-off dramatically (90% between U AB = 27 and 28 mag), while the deepest image with better surface-brightness sensitivity ({μ }U{AB} ≲ 32 mag arcsec‑2) show a more gradual drop (10% between U AB ≃ 27 and 28 mag). For the brightest galaxies within the GOODS-N field, structure and clumpy features within the galaxies are more prominent in the optimal-resolution image compared to the deeper mosaics. We conclude that for studies of brighter galaxies and features within them, the optimal-resolution image should be used. However, to fully explore and understand the faintest objects, the deeper imaging with lower resolution are also required. Finally, we find—for 220 brighter galaxies with U AB ≲ 23 mag—only marginal differences in total flux between the optimal-resolution and lower-resolution light-profiles to {μ }U{AB} ≲ 32 mag arcsec‑2. In only 10% of the cases are the total-flux differences larger than 0.5 mag. This helps constrain how much flux can be missed from galaxy outskirts, which is important for studies of the

  18. Transition state region in the A-Band photodissociation of allyl iodide—A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacherjee, Aditi, E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu; Attar, Andrew R., E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720

    2016-03-28

    Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-harmonic generation source is used to study the 266 nm induced A-band photodissociation dynamics of allyl iodide (CH{sub 2} =CHCH{sub 2}I). The photolysis of the C—I bond at this wavelength produces iodine atoms both in the ground ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}, I) and spin-orbit excited ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}, I*) states, with the latter as the predominant channel. Using XUV absorption at the iodine N{sub 4/5} edge (45–60 eV), the experiments constitute a direct probe of not only the long-lived atomic iodine reaction products but also the fleeting transition state region ofmore » the repulsive n{sub I}σ{sup ∗}{sub C—I} excited states. Specifically, three distinct features are identified in the XUV transient absorption spectrum at 45.3 eV, 47.4 eV, and 48.4 eV (denoted transients A, B, and C, respectively), which arise from the repulsive valence-excited nσ{sup ∗} states and project onto the high-lying core-excited states of the dissociating molecule via excitation of 4d(I) core electrons. Transients A and B originate from 4d(I) → n(I) core-to-valence transitions, whereas transient C is best assigned to a 4d(I) →σ{sup ∗}(C—I) transition. The measured differential absorbance of these new features along with the I/I* branching ratios known from the literature is used to suggest a more definitive assignment, albeit provisional, of the transients to specific dissociative states within the A-band manifold. The transients are found to peak around 55 fs–65 fs and decay completely by 145 fs–185 fs, demonstrating the ability of XUV spectroscopy to map the evolution of reactants into products in real time. The similarity in the energies of transients A and B with analogous features observed in methyl iodide [Attar et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 5072, (2015)] together with the new observation of transient C in the present work provides a more complete picture of the valence

  19. Constraining Black Carbon Aerosol over Asia using OMI Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth and the Adjoint of GEOS-Chem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Li; Henze, David K.; Grell, Georg A.; Carmichael. Gregory R.; Bousserez, Nicolas; Zhang, Qiang; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo; Lu, Zifeng; Cao, Junji; hide

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the emissions and distribution of black carbon (BC) in the region referred to here as Southeastern Asia (70degE-l50degE, 11degS-55degN) are critical to studies of the atmospheric environment and climate change. Analysis of modeled BC concentrations compared to in situ observations indicates levels are underestimated over most of Southeast Asia when using any of four different emission inventories. We thus attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Overwhelming enhancements, up to 500%, in anthropogenic BC emissions are shown after optimization over broad areas of Southeast Asia in April. In October, the optimization of anthropogenic emissions yields a slight reduction (1-5%) over India and parts of southern China, while emissions increase by 10-50% over eastern China. Observational data from in situ measurements and AERONET observations are used to evaluate the BC inversions and assess the bias between OMI and AERONET AAOD. Low biases in BC concentrations are improved or corrected in most eastern and central sites over China after optimization, while the constrained model still underestimates concentrations in Indian sites in both April and October, possibly as a. consequence of low prior emissions. Model resolution errors may contribute up to a factor of 2.5 to the underestimate of surface BC concentrations over northern India. We also compare the optimized results using different anthropogenic emission inventories and discuss the sensitivity of top-down constraints on anthropogenic emissions with respect to biomass burning emissions. In addition, the impacts of brown carbon, the formulation of the observation operator, and different a priori constraints on the optimization are

  20. Depth distribution of secondary phases in kesterite Cu 2ZnSnS 4 by angle-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Just, J.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, O.

    The depth distribution of secondary phases in the solar cell absorber material Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) is quantitatively investigated using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis at the K-edge of sulfur at varying incidence angles. Varying information depths from several nanometers up to the full thickness is achieved. A quantitative profile of the phase distribution is obtained by a self-consistent fit of a multilayer model to the XANES spectra for different angles. Single step co-evaporated CZTS thin-films are found to exhibit zinc and copper sulfide secondary phases preferentially at the front or back interfaces of the film.

  1. Depth distribution of secondary phases in kesterite Cu 2ZnSnS 4 by angle-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Just, J.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, O.; ...

    2017-12-12

    The depth distribution of secondary phases in the solar cell absorber material Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) is quantitatively investigated using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis at the K-edge of sulfur at varying incidence angles. Varying information depths from several nanometers up to the full thickness is achieved. A quantitative profile of the phase distribution is obtained by a self-consistent fit of a multilayer model to the XANES spectra for different angles. Single step co-evaporated CZTS thin-films are found to exhibit zinc and copper sulfide secondary phases preferentially at the front or back interfaces of the film.

  2. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scatteringmore » sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.« less

  3. Confocal depth-resolved fluorescence micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of cultural heritage materials: a new mobile endstation at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guang; Chu, Shengqi; Sun, Tianxi

    A confocal fluorescence endstation for depth-resolved micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy is described. A polycapillary half-lens defines the incident beam path and a second polycapillary half-lens at 90° defines the probe sample volume. An automatic alignment program based on an evolutionary algorithm is employed to make the alignment procedure efficient. This depth-resolved system was examined on a general X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Sacrificial red glaze (AD 1368–1644) china was studied to show the capability of the instrument. As a mobile endstation to be applied on multiple beamlines, the confocal system can improve the function andmore » flexibility of general XAS beamlines, and extend their capabilities to a wider user community.« less

  4. Temperature-Induced Large Broadening and Blue Shift in the Electronic Band Structure and Optical Absorption of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Hu, Ming

    2017-08-17

    The power conversion efficiency of hybrid halide perovskite solar cells is profoundly influenced by the operating temperature. Here we investigate the temperature influence on the electronic band structure and optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 from first-principles by accounting for both the electron-phonon interaction and thermal expansion. Within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, the electron-phonon coupling induces slightly enlarged band gap and strongly broadened electronic relaxation time as temperature increases. The large broadening effect is mainly due to the presence of cation organic atoms. Consequently, the temperature-dependent absorption peak exhibits blue-shift position, decreased amplitude, and broadened width. This work uncovers the atomistic origin of temperature influence on the optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and can provide guidance to design high-performance hybrid halide perovskite solar cells at different operating temperatures.

  5. High resolution absorption cross sections in the transmission window region of the Schumann-Runge bands and Herzberg continuum of O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements, conducted in the wavelength region 180-195 nm, and at different pressures of oxygen (between 2.5-760 torr) in order to separate the pressure-dependent absorption from the main cross sections, of the absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands in the window region between the rotational lines of S-R bands of O2. The present cross sections supersede the earlier published cross sections (Yoshino et al., 1983). The combined cross sections are presented graphically; they are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm from the National Space Science Data Center. The Herzberg continuum cross sections are derived after subtracting calculated contributions from the Schumann-Runge bands. These are significantly smaller than any previous measurements.

  6. Defect-induced band-edge reconstruction of a bismuth-halide double perovskite for visible-light absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Slavney, Adam H.; Leppert, Linn; Bartesaghi, Davide; ...

    2017-03-29

    In this study, halide double perovskites have recently been developed as less toxic analogs of the lead perovskite solar-cell absorbers APbX 3 (A = monovalent cation; X = Br or I). However, all known halide double perovskites have large bandgaps that afford weak visible-light absorption. The first halide double perovskite evaluated as an absorber, Cs 2AgBiBr 6 (1), has a bandgap of 1.95 eV. Here, we show that dilute alloying decreases 1’s bandgap by ca. 0.5 eV. Importantly, time-resolved photoconductivity measurements reveal long-lived carriers with microsecond lifetimes in the alloyed material, which is very promising for photovoltaic applications. The alloyedmore » perovskite described herein is the first double perovskite to show comparable bandgap energy and carrier lifetime to those of (CH 3NH 3)PbI 3. By describing how energy- and symmetry-matched impurity orbitals, at low concentrations, dramatically alter 1’s band edges, we open a potential pathway for the large and diverse family of halide double perovskites to compete with APbX 3 absorbers.« less

  7. Evaluation of Optical Depths and Self-Absorption of Strontium and Aluminum Emission Lines in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines. A binary mixture of strontium nitrate and aluminum oxide was used as a sample, consisting of variety of different concentrations in powder form. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected by varying various parameters, such as laser energy, gate delay time, and gate width time to optimize the LIBS signals. Atomic emission from Sr and Al lines, as observed in the LIBS spectra of different sample compositions, was used to characterize the laser induced plasma and evaluate the optical depths and self-absorption of LIBS.

  8. Highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules in low-pressure inductively-coupled plasmas detected by high sensitivity ultra-broad-band optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Carbone, Emile; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2015-08-01

    Inductively-coupled plasmas in pure O2 (at pressures of 5-80 mTorr and radiofrequency power up to 500 W) were studied by optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range 200-450 nm, showing the presence of highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules (up to vʺ = 18) by Schumann-Runge band absorption. Analysis of the relative band intensities indicates a vibrational temperature up to 10,000 K, but these hot molecules only represent a fraction of the total O2 density. By analysing the (11-0) band at higher spectral resolution the O2 rotational temperature was also determined, and was found to increase with both pressure and power, reaching 900 K at 80 mTorr 500 W. These measurements were achieved using a new high-sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy setup, based on a laser-plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration-corrected spectrograph. This setup allows the measurement of weak broadband absorbances due to a baseline variability lower than 2   ×   10-5 across a spectral range of 250 nm.

  9. An in-depth analysis and modelling of the Shuttle to MILA S-band telemetry link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caroglanian, Armen; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Shama, Dale D.

    1993-01-01

    The S-Band radio frequency (RF) link between the Merritt Island (MILA) Tracking Station and the Space Shuttle launch pads is a critical communication path for prelaunch and launch operations. The proposed siting of the Center for Space Education (CSE) at the Visitor Center required a study to avoid RF line-of-sight blockage and reflection paths. The study revealed the trees near MILA's 9-meter (9-M) antennas are obstructing the optical line-of-sight. The studies found diffraction is the main propagation mechanism. This paper describes a link model based on the Geometric Theory of Diffraction.

  10. Simultaneous retrieval of sea ice thickness and snow depth using concurrent active altimetry and passive L-band remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Xu, S.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The retrieval of sea ice thickness mainly relies on satellite altimetry, and the freeboard measurements are converted to sea ice thickness (hi) under certain assumptions over snow loading. The uncertain in snow depth (hs) is a major source of uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness and total volume for both radar and laser altimetry. In this study, novel algorithms for the simultaneous retrieval of hi and hs are proposed for the data synergy of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive remote sensing and both types of active altimetry: (1) L-band (1.4GHz) brightness temperature (TB) from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and sea ice freeboard (FBice) from radar altimetry, (2) L-band TB data and snow freeboard (FBsnow) from laser altimetry. Two physical models serve as the forward models for the retrieval: L-band radiation model, and the hydrostatic equilibrium model. Verification with SMOS and Operational IceBridge (OIB) data is carried out, showing overall good retrieval accuracy for both sea ice parameters. Specifically, we show that the covariability between hs and FBsnow is crucial for the synergy between TB and FBsnow. Comparison with existing algorithms shows lower uncertainty in both sea ice parameters, and that the uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness as caused by that of snow depth is spatially uncorrelated, with the potential reduction of the volume uncertainty through spatial sampling. The proposed algorithms can be applied to the retrieval of sea ice parameters at basin-scale, using concurrent active and passive remote sensing data based on satellites.

  11. Probing the SEB Sensitive Depth of a Power MOSFET Using a Two-Photon Absorption Laser Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Liu, Sandra; Titus, Jeffrey L.; McMorrow, Dale; Casey, Megan C.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Warner, Jeffrey; Phan, Anthony M.; Topper, Alyson D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two-photon absorption test results on an engineering single-event burnout- (SEB-) sensitive power MOSFET to verify that the energy deposition/charge ionization in the highly-doped substrate does not contribute to SEB. It is shown that for a vertical power MOSFET, the SEB sensitive volume is the lightly doped epitaxial layer; the most sensitive region is under the polysllicon gate.

  12. Extreme absorption enhancement in ZnTe:O/ZnO intermediate band core-shell nanowires by interplay of dielectric resonance and plasmonic bowtie nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kui-Ying; Li, Jing; Chen, Xuanhu; Xu, Yang; Tu, Xuecou; Ren, Fang-Fang; Du, Qingguo; Fu, Lan; Kang, Lin; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zhang, Rong; Wu, Peiheng; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-08-08

    Intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are conceptual and promising for next generation high efficiency photovoltaic devices, whereas, IB impact on the cell performance is still marginal due to the weak absorption of IB states. Here a rational design of a hybrid structure composed of ZnTe:O/ZnO core-shell nanowires (NWs) with Al bowtie nanoantennas is demonstrated to exhibit strong ability in tuning and enhancing broadband light response. The optimized nanowire dimensions enable absorption enhancement by engineering leaky-mode dielectric resonances. It maximizes the overlap of the absorption spectrum and the optical transitions in ZnTe:O intermediate-band (IB) photovoltaic materials, as verified by the enhanced photoresponse especially for IB states in an individual nanowire device. Furthermore, by integrating Al bowtie antennas, the enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling enables the notable improvement in the absorption of ZnTe:O/ZnO core-shell single NW, which was demonstrated by the profound enhancement of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering. The marriage of dielectric and metallic resonance effects in subwavelength-scale nanowires opens up new avenues for overcoming the poor absorption of sub-gap photons by IB states in ZnTe:O to achieve high-efficiency IBSCs.

  13. Soil moisture, dielectric permittivity and emissivity of soil: effective depth of emission measured by the L-band radiometer ELBARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy; Rojek, Edyta; Slominska, Ewa; Slominski, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Due to the large variation of soil moisture in space and in time, obtaining soil water balance with an aid of data acquired from the surface is still a challenge. Microwave remote sensing is widely used to determine the water content in soil. It is based on the fact that the dielectric constant of the soil is strongly dependent on its water content. This method provides the data in both local and global scales. Very important issue that is still not solved, is the soil depth at which radiometer "sees" the incoming radiation and how this "depth of view" depends on water content and physical properties of soil. The microwave emission comes from its entire profile, but much of this energy is absorbed by the upper layers of soil. As a result, the contribution of each layer to radiation visible for radiometer decreases with depth. The thickness of the surface layer, which significantly contributes to the energy measured by the radiometer is defined as the "penetration depth". In order to improve the physical base of the methodology of soil moisture measurements using microwave remote sensing and to determine the effective emission depth seen by the radiometer, a new algorithm was developed. This algorithm determines the reflectance coefficient from Fresnel equations, and, what is new, the complex dielectric constant of the soil, calculated from the Usowicz's statistical-physical model (S-PM) of dielectric permittivity and conductivity of soil. The model is expressed in terms of electrical resistance and capacity. The unit volume of soil in the model consists of solid, water and air, and is treated as a system made up of spheres, filling volume by overlapping layers. It was assumed that connections between layers and spheres in the layer are represented by serial and parallel connections of "resistors" and "capacitors". The emissivity of the soil surface is calculated from the ratio between the brightness temperature measured by the ELBARA radiometer (GAMMA Remote

  14. Modulating the band structure and sub-bandgap absorption of Co-hyperdoped silicon by co-doping with shallow-level elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Fang, Xiuxiu; Wang, Yongyong; Song, Xiaohui; Lu, Zhansheng

    2018-06-01

    Hyperdoped group-III elements can lower the Fermi energy in the band structures of Co-hyperdoped silicon. When the Co-to-X (X = B, Al, Ga) ratio is 2:1, the intermediate band (IB) in the bandgap includes the Fermi energy and is partially filled by electrons, which is in accordance with the requirement of an IB material. The hyperdoped X atoms can cause the blueshift of the sub-bandgap absorption of the compound compared with the material with no shallow-level elements, which is due to the enlargement of the electronic excitation energy of the Co,X-co-doped silicon.

  15. Variation of energy absorption and exposure buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for boro-tellurite (B2O3-TeO2) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Elhouichet, H.

    2017-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of (100-x)TeO2-xB2O3 glass systems (where x=5, 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25 mol%) have been calculated in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameters (G-P) fitting method has been used to estimate both EABF and EBF values. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy and penetration depth have been studied. It was found that EABF and EBF values were higher in the intermediate energy region, for all the glass systems. Furthermore, boro-tellurite glass with 5 mol% B2O3, was found to present the lowest EABF and EBF values, hence it is superior gamma-ray shielding material. The results indicate that the boro-tellurite glasses can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  16. Extrapolation of earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, John A.; Pilewskie, Peter A.; Scott-Fleming, Ian C.; Herman, Benjamin M.; Ben-David, Avishai

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for extrapolating earth-based spectral band measurements of directly transmitted solar irradiance to equivalent exoatmospheric signal levels were used to aid in determining system gain settings of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) sunsensor being developed for the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) 2 instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. A band transmittance approach was employed for the HALOE sunsensor which has a broad-band channel determined by the spectral responsivity of a silicon detector. A modified Langley plot approach, assuming a square-root law behavior for the water vapor transmittance, was used for the SAGE-2 940 nm water vapor channel.

  17. Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Pilewskie, P. A.; Scott-Fleming, I. C.; Hermann, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for extrapolating Earth-based spectral band measurements of directly transmitted solar irradiance to equivalent exoatmospheric signal levels were used to aid in determining system gain settings of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) sunsensor system being developed for the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) 2 instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. A band transmittance approach was employed for the HALOE sunsensor which has a broad-band channel determined by the spectral responsivity of a silicon detector. A modified Langley plot approach, assuming a square-root law behavior for the water vapor transmittance, was used for the SAGE-2 940 nm water vapor channel.

  18. Absorption measurements of the second overtone band of NO in ambient and combustion gases with a 1.8-mum room-temperature diode laser.

    PubMed

    Sonnenfroh, D M; Allen, M G

    1997-10-20

    We describe the development of a room-temperature diode sensor for in situ monitoring of combustion-generated NO. The sensor is based on a near-IR diode laser operating near 1.8 mum, which probes isolated transitions in the second overtone (3, 0) absorption band of NO. Based on absorption cell data, the sensitivity for ambient atmospheric pressure conditions is of the order of 30 parts in 10(6) by volume for a meter path (ppmv-m), assuming a minimum measurable absorbance of 10(-5). Initial H(2) -air flame measurements are complicated by strong water vapor absorption features that constrain the available gain and dynamic range of the present detection system. Preliminary results suggest that detection limits in this environment of the order of 140 ppmv-m could be achieved with optimum baseline correction.

  19. Absorption measurements of the second overtone band of NO in ambient and combustion gases with a 1.8- m room-temperature diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfroh, David M.; Allen, Mark G.

    1997-10-01

    We describe the development of a room-temperature diode sensor for in situ monitoring of combustion-generated NO. The sensor is based on a near-IR diode laser operating near 1.8 m, which probes isolated transitions in the second overtone (3,0) absorption band of NO. Based on absorption cell data, the sensitivity for ambient atmospheric pressure conditions is of the order of 30 parts in 10 6 by volume for a meter path (ppmv m), assuming a minimum measurable absorbance of 10 5 . Initial H 2 air flame measurements are complicated by strong water vapor absorption features that constrain the available gain and dynamic range of the present detection system. Preliminary results suggest that detection limits in this environment of the order of 140 ppmv m could be achieved with optimum baseline correction.

  20. A study of the structure of the ν1(HF) absorption band of the СH3СN…HF complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromova, E. I.; Glazachev, E. V.; Bulychev, V. P.; Koshevarnikov, A. M.; Tokhadze, K. G.

    2015-09-01

    The ν1(HF) absorption band shape of the CH3CN…HF complex is studied in the gas phase at a temperature of 293 K. The spectra of gas mixtures CH3CN/HF are recorded in the region of 4000-3400 cm-1 at a resolution from 0.1 to 0.005 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS-120 HR vacuum Fourier spectrometer in a cell 10 cm in length with wedge-shaped sapphire windows. The procedure used to separate the residual water absorption allows more than ten fine-structure bands to be recorded on the low-frequency wing of the ν1(HF) band. It is shown that the fine structure of the band is formed primarily due to hot transitions from excited states of the low-frequency ν7 librational vibration. Geometrical parameters of the equilibrium nuclear configuration, the binding energy, and the dipole moment of the complex are determined from a sufficiently accurate quantum-chemical calculation. The frequencies and intensities for a number of spectral transitions of this complex are obtained in the harmonic approximation and from variational solutions of anharmonic vibrational problems.

  1. Complexities in pyroxene compositions derived from absorption band centers: Examples from Apollo samples, HED meteorites, synthetic pure pyroxenes, and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    We reexamine the relationship between pyroxene composition and near-infrared absorption bands, integrating measurements of diverse natural and synthetic samples. We test an algorithm (PLC) involving a two-part linear continuum removal and parabolic fits to the 1 and 2 μm bands—a computationally simple approach which can easily be automated and applied to remote sensing data. Employing a suite of synthetic pure pyroxenes, the PLC technique is shown to derive similar band centers to the modified Gaussian model. PLC analyses are extended to natural pyroxene-bearing materials, including (1) bulk lunar basalts and pyroxene separates, (2) diverse lunar soils, and (3) HED meteorites. For natural pyroxenes, the relationship between composition and absorption band center differs from that of synthetic pyroxenes. These differences arise from complexities inherent in natural materials such as exsolution, zoning, mixing, and space weathering. For these reasons, band center measurements of natural pyroxene-bearing materials are compositionally nonunique and could represent three distinct scenarios (1) pyroxene with a narrow compositional range, (2) complexly zoned pyroxene grains, or (3) a mixture of multiple pyroxene (or nonpyroxene) components. Therefore, a universal quantitative relationship between band centers and pyroxene composition cannot be uniquely derived for natural pyroxene-bearing materials without additional geologic context. Nevertheless, useful relative relationships between composition and band center persist in most cases. These relationships are used to interpret M3 data from the Humboldtianum Basin. Four distinct compositional units are identified (1) Mare Humboldtianum basalts, (2) distinct outer basalts, (3) low-Ca pyroxene-bearing materials, and (4) feldspathic materials.

  2. A new photometric ozone reference in the Huggins bands: the absolute ozone absorption cross section at the 325 nm HeCd laser wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Christof; Elandaloussi, Hadj; Gröbner, Julian

    2018-03-01

    The room temperature (294.09 K) absorption cross section of ozone at the 325 nm HeCd wavelength has been determined under careful consideration of possible biases. At the vacuum wavelength of 325.126 nm, thus in a region used by a variety of ozone remote sensing techniques, an absorption cross-section value of σ = 16.470×10-21 cm2 was measured. The measurement provides the currently most accurate direct photometric absorption value of ozone in the UV with an expanded (coverage factor k = 2) standard uncertainty u(σ) = 31×10-24 cm2, corresponding to a relative level of 2 ‰. The measurements are most compatible with a relative temperature coefficient cT = σ-1 ∂ Tσ = 0.0031 K-1 at 294 K. The cross section and its uncertainty value were obtained using generalised linear regression with correlated uncertainties. It will serve as a reference for ozone absorption spectra required for the long-term remote sensing of atmospheric ozone in the Huggins bands. The comparison with commonly used absorption cross-section data sets for remote sensing reveals a possible bias of about 2 %. This could partly explain a 4 % discrepancy between UV and IR remote sensing data and indicates that further studies will be required to reach the accuracy goal of 1 % in atmospheric reference spectra.

  3. Type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum-dot intermediate band with extended optical absorption range for efficient solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustanji, Hela; Jaziri, Sihem

    2018-02-01

    GaSb/GaAs type-II quantum-dot solar cells (QD SCs) have attracted attention as highly efficient intermediate band SCs due to their infrared absorption. Type-II QDs exhibited a staggered confinement potential, where only holes are strongly confined within the dots. Long wavelength light absorption of the QDSCs is enhanced through the improved carriers number in the IB. The absorption of dots depends on their shape, material quality, and composition. Therefore, the optical properties of the GaSbGaAs QDs before and after thermal treatment are studied. Our intraband studies have shown an extended absorption into the long wavelength region 1.77 μ {m}. The annealed QDs have shown significantly more infrared response of 7.2 μ {m} compared to as-grown sample. The photon absorption and hole extraction depend strongly on the thermal annealing process. In this context, emission of holes from localized states in GaSb QDs has been studied using conductance-voltage ( G- V ) characteristics.

  4. The Rovibrational Intensities of Five Absorption Bands of (12)C(16)O2 Between 5218 and 5349/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Brown, Linda R.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, Richard S.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Absolute line intensities, band intensities, and Herman-Wallis parameters were measured for the (01(sup 1)2)(sub I) from (00(sup 0)0)(sub I) perpendicular band of (12)C(16)O2 centered at 5315/cm, along with the three nearby associated hot bands: (10(sup 0)2)(sub II) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5248/cm, (02(sup 2))(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5291/cm, and (10(sup 0)2)(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5349/cm. The nearby parallel hot band (30(sup 0))(sub I) from (10(sup 0)0)(sub II) at 5218/cm was also included in this study.

  5. Direct Observation of Two-Step Photon Absorption in an InAs/GaAs Single Quantum Dot for the Operation of Intermediate-Band Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-08

    We present the first direct observation of two-step photon absorption in an InAs/GaAs single quantum dot (QD) using photocurrent spectroscopy with two lasers. The sharp peaks of the photocurrent are shifted due to the quantum confined Stark effect, indicating that the photocurrent from a single QD is obtained. In addition, the intensity of the peaks depends on the power of the secondary laser. These results reveal the direct demonstration of the two-step photon absorption in a single QD. This is an essential result for both the fundamental operation and the realization of ultrahigh solar-electricity energy conversion in quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  6. Broad band nonlinear optical absorption measurements of the laser dye IR26 using white light continuum Z-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumyodeep; Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem Ballabh

    2017-03-01

    We study the nonlinear optical response of a standard dye IR26 using the Z-scan technique, but with the white light continuum. The continuum source of wavelength from 450 nm to 1650 nm has been generated from the photonic crystal fiber on pumping with 772 nm of Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The use of broadband incident pulse enables us to probe saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) over the large spectral range with a single Z-scan measurement. The system shows SA in the resonant region while it turns to RSA in the non-resonant regions. The low saturation intensity of the dye can be explained based on the simultaneous excitation from ground states to various higher energy levels with the help of composite energy level diagram. The cumulative effects of excited state absorption and thermal induced nonlinear optical effects are responsible for the observed RSA.

  7. Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN 1-xSb x from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; ...

    2011-08-01

    Applicability of the Ga(Sb x)N 1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sb x)N 1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sb x)N 1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting watermore » under visible light irradiation.« less

  8. CMOS image sensor with organic photoconductive layer having narrow absorption band and proposal of stack type solid-state image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Shunji; Ihama, Mikio; Inuiya, Masafumi

    2006-02-01

    Digital still cameras overtook film cameras in Japanese market in 2000 in terms of sales volume owing to their versatile functions. However, the image-capturing capabilities such as sensitivity and latitude of color films are still superior to those of digital image sensors. In this paper, we attribute the cause for the high performance of color films to their multi-layered structure, and propose the solid-state image sensors with stacked organic photoconductive layers having narrow absorption bands on CMOS read-out circuits.

  9. Chemoselectivity-induced multiple interfaces in MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers for whole X-band microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijiang; Wu, Lina; Zhou, Jigang; Jiang, Zhaohua; Shen, Baozhong

    2014-11-07

    A chemoselective route to induce Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles decorating carbon nanotubes to form MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers has been developed. Charges are redistributed in the heterotrimers through C-O-Zn, C-O-Fe and Fe-O-Zn bondings, giving rise to multiple electronic phases. The generated significant interfacial polarization and synergetic interaction between dielectric and magnetic absorbers result in the MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers with high-performance microwave absorption in an entire X band.

  10. Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO thin films with thermal annealing: effect of band gap expansion and free-electron absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, X D; Chen, T P; Liu, Y; Leong, K C

    2014-09-22

    Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with annealing temperature is observed. It is shown that the evolution is due to the changes in both the band gap and the free-electron absorption as a result of the change of free-electron concentration of the AZO thin films. The change of the electron concentration could be attributed to the activation of Al dopant and the creation/annihilation of the donor-like defects like oxygen vacancy in the thin films caused by annealing.

  11. Re-investigation of the (3, 0) band in the b4Σ- - a4Π system for nitric oxide by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanliang; Shao, Ligang; Wang, Hailing; Zhou, Qinghong; Qiu, Xuanbing; Wei, Jilin; Deng, Lunhua; Chen, Yangqin

    2018-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals in the a4Π state were produced by discharging the mixture of NO gas and helium at the audio frequency. In the near infrared region, the spectra of the b4Σ- - a4Π system of the NO radical were studied by optical heterodyne - concentration modulation laser absorption spectroscopy. More than one hundred and thirty lines and eleven branches were recorded for the first time and assigned to the (3, 0) band. A global fitting was carried out to extract the molecular constants. In particular, the parameters D, p, γ and AD were precisely determined.

  12. Improved spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategy of wide band k-distribution model used for calculation of infrared remote sensing signal of hot exhaust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-07-01

    A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.

  13. HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF INTERSTELLAR CARBONACEOUS DUST ANALOGS: COSMIC-RAY EFFECTS ON THE CARRIERS OF THE 3.4 μ m ABSORPTION BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Maté, Belén; Molpeceres, Germán; Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The effects of cosmic rays on the carriers of the interstellar 3.4 μ m absorption band have been investigated in the laboratory. This band is attributed to stretching vibrations of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2} in carbonaceous dust. It is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, but disappears in dense clouds. Destruction of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2} by cosmic rays could become relevant in dense clouds, shielded from the external ultraviolet field. For the simulations, samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) have been irradiated with 5 keV electrons. The decay of the band intensity versus electron fluence reflectsmore » a-C:H dehydrogenation, which is well described by a model assuming that H{sub 2} molecules, formed by the recombination of H atoms liberated through CH bond breaking, diffuse out of the sample. The CH bond destruction rates derived from the present experiments are in good accordance with those from previous ion irradiation experiments of HAC. The experimental simplicity of electron bombardment has allowed the use of higher-energy doses than in the ion experiments. The effects of cosmic rays on the aliphatic components of cosmic dust are found to be small. The estimated cosmic-ray destruction times for the 3.4 μ m band carriers lie in the 10{sup 8} yr range and cannot account for the disappearance of this band in dense clouds, which have characteristic lifetimes of 3 × 10{sup 7} yr. The results invite a more detailed investigation of the mechanisms of CH bond formation and breaking in the intermediate region between diffuse and dense clouds.« less

  14. Polarization signatures and brightness temperatures caused by horizontally oriented snow particles at microwave bands: Effects of atmospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinxin; Crewell, Susanne; Löhnert, Ulrich; Simmer, Clemens; Miao, Jungang

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the effects of atmospheric absorption and emission on the polarization difference (PD) and brightness temperature (TB) generated by horizontally oriented snow particles. A three-layer plane-parallel atmosphere model is used in conjunction with a simplified radiative transfer (RT) scheme to illustrate the combined effects of dichroic and nondichroic media on microwave signatures observed by ground-based and spaceborne sensors. Based on idealized scenarios which encompass a dichroic snow layer and adjacent nondichroic layers composed of supercooled liquid water (SCLW) droplets and water vapor, we demonstrate that the presence of atmospheric absorption/emission enhances TB and damps PD when observed from the ground. From a spaceborne perspective, however, TB can be reduced or enhanced by an absorbing/emitting layer above the snow layer, while a strong absorbing/emitting layer below the dichroic snow layer may even enhance PD. The induced PD and TB, which rely on snow microphysical assumptions, can vary up to 2 K and 10 K, respectively, due to the temperature-dependent absorption of SCLW. RT calculations based on 223 snowfall profiles selected from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data sets indicate that the existence of SCLW has a noticeable impact on PD and TB at three window frequencies (150 GHz, 243 GHz, and 664 GHz) during snowfall. Our results imply that while polarimetric channels at the three window channels have the potential for snowfall characterization, accurate information on liquid water is required to correctly interpret the polarimetric observations.

  15. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  16. Passive remote sensing of altitude and optical depth of dust plumes using the oxygen A and B bands: First results from EPIC/DSCOVR at Lagrange-1 point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jing; Torres, Omar; Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Reid, Jeffrey; Miller, Steve

    2017-07-01

    We presented an algorithm for inferring aerosol layer height (ALH) and optical depth (AOD) over ocean surface from radiances in oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) orbiting at Lagrangian-1 point. The algorithm was applied to EPIC imagery of a 2 day dust outbreak over the North Atlantic Ocean. Retrieved ALHs and AODs were evaluated against counterparts observed by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Aerosol Robotic Network. The comparisons showed 71.5% of EPIC-retrieved ALHs were within ±0.5 km of those determined from CALIOP and 74.4% of EPIC AOD retrievals fell within a ± (0.1 + 10%) envelope of MODIS retrievals. This study demonstrates the potential of EPIC measurements for retrieving global aerosol height multiple times daily, which are essential for evaluating aerosol profile simulated in climate models and for better estimating aerosol radiative effects.

  17. First laboratory detection of an absorption line of the first overtone electric quadrupolar band of N2 by CRDS near 2.2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, P.; Vasilchenko, S.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The extremely weak 2-0 O(14) electric quadrupole transition of N2 has been detected by very high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy near 4518 cm-1. It is the first N2 absorption line in the first overtone band reported so far from laboratory experiments. By combining a feedback narrowed Distributed Feedback laser diode with a passive cell tracking technique, a limit of detection of αmin ∼ 1.2 × 10-11 cm-1 was achieved after one day of spectra averaging. The N2 2-0 O(14) line position and line intensity (about 1.5 × 10-30 cm/molecule) agree with calculated values provided in the HITRAN2012 database.

  18. Dust and Diffuse Interstellar Bands in the za = 0.524 Absorption System toward AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkkarinen, V. T.; Cohen, Ross D.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Lyons, R. W.; Madejski, G.

    2004-10-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) NUV-MAMA and STIS CCD observations of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 and the intervening damped Lyα (DLA) line at za=0.524. The line profile gives N(HI)=(5+/-1)×1021 cm-2 and, combined with the H I 21 cm absorption data, leads to a spin temperature of Ts=220+/-60 K. Those spectra also show a strong, broad feature at the expected position of the 2175 Å graphitic dust feature at za=0.524. Assuming a Galactic-type dust extinction curve at za=0.524 gives a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 times the Galactic value, but the fit, assuming that the underlying, unreddened spectrum is a single power law, is poor in the far-UV. A dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 times the Galactic value is similar to the LMC, but the AO 0235+164 spectrum does not fit either the LMC extinction curve or the SMC extinction curve (which has practically no 2175 Å feature). A possible interpretation includes dust similar to that in the Galaxy, but with fewer of the small particles that produce the far-UV extinction. The metallicity of the za=0.524 absorber, estimated from the observed N(HI) and excess X-ray absorption (beyond Galactic) derived from contemporaneous and archival ASCA and ROSAT X-ray data, is Z=0.72+/-0.28 Zsolar, implying in turn a dust-to-metals ratio of 0.27 times the Galactic value. If the dust mass density is the same in the za=0.524 DLA system as in our Galaxy, only 14% (+/-6%) of the metals (by mass) are in dust, compared to 51%, 36%, and 46% for the Galaxy, LMC, and SMC, respectively. Such a dusty za=0.524 AO 0235+164 absorption system is a good example of the kind of DLA system that will be missed because of selection effects, which in turn can bias the measurement of the comoving density of interstellar gas (in units of the closure density), Ωg, as a function of z. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by

  19. Optimization of absorption bands of dye-sensitized and perovskite tandem solar cells based on loss-in-potential values.

    PubMed

    Sobuś, Jan; Ziółek, Marcin

    2014-07-21

    A numerical study of optimal bandgaps of light absorbers in tandem solar cell configurations is presented with the main focus on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The limits in efficiency and the expected improvements of tandem structures are investigated as a function of total loss-in-potential (V(L)), incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and fill factor (FF) of individual components. It is shown that the optimal absorption onsets are significantly smaller than those derived for multi-junction devices. For example, for double-cell devices the onsets are at around 660 nm and 930 nm for DSSCs with iodide based electrolytes and at around 720 nm and 1100 nm for both DSSCs with cobalt based electrolytes and PSCs. Such configurations can increase the total sunlight conversion efficiency by about 35% in comparison to single-cell devices of the same VL, IPCE and FF. The relevance of such studies for tandem n-p DSSCs and for a proposed new configuration for PSCs is discussed. In particular, it is shown that maximum total losses of 1.7 V for DSSCs and 1.4 V for tandem PSCs are necessary to give any efficiency improvement with respect to the single bandgap device. This means, for example, a tandem n-p DSSC with TiO2 and NiO porous electrodes will hardly work better than the champion single DSSC. A source code of the program used for calculations is also provided.

  20. High-efficiency, broad-band and wide-angle optical absorption in ultra-thin organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyan; Hao, Yuying; Cui, Yanxia; Tian, Ximin; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Hua; Shi, Fang; Wei, Bin; Huang, Wei

    2014-03-10

    Metal nanogratings as one of the promising architectures for effective light trapping in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been actively studied over the past decade. Here we designed a novel metal nanowall grating with ultra-small period and ultra-high aspect-ratio as the back electrode of the OPV device. Such grating results in the strong hot spot effect in-between the neighboring nanowalls and the localized surface plasmon effect at the corners of nanowalls. These combined effects make the integrated absorption efficiency of light over the wavelength range from 400 to 650 nm in the active layer for the proposed structure, with respect to the equivalent planar structure, increases by 102% at TM polarization and by 36.5% at the TM/TE hybrid polarization, respectively. Moreover, it is noted that the hot spot effect in the proposed structure is more effective for ultra-thin active layers, which is very favorable for the exciton dissociation and charge collection. Therefore such a nanowall grating is expected to improve the overall performance of OPV devices.

  1. Measurements and modeling of absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures in the spectral region beyond the CO2 ν3-band head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, H.; Turbet, M.; Chelin, P.; Landsheere, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we measured the absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures from 2400 to 2600 cm-1 which corresponds to the spectral region beyond the ν3 band head of CO2. Transmission spectra of CO2 mixed with water vapor were recorded with a high-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for various pressure, temperature and concentration conditions. The continuum absorption by CO2 due to the presence of water vapor was determined by subtracting from measured spectra the contribution of local lines of both species, that of the continuum of pure CO2 as well as of the self- and CO2-continua of water vapor induced by the H2O-H2O and H2O-CO2 interactions. The obtained results are in very good agreement with the unique previous measurement (in a narrower spectral range). They confirm that the H2O-continuum of CO2 is significantly larger than that observed for pure CO2. This continuum thus must be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations for media involving CO2+ H2O mixture. An empirical model, using sub-Lorentzian line shapes based on some temperature-dependent correction factors χ is proposed which enables an accurate description of the experimental results.

  2. Global Scale Simultaneous Retrieval of Smoothened Vegetation Optical Depth and Surface Roughness Parameter using AMSR-E X-band Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanka, Karthikeyan; Pan, Ming; Konings, Alexandra; Piles, María; D, Nagesh Kumar; Wood, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, passive microwave retrieval algorithms such as Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) estimate simultaneously soil moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) using brightness temperature (Tb) data. The algorithm requires a surface roughness parameter which - despite implications - is generally assumed to be constant at global scale. Due to inherent noise in the satellite data and retrieval algorithm, the VOD retrievals are usually observed to be highly fluctuating at daily scale which may not occur in reality. Such noisy VOD retrievals along with spatially invariable roughness parameter may affect the quality of soil moisture retrievals. The current work aims to smoothen the VOD retrievals (with an assumption that VOD remains constant over a period of time) and simultaneously generate, for the first time, global surface roughness map using multiple descending X-band Tb observations of AMSR-E. The methodology utilizes Tb values under a moving-time-window-setup to estimate concurrently the soil moisture of each day and a constant VOD in the window. Prior to this step, surface roughness parameter is estimated using the complete time series of Tb record. Upon carrying out the necessary sensitivity analysis, the smoothened VOD along with soil moisture retrievals is generated for the 10-year duration of AMSR-E (2002-2011) with a 7-day moving window using the LPRM framework. The spatial patterns of resulted global VOD maps are in coherence with vegetation biomass and climate conditions. The VOD results also exhibit a smoothening effect in terms of lower values of standard deviation. This is also evident from time series comparison of VOD and LPRM VOD retrievals without optimization over moving windows at several grid locations across the globe. The global surface roughness map also exhibited spatial patterns that are strongly influenced by topography and land use conditions. Some of the noticeable features include high roughness over mountainous regions and

  3. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  4. Modeled and Empirical Approaches for Retrieving Columnar Water Vapor from Solar Transmittance Measurements in the 0.72, 0.82, and 0.94 Micrometer Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingold, T.; Schmid, B.; Maetzler, C.; Demoulin, P.; Kaempfer, N.

    2000-01-01

    A Sun photometer (18 channels between 300 and 1024 nm) has been used for measuring the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor (CWV) by solar transmittance measurements in absorption bands with channels centered at 719, 817, and 946 nm. The observable is the band-weighted transmittance function defined by the spectral absorption of water vapor and the spectral features of solar irradiance and system response. The transmittance function is approximated by a three-parameter model. Its parameters are determined from MODTRAN and LBLRTM simulations or empirical approaches using CWV data of a dual-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) or a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Data acquired over a 2-year period during 1996-1998 at two different sites in Switzerland, Bern (560 m above sea level (asl)) and Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl) were compared to MWR, radiosonde (RS), and FTS retrievals. At the low-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 15 mm the LBLRTM approach (based on recently corrected line intensities) leads to negligible biases at 719 and 946 nm if compared to an average of MWR, RS, and GPS retrievals. However, at 817 nm an overestimate of 2.7 to 4.3 mm (18-29%) remains. At the high-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 1.4 mm the LBLRTM approaches overestimate the CWV by 1.0, 1.4. and 0.1 mm (58, 76, and 3%) at 719, 817, and 946 nm, compared to the ITS instrument. At the low-altitude station, CWV estimates, based on empirical approaches, agree with the MWR within 0.4 mm (2.5% of the mean); at the high-altitude site with a factor of 10 less water vapor the agreement of the sun photometers (SPM) with the ITS is 0.0 to 0.2 mm (1 to 9% of the mean CWV there). Sensitivity analyses show that for the conditions met at the two stations with CWV ranging from 0.2 to 30 mm, the retrieval errors are smallest if the 946 nm channel is used.

  5. Temperature dependence of the intensity of the vibration-rotational absorption band ν2 of H2O trapped in an argon matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsevich, G.; Doroshenko, I.; Malevich, A..; Shalamberidze, E.; Sapeshko, V.; Pogorelov, V.; Pettersson, L. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    Using two sets of effective rotational constants for the ground (000) and the excited bending (010) vibrational states the calculation of frequencies and intensities of vibration-rotational transitions for J″ = 0 - 2; and J‧ = 0 - 3; was carried out in frame of the model of a rigid asymmetric top for temperatures from 0 to 40 K. The calculation of the intensities of vibration-rotational absorption bands of H2O in an Ar matrix was carried out both for thermodynamic equilibrium and for the case of non-equilibrium population of para- and ortho-states. For the analysis of possible interaction of vibration-rotational and translational motions of a water molecule in an Ar matrix by 3D Schrödinger equation solving using discrete variable representation (DVR) method, calculations of translational frequencies of H2O in a cage formed after one argon atom deleting were carried out. The results of theoretical calculations were compared to experimental data taken from literature.

  6. Is actinometry reliable for monitoring Si and silicone halides produced in silicon etching plasmas? A comparison with their absolute densities measured by UV broad band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogelschatz, M.; Cunge, G.; Sadeghi, N.

    2006-03-01

    SiCl{x} radicals, the silicon etching by-products, are playing a major role in silicon gate etching processes because their redeposition on the wafer leads to the formation of a SiOCl{x} passivation layer on the feature sidewalls, which controls the final shape of the etching profile. These radicals are also the precursors to the formation of a similar layer on the reactor walls, leading to process drifts. As a result, the understanding and modelling of these processes rely on the knowledge of their densities in the plasma. Actinometry technique, based on optical emission, is often used to measure relative variations of the density of the above mentioned radicals, even if it is well known that the results obtained with this technique might not always be reliable. To determine the validity domain of actinometry in industrial silicon-etching high density plasmas, we measure the RF source power and pressure dependences of the absolute densities of SiCl{x} (x=0{-}2), SiF and SiBr radicals, deduced from UV broad band absorption spectroscopy. These results are compared to the evolution of the corresponding actinometry signals from these radicals. It is shown that actinometry predicts the global trends of the species density variations when the RF power is changed at constant pressure (that is to say when only the electron density changes) but it completely fails if the gas pressure, hence the electron temperature, changes.

  7. The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P R

    2003-10-07

    Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor' deltaT/SAR. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bioheat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur.

  8. The Rovibrational Intensities of the (40 deg 1) and (00 deg 0) Pentad Absorption Bands of 12C16O2 Between 7284 and 7921 cm(exp-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Spencer, N.; Brown, L. R.; Wattson, R. B.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the major constituent of the atmospheres of both Mars and Venus. Correct interpretations of spectra of these atmospheres require accurate knowledge of a substantial number of absorption bands of this gas. This is especially true for Venus; many weak CO2 bands that are insignificant in the earth's atmosphere are prominent absorbers in Venus' hot, dense lower atmosphere. Yet, recent near-infrared spectra of Venus' nightside have discovered emission windows, which occur between CO2 absorption bands, at 4040-4550 cm(exp-1), 5700-5900 cm(exp-1), and several smaller ones between 7500 and 9400 cm(exp-1). This radiation is due to thermal emission from Venus' lower atmosphere, diminished by scattering and absorption within the sulfuric acid clouds on its way to space. Simulations of these data with radiative transfer models can provide improved information on the abundances of a number of constituents of the lower atmosphere (e.g. H2O, CO, HDO, HCl, HF, and OCS) and the optical properties of the clouds, whose spatial variation modulates the brightness of the emissions. However, the accuracy of these retrievals has been limited by insufficient knowledge of the opacity of some of the gas species, including CO2, at the large pathlengths and high temperatures and pressures that exist on Venus. In particular, modeling the emission spectrum did not produce a good fit for the emission window centered at 7830 cm(exp-1). In an ongoing effort to assist analyses of these Venus spectra, we have been making laboratory intensity measurements of several weak bands of CO2 which are significant absorbers in these Venus emission windows. The CO2 bands that are prominent in the 7830 cm(exp-1) region belong to the vibrational sequence 4v1+v3 and associated hot bands. Only 2 of the 5 bands of this sequence have been previously measured. Modeling Venus' emission spectrum in the 7830 cm(exp-1) region had to rely on calculated intensity values for the weak ground state band at

  9. Radiation production and absorption in human spacecraft shielding systems under high charge and energy Galactic Cosmic Rays: Material medium, shielding depth, and byproduct aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Joseph; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2018-03-01

    Deep space missions such as the planned 2025 mission to asteroids require spacecraft shields to protect electronics and humans from adverse effects caused by the space radiation environment, primarily Galactic Cosmic Rays. This paper first reviews the theory on how these rays of charged particles interact with matter, and then presents a simulation for a 500 day Mars flyby mission using a deterministic based computer code. High density polyethylene and aluminum shielding materials at a solar minimum are considered. Plots of effective dose with varying shield depth, charged particle flux, and dose in silicon and human tissue behind shielding are presented.

  10. Absorption spectrum and absorption cross sections of the 2ν1 band of HO2 between 20 and 760 Torr air in the range 6636 and 6639 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Emmanuel; Liu, Lu; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2018-05-01

    The absorption spectrum of HO2 radicals has been measured in the range 6636-6639 cm-1 at several pressures between 20 and 760 Torr of air. Absolute absorption cross sections of the strongest line at around 6638.2 cm-1 have been determined from kinetic measurements, taking advantage of the well known rate constant of the self-reaction. Peak absorption cross sections of 22.6, 19.5, 14.4, 7.88, 5.12 and 3.23 × 10-20 cm2 were obtained at 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 760 Torr, respectively. By fitting these data, an empirical expression has been obtained for the absorption cross section of HO2 in the range 20-760 Torr air: σ6638.2cm-1 = 1.18 × 10-20 + (2.64 × 10-19 × (1-exp (-63.1/p (Torr))) cm2.

  11. The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2 Sigma hyperon + (v prime = O) - X-2 pion (v prime prime = O) gamma band of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A predominantly single-mode pulsed dye laser system giving a well characterized spatial and temporal output suitable for absolute two-photon absorptivity measurements was used to study the NO gamma(0,0) S11 + R21 (J double prime = 7-1/2) transition. Using a calibrated induced-fluorescence technique, an absorptivity parameter of 2.8 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the minus 51st power cm to the 6th power was obtained. Relative strengths of other rotational transitions in the gamma(0,0) band were also measured and shown to compare well with predicted values in all cases except the O12 (J double prime = 10-1/2) transition.

  12. Vertical Profiles of Light Scattering, Light Absorption, and Single Scattering Albedo during the Dry, Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa and Comparisons of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Schmid, Beat; Redermann, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0)) are presented for a number of locations in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season. Features of the profiles include haze layers, clean air slots, and marked decreases in light scattering in passing from the boundary layer into the free troposphere. Frequency distributions of omega (sub 0) reflect the strong influence of smoke from biomass burning. For example, during a period when heavy smoke was advected into the region from the north, the mean value of omega (sub 0) in the boundary layer was 0.81 +/- 0.02 compared to 0.89 +/- 0.03 prior to this intrusion. Comparisons of layer aerosol optical depths derived from the in situ measurements with those measured by a Sun photometer aboard the aircraft show excellent agreement.

  13. Electronic transitions and heterogeneity of the bacteriophytochrome Pr absorption band: An angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe study

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Martin; Yang, Yang; Zienicke, Benjamin; Hammam, Mostafa A.S.; von Haimberger, Theodore; Zacarias, Angelica; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Heyne, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Photoisomerization of biliverdin (BV) chromophore triggers the photoresponse in native Agp1 bacteriophytochrome. We discuss heterogeneity in phytochrome Pr form to account for the shape of the absorption profile. We investigated different regions of the absorption profile by angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe spectroscopy. We studied the Pr form of Agp1 with its natural chromophore and with a sterically locked 18Et-BV (locked Agp1). We followed the dynamics and orientations of the carbonyl stretching vibrations of ring D and ring A in their ground and electronically excited states. Photoisomerization of ring D is reflected by strong signals of the ring D carbonyl vibration. In contrast, orientational data on ring A show no rotation of ring A upon photoexcitation. Orientational data allow excluding a ZZZasa geometry and corroborates a nontwisted ZZZssa geometry of the chromophore. We found no proof for heterogeneity but identified a new, to our knowledge, electronic transition in the absorption profile at 644 nm (S0→S2). Excitation of the S0→S2 transition will introduce a more complex photodynamics compared with S0→S1 transition. Our approach provides fundamental information on disentanglement of absorption profiles, identification of chromophore structures, and determination of molecular groups involved in the photoisomerization process of photoreceptors. PMID:24138851

  14. Depth Profile of Induced Magnetic Polarization in Cu Layers of Co/Cu(111) Metallic Superlattices by Resonant X-ray Magnetic Scattering at the Cu K Absorption Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uegaki, Shin; Yoshida, Akihiro; Hosoito, Nobuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    We investigated induced spin polarization of 4p conduction electrons in Cu layers of antiferromagnetically (AFM) and ferromagnetically (FM) coupled Co/Cu(111) metallic superlattices by resonant X-ray magnetic scattering at the Cu K absorption edge. Magnetic reflectivity profiles of the two superlattices were measured in the magnetic saturation state with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation X-rays at 8985 eV. Depth profiles of the resonant magnetic scattering length of Cu, which corresponds to the induced spin polarization of Cu, were evaluated in the two Co/Cu superlattices by analyzing the observed magnetic reflectivity profiles. We demonstrated that the spin polarization induced in the Cu layer was distributed around the Co/Cu interfaces with an attenuation length of several Å in both AFM and FM coupled superlattices. The uniform component, which exists in Au layers of Fe/Au(001) superlattices, was not found in the depth distribution of induced magnetic polarization in the Cu layers of Co/Cu(111) superlattices.

  15. On the state of the emitter of the 3.3 micron unidentified infrared band - Absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flickinger, Gregory C.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Gomez, Percy L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of absorption measurements indicate that the PAH species responsible for the UIR (unidentified infrared) emission probably exist in a condensed form rather than as isolated molecules. It is shown that the peak absorption of the C-H stretch feature of vapor-phase PAHs occurs at a higher frequency than that of the condensed-phase PAHs and does not match the 3.289-micron interstellar feature. The vapor-phase experiments duplicate the phenomenon of the 3.3-micron profile simplification of PAH in KBr at elevated temperature. This confirms that the change of the profile with temperature is an intrinsic molecular effect, and is not a consequence of matrix (KBr) or condensed state interactions.

  16. High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nanometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Yoshino, K.; Smith, Peter L.; Ito, K.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of the abundance and excitation of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds require accurate data on the vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the molecule. The 6.65 m spectrometer at the Photon Factory synchrotron light source was used to measure photoabsorption cross sections of CO features between 91.2 and 100.4 nm. These data were recorded at a resolving power of 170,000, more than 20 times greater than that used in previous work.

  17. Origin of the Absorption Band of Bromophenol Blue in Acidic and Basic pH: Insight from a Combined Molecular Dynamics and TD-DFT/MM Study.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyaya, M; Murugan, N Arul; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas

    2016-09-15

    We study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a well-known acid-base indicator, bromophenol blue (BPB), in aqueous solution by employing static and integrated approaches. In the static approach, optical properties have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) on the fully relaxed geometries of the neutral and different unprotonated forms of BPB. Moreover, both closed and open forms of BPB were considered. In the integrated approach, the optical properties have been computed over many snapshots extracted from molecular dynamics simulation using a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory/molecular mechanics approach. The static approach suggests closed neutral ⇒ anionic interconversion as the dominant mechanism for the red shift in the absorption spectra of BPB due to a change from acidic to basic pH. It is found by employing an integrated approach that the two interconversions, namely open neutral ⇒ anionic and open neutral ⇒ dianionic, can contribute to the pH-dependent shift in the absorption spectra of BPB. Even though both static and integrated approaches reproduce the pH-dependent red shift in the absorption spectra of BPB, the latter one is suitable to determine both the spectra and spectral broadening. Finally, the computed static first hyperpolarizability for various protonated and deprotonated forms of BPB reveals that this molecule can be used as a nonlinear optical probe for pH sensing in addition to its highly exploited use as an optical probe.

  18. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Retrievals from eMAS During SEAC4RS Using Bi-Spectral Reflectance Measurements Within the 1.88 micron Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Holz, R. E.; Veglio, P.; Yorks, J.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or midwave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASAs SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 micron water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 micron channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy TOA reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption, as well as reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  19. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  20. Photodissociation dynamics in the first absorption band of pyrrole. I. Molecular Hamiltonian and the Herzberg-Teller absorption spectrum for the A12(π σ* ) ←X˜ 1 A1(π π ) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2018-03-01

    This paper opens a series in which the photochemistry of the two lowest πσ* states of pyrrole and their interaction with each other and with the ground electronic state X ˜ are studied using ab initio quantum mechanics. New 24-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the photodissociation of the N-H bond and the formation of the pyrrolyl radical are calculated using the multiconfigurational perturbation theory (CASPT2) for the electronic states X ˜ (π π ) , 11A2(πσ*), and 11B1(πσ*) and locally diabatized. In this paper, the ab initio calculations are described and the photodissociation in the state 11A2(πσ*) is analyzed. The excitation 11 A2←X ˜ is mediated by the coordinate dependent transition dipole moment functions constructed using the Herzberg-Teller expansion. Nuclear dynamics, including 6, 11, and 15 active degrees of freedom, are studied using the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method. The focus is on the frequency resolved absorption spectrum as well as on the dissociation time scales and the resonance lifetimes. Calculations are compared with available experimental data. An approximate convolution method is developed and validated, with which absorption spectra can be calculated and assigned in terms of vibrational quantum numbers. The method represents the total absorption spectrum as a convolution of the diffuse spectrum of the detaching H-atom and the Franck-Condon spectrum of the heteroaromatic ring. Convolution calculation requires a minimal quantum chemical input and is a promising tool for studying the πσ* photodissociation in model biochromophores.

  1. High resolution absorption spectrum of CO2between 1750 and 2000 Å. 2. Rotational analysis of two parallel-type bands assigned to the lowest electronic transition 13B2←

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossart-Magos, Claudina; Launay, Françoise; Parkin, James E.

    The absorption spectrum of CO2 gas between 175 and 200 nm was photographed at high resolution some years ago. This very weak spectral region proved to be extremely rich in bands showing rotational fine structure. In Part 1 [C. Cossart-Magos, F. Launay, J. E. Parkin, Mol. Phys., 75, 835 (1992), nine perpendicular-type bands were assigned to the lowest singlet-singlet transition, 11A2 ← ν'3 (b2) vibration. Here, the parallel-type bands observed at 185.7 and 175.6 nm are assigned to the lowest triplet-singlet transition, 13B2 ← TMPH0629math005 ν'2 (a1) vibration. The assignment and the rotational and spin constant values obtained are discussed in relation to previous experimental data and ab initio calculation results on the lowest excited states of CO2. The actual role of the 13B2 state in CO2 photodissociation, O(3P)+CO(X1Σ+) recombination, and O(1D) emission quenching by CO(X) molecules is reviewed.

  2. Microwave absorption properties of planar-anisotropy Ce2Fe17N3-δ powders/Silicone composite in X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xisheng; Tan, Guoguo; Chen, Shuwen; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei; Che, Shenglei; Jiang, Liqiang

    2017-02-01

    The soft-magnetic properties of planar-anisotropy Ce2Fe17N3-δ powders were reported, and reflection loss (RL) of the powders/Silicone composites with various volume concentrations have been studied in 0.1-18 GHz frequency range. It was found that the optimal RL of this composite absorber with a thickness of 1.72 mm is -60.5 dB at 9.97 GHz and the RL is less than -10 dB in the whole X-band (8-12 GHz). The bandwidth with RL exceeding -10 dB and -20 dB are 5.24 GHz and 1.32 GHz, respectively. Furthermore, all the optimal RL value of the composite with the thickness less than 2.13 mm can reach -20 dB in the range of 8-17 GHz, which indicates that the Ce2Fe17N3-δ/Silicone composite absorber will be a promising candidate in higher gigahertz frequency especially in X-band.

  3. Broad-band and polarization-independent perfect absorption in graphene-gold cylinder arrays at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, P.; Zheng, G. G.; Xu, L. H.; Xian, F. L.; Lai, M.

    2018-07-01

    A wavelength tunable perfect absorber with graphene-hexagonal gold (Au) cylinder array on a ground plate is investigated theoretically. The interactions between electromagnetic (EM) waves and monolayer graphene are analyzed through the field distributions and spectral responses in detail. The finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method is used to investigate the tunable properties of the absorber. It is demonstrated that in an optimized configuration, monolayer graphene can interact with light via critical coupling, and the absorptance can be greatly enhanced and reach to 100% for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electronic (TE) polarizations. Furthermore, the influence of geometrical parameters of the structure on the response of the hybrid structure is studied. It is expected that the proposed graphene perfect absorbers can be applied for many applications in the visible (VIS) and the near-infrared (NIR) spectral ranges such as wavelength selective infrared photodetectors and plasmonic sensors.

  4. Induced changes in refractive index, optical band gap, and absorption edge of polycarbonate-SiO2 thin films by Vis-IR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, Hassan; Akhoondi, Somaieh

    2016-09-01

    In this experimental work, we have studied induced changes in refractive index, extinction coefficient, and optical band-gap of Bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) coated with a uniform and thin, anti-scratch SiO2 film irradiated by visible to near-infrared lasers at 532 nm (green),650 nm(red), and 980 nm (IR)wavelength lasers with different energy densities. Our lasers sources are indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide, second harmonic of neodymium-YAG-solid state lasers and gallium-aluminum-arsenide-semiconductor laser. The energy densities of our sources have been changed by changing the spot size of incident laser. samples transmission spectra were monitored by carry500 spectrophotometer and induced changes in optical properties are evaluated by using, extrapolation of the transmission spectrum through Swanepoel method and computer application

  5. Evaluation of Air Pollution Applications of AERONET and MODIS Aerosol Column Optical Depth by Comparison with In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria Salazar, S.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Colucci, D.

    2012-12-01

    Reno, Nevada, USA is subject to typical urban aerosol, wind-blown dust, and occasional biomass burning smoke from anthropogenic and natural fires. Reno has complex air flow at levels relevant for aerosol transport. At times recirculating mountain and urban flow arrives from the Sierra Nevada, San Francisco, CA and Sacramento, CA. The urban plumes are further modified by biogenic forest emissions and secondary aerosol formation during transport over the Sierra Nevada Mountains to Reno. This complicates the use of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) for air quality measurements in Reno. Our laboratory at the University of Nevada Reno has collocated multispectral photoacoustic instruments and reciprocal nephelometers to measure light absorption and light scattering coefficients as well as an AERONET operated CIMEL CE-318 ground-based sunphotometer. Preliminary measurements from August 2011 indicate substantially larger Cimel AOD than could be accounted for by use of the in situ aerosol extinction measurements combined with mixing height estimate. This poster presents new results comparing AERONET AOD and single scattering albedo and MODIS AOD with in situ measurements for summer and fall 2012, along with extensive back trajectory analysis, to evaluate conditions when satellite measurement may be useful for air pollution applications in Reno.

  6. Photodissociation dynamics in the first absorption band of pyrrole. II. Photofragment distributions for the 1A2(π σ* ) ←X˜ 1A1(π π ) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) of the photofragments pyrrolyl + H-atom formed in the photodissociation of pyrrole in the low-lying state 1A2(πσ*) is presented. The TKER distributions contain complementary and often more precise information on the fragmentation process than the broad diffuse absorption spectra. The distributions are calculated quantum mechanically for the diabatic state 1A2(πσ*) either isolated or coupled to the ground electronic state at an exit channel conical intersection. The calculations use the novel ab initio quasi-diabatic potential energy matrix constructed in the work of Picconi and Grebenshchikov [J. Chem. Phys. 148, 104103 (2018)]. The approximate overlap integral-based adiabatic mapping approach is introduced with which the quantum mechanical TKER distributions can be efficiently and accurately reproduced. Finally, the calculated TKERs are compared with the experimental results. The main features of the measured vibrationally resolved distributions are reproduced, and the spectral peaks are assigned and interpreted in detail.

  7. Low-temperature high-resolution absorption spectrum of 14NH3 in the ν1+ν3 band region (1.51 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földes, T.; Golebiowski, D.; Herman, M.; Softley, T. P.; Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L.

    2014-09-01

    Jet-cooled spectra of 14NH3 and 15NH3 in natural abundance were recorded using cavity ring-down (CRDS, 6584-6670 cm-1) and cavity enhanced absorption (CEAS, 6530-6700 cm-1) spectroscopy. Line broadening effects in the CRDS spectrum allowed lines with J″-values between 0 and 3 to be identified. Intensity ratios in 14NH3 between the jet-cooled CRDS and literature room-temperature data from Sung et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1066) further assisted the line assignments. Ground state combination differences were extensively used to support the assignments, providing reliable values for J, K and inversion symmetry of the ground state vibrational levels. CEAS data helped in this respect for the lowest J lines, some of which are saturated in the CRDS spectrum. Further information on a/s doublets arose from the observed spectral structures. Thirty-two transitions of 14NH3 were assigned in this way and a limited but significant number (19) of changes in the assignments results, compared to Sung et al. or to Cacciani et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1084). Sixteen known and 25 new low-J transitions were identified for 15NH3 in the CRDS spectrum but the much scarcer literature information did not allow for any more refined assignment. The present line position measurements improve on literature values published for 15NH3 and on some line positions for 14NH3.

  8. Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation.

    PubMed

    Passarella, Salvatore; Karu, Tiina

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the major functions performed by in the cell, mitochondria play a major role in cell-light interaction. Accordingly it is generally accepted that mitochondria are crucial in cell photobiomodulation; however a variety of biomolecules themselves proved to be targets of light irradiation. We describe whether and how mitochondria can interact with monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the red and near IR optical regions with dissection of both structural and functional effects likely leading to photobiostimulation. Moreover we also report that a variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including cytochrome c oxidase, some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry. All together the reported investigations show that the elucidation of the mechanism of the light interaction with biological targets still remains to be completed, this needing further research, however the light sensitivity of a variety of molecules strongly suggests that photobiomodulation could be used in both in photomedicine and in biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. LINE ABSORPTION OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR THE c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) BANDS IN N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, C.; Velasco, A. M., E-mail: clavin@qf.uva.es

    Theoretical absorption oscillator strengths and emission branching ratios for rotational lines of the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The calculations have been performed with the molecular quantum defect orbital method, which has proved to be reliable in previous studies of rovibronic transitions in diatomic molecules. The strong interaction between c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) and b' {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(10) states has been analyzed through an interaction matrix that includes rotational terms. Owing to the perturbation, the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0), c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{supmore » +}{sub g}(1), and c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(5) bands are not weak, in contrast to what would be expected on the basis of the Franck-Condon principle. Moreover, the intensity distribution of the rotational lines within each of the vibronic bands deviates from considerations based on Hoenl-London factors. In this work, we provide data that may be useful to interpret spectra from atmospheres of the Earth, Titan, and Triton, in which transitions from the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) level have been detected.« less

  10. Diving depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanet, Christophe; Guillet, Thibault; Coux, Martin; Quéré, David

    2017-11-01

    Many seabirds (gannets, pelicans, gulls, albatrosses) dive into water at high speeds (25 m/s) in order to capture underwater preys. Diving depths of 20 body lengths are reported in the literature. This value is much larger than the one achieved by men, which is typically of the order of 3. We study this difference by comparing the vertical impact of slender vs bluff bodies. We quantify the influence of wetting and of the geometry on the trajectory and discuss the different laws that govern the diving depth.

  11. Full Spectral Resolution Data Generation from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on S-NPP at NOAA and its Use to Investigate Uncertainty in Methane Absorption Band Near 7.66 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sasakawa, M.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D.; Jin, X.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Q.; Weng, F.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric sounding. CrIS on S-NPP started to provide measurements in 1305 channels in its normal mode since its launch on November 2011 to December 4, 2014, and after that it was switched to the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the spectral resolutions are 0.625 cm-1 in all the MWIR (1210-1750 cm-1), SWIR (2155-2550 cm-1) and the LWIR bands (650-1095 cm-1) with a total of 2211 channels. While the NOAA operational Sensor Data Record (SDR) processing (IDPS) continues to produce the normal resolution SDRs by truncating full spectrum RDR data, NOAA STAR started to process the FSR SDRs data since December 4, 2014 to present, and the data is being delivered through NOAA STAR website (ftp://ftp2.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/xxiong/). The current FSR processing algorithm was developed on basis of the CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), and is the baseline of J-1 CrIS SDR algorithm. One major benefit to use the FSR data is to improve the retrieval of atmospheric trace gases, such as CH4, CO and CO2 . From our previous studies to retrieve CH4 using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), it was found the uncertainty in the CH4 absorption band is up to 1-2%. So, in this study we computed the radiance using the community radiative transfer model (CRTM) and line-by-line model, with the inputs of "truth" of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from ECMWF model (and/or RAOB sounding) and CH4 profiles from in-situ aircraft measurements, then convoluted with the response function of CrIS. The difference between the simultaed radiance and the collocated CrIS FSR data is used to exam the uncertainty in these strong absorption channels.Through the improved fitting to the transmittance in these channels, it is expected to improve the retrieval of CH4 using CrIS on S

  12. L(alpha)-induced two-photon absorption of visible light emitted from an O-type star by H2(+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere surrounding the star: A possible explanation for the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glownia, James H.; Sorokin, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is proposed to account for the DIB's (Diffuse Interstellar Bands). In this model, the DIB's result from a non-linear effect: resonantly-enhanced two-photon absorption of H(2+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere that surrounds an O- or B- type star. The strong light that is required to 'drive' the two-photon transition is provided by L(alpha) light emerging from the Stromgren sphere that bounds the H II region surrounding the star. A value of approximately 100 micro W/sq cm is estimated for the L(alpha) flux at the Stromgren radius, R(s), of a strong (O5) star. It is shown that a c.w. L(alpha) flux of this intensity should be sufficient to induce a few percent absorption for visible light radiated by the same star at a frequency (omega2) that completes an allowed two-photon transition, provided (1) the L(alpha) radiation happens to be nearly resonant with the frequency of a fully-allowed absorber transition that effectively represents the first step in the two-photon transition, and (2) an effective column density approximately 10(sup18)/sq cm of the absorber is present near the Stromgren sphere radius, R(sub s).

  13. Nonlinearity-aware 200  Gbit/s DMT transmission for C-band short-reach optical interconnects with a single packaged electro-absorption modulated laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Hong, Xuezhi; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Udalcovs, Aleksejs; Schatz, Richard; Guo, Changjian; Zhang, Junwei; Nordwall, Fredrik; Engenhardt, Klaus M; Westergren, Urban; Popov, Sergei; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Xiao, Shilin; Hu, Weisheng; Chen, Jiajia

    2018-01-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the transmission of a 200 Gbit/s discrete multitone (DMT) at the soft forward error correction limit in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a single C-band packaged distributed feedback laser and traveling-wave electro absorption modulator (DFB-TWEAM), digital-to-analog converter and photodiode. The bit-power loaded DMT signal is transmitted over 1.6 km standard single-mode fiber with a net rate of 166.7 Gbit/s, achieving an effective electrical spectrum efficiency of 4.93 bit/s/Hz. Meanwhile, net rates of 174.2 Gbit/s and 179.5 Gbit/s are also demonstrated over 0.8 km SSMF and in an optical back-to-back case, respectively. The feature of the packaged DFB-TWEAM is presented. The nonlinearity-aware digital signal processing algorithm for channel equalization is mathematically described, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio up to 3.5 dB.

  14. Nonlinear Saturable and Polarization-induced Absorption of Rhenium Disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yudong; Lu, Feifei; Liu, Xueming

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), with lamellar structure as that of graphene, has attracted significant attentions in optoelectronics and photonics. Here, we focus on the optical absorption response of a new member TMDs, rhenium disulphide (ReS2) whose monolayer and bulk forms have the nearly identical band structures. The nonlinear saturable and polarization-induced absorption of ReS2 are investigated at near-infrared communication band beyond its bandgap. It is found that the ReS2-covered D-shaped fiber (RDF) displays the remarkable polarization-induced absorption, which indicates the different responses for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations relative to ReS2 plane. Nonlinear saturable absorption of RDF exhibits the similar saturable fluence of several tens of μJ/cm2 and modulation depth of about 1% for ultrafast pulses with two orthogonal polarizations. RDF is utilized as a saturable absorber to achieve self-started mode-locking operation in an Er-doped fiber laser. The results broaden the operation wavelength of ReS2 from visible light to around 1550 nm, and numerous applications may benefit from the anisotropic and nonlinear absorption characteristics of ReS2, such as in-line optical polarizers, high-power pulsed lasers, and optical communication system. PMID:28053313

  15. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "molecules".

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Dual band metamaterial perfect absorbers with two absorption bands are highly desirable because of their potential application areas such as detectors, transceiver system, and spectroscopic imagers. However, most of these dual band metamaterial absorbers proposed were based on resonances of metal patterns. Here, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a dual band metamaterial perfect absorber composed of artificial dielectric "molecules" with high symmetry. The artificial dielectric "molecule" consists of four "atoms" of two different sizes corresponding to two absorption bands with near unity absorptivity. Numerical and experimental absorptivity verify that the dual-band metamaterial absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide-angle incidence.

  16. Confocal spectroscopic imaging measurements of depth dependent hydration dynamics in human skin in-vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, P.; Hashemi, M.; Hoppe, S.; Wessel, S.; Hagens, R.; Jaspers, S.; Wenck, H.; Rübhausen, M.

    2017-11-01

    We present confocal spectroscopic imaging measurements applied to in-vivo studies to determine the depth dependent hydration profiles of human skin. The observed spectroscopic signal covers the spectral range from 810 nm to 2100 nm allowing to probe relevant absorption signals that can be associated with e.g. lipid and water-absorption bands. We employ a spectrally sensitive autofocus mechanism that allows an ultrafast focusing of the measurement spot on the skin and subsequently probes the evolution of the absorption bands as a function of depth. We determine the change of the water concentration in m%. The water concentration follows a sigmoidal behavior with an increase of the water content of about 70% within 5 μm in a depth of about 14 μm. We have applied our technique to study the hydration dynamics of skin before and after treatment with different concentrations of glycerol indicating that an increase of the glycerol concentration leads to an enhanced water concentration in the stratum corneum. Moreover, in contrast to traditional corneometry we have found that the application of Aluminium Chlorohydrate has no impact to the hydration of skin.

  17. Retrieval Analysis of the CO2 1.6 μm Band in Solar Absorption Spectra Measured by a Ground-Based High-Resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Tsukuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Morino, I.; Nagahama, T.; Suto, H.; Oguma, H.; Machida, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Nakane, H.; Nakagawa, K.

    2006-12-01

    The global measurements of greenhouse gases from space are being planned, such as GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory). Satellite remote sensing needs validations with other measurement techniques, for example, in-situ or sampling measurement by aircraft or ground station, or remote sensing measurement by ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The ground-based FTS measurement can provide the column amounts of atmospheric composition by a retrieval analysis with relatively high precision. In 2001, we started a project to observe the atmospheric compositions in solar absorption spectra by a ground- based high-resolution FTS (Bruker IFS 120 HR) located at Tsukuba, Japan. Three years ago, optical components of the FTS were replaced for measuring greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the near-infrared region: a CaF2 beam splitter, an InSb detector, and a 1.4-2.4 μm optical filter. The measurements were carried out once a day for ~100 days per year. We also made simultaneous FTS and aircraft in-situ measurements on August 10, 2004 and March 30, 2005. The retrieval analysis was performed for the measured spectra in the CO2 1.6 μm band. We used SEASCRAPE PLUS (Sequential Evaluation Algorithm for Simultaneous and Concurrent Retrieval of Atmospheric Parameter Estimates PLUS, Remote Sensing Analysis Systems, Inc.) as a retrieval analysis program. The column amounts were compared with those derived from in-situ measurements complemented by model data; differences are less than 1%. We have derived the diurnal variations of CO2 on the same days as in-situ measurements, and they showed tendencies similar to the tower measurements at the Meteorological Research Institute in Tsukuba.

  18. Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoepffner, Nicolas; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    The contributions of detrital particles and phytoplankton to total light absorption are retrieved by nonlinear regression on the absorption spectra of total particles from various oceanic regions. The model used explains more than 96% of the variance in the observed particle absorption spectra. The resulting absorption spectra of phytoplankton are then decomposed into several Gaussian bands reflecting absorption by phytoplankton pigments. Such a decomposition, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography data on phytoplankton pigment concentrations, allows the computation of specific absorption coefficients for chlorophylls a, b, and c and carotenoids. The spectral values of these in vivo absorption coefficients are then discussed, considering the effects of secondary pigments which were not measured quantitatively. We show that these coefficients can be used to reconstruct the absorption spectra of phytoplankton at various locations and depths. Discrepancies that do occur at some stations are explained in terms of particle size effect. These coefficients can be used to determine the concentrations of phytoplankton pigments in the water, given the absorption spectrum of total particles.

  19. Gas-phase Absorption of {{\\rm{C}}}_{70}^{2+} below 10 K: Astronomical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    The electronic spectrum of the fullerene dication {{{C}}}702+ has been measured in the gas phase at low temperature in a cryogenic radiofrequency ion trap. The spectrum consists of a strong origin band at 7030 Å and two weaker features to higher energy. The bands have FWHMs of 35 Å indicating an excited state lifetime on the order of one-tenth of a picosecond. Absorption cross-section measurements yield (2 ± 1) × 10-15 cm2 at 7030 Å. These results are used to predict the depth of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) due to the absorption by {{{C}}}702+. At an assumed column density of 2 × 1012 cm-2 the attenuation of starlight at 7030 Å is around 0.4% and thus the detection of such a shallow and broad interstellar band would be difficult. The electronic spectrum of {{{C}}}602+ shows no absorptions in the visible. Below 4000 Å the spectra of C60, {{{C}}}60+ and {{{C}}}602+ are similar. The large intrinsic FWHM of the features in this region, ˜200 Å for the band near 3250 Å, make them unsuitable for DIB detection.

  20. Thermodynamic derivatives of infrared absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broersma, S.; Walls, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the concentration, pressure, and temperature dependence of the spectral absorptance of a vibrational absorption band. A smooth thermodynamic dependence was found for wavelength intervals where the average absorptance is less than 0.65. Individual rotational lines, whose parameters are often well known, were used as bases in the calculation of medium resolution spectra. Two modes of calculation were combined: well-separated rotational lines plus interaction terms, or strongly overlapping lines that were represented by a compound line of similar shape plus corrections. The 1.9- and 6.3-micron bands of H2O and the 4.3-micron band of CO2 were examined in detail and compared with experiment.

  1. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  2. Multiband coherent perfect absorption in a water-based metasurface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiren; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Xiao, Fajun; He, Chong; Geng, Junping; Liang, Xianling; Premaratne, Malin; Jin, Ronghong

    2017-07-10

    We design an ultrathin water-based metasurface capable of coherent perfect absorption (CPA) at radio frequencies. It is demonstrated that such a metasurface can almost completely absorb two symmetrically incident waves within four frequency bands, each having its own modulation depth of metasurface absorptivity. Specifically, the absorptivity at 557.2 MHz can be changed between 0.59% and 99.99% via the adjustment of the phase difference between the waves. The high angular tolerance of our metasurface is shown to enable strong CPA at oblique incidence, with the CPA frequency almost independent of the incident angle for TE waves and varying from 557.2 up to 584.2 MHz for TM waves. One can also reduce this frequency from 712.0 to 493.3 MHz while retaining strong coherent absorption by varying the water layer thickness. It is also show that the coherent absorption performance can be flexibly controlled by adjusting the temperature of water. The proposed metasurface is low-cost, biocompatible, and useful for electromagnetic modulation and switching.

  3. An analytic formula for heating due to ozone absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, R. S.; Will, D. I.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to devise a simple expression or formula to describe radiative heating in the atmosphere by ozone absorption. Such absorption occurs in the Hartley, Huggins, and Chappuis bands and is only slightly temperature and pressure dependent.

  4. Self-consistent approach to the solution of the light transfer problem for irradiances in marine waters with arbitrary turbidity, depth, and surface illumination. I. Case of absorption and elastic scattering.

    PubMed

    Haltrin, V I

    1998-06-20

    A self-consistent variant of the two-flow approximation that takes into account strong anisotropy of light scattering in seawater of finite depth and arbitrary turbidity is presented. To achieve an appropriate accuracy, this approach uses experimental dependencies between downward and total mean cosines. It calculates irradiances, diffuse attenuation coefficients, and diffuse reflectances in waters with arbitrary values of scattering, backscattering, and attenuation coefficients. It also takes into account arbitrary conditions of illumination and reflection from the bottom with the Lambertian albedo. This theory can be used for the calculation of apparent optical properties in both open and coastal oceanic waters, lakes, and rivers. It can also be applied to other types of absorbing and scattering medium such as paints, photographic emulsions, and biological tissues.

  5. Photoionization bands of rubidium molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, M.; Pichler, G.

    2018-03-01

    We studied the absorption spectrum of dense rubidium vapor generated in a T-type sapphire cell with a special emphasis on the structured photoionization continuum observed in the 200-300 nm spectral region. The photoionization spectrum has a continuous atomic contribution with a pronounced Seaton-Cooper minimum at about 250 nm and a molecular photoionization contribution with many broad bands. We discuss the possible origin of the photoionization bands as stemming from the absorption from the ground state of the Rb2 molecule to excited states of Rb2+* and to doubly excited autoionizing states of Rb2** molecule. All these photoionization bands are located above the Rb+ and Rb2+ ionization limits.

  6. Monte Carlo modeling of light-tissue interactions in narrow band imaging.

    PubMed

    Le, Du V N; Wang, Quanzeng; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Pfefer, T Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Light-tissue interactions that influence vascular contrast enhancement in narrow band imaging (NBI) have not been the subject of extensive theoretical study. In order to elucidate relevant mechanisms in a systematic and quantitative manner we have developed and validated a Monte Carlo model of NBI and used it to study the effect of device and tissue parameters, specifically, imaging wavelength (415 versus 540 nm) and vessel diameter and depth. Simulations provided quantitative predictions of contrast-including up to 125% improvement in small, superficial vessel contrast for 415 over 540 nm. Our findings indicated that absorption rather than scattering-the mechanism often cited in prior studies-was the dominant factor behind spectral variations in vessel depth-selectivity. Narrow-band images of a tissue-simulating phantom showed good agreement in terms of trends and quantitative values. Numerical modeling represents a powerful tool for elucidating the factors that affect the performance of spectral imaging approaches such as NBI.

  7. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  8. Optimal Band Ratio Analysis of WORLDVIEW-3 Imagery for Bathymetry of Shallow Rivers (case Study: Sarca River, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, M.; Vitti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) could be considered as an efficient technique for bathymetry from optical imagery due to its robustness on substrate variability. This point receives more attention for very shallow rivers where different substrate types can contribute remarkably into total at-sensor radiance. The OBRA examines the total possible pairs of spectral bands in order to identify the optimal two-band ratio that its log transformation yields a strong linear relation with field measured water depths. This paper aims at investigating the effectiveness of additional spectral bands of newly launched WorldView-3 (WV-3) imagery in the visible and NIR spectrum through OBRA for retrieving water depths in shallow rivers. In this regard, the OBRA is performed on a WV-3 image as well as a GeoEye image of a small Alpine river in Italy. In-situ depths are gathered in two river reaches using a precise GPS device. In each testing scenario, 50% of the field data is used for calibration of the model and the remained as independent check points for accuracy assessment. In general, the effect of changes in water depth is highly pronounced in longer wavelengths (i.e. NIR) due to high and rapid absorption of light in this spectrum as long as it is not saturated. As the studied river is shallow, NIR portion of the spectrum has not been reduced so much not to reach the riverbed; making use of the observed radiance over this spectral range as denominator has shown a strong correlation through OBRA. More specifically, tightly focused channels of red-edge, NIR-1 and NIR-2 provide a wealth of choices for OBRA rather than a single NIR band of conventional 4-band images (e.g. GeoEye). This advantage of WV-3 images is outstanding as well for choosing the optimal numerator of the ratio model. Coastal-blue and yellow bands of WV-3 are identified as proper numerators while only green band of the GeoEye image contributed to a reliable correlation of image derived values and field

  9. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  10. The Mysterious 6565 Å Absorption Feature of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Shiv K.; Shchekinov, Yuri; Nath, Biman B.

    2017-12-01

    We consider various possible scenarios to explain the recent observation of what has been called a broad Hα absorption in our Galactic halo, with peak optical depth τ ≃ 0.01 and equivalent width W≃ 0.17 \\mathringA . We show that the absorbed feature cannot arise from the circumgalactic and ISM Hα absorption. As the observed absorption feature is quite broad ({{Δ }}λ ≃ 30 \\mathringA ), we also consider CNO lines that lie close to Hα as possible alternatives to explain the feature. We show that such lines could also not account for the observed feature. Instead, we suggest that it could arise from diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) carriers or polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorption. While we identify several such lines close to the Hα transition, we are unable to determine the molecule responsible for the observed feature, partly because of selection effects that prevent us from identifying DIBs/PAHs features close to Hα using local observations. Deep integration of a few extragalactic sources with high spectral resolution might allow us to distinguish between different possible explanations.

  11. Using Methane Absorption to Probe Jupiter's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaics of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator in near-infrared light moderately absorbed by atmospheric methane (top panel), and strongly absorbed by atmospheric methane (bottom panel). The four images that make up each of these mosaics were taken within a few minutes of each other. Methane in Jupiter's atmosphere absorbs light at specific wavelengths called absorption bands. By detecting light close and far from these absorption bands, Galileo can probe to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere. Sunlight near 732 nanometers (top panel) is moderately absorbed by methane. Some of the light reflected from clouds deep in Jupiter's troposphere is absorbed, enhancing the higher features. Sunlight at 886 nanometers (bottom panel) is strongly absorbed by methane. Most of the light reflected from the deeper clouds is absorbed, making these clouds invisible. Features in the diffuse cloud layer higher in Jupiter's atmosphere are greatly enhanced.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  13. A New Satellite Aerosol Retrieval Using High Spectral Resolution Oxygen A-Band Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winker, D. M.; Zhai, P.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts to advance current satellite aerosol retrieval capabilities have mostly focused on polarimetric techniques. While there has been much interest in recent decades in the use of the oxygen A-band for retrievals of cloud height or surface pressure, these techniques are mostly based on A-band measurements with relatively low spectral resolution. We report here on a new aerosol retrieval technique based on high-resolution A-band spectra. Our goal is the development of a technique to retrieve aerosol absorption, one of the critical parameters affecting the global radiation budget and one which is currently poorly constrained by satellite measurements. Our approach relies on two key factors: 1) the use of high spectral resolution measurements which resolve the A-band line structure, and 2) the use of co-located lidar profile measurements to constrain the vertical distribution of scatterers. The OCO-2 satellite, launched in July this year and now flying in formation with the CALIPSO satellite, carries an oxygen A-band spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 21,000:1. This is sufficient to resolve the A-band line structure, which contains information on atmospheric photon path lengths. Combining channels with oxygen absorption ranging from weak to strong allows the separation of atmospheric and surface scattering. An optimal estimation algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical depth, aerosol absorption, and surface albedo has been developed. Lidar profile data is used for scene identification and to provide constraints on the vertical distribution of scatterers. As calibrated OCO-2 data is not expected until the end of this year, the algorithm has been developed and tested using simulated OCO-2 spectra. The simulations show that AOD and surface albedo can be retrieved with high accuracy. Retrievals of aerosol single scatter albedo are encouraging, showing good performance when AOD is larger than about 0.15. Retrieval performance improves as the

  14. Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of the nu4 (sigma u) fundamental and associated nu11(pi u) hot band of C7 - Evidence for alternating rigidity in linear carbon clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, J. R.; Saykally, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The first characterization of the bending potential of the C7 cluster is reported via the observation of the v = 1(1) and v = 2 deg levels of the nu11 (pi u) bend as hot bands associated with the nu4 (sigma u) antisymmetric stretch fundamental. The lower state hot band rotational constants are measured to be 1004.4(1.3) and 1123.6(9.0) MHz, constituting a 9.3 and 22 percent increase over the ground state rotational constant, 918.89 (41) MHz. These large increases are strong quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants determined for the ground and nu 4 = 1 states are found to be anomalously large and negative, evidencing strong perturbations between stretching and bending modes.

  15. The Ma_Miss instrument performance, II: Band parameters of rocks powders spectra by Martian VNIR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Simone; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Carli, Cristian; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Altieri, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    The Ma_Miss instrument (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies, Coradini et al. (2001)) is a Visible and Near Infrared miniaturized spectrometer that will observe the Martian subsurface in the 0.4-2.2 μm spectral range. The instrument will be entirely hosted within the Drill of the ExoMars-2018 Pasteur Rover: it will allow analyzing the borehole wall excavated by the Drill, at different depths, down to 2 m. The aim will be to investigate and characterize the mineralogy and stratigraphy of the shallow Martian subsurface. A series of spectroscopic measurements have been performed in order to characterize the spectral performances of the laboratory model of the instrument (breadboard). A set of six samples have been analyzed. Each sample (four volcanic rocks, a micritic limestone and a calcite) has been reduced in particulate form, ground, sieved and divided into nine different grain sizes in the range d<0.02÷0.8 mm. Spectroscopic measurements have been performed on all samples using two distinct experimental setup: (a) the Ma_Miss breadboard, and (b) the Spectro-Goniometer setup, both in use in the laboratory at INAF - IAPS. In a previous paper spectral parameters such as the continuum slope and the reflectance level of the spectra have been discussed (De Angelis et al., 2014). In this work we focus our discussion on absorption band parameters (position, depth, area, band slope and asymmetry). We analyzed/investigated the absorption features at 1 μm for the volcanic samples and at 1.4, 1.9 and 2.2 μm for the two carbonate samples. Band parameters have been retrieved from spectra measured with both experimental setup and then compared. The comparison shows that band parameters are mutually consistent: band centers (for carbonate samples) are similar within few percent, and band depth and area values (for carbonates) show consistent trends vs. grain size (decreasing towards coarser grains) for most of samples.

  16. Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng

    2014-11-17

    We show multi-band coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in simple bilayered asymmetrically split ring metamaterials. The selectivity of absorption can be accomplished by separately excited electric and magnetic modes in a standing wave formed by two coherent counterpropagating beams. In particular, each CPA can be completely switched on/off by the phase of a second coherent wave. We propose a practical scheme for realizing multi-band coherent perfect absorption of 100% that is allowed to work from microwave to optical frequency.

  17. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  18. Predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumann-Runge absorption bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18 in the wavelength region 180-196 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, S. S.-L.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Yoshino et al. (1988) measurements of absolute cross sections and those of Cheung et al. (1988) for spectroscopic constants are presently used to derive the predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumman-Runge bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18, in the 180-196 nm wavelength region. Linewidths are determined as parameters in the nonlinear, least-squares fitting of calculated cross-sections to measured ones. The predissociation linewidths obtained are noted to often be greater than previously obtained experimental values for both isotopic molecules.

  19. Operational Observation of Australian Bioregions with Bands 8-19 of Modis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAtee, B. K.; Gray, M.; Broomhall, M.; Lynch, M.; Fearns, P.

    2012-07-01

    Data from bands 1-7 are the most common bands of the MODIS instrument used for near-real time terrestrial earth observation operations in Australia. However, many of Australia's bioregions present unique scenarios which constitute a challenge for quantitative environmental remote sensing. We believe that data from MODIS bands 8-19 may provide significant benefit to Earth observation over particular bioregions of the Australian continent. Examples here include the use of band 8 in characterising aerosol optical depth over typically bright land surfaces and accounting for anomalous retrievals of atmospheric water vapour obtained using MOD05 based on the abundance of Australia's 'red dirt', which exhibits absorption features in the near infrared bands 17-19 of MODIS. Bioregion-focused applications such as those mentioned above have driven the development of automated processing, infrastructure for the atmospheric and BRDF correction of the first 19 bands of MODIS rather than only the first 7, which is more often the case. This work has been facilitated by the AusCover project which is the remote sensing component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN), itself a program designed to create a new generation of infrastructure for ecological study of the Australian landscape.

  20. On the Widths of Bands in the Infrared Spectra of Oxyanions.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter R; Eastman Fries, Brandy; Weakley, Andrew T

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that the antisymmetric stretching (ν 3 ) band in the mid-infrared spectra of oxyanion salts is usually very broad, whereas all the other fundamental bands are narrow. In this paper, we propose that the underlying cause of the increased width is the effect of the very high absorption index of this band for samples prepared with a range of particle sizes. When oxyanion salts are ground, the diameter of the resulting particles usually varies from less than 100 nm to about 2 µm. While the peak absorbance of the ν 3 band of the smaller particles (diameter < 200 nm) is less than 1, that of the larger particles can be as high as 6. We show that the average transmittance of these particles leads to a significant band broadening, especially when there are small voids in the resulting sample. Although the effect is always seen in the spectra of alkali halide disks and mineral oil mulls, it is also seen in diffuse reflection and attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra. Because the depth of penetration of infrared radiation below 1500 cm -1 is less than 1 µm for ATR spectra measured with a germanium internal reflection element (IRE), the width of the ν 3 band is lower than that of ATR spectra measured with an IRE of lower refractive index such as diamond on zinc selenide.

  1. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  2. YIG based broad band microwave absorber: A perspective on synthesis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vinay; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2017-10-01

    The fabrication of a thin layer of microwave absorber that operates over a wide band of frequencies is still a challenging task. With recent advances in nanostructure synthesis techniques, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin nanocomposite layer designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation covering S to K band frequencies. The primary objective of this investigation is to achieve best possible EM absorption with a wide bandwidth and attenuation >10 dB for a thin absorbing layer (few hundred of microns). Magnetic yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12; in short YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by sol-gel (SG) as well as solid-state (SS) reaction methods to elucidate the effects of nanoscale finite size on the magnetic behavior of the particles and hence their microwave absorption capabilities. It is found that YIG prepared by these two methods are different in many ways. Magnetic properties investigated using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) exhibit that the coercivity (Hc) of solid-state NPs is much larger (72 Oe) than the sol-gel NPs (31 Oe). Microwave absorption properties were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique in field sweep mode at different fixed frequencies. A thin layer (∼300 μm) of YIG film was deposited using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique over a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line made on copper coated RT/duroid® 5880 substrates. Temperature dependent magnetic properties were also investigated using VSM and FMR techniques. Microwave absorption properties were investigated at high temperatures (up to 300 °C) both for sol-gel and solid-state synthesized NPs and are related to skin depth of YIG films. It is observed that microwave absorption almost vanishes when the temperature reached the Néel temperature of YIG.

  3. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  4. AVIRIS study of Death Valley evaporite deposits using least-squares band-fitting methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J. K.; Clark, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals found in playa evaporite deposits reflect the chemically diverse origins of ground waters in arid regions. Recently, it was discovered that many playa minerals exhibit diagnostic visible and near-infrared (0.4-2.5 micron) absorption bands that provide a remote sensing basis for observing important compositional details of desert ground water systems. The study of such systems is relevant to understanding solute acquisition, transport, and fractionation processes that are active in the subsurface. Observations of playa evaporites may also be useful for monitoring the hydrologic response of desert basins to changing climatic conditions on regional and global scales. Ongoing work using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data to map evaporite minerals in the Death Valley salt pan is described. The AVIRIS data point to differences in inflow water chemistry in different parts of the Death Valley playa system and have led to the discovery of at least two new North American mineral occurrences. Seven segments of AVIRIS data were acquired over Death Valley on 31 July 1990, and were calibrated to reflectance by using the spectrum of a uniform area of alluvium near the salt pan. The calibrated data were subsequently analyzed by using least-squares spectral band-fitting methods, first described by Clark and others. In the band-fitting procedure, AVIRIS spectra are fit compared over selected wavelength intervals to a series of library reference spectra. Output images showing the degree of fit, band depth, and fit times the band depth are generated for each reference spectrum. The reference spectra used in the study included laboratory data for 35 pure evaporite spectra extracted from the AVIRIS image cube. Additional details of the band-fitting technique are provided by Clark and others elsewhere in this volume.

  5. Intrinsic defect oriented visible region absorption in zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhesh, V.; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Zinc Oxide films were deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum arc sputtering technology. Films were prepared in oxygen ambience for 10mA and 15 mA deposition current separately. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the samples showed that both samples possess sharp absorption near 3.5eV which is the characteristic band gap absorption energy of ZnO films. The absorption coefficient were calculated for the samples and the (αℎϑ)2 vs energy plot is drawn. The plot suggested that in addition to the sharp band edge absorption, the sample prepared at 10mA deposition current showed sharp absorption edge near 1.51eV and that at 15 mA showed absorption edge near 1.47eV. This refers to the presence of an intrinsic defect level which is likely to be deep in the band gap.

  6. A Simple Band for Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-08-01

    The author has noted that flexible gastric bands have occasionally stenosed the gastric stoma or allowed it to dilate. A band was developed using a soft outer silicone rubber tube over a holding mechanism made out of a nylon cable tie passed within the silicone tube. This simple, easily applied band is rigid, resisting scar contracture and dilatation.

  7. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Under Thin Cirrus from MODIS: Application to an Ocean Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Sayer, Andrew Mark; Bettenhausen, Corey

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) under conditions of thin cirrus coverage from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is presented. We adopt an empirical method that derives the cirrus contribution to measured reflectance in seven bands from the visible to shortwave infrared (0.47, 0.55, 0.65, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.12 µm, commonly used for AOD retrievals) by using the correlations between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at 1.38 micron and these bands. The 1.38 micron band is used due to its strong absorption by water vapor and allows us to extract the contribution of cirrus clouds to TOA reflectance and create cirrus-corrected TOA reflectances in the seven bands of interest. These cirrus-corrected TOA reflectances are then used in the aerosol retrieval algorithm to determine cirrus-corrected AOD. The cirrus correction algorithm reduces the cirrus contamination in the AOD data as shown by a decrease in both magnitude and spatial variability of AOD over areas contaminated by thin cirrus. Comparisons of retrieved AOD against Aerosol Robotic Network observations at Nauru in the equatorial Pacific reveal that the cirrus correction procedure improves the data quality: the percentage of data within the expected error +/-(0.03 + 0.05 ×AOD) increases from 40% to 80% for cirrus-corrected points only and from 80% to 86% for all points (i.e., both corrected and uncorrected retrievals). Statistical comparisons with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) retrievals are also carried out. A high correlation (R = 0.89) between the CALIOP cirrus optical depth and AOD correction magnitude suggests potential applicability of the cirrus correction procedure to other MODIS-like sensors.

  8. Stereoscopic depth constancy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Depth constancy is the ability to perceive a fixed depth interval in the world as constant despite changes in viewing distance and the spatial scale of depth variation. It is well known that the spatial frequency of depth variation has a large effect on threshold. In the first experiment, we determined that the visual system compensates for this differential sensitivity when the change in disparity is suprathreshold, thereby attaining constancy similar to contrast constancy in the luminance domain. In a second experiment, we examined the ability to perceive constant depth when the spatial frequency and viewing distance both changed. To attain constancy in this situation, the visual system has to estimate distance. We investigated this ability when vergence, accommodation and vertical disparity are all presented accurately and therefore provided veridical information about viewing distance. We found that constancy is nearly complete across changes in viewing distance. Depth constancy is most complete when the scale of the depth relief is constant in the world rather than when it is constant in angular units at the retina. These results bear on the efficacy of algorithms for creating stereo content. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269596

  9. Optical band gap of thermally deposited Ge-S-Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Anjli; Heera, Pawan; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Raman

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of Ge20S80-xGax glassy alloy, obtained from melt quenching technique, were deposited on the glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique under a high vacuum conditions (˜ 10-5 Torr). Absorption spectrum fitting method (ASF) is employed to obtain the optical band gap from absorption spectra. This method requires only the measurement of the absorption spectrum of the sample. The width of the band tail was also determined. Optical band gap computed from absorption spectra is found to decrease with an increase in Ga content. The evaluated optical band gap (Eg) is in well agreement with the theoretically predicted Eg and obtained from transmission spectra.

  10. Variation of the 3-μm absorption feature on Mars: observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the mariner 6 infrared spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach for calibration of the shortest wavelength channel (1.8 to 6.0 μm) of the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer was derived. This calibration provides a new description of the instrument response function from 1.8 to 3.7 μm and accounts for the thermal contribution to the signal at longer wavelengths. This allows the two segments from 1.8 to 6 μm to be merged into a single spectrum. The broad water of hydration absorption spans these two segments and is examined in these merged spectra using a method of band integration. Unlike previous analyses which rely on ratios at two wavelengths, the integration method can assess the band strength independently from the albedo in the near infrared. Spectra taken over the eastern end of the Valles Marineris are examined for variations of the band-integrated value, and three distinct clusters are found. Within the estimated uncertainty, two clusters (both low and high albedo) have approximately the same integrated band depth. The third cluster (medium albedo) has an integrated band depth about 10% higher. This difference cannot be systematically attributed to either surface or atmospheric parameters and suggests variation in the amount of water either chemically or physically bound in surface materials. Approximately one-half of the high integrated band depth cluster is associated with chaotic terrain at the source of outflow channels, the other half occurs over lower inertia plains adjacent to chasmata. This suggests both surface physical properties and mineralogy as well as water in exchange with the atmosphere contribute to the 3-μm bound water absorption.

  11. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  12. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  13. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  14. Depth Optimization Study

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kawase, Mitsuhiro

    2009-11-22

    The zipped file contains a directory of data and routines used in the NNMREC turbine depth optimization study (Kawase et al., 2011), and calculation results thereof. For further info, please contact Mitsuhiro Kawase at kawase@uw.edu. Reference: Mitsuhiro Kawase, Patricia Beba, and Brian Fabien (2011), Finding an Optimal Placement Depth for a Tidal In-Stream Conversion Device in an Energetic, Baroclinic Tidal Channel, NNMREC Technical Report.

  15. Surface plasmon enhanced SWIR absorption at the ultra n-doped substrate/PbSe nanostructure layer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, Vladimir; Rosenblit, Michael; Sarusi, Gabby

    2017-08-01

    This work presents simulation results of the plasmon enhanced absorption that can be achieved in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR - 1200 nm to 1800 nm) spectral range at the interface between ultra-heavily doped substrates and a PbSe nanostructure non-epitaxial growth absorbing layer. The absorption enhancement simulated in this study is due to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation at the interface between these ultra-heavily n-doped GaAs or GaN substrates, which are nearly semimetals to SWIR light, and an absorption layer made of PbSe nano-spheres or nano-columns. The ultra-heavily doped GaAs or GaN substrates are simulated as examples, based on the Drude-Lorentz permittivity model. In the simulation, the substrates and the absorption layer were patterned jointly to forma blazed lattice, and then were back-illuminated using SWIR with a central wavelength of 1500 nm. The maximal field enhancement achieved was 17.4 with a penetration depth of 40 nm. Thus, such architecture of an ultra-heavily doped semiconductor and infrared absorbing layer can further increase the absorption due to the plasmonic enhanced absorption effect in the SWIR spectral band without the need to use a metallic layer as in the case of visible light.

  16. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Anup; Maiti, Biswajit; Chanda Sarkar, Debasree

    2014-04-01

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k→) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg1-xCdxTe, and In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP, as example of III-V compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  17. The O2 A-Band in the Fluxes and Polarization of Starlight Reflected by Earth-Like Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Rossi, Loic; Stam, Daphne M.

    2017-06-01

    Earth-like, potentially habitable exoplanets are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life. Information about their atmospheres and surfaces can be derived by analyzing the light of the parent star reflected by the planet. We investigate the influence of the surface albedo A s, the optical thickness b cloud, the altitude of water clouds, and the mixing ratio of biosignature O2 on the strength of the O2 A-band (around 760 nm) in the flux and polarization spectra of starlight reflected by Earth-like exoplanets. Our computations for horizontally homogeneous planets show that small mixing ratios (η < 0.4) will yield moderately deep bands in flux and moderate-to-small band strengths in polarization, and that clouds will usually decrease the band depth in flux and the band strength in polarization. However, cloud influence will be strongly dependent on properties such as optical thickness, top altitude, particle phase, coverage fraction, and horizontal distribution. Depending on the surface albedo and cloud properties, different O2 mixing ratios η can give similar absorption-band depths in flux and band strengths in polarization, especially if the clouds have moderate-to-high optical thicknesses. Measuring both the flux and the polarization is essential to reduce the degeneracies, although it will not solve them, especially not for horizontally inhomogeneous planets. Observations at a wide range of phase angles and with a high temporal resolution could help to derive cloud properties and, once those are known, the mixing ratio of O2 or any other absorbing gas.

  18. Perfect narrow band absorber for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shiwen; Zhao, Jun; Zuo, Duluo; Wang, Xinbing

    2016-05-02

    We design and numerically investigate a perfect narrow band absorber based on a metal-metal-dielectric-metal structure which consists of periodic metallic nanoribbon arrays. The absorber presents an ultra narrow absorption band of 1.11 nm with a nearly perfect absorption of over 99.9% in the infrared region. For oblique incidence, the absorber shows an absorption more than 95% for a wide range of incident angles from 0 to 50°. Structure parameters to the influence of the performance are investigated. The structure shows high sensing performance with a high sensitivity of 1170 nm/RIU and a large figure of merit of 1054. The proposed structure has great potential as a biosensor.

  19. Pixel-based absorption correction for dual-tracer fluorescence imaging of receptor binding potential

    PubMed Central

    Kanick, Stephen C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Gunn, Jason; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric approaches to quantifying molecular concentrations have been used for decades in microscopy, but have rarely been exploited in vivo until recently. One dual-tracer approach can utilize an untargeted reference tracer to account for non-specific uptake of a receptor-targeted tracer, and ultimately estimate receptor binding potential quantitatively. However, interpretation of the relative dynamic distribution kinetics is confounded by differences in local tissue absorption at the wavelengths used for each tracer. This study simulated the influence of absorption on fluorescence emission intensity and depth sensitivity at typical near-infrared fluorophore wavelength bands near 700 and 800 nm in mouse skin in order to correct for these tissue optical differences in signal detection. Changes in blood volume [1-3%] and hemoglobin oxygen saturation [0-100%] were demonstrated to introduce substantial distortions to receptor binding estimates (error > 30%), whereas sampled depth was relatively insensitive to wavelength (error < 6%). In response, a pixel-by-pixel normalization of tracer inputs immediately post-injection was found to account for spatial heterogeneities in local absorption properties. Application of the pixel-based normalization method to an in vivo imaging study demonstrated significant improvement, as compared with a reference tissue normalization approach. PMID:25360349

  20. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  1. Photo-induced intersubband absorption in {Si}/{SiGe} quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucaud, P.; Gao, L.; Visocekas, F.; Moussa, Z.; Lourtioz, J.-M.; Julien, F. H.; Sagnes, I.; Campidelli, Y.; Badoz, P.-A.; Vagos, P.

    1995-12-01

    We have investigated photo-induced intersubband absorption in the valence band of {Si}/{SiGe} quantum wells. Carriers are optically generated in the quantum wells using an argon ion laser. The resulting infrared absorption is probed with a step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The photo-induced infrared absorption in SiGe quantum wells is dominated by two contributions: the free carrier absorption, which is similar to bulk absorption in a uniformly doped SiGe layer, and the valence subband absorption in the quantum wells. Both p- and s-polarized intersubband absorptions are measured. We have observed that the photo-induced intersubband absorption in doped samples is shifted to lower energy as compared to direct intersubband absorption. This absorption process is attributed to carriers away from the Brillouin zone center. We show that the photo-induced technique is appropriate to study valence band mixing effects and their influence on intersubband absorption.

  2. Elucidating ultrafast electron dynamics at surfaces using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) reflection-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Somnath; Husek, Jakub; Baker, L Robert

    2018-04-24

    Here we review the recent development of extreme ultraviolet reflection-absorption (XUV-RA) spectroscopy. This method combines the benefits of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, such as element, oxidation, and spin state specificity, with surface sensitivity and ultrafast time resolution, having a probe depth of only a few nm and an instrument response less than 100 fs. Using this technique we investigated the ultrafast electron dynamics at a hematite (α-Fe2O3) surface. Surface electron trapping and small polaron formation both occur in 660 fs following photoexcitation. These kinetics are independent of surface morphology indicating that electron trapping is not mediated by defects. Instead, small polaron formation is proposed as the likely driving force for surface electron trapping. We also show that in Fe2O3, Co3O4, and NiO, band gap excitation promotes electron transfer from O 2p valence band states to metal 3d conduction band states. In addition to detecting the photoexcited electron at the metal M2,3-edge, the valence band hole is directly observed as transient signal at the O L1-edge. The size of the resulting charge transfer exciton is on the order of a single metal-oxygen bond length. Spectral shifts at the O L1-edge correlate with metal-oxygen bond covalency, confirming the relationship between valence band hybridization and the overpotential for water oxidation. These examples demonstrate the unique ability to measure ultrafast electron dynamics with element and chemical state resolution using XUV-RA spectroscopy. Accordingly, this method is poised to play an important role to reveal chemical details of previously unseen surface electron dynamics.

  3. Spectral Absorption Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Bond, T. C.; Quinn, P. K.; Sierau, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the solar spectral absorption optical depth of atmospheric aerosols for specific case studies during several field programs (three cases have been reported previously; two are new results). We combined airborne measurements of the solar net radiant flux density and the aerosol optical depth with a detailed radiative transfer model for all but one of the cases. The field programs (SAFARI 2000, ACE Asia, PRIDE, TARFOX, INTEX-A) contained aerosols representing the major absorbing aerosol types: pollution, biomass burning, desert dust and mixtures. In all cases the spectral absorption optical depth decreases with wavelength and can be approximated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE). We compare our results with other recent spectral absorption measurements and attempt to briefly summarize the state of knowledge of aerosol absorption spectra in the atmosphere. We discuss the limitations in using the AAE for calculating the solar absorption. We also discuss the resulting spectral single scattering albedo for these cases.

  4. Absorption spectroscopy at the limb of small transiting exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenreich, D.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

    2005-12-01

    Planetary transits are a tremendous tool to probe into exoplanet atmospheres using the light from their parent stars (from 0.2 μm to ˜1 μm). The detection of atmospheric components in an extra-solar giant planet was performed using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with a sensitivity reaching ˜10-4 in relative absorption depth over ˜1 Å-wide features (Charbonneau et al., 2002). The next step is the detection and the characterization of smaller, possibly Earth-like worlds, which will require a sensitivity of ˜10-6. Fortunately, ˜0.1 μm-wide absorption bands of particular interest for small exoplanets do exist in this spectral domain. We developed a model to quantify the detectability of a variety of Earth-size planets harboring different kind of atmospheres. Key parameters are the density of the planet and the thickness of the atmosphere. We also evaluate in consequence the number of potential targets for a future space mission, and also find that K stars are best candidates. See Ehrenreich et al. (2005) for a complete description.

  5. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  6. Aerosol Absorption and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Philip; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kinne, Stefan; Boucher, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006) significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the shortwave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing clear-sky from -0.79 to -0.53 W m(sup -2) (33%) and all-sky from -0.47 to -0.13W m(sup -2 (72%). Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19W m(sup -2) (36%) clear-sky and of 0.12W m(sup -2) (92%) all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05W m(sup -2) and a positive TOA forcing perturbation of 0

  7. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  8. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  9. Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field through Deep U-Band Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, A. M.; Cooke, J.; Chen, H. W.; Armandroff, T. E.; Wirth, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an extremely deep U-band image taken of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), with a one sigma depth of 30.7 mag arcsec-2 and a detection limiting magnitude of 28 mag arcsec-2. The observations were carried out on the Keck I telescope using the LRIS-B detector. The U-band image substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of faint galaxies in the HUDF at z=[2.5,3.5]. The U-band for these galaxies is attenuated by lyman limit absorption, allowing for more reliable selections of candidate Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) than from photometric redshifts without U-band. We present a reliable sample of 300 LBGs at z=[2.5,3.5] in the HUDF. Accurate redshifts of faint galaxies at z=[2.5,3.5] are needed to obtain empirical constraints on the star formation efficiency of neutral gas at high redshift. Wolfe & Chen (2006) showed that the star formation rate (SFR) density in damped Ly-alpha absorption systems (DLAs) at z=[2.5,3.5] is significantly lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt law for nearby galaxies. One caveat to this result that we wish to test is whether LBGs are embedded in DLAs. If in-situ star formation is occurring in DLAs, we would see it as extended low surface brightness emission around LBGs. We shall use the more accurate photometric redshifts to create a sample of LBGs around which we will look for extended emission in the more sensitive and higher resolution HUDF images. The absence of extended emission would put limits on the SFR density of DLAs associated with LBGs at high redshift. On the other hand, detection of faint emission on scales large compared to the bright LBG cores would indicate the presence of in situ star formation in those DLAs. Such gas would presumably fuel the higher star formation rates present in the LBG cores.

  10. Using "residual depths" to monitor pool depths independently of discharge

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1987-01-01

    As vital components of habitat for stream fishes, pools are often monitored to follow the effects of enhancement projects and natural stream processes. Variations of water depth with discharge, however, can complicate monitoring changes in the depth and volume of pools. To subtract the effect of discharge on depth in pools, residual depths can be measured. Residual...

  11. Nucleation of shear bands in amorphous alloys

    PubMed Central

    Perepezko, John H.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Chen, Ming-Wei; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of shear bands is an important mode of localized inhomogeneous deformation that occurs in a wide range of materials. In metallic glasses, shear band development is considered to center on a structural heterogeneity, a shear transformation zone that evolves into a rapidly propagating shear band under a shear stress above a threshold. Deformation by shear bands is a nucleation-controlled process, but the initiation process is unclear. Here we use nanoindentation to probe shear band nucleation during loading by measuring the first pop-in event in the load–depth curve which is demonstrated to be associated with shear band formation. We analyze a large number of independent measurements on four different bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) alloys and reveal the operation of a bimodal distribution of the first pop-in loads that are associated with different shear band nucleation sites that operate at different stress levels below the glass transition temperature, Tg. The nucleation kinetics, the nucleation barriers, and the density for each site type have been determined. The discovery of multiple shear band nucleation sites challenges the current view of nucleation at a single type of site and offers opportunities for controlling the ductility of BMG alloys. PMID:24594599

  12. A study of aerosol absorption and height retrievals with a hyperspectral (UV to NIR) passive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasso, S.

    2017-12-01

    With the deployment of the first sensor (TOMS, in 1978) with capabilities to detect aerosol absorption (AA) from space, there has been a continuous evolution in hardware and algorithms used to measured this property. Although with TOMS and its more advanced successors (such as OMI) made significant progress in globally characterizing AA , there is room for improvement especially by taking advantage of sensors with extended spectral coverage (UV to NIR) and high spatial resolution (<1 km). While such unique sensor does not exist yet, the collocation of observations from different platforms that jointly fulfill those characteristics (e.g. A-Train, S-NPP) confirm that it is possible to fully retrieve all AA parameters that modulate absorption in the upwelling radiance (AOD, SSA and aerosol layer height). However, such combined approaches still have some drawbacks such as the difficulty to account for cloud contamination. The upcoming deployment of satellite detectors with the desired features all in one sensor (PACE, TropOMI, GEMS) prompt a revision of the AA retrieval technique used in past approaches. In particular,the TropOMI mission, a hyperspectral UV-to-NIR sensor with moderate ( 5km nadir pixel) spatial resolution to be launched in Fall 2017. In addition , the sensor will include sensing capabilities for the wavelength range of the Oxygen bands A and B at very high wavelength resolution. This study will be centered on the aerosol detection capabilities of TropOMI. Because the spectral range covered, it is theoretically possible to simultaneously retrieve the aerosol optical depth, the single scattering albedo and aerosol mean height without assuming any of them as it was the case with previous retrieval approaches. Specifically, we intend to present a theoretical study based on simulated radiances at selected UV, VIS and near-IR bands (including the Oxygen bands) and evaluate the sensitivity of this sensor to different levels of aerosol concentration, height

  13. Cermet based metamaterials for multi band absorbers over NIR to LWIR frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Jitendra K.; Behera, Gangadhar; Agarwal, Amit K.; Ghosh, Amitava; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2017-06-01

    Cermets or ceramic-metals are known for their use in solar thermal technologies for their absorption across the solar band. Use of cermet layers in a metamaterial perfect absorber allows for flexible control of infra-red absorption over the short wave infra-red, to long wave infra-red bands, while keeping the visible/near infra-red absorption properties constant. We design multilayered metamaterials consisting of a conducting ground plane, a low metal volume fraction cermet/ZnS as dielectric spacer layers, and a top structured layer of an array of circular discs of metal/high volume metal fraction cermet that give rise to specified absorption bands in the near-infra-red (NIR) frequencies, as well as any specified band at SWIR-LWIR frequencies. Thus, a complete decoupling of the absorption at optical/NIR frequencies and the infra-red absorption behaviour of a structured metamaterial is demonstrated.

  14. Absorption of light dark matter in semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Hochberg, Yonit; Lin, Tongyan; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors are by now well-established targets for direct detection of MeV to GeV dark matter via scattering off electrons. We show that semiconductor targets can also detect significantly lighter dark matter via an absorption process. When the dark matter mass is above the band gap of the semiconductor (around an eV), absorption proceeds by excitation of an electron into the conduction band. Below the band gap, multiphonon excitations enable absorption of dark matter in the 0.01 eV to eV mass range. Energetic dark matter particles emitted from the sun can also be probed for masses below an eV. We derivemore » the reach for absorption of a relic kinetically mixed dark photon or pseudoscalar in germanium and silicon, and show that existing direct detection results already probe new parameter space. Finally, with only a moderate exposure, low-threshold semiconductor target experiments can exceed current astrophysical and terrestrial constraints on sub-keV bosonic dark matter.« less

  15. Effective depth of spectral line formation in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, J. P.; Chamberlain, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The effective level of line formation for spectroscopic absorption lines has long been regarded as a useful parameter for determining average atmospheric values of the quantities involved in line formation. The identity of this parameter was recently disputed. The dependence of this parameter on the average depth where photons are absorbed in a semi-infinite atmosphere is established. It is shown that the mean depths derived by others are similar in nature and behavior.

  16. Production of photocurrent due to intermediate-to-conduction-band transitions: a demonstration of a key operating principle of the intermediate-band solar cell.

    PubMed

    Martí, A; Antolín, E; Stanley, C R; Farmer, C D; López, N; Díaz, P; Cánovas, E; Linares, P G; Luque, A

    2006-12-15

    We present intermediate-band solar cells manufactured using quantum dot technology that show for the first time the production of photocurrent when two sub-band-gap energy photons are absorbed simultaneously. One photon produces an optical transition from the intermediate-band to the conduction band while the second pumps an electron from the valence band to the intermediate-band. The detection of this two-photon absorption process is essential to verify the principles of operation of the intermediate-band solar cell. The phenomenon is the cornerstone physical principle that ultimately allows the production of photocurrent in a solar cell by below band gap photon absorption, without degradation of its output voltage.

  17. Temporal Variations of Telluric Water Vapor Absorption at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Blake, Cullen H.; Nidever, David; Halverson, Samuel P.

    2018-01-01

    Time-variable absorption by water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere presents an important source of systematic error for a wide range of ground-based astronomical measurements, particularly at near-infrared wavelengths. We present results from the first study on the temporal and spatial variability of water vapor absorption at Apache Point Observatory (APO). We analyze ∼400,000 high-resolution, near-infrared (H-band) spectra of hot stars collected as calibration data for the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. We fit for the optical depths of telluric water vapor absorption features in APOGEE spectra and convert these optical depths to Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) using contemporaneous data from a GPS-based PWV monitoring station at APO. Based on simultaneous measurements obtained over a 3° field of view, we estimate that our PWV measurement precision is ±0.11 mm. We explore the statistics of PWV variations over a range of timescales from less than an hour to days. We find that the amplitude of PWV variations within an hour is less than 1 mm for most (96.5%) APOGEE field visits. By considering APOGEE observations that are close in time but separated by large distances on the sky, we find that PWV is homogeneous across the sky at a given epoch, with 90% of measurements taken up to 70° apart within 1.5 hr having ΔPWV < 1.0 mm. Our results can be used to help simulate the impact of water vapor absorption on upcoming surveys at continental observing sites like APO, and also to help plan for simultaneous water vapor metrology that may be carried out in support of upcoming photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  18. Impact of line parameter database and continuum absorption on GOSAT TIR methane retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, A.; Saitoh, N.; Nonogaki, R.; Imasu, R.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.

    2017-12-01

    The current methane retrieval algorithm (V1) at wavenumber range from 1210 cm-1 to 1360 cm-1 including CH4 ν 4 band from the thermal infrared (TIR) band of Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) uses LBLRTM V12.1 with AER V3.1 line database and MT CKD 2.5.2 continuum absorption model to calculate optical depth. Since line parameter databases have been updated and the continuum absorption may have large uncertainty, the purpose of this study is to assess the impact on {CH}4 retrieval from the choice of line parameter databases and the uncertainty of continuum absorption. We retrieved {CH}4 profiles with replacement of line parameter database from AER V3.1 to AER v1.0, HITRAN 2004, HITRAN 2008, AER V3.2, or HITRAN 2012 (Rothman et al. 2005, 2009, and 2013. Clough et al., 2005), we assumed 10% larger continuum absorption coefficients and 50% larger temperature dependent coefficient of continuum absorption based on the report by Paynter and Ramaswamy (2014). We compared the retrieved CH4 with the HIPPO CH4 observation (Wofsy et al., 2012). The difference from HIPPO observation of AER V3.2 was the smallest and 24.1 ± 45.9 ppbv. The differences of AER V1.0, HITRAN 2004, HITRAN 2008, and HITRAN 2012 were 35.6 ± 46.5 ppbv, 37.6 ± 46.3 ppbv, 32.1 ± 46.1 ppbv, and 35.2 ± 46.0 ppbv, respectively. Maximum {CH}4 retrieval differences were -0.4 ppbv at the layer of 314 hPa when we used 10% larger absorption coefficients of {H}2O foreign continuum. Comparing AER V3.2 case to HITRAN 2008 case, the line coupling effect reduced difference by 8.0 ppbv. Line coupling effects were important for GOSAT TIR {CH}4 retrieval. Effects from the uncertainty of continuum absorption were negligible small for GOSAT TIR CH4 retrieval.

  19. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  20. Comparison of band model calculations of upper atmospheric cooling rates for the 15-micrometer carbon dioxide band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Within the atmosphere of the earth, absorption and emission of thermal radiation by the 15-micron CO2 bands are the largest contributors to infrared cooling rates in the stratosphere. Various techniques for calculating cooling rates due to these bands have been described. These techniques can be classified into one of two categories, including 'exact' or line-by-line calculations and other methods. The latter methods are based on broad band emissivity and band absorptance formulations. The present paper has the objective to present comparisons of the considered computational approaches. It was found that the best agreement with the exact line-by-line calculations of Fels and Schwarzkopf (1981) could be obtained by making use of a new Doppler band model which is described in the appendix of the paper.

  1. Aqueous glucose measurement using differential absorption-based frequency domain optical coherence tomography at wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1625 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Pauline; Manoj, Murali; Sujatha, N.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Rao, Suresh R.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a combination of differential absorption technique and frequency domain optical coherence tomography for detection of glucose, which is an important analyte in medical diagnosis of diabetes. Differential absorption technique is used to detect glucose selectively in the presence of interfering species especially water and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) helps to obtain faster acquisition of depth information. Two broadband super-luminescent diode (SLED) sources with centre wavelengths 1586 nm (wavelength range of 1540 to 1640 nm) and 1312 nm (wavelength range of 1240 to 1380 nm) and a spectral width of ≍ 60 nm (FWHM) are used. Preliminary studies on absorption spectroscopy using various concentrations of aqueous glucose solution gave promising results to distinguish the absorption characteristics of glucose at two wavelengths 1310 nm (outside the absorption band of glucose) and 1625 nm (within the absorption band of glucose). In order to mimic the optical properties of biological skin tissue, 2% and 10% of 20% intralipid with various concentrations of glucose (0 to 4000 mg/dL) was prepared and used as sample. Using OCT technique, interference spectra were obtained using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Further processing of the interference spectra provided information on reflections from the surfaces of the cuvette containing the aqueous glucose sample. Due to the absorption of glucose in the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1640 nm, a trend of reduction in the intensity of the back reflected light was observed with increase in the concentration of glucose.

  2. Absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in rare gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. J.; Balling, L. C.

    1980-10-01

    Pulsed-dye-laser excitation has been used to investigate the optical absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices at 10 °K. Attempts to stabilize Li atoms in a Ne matrix at 2 °K were unsuccessful. Results for all three rare gases were qualitatively the same. White light absorption scans showed a single absorption with three peaks centered near the free-atom 2s→2p transition wavelength. The intensity of fluorescence produced by dye-laser excitation within this absorption band was measured as a function of emission wavelength. Excitation of the longest- and shortest-wavelength absorption peaks produced identical emission profiles, but no distinct fluorescence signal was detected when the laser was tuned to the central absorption peaks, indicating that the apparent absorption triplet is actually the superposition of a singlet and a doublet absorption originating from two different trapping sites. No additional absorption bands were detected.

  3. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  4. The O{sub 2} A-Band in the Fluxes and Polarization of Starlight Reflected by Earth-Like Exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchez, Thomas; Rossi, Loic; Stam, Daphne M.

    Earth-like, potentially habitable exoplanets are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life. Information about their atmospheres and surfaces can be derived by analyzing the light of the parent star reflected by the planet. We investigate the influence of the surface albedo A {sub s}, the optical thickness b {sub cloud}, the altitude of water clouds, and the mixing ratio of biosignature O{sub 2} on the strength of the O{sub 2} A-band (around 760 nm) in the flux and polarization spectra of starlight reflected by Earth-like exoplanets. Our computations for horizontally homogeneous planets show that small mixing ratios ( ηmore » < 0.4) will yield moderately deep bands in flux and moderate-to-small band strengths in polarization, and that clouds will usually decrease the band depth in flux and the band strength in polarization. However, cloud influence will be strongly dependent on properties such as optical thickness, top altitude, particle phase, coverage fraction, and horizontal distribution. Depending on the surface albedo and cloud properties, different O{sub 2} mixing ratios η can give similar absorption-band depths in flux and band strengths in polarization, especially if the clouds have moderate-to-high optical thicknesses. Measuring both the flux and the polarization is essential to reduce the degeneracies, although it will not solve them, especially not for horizontally inhomogeneous planets. Observations at a wide range of phase angles and with a high temporal resolution could help to derive cloud properties and, once those are known, the mixing ratio of O{sub 2} or any other absorbing gas.« less

  5. Foliar spray banding characteristics

    Treesearch

    A.R. Womac; C.W. Smith; Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2004-01-01

    Foliar spray banding was explored as a means of reducing peticide use compared to broadcast applications. Barious geometric spray patterns and delivery angles of foliar spray bands were investigated to increase spray deposits in a crop row at a constant spray rate of 94 L/ha. Wind-free laboratory results indicated that a banded application using three 65° hollow-cone...

  6. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  7. To Great Depths

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-22

    Hellas is an ancient impact structure and is the deepest and broadest enclosed basin on Mars. It measures about 2,300 kilometers across and the floor of the basin, Hellas Planitia, contains the lowest elevations on Mars. The Hellas region can often be difficult to view from orbit due to seasonal frost, water-ice clouds and dust storms, yet this region is intriguing because of its diverse, and oftentimes bizarre, landforms. This image from eastern Hellas Planitia shows some of the unusual features on the basin floor. These relatively flat-lying "cells" appear to have concentric layers or bands, similar to a honeycomb. This "honeycomb" terrain exists elsewhere in Hellas, but the geologic process responsible for creating these features remains unresolved. The map is projected here at a scale of 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 52.2 centimeters (20.6 inches) per pixel (with 2 x 2 binning); objects on the order of 157 centimeters (61.8 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21570

  8. Longwave Band-by-band Cloud Radiative Effect and its Application in GCM Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xianglei; Cole, Jason N. S.; He, Fei; Potter, Gerald L.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin; Suarez, Max; Loeb, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    The cloud radiative effect (CRE) of each longwave (LW) absorption band of a GCM fs radiation code is uniquely valuable for GCM evaluation because (1) comparing band-by-band CRE avoids the compensating biases in the broadband CRE comparison and (2) the fractional contribution of each band to the LW broadband CRE (f(sub CRE)) is sensitive to cloud top height but largely insensitive to cloud fraction, presenting thus a diagnostic metric to separate the two macroscopic properties of clouds. Recent studies led by the first author have established methods to derive such band ]by ]band quantities from collocated AIRS and CERES observations. We present here a study that compares the observed band-by-band CRE over the tropical oceans with those simulated by three different atmospheric GCMs (GFDL AM2, NASA GEOS-5, and CCCma CanAM4) forced by observed SST. The models agree with observation on the annual ]mean LW broadband CRE over the tropical oceans within +/-1W/sq m. However, the differences among these three GCMs in some bands can be as large as or even larger than +/-1W/sq m. Observed seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) in major bands are shown to be consistent with the seasonal cycle of cloud top pressure for both the amplitude and the phase. However, while the three simulated seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) agree with observations on the phase, the amplitudes are underestimated. Simulated interannual anomalies from GFDL AM2 and CCCma CanAM4 are in phase with observed anomalies. The spatial distribution of f(sub CRE) highlights the discrepancies between models and observation over the low-cloud regions and the compensating biases from different bands.

  9. What band rocks the MTB? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, J.; García-Rubio, I.; Gehring, A. U.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria that have been found in marine and lacustrine environments and soils [e.g. 1]. The hallmark of MTB is their intracellular formation of magnetosomes, single-domain ferrimagnetic particles that are aligned in chains. The chain configuration generates a strong magnetic dipole, which is used as magnetic compass to move the MTB into their favorable habit. The term band corresponds to a frequency window of microwaves in the gigahertz (GHz) range. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy uses the microwave absorption in a magnetic field to analyze the anisotropy properties and the domain state of magnetic materials. Specific microwave frequency causes absorption in a characteristic magnetic field range. For the investigation of MTB we use S-band (4.02 GHz), X-band (9.47 GHz), and Q-band (34.16 GHz). Experiments on cultured MTB and on sediment samples of Holocene age showed that absorption in X- and Q-band occurs when the sample is in a saturated or nearly saturated state [2, 3]. By contrast, absorption in the S-band appears in lower magnetic fields, where the sample is far from saturation. All FMR spectra show two distinct low-field features that can be assigned to magnetite particles in chains, aligned parallel and perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The detailed separation of the parallel and perpendicular components in the bulk samples is hampered, because of the random orientation of the chains in the sample. The comparison of S-, X-, and Q-band shows that the lower the frequency the better the separation of the components. In the S-band FMR spectroscopy, the separation of chains parallel to the external magnetic field is supported by the internal field of the sample. This field is caused by the remanence that contributes to the external magnetic field to fulfill the resonance condition [3,4]. Considering the different FMR responses, it can be postulated that a lower microwave frequency

  10. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  11. Depth inpainting by tensor voting.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mandar; Rajagopalan, Ambasamudram N

    2013-06-01

    Depth maps captured by range scanning devices or by using optical cameras often suffer from missing regions due to occlusions, reflectivity, limited scanning area, sensor imperfections, etc. In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable algorithm for depth map inpainting using the tensor voting (TV) framework. For less complex missing regions, local edge and depth information is utilized for synthesizing missing values. The depth variations are modeled by local planes using 3D TV, and missing values are estimated using plane equations. For large and complex missing regions, we collect and evaluate depth estimates from self-similar (training) datasets. We align the depth maps of the training set with the target (defective) depth map and evaluate the goodness of depth estimates among candidate values using 3D TV. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches on real as well as synthetic data.

  12. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  13. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; U-Yen, K.; Rostem, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50 Omega and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  14. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50O and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  15. A depth enhancement strategy for kinect depth image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Li, Hua; Han, Cheng; Xue, Yaohong; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Hanping; Jiang, Zhengang

    2018-03-01

    Kinect is a motion sensing input device which is widely used in computer vision and other related fields. However, there are many inaccurate depth data in Kinect depth images even Kinect v2. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to enhance Kinect v2 depth images. According to the principle of its depth measuring, the foreground and the background are considered separately. As to the background, the holes are filled according to the depth data in the neighborhood. And as to the foreground, a filling algorithm, based on the color image concerning about both space and color information, is proposed. An adaptive joint bilateral filtering method is used to reduce noise. Experimental results show that the processed depth images have clean background and clear edges. The results are better than ones of traditional Strategies. It can be applied in 3D reconstruction fields to pretreat depth image in real time and obtain accurate results.

  16. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1986-01-01

    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  17. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  18. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  19. Amniotic constriction bands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Amniotic band sequence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... birth. The baby should be delivered in a medical center that has specialists experienced in caring for babies ... or partial loss of function of a body part. Congenital bands affecting large parts of the body cause the ...

  20. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  1. Energy absorption of composite material and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness conducted by the U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate and NASA Langley. Through the ongoing research program an in-depth understanding has been developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

  2. Optical absorption in disordered monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekuma, C. E.; Gunlycke, D.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the combined impact of sulfur vacancies and electronic interactions on the optical properties of monolayer MoS2. First, we present a generalized Anderson-Hubbard Hamiltonian that accounts for both randomly distributed sulfur vacancies and the presence of dielectric screening within the material. Second, we parametrize this energy-dependent Hamiltonian from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the Green's function and screened Coulomb (GW) method. Third, we apply a first-principles-based many-body typical medium method to determine the single-particle electronic structure. Fourth, we solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation to obtain the charge susceptibility χ with its imaginary part being related to the absorbance A . Our results show that an increased vacancy concentration leads to decreased absorption both in the band continuum and from exciton states within the band gap. We also observe increased absorption below the band-gap threshold and present an expression, which describes Lifshitz tails, in excellent qualitative agreement with our numerical calculations. This latter increased absorption in the 1.0 -2.5 eV range makes defect engineering of potential interest for solar cell applications.

  3. A systematic approach to determining the properties of an iodine absorption cell for high-precision radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdelwitz, V.; Huke, P.

    2018-06-01

    Absorption cells filled with diatomic iodine are frequently employed as wavelength reference for high-precision stellar radial velocity determination due their long-term stability and low cost. Despite their wide-spread usage in the community, there is little documentation on how to determine the ideal operating temperature of an individual cell. We have developed a new approach to measuring the effective molecular temperature inside a gas absorption cell and searching for effects detrimental to a high precision wavelength reference, utilizing the Boltzmann distribution of relative line depths within absorption bands of single vibrational transitions. With a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer, we took a series of 632 spectra at temperatures between 23 °C and 66 °C. These spectra provide a sufficient basis to test the algorithm and demonstrate the stability and repeatability of the temperature determination via molecular lines on a single iodine absorption cell. The achievable radial velocity precision σRV is found to be independent of the cell temperature and a detailed analysis shows a wavelength dependency, which originates in the resolving power of the spectrometer in use and the signal-to-noise ratio. Two effects were found to cause apparent absolute shifts in radial velocity, a temperature-induced shift of the order of ˜1 ms-1K-1 and a more significant effect resulting in abrupt jumps of ≥50 ms-1 is determined to be caused by the temperature crossing the dew point of the molecular iodine.

  4. Modern Progress and Modern Problems in High Resolution X-ray Absorption from the Cold Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Lia; Li, Haochuan; Heinz, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    With accurate cross-sections and higher signal-to-noise, X-ray spectroscopy can directly measure Milky Way gas and dust-phase metal abundances with few underlying assumptions. The X-ray energy band is sensitive to absorption by all abundant interstellar metals — carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, magnesium, and iron — whether they are in gas or dust form. High resolution X-ray spectra from Galactic X-ray point sources can be used to directly measure metal abundances from all phases of the interstellar medium (ISM) along singular sight lines. We show our progress for measuring the depth of photoelectric absorption edges from neutral ISM metals, using all the observations of bright Galactic X-ray binaries available in the Chandra HETG archive. The cross-sections we use take into account both the absorption and scattering effects by interstellar dust grains on the iron and silicate spectral features. However, there are many open problems for reconciling X-ray absorption spectroscopy with ISM observations in other wavelengths. We will review the state of the field, lab measurements needed, and ways in which the next generation of X-ray telescopes will contribute.

  5. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  6. Spatiotemporal Characteristics for the Depth from Luminance Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuya; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi; Takahashi, Shuichi; Hyodo, Yasuhide; Ohashi, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Images with higher luminance contrast tend to be perceived closer in depth. To investigate a spatiotemporal characteristic of this effect, we evaluated subjective depth of a test stimulus with various spatial and temporal frequencies. For the purpose, the depth of a reference stimulus was matched to that of the test stimulus by changing the binocular disparity. The results showed that the test stimulus was perceived closer with higher luminance contrast for all conditions. Contrast efficiency was obtained from the contrast that provided the subjective depth for each spatiotemporal frequency. The shape of the contrast efficiency function was spatially low-pass and temporally band-pass. This characteristic is different from the one measure for a detection task. This suggests that only subset of contrast signals are used for depth from contrast.

  7. Design of a dual band metamaterial absorber for Wi-Fi bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurt, Fatih Özkan; Baǧmancı, Mehmet; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Bakır, Mehmet; Altıntaş, Olcay; Karadaǧ, Faruk; Akgöl, Oǧuzhan; Ünal, Emin

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this work is to design and fabrication of a dual band metamaterial based absorber for Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) bands. Wi-Fi has two different operating frequencies such as 2.45 GHz and 5 GHz. A dual band absorber is proposed and the proposed structure consists of two layered unit cells, and different sized square split ring (SSR) resonators located on each layers. Copper is used for metal layer and resonator structure, FR-4 is used as substrate layer in the proposed structure. This designed dual band metamaterial absorber is used in the wireless frequency bands which has two center frequencies such as 2.45 GHz and 5 GHz. Finite Integration Technique (FIT) based simulation software used and according to FIT based simulation results, the absorption peak in the 2.45 GHz is about 90% and the another frequency 5 GHz has absorption peak near 99%. In addition, this proposed structure has a potential for energy harvesting applications in future works.

  8. Design of Quad-Band Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber Using a Perforated Rectangular Resonator for Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qin; Dong, Guangxi; Wang, Ben-Xin; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2018-05-08

    Quad-band terahertz absorber with single-sized metamaterial design formed by a perforated rectangular resonator on a gold substrate with a dielectric gap in between is investigated. The designed metamaterial structure enables four absorption peaks, of which the first three peaks have large absorption coefficient while the last peak possesses a high Q (quality factor) value of 98.33. The underlying physical mechanisms of these peaks are explored; it is found that their near-field distributions are different. Moreover, the figure of merit (FOM) of the last absorption peak can reach 101.67, which is much higher than that of the first three absorption modes and even absorption bands of other works operated in the terahertz frequency. The designed device with multiple-band absorption and high FOM could provide numerous potential applications in terahertz technology-related fields.

  9. Design of Quad-Band Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber Using a Perforated Rectangular Resonator for Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qin; Dong, Guangxi; Wang, Ben-Xin; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2018-05-01

    Quad-band terahertz absorber with single-sized metamaterial design formed by a perforated rectangular resonator on a gold substrate with a dielectric gap in between is investigated. The designed metamaterial structure enables four absorption peaks, of which the first three peaks have large absorption coefficient while the last peak possesses a high Q (quality factor) value of 98.33. The underlying physical mechanisms of these peaks are explored; it is found that their near-field distributions are different. Moreover, the figure of merit (FOM) of the last absorption peak can reach 101.67, which is much higher than that of the first three absorption modes and even absorption bands of other works operated in the terahertz frequency. The designed device with multiple-band absorption and high FOM could provide numerous potential applications in terahertz technology-related fields.

  10. Tunable electromagnetically induced absorption based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Maoyong; Wang, Tongling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yuping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an electronically induced absorption (EIA) structure based on graphene at the infrared frequency is proposed. A pair of nanorods is coupled to a ring resonator, resulting in electronically induced transparency (EIT), and then, Babinet's principle is applied to transform the EIT structure into an EIA structure. Based on the bright and dark modes of the coupling schemes, the adjustment of the coupling strength between the dark and bright modes can be achieved by changing the asymmetry degree. In addition, the transparency window and the absorption peak can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy of graphene. This graphene-based EIA structure can develop the path in narrow-band filtering and, absorptive switching in the future.

  11. Resonant indirect optical absorption in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, José; Noël, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Lockwood, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of pure Ge has been determined from high-accuracy, high-precision optical measurements at photon energies covering the spectral range between the indirect and direct gaps. The results are compared with a theoretical model that fully accounts for the resonant nature of the energy denominators that appear in perturbation-theory expansions of the absorption coefficient. The model generalizes the classic Elliott approach to indirect excitons, and leads to a predicted optical absorption that is in excellent agreement with the experimental values using just a single adjustable parameter: the average deformation potential DΓ L coupling electrons at the bottom of the direct and indirect valleys in the conduction band. Remarkably, the fitted value, DΓ L=4.3 ×108eV /cm , is in nearly perfect agreement with independent measurements and ab initio predictions of this parameter, confirming the validity of the proposed theory, which has general applicability.

  12. Dual-band quantum well infrared photodetector with metallic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yang; Liu, Hongmei; Li, Pingzhou

    2018-02-01

    The quantum efficiency of the dual bands quantum well infrared photodetectors(QWIP) has been widely concerned in recent years. A novel structure for the dual-band quantum well infrared detectors which is based on GaAs/AlGaAs designed in this paper is aimed to improve the absorption efficiency. The structure replaces the conventional grating with a metallic grating based on surface plasmon polaritons(SPPS), and we further insert a metal structure in the periodic quantum well layer. The simulation result shows that the use of the different shapes of the metal holes can remarkably improve the optical coupling efficiency due to the surface plasmon effect. By optimizing parameters of the structure, it can work in the dual infrared bands of 3-5um and 8-12um. Moreover, the absorption rate increased by 20% compared with traditional structure of Dual-band QWIP.

  13. Depth dependence of defect evolution and TED during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombeau, B.; Cowern, N. E. B.; Cristiano, F.; Calvo, P.; Lamrani, Y.; Cherkashin, N.; Lampin, E.; Claverie, A.

    2004-02-01

    A quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study on the depth profile of extended defects, formed after Si implantation, has been carried out. Two different Si + implant conditions have been considered. TEM analysis for the highest energy/dose shows that {1 1 3} defects evolve into dislocation loops whilst the defect depth distribution remains unchanged as a function of annealing time. For the lowest energy/dose, {1 1 3} defects grow and dissolve while the defect band shrinks preferentially on the surface side. At the same time, extraction of boron transient enhanced diffusion (TED) as a function of depth shows a decrease of the supersaturation towards the surface, starting at the location of the defect band. The study clearly shows that in these systems the silicon surface is the principal sink for interstitials. The results provide a critical test of the ability of physical models to simulate defect evolution and TED.

  14. Single-junction solar cells with the optimum band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    A single-junction solar cell having the ideal band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications. Computer modeling studies of single-junction solar cells have shown that the presence of absorption bands in the direct spectrum has the effect of "pinning" the optimum band gap for a wide range of operating conditions at a value of 1.14.+-.0.02 eV. Efficiencies exceeding 30% may be possible at high concentration ratios for devices with the ideal band gap.

  15. Design of triple-band polarization controlled terahertz metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Xie, Qin; Dong, Guangxi; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2018-02-01

    A kind of triple-band polarization tunable terahertz absorber based on a metallic mirror and a metallic patch structure with two indentations spaced by an insulating medium layer is presented. Results prove that three near-perfect absorption peaks with average absorption coefficients of 98.25% are achieved when the polarization angle is equal to zero, and their absorptivities gradually decrease (and even disappear) by increasing the angle of polarization. When the polarization angle is increased to 90°, three new resonance modes with average absorption rates of 96.59% can be obtained. The field distributions are given to reveal the mechanisms of the triple-band absorption and the polarization tunable characteristics. Moreover, by introducing photosensitive silicon materials (its conductivity can be changed by the pump beam) in the indentations of the patch structure, the number of resonance peaks of the device can be actively tuned from triple-band to dual-band. The presented absorbers have potential applications, such as controlling thermal emissivity, and detection of polarization direction of the incident waves.

  16. Anterior chamber depth studies.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Kenneth J; Savini, Giacomo

    2015-09-01

    To compare the anterior chamber depth (ACD; corneal epithelium to lens) using 3 modalities and compare the change 1 day and 3 months postoperatively. Private practice, Santa Monica, California, USA. Nonrandomized prospective series. The mean optical pachymetry and immersion ultrasound (US) of the ACD and partial coherence interferometry (PCI) were measured. Optical pachymetry ACD was measured in 675 eyes postoperatively at 1 day and 3 months. The optical pachymetry ACD in 492 eyes was 3.17 mm ± 0.42 (SD); by immersion US, it was 2.99 ± 0.51 mm (0.18 mm deeper; P < .0001). In 178 eyes, the optical pachymetry ACD was 3.23 ± 0.45 mm; the PCI was 3.19 ± 0.48 mm (0.04 mm deeper), which was not statistically different (P > .05). In 675 eyes, optical pachymetry ACD preoperatively was 3.19 ± 0.40 mm. The postoperative 1-day optical pachymetry ACD was 4.35 ± 0.35 mm with a mean refractive error of -0.30 diopter (D); the final 3-month optical pachymetry ACD was 4.47 ± 0.31 mm, with a mean refractive error of -0.07 D (P < .0001). This is a mean intraocular lens (IOL) position shift of +0.12 mm posteriorly; the +0.23 D change represents a ratio of 1.92 D/mm of IOL axial movement. The PCI ACD was comparable with optical pachymetry, but careful immersion US led to a 0.18 mm shorter ACD reading that cannot be corrected by sound velocity. The posterior capsule contracted and moved the IOL posteriorly 0.12 mm, resulting in 0.23 D hyperopic shift. Dr. Hoffer owns the registered trademark name "Hoffer(®)" and receives royalties for its commercial use from Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Appasamy Associates, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, DGH Technology, Inc., Ellex iScience, Inc., Haag-Streit AG, Nidek Co., Ltd., Tomey Corp., Topcon Medical Systems, Inc., and Ziemer USA, Inc., as well as royalties from Slack, Inc. for the textbook IOL Power. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier

  17. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  18. Unipolar Barrier Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Dual-band barrier infrared detectors having structures configured to reduce spectral crosstalk between spectral bands and/or enhance quantum efficiency, and methods of their manufacture are provided. In particular, dual-band device structures are provided for constructing high-performance barrier infrared detectors having reduced crosstalk and/or enhance quantum efficiency using novel multi-segmented absorber regions. The novel absorber regions may comprise both p-type and n-type absorber sections. Utilizing such multi-segmented absorbers it is possible to construct any suitable barrier infrared detector having reduced crosstalk, including npBPN, nBPN, pBPN, npBN, npBP, pBN and nBP structures. The pBPN and pBN detector structures have high quantum efficiency and suppresses dark current, but has a smaller etch depth than conventional detectors and does not require a thick bottom contact layer.

  19. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  20. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  1. Bands of Clouds and Lace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-05-13

    As Cassini nears its rendezvous with Saturn, new detail in the banded clouds of the planet's atmosphere are becoming visible. Cassini began the journey to the ringed world of Saturn nearly seven years ago and is now less than two months away from orbit insertion on June 30. Cassini’s narrow-angle camera took this image on April 16, 2004, when the spacecraft was 38.5 million kilometers (23.9 million miles) from Saturn. Dark regions are generally areas free of high clouds, and bright areas are places with high, thick clouds which shield the view of the darker areas below. A dark spot is visible at the south pole, which is remarkable to scientists because it is so small and centered. The spot could be affected by Saturn's magnetic field, which is nearly aligned with the planet's rotation axis, unlike the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Earth. From south to north, other notable features are the two white spots just above the dark spot toward the right, and the large dark oblong-shaped feature that extends across the middle. The darker band beneath the oblong-shaped feature has begun to show a lacy pattern of lighter-colored, high altitude clouds, indicative of turbulent atmospheric conditions. The cloud bands move at different speeds, and their irregularities may be due to either the different motions between them or to disturbances below the visible cloud layer. Such disturbances might be powered by the planet's internal heat; Saturn radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun. The moon Mimas (396 kilometers, 245 miles across) is visible to the left of the south pole. Saturn currently has 31 known moons. Since launch, 13 new moons have been discovered by ground-based telescopes. Cassini will get a closer look and may discover new moons, perhaps embedded within the planet’s magnificent rings. This image was taken using a filter sensitive to light near 727 nanometers, one of the near-infrared absorption bands of methane gas, which is one of the ingredients in

  2. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  3. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and methodology of using differential absorption lidar techniques for the remote measurement of atmospheric pressure profiles, surface pressure, and temperature profiles from ground, air, and space-based platforms are presented. Pressure measurements are effected by means of high resolution measurement of absorption at the edges of the oxygen A band lines where absorption is pressure dependent due to collisional line broadening. Temperature is assessed using measurements of the absorption at the center of the oxygen A band line originating from a quantum state with high ground state energy. The population of the state is temperature dependent, allowing determination of the temperature through the Boltzmann term. The results of simulations of the techniques using Voigt profile and variational analysis are reported for ground-based, airborne, and Shuttle-based systems. Accuracies in the 0.5-1.0 K and 0.1-0.3% range are projected.

  4. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  5. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... oligoclonal bands may point to a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. How the Test is Performed A sample of ... Performed This test helps support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it does not confirm the diagnosis. ...

  6. Banded Ridges in Hellas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-09

    Low lying areas in the Hellas region, which is the largest impact basin on Mars, often show complex groups of banded ridges, furrows, and pits as seen in this observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  7. Adjustable gastric banding (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pouch and causes a feeling of fullness. The band can be tightened or loosened over time to change the size of the passage. Initially, the pouch holds about 1 ounce of food and later expands to 2-3 ounces.

  8. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 5 out of 5 Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous ...

  9. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  10. Relative Band Oscillator Strengths for Carbon Monoxide: Alpha (1)Pi-Chi (1)Sigma(+) Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Menningen, K. L.; Lee, Wei; Stoll, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    Band oscillator strengths for CO transitions between the electronic states A (l)Pi and X(1)Sigma(+) were measured via absorption with a synchrotron radiation source. When referenced to the well-characterized (5,0) band oscillator strength, our relative values for the (7,0) to (11,0) bands are most consistent with the recent experiments of Chan et al. and the theoretical predictions of Kirby & Cooper. Since the results from various laboratory techniques and theory now agree, analyses of interstellar CO based on absorption from A-X bands are no longer hindered by uncertainties in oscillator strength.

  11. Novel quad-band terahertz metamaterial absorber based on single pattern U-shaped resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen

    2017-03-01

    A novel quad-band terahertz metamaterial absorber using four different modes of single pattern resonator is demonstrated. Four obvious frequencies with near-perfect absorption are realized. Near-field distributions of the four modes are provided to reveal the physical picture of the multiple-band absorption. Unlike most previous quad-band absorbers that typically require four or more patterns, the designed absorber has only one resonant structure, which is simpler than previous works. The presented quad-band absorber has potential applications in biological sensing, medical imaging, and material detection.

  12. Infrasound as a Depth Discriminant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    INFRASOUND AS A DEPTH DISCRIMINANT Stephen J. Arrowsmith1, Hans E. Hartse1, Steven R. Taylor2, Richard J. Stead1, and Rod W. Whitaker1 Los Alamos...LA09-Depth-NDD02 ABSTRACT The identification of a signature relating depth to a remotely recorded infrasound signal requires a dataset of...can generate infrasound via a variety of processes, which have occasionally been confused in past studies due to the complexity of the process; (2

  13. Infrared radiation parameterizations for the minor CO2 bands and for several CFC bands in the window region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratz, David P.; Chou, Ming-Dah; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    1993-01-01

    Fast and accurate parameterizations have been developed for the transmission functions of the CO2 9.4- and 10.4-micron bands, as well as the CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-22 bands located in the 8-12-micron region. The parameterizations are based on line-by-line calculations of transmission functions for the CO2 bands and on high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of the absorption coefficients for the CFC bands. Also developed are the parameterizations for the H2O transmission functions for the corresponding spectral bands. Compared to the high-resolution calculations, fluxes at the tropopause computed with the parameterizations are accurate to within 10 percent when overlapping of gas absorptions within a band is taken into account. For individual gas absorption, the accuracy is of order 0-2 percent. The climatic effects of these trace gases have been studied using a zonally averaged multilayer energy balance model, which includes seasonal cycles and a simplified deep ocean. With the trace gas abundances taken to follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Low Emissions 'B' scenario, the transient response of the surface temperature is simulated for the period 1900-2060.

  14. Oxygen Isotope Variability within Nautilus Shell Growth Bands

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis of oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. To create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands. PMID:27100183

  15. A high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS) and its radiation closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Q.; Yin, B.; Li, S.; Berndt, J.; Harrison, L.; Joseph, E.; Duan, M.; Kiedron, P.

    2014-06-01

    Various studies indicate that high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrum has the capability to retrieve the vertical profiles of aerosol and cloud properties. To improve the understanding of oxygen A-band inversions and utility, we developed a high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS), and deployed it at Howard University Beltsville site during the NASA Discover Air-Quality Field Campaign in July, 2011. By using a single telescope, the HABS instrument measures the direct solar and the zenith diffuse radiation subsequently. HABS exhibits excellent performance: stable spectral response ratio, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), high-spectrum resolution (0.016 nm), and high out-of-band rejection (10-5). For the spectral retrievals of HABS measurements, a simulator is developed by combining a discrete ordinates radiative transfer code (DISORT) with the High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN) database HITRAN2008. The simulator uses a double-k approach to reduce the computational cost. The HABS-measured spectra are consistent with the related simulated spectra. For direct-beam spectra, the discrepancies between measurements and simulations, indicated by confidence intervals (95%) of relative difference, are (-0.06, 0.05) and (-0.08, 0.09) for solar zenith angles of 27 and 72°, respectively. For zenith diffuse spectra, the related discrepancies between measurements and simulations are (-0.06, 0.05) and (-0.08, 0.07) for solar zenith angles of 27 and 72°, respectively. The main discrepancies between measurements and simulations occur at or near the strong oxygen absorption line centers. They are mainly due to two kinds of causes: (1) measurement errors associated with the noise/spikes of HABS-measured spectra, as a result of combined effects of weak signal, low SNR, and errors in wavelength registration; (2) modeling errors in the simulation, including the error of model parameters setting (e.g., oxygen absorption line parameters, vertical profiles of temperature and

  16. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  17. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  18. Depth of cure of proximal composite resin restorations using a new perforated metal matrix.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duke P; Motyka, Nancy C; Meyers, Erik J; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the depths of cure of a proximal box preparation filled in bulk with various approaches: filled with a bulk-fill or conventional composite; placed with a new perforated metal matrix, a traditional metal matrix, or a clear matrix; and polymerized with either occlusal-only or tri-sited light curing. After tri-sited curing, the use of the new perforated metal matrix band resulted in a depth of cure that was not significantly different from that achieved with the use of metal bands (removed during curing) or transparent matrix bands. Adequate polymerization was obtained at depths of more than 5.0 mm for the bulk-fill composite and more than 4.0 mm for the conventional composite when tri-sited light curing was used. Tri-sited light curing resulted in a significantly greater depth of cure than occlusal-only curing. The perforated metal band may be used as an alternative to the use of solid metal bands or transparent matrix bands to provide similar depths of cure for composite resins, with the possible benefits of malleability and the ability to leave the band in place during tri-sited light curing.

  19. On the optical band gap of zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D. R.

    1998-05-01

    Three different values (3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 eV) have been reported for the optical band gap of zinc oxide single crystals at room temperature. By comparing the optical properties of ZnO crystals using a variety of optical techniques it is concluded that the room temperature band gap is 3.3 eV and that the other values are attributable to a valence band-donor transition at ˜3.15 eV that can dominate the optical absorption when the bulk of a single crystal is probed.

  20. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  1. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  2. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of nitric oxide synthase studied by visible broadband transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Chang; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Chen, Pei-Feng; Liang, Keng S.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) oxygenase domain was studied by transient absorption spectroscopy pumping at Soret band. The broadband visible probe spectrum has visualized the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to Q-band and charge transfer (CT) band. Supported by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, global fitting analysis has successfully concluded the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to be (1) electronic transition to Q-band (0.16 ps), (2) ligand dissociation and CT (0.94 ps), (3) relaxation of the CT state (4.0 ps), and (4) ligand rebinding (59 ps).

  3. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  4. Band-engineering of TiO2 as a wide-band gap semiconductor using organic chromophore dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Kartini, I.; Ramelan, A. H.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-07-01

    Bond-engineering as applied to semiconductor materials refers to the manipulation of the energy bands in order to control charge transfer processes in a device. When the device in question is a photoelectrochemical cell, the charges affected by drift become the focus of the study. The ideal band gap of semiconductors for enhancement of photocatalyst activity can be lowered to match with visible light absorption and the location of conduction Band (CB) should be raised to meet the reducing capacity. Otherwise, by the addition of the chromofor organic dyes, the wide-band gab can be influences by interacation resulting between TiO2 surface and the dyes. We have done the impruvisation wide-band gap of TiO2 by the addition of organic chromophore dye, and the addition of transition metal dopand. The TiO2 morphology influence the light absorption as well as the surface modification. The organic chromophore dye was syntesized by formation complexes compound of Co(PAR)(SiPA)(PAR)= 4-(2-piridylazoresorcinol), SiPA = Silyl propil amine). The result showed that the chromophore groups adsorbed onto TiO2 surface can increase the visible light absorption of wide-band gab semiconductor. Initial absorption of a chromophore will affect light penetration into the material surfaces. The use of photonic material as a solar cell shows this phenomenon clearly from the IPCE (incident photon to current conversion efficiency) measurement data. Organic chromophore dyes of Co(PAR)(SiPA) exhibited the long wavelength absorption character compared to the N719 dye (from Dyesol).

  5. Perceived depth between familiar objects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1967-08-01

    In aviation, size cues are frequently used in a pilot's evaluation of depth or distance. In the study, the hypothesis was examined that the essential factor in the size cue to depth from familiar objects is the perceived size S' per unit of retinal s...

  6. Stereo depth distortions in teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Vonsydow, Marika

    1988-01-01

    In teleoperation, a typical application of stereo vision is to view a work space located short distances (1 to 3m) in front of the cameras. The work presented here treats converged camera placement and studies the effects of intercamera distance, camera-to-object viewing distance, and focal length of the camera lenses on both stereo depth resolution and stereo depth distortion. While viewing the fronto-parallel plane 1.4 m in front of the cameras, depth errors are measured on the order of 2cm. A geometric analysis was made of the distortion of the fronto-parallel plane of divergence for stereo TV viewing. The results of the analysis were then verified experimentally. The objective was to determine the optimal camera configuration which gave high stereo depth resolution while minimizing stereo depth distortion. It is found that for converged cameras at a fixed camera-to-object viewing distance, larger intercamera distances allow higher depth resolutions, but cause greater depth distortions. Thus with larger intercamera distances, operators will make greater depth errors (because of the greater distortions), but will be more certain that they are not errors (because of the higher resolution).

  7. Alkaline-stable nickel manganese oxides with ideal band gap for solar fuel photoanodes

    DOE PAGES

    Suram, Santosh K.; Zhou, Lan; Shinde, Aniketa; ...

    2018-01-01

    Combinatorial photoelectrochemistry combined with first principles calculations demonstrate that NiMnO 3 and its mixture with Ni 6 MnO 8 are photoanodes with phenomenal absorptivity and band alignment to the oxygen evolution reaction.

  8. Combinatorial Broadening Mechanism of O-H Stretching Bands in H-Bonded Molecular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsevich, G. A.; Doroshenko, I. Yu.; Pogorelov, V. E.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Sablinskas, V.; Sapeshko, V. V.; Balevicius, V.

    2016-07-01

    A new mechanism for combinatorial broadening of donor-OH stretching-vibration absorption bands in molecular clusters with H-bonds is proposed. It enables the experimentally observed increase of the O-H stretching-vibration bandwidth with increasing number of molecules in H-bonded clusters to be explained. Knowledge of the half-width of the OH stretching-vibration absorption band in the dimer and the number of H-bonds in the analyzed cluster is suffi cient in the zeroth-order approximation to estimate the O-H stretching-absorption bands in clusters containing several molecules. Good agreement between the calculated and published experimental half-widths of the OH stretching-vibration absorption bands in MeOH and PrOH clusters was obtained using this approach.

  9. Alkaline-stable nickel manganese oxides with ideal band gap for solar fuel photoanodes

    SciTech Connect

    Suram, Santosh K.; Zhou, Lan; Shinde, Aniketa

    Combinatorial photoelectrochemistry combined with first principles calculations demonstrate that NiMnO 3 and its mixture with Ni 6 MnO 8 are photoanodes with phenomenal absorptivity and band alignment to the oxygen evolution reaction.

  10. Dependence of the electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride on the conditions of dilution and storage time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride ICl are studied. The spectra of as-prepared solutions display the absorption band associated with hydrated ICl molecules. An additional band indicating that molecular iodine was formed in the solution emerges in the spectrum as dissolution takes place. Only the band belonging to iodine monochloride remains in the absorption spectra, and no additional bands appear after chloride anions Cl- are added to the solution. The absorption spectrum becomes more complex when ICl is dissolved in an alkaline medium. The band belonging to molecular iodine emerges in the spectra at low alkali concentrations, while being transformed to other shorter-wavelength bands at high alkali concentrations (pH ≥ 12).

  11. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  12. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Phononic glass: a robust acoustic-absorption material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Wang, Yuren

    2012-08-01

    In order to achieve strong wide band acoustic absorption under high hydrostatic pressure, an interpenetrating network structure is introduced into the locally resonant phononic crystal to fabricate a type of phononic composite material called "phononic glass." Underwater acoustic absorption coefficient measurements show that the material owns high underwater sound absorption coefficients over 0.9 in 12-30 kHz. Moreover, the quasi-static compressive behavior shows that the phononic glass has a compressive strength over 5 MPa which is crucial for underwater applications.

  15. Over-the-air in-band full-duplex system with hybrid RF optical and baseband digital self-interference cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhao; Li, Longsheng; Bi, Meihua; Xiao, Shilin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid analog optical self-interference cancellation (OSIC) and baseband digital SIC (DSIC) system for over-the-air in-band full-duplex (IBFD) wireless communication. Analog OSIC system is based on optical delay line, electro-absorption modulation lasers (EMLs) and balanced photodetector (BPD), which has the properties of high adjusting precision and broad processing bandwidth. With the help of baseband DSIC, the cancellation depth limitation of OSIC can be mitigated so as to achieve deeper total SIC depth. Experimental results show about 20-dB depth by OSIC and 10-dB more depth by DSIC over 1GHz broad baseband, so that the signal of interest (SOI) overlapped by wideband self-interference (SI) signal is better recovered compared to the IBFD system with OSIC or DSIC only. The hybrid of OSIC and DSIC takes advantages of the merits of optical devices and digital processors to achieve deep cancellation depth over broad bandwidth.

  16. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  17. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  18. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  19. Jupiter's Bands of Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-22

    This enhanced-color image of Jupiter's bands of light and dark clouds was created by citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. Three of the white oval storms known as the "String of Pearls" are visible near the top of the image. Each of the alternating light and dark atmospheric bands in this image is wider than Earth, and each rages around Jupiter at hundreds of miles (kilometers) per hour. The lighter areas are regions where gas is rising, and the darker bands are regions where gas is sinking. Juno acquired the image on May 19, 2017, at 11:30 a.m. PST (2:30 p.m. EST) from an altitude of about 20,800 miles (33,400 kilometers) above Jupiter's cloud tops. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21393

  20. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  1. Topological Exciton Bands in Moire Heterojunctions.

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Fengcheng; Lovorn, Timothy; MacDonald, A. H.

    2017-04-05

    Moire patterns are common in Van der Waals heterostructures and can be used to apply periodic potentials to elementary excitations. Here, we show that the optical absorption spectrum of transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers is profoundly altered by long period moire patterns that introduce twist-angle dependent satellite excitonic peaks. Topological exciton bands with non-zero Chern numbers that support chiral excitonic edge states can be engineered by combining three ingredients: i) the valley Berry phase induced by electron-hole exchange interactions, ii) the moire potential, and iii) the valley Zeeman field.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of mucosal vascular contrast in narrow band imaging using Monte Carlo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Du; Wang, Quanzeng; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Pfefer, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a spectrally-selective reflectance imaging technique for enhanced visualization of superficial vasculature. Prior clinical studies have indicated NBI's potential for detection of vasculature abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal mucosal neoplasia. While the basic mechanisms behind the increased vessel contrast - hemoglobin absorption and tissue scattering - are known, a quantitative understanding of the effect of tissue and device parameters has not been achieved. In this investigation, we developed and implemented a numerical model of light propagation that simulates NBI reflectance distributions. This was accomplished by incorporating mucosal tissue layers and vessel-like structures in a voxel-based Monte Carlo algorithm. Epithelial and mucosal layers as well as blood vessels were defined using wavelength-specific optical properties. The model was implemented to calculate reflectance distributions and vessel contrast values as a function of vessel depth (0.05 to 0.50 mm) and diameter (0.01 to 0.10 mm). These relationships were determined for NBI wavelengths of 410 nm and 540 nm, as well as broadband illumination common to standard endoscopic imaging. The effects of illumination bandwidth on vessel contrast were also simulated. Our results provide a quantitative analysis of the effect of absorption and scattering on vessel contrast. Additional insights and potential approaches for improving NBI system contrast are discussed.

  3. Effect of pyridine on infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S K; Saini, G S S

    2008-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine in KBr pellet and pyridine solution in 400-1625 and 2900-3200 cm(-1)regions are reported. In the IR spectra of solid sample, presence of weak bands, which are forbidden according to the selection rules of D4h point group, is explained on the basis of distortion in the copper phthalocyanine molecule caused by the crystal packing effects. Observation of a new band at 1511 cm(-1) and change in intensity of some other bands in pyridine are interpreted on the basis of coordination of the solvent molecule with the central copper ion.

  4. The effects of wavelength on photodegradation depth profiles in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) earlywood

    Treesearch

    Yutaka Kataoka; Makoto Kiguchi; R. Sam Williams; Philip D. Evans

    2006-01-01

    FT-IR microscopy was used to depth profile the photodegradation of Japanese cedar earlywood exposed to monochromatic light in the UV and visible ranges (band pass: 20nm). Parallel experiments assessed the transmission of the light through thin sections of Japanese cedar. The depth of photodegradation increased with wavelength up to and including the violet region of...

  5. Synthesizing folded band chaos.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Hayes, Scott T; Pethel, Shawn D; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2007-04-01

    A randomly driven linear filter that synthesizes Lorenz-like, reverse-time chaos is shown also to produce Rössler-like folded band wave forms when driven using a different encoding of the random source. The relationship between the topological entropy of the random source, dissipation in the linear filter, and the positive Lyapunov exponent for the reverse-time wave form is exposed. The two drive encodings are viewed as grammar restrictions on a more general encoding that produces a chaotic superset encompassing both the Lorenz butterfly and Rössler folded band paradigms of nonlinear dynamics.

  6. Dual-band polarization-/angle-insensitive metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Han; Chongqing University, College of Communication Engineering, Chongqing, 400044; Zhong, Lin-Lin

    A dual-band metamaterial absorber (MA) based on triangular resonators is designed and investigated in this paper. It is composed of a two-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric-metal sandwiches array on a dielectric substrate. The simulation results clearly show that this absorber has two absorption peaks at 14.9 and 18.9 GHz, respectively, and experiments are conducted to verify the proposed designs effectively. For each polarization, the dual-band absorber is insensitive to the incident angle (up to 60°) and the absorption peaks remain high for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) radiation. To study the physical mechanism of power loss, the current distributionmore » at the dual absorption peaks is given. The MA proposed in this paper has potential applications in many scientific and martial fields.« less

  7. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  8. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  9. Experimental study on the sensitive depth of backwards detected light in turbid media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunyao; Huang, Liqing; Zhang, Ning; Tian, Heng; Zhu, Jingping

    2018-05-28

    In the recent past, optical spectroscopy and imaging methods for biomedical diagnosis and target enhancing have been widely researched. The challenge to improve the performance of these methods is to know the sensitive depth of the backwards detected light well. Former research mainly employed a Monte Carlo method to run simulations to statistically describe the light sensitive depth. An experimental method for investigating the sensitive depth was developed and is presented here. An absorption plate was employed to remove all the light that may have travelled deeper than the plate, leaving only the light which cannot reach the plate. By measuring the received backwards light intensity and the depth between the probe and the plate, the light intensity distribution along the depth dimension can be achieved. The depth with the maximum light intensity was recorded as the sensitive depth. The experimental results showed that the maximum light intensity was nearly the same in a short depth range. It could be deduced that the sensitive depth was a range, rather than a single depth. This sensitive depth range as well as its central depth increased consistently with the increasing source-detection distance. Relationships between sensitive depth and optical properties were also investigated. It also showed that the reduced scattering coefficient affects the central sensitive depth and the range of the sensitive depth more than the absorption coefficient, so they cannot be simply added as reduced distinct coefficients to describe the sensitive depth. This study provides an efficient method for investigation of sensitive depth. It may facilitate the development of spectroscopy and imaging techniques for biomedical diagnosis and underwater imaging.

  10. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  11. Diet after gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... completely. Some of these are pasta, rice, bread, raw vegetables, and meats. Adding a low-fat sauce, broth gravy can make them easier to ... egg whites Beans Dairy products, which includes low-fat or nonfat ... foods with texture together with protein helps people who have a gastric band stay ...

  12. Banded Sunflower Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

  13. Accuracy of band dendrometers

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody

    1976-01-01

    A study to determine the reliability of first-year growth measurements obtained from aluminum band dendrometers showed that growth was underestimated for black cherry trees growing less than 0.5 inch in diameter or accumulating less than 0.080 square foot of basal area. Prediction equations to correct for these errors are given.

  14. Full depth reclamation : workshop materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitating an old pavement by pulverizing and stabilizing the existing pavement is a process referred to as Full Depth Reclamation (FDR). This process shows great potential as an economical rehabilitation alternative that provides deep structural...

  15. Teleseismic depth estimation of the 2015 Gorkha-Nepal aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letort, Jean; Bollinger, Laurent; Lyon-Caen, Helene; Guilhem, Aurélie; Cano, Yoann; Baillard, Christian; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya

    2016-12-01

    The depth of 61 aftershocks of the 2015 April 25 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake, that occurred within the first 20 d following the main shock, is constrained using time delays between teleseismic P phases and depth phases (pP and sP). The detection and identification of these phases are automatically processed using the cepstral method developed by Letort et al., and are validated with computed radiation patterns from the most probable focal mechanisms. The events are found to be relatively shallow (13.1 ± 3.9 km). Because depth estimations could potentially be biased by the method, velocity model or selected data, we also evaluate the depth resolution of the events from local catalogues by extracting 138 events with assumed well-constrained depth estimations. Comparison between the teleseismic depths and the depths from local and regional catalogues helps decrease epistemic uncertainties, and shows that the seismicity is clustered in a narrow band between 10 and 15 km depth. Given the geometry and depth of the major tectonic structures, most aftershocks are probably located in the immediate vicinity of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) shear zone. The mid-crustal ramp of the flat/ramp MHT system is not resolved indicating that its height is moderate (less than 5-10 km) in the trace of the sections that ruptured on April 25. However, the seismicity depth range widens and deepens through an adjacent section to the east, a region that failed on 2015 May 12 during an Mw 7.3 earthquake. This deeper seismicity could reflect a step-down of the basal detachment of the MHT, a lateral structural variation which probably acted as a barrier to the dynamic rupture propagation.

  16. Infrasound as a Depth Discriminant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    INFRASOUND AS A DEPTH DISCRIMINANT Stephen J. Arrowsmith, Rod W. Whitaker, and Richard J. Stead Los Alamos National Laboratory Sponsored by the... infrasound from earthquakes, in conjunction with modeling, to better constrain our understanding of the generation of infrasound from earthquakes, in...particular the effect of source depth. Here, we first outline a systematic search for infrasound from earthquakes from a range of magnitudes. Based

  17. Infrared absorption spectra of molecular crystals: Possible evidence for small-polaron formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pržulj, Željko; Čevizović, Dalibor; Zeković, Slobodan; Ivić, Zoran

    2008-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the position of the so-called anomalous band peaked at 1650cm in the IR-absorption spectrum of crystalline acetanilide (ACN) is theoretically investigated within the small-polaron theory. Its pronounced shift towards the position of the normal band is predicted with the rise of temperature. Interpretation of the IR-absorption spectra in terms of small-polaron model has been critically assessed on the basis of these results.

  18. Band-notched spiral antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  19. Constraints on the Opening Rate of Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stempel, M. M.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    The opening rates of two bands on Europa, inferred to be sites of spreading of the icy lithosphere, are constrained based on a mid-ocean ridge analog model. Estimates of brittle-ductile transition depth combined with a conductive cooling model limit active band lifetimes to 0.24 - 35 Myr and strain rates of 8.1 x 10(exp -13) - 8.2 x 10(exp -15)/s. These values suggest tensile strengths for ice on Europa of 0.46 - 2.3 MPa, consistent with nonsynchronous rotation as the dominant driving mechanism for band opening.

  20. The ammonia absorption behavior on Jupiter during 2005-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, Victor G.; V.G.Tejfel, V.D.Vdovichenko, A.M.Karimov, P.G.Lysenko, , G.A.Kirienko, , V.A.Filippov, G.A.Kharitonova, A.S. Khozhenetz

    2017-10-01

    V.G.Tejfel, V.D.Vdovichenko, A.M.Karimov, P.G.Lysenko, , G.A.Kirienko, , V.A.Filippov, G.A.Kharitonova, A.S. KhozhenetzFessenkov Astrophysical Institute, Almaty, KazakhstanWe measured the intensity of the 645 and 787 nm NH3 absorption bands in five latitudinal belts of Jupiter (STrZ, SEB, EZ, NEB and NTrZ) during almost full period of its revolution around the Sun: from 2005 to 2015. The variations in the equivalent widths of the bands were investigated. The permanently lowered intensity of the 787 nm NH3 band in NEB is confirmed. There are also some systematic differences in latitudinal and temporal variations between the 645 and 787 nm ammonia bands. The equivalent width of the 787 nm NH3 band was averaged for all years of observations. Its maximum (W = 18.95 ± 0.75 A) corresponds to EZ, its minimum (W = 15.82 ± 0.68 A) corresponds to NEB. The 645 nm NH3 band shows the maximum in SEB (W = 6.78 ± 0.45 A), and the minimum in NTrZ (W = 5.38 ± 0.36 A). The weakened ammonia absorption is also observed in the Great Red Spot. However, this is due to the increased density of the clouds inside the Spot storm, but not to decreased gaseous ammonia abundance, in contrast to NEB. The brightness temperature of GRS in the infrared and millimeter ranges of thermal radiation is lower, in contrast to NEB, where an increased brightness temperature is observed. The enhanced cloud density may explain also a pretty high brightness of GRS observed in strong methane absorption bands such as the 887 nm CH4 band and more long waved ones.

  1. Partially filled intermediate band of Cr-doped GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, S.

    2012-05-14

    We investigated the band structure of sputtered Cr-doped GaN (GaCrN) films using optical absorption, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, and charge transport measurements. It was found that an additional energy band is formed in the intrinsic band gap of GaN upon Cr doping, and that charge carriers in the material move in the inserted band. Prototype solar cells showed enhanced short circuit current and open circuit voltage in the n-GaN/GaCrN/p-GaN structure compared to the GaCrN/p-GaN structure, which validates the proposed concept of an intermediate-band solar cell.

  2. Spatially resolved nuclear spin relaxation, electron spin relaxation and light absorption in swift heavy ion irradiated LiF crystals.

    PubMed

    Stork, H; Dinse, K-P; Ditter, M; Fujara, F; Masierak, W; Neumann, R; Schuster, B; Schwartz, K; Trautmann, C

    2010-05-12

    Spatially resolved (19)F and (7)Li spin-lattice relaxation rates are measured for LiF single crystals after irradiation with two kinds of swift heavy ions ((12)C of 133 MeV and (208)Pb of 1.78 GeV incident energy). Like in earlier studies on (130)Xe and (238)U irradiated LiF crystals, we found a strong enhancement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate within the ion penetration depth and a slight--but still significant--enhancement beyond. By evaluating the nuclear relaxation rate enhancement within the ion range after irradiation with different projectiles, a universal relationship between the spin-lattice relaxation rate and the dose is deduced. The results of accompanying X-band electron paramagnetic resonance relaxation measurements and optical absorption spectroscopy are included in a physical interpretation of this relationship. Also the reason for the enhanced relaxation rate beyond the ion range is further discussed.

  3. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  4. Narrow band imaging in the diagnosis of intra-epithelial and invasive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a preliminary report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Takashi; Katada, Chikatoshi; Nakayama, Meijin; Takeda, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Shunsuke; Seino, Yutomo; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Tanabe, Satoshi; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Makito

    2009-12-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel optical technique that enhances the diagnostic capability of the gastrointestinal endoscope (GIE) by illuminating the intraepithelial papillary capillary loop (IPCL) using narrow bandwidth filters in a red-green-blue sequential illumination system (CV-260SL processor and CLV-260SL light source, Olympus Optical Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). The NBI filter sets (415 nm and 540 nm) are selected to obtain fine images of the microvascular structure. Because 415 nm is the hemoglobin absorption band, capillaries on the mucosal surface can be seen most clearly at this wavelength. NBI is able to represent more clearly both capillary patterns and the boundary between different types of tissue, which are necessary for diagnosing a tumor in its early stage (Gono K, Yamazaki K, Doguchi N, Nonami T, Obi T, Yamaguchi M, et al. Endoscopic observation of tissue by narrow band illumination. Opt Rev 2003;10:211-215, Gono K, Obi T, Yamaguchi M, Ohyama N, Machida H, Sano Y, et al. Appearance of enhanced tissue feature in narrow-band endoscopic imaging. J Biomed Opt 2004;9:568-577). We present two patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in whom the spread and the depth of invasion was evaluated with transnasal GIE equipped with NBI. Based on our results, the vascular neoplastic changes of carcinoma in situ of the larynx could be similar to carcinoma in situ of the esophagus.

  5. Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. S.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Lee, J. H.; Ezekoye, O. K.; Vlahos, E.; Ramesh, R.; Gopalan, V.; Pan, X. Q.; Schlom, D. G.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    In order to investigate band gap tunability in polar oxides, we measured the optical properties of a series of Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 thin films. The absorption response of the mixed metal solid solutions is approximately a linear combination of the characteristics of the two end members, a result that demonstrates straightforward band gap tunability in this system.

  6. Decorrelation of L-band and C-band interferometry to volcanic risk prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Sandwell, D.; Tassetti, A. N.; Cappelletti, L.

    2013-10-01

    SAR has several strong key features: fine spatial resolution/precision and high temporal pass frequency. Moreover, the InSAR technique allows the accurate detection of ground deformations. This high potential technology can be invaluable to study volcanoes: it provides important information on pre-eruption surface deformation, improving the understanding of volcanic processes and the ability to predict eruptions. As a downside, SAR measurements are influenced by artifacts such as atmospheric effects or bad topographic data. Correlation gives a measure of these interferences, quantifying the similarity of the phase of two SAR images. Different approaches exists to reduce these errors but the main concern remain the possibility to correlate images with different acquisition times: snow-covered or heavily-vegetated areas produce seasonal changes on the surface. Minimizing the time between passes partly limits decorrelation. Though, images with a short temporal baseline aren't always available and some artifacts affecting correlation are timeindependent. This work studies correlation of pairs of SAR images focusing on the influence of surface and climate conditions, especially snow coverage and temperature. Furthermore, the effects of the acquisition band on correlation are taken into account, comparing L-band and C-band images. All the chosen images cover most of the Yellowstone caldera (USA) over a span of 4 years, sampling all the seasons. Interferograms and correlation maps are generated. To isolate temporal decorrelation, pairs of images with the shortest baseline are chosen. Correlation maps are analyzed in relation to snow depth and temperature. Results obtained with ENVISAT and ERS satellites (C-band) are compared with the ones from ALOS (L-band). Results show a good performance during winter and a bad attitude towards wet snow (spring and fall). During summer both L-band and C-band maintain a good coherence with L-band performing better over vegetation.

  7. Adiabatic pressure dependence of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathai, C. V.; Walls, W. L.; Broersma, S.

    1977-01-01

    An acoustic excitation technique is used to determine the adiabatic pressure derivative of the spectral absorptance of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands, and the 3.5 micron HCl band. The dependence of this derivative on thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, concentration, and pressure is evaluated. A cross-flow water vapor system is used to measure spectral absorptance. Taking F as the ratio of nonrigid to rotor line strengths, it is found that an F factor correction is needed for the 2.7 micron band. The F factor for the 1.9 micron band is also determined. In the wings of each band a wavelength can be found where the concentration dependence is predominant. Farther out in the wings a local maximum occurs for the temperature derivative. It is suggested that the pressure derivative is significant in the core of the band.

  8. Predictive models of turbidity and water depth in the Doñana marshes using Landsat TM and ETM+ images.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Javier; Pacios, Fernando; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo; Aragonés, David

    2009-05-01

    We have used Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ images together with simultaneous ground-truth data at sample points in the Doñana marshes to predict water turbidity and depth from band reflectance using Generalized Additive Models. We have point samples for 12 different dates simultaneous with 7 Landsat-5 and 5 Landsat-7 overpasses. The best model for water turbidity in the marsh explained 38% of variance in ground-truth data and included as predictors band 3 (630-690 nm), band 5 (1550-1750 nm) and the ratio between bands 1 (450-520 nm) and 4 (760-900 nm). Water turbidity is easier to predict for water bodies like the Guadalquivir River and artificial ponds that are deep and not affected by bottom soil reflectance and aquatic vegetation. For the latter, a simple model using band 3 reflectance explains 78.6% of the variance. Water depth is easier to predict than turbidity. The best model for water depth in the marsh explains 78% of the variance and includes as predictors band 1, band 5, the ratio between band 2 (520-600 nm) and band 4, and bottom soil reflectance in band 4 in September, when the marsh is dry. The water turbidity and water depth models have been developed in order to reconstruct historical changes in Doñana wetlands during the last 30 years using the Landsat satellite images time series.

  9. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  10. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  11. Active terahertz metamaterials based on liquid-crystal induced transparency and absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Fei; Chen, Meng; Zhang, Xuanzhou; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    An active terahertz (THz) liquid crystal (LC) metamaterial has been experimentally investigated for THz wave modulation. Some interesting phenomena of resonance shifting, tunable electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) have been observed in the same device structure under different DC bias directions and different incident wave polarization directions by the THz time domain spectroscopy. Further theoretical studies indicate that these effects originate from interference and coupling between bright and dark mode components of elliptically polarized modes in the LC metamaterial, which are induced by the optical activity of LC alignment controllable by the electric field as well as the changes of LC refractive index. The LC layer is indeed a phase retarder and polarization converter that is controlled by the DC bias. The THz modulation depth of the analogs of EIT and EIA effects are 18.3 dB and 10.5 dB in their frequency band, respectively. Electrical control, large modulation depth and feasible integration of this LC device make it an ideal candidate for THz tunable filter, intensity modulator and spatial light modulator.

  12. Diaphragm depth in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Shahgholi, Leili; Baria, Michael R; Sorenson, Eric J; Harper, Caitlin J; Watson, James C; Strommen, Jeffrey A; Boon, Andrea J

    2014-05-01

    Needle electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm carries the potential risk of pneumothorax. Knowing the approximate depth of the diaphragm should increase the test's safety and accuracy. Distances from the skin to the diaphragm and from the outer surface of the rib to the diaphragm were measured using B mode ultrasound in 150 normal subjects. When measured at the lower intercostal spaces, diaphragm depth varied between 0.78 and 4.91 cm beneath the skin surface and between 0.25 and 1.48 cm below the outer surface of the rib. Using linear regression modeling, body mass index (BMI) could be used to predict diaphragm depth from the skin to within an average of 1.15 mm. Diaphragm depth from the skin can vary by more than 4 cm. When image guidance is not available to enhance accuracy and safety of diaphragm EMG, it is possible to reliably predict the depth of the diaphragm based on BMI. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Disorders of motion and depth.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Mark

    2003-08-01

    Damage to the human homologue of area MT produces a motion perception deficit similar to that found in the monkey with MT lesions. Even temporary disruption of MT processing with transcranial magnetic stimulation can produce a temporary akinetopsia [127]. Motion perception deficits, however, also are found with a variety of subcortical lesions and other neurologic disorders that can best be described as causing a disconnection within the motion processing stream. The precise role of these subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum, remains to be determined. Simple motion perception, moreover, is only a part of MT function. It undoubtedly has an important role in the perception of depth from motion and stereopsis [112]. Psychophysical studies using aftereffects in normal observers suggest a link between stereo mechanisms and the perception of depth from motion [9-11]. There is even a simple correlation between stereo acuity and the perception of depth from motion [128]. Future studies of patients with cortical lesions will take a closer look at depth perception in association with motion perception and should provide a better understanding of how motion and depth are processed together.

  14. The hierarchically organized splitting of chromosome bands into sub-bands analyzed by multicolor banding (MCB).

    PubMed

    Lehrer, H; Weise, A; Michel, S; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Heller, A; Kuechler, A; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the nature of chromosome sub-bands in more detail, the multicolor banding (MCB) probe-set for chromosome 5 was hybridized to normal metaphase spreads of GTG band levels at approximately 850, approximately 550, approximately 400 and approximately 300. It could be observed that as the chromosomes became shorter, more of the initial 39 MCB pseudo-colors disappeared, ending with 18 MCB pseudo-colored bands at the approximately 300-band level. The hierarchically organized splitting of bands into sub-bands was analyzed by comparing the disappearance or appearance of pseudo-color bands of the four different band levels. The regions to split first are telomere-near, centromere-near and in 5q23-->q31, followed by 5p15, 5p14, and all GTG dark bands in 5q apart from 5q12 and 5q32 and finalized by sub-band building in 5p15.2, 5q21.2-->q21.3, 5q23.1 and 5q34. The direction of band splitting towards the centromere or the telomere could be assigned to each band separately. Pseudo-colors assigned to GTG-light bands were resistant to band splitting. These observations are in concordance with the recently proposed concept of chromosome region-specific protein swelling. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  16. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1996-06-11

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figs.

  17. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1994-04-05

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.

  18. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1996-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  19. Nonlinear control of absorption in one-dimensional photonic crystal with graphene-based defect.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, M A; de Ceglia, D; Grande, M; D'Orazio, A; Scalora, M

    2013-09-15

    Perfect, narrow-band absorption is achieved in an asymmetric 1D photonic crystal with a monolayer graphene defect. Thanks to the large third-order nonlinearity of graphene and field localization in the defect layer we demonstrate the possibility to achieve controllable, saturable absorption for the pump frequency.

  20. Mid-depth temperature maximum in an estuarine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, V. M.; Repina, I. A.; Artamonov, A. Yu; Gorin, S. L.; Lykossov, V. N.; Kulyamin, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The mid-depth temperature maximum (TeM) was measured in an estuarine Bol’shoi Vilyui Lake (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia) in summer 2015. We applied 1D k-ɛ model LAKE to the case, and found it successfully simulating the phenomenon. We argue that the main prerequisite for mid-depth TeM development is a salinity increase below the freshwater mixed layer, sharp enough in order to increase the temperature with depth not to cause convective mixing and double diffusion there. Given that this condition is satisfied, the TeM magnitude is controlled by physical factors which we identified as: radiation absorption below the mixed layer, mixed-layer temperature dynamics, vertical heat conduction and water-sediments heat exchange. In addition to these, we formulate the mechanism of temperature maximum ‘pumping’, resulting from the phase shift between diurnal cycles of mixed-layer depth and temperature maximum magnitude. Based on the LAKE model results we quantify the contribution of the above listed mechanisms and find their individual significance highly sensitive to water turbidity. Relying on physical mechanisms identified we define environmental conditions favouring the summertime TeM development in salinity-stratified lakes as: small-mixed layer depth (roughly, ~< 2 m), transparent water, daytime maximum of wind and cloudless weather. We exemplify the effect of mixed-layer depth on TeM by a set of selected lakes.

  1. Dynamically tunable extraordinary light absorption in monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Alireza; Chandra, Sayan; Vázquez-Guardado, Abraham; Calderon, Jean; Franklin, Daniel; Tetard, Laurene; Zhai, Lei; Leuenberger, Michael N.; Chanda, Debashis

    2017-10-01

    The high carrier mobility of graphene makes it an attractive material for electronics, however, graphene's application for optoelectronic systems is limited due to its low optical absorption. We present a cavity-coupled nanopatterned graphene absorber designed to sustain temporal and spatial overlap between localized surface plasmon resonance and cavity modes, thereby resulting in enhanced absorption up to an unprecedented value of theoretically (60 %) and experimentally measured (45 %) monolayer graphene in the technologically relevant 8-12-μm atmospheric transparent infrared imaging band. We demonstrate a wide electrostatic tunability of the absorption band (˜2 μ m ) by modifying the Fermi energy. The proposed device design allows enhanced absorption and dynamic tunability of chemical vapor deposition grown low carrier mobility graphene which provides a significant advantage over previous strategies where absorption enhancement was limited to exfoliated high carrier mobility graphene. We developed an analytical model that incorporates the coupling of the graphene electron and substrate phonons, providing valuable and instructive insights into the modified plasmon-phonon dispersion relation necessary to interpret the experimental observations. Such gate voltage and cavity tunable enhanced absorption in chemical vapor deposited large area monolayer graphene paves the path towards the scalable development of ultrasensitive infrared photodetectors, modulators, and other optoelectronic devices.

  2. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure using a fiber-laser based lidar operating in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm and the integrated path differential absorption measurement technique. Our lidar uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate tunable laser radiation at 765 nm, which overlaps an absorption line pair in the Oxygen A-band. We use a pulsed time resolved technique, which rapidly steps the laser wavelength across the absorption line pair, a 20 cm telescope and photon counting detector to measure Oxygen concentrations.

  3. Simplified procedure for computing the absorption of sound by the atmosphere

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-10-31

    This paper describes a study that resulted in the development of a simplified : method for calculating attenuation by atmospheric-absorption for wide-band : sounds analyzed by one-third octave-band filters. The new method [referred to : herein as the...

  4. Observations of banding in first-year Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, David M.; Eicken, Hajo; Frey, Karoline; Shapiro, Lewis H.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal banding features, alternating dark and bright horizontal bands apparent in ice cores and stratigraphic cross sections have long been observed in first-year sea ice and are frequently associated with bands of high and low brine or gas porosity. Observations on the land-fast ice near Barrow, Alaska, in recent years have revealed particularly striking banding patterns and prompted a study of their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The banding patterns are quantified from photographs of full-depth sections of the ice, and examples are presented from the Chukchi Sea and Elson Lagoon. Statistics on band spacing are presented, and the growth records for three seasons are employed to estimate their time of formation. These data provide insight into the periodicity of the underlying phenomena. Micrographs are used to examine the microstructural variations associated with various banding features and to quantify the geometry of the constituent brine inclusions associated with high- and low-porosity bands. The micrography revealed that the area fraction of brine inclusions varied by a factor of nearly 3 through the more pronounced high- and low-porosity bands. Vertical micrographs obtained shortly after the materials' removal from the ice sheet showed that significantly larger inclusions form abruptly at the start of the high-porosity bands and frequently terminate abruptly at the end of the band. Crystallographic observations indicated that the high-porosity bands supported the nucleation and growth of crystals having substantially different orientations from the very well aligned columnar structure that characterized the bulk of the sheet.

  5. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  6. Obituary: David L. Band (1957-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, Lynn

    2011-12-01

    David L. Band, of Potomac Maryland, died on March 16, 2009 succumbing to a long battle with spinal cord cancer. His death at the age of 52 came as a shock to his many friends and colleagues in the physics and astronomy community. Band showed an early interest and exceptional aptitude for physics, leading to his acceptance at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an undergraduate student in 1975. After graduating from MIT with an undergraduate degree in Physics, Band continued as a graduate student in Physics at Harvard University. His emerging interest in Astrophysics led him to the Astronomy Department at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), where he did his dissertation work with Jonathan Grindlay. His dissertation (1985) entitled "Non-thermal Radiation Mechanisms and Processes in SS433 and Active Galactic Nuclei" was "pioneering work on the physics of jets arising from black holes and models for their emission, including self-absorption, which previewed much to come, and even David's own later work on Gamma-ray Bursts," according to Grindlay who remained a personal friend and colleague of Band's. Following graduate school, Band held postdoctoral positions at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley and the Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences at the University of California San Diego where he worked on the BATSE experiment that was part of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), launched in 1991. BATSE had as its main objective the study of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and made significant advances in this area of research. Band became a world-renowned figure in the emerging field of GRB studies. He is best known for his widely-used analytic form of gamma-ray burst spectra known as the "Band Function." After the CGRO mission ended, Band moved to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he worked mainly on classified research but continued to work on GRB energetics and spectra. When NASA planned

  7. Depth Perception in Visual Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1953, 45, 205-217. Wallach, H., O’Connell, D. N., & Neisser , U . The memory effect of visual perception of...Wallach and O’Connell labelled this the Kinetic Depth Effect. Wallach, O’Connell, and Neisser (1953) found that once depth had been established...right of fixation in the left eye. The converse is true for objects located 10 uL 0 L-I. M4 ’I! .- 4J Cd > 9 )( C.) U )d 0 0 4- -0 4 C4 J )0 -I,--4 0

  8. A simple method of obtaining concentration depth-profiles from X-ray diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, K. E.; Unnam, J.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of composition profiles from X-ray intensity bands was investigated. The intensity band-to-composition profile transformation utilizes a solution which can be easily evaluated. The technique can be applied to thin films and thick speciments for which the variation of lattice parameters, linear absorption coefficient, and reflectivity with composition are known. A deconvolution scheme with corrections for the instrumental broadening and ak-alfadoublet is discussed.

  9. Saturated evanescent-wave absorption of few-layer graphene-covered side-polished single-mode fiber for all-optical switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kaung-Jay; Wu, Chun-Lung; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wang, Hwai-Yung; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2018-01-01

    Using the evanescent-wave saturation effect of hydrogen-free low-temperature synthesized few-layer graphene covered on the cladding region of a side-polished single-mode fiber, a blue pump/infrared probe-based all-optical switch is demonstrated with specific wavelength-dependent probe modulation efficiency. Under the illumination of a blue laser diode at 405 nm, the few-layer graphene exhibits cross-gain modulation at different wavelengths covering the C- and L-bands. At a probe power of 0.5 mW, the L-band switching throughput power variant of 16 μW results in a probe modulation depth of 3.2%. Blue shifting the probe wavelength from 1580 to 1520 nm further enlarges the switching throughput power variant to 24 mW and enhances the probe modulation depth to 5%. Enlarging the probe power from 0.5 to 1 mW further enlarges the switching throughput power variant from 25 to 58 μW to promote its probe modulation depth of up to 5.8% at 1520 nm. In contrast, the probe modulation depth degrades from 5.1% to 1.2% as the pumping power reduces from 85 to 24 mW, which is attributed to the saturable absorption of the few-layer graphene-based evanescent-wave absorber. The modulation depth at wavelength of 1550 nm under a probe power of 1 mW increases from 1.2% to 5.1%, as more carriers can be excited when increasing the blue laser power from 24 to 85 mW, whereas it decreases from 5.1% to 3.3% by increasing the input probe power from 1 to 2 mW to show an easier saturated condition at longer wavelength.

  10. Simple and Low-Cost Dual-Band Printed Microwave Absorber for 2.4- and 5-GHz-Band Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoomwong, Ekajit; Phongcharoenpanich, Chuwong

    2017-10-01

    In this research, a dual-band thin printed-circuit-board (PCB) microwave absorber has been proposed for applications in 2.4 and 5 GHz frequency bands. Each unit cell of the absorber consists of a square ring and a thick cross-dipole, augmented with the tuning elements. In the design process, numerical simulations were performed for the optimal characteristics of the absorber and an absorber prototype was fabricated using the simple print-transferring and etching process. The measured absorption bandwidths (50 %) of 170 MHz (2.36-2.53 GHz) and 830 MHz (5.09-5.92 GHz) were achieved for the first and second bands, respectively, with the wideband characteristic at the second operating band. The absorption rates near the center frequencies (2.45 and 5.5 GHz) were respectively 97.85 % and 97.76 %. The simulation and measured results are in good agreement. Furthermore, the incidence-angle dependencies of the absorber were of moderately wide angles with the absorption capacity of at least 50 % for both operating bands. The proposed absorber is suitable for a variety of applications requiring absorption in the 2.4/5 GHz bands.

  11. SF_6: the Forbidden Band Unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Kwabia-Tchana, F.; Roy, P.

    2013-06-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF_6) is a greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin, whose strong infrared absorption in the ν_3 S-F stretching region near 948 cm^{-1} induces a global warming potential 23900 times bigger than CO_2. This heavy species features many hot bands at room temperature (at which the ground state population is only 30 %), especially those originating from the v_6=1 state. Unfortunately, the ν_6 band itself (near 347 cm^{-1}) being, in first approximation, both infrared and Raman inactive, no reliable information could be obtained about it up to now. A long time ago, some authors suggested that this band may be slightly activated through Coriolis interaction and may appear as a very faint band, with an integrated intensity about 2 millionths of that of ν_3. Using a new cryogenic multipass cell with 93 m optical path length and regulated at 165± 2 K temperature, we recorded a spectrum of the ν_6 far-infrared region thanks to the performances of the AILES Beamline at the SOLEIL french synchrotron facility. Low temperature was used to avoid the presence of the 2ν_6-ν_6 hot band and to reduce the neighboring, stronger ν_4-ν_2 difference band. We are thus able to confirm that the small feature in this region, previously viewed at low-resolution is indeed ν_6. We present its fully resolved spectrum. It appears to be activated thanks to unidentified faint interactions resulting in the presence of a first-order dipole moment term that induces unusual selection rules. This spectrum was analyzed thanks to the XTDS software package, leading to accurate molecular spectroscopic parameters that should be useful to model the hot bands of SF_6. W. B. Person, B. J. Krohn, J. Mol. Spectrosc. {98}, 229-257 (1983), C. Chappados, G. Birnbaum, J. Mol. Spectrosc. {105}, 206-214 (1984). Ch. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov and J.-P. Champion, J. Mol. Spectrosc., {251} 102-113 (2008).

  12. Noise exposure in marching bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  13. Optical Path Switching Based Differential Absorption Radiometry for Substance Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting one or more substances. An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. The first wavelength band and second wavelength band are unique. Further, spectral absorption of a substance of interest is different at the first wavelength band as compared to the second wavelength band. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  14. Pursuing the Depths of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Today's state literacy standards and assessments demand deeper levels of knowledge from students. But many teachers ask, "What does depth of knowledge look like on these new, more rigorous assessments? How do we prepare students for this kind of thinking?" In this article, Nancy Boyles uses a sampling of questions from the PARCC and SBAC…

  15. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A [Aiken, SC; Steeper, Timothy J [Trenton, SC

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  16. The librational band of water ice in AFGL 961: revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. G.; Wright, C. M.

    2011-07-01

    Of all the water ice absorption bands seen in the laboratory, the librational band near 12-13 μ m has proven the most difficult to conclusively identify in observational spectra. Cox reported the detection of this band in the IRAS spectrum of the massive protostar AFGL 961 near 13.6 μ m; however, the details of the structure of the band were limited by the quality of the IRAS spectrum and the accuracy of the subtracted silicate absorption. AFGL 961 is also a double system comprising two point-like components separated by ˜6 arcsec (AFGL 961E and AFGL 961W) so the IRAS aperture included both components - it is unclear how the combination of the intrinsic spectra of these two sources may have affected the resultant IRAS spectrum. In this paper we report Spitzer and European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of each component of AFGL 961. We find a broad absorption feature near 13.1 μ m common to both AFGL 961E and W. The profile and peak wavelength of this feature are well matched by the laboratory spectrum of the librational band of amorphous H2O ice in the temperature range 10-30 K, in agreement with the Cox result. Both AFGL 961E and W also have strong CO2 ice absorption near 15.2 μ m, indistinguishable in profile between the two. However, AFGL 961E shows silicates in absorption near 9.7 μ m, while AFGL 961W shows polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emission and, in a small aperture, also silicates in emission. Uncertainty in where the true continuum lies in the 8-13 μ m spectral region for both AFGL 961E and W means we cannot rule out the possibility that a combination of silicate emission and absorption could be responsible for at least some of the features we see in this region. In this case, a much weaker librational band could still be present, but not as a distinct feature. In either case, the ice must be located in a cool, outer envelope surrounding both stars or a cool foreground cloud, far enough away that the

  17. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  18. Solvatochromic Effects on the Absorption Spectrum of 2-Thiocytosine

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The solvatochromic effects of six different solvents on the UV absorption spectrum of 2-thiocytosine have been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The steady-state absorption spectra show significant shifts of the absorption bands, where in more polar solvents the first absorption maximum shifts to higher transition energies and the second maximum to lower energies. The observed solvatochromic shifts have been rationalized using three popular solvatochromic scales and with high-level multireference quantum chemistry calculations including implicit and explicit solvent effects. It has been found that the dipole moments of the excited states account for some general shifts in the excitation energies, whereas the explicit solvent interactions explain the differences in the spectra recorded in the different solvents. PMID:28452483

  19. Intensity Measurements of the 01(sup 1)21-00(sup 0)01 Perpendicular CO2 band at 5315 cm (sup -1) and 4 related hot bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Spencer, Mark N.; Brown, Linda R.; Wattson, Richard B.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The near-infrared thermal emission windows in the spectrum of the night-side of Venus have stimulated new determinations of the intensities of weak CO2 bands which are prominent absorption features in Venus spectra. We have previously measured the 31(sup 1)04-00(sup 0)01 band at 4416 cm (sup -1), which dominates a portion of the 2.2 micrometer window, using the 25-meter White absorption cell at Ames. Parameters for many of the unmeasured bands have been recomputed for the HITRAN compilation using direct numerical diagonalization. This procedure has some uncertainties, particularly for higher overtone-combination perpendicular bands, and substantial differences were noted for these bands when comparing the 1986 HITRAN tabulation with the 1992 values. To clarify this situation, we decided to measure the intensities of several of these bands; L.R.B. obtained spectra using the McMath FTS and 6 meter White cell, covering the region 3800 to 7700 cm (sup -1). A table is provided in which we compare our measured intensities and Herman-Wallis al parameters for the 01(sup 1)21-00(sup 0)01 band and 4 associated hot bands with both Hitran tabulations. It is anticipated that these measured values will be useful in further DND calculations of many very weak unmeasurable bands.

  20. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  1. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. Multiple infrared bands absorber based on multilayer gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Gao, Jinsong; Yang, Haigui; Wang, Xiaoyi; Guo, Chengli

    2018-03-01

    The present study offers an Ag/Si multilayer-grating microstructure based on an Si substrate. The microstructure exhibits designable narrowband absorption in multiple infrared wavebands, especially in mid- and long-wave infrared atmospheric windows. We investigate its resonance mode mechanism, and calculate the resonance wavelengths by the Fabry-Perot and metal-insulator-metal theories for comparison with the simulation results. Furthermore, we summarize the controlling rules of the absorption peak wavelength of the microstructure to provide a new method for generating a Si-based device with multiple working bands in infrared.

  3. Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Chang-Dae; Jang, Kiwan; Park, Sang-An; Kim, Duck-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Wha-Tek

    2006-09-01

    Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys were investigated in the composition region of 0.0 x 0.4 and in the wavelength region of 300 to 2500 nm at 4.8 K and 290 K. We observed several absorption bands in the wavelength regions corresponding to the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4P) transition and the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4F) transition of Co2+ at a tetrahedral Td point symmetry point in the host crystals, as well as unknown absorption bands. The several absorption bands were analyzed in the framework of the crystal-field theory along with the second-order spin-orbit coupling. The unknown absorption bands were assigned as due to phonon-assisted absorption bands. We also investigated the variations of the crystal-field parameter Dq and the Racah parameter B with composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system. The results showed that the crystal-field parameter (Dq ) increases, on the other hand, the Racah parameter (B ) decreases with increasing composition x, which may be connected with an increase in the covalency of the metal-ligand bond with increasing composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system.

  4. Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Florescu, Marian; Stimpson, Andrew J.; Lee, Hwang

    We study theoretically the optical properties of a finite inverted-opal photonic crystal. The light-matter interaction is strongly affected by the presence of the three-dimensional photonic crystal and the alterations of the light emission and absorption processes can be used to suppress or enhance the thermal emissivity and absorptivity of the dielectric structure. We investigate the influence of the absorption present in the system on the relevant band edge frequencies that control the optical response of the photonic crystal. Our study reveals that the absorption processes cause spectral broadening and shifting of the band edge optical resonances, and determine a strongmore » reduction of the photonic band gap spectral range. Using the angular and spectral dependence of the band edge frequencies for stop bands along different directions, we argue that by matching the blackbody emission spectrum peak with a prescribed maximum of the absorption coefficient, it is possible to achieve an angle-sensitive enhancement of the thermal emission/absorption of radiation. This result opens a way to realize a frequency-sensitive and angle-sensitive photonic crystal absorbers/emitters.« less

  5. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  6. Degenerate band edge laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a class of lasers based on a fourth-order exceptional point of degeneracy (EPD) referred to as the degenerate band edge (DBE). EPDs have been found in parity-time-symmetric photonic structures that require loss and/or gain; here we show that the DBE is a different kind of EPD since it occurs in periodic structures that are lossless and gainless. Because of this property, a small level of gain is sufficient to induce single-frequency lasing based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate Floquet-Bloch eigenwaves. This lasing scheme constitutes a light-matter interaction mechanism that leads also to a unique scaling law of the laser threshold with the inverse of the fifth power of the laser-cavity length. The DBE laser has the lowest lasing threshold in comparison to a regular band edge laser and to a conventional laser in cavities with the same loaded quality (Q ) factor and length. In particular, even without mirror reflectors the DBE laser exhibits a lasing threshold which is an order of magnitude lower than that of a uniform cavity laser of the same length and with very high mirror reflectivity. Importantly, this novel DBE lasing regime enforces mode selectivity and coherent single-frequency operation even for pumping rates well beyond the lasing threshold, in contrast to the multifrequency nature of conventional uniform cavity lasers.

  7. The demodulated band transform

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Christopher K.; Gander, Phillip E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Windowed Fourier decompositions (WFD) are widely used in measuring stationary and non-stationary spectral phenomena and in describing pairwise relationships among multiple signals. Although a variety of WFDs see frequent application in electrophysiological research, including the short-time Fourier transform, continuous wavelets, band-pass filtering and multitaper-based approaches, each carries certain drawbacks related to computational efficiency and spectral leakage. This work surveys the advantages of a WFD not previously applied in electrophysiological settings. New Methods A computationally efficient form of complex demodulation, the demodulated band transform (DBT), is described. Results DBT is shown to provide an efficient approach to spectral estimation with minimal susceptibility to spectral leakage. In addition, it lends itself well to adaptive filtering of non-stationary narrowband noise. Comparison with existing methods A detailed comparison with alternative WFDs is offered, with an emphasis on the relationship between DBT and Thomson's multitaper. DBT is shown to perform favorably in combining computational efficiency with minimal introduction of spectral leakage. Conclusion DBT is ideally suited to efficient estimation of both stationary and non-stationary spectral and cross-spectral statistics with minimal susceptibility to spectral leakage. These qualities are broadly desirable in many settings. PMID:26711370

  8. Spectral band passes for a high precision satellite sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, L. D.; Chahine, M. T.; Susskind, J.; Searl, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Atmospheric temperature soundings with significantly improved vertical resolution can be obtained from carefully chosen narrow band-pass measurements in the 4.3-micron band of CO2 by taking advantage of the variation of the absorption coefficients, and thereby the weighting functions, with pressure and temperature. A set of channels has been found in the 4.2-micron region that is capable of yielding about 2-km vertical resolution in the troposphere. The concept of a complete system is presented for obtaining high resolution retrievals of temperature and water vapor distribution, as well as surface and cloud top temperatures, even in the presence of broken clouds.

  9. Carrier-Specific Femtosecond XUV Transient Absorption of PbI 2 Reveals Ultrafast Nonradiative Recombination

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Leveillee, Joshua; ...

    2017-11-30

    Femtosecond carrier recombination in PbI 2 is measured using tabletop high-harmonic extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast electron diffraction. XUV absorption from 45 eV to 62 eV measures transitions from the iodine 4d core level to the conduction band density of states. Photoexcitation at 400 nm creates separate and distinct transient absorption signals for holes and electrons, separated in energy by the 2.4 eV band gap of the semiconductor. The shape of the conduction band and therefore the XUV absorption spectrum is temperature dependent, and nonradiative recombination converts the initial electronic excitation to thermal excitation within picoseconds. Ultrafastmore » electron diffraction (UED) is used to measure the lattice temperature and confirm the recombination mechanism. Lastly, the XUV and UED results support a 2nd-order recombination model with a rate constant of 2.5x10 -9 cm 3/s.« less

  10. Carrier-Specific Femtosecond XUV Transient Absorption of PbI 2 Reveals Ultrafast Nonradiative Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Leveillee, Joshua

    Femtosecond carrier recombination in PbI 2 is measured using tabletop high-harmonic extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast electron diffraction. XUV absorption from 45 eV to 62 eV measures transitions from the iodine 4d core level to the conduction band density of states. Photoexcitation at 400 nm creates separate and distinct transient absorption signals for holes and electrons, separated in energy by the 2.4 eV band gap of the semiconductor. The shape of the conduction band and therefore the XUV absorption spectrum is temperature dependent, and nonradiative recombination converts the initial electronic excitation to thermal excitation within picoseconds. Ultrafastmore » electron diffraction (UED) is used to measure the lattice temperature and confirm the recombination mechanism. Lastly, the XUV and UED results support a 2nd-order recombination model with a rate constant of 2.5x10 -9 cm 3/s.« less

  11. Inhibition of airway surface fluid absorption by cholinergic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Choi, Jae Young; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    In upper airways airway surface liquid (ASL) depth and clearance rates are both increased by fluid secretion. Secretion is opposed by fluid absorption, mainly via the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC. In static systems, increased fluid depth activates ENaC and decreased depth inhibits it, suggesting that secretion indirectly activates ENaC to reduce ASL depth. We propose an alternate mechanism in which cholinergic input, which causes copious airway gland secretion, also inhibits ENaC-mediated absorption. The conjoint action accelerates clearance, and the increased transport of mucus out of the airways restores ASL depth while cleansing the airways. We were intrigued by early reports of cholinergic inhibition of absorption by airways in some species. To reinvestigate this phenomenon, we studied inward short-circuit currents (Isc) in tracheal mucosa from human, sheep, pig, ferret, and rabbit and in two types of cultured cells. Basal Isc was inhibited 20–70% by the ENaC inhibitor, benzamil. Long-lasting inhibition of ENaC-dependent Isc was also produced by basolateral carbachol in all preparations except rabbit and the H441 cell line. Atropine inhibition produced a slow recovery or prevented inhibition if added before carbachol. The mechanism for inhibition was not determined and is most likely multi-factorial. However, its physiological significance is expected to be increased mucus clearance rates in cholinergically stimulated airways. PMID:26846701

  12. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  13. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  14. Morphologies of omega band auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki

    2017-08-01

    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  15. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  16. Random Walks and Effective Optical Depth in Relativistic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Sanshiro; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the random walk process in relativistic flow. In the relativistic flow, photon propagation is concentrated in the direction of the flow velocity due to the relativistic beaming effect. We show that in the pure scattering case, the number of scatterings is proportional to the size parameter ξ ≡ L/l 0 if the flow velocity β ≡ v/c satisfies β/Γ Gt ξ-1, while it is proportional to ξ2 if β/Γ Lt ξ-1, where L and l 0 are the size of the system in the observer frame and the mean free path in the comoving frame, respectively. We also examine the photon propagation in the scattering and absorptive medium. We find that if the optical depth for absorption τa is considerably smaller than the optical depth for scattering τs (τa/τs Lt 1) and the flow velocity satisfies \\beta \\gg \\sqrt{2\\tau _a/\\tau _s}, then the effective optical depth is approximated by τ* ~= τa(1 + β)/β. Furthermore, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer and compare the results with the analytic expression for the number of scatterings. The analytic expression is consistent with the results of the numerical simulations. The expression derived in this study can be used to estimate the photon production site in relativistic phenomena, e.g., gamma-ray burst and active galactic nuclei.

  17. Data depth based clustering analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, Myeong -Hun; Cai, Yaping; Sullivan, Clair J.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, this paper proposes a new algorithm for identifying patterns within data, based on data depth. Such a clustering analysis has an enormous potential to discover previously unknown insights from existing data sets. Many clustering algorithms already exist for this purpose. However, most algorithms are not affine invariant. Therefore, they must operate with different parameters after the data sets are rotated, scaled, or translated. Further, most clustering algorithms, based on Euclidean distance, can be sensitive to noises because they have no global perspective. Parameter selection also significantly affects the clustering results of each algorithm. Unlike many existing clustering algorithms, themore » proposed algorithm, called data depth based clustering analysis (DBCA), is able to detect coherent clusters after the data sets are affine transformed without changing a parameter. It is also robust to noises because using data depth can measure centrality and outlyingness of the underlying data. Further, it can generate relatively stable clusters by varying the parameter. The experimental comparison with the leading state-of-the-art alternatives demonstrates that the proposed algorithm outperforms DBSCAN and HDBSCAN in terms of affine invariance, and exceeds or matches the ro-bustness to noises of DBSCAN or HDBSCAN. The robust-ness to parameter selection is also demonstrated through the case study of clustering twitter data.« less

  18. Enhanced broadband absorption in nanowire arrays with integrated Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Pettersson, Håkan

    2018-05-01

    A near-unity unselective absorption spectrum is desirable for high-performance photovoltaics. Nanowire (NW) arrays are promising candidates for efficient solar cells due to nanophotonic absorption resonances in the solar spectrum. The absorption spectra, however, display undesired dips between the resonance peaks. To achieve improved unselective broadband absorption, we propose to enclose distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) in the bottom and top parts of indium phosphide (InP) NWs, respectively. We theoretically show that by enclosing only two periods of In0.56Ga0.44As/InP DBRs, an unselective 78% absorption efficiency (72% for NWs without DBRs) is obtained at normal incidence in the spectral range from 300 nm to 920 nm. Under oblique light incidence, the absorption efficiency is enhanced up to about 85% at an incidence angle of 50°. By increasing the number of DBR periods from two to five, the absorption efficiency is further enhanced up to 95% at normal incidence. In this work, we calculated optical spectra for InP NWs, but the results are expected to be valid for other direct band gap III-V semiconductor materials. We believe that our proposed idea of integrating DBRs in NWs offers great potential for high-performance photovoltaic applications.

  19. Band structures of TiO2 doped with N, C and B*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tian-Hua; Song, Chen-Lu; Liu, Yong; Han, Gao-Rong

    2006-01-01

    This study on the band structures and charge densities of nitrogen (N)-, carbon (C)- and boron (B)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) by first-principles simulation with the CASTEP code (Segall et al., 2002) showed that the three 2p bands of impurity atom are located above the valence-band maximum and below the Ti 3d bands, and that along with the decreasing of impurity atomic number, the fluctuations become more intensive. We cannot observe obvious band-gap narrowing in our result. Therefore, the cause of absorption in visible light might be the isolated impurity atom 2p states in band-gap rather than the band-gap narrowing. PMID:16532532

  20. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Lin, Horn-Bond

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  1. Fine structure of the amide i band in acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Careri, G.; Gratton, E.; Shyamsunder, E.

    1988-05-01

    Their absorption spectrum of both single crystals and powdered samples of acetanilide (a model system for proteins) has been studied in the amide i region, where a narrow band has been identified as a highly trapped soliton state. The powder-sample spectra have been decomposed using four Lorentzian bands. A strong temperature dependence has been found for the intensity of two of the subbands, which also show a complementary behavior. Polarization studies performed on thin crystals have shown that the subbands have the same polarization. Low-temperature spectra of partially deuterated samples show the presence of the subbands at the same absorption frequencies found using the fitting procedure in the spectra of nondeuterated samples. The soliton model currently proposed to explain the origin of the anomalous amide i component at 1650 cm-1 still holds, but some modification of the model is required to account for the new features revealed by this study.

  2. Discussion of vicarious calibration of GOSAT/TANSO-CAI UV-band (380nm) and aerosol retrieval in wildfire region in the OCO-2 and GOSAT observation campaign at Railroad Valley in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Kuze, A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Shiomi, K.; Kataoka, F.; Kikuchi, N.; Arai, T.; Kasai, K.; Nakajima, T.

    2016-12-01

    The GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) / TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager, CAI) is an imaging sensor to measure cloud and aerosol properties and observes reflected sunlight from the atmosphere and surface of the ground. The sensor has four bands from near ultraviolet (near-UV) to shortwave infrared, 380, 674, 870 and 1600nm. The field of view size is 0.5 km for band-1 through band-3, and 1.5km for band-4. Band-1 (380nm) is one of unique function of the CAI. The near-UV observation offers several advantages for the remote sensing of aerosols over land: Low reflectance of most surfaces; Sensitivity to absorbing aerosols; Absorption of trace gases is weak (Höller et al., 2004). CAI UV-band is useful to distinguish absorbing aerosol (smoke) from cloud. GOSAT-2/TANSO-CAI-2 that will be launched in the future also has UV-bands, 340 and 380nm. We carried out an experiment to calibrate CAI UV-band radiance using data taken in a field campaign of OCO-2 and GOSAT at Railroad Valley in 2016. The campaign period is June 27 to July 3 in 2016. We measured surface reflectance by using USB4000 Spectrometer with 74-UV collimating lens (Ocean Optics) and Spectralon (Labsphere). USB4000 is a UV spectrometer, and its measurement range from 300 to 520nm. We simulated CAI UV-band radiance using a vector type of radiation transfer code, i.e. including polarization calculation, pstar3 (Ota et al., 2010) using measured surface reflectance and atmospheric data, pressure and relative humidity by radiosonde in the same campaign, and aerosol optical depth by AERONET, etc. Then, we evaluated measured UV radiances with the simulated data. We show the result of vicarious calibration of CAI UV-band in the campaign, and discuss about this method for future sensor, CAI-2. Around the campaign period, there was wildfire around Los Angeles, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observed by AERONET at Rail Road valley and Caltech sites is also high. We tried to detect and retrieve aerosol

  3. Oxygen isotope variability within Nautilus shell growth bands

    DOE PAGES

    Linzmeier, Benjamin J.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Peters, Shanan E.; ...

    2016-04-21

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis ofmore » oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ 18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ 18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. In addition, to create the observed range of δ 18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands.« less

  4. Dark Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dark crisscrossing bands on Jupiter's moon Europa represent widespread disruption from fracturing and the possible eruption of gases and rocky material from the moon's interior in this four-frame mosaic of images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft. These and other features suggest that soft ice or liquid water was present below the ice crust at the time of disruption. The data do not rule out the possibility that such conditions exist on Europa today. The pictures were taken from a distance of 156,000 kilometers (about 96,300 miles) on June 27, 1996. Many of the dark bands are more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) long, exceeding the length of the San Andreas fault of California. Some of the features seen on the mosaic resulted from meteoritic impact, including a 30- kilometer (18.5 mile) diameter crater visible as a bright scar in the lower third of the picture. In addition, dozens of shallow craters seen in some terrains along the sunset terminator zone (upper right shadowed area of the image) are probably impact craters. Other areas along the terminator lack craters, indicating relatively youthful surfaces, suggestive of recent eruptions of icy slush from the interior. The lower quarter of the mosaic includes highly fractured terrain where the icy crust has been broken into slabs as large as 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) across. The mosaic covers a large part of the northern hemisphere and includes the north pole at the top of the image. The sun illuminates the surface from the left. The area shown is centered on 20 degrees north latitude and 220 degrees west longitude and is about as wide as the United States west of the Mississippi River. The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Piezoelectric-tuned microwave cavity for absorption spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Leskovar, Branko; Buscher, Harold T.; Kolbe, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Gas samples are analyzed for pollutants in a microwave cavity that is provided with two highly polished walls. One wall of the cavity is mechanically driven with a piezoelectric transducer at a low frequency to tune the cavity over a band of microwave frequencies in synchronism with frequency modulated microwave energy applied to the cavity. Absorption of microwave energy over the tuned frequencies is detected, and energy absorption at a particular microwave frequency is an indication of a particular pollutant in the gas sample.

  7. Low-refractive-index dye-aggregate films with small absorption based on anomalous dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Takashi; Watanabe, Keita; Saito, Kazuhiro

    2005-02-20

    Complex-refractive-index spectra of Squarylium (SQ) dye-aggregate films deposited upon metal films have been investigated by measurements of properties of the films including absorption spectra (AS) and attenuated total reflection. Complex refractive indices are estimated by Kramers-Kronig analysis for the AS and by a theoretical curve-fitting analysis for attenuated total reflection. The dye-aggregate films exhibited an absorption that was blueshifted from that of a monomer, as a result of the H-aggregate formation of SQ molecules, and had a changing refractive index with anomalous dispersion about the H-absorption band. From both measurements of the SQ films it was found that there is a region of low absorption in the short-wavelength side of the absorption band and that the refractive index there is lower than that of glass.

  8. Low-refractive-index dye-aggregate films with small absorption based on anomalous dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Takashi; Watanabe, Keita; Saito, Kazuhiro

    2005-02-01

    Complex-refractive-index spectra of Squarylium (SQ) dye-aggregate films deposited upon metal films have been investigated by measurements of properties of the films including absorption spectra (AS) and attenuated total reflection. Complex refractive indices are estimated by Kramers-Kronig analysis for the AS and by a theoretical curve-fitting analysis for attenuated total reflection. The dye-aggregate films exhibited an absorption that was blueshifted from that of a monomer, as a result of the H-aggregate formation of SQ molecules, and had a changing refractive index with anomalous dispersion about the H-absorption band. From both measurements of the SQ films it was found that there is a region of low absorption in the short-wavelength side of the absorption band and that the refractive index there is lower than that of glass.

  9. Theoretical design of twelve-band infrared metamaterial perfect absorber by combining the dipole, quadrupole, and octopole plasmon resonance modes of four different ring-strip resonators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Liu, Han; He, Zhihong; Dong, Shikui

    2018-05-14

    Multiband metamaterial perfect absorbers (MPAs) have promising applications in many fields like microbolometers, infrared detection, biosensing, and thermal emitters. In general, the single resonator can only excite a fundamental mode and achieve single absorption band. The multiband MPA can be achieved by combining several different sized resonators together. However, it's still challenging to design the MPA with absorption bands of more than four and average absorptivity of more than 90% due to the interaction between differently sized resonators. In this paper, three absorption bands are successfully achieved with average absorptivity up to 98.5% only utilizing single one our designed ring-strip resonator, which can simultaneously excite a fundamental electric dipole mode, a higher-order electric quadrupole mode, and a higher-order electric octopole mode. As the biosensor, the sensing performance of the higher-order modes is higher than the fundamental modes. Then we try to increase the absorption bands by combining different sized ring-strip resonators together and make the average absorptivity above 90% by optimizing the geometry parameters. A six-band MPA is achieved by combining two different sized ring-strip resonators with average absorptivity up to 98.8%, which can excite two dipole modes, two quadrupole modes, and two octopole modes. A twelve-band MPA is achieved by combining four different sized ring-strip resonators with average absorptivity up to 93.7%, which can excite four dipole modes, four quadrupole modes, and four octopole modes.

  10. Single-junction solar cells with the optimum band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-12-27

    A single-junction solar cell is described having the ideal band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications. Computer modeling studies of single-junction solar cells have shown that the presence of absorption bands in the direct spectrum has the effect of ''pinning'' the optimum band gap for a wide range of operating conditions at a value of 1.14[+-]0.02 eV. Efficiencies exceeding 30% may be possible at high concentration ratios for devices with the ideal band gap. 7 figures.

  11. Twisted bilayer blue phosphorene: A direct band gap semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, D. A.; Duque, C. A.; Correa, J. D.; Suárez Morell, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We report that two rotated layers of blue phosphorene behave as a direct band gap semiconductor. The optical spectrum shows absorption peaks in the visible region of the spectrum and in addition the energy of these peaks can be tuned with the rotational angle. These findings makes twisted bilayer blue phosphorene a strong candidate as a solar cell or photodetection device. Our results are based on ab initio calculations of several rotated blue phosphorene layers.

  12. Neutral gas and diffuse interstellar bands in the LMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, Anthony C.; Penprase, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Tracing the dynamics of the neutral gas and observing diffuse interstellar bands in the LMC (Large Magellanic Cloud) was the focus of this study. The S/N values, a Quartz lamp exposure, a T horium Argon Comparision lamp exposure, and spectral plots for each star observed were taken. The stars observed were selected to sample the 30 Dor vicinty. NaI absorption profiles are included.

  13. Nonlinear refraction at the absorption edge in InAs.

    PubMed

    Poole, C D; Garmire, E

    1984-08-01

    The results of measurements of nonlinear refraction at the absorption edge in InAs between 68 and 90 K taken with an HF laser are compared with those of a band-gap resonant model in which the contribution of the light-hole band is included and found to account for more than 40% of the observed nonlinear refraction. A generalized expression for the nonlinear index is derived by using the complete Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, with no free parameters.

  14. Absorption-emission optrode and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1990-05-29

    A method and apparatus are described for monitoring the physical and chemical properties of a sample fluid by measuring an optical signal generated by a fluorescent substance and modulated by an absorber substance. The emission band of the fluorescent substance overlaps the absorption band of the absorber substance, and the degree of overlap is dependent on the physical and chemical properties of the sample fluid. The fluorescent substance and absorber substance are immobilized on a substrate so that an effective number of molecules thereof are sufficiently close for resonant energy transfer to occur, thereby providing highly efficient modulation of the fluorescent emissions of the fluorescent substance by the absorber substance. 4 figs.

  15. Mid-infrared two photon absorption sensitivity of commercial detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, D. L.; Antonov, A. V.; Kuritsyn, D. I.; Yablonskiy, A. N.; Sergeev, S. M.; Orlova, E. E.; Vaks, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    We report on broad-band two-photon absorption (TPA) in several commercially available MIR inter-band bulk semiconductor photodetectors with the spectral cutoff in the range of 4.5-6 μm. The highest TPA responsivity of 2 × 10-5 A.mm2/W2 is measured for a nitrogen-cooled InSb photovoltaic detector. Its performance as a two-photon detector is validated by measuring the second-order interferometric autocorrelation function of a multimode quantum cascade laser emitting at the wavelength of 8 μm.

  16. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  17. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  18. Laser-excited luminescence and absorption study of mixed valence for K 2Pt(CN) 4—K 2Pt(CN) 6 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi Viswanath, A.; Smith, Wayne L.; Patterson, H.

    1982-04-01

    Crystals of K 2Pt(CN) 6 doped with Pt(CN) 2-4 show an absorption band at 337 nm which is assigned as a mixed-valence (MV) transition from Pt (II) to Pt(IV). From a Hush model analysis, the absorption band is interpreted to be class II in the Day—Robin scheme. When the MV band is laser excited at 337 nm, emmision is observed from Pt(CN) 2-4 clusters.

  19. On the red giant titanium oxide bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanni, L.; Sitska, J.

    1985-12-01

    The dependence of TiO absorption in cool oxygen-sequence giant stars on the Teff and log g of their atmospheres is investigated theoretically on the basis of spectra simulated using the computer program described by Hanni (1983) and the giant model atmospheres of Johnson et al. (1980). The temperature dependence of the intensity jumps at the head of the alpha(1.0) band is determined from simulated spectra, and the jumps are related to spectral types using the calibration of Ridgway et al. (1980). The results are presented in tables and graphs and shown to be in good agreement with the empirical Teff/intensity-jump correlation of Boyarchuk (1969).

  20. Direct optical band gap measurement in polycrystalline semiconductors: A critical look at the Tauc method

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgonos, Alex; Mason, Thomas O.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R., E-mail: krp@northwestern.edu

    2016-08-15

    The direct optical band gap of semiconductors is traditionally measured by extrapolating the linear region of the square of the absorption curve to the x-axis, and a variation of this method, developed by Tauc, has also been widely used. The application of the Tauc method to crystalline materials is rooted in misconception–and traditional linear extrapolation methods are inappropriate for use on degenerate semiconductors, where the occupation of conduction band energy states cannot be ignored. A new method is proposed for extracting a direct optical band gap from absorption spectra of degenerately-doped bulk semiconductors. This method was applied to pseudo-absorption spectramore » of Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO)—converted from diffuse-reflectance measurements on bulk specimens. The results of this analysis were corroborated by room-temperature photoluminescence excitation measurements, which yielded values of optical band gap and Burstein–Moss shift that are consistent with previous studies on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals and thin films. - Highlights: • The Tauc method of band gap measurement is re-evaluated for crystalline materials. • Graphical method proposed for extracting optical band gaps from absorption spectra. • The proposed method incorporates an energy broadening term for energy transitions. • Values for ITO were self-consistent between two different measurement methods.« less

  1. Analysis of cloud top height and cloud coverage from satellites using the O2 A and B bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Chance, Kelly V.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud height and cloud coverage detection are important for total ozone retrieval using ultraviolet and visible scattered light. Use of the O2 A and B bands, around 761 and 687 nm, by a satellite-borne instrument of moderately high spectral resolution viewing in the nadir makes it possible to detect cloud top height and related parameters, including fractional coverage. The measured values of a satellite-borne spectrometer are convolutions of the instrument slit function and the atmospheric transmittance between cloud top and satellite. Studies here determine the optical depth between a satellite orbit and the Earth or cloud top height to high accuracy using FASCODE 3. Cloud top height and a cloud coverage parameter are determined by least squares fitting to calculated radiance ratios in the oxygen bands. A grid search method is used to search the parameter space of cloud top height and the coverage parameter to minimize an appropriate sum of squares of deviations. For this search, nonlinearity of the atmospheric transmittance (i.e., leverage based on varying amounts of saturation in the absorption spectrum) is important for distinguishing between cloud top height and fractional coverage. Using the above-mentioned method, an operational cloud detection algorithm which uses minimal computation time can be implemented.

  2. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-19

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  3. Wideband absorption in one dimensional photonic crystal with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongqiang; Liu, Hongmei

    2018-02-01

    A broadband absorber which was proposed by one dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) containing graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials (GHMM) is theoretically investigated. For TM mode, it was demonstrated to absorb roughly 90% of all available electromagnetic waves at a 14 THz absorption bandwidth at normal incidence. The absorption bandwidth was affected by Fermi energy and thickness of dielectric layer. When the incident angle was increased, the absorption value decreased, and the absorption band had a gradual blue shift. These findings have potential applications for designing broadband optoelectronic devices at mid-infrared and THz frequency range.

  4. Temporal variations in atmospheric water vapor and aerosol optical depth determined by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Mcallum, W. E.; Heidt, M.; Jeske, K.; Lee, J. T.; Demonbrun, D.; Morgan, A.; Potter, J.

    1977-01-01

    By automatically tracking the sun, a four-channel solar radiometer was used to continuously measure optical depth and atmospheric water vapor. The design of this simple autotracking solar radiometer is presented. A technique for calculating the precipitable water from the ratio of a water band to a nearby nonabsorbing band is discussed. Studies of the temporal variability of precipitable water and atmospheric optical depth at 0.610, 0.8730 and 1.04 microns are presented. There was good correlation between the optical depth measured using the autotracker and visibility determined from National Weather Service Station data. However, much more temporal structure was evident in the autotracker data than in the visibility data. Cirrus clouds caused large changes in optical depth over short time periods. They appear to be the largest deleterious atmospheric effect over agricultural areas that are remote from urban pollution sources.

  5. Estimating terrestrial snow depth with the Topex-Poseidon altimeter and radiometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papa, F.; Legresy, B.; Mognard, N.M.; Josberger, E.G.; Remy, F.

    2002-01-01

    Active and passive microwave measurements obtained by the dual-frequency Topex-Poseidon radar altimeter from the Northern Great Plains of the United States are used to develop a snow pack radar backscatter model. The model results are compared with daily time series of surface snow observations made by the U.S. National Weather Service. The model results show that Ku-band provides more accurate snow depth determinations than does C-band. Comparing the snow depth determinations derived from the Topex-Poseidon nadir-looking passive microwave radiometers with the oblique-looking Satellite Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave observations and surface observations shows that both instruments accurately portray the temporal characteristics of the snow depth time series. While both retrievals consistently underestimate the actual snow depths, the Topex-Poseidon results are more accurate.

  6. Laser-Induced Modification Of Energy Bands Of Transparent Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzdev, Vitaly

    2010-10-01

    Laser-induced variations of electron energy bands of transparent solids significantly affect the initial stages of laser-induced ablation (LIA) influencing rates of ionization and light absorption by conduction-band electrons. We analyze fast variations with characteristic duration in femto-second time domain that include: 1) switching electron functions from bonding to anti-bonding configuration due to laser-induced ionization; 2) laser-driven oscillations of electrons in quasi-momentum space; and 3) direct distortion of the inter-atomic potential by electric field of laser radiation. Among those effects, the latter two have zero delay and reversibly modify band structure taking place from the beginning of laser action. They are of special interest due to their strong influence on the initial stage and threshold of laser ablation. The oscillations modify the electron-energy bands by adding pondermotive potential. The direct action of radiation's electric field leads to high-frequency Franz-Keldysh effect (FKE) spreading the allowed electron states into the forbidden-energy bands. FKE provides decrease of the effective band gap while the electron oscillations lead either to monotonous increase or oscillatory variations of the gap. We analyze the competition between those two opposite trends and their role in initiating LIA.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions and the diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Neutral naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10), and pyrene (C16H10) absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible. C10H8(+) has 12 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 5000 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBS at 6520, 6151, and 5965 A, other moderately strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in a Ne matrix, a position which falls very close to the strongest DIB, that at 4430 A. If C16H10(+), or a closely related pyrene-like ion is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. We also report an intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR.

  8. Band gap tuning of amorphous Al oxides by Zr alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Canulescu, S., E-mail: stec@fotonik.dtu.dk; Schou, J.; Jones, N. C.

    2016-08-29

    The optical band gap and electronic structure of amorphous Al-Zr mixed oxides with Zr content ranging from 4.8 to 21.9% were determined using vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The light scattering by the nano-porous structure of alumina at low wavelengths was estimated based on the Mie scattering theory. The dependence of the optical band gap of the Al-Zr mixed oxides on the Zr content deviates from linearity and decreases from 7.3 eV for pure anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to 6.45 eV for Al-Zr mixed oxides with a Zr content of 21.9%. With increasing Zr content, the conduction band minimum changes non-linearlymore » as well. Fitting of the energy band gap values resulted in a bowing parameter of ∼2 eV. The band gap bowing of the mixed oxides is assigned to the presence of the Zr d-electron states localized below the conduction band minimum of anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.« less

  9. Marcasite revisited: Optical absorption gap at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, C.; Flores, E.; Barawi, M.; Clamagirand, J. M.; Ares, J. R.; Ferrer, I. J.

    2016-03-01

    Jagadeesh and Seehra published in 1980 that the marcasite band gap energy is 0.34 eV. However, recent calculations and experimental approximations accomplished by several research groups point out that the marcasite band gap energy should be quite similar to that of pyrite (of the order of 0.8-1.0 eV). By using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) we have determined that marcasite has no optical absorption gap at photon energies 0.06 ≤ hν ≤ 0.75 eV and that it has two well defined optical transitions at ~ 0.9 eV and ~ 2.2 eV quite similar to those of pyrite. Marcasite optical absorption gap appears to be Eg ≅ 0.83 ± 0.02 eV and it is due to an allowed indirect transition.

  10. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  11. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project VI. Variations of the Intrinsic Absorption Lines in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.; Agn Storm Team

    2015-01-01

    The AGN STORM collaboration monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 over a six-month period, with observations spanning the hard X-ray to mid-infrared wavebands. The core of this campaign was an intensive HST COS program, which obtained 170 far-ultraviolet spectra at approximately daily intervals, with twice-per-day monitoring of the X-ray, near-UV, and optical bands during much of the same period using Swift. The broad UV absorption lines discovered by Kaastra et al. (2014) and associated with the new soft X-ray obscurer are continuously present in the STORM campaign COS spectra. Their strength varies with the degree of soft X-ray obscuration as revealed by the Swift X-ray spectra. The narrow associated absorption lines in the UV spectrum of NGC 5548 remain strong. The lower-ionization transitions that appeared concurrently with the soft X-ray obscuration vary in response to the changing UV flux on a daily basis. Their depths over the longer term, however, also respond to the strength of the soft X-ray obscuration, indicating that the soft X-ray obscurer has a significant influence on the ionizing UV continuum that is not directly tracked by the observable UV continuum itself.

  12. Thomson Thick X-Ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar, PG 0946+301.

    PubMed

    Mathur; Green; Arav; Brotherton; Crenshaw; deKool; Elvis; Goodrich; Hamann; Hines; Kashyap; Korista; Peterson; Shields; Shlosman; van Breugel W; Voit

    2000-04-20

    We present a deep ASCA observation of a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PG 0946+301. The source was clearly detected in one of the gas imaging spectrometers, but not in any other detector. If BALQSOs have intrinsic X-ray spectra similar to normal radio-quiet quasars, our observations imply that there is Thomson thick X-ray absorption (NH greater, similar1024 cm-2) toward PG 0946+301. This is the largest column density estimated so far toward a BALQSO. The absorber must be at least partially ionized and may be responsible for attenuation in the optical and UV. If the Thomson optical depth toward BALQSOs is close to 1, as inferred here, then spectroscopy in hard X-rays with large telescopes like XMM would be feasible.

  13. Effects of fish with swim bladders on absorption and scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diachok, Orest

    2004-10-01

    Bioacoustic absorption spectroscopy (BAS) experiments, which were conducted in the Santa Barbara Channel in 2001 and 2002, were designed to investigate the effects of fish with swim bladders on absorption and scintillation. These experiments included a broadband source, which transmitted a sequence of 65-s-long tones between 0.25 and 10 kHz, and a vertical array which spanned most of the water column. The range was fixed. A fisheries echo sounder and trawls provided bio-acoustic parameters. Strongest absorption lines and highest values of the scintillation index were observed at night at about 1.1 kHz, the resonance frequency of 15 cm long sardines, when they were dispersed at an average depth of 13 m. Smaller absorption lines were correlated with other species. During the day sardines occupied a depth of about 50 m, where their extinction cross sections were diminished; some were dispersed and resonated at the frequency of individuals; others formed schools and resonated at collective frequencies. As a result of these phenomena, absorption lines due to sardines were much weaker, and the effect of this species on the scintillation index was not evident. [Work was supported by ONR.

  14. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy (ASIAEX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    source level of 170 dB re 1 µPa at 1 m for 24 hours. This source will weigh less than 220 ponds, including batteries, and excluding the anchor and float...in the proposed collaborative effort. Dr. Masahiko Furusawa of the University of Tokyo (Fisheries), Japan’s leading authority on fisheries acoustics...about 20 water depths (~ 1.2 km in 60 m of water) at frequencies of 1 to 2 kHz. RESULTS I reviewed the measurements and times of frequency selective

  15. Intensity-Dependence Absorption and Photorefractive Effects in Barium Titanate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    S) barium titanate (U) George A. Brost , Ra and A. Motes, James R. Rotge’ 13& TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yr.. Mo.. Day) 15...the copyright owner. Inthnsity-dependent absorption and photorefractive effects in barium titanate0 ELECTE 0 G. A. Brost , R. A. Motes, and 1. R. Rotge...Opt. Soc. Am. B/Vol. 5, No. 9/September 1988 Brost et al. CONDUCTION BAND the relative contributions of photoconductivities and dark conductivities

  16. Tunable metamaterial dual-band terahertz absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C. Y.; Li, Z. Z.; Guo, Z. H.; Yue, J.; Luo, Q.; Yao, G.; Ji, J.; Rao, Y. K.; Li, R. K.; Li, D.; Wang, H. X.; Yao, J. Q.; Ling, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report a design of a temperature controlled tunable dual band terahertz absorber. The compact single unit cell consists of two nested closed square ring resonators and a layer metallic separated by a substrate strontium titanate (STO) dielectric layer. It is found that the absorber has two distinctive absorption peaks at frequencies 0.096 THz and 0.137 THz, whose peaks are attained 97% and 75%. Cooling the absorber from 400 K to 250 K causes about 25% and 27% shift compared to the resonance frequency of room temperature, when we cooling the temperature to 150 K, we could attained both the two tunabilities exceeding 53%. The frequency tunability is owing to the variation of the dielectric constant of the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate. The mechanism of the dual band absorber is attributed to the overlapping of dual resonance frequencies, and could be demonstrated by the distributions of the electric field. The method opens up avenues for designing tunable terahertz devices in detection, imaging, and stealth technology.

  17. Changing optical band structure with single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving strong interactions between individual photons enables a wide variety of exciting possibilities in quantum information science and many-body physics. Cold atoms interfaced with nanophotonic structures have emerged as a platform to realize novel forms of nonlinear interactions. In particular, when atoms are coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, long-range atomic interactions can arise that are mediated by localized atom-photon bound states. We theoretically show that in such a system, the absorption of a single photon can change the band structure for a subsequent photon. This occurs because the first photon affects the atoms in the chain in an alternating fashion, thus leading to an effective period doubling of the system and a new optical band structure for the composite atom-nanophotonic system. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be engineered to realize a single-photon switch, where the first incoming photon switches the system from being highly transmissive to highly reflective, and analyze how signatures can be observed via non-classical correlations of the outgoing photon field.

  18. Two Photon Absorption And Refraction in Bulk of the Semiconducting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Vinay; Department of Physics, DCRUST Murthal, Haryana; Kumar, Vinod

    2011-10-20

    Fast electronic detection systems have opened up a number of new fields like nonlinear optics, optical communication, coherent optics, optical bistability, two/four wave mixing. The interest in this field has been stimulated by the importance of multiphoton processes in many fundamental aspects of physics. It has proved to be an invaluable tool for determining the optical and electronic properties of the solids because of the fact that one gets the information about the bulk of the material rather than the surface one. In this paper we report, the measurement of the nonlinear absorption and refraction from the band gap tomore » half-band gap region of bulk of semiconductors in the direct and indirect band gap crystals with nanosecond laser. The measured theoretical calculated values of two-photon absorption coefficients ({beta}) and nonlinear refraction n{sub 2}({omega}) of direct band gap crystal match the earlier reported theoretical predictions. By making use of these theoretical calculated values, we have estimated {beta} and n{sub 2}({omega}) in the case of indirect band gap crystals. Low value of absorption coefficient in case of indirect band gap crystals have been attributed to phonon assisted transition while reduction in nonlinear refraction is due to the rise in saturation taking place in the absorption.« less

  19. Pseudopotential calculations and photothermal lensing measurements of two-photon absorption in solids

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.T. III

    1985-11-04

    We have studied two-photon absorption in solids theoretically and experimentally. We have shown that it is possible to use accurate band structure techniques to compute two-photon absorption spectra within 15% of measured values in a wide band-gap material, ZnS. The empirical pseudopotential technique that we used is significantly more accurate than previous models of two-photon absorption in zinc blende materials, including present tunneling theories (which are essentially parabolic-band results in disguise) and the nonparabolic-band formalism of Pidgeon et al. and Weiler. The agreement between our predictions and previous measurements allowed us to use ZnS as a reference material in ordermore » to validate a technique for measuring two-photon absorption that was previously untried in solids, pulsed dual-beam thermal lensing. With the validated technique, we examined nonlinear absorption in one other crystal (rutile) and in several glasses, including silicates, borosilicates, and one phosphate glass. Initially, we believed that the absorption edges of all the materials were comparable; however, subsequent evidence suggested that the effective band-gap energies of the glasses were above the energy of two photons in our measurement. Therefore, we attribute the nonlinear absorption that we observed in glasses to impurities or defects. The measured nonlinear absorption coefficients were of the order of a few cm/TW in the glasses and of the order of 10 cm/GW in the crystals, four orders of magnitude higher than in glasses. 292 refs.« less

  20. MULTIMAGNON ABSORPTION IN MNF2-OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  1. Models of filter-based particle light absorption measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Khadeejeh M.

    Light absorption by aerosol is very important in the visible, near UN, and near I.R region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have a great influence on the flux of solar energy, and also impact health in a negative sense when they are breathed into lungs. Aerosol absorption measurements are usually performed by filter-based methods that are derived from the change in light transmission through a filter where particles have been deposited. These methods suffer from interference between light-absorbing and light-scattering aerosol components. The Aethalometer is the most commonly used filter-based instrument for aerosol light absorption measurement. This dissertation describes new understanding of aerosol light absorption obtained by the filter method. The theory uses a multiple scattering model for the combination of filter and particle optics. The theory is evaluated using Aethalometer data from laboratory and ambient measurements in comparison with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption. Two models were developed to calculate aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data, and were compared to the in-situ aerosol light absorption coefficients. The first is an approximate model and the second is a "full" model. In the approximate model two extreme cases of aerosol optics were used to develop a model-based calibration scheme for the 7-wavelength Aethalometer. These cases include those of very strong scattering aerosols (Ammonium sulfate sample) and very absorbing aerosols (kerosene soot sample). The exponential behavior of light absorption in the strong multiple scattering limit is shown to be the square root of the total absorption optical depth rather than linear with optical depth as is commonly assumed with Beer's law. 2-stream radiative transfer theory was used to develop the full model to calculate the aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data. This comprehensive model

  2. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  3. Triple effect absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.; Potnis, S.V.; Tang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Triple effect absorption chillers can achieve 50% COP improvement over double-effect systems. However, to translate this potential into cost-effective hardware, the most promising embodiments must be identified. In this study, 12 generic triple effect cycles and 76 possible hermetic loop arrangements of those 12 generic cycles were identified. The generic triple effect cycles were screened based on their pressure and solubility field requirements, generic COPs, risk involved in the component design, and number of components in a high corrosive environment. This screening identified four promising arrangements: Alkitrate Topping cycle, Pressure Staged Envelope cycle, High Pressure Overlap cycle, and Dual Loopmore » cycle. All of these arrangements have a very high COP ({approximately} 1.8), however the development risk and cost involved is different for each arrangement. Therefore, the selection of a particular arrangement will depend upon the specific situation under consideration.« less

  4. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  5. Nonequilibrium quantum absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Fu-Lin

    2018-06-01

    We study a quantum absorption refrigerator, in which a target qubit is cooled by two machine qubits in a nonequilibrium steady-state. It is realized by a strong internal coupling in the two-qubit fridge and a vanishing tripartite interaction among the whole system. The coherence of a machine virtual qubit is investigated as quantumness of the fridge. A necessary condition for cooling shows that the quantum coherence is beneficial to the nonequilibrium fridge, while it is detrimental as far as the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) and the COP at maximum power are concerned. Here, the COP is defined only in terms of heat currents caused by the tripartite interaction, with the one maintaining the two-qubit nonequilibrium state being excluded. The later can be considered to have no direct involvement in extracting heat from the target, as it is not affected by the tripartite interaction.

  6. A Wide Band Absorbing Material Design Using Band-Pass Frequency Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Dianliang; Zhou, Li

    2018-03-01

    Based on the high frequency advantage characteristics of the Fe based absorbing coating, a method for designing the structure of broadband absorbing structure by using frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed. According to the transmission and reflection characteristic of the different size FSS structure, the frequency variation characteristic was simulated. Secondly, the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the high frequency broadband absorbing materials, including the single and double magnetic layer material. Finally, the absorbing characteristics in iron layer were analyzed as the band pass FSS structure was embedded, the results showed that the band-pass FSS had the influence on widening the absorbing frequency. As the FSS was set as the bottom layer, it was effective to achieve the good absorbing property in low frequency and the high frequency absorbing performance was not weakened, because the band-pass FSS led the low frequency absorption and the high frequency shielding effect. The results of this paper are of guiding significance for designing and manufacturing the broadband absorbing materials.

  7. Analysis of single band and dual band graphene based patch antenna for terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jemima Nissiyah; Madhan, M. Ganesh

    2017-10-01

    A microstrip patch antenna is designed using a very thin layer of graphene as the radiating patch, which is fed by a microstrip transmission line. The graphene based patch is designed on a silicon substrate having a dielectric constant of 11.9, to radiate at a single frequency of 2.6 THz. Further, this antenna is made to resonate at dual frequencies of 2.48 THz and 3.35 THz, by changing the substrate height, which is reported for the first time. Various antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR, gain, efficiency and bandwidth are also determined for the single and dual band operation. For the single band operation, a bandwidth of 145.4 GHz and an efficiency of 92% was achieved. For dual band operation, a maximum bandwidth of 140.5 GHz was obtained at 3.35 THz and an efficiency of 87.3% was obtained at the first resonant frequency of 2.48 THz. The absorption cross section of the antenna is also analysed for various substrate heights and has maximum peaks at the corresponding resonating frequencies. The simulation has been carried out by using a full wave electromagnetic simulator based on FDTD method.

  8. Design of a five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber using two resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Tianhua; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Qiaofen

    2018-05-01

    We present a polarization-insensitive five-band terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber composed of two metallic circular rings and a metallic ground film separated by a dielectric layer. The calculated results show that the absorber has five distinctive absorption bands whose peaks are greater than 99% on average. The physical origin of the absorber originates from the combination of dipolar, hexapolar, and surface plasmon resonance of the patterned metallic structure, which is different from the work mechanism of previously reported absorbers. In addition, the influence of the structural parameters on the absorption spectra is analyzed to further confirm the origin of the five-band absorption peaks. The proposed absorber has potential applications in terahertz imaging, refractive index sensing, and material detecting.

  9. Determination of optical band gap of powder-form nanomaterials with improved accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Ragib; Khan, Md. Ziaur Rahman; Basith, Mohammed Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Accurate determination of a material's optical band gap lies in the precise measurement of its absorption coefficients, either from its absorbance via the Beer-Lambert law or diffuse reflectance spectrum via the Kubelka-Munk function. Absorption coefficients of powder-form nanomaterials calculated from absorbance spectrum do not match those calculated from diffuse reflectance spectrum, implying the inaccuracy of the traditional optical band gap measurement method for such samples. We have modified the Beer-Lambert law and the Kubelka-Munk function with proper approximations for powder-form nanomaterials. Applying the modified method for powder-form nanomaterial samples, both absorbance and diffuse reflectance spectra yield exactly the same absorption coefficients and therefore accurately determine the optical band gap.

  10. Manipulation of enhanced absorption with tilted hexagonal boron nitride slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohu; Fu, Ceji

    2018-04-01

    The wavevector of electromagnetic wave propagation in a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab can be controlled by tilting its optical axis. This property can be used to manipulate the absorption in a hBN slab. By carefully analyzing the dependence of the absorptivity of a thin hBN slab on the tilted angle of its optical axis, we propose a structure that can realize great absorptivity enhancement in a band by stacking hBN slabs of different tilted angles. Our numerical results show that the absorptivity of a structure made of 91 stacked hBN slabs can be achieved higher than 0.94 in the wavenumber range from 1367 to 1580 cm-1 when the tilted angles of the slabs are properly arranged. The strong absorption is attributed to the combination of impedance matching at the slab interfaces and enlarged wavevectors in the slabs. This work reveals a novel way to realize strong absorption with anisotropic materials for applications in areas such as thermal radiative energy harvesting and conversion.

  11. Some aspects of coupling-induced sound absorption in enclosures.

    PubMed

    Sum, K S; Pan, J

    2003-08-01

    It is known that the coupling between a modally reactive boundary structure of an enclosure and the enclosed sound field induces absorption in the sound field. However, the effect of this absorption on the sound-field response can vary significantly, even when material properties of the structure and dimensions of the coupled system are not changed. Although there have been numerous investigations of coupling between a structure and an enclosed sound field, little work has been done in the area of sound absorption induced by the coupling. Therefore, characteristics of the absorption are not well understood and the extent of its influence on the behavior of the sound-field response is not clearly known. In this paper, the coupling of a boundary structure and an enclosed sound field in frequency bands above the low-frequency range is considered. Three aspects of the coupling-induced sound absorption are studied namely, the effects of exciting either the structure or the sound field directly, damping in the uncoupled sound field and damping in the uncoupled structure. The results provide an understanding of some features of the coupling-induced absorption and its significance to the sound-field response.

  12. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ∼700 and ∼1400 km s{sup −1} relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do notmore » change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V -band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ∼700 km s{sup −1} has a density in the range of 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ∼1400 km s{sup −1} has a density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 kpc.« less

  13. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wenjuan; Pan, Xiang; Shi, Xiheng; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Zhang, Shaohua; Miller, Lauren P.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ˜700 and ˜1400 km s-1 relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do not change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V-band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ˜700 km s-1 has a density in the range of 109 to 1010 cm-3 and a distance of ˜1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ˜1400 km s-1 has a density of 103 cm-3 and a distance of ˜1 kpc.

  14. Improved Band-to-Band Registration Characterization for VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Based on Lunar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrumentaboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite are spatially co-registered.The accuracy of the band-to-band registration (BBR) is one of the key spatial parameters that must becharacterized. Unlike its predecessor, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), VIIRS has no on-board calibrator specifically designed to perform on-orbit BBR characterization.To circumvent this problem, a BBR characterization method for VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) based on regularly-acquired lunar images has been developed. While its results can satisfactorily demonstrate that the long-term stability of the BBR is well within +/- 0.1 moderate resolution bandpixels, undesired seasonal oscillations have been observed in the trending. The oscillations are most obvious between the visiblenear-infrared bands and short-middle wave infrared bands. This paper investigates the oscillations and identifies their cause as the band spectral dependence of the centroid position and the seasonal rotation of the lunar images over calibration events. Accordingly, an improved algorithm is proposed to quantify the rotation and compensate for its impact. After the correction, the seasonal oscillation in the resulting BBR is reduced from up to 0.05 moderate resolution band pixels to around 0.01 moderate resolution band pixels. After removing this spurious seasonal oscillation, the BBR, as well as its long-term drift are well determined.

  15. Band of Rubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation illustrates a massive asteroid belt in orbit around a star the same age and size as our Sun. Evidence for this possible belt was discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope when it spotted warm dust around the star, presumably from asteroids smashing together.

    The view starts from outside the belt, where planets like the one shown here might possibly reside, then moves into to the dusty belt itself. A collision between two asteroids is depicted near the end of the movie. Collisions like this replenish the dust in the asteroid belt, making it detectable to Spitzer.

    The alien belt circles a faint, nearby star called HD 69830 located 41 light-years away in the constellation Puppis. Compared to our own solar system's asteroid belt, this one is larger and closer to its star - it is 25 times as massive, and lies just inside an orbit equivalent to that of Venus. Our asteroid belt circles between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

    Because Jupiter acts as an outer wall to our asteroid belt, shepherding its debris into a series of bands, it is possible that an unseen planet is likewise marshalling this belt's rubble. Previous observations using the radial velocity technique did not locate any large gas giant planets, indicating that any planets present in this system would have to be the size of Saturn or smaller.

    Asteroids are chunks of rock from 'failed' planets, which never managed to coalesce into full-sized planets. Asteroid belts can be thought of as construction sites that accompany the building of rocky planets.

  16. Elemental depth profiling in transparent conducting oxide thin film by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, H.; Caby, B.; Ménesguen, Y.; Mazel, Y.; Valla, A.; Ingerle, D.; Detlefs, B.; Lépy, M.-C.; Novikova, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Streli, C.; Nolot, E.

    2017-09-01

    The optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films are strongly linked with the structural and chemical properties such as elemental depth profile. In R&D environments, the development of non-destructive characterization techniques to probe the composition over the depth of deposited films is thus necessary. The combination of Grazing-Incidence X-ray Fluorescence (GIXRF) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is emerging as a fab-compatible solution for the measurement of thickness, density and elemental profile in complex stacks. Based on the same formalism, both techniques can be implemented on the same experimental set-up and the analysis can be combined in a single software in order to refine the sample model. While XRR is sensitive to the electronic density profile, GIXRF is sensitive to the atomic density (i. e. the elemental depth profile). The combination of both techniques allows to get simultaneous information about structural properties (thickness and roughness) as well as the chemical properties. In this study, we performed a XRR-GIXRF combined analysis on indium-free TCO thin films (Ga doped ZnO compound) in order to correlate the optical properties of the films with the elemental distribution of Ga dopant over the thickness. The variation of optical properties due to annealing process were probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. We studied the evolution of atomic profiles before and after annealing process. We show that the blue shift of the band gap in the optical absorption edge is linked to a homogenization of the atomic profiles of Ga and Zn over the layer after the annealing. This work demonstrates that the combination of the techniques gives insight into the material composition and makes the XRR-GIXRF combined analysis a promising technique for elemental depth profiling.

  17. Report from the banding lab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tautin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Tautin reported on the seemingly everchanging structure of biological science units within the Interior Department. Current Congressional proposals would either change the name of the Bird Banding Lab's parent agency or make it part of the Geological Survey. The current Congress has not looked favorably on science budgets within the Interior Department, and the Banding Lab's budget is being squeezed ever tighter.

  18. Interactions of praseodymium and neodymium with nucleosides and nucleotides: absorption difference and comparative absorption spectral study.

    PubMed

    Misra, S N; Anjaiah, K; Joseph, G; Abdi, S H

    1992-02-01

    The interactions of praseodymium(III) and neodymium(III) with nucleosides and nucleotides have been studied in different stoichiometry in water and water-DMF mixtures by employing absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometry. The 4f-4f bands were analysed by linear curve analysis followed by gaussian curve analysis, and various spectral parameters were computed, using partial and multiple regression method. The magnitude of changes in both energy interaction and intensity were used to explore the degree of outer and inner sphere coordination, incidence of covalency and the extent of metal 4f-orbital involvement in chemical bonding. Crystalline complexes of the type [Ln(nucleotide)2(H2O)2]- (where nucleotide--GMP or IMP) were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR data. These studies indicated that the binding of the nucleotide is through phosphate oxygen in a bidentate manner and the complexes undergo substantial ionisation in aqueous medium, thereby supporting the observed weak 4f-4f bands and lower values for nephelauxetic effect (1-beta), bonding (b) and covalency (delta) parameters derived from coulombic and spin orbit interaction parameters.

  19. Coarse-sediment bands on the inner shelf of southern Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bands of coarse sand that trend parallel to the shore, unlike the approximately shore-normal bands found in many inner shelf areas, occur in southern Monterey Bay at water depths of 10-20 m, less than 1 km from the shore. The bands are 20-100 m wide and alternate with bands of fine sand that are of similar width. The coarse-sand bands are as much as 1 m lower than the adjacent fine-sand bands, which have margins inclined at angles of about 20??. The mean grain sizes of the coarse and fine sand are in the range of 0.354-1.0 mm and 0.125-0.354 mm, respectively. Wave ripples that average about 1 m in spacing always occur in the coarse-sand bands. Over a period of 3 yrs, the individual bands moved irregularly and changed in shape, as demonstrated by repeated sidescan sonar surveys and by the monitoring of rods jetted into the sea floor. However, the overall pattern and distribution of the bands remained essentially unchanged. Cores, 0.5-1.0 m long, taken in coarse-sand bands contain 0.2-0.5 m of coarse sand overlying fine sand or interbedded fine and coarse sand. Cores from fine-sand bands have at least one thin coarse sand layer at about the depth of the adjacent coarse-sand band. None of the cores revealed a thick deposit of coarse sand. The shore-parallel bands are of unknown origin. Their origin is especially puzzling because approximately shore-normal bands are present in parts of the study area and immediately to the north. ?? 1988.

  20. Omnidirectional polarization insensitive tunable absorption in graphene metamaterial of nanodisk structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Renxia; Bao, Jie; Jiao, Zheng; Xu, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Tunable absorption based on graphene metamaterial with nanodisk structure at near-infrared frequency was investigated using the finite difference time domain method. The absorption of the nanodisk structure which consisting of Au-MgF2-graphene-Au-polyimide (from bottom to top) can be tuned by the chemical potential of graphene at certain diameter of nanodisk. The permittivity of graphene is discussed with different chemical potential to obtain tunable absorption. It is shown that the increased value of the chemical potential of graphene can lead to blue-shifted of the absorption peaks and the values decreased. Moreover, dual-band and triple-band absorption can be achieved for resonance frequencies at normal incidence. Compared with diameter of nanodisks, the multilayer structure shows multi-band absorber, and an omnidirectional absorption at 195.25 THz is insensitive to TE/TM polarization. This omnidirectional polarization insensitive absorption may be applied by optical communications such as optical absorber, near infrared stealth, and filter.